Science.gov

Sample records for commercial polybenzimidazole-based mea

  1. Experimental characterization and modeling of commercial polybenzimidazole-based MEA performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsgaard, Anders R.; Refshauge, Rasmus; Nielsen, Mads P.; Bang, Mads; Kær, Søren K.

    High temperature polymer fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole membranes (PBI) operated at 100-200 °C are currently receiving much attention in relation to fuel cell reforming systems due to two main reasons. At first they have proven to have excellent resistance to high CO concentrations, which decreases the number of system components in the fuel processing system. The preferential oxidation reactors can be left out and in addition a water condenser is not required. These system simplifications additionally decrease the parasitic losses associated with the components. However, insufficient data are currently published to enable good system design and modeling. In this paper the influence of operation on synthesis gas and the variation of the cathode stoichiometry are investigated based on a generic commercial membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The CO content in the anode gas was varied from 0 to 5%, with CO 2 contents ranging from 25 to 20% at temperatures ranging from 160 to 200 °C. The influence of the cathode stoichiometry was investigated in the interval of 2-5 at temperatures from 120 to 180 °C with pure hydrogen on the anode. A novel semi empirical model of the fuel cell voltage versus current density, cathode stoichiometry and temperature was derived. It shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. The simplicity and accuracy of the model makes it ideal for system modeling, control design and real-time applications.

  2. Thin film thermocouples for in situ membrane electrode assembly temperature measurements in a polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane unit cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Syed Talat; Lebæk, Jesper; Nielsen, Lars Pleth; Mathiasen, Claus; Møller, Per; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    This paper presents Type-T thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) fabricated on Kapton (polyimide) substrate for measuring the internal temperature of PBI (polybenzimidazole)-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC). Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to deposit a 2 μm thick layer of TFTCs on 75 μm thick Kapton foil. The Kapton foil was treated with in situ argon plasma etching to improve the adhesion between TFTCs and the Kapton substrate. The TFTCs were covered with a 7 μm liquid Kapton layer using spin coating technique to protect them from environmental degradation. This Kapton foil with deposited TFTCs was used as sealing inside a PBI (polybenzimidazole)-based single cell test rig, which enabled measurements of in situ temperature variations of the working fuel cell MEA. The performance of the TFTCs was promising with minimal interference to the operation of the fuel cell.

  3. Traffic model for commercial payloads in the Materials Experiment Assembly (MEA). [market research in commercial space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietzel, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    One hundred individuals representing universities, technical institutes, government agencies, and industrial facilities were surveyed to determine potential commercial use of a self-contained, automated assembly for the space processing of materials during frequent shuttle flights for the 1981 to 1987 period. The approach used and the results of the study are summarized. A time time-phased projection (traffic model) of commercial usage of the materials experiment assembly is provided.

  4. The effects of excess phosphoric acid in a Polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, Saif; Higier, Andrew; Liu, Hongtan

    A series of experiments are conducted in order to investigate the performance of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell using a commercially available polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based high temperature membrane. During the study a drastic degradation in performance is observed over time and a significant amount of solid material built-up is found in the flow field plate and the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA). The built-up material is examined by the use of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Further elemental analysis using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) finds that the built-up material contains large amount of phosphorus, thus relating it with the excess phosphoric acid found in the MEA. Additional experimental studies show that the built-up material is caused by the excess acid solution in the MEA, and when the excess phosphoric acid is removed from the MEA the fuel cell performance improves significantly and becomes very stable.

  5. MEaSUREs

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-06-26

    ... MEaSUREs ( Making Earth Science Data Records for Use in Research Environments ) supports the NASA Earth Science ... to expand understanding the Earth system using consistent records. Details:  MEaSUREs Screenshot:  ...

  6. MEA Component Durability

    SciTech Connect

    Frisk, J. W.; Hicks, M.T.; Atanasoski, R. T.; Boand, W. M.; Schmoeckel, A. K.; Kurkowski, M. J.

    2004-11-01

    Membrane electrode assembly (MEA) lifetime of greater than 40,000 hours remains a goal of the fuel cell industry. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of MEA degradation. Specifically, the relationship between component physical property changes and MEA performance decay has not been established. We report preliminary data relating changes in gas diffusion layer (GDL) physical properties to fuel cell performance decay.

  7. PEMFC MEA and System Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Knights, Shanna; Bashyam, Rajesh; He, Ping; Lauritzen, Michael; Startek, Cara; Colbow, Vesna; Cheng, Tommy; Kolodziej, Joanna; Wessel, Silvia

    2011-07-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are being developed and sold commercially for multiple near term markets. Ballard Power Systems is focused on the near term markets of backup power, distributed generation, materials handling, and buses. Significant advances have been made in cost and durability of fuel cell products. Improved tolerance to a wide range of system operation and environmental noises will enable increased viability across a broad range of applications. In order to apply the most effective membrane electrode assembly (MEA) design for each market, the system requirements and associated MEA failures must be well understood. The failure modes associated with the electrodes and membrane degradation are discussed with respect to associated system operation and mitigating approaches. A few key system considerations that influence MEA design include expected fuel quality, balance-of-plant materials, time under idle or open circuit operation, and start-up and shut-down conditions.

  8. Development of Polybenzimidazole-Based High-Temperature Membrane and Electrode Assemblies for Stationary and Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, John A.

    2008-09-03

    The program began on August 1, 2003 and ended on July 31, 2007. The goal of the project was to optimize a high-temperature polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane to meet the performance, durability, and cost targets required for stationary fuel cell applications. These targets were identified in the Fuel Cell section (3.4) of DOE’s Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan. A membrane that operates at high temperatures is important to the fuel cell industry because it is insensitive to carbon monoxide (a poison to low-temperature fuel cells), and does not require complex water management strategies. Together, these two benefits greatly simplify the fuel cell system. As a result, the high-temperature fuel cell system realizes a cost benefit as the number of components is reduced by nearly 30%. There is also an inherent reliability benefit as components such as humidifiers and pumps for water management are unnecessary. Furthermore, combined heat and power (CHP) systems may be the best solution for a commercial, grid-connected, stationary product that must offer a cost benefit to the end user. For a low-temperature system, the quality of the heat supplied is insufficient to meet consumer needs and comfort requirements, so peak heaters or supplemental boilers are required. The higher operating temperature of PBI technology allows the fuel cell to meet the heat and comfort demand without the additional equipment. Plug Power, working with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) Polymer Science Laboratory, made significant advances in optimizing the PBI membrane material for operation at temperatures greater than 160oC with a lifetime of 40,000 hours. Supporting hardware such as flow field plates and a novel sealing concept were explored to yield the lower-cost stack assembly and corresponding manufacturing process. Additional work was conducted on acid loss, flow field design and cathode electrode

  9. 18-MEA and hair appearance.

    PubMed

    Tanamachi, Hiroto; Tokunaga, Shinichi; Tanji, Noriyuki; Oguri, Masashi; Inoue, Shigeto

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the removal of 18-MEA on the dynamic contact angle (advancing contact angle and receding contact angle) and friction force (friction force microscopy (FFM)) were examined in the present study. Chemically untreated hair tresses formed more finely ordered bundles, with the fibers aligned more parallel to each other, in the wet state, and lying flat and aligned parallel to each other in the dry state. Hair tresses in which 18-MEA had been removed by potassium t-butoxide treatment formed coarser tangled bundles and were aligned in a disorderly manner in the wet state, causing the hair to become entangled and disorderly in the dry state. This was because the 18-MEA-removed hair fibers adhered to each other and were not easy to realign in the wet state. The distorted part of the bundle dried faster and the tress shape was eventually fixed in the entangled shape. One role of 18-MEA is to allow hair fibers to lie flat and parallel with respect to each other in the wet state by providing relatively high receding contact angles and low surface friction. Hair alignment in the dry state is directly affected by hair alignment in the wet environment, particularly in the case of damaged hair.

  10. MEaSUREs Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-06-06

    ... Use in Research Environments ( MEaSUREs ) supports the NASA Earth Science research community in providing Earth science data products ... data sets from the MEaSUREs program.   NASA Water Vapor Project - MEaSUREs (NVAP-M) Airborne Database for ...

  11. Integrated Manufacturing for Advanced MEAs

    SciTech Connect

    Emory S. De Castro; Yu-Min Tsou; Mark G. Roelofs; Olga Polevaya

    2007-03-30

    This program addressed a two-pronged goal for developing fuel cell components: lowering of precious metal content in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), thereby reducing the fuel cell cost, and creating MEAs that can operate at 120oC and 25% RH whereby the system efficiency and effectiveness is greatly improved. In completing this program, we have demonstrated a significant reduction in precious metal while at the same time increasing the power output (achieved 2005 goal of 0.6g/Kw). We have also identified a technology that allows for one step fabrication of MEAs and appears to be a feasible path toward achieving DOE’s 2010 targets for precious metal and power (approaches 0.2g/Kw). Our team partner Du Pont invented a new class of polymer electrolyte membrane that has sufficient stability and conductivity to demonstrate feasibility for operation at 120 oC and low relative humidity. Through the course of this project, the public has benefited greatly from numerous presentations and publications on the technical understanding necessary to achieve these goals.

  12. New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, James H.; Campbell, Joseph L.; Cox, Philip; Harrington, William J.

    2013-09-16

    Abstract Project Title: New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost The University of North Florida (UNF)--with project partners the University of Florida, Northeastern University, and Johnson Matthey--has recently completed the Department of Energy (DOE) project entitled “New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost”. The primary objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell MEA technology towards the commercial targets as laid out in the DOE R&D roadmap by developing a passive water recovery MEA (membrane electrode assembly). Developers at the University of North Florida identified water management components as an insurmountable barrier to achieving the required system size and weight necessary to achieve the energy density requirements of small portable power applications. UNF developed an innovative “passive water recovery” MEA for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) which provides a path to system simplification and optimization. The passive water recovery MEA incorporates a hydrophobic, porous, barrier layer within the cathode electrode, so that capillary pressure forces the water produced at the cathode through holes in the membrane and back to the anode. By directly transferring the water from the cathode to the anode, the balance of plant is very much simplified and the need for heavy, bulky water recovery components is eliminated. At the heart of the passive water recovery MEA is the UNF DM-1 membrane that utilizes a hydrocarbon structure to optimize performance in a DMFC system. The membrane has inherent performance advantages, such as a low methanol crossover (high overall efficiency), while maintaining a high proton conductivity (good electrochemical efficiency) when compared to perfluorinated sulfonic acid membranes such as Nafion. Critically, the membrane provides an extremely low electro-osmotic drag coefficient of approximately one water molecule per proton (versus the 2-3 for

  13. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hamrock, Steven J

    2011-06-30

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA's comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20ºC to 120ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA's, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the 2005 Hydrogen

  14. Final Report - MEA and Stack Durability for PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yandrasits, Michael A.

    2008-02-15

    the same. (6) Through the use of statistical lifetime analysis methods, it is possible to develop new MEAs with predicted durability approaching the DOE 2010 targets. (7) A segmented cell was developed that extend the resolution from ~ 40 to 121 segments for a 50cm2 active area single cell which allowed for more precise investigation of the local phenomena in a operating fuel cell. (8) The single cell concept was extended to a fuel size stack to allow the first of its kind monitoring and mapping of an operational fuel cell stack. An internal check used during this project involved evaluating the manufacturability of any new MEA component. If a more durable MEA component was developed in the lab, but could not be scaled-up to ‘high speed, high volume manufacturing’, then that component was not selected for the final MEA-fuel cell system demonstration. It is the intent of the team to commercialize new products developed under this project, but commercialization can not occur if the manufacture of said new components is difficult or if the price is significantly greater than existing products as to make the new components not cost competitive. Thus, the end result of this project is the creation of MEA and fuel cell system technology that is capable of meeting the DOEs 2010 target of 40,000 hours for stationary fuel cell systems (although this lifetime has not been demonstrated in laboratory or field testing yet) at a cost that is economically viable for the developing fuel cell industry. We have demonstrated over 2,000 hours of run time for the MEA and system developed under this project.

  15. MEA Technical Manual, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this technical manual is to document the technical aspects of the 2002-2003 Maine Educational Assessment (MEA). In the fall of 2002, students in grades 4, 8, and 11 participated in the administration of the MEA in writing, reading, and health education. In the spring of 2003, students in grades 4, 8, and 11 were administered tests…

  16. New Accelerated Testing and Lifetime Modeling Methods Promise Faster Development of More Durable MEAs

    SciTech Connect

    Pierpont, D. M.; Hicks, M. T.; Turner, P. L.; Watschke, T. M.

    2005-11-01

    For the successful commercialization of fuel cell technology, it is imperative that membrane electrode assembly (MEA) durability is understood and quantified. MEA lifetimes of 40,000 hours remain a key target for stationary power applications. Since it is impractical to wait 40,000 hours for durability results, it is critical to learn as much information as possible in as short a time period as possible to determine if an MEA sample will survive past its lifetime target. Consequently, 3M has utilized accelerated testing and statistical lifetime modeling tools to develop a methodology for evaluating MEA lifetime. Construction and implementation of a multi-cell test stand have allowed for multiple accelerated tests and stronger statistical data for learning about durability.

  17. Micro-structural optimization of polybenzimidazole-based membranes for H2/CO2 separation at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Rajinder P; Li, Xin; Dudeck, Kevin W; Benicewicz, Brian C; Berchtold, Kathryn A

    2012-06-12

    There is compelling need to develop novel separation methods to improve the energy efficiency of synthesis (syn) gas processing operations including H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/CO production to meet power, chemicals, and fuel producer needs, as well as carbon capture and removal of other undesirable syngas impurities. To be technically and economically viable, a successful separation method must be applicable to industrially relevant gas streams at realistic process conditions and compatible with large gas volumes. H{sub 2} selective membrane technology is a promising method for syngas separations at elevated temperatures (>150 C) that could be positioned upstream or downstream of one or more of the water-gas-shift reactors (WGSRs) or integrated with a WGSR depending on application specific syngas processing. Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based polymer chemistries are exceptional candidates for H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separations at elevated temperatures. In general, these materials possess excellent chemical resistance, very high glass transition temperatures (> 400 C), good mechanical properties, and an appropriate level of processability. Although commercially available PBI polymers have demonstrated commercially attractive H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity, their H{sub 2} permeability is low. Our team s employing structural and chemical manipulations to tailor the polymer free-volume achitecture with the ultimate goal of enhancing H{sub 2} permselectivity while retaining the inherent hermochemical stability characteristics of PBI. We will discuss our synthetic approaches and their influences on the gas transport behavior of these PBI-based materials. In general, a decrease in H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity was observed with an increase in H{sub 2} permeability. H{sub 2} permeability and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity at 250 C ranged from 50 to 1000 barrer and 5 to 45, respectively.

  18. Influence of thermal post-curing on the degradation of a cross-linked polybenzimidazole-based membrane for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossiander, T.; Perchthaler, M.; Heinzl, C.; Scheu, C.

    2014-12-01

    The lifetime stability of membranes is one of the main requirements regarding reliability of high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The present work has improved durability under cycled operation by thermal post-curing of cross-linked polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based membranes. The membranes were dried over 1, 2 and 3 h at 250 °C under air. Ex-situ experiments proved an increase in stability by post-curing. The liquid uptake and swelling in phosphoric acid increased with longer curing periods. The effect of thermal treatments on cycle stability, lifetime and begin-of-life performance of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) was investigated. Longer post-curing periods of the membranes had no influence on the MEAs' begin-of-life performance and constant current behavior over 2300 h. However, the 3 h post-cured MEAs showed enhanced cycle stability. Post-mortem analysis was carried out to identify the occurring degradation mechanisms. While a significant loss of phosphoric acid and a reduction of electrochemical surface activity on the cathode were observed for both post-cured MEAs, the 3 h dried membrane sample had a significantly higher resistance against pinhole formation during the long term test. Altogether, this work presents thermal post-curing as a promising method for the reduction of degradation determining effects in fuel cell membranes.

  19. Fabrication of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell MEAs Utilizing Inkjet Print Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Towne, Silas A.; Viswanathan, Vish V.; Holbery, Jim; Rieke, Peter C.

    2007-09-27

    Utilizing drop-on-demand technology, we have successfully developed hydrogen-air polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and have demonstrated their performance to be similar to conventionally fabricated systems. Prototype membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated utilizing commercial desktop inkjet printers by depositing the active catalyst electrode layer directly from print cartridges onto a Nafion® polymer membrane. Preliminary results indicate open circuit voltages up to 0.84 V and power densities of 31 mW/cm2 as compared to 0.9 V and 42 mW/cm2 for commercial MEAs tested on our experimental test apparatus. The objective of this work is to demonstrate that drop-on-demand technology can be used to produce MEAs comparable in structure and performance to commercially available MEAs and to demonstrate that this approach provides highly controlled and repeatable automated processing that can result in improved precious metal catalyst efficiency, improved structural integrity and ultimately reduced PEMFC MEA materials and fabrication costs.

  20. Durability of Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) in PEM Fuel Cells Operated on Pure Hydrogen and Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanic, Vesna; Braun, James; Hoberecht, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are energy sources that have the potential to replace alkaline fuel cells for space programs. Broad power ranges, high peak-to-nominal power capabilities, low maintenance costs, and the promise of increased life are the major advantages of PEM technology in comparison to alkaline technology. The probability of PEM fuel cells replacing alkaline fuel cells for space applications will increase if the promise of increased life is verified by achieving a minimum of 10,000 hours of operating life. Durability plays an important role in the process of evaluation and selection of MEAs for Teledyne s Phase I contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center entitled Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel cell (PEMFC) Power Plant Technology Development for 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs). For this contract, MEAs that are typically used for H2/air operation were selected as potential candidates for H2/O2 PEM fuel cells because their catalysts have properties suitable for O2 operation. They were purchased from several well-established MEA manufacturers who are world leaders in the manufacturing of diverse products and have committed extensive resources in an attempt to develop and fully commercialize MEA technology. A total of twelve MEAs used in H2/air operation were initially identified from these manufacturers. Based on the manufacturers specifications, nine of these were selected for evaluation. Since 10,000 hours is almost equivalent to 14 months, it was not possible to perform continuous testing with each MEA selected during Phase I of the contract. Because of the lack of time, a screening test on each MEA was performed for 400 hours under accelerated test conditions. The major criterion for an MEA pass or fail of the screening test was the gas crossover rate. If the gas crossover rate was higher than the membrane intrinsic permeability after 400 hours of testing, it was considered that the MEA had failed the test. Three types of

  1. Diagnosis of MEA degradation under accelerated relative humidity cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengatesan, S.; Fowler, Michael W.; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang

    The objective of this work is to identify the failure mode diagnosis protocols for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells with the use of accelerated testing conditions. The single cells used in this work were constructed using commercial Ion Power ® membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and the performance degradation was studied under accelerated dynamic reactant relative humidity (RH) conditions. The influence of RH on cell performance was investigated, and a strong dependence of degradation with respect to relative humidity was found. RH cycling was seen to not only cause the gradual decrease in performance at the beginning of cell operation, but it was also related to the rapid decline in performance observed after 330 h operation. This change in degradation rate is seen a change in the material degradation failure mechanism at this point in the operational history of the cell. The increase in cell resistance, membrane crossover, fluoride release rate and decrease in electrochemical surface area (ESA) were also observed with time, and these results were correlated to change in degradation rate. Infra-Red (IR) imaging of an aged MEA was utilized to show varying temperature profiles and outline the possibility of cracks, tears or pinholes in the membrane.

  2. Maine Educational Assessment (MEA) Operational Procedures, March 2005 Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document is intended for use in conjunction with "Policies and Procedures for Accommodations and Alternate Assessment to the MEA," and both the "MEA Principal/Test Coordinator's Manual" and the "MEA Test Administrator's Manual." The first section, Enrollment, covers the following subjects: (1) Participation of Enrolled Students; (2) Students…

  3. Enhanced performance of polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell with gas diffusion electrodes prepared by automatic catalyst spraying under irradiation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Huaneng; Pasupathi, Sivakumar; Bladergroen, Bernard Jan; Linkov, Vladimir; Pollet, Bruno G.

    2013-11-01

    Gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) prepared by a novel automatic catalyst spraying under irradiation (ACSUI) technique are investigated for improving the performance of phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The physical properties of the GDEs are characterized by pore size distribution and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with the GDEs are evaluated and analyzed by polarization curve, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Effects of PTFE binder content, PA impregnation and heat treatment on the GDEs are investigated to determine the optimum performance of the single cell. At ambient pressure and 160 °C, the maximum power density can reach 0.61 W cm-2, and the current density at 0.6 V is up to 0.38 A cm-2, with H2/air and a platinum loading of 0.5 mg cm-2 on both electrodes. The MEA with the GDEs shows good stability for fuel cell operating in a short term durability test.

  4. Mixed hydrocarbon/fluoropolymer membrane/ionomer MEAs for durability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bo; Kim, Yu Seung; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L; Wilson, Mahlon S; Welch, Cynthia; Fenton, James

    2010-01-01

    The durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. Commercial viability depends on improving the durability of the fuel cell components to increase the system reliability. The aim of this work is to separate ionomer degradation from membrane degradation via mixed membrane/ionomer MEA experiments. The challenges of mixed MEA fabrication due to the incompatibility of the membrane and the electrode are addressed. OCV accelerated testing experiment (AST) were performed. Development of in situ diagnostics and unique experiments to characterize the performance and properties of the ionomer in the electrode as a function of time is reported. These measurements, along with extensive ex situ and post-mortem characterization, can delineate the degradation mechanisms in order to develop more durable fuel cells and fuel cell components.

  5. Long-term testing of a high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell short stack operated with improved polybenzimidazole-based composite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinar, F. Javier; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A.; Úbeda, Diego; Lobato, Justo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the feasibility of a 150 cm2 high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) stack operated with modified proton exchange membranes is demonstrated. The short fuel cell stack was manufactured using a total of three 50 cm2 membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The PEM technology is based on a polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane. The obtained results were compared with those obtained using a HT-PEMFC stack with unmodified membranes. The membranes were cast from a PBI polymer synthesized in the laboratory, and the modified membranes contained 2 wt.% micro-sized TiO2 as a filler. Long-term tests were performed in both constant and dynamic loading modes. The fuel cell stack with 2 wt.% TiO2 composite PBI membranes exhibited an irreversible voltage loss of less than 2% after 1100 h of operation. In addition, the acid loss was reduced from 2% for the fuel cell stack with unmodified membranes to 0.6% for the fuel cell stack with modified membranes. The results demonstrate that introducing filler into the membranes enhances the durability and stability of this type of fuel cell technology. Moreover, the fuel cell stack system also exhibits very rapid and stable power and voltage output responses under dynamic load regimes.

  6. Neurotoxicity testing using Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs): a growing trend

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are groups of extracellular electrodes that are 10-30 microns in diameter and can be utilized in vivo or in vitro. For in vitro uses, an MEA typically contains up to 64 electrodes and can be utilized to measure the activity of cells and tissues that a...

  7. Neurotoxicity testing using Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs): a growing trend

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are groups of extracellular electrodes that are 10-30 microns in diameter and can be utilized in vivo or in vitro. For in vitro uses, an MEA typically contains up to 64 electrodes and can be utilized to measure the activity of cells and tissues that a...

  8. 41 CFR 302-16.3 - Who is and is not eligible for a MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... eligible for a MEA? 302-16.3 Section 302-16.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... General § 302-16.3 Who is and is not eligible for a MEA? See the following table for eligibility of MEA: Employees eligible for MEA Employees not eligible for MEA (a) Your agency authorized/approved a...

  9. 41 CFR 302-16.3 - Who is and is not eligible for a MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... eligible for a MEA? 302-16.3 Section 302-16.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... General § 302-16.3 Who is and is not eligible for a MEA? See the following table for eligibility of MEA: Employees eligible for MEA Employees not eligible for MEA (a) Your agency authorized/approved a...

  10. 41 CFR 302-16.3 - Who is and is not eligible for a MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... eligible for a MEA? 302-16.3 Section 302-16.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... General § 302-16.3 Who is and is not eligible for a MEA? See the following table for eligibility of MEA: Employees eligible for MEA Employees not eligible for MEA (a) Your agency authorized/approved a...

  11. 41 CFR 302-16.3 - Who is and is not eligible for a MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... eligible for a MEA? 302-16.3 Section 302-16.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... General § 302-16.3 Who is and is not eligible for a MEA? See the following table for eligibility of MEA: Employees eligible for MEA Employees not eligible for MEA (a) Your agency authorized/approved a...

  12. 41 CFR 302-16.3 - Who is and is not eligible for a MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... eligible for a MEA? 302-16.3 Section 302-16.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... General § 302-16.3 Who is and is not eligible for a MEA? See the following table for eligibility of MEA: Employees eligible for MEA Employees not eligible for MEA (a) Your agency authorized/approved a...

  13. 41 CFR 302-16.200 - What governing policies must we establish for MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must we establish for MEA? 302-16.200 Section 302-16.200 Public Contracts and Property Management... MISCELLANEOUS EXPENSES Agency Responsibilities § 302-16.200 What governing policies must we establish for MEA... for an amount in excess of the flat MEA is appropriate; and (b) How you will pay a MEA in...

  14. 41 CFR 302-16.200 - What governing policies must we establish for MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... must we establish for MEA? 302-16.200 Section 302-16.200 Public Contracts and Property Management... MISCELLANEOUS EXPENSES Agency Responsibilities § 302-16.200 What governing policies must we establish for MEA... for an amount in excess of the flat MEA is appropriate; and (b) How you will pay a MEA in...

  15. 41 CFR 302-16.200 - What governing policies must we establish for MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... must we establish for MEA? 302-16.200 Section 302-16.200 Public Contracts and Property Management... MISCELLANEOUS EXPENSES Agency Responsibilities § 302-16.200 What governing policies must we establish for MEA... for an amount in excess of the flat MEA is appropriate; and (b) How you will pay a MEA in...

  16. 41 CFR 302-16.200 - What governing policies must we establish for MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... must we establish for MEA? 302-16.200 Section 302-16.200 Public Contracts and Property Management... MISCELLANEOUS EXPENSES Agency Responsibilities § 302-16.200 What governing policies must we establish for MEA... for an amount in excess of the flat MEA is appropriate; and (b) How you will pay a MEA in...

  17. 41 CFR 302-16.200 - What governing policies must we establish for MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must we establish for MEA? 302-16.200 Section 302-16.200 Public Contracts and Property Management... MISCELLANEOUS EXPENSES Agency Responsibilities § 302-16.200 What governing policies must we establish for MEA... for an amount in excess of the flat MEA is appropriate; and (b) How you will pay a MEA in...

  18. Integrating MEA Regeneration with CO2 Compression and Peaking to Reduce CO2 Capture Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin S. Fisher; Carrie Beitler; Curtis Rueter; Katherine Searcy; Dr. Gary Rochelle; Dr. Majeed Jassim

    2005-06-09

    , the payback on capital for the most promising heat integration configurations (Cases 3 and 4) is only six months to one year (based on $0.06/kWh). Another significant result is that the reboiler steam requirement could be reduced by up to 39% with the advanced process configurations. Selective operation of the amine system was found to be economic only if the value of peak electricity was in excess of approximately $230/MWh (from the assumed $130/MWh to buy power from a supplemental natural gas peak turbine) and, therefore, is not considered to be a reasonable option for minimizing CO{sub 2} capture costs. These results indicate an improvement to commercial MEA-based technologies, which helps to incrementally meet DOE's Sequestration Program targets when coupled with other process improvements. For example, DOE's target goal of $20/tonne of CO{sub 2} could potentially be achieved by combining use of the heat integration configurations evaluated in this study and other advanced amine solvents (instead of conventional MEA) that have been developed to further reduce the reboiler duty steam requirements. It is expected that the advanced amines could add another 15% savings in cost of CO{sub 2} captured. In addition, advanced aqueous-based solvent approaches already exist and may be commercialized more quickly than other approaches.

  19. Novel ACNT arrays based MEA structure-nano-Pt loaded ACNT/Nafion/ACNT for fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weimin; Chen, Jun; Minett, Andrew I; Swiegers, Gerhard F; Too, Chee O; Wallace, Gordon G

    2010-07-14

    A novel designed free-standing, sandwich-structured membrane electrode assembly (MEA), nano-Pt loaded (0.142 mg cm(-2)) ACNT/Nafion/ACNT via the attachment of two sets of aligned CNT array electrode structures to opposite sides of a Nafion PEM membrane exhibits significantly improved performance compared to commercially available Pt/CB catalysts used in PEM fuel cell applications.

  20. LP DAAC and MEaSUREs - Optimizing Collection Inception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) is a selected NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) DAAC supporting the Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Program to contribute in providing long-term, consistent, and mature data products. The LP DAAC has identified three essential components for the MEaSUREs collection inception. The first component includes a framework of LP DAAC's data lifecycle including overall inception of products, curation of products, and long-term archiving of products. The second component fuses data producer and data provider operations, interleaving key personnel into key processes throughout the project. The third component integrates and evolves stakeholder elements into a standard methodology, alongside affording an overall homogeneous data delivery system for MEaSUREs collections. As an active participant on the Metadata Evolution for NASA Data Systems (MENDS) Tiger Team, the LP DAAC is working to categorize all data model elements into the ISO 19115 international metadata standard. This poster depicts how each of these three components optimizes the LP DAAC MEaSUREs collection inception process.

  1. 41 CFR 302-16.100 - How will I receive the MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MEA? 302-16.100 Section 302-16.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation... Allowance for Miscellaneous Expenses § 302-16.100 How will I receive the MEA? You will be reimbursed your MEA in accordance with your agency's internal travel policy....

  2. 41 CFR 302-16.4 - Must my agency authorize payment of a MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... payment of a MEA? 302-16.4 Section 302-16.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... General § 302-16.4 Must my agency authorize payment of a MEA? Yes, if you meet the applicable eligibility conditions in § 302-16.3, your agency must authorize payment of a MEA....

  3. 41 CFR 302-16.1 - What is the purpose of the miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA)? 302-16.1 Section 302-16.1 Public Contracts and Property... MISCELLANEOUS EXPENSES General § 302-16.1 What is the purpose of the miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA)? The miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA) is intended to help defray some of the costs incurred due to...

  4. 41 CFR 302-16.101 - May I receive an advance of funds for MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I receive an advance of funds for MEA? 302-16.101 Section 302-16.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... MEA? No, your agency must not authorize an advance of funds for MEA....

  5. 41 CFR 302-16.101 - May I receive an advance of funds for MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May I receive an advance of funds for MEA? 302-16.101 Section 302-16.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... MEA? No, your agency must not authorize an advance of funds for MEA....

  6. 41 CFR 302-16.101 - May I receive an advance of funds for MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I receive an advance of funds for MEA? 302-16.101 Section 302-16.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... MEA? No, your agency must not authorize an advance of funds for MEA....

  7. 41 CFR 302-16.101 - May I receive an advance of funds for MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I receive an advance of funds for MEA? 302-16.101 Section 302-16.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... MEA? No, your agency must not authorize an advance of funds for MEA....

  8. 41 CFR 302-16.2 - What is the purpose of the miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA)? 302-16.2 Section 302-16.2 Public Contracts and Property... MISCELLANEOUS EXPENSES General § 302-16.2 What is the purpose of the miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA)? The miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA) is to help defray some of the costs incurred due to relocating. The...

  9. 41 CFR 302-16.4 - Must my agency authorize payment of a MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... payment of a MEA? 302-16.4 Section 302-16.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... General § 302-16.4 Must my agency authorize payment of a MEA? Yes, if you meet the applicable eligibility conditions in § 302-16.3, your agency must authorize payment of a MEA....

  10. 41 CFR 302-16.2 - What is the purpose of the miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA)? 302-16.2 Section 302-16.2 Public Contracts and Property... MISCELLANEOUS EXPENSES General § 302-16.2 What is the purpose of the miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA)? The miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA) is to help defray some of the costs incurred due to relocating. The...

  11. 41 CFR 302-16.4 - Must my agency authorize payment of a MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... payment of a MEA? 302-16.4 Section 302-16.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... General § 302-16.4 Must my agency authorize payment of a MEA? Yes, if you meet the applicable eligibility conditions in § 302-16.3, your agency must authorize payment of a MEA....

  12. 41 CFR 302-16.4 - Must my agency authorize payment of a MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... payment of a MEA? 302-16.4 Section 302-16.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... General § 302-16.4 Must my agency authorize payment of a MEA? Yes, if you meet the applicable eligibility conditions in § 302-16.3, your agency must authorize payment of a MEA....

  13. 41 CFR 302-16.100 - How will I receive the MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MEA? 302-16.100 Section 302-16.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation... Allowance for Miscellaneous Expenses § 302-16.100 How will I receive the MEA? You will be reimbursed your MEA in accordance with your agency's internal travel policy....

  14. 41 CFR 302-16.100 - How will I receive the MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MEA? 302-16.100 Section 302-16.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation... Allowance for Miscellaneous Expenses § 302-16.100 How will I receive the MEA? You will be reimbursed your MEA in accordance with your agency's internal travel policy....

  15. 41 CFR 302-16.1 - What is the purpose of the miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA)? 302-16.1 Section 302-16.1 Public Contracts and Property... MISCELLANEOUS EXPENSES General § 302-16.1 What is the purpose of the miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA)? The miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA) is intended to help defray some of the costs incurred due to...

  16. 41 CFR 302-16.4 - Must my agency authorize payment of a MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... payment of a MEA? 302-16.4 Section 302-16.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... General § 302-16.4 Must my agency authorize payment of a MEA? Yes, if you meet the applicable eligibility conditions in § 302-16.3, your agency must authorize payment of a MEA....

  17. 41 CFR 302-16.100 - How will I receive the MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MEA? 302-16.100 Section 302-16.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation... Allowance for Miscellaneous Expenses § 302-16.100 How will I receive the MEA? You will be reimbursed your MEA in accordance with your agency's internal travel policy....

  18. 41 CFR 302-16.101 - May I receive an advance of funds for MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I receive an advance of funds for MEA? 302-16.101 Section 302-16.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... MEA? No, your agency must not authorize an advance of funds for MEA....

  19. 41 CFR 302-16.100 - How will I receive the MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MEA? 302-16.100 Section 302-16.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation... Allowance for Miscellaneous Expenses § 302-16.100 How will I receive the MEA? You will be reimbursed your MEA in accordance with your agency's internal travel policy....

  20. 41 CFR 302-16.1 - What is the purpose of the miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA)? 302-16.1 Section 302-16.1 Public Contracts and Property... MISCELLANEOUS EXPENSES General § 302-16.1 What is the purpose of the miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA)? The miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA) is intended to help defray some of the costs incurred due to...

  1. Develpment of Higher Temperature Membrane and Electrode Assembly (MEA) for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Agro, Anthony DeCarmine, Shari Williams

    2005-12-30

    Our work will fucus on developing higher temperature MEAs based on SPEKK polymer blends. Thse MEAs will be designed to operatre at 120 degrees C Higher temperatures, up to 200 degrees C will also be explored. This project will develop Nafion-free MEAs using only SPEKK blends in both membrane and catalytic layers.

  2. Method of making MEA for PEM/SPE fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Hulett, Jay S.

    2000-01-01

    A method of making a membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA) for a PEM/SPE fuel cell comprising applying a slurry of electrode-forming material directly onto a membrane-electrolyte film. The slurry comprises a liquid vehicle carrying catalyst particles and a binder for the catalyst particles. The membrane-electrolyte is preswollen by contact with the vehicle before the electrode-forming slurry is applied to the membrane-electrolyte. The swollen membrane-electrolyte is constrained against shrinking in the "x" and "y" directions during drying. Following assembly of the fuel cell, the MEA is rehydrated inside the fuel cell such that it swells in the "z" direction for enhanced electrical contact with contiguous electrically conductive components of the fuel cell.

  3. A role of the anteiso branch of 18-MEA in 18-MEA/SPDA to form a persistent hydrophobicity to alkaline-color-treated weathered hair.

    PubMed

    Tanamachi, Hiroto; Inoue, Shigeto; Tokunaga, Shinichi; Tsujimura, Hisashi; Tanji, Noriyuki; Oguri, Masashi; Habe, Taichi

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the anteiso-branch moiety of 18-MEA (18-methyleicosanic acid) to create a persistent hydrophobicity of alkaline-color-treated weathered hair treated with 18-MEA/SPDA (stearoxypropyldimethylamine) was investigated by comparing a straight-chain fatty acid (n-heneicosanoic acid, n-HEA) and an iso-branch fatty acid (19-methyleicosanic acid, 19-MEA) with the anteiso-branch fatty acid (18-MEA), using dynamic contact angle measurements, quantification of 18-MEA by LC/MS, and temperature controlled atomic force microscopy (AFM). The dynamic contact angle measurements indicated that the anteiso-branch moiety of 18-MEA is critical for the creation of a persistent hydrophobicity to alkaline-color-treated weathered hair. The temperature-controlled AFM investigations revealed that the anteiso-branch moiety of 18-MEA in the 18-MEA/SPDA system produces a persistent hydrophobicity to alkaline-color-treated weathered hair by providing higher fluidity to the upper region of the 18-MEA/SPDA layer.

  4. 3D plasmonic nanoantennas integrated with MEA biosensors.

    PubMed

    Dipalo, Michele; Messina, Gabriele C; Amin, Hayder; La Rocca, Rosanna; Shalabaeva, Victoria; Simi, Alessandro; Maccione, Alessandro; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Berdondini, Luca; De Angelis, Francesco

    2015-02-28

    Neuronal signaling in brain circuits occurs at multiple scales ranging from molecules and cells to large neuronal assemblies. However, current sensing neurotechnologies are not designed for parallel access of signals at multiple scales. With the aim of combining nanoscale molecular sensing with electrical neural activity recordings within large neuronal assemblies, in this work three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanoantennas are integrated with multielectrode arrays (MEA). Nanoantennas are fabricated by fast ion beam milling on optical resist; gold is deposited on the nanoantennas in order to connect them electrically to the MEA microelectrodes and to obtain plasmonic behavior. The optical properties of these 3D nanostructures are studied through finite elements method (FEM) simulations that show a high electromagnetic field enhancement. This plasmonic enhancement is confirmed by surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy of a dye performed in liquid, which presents an enhancement of almost 100 times the incident field amplitude at resonant excitation. Finally, the reported MEA devices are tested on cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Neurons develop by extending branches on the nanostructured electrodes and extracellular action potentials are recorded over multiple days in vitro. Raman spectra of living neurons cultured on the nanoantennas are also acquired. These results highlight that these nanostructures could be potential candidates for combining electrophysiological measures of large networks with simultaneous spectroscopic investigations at the molecular level.

  5. Direct methanol fuel cells: The effect of electrode fabrication procedure on MEAs structural properties and cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S. Q.; Liang, Z. X.; Zhou, W. J.; Sun, G. Q.; Xin, Q.; Stergiopoulos, V.; Tsiakaras, P.

    In the present paper, the effect of electrode preparation procedure on the structural properties of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and consequently on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) was investigated. Commercial PtRu black anode catalyst and Pt black cathode catalyst were characterized by XRD in their initial form and in their intermediate and final states after each step involved in catalyst-coated membrane electrode preparation procedure by a decal transfer method (DTM). XRD results demonstrated that the DTM process has a significant effect on the catalyst structural properties, especially on the particle size of Pt black cathode catalyst. It is also discussed that among all the steps involved in the electrode fabrication procedure, catalyst ink preparation and high temperature transfer process are key factors affecting the particle size of Pt black catalyst. Furthermore, it was found that the maximum power density of the single DMFC using a MEA fabricated by the DTM, when air is used as oxidant, is more than two times greater than that of the cell using conventionally prepared MEA, and more than three times greater when pure oxygen is used as oxidant. This could be attributed to the easier mass transportation due to the thinner catalyst layer and the better contact between the catalyst layer and the electrolyte membrane in the former case, even if, according to in situ CO stripping voltammetry results in the fuel cell anode environment, the surface composition of PtRu anode has been changed.

  6. 3D plasmonic nanoantennas integrated with MEA biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipalo, Michele; Messina, Gabriele C.; Amin, Hayder; La Rocca, Rosanna; Shalabaeva, Victoria; Simi, Alessandro; Maccione, Alessandro; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Berdondini, Luca; de Angelis, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    Neuronal signaling in brain circuits occurs at multiple scales ranging from molecules and cells to large neuronal assemblies. However, current sensing neurotechnologies are not designed for parallel access of signals at multiple scales. With the aim of combining nanoscale molecular sensing with electrical neural activity recordings within large neuronal assemblies, in this work three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanoantennas are integrated with multielectrode arrays (MEA). Nanoantennas are fabricated by fast ion beam milling on optical resist; gold is deposited on the nanoantennas in order to connect them electrically to the MEA microelectrodes and to obtain plasmonic behavior. The optical properties of these 3D nanostructures are studied through finite elements method (FEM) simulations that show a high electromagnetic field enhancement. This plasmonic enhancement is confirmed by surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy of a dye performed in liquid, which presents an enhancement of almost 100 times the incident field amplitude at resonant excitation. Finally, the reported MEA devices are tested on cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Neurons develop by extending branches on the nanostructured electrodes and extracellular action potentials are recorded over multiple days in vitro. Raman spectra of living neurons cultured on the nanoantennas are also acquired. These results highlight that these nanostructures could be potential candidates for combining electrophysiological measures of large networks with simultaneous spectroscopic investigations at the molecular level.Neuronal signaling in brain circuits occurs at multiple scales ranging from molecules and cells to large neuronal assemblies. However, current sensing neurotechnologies are not designed for parallel access of signals at multiple scales. With the aim of combining nanoscale molecular sensing with electrical neural activity recordings within large neuronal assemblies, in this work three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic

  7. Anaerobic degradation of carbon capture reclaimer MEA waste.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Hovland, J; Bakke, R

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic biodegradation of reclaimer MEA (monoethanolamine) waste (MEAw) with easily degradable co-substrates was investigated in a laboratory-scale bioreactor at room temperature during a 160 d experimental run. The reactor that was constructed with three phases to facilitate attached biofilm and suspended biomass retention for degradation of the complex and challenging MEAw performed well. A feed strategy of step-wise increasing organic loading rate (OLR) by either increasing feed MEAw concentration or the hydraulic loading rate was applied. The system performance was evaluated by chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency, methane yield, MEA removal, and the accumulation of ammonia and volatile fatty acid (VFA). The total COD removal efficiency initially was 93% when the feed was mainly easily degradable co-substrate. The total removal dropped to 75% at the end when MEAw constituted 60% of the feed COD. Ion chromatography results show that the MEA and some unidentified feed chemicals were almost completely consumed. The main products of MEAw degradation were ammonia, VFAs and biogas. The ammonia nitrogen concentration reached about 2.0 g/L, which may explain the observed inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis leading to acetate accumulation. Methane accounted for up to 80% of the biogas generated. The highest methane yield was 0.34 L/g-COD while the yield was 0.16 L/g-COD at the highest load. This study shows that more than 80% reclaimer MEAw COD degradation with a co-substrate can be maintained in a hybrid anaerobic bioreactor operated in a wide loading range.

  8. Electrochemical Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes for Fuel Cell MEA's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagaris, Jael; Loyselle, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes from different sources have been evaluated before and after sonication to identify structural differences and evaluate electrochemical performance. Raman spectral analysis and cyclic voltammetry in situ with QCM were the principle means of evaluating the tubes. The raman data indicates that sonication in toluene modifies the structural properties of the nanotubes. Sonication also affects the electrochemical performance of single-walled nanotubes and the multi-walled tubes differently. The characterization of different types of carbon nanotubes leads up to identifying a potential candidate for incorporating carbon nanotubes for fuel cell MEA structures.

  9. Auxin 2012: a rich mea ho'oulu.

    PubMed

    Strader, Lucia C; Nemhauser, Jennifer L

    2013-03-01

    In December 2012, scientists from around the world gathered in Waikoloa, Hawaii for 'Auxin 2012', a meeting organized by Paula McSteen (University of Missouri, USA), Ben Scheres (Utrecht University, The Netherlands) and Yunde Zhao (University of California, San Diego, USA). At the meeting, participants discussed the latest advances in auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling research, in addition to providing context for how these pathways intersect with other aspects of plant physiology and development. Fittingly, the meeting began with a traditional Hawaiian ceremony that recognized the centrality of the harvest of plant life ('mea ho'oulu' in Hawaiian) for continued human survival.

  10. Electrochemical Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes for Fuel Cell MEA's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagaris, Jael; Loyselle, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes from different sources have been evaluated before and after sonication to identify structural differences and evaluate electrochemical performance. Raman spectral analysis and cyclic voltammetry in situ with QCM were the principle means of evaluating the tubes. The raman data indicates that sonication in toluene modifies the structural properties of the nanotubes. Sonication also affects the electrochemical performance of single-walled nanotubes and the multi-walled tubes differently. The characterization of different types of carbon nanotubes leads up to identifying a potential candidate for incorporating carbon nanotubes for fuel cell MEA structures.

  11. Auxin 2012: a rich mea ho’oulu

    PubMed Central

    Strader, Lucia C.; Nemhauser, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    In December 2012, scientists from around the world gathered in Waikoloa, Hawaii for ‘Auxin 2012’, a meeting organized by Paula McSteen (University of Missouri, USA), Ben Scheres (Utrecht University, The Netherlands) and Yunde Zhao (University of California, San Diego, USA). At the meeting, participants discussed the latest advances in auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling research, in addition to providing context for how these pathways intersect with other aspects of plant physiology and development. Fittingly, the meeting began with a traditional Hawaiian ceremony that recognized the centrality of the harvest of plant life (’mea ho’oulu’ in Hawaiian) for continued human survival. PMID:23444348

  12. Human Islets Exhibit Electrical Activity on Microelectrode Arrays (MEA).

    PubMed

    Schönecker, S; Kraushaar, U; Guenther, E; Gerst, F; Ullrich, S; Häring, H-U; Königsrainer, A; Barthlen, W; Drews, G; Krippeit-Drews, P

    2015-05-01

    This study demonstrates for the first time that the microelectrode array (MEA) technique allows analysis of electrical activity of islets isolated from human biopsies. We have shown before that this method, i.e., measuring beta cell electrical activity with extracellular electrodes, is a powerful tool to assess glucose responsiveness of isolated murine islets. In the present study, human islets were shown to exhibit glucose-dependent oscillatory electrical activity. The glucose responsiveness could be furthermore demonstrated by an increase of insulin secretion in response to glucose. Electrical activity was increased by tolbutamide and inhibited by diazoxide. In human islets bursts of electrical activity were markedly blunted by the Na(+) channel inhibitor tetrodotoxin which does not affect electrical activity in mouse islets. Thus, the MEA technique emerges as a powerful tool to decipher online the unique features of human islets.Additionally, this technique will enable research with human islets even if only a few islets are available and it will allow a fast and easy test of metabolic integrity of islets destined for transplantation.

  13. Metabolic pathway involved in 2-methyl-6-ethylaniline degradation by Sphingobium sp. strain MEA3-1 and cloning of the novel flavin-dependent monooxygenase system meaBA.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weiliang; Chen, Qiongzhen; Hou, Ying; Li, Shuhuan; Zhuang, Kai; Huang, Fei; Zhou, Jie; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Fu, Lei; Zhang, Zhengguang; Huang, Yan; Wang, Fei; Cui, Zhongli

    2015-12-01

    2-Methyl-6-ethylaniline (MEA) is the main microbial degradation intermediate of the chloroacetanilide herbicides acetochlor and metolachlor. Sphingobium sp. strain MEA3-1 can utilize MEA and various alkyl-substituted aniline and phenol compounds as sole carbon and energy sources for growth. We isolated the mutant strain MEA3-1Mut, which converts MEA only to 2-methyl-6-ethyl-hydroquinone (MEHQ) and 2-methyl-6-ethyl-benzoquinone (MEBQ). MEA may be oxidized by the P450 monooxygenase system to 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-6-ethylaniline (4-OH-MEA), which can be hydrolytically spontaneously deaminated to MEBQ or MEHQ. The MEA microbial metabolic pathway was reconstituted based on the substrate spectra and identification of the intermediate metabolites in both the wild-type and mutant strains. Plasmidome sequencing indicated that both strains harbored 7 plasmids with sizes ranging from 6,108 bp to 287,745 bp. Among the 7 plasmids, 6 were identical, and pMEA02' in strain MEA3-1Mut lost a 37,000-bp fragment compared to pMEA02 in strain MEA3-1. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and protein mass fingerprinting (PMF) showed that MEA3-1Mut lost the two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase (TC-FDM) MeaBA, which was encoded by a gene in the lost fragment of pMEA02. MeaA shared 22% to 25% amino acid sequence identity with oxygenase components of some TC-FDMs, whereas MeaB showed no sequence identity with the reductase components of those TC-FDMs. Complementation with meaBA in MEA3-1Mut and heterologous expression in Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 resulted in the production of an active MEHQ monooxygenase.

  14. Metabolic Pathway Involved in 2-Methyl-6-Ethylaniline Degradation by Sphingobium sp. Strain MEA3-1 and Cloning of the Novel Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenase System meaBA

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Weiliang; Chen, Qiongzhen; Hou, Ying; Li, Shuhuan; Zhuang, Kai; Huang, Fei; Zhou, Jie; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Fu, Lei; Zhang, Zhengguang; Huang, Yan; Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    2-Methyl-6-ethylaniline (MEA) is the main microbial degradation intermediate of the chloroacetanilide herbicides acetochlor and metolachlor. Sphingobium sp. strain MEA3-1 can utilize MEA and various alkyl-substituted aniline and phenol compounds as sole carbon and energy sources for growth. We isolated the mutant strain MEA3-1Mut, which converts MEA only to 2-methyl-6-ethyl-hydroquinone (MEHQ) and 2-methyl-6-ethyl-benzoquinone (MEBQ). MEA may be oxidized by the P450 monooxygenase system to 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-6-ethylaniline (4-OH-MEA), which can be hydrolytically spontaneously deaminated to MEBQ or MEHQ. The MEA microbial metabolic pathway was reconstituted based on the substrate spectra and identification of the intermediate metabolites in both the wild-type and mutant strains. Plasmidome sequencing indicated that both strains harbored 7 plasmids with sizes ranging from 6,108 bp to 287,745 bp. Among the 7 plasmids, 6 were identical, and pMEA02′ in strain MEA3-1Mut lost a 37,000-bp fragment compared to pMEA02 in strain MEA3-1. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and protein mass fingerprinting (PMF) showed that MEA3-1Mut lost the two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase (TC-FDM) MeaBA, which was encoded by a gene in the lost fragment of pMEA02. MeaA shared 22% to 25% amino acid sequence identity with oxygenase components of some TC-FDMs, whereas MeaB showed no sequence identity with the reductase components of those TC-FDMs. Complementation with meaBA in MEA3-1Mut and heterologous expression in Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 resulted in the production of an active MEHQ monooxygenase. PMID:26386060

  15. High-density MEA recordings unveil the dynamics of bursting events in Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Lonardoni, Davide; Di Marco, Stefano; Amin, Hayder; Maccione, Alessandro; Berdondini, Luca; Nieus, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    High density multielectrode arrays (MEAs) based on CMOS technology (CMOS-MEAs) can simultaneously record extracellular spiking activity in neuronal cultures from 4096 closely spaced microelectrodes. This allows for a finer investigation of neuronal network activity compared to conventional MEAs with a few tens of electrodes. However, the sensing properties of these devices differ. To highlight this aspect, here we investigate and discuss the differences observed when quantifying spontaneous synchronized bursting events (SBEs) in datasets acquired with conventional MEAs and high-density MEAs from comparable hippocampal cultures. We found that datasets acquired with high-density MEAs exhibit collective dynamics similar to conventional arrays, but are characterized by a higher percentage of random spikes, i.e. spikes that are not part of a burst, most probably resulting from the larger recording capability. Additionally, the percentage of electrodes that record a burst is remarkably small on high-density MEAs compared to what can be observed on conventional MEAs and SBEs appear to be propagating in time across the electrode array, by involving shorter sequences of spikes per electrode. Overall, these results highlight a lower level of network synchronization involved in SBEs compared to what has been debated for several decades based on conventional MEA recordings from cell cultures.

  16. Interaction of the Arabidopsis polycomb group proteins FIE and MEA mediates their common phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Spillane, C; MacDougall, C; Stock, C; Köhler, C; Vielle-Calzada, J P; Nunes, S M; Grossniklaus, U; Goodrich, J

    2000-11-30

    Genes of the FERTILISATION INDEPENDENT SEED (FIS) class regulate cell proliferation during reproductive development in Arabidopsis [1-5]. The FIS genes FERTILISATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) and MEDEA (MEA) encode homologs of animal Polycomb group (Pc-G) proteins, transcriptional regulators that modify chromatin structure and are thought to form multimeric complexes [3-11]. To test whether similarities in fis mutant phenotypes reflect interactions between their protein products, we characterised FIE RNA and protein localisation in vivo, and FIE protein interactions in yeast and in vitro. Expression of FIE mRNA overlaps with that of MEA during embryo sac and seed development and is unaffected in mea mutants. Results from the yeast two-hybrid system and an in vitro pull-down assay indicate that MEA and FIE proteins interact. The relevance of this interaction in vivo is supported by the finding that FIE and MEA co-localise in the nucleus in transfected plant cells. Interaction of MEA and FIE is mediated by the amino-terminal region of MEA. Despite sequence divergence in this domain, MEA can interact with its corresponding animal partner Extrasexcombs (ESC) in the yeast two-hybrid system. We conclude that FIE and MEA act together as part of a multimeric complex and that this accounts for the similarities in mutant phenotypes. We propose that an ancient mechanism for chromatin modification has been independently recruited to different developmental processes in the two kingdoms.

  17. High Performance Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) for Space Energy Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Billings, Keith J.; Kisor, Adam; Bennett, William R.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Burke, Kenneth; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative fuel cells provide a pathway to energy storage system development that are game changers for NASA missions. The fuel cell/ electrolysis MEA performance requirements 0.92 V/ 1.44 V at 200 mA/cm2 can be met. Fuel Cell MEAs have been incorporated into advanced NFT stacks. Electrolyzer stack development in progress. Fuel Cell MEA performance is a strong function of membrane selection, membrane selection will be driven by durability requirements. Electrolyzer MEA performance is catalysts driven, catalyst selection will be driven by durability requirements. Round Trip Efficiency, based on a cell performance, is approximately 65%.

  18. High Performance Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) for Space Energy Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Billings, Keith J.; Kisor, Adam; Bennett, William R.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Burke, Kenneth; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative fuel cells provide a pathway to energy storage system development that are game changers for NASA missions. The fuel cell/ electrolysis MEA performance requirements 0.92 V/ 1.44 V at 200 mA/cm2 can be met. Fuel Cell MEAs have been incorporated into advanced NFT stacks. Electrolyzer stack development in progress. Fuel Cell MEA performance is a strong function of membrane selection, membrane selection will be driven by durability requirements. Electrolyzer MEA performance is catalysts driven, catalyst selection will be driven by durability requirements. Round Trip Efficiency, based on a cell performance, is approximately 65%.

  19. NASA's MEaSUREs Program Serving the Earth Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Tsaoussi, L.; Olding, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    A major need stated by the NASA Earth science research strategy is to develop long-term, consistent, and calibrated data and products that are valid across multiple missions and satellite sensors. NASA has invested in the creation of consistent time series satellite data sets over decades, through both mission science team-based and measurement-based data product reprocessing and through solicitations for merged data products. The NOAA/NASA Pathfinder Program, carried out in the mid-1990's, resulted in the reprocessing of four long time-series datasets from existing archives. The Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASoN) Program, initiated in 2002, consisted of several projects that provided data products, information systems and services capabilities, and/or advanced data systems technologies, to address strategic needs in Earth science research, applications, and education. The Program named Making Earth System data records for Use in Research for Earth Science, or MEaSUREs has had two requests for proposals, the first in 2006 and the second in 2012. With this Program, the Earth Science Division has focused on generating datasets for particular Earth science research measurement needs, and refers to such datasets as Earth System Data Records (ESDRs). Climate Data Records (CDRs) are a particular case of ESDRs. An ESDR is defined as a unified and coherent set of observations of a given parameter of the Earth system, which is optimized to meet specific requirements in addressing science questions. Most of the MEaSUREs projects are five years long. They produce ESDRs using mature, peer-reviewed algorithms. The products are vetted by the user community in the respective scientific disciplines. They are made available publicly by the projects during their execution period. Before the projects end, the ESDRs are transferred to one of the NASA-assigned Distributed Active Archive Centers for longer-term archiving and distribution. Tens of millions of

  20. Model-Eliciting Activities (MEAs) as a Bridge between Engineering Education Research and Mathematics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Eric; Lesh, Richard; Lester, Frank; Brilleslyper, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces Model-Eliciting Activities (MEAs) as a form of case study team problem-solving. MEA design focuses on eliciting from students conceptual models that they iteratively revise in problem-solving. Though developed by mathematics education researchers to study the evolution of mathematical problem-solving expertise in middle…

  1. Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-13

    412TW-PA-15560 Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...densities of oxygen gas cylinders can be cumbersome or prohibitively expensive for applications like terrestrial and marine breathing apparatus’ or manned

  2. Crystal structures of Mycobacterial MeaB and MMAA-like GTPases.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Thomas E; Baugh, Loren; Bullen, Jameson; Baydo, Ruth O; Witte, Pam; Thompkins, Kaitlin; Phan, Isabelle Q H; Abendroth, Jan; Clifton, Matthew C; Sankaran, Banumathi; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Myler, Peter J; Staker, Bart L; Grundner, Christoph; Lorimer, Donald D

    2015-06-01

    The methylmalonyl Co-A mutase-associated GTPase MeaB from Methylobacterium extorquens is involved in glyoxylate regulation and required for growth. In humans, mutations in the homolog methylmalonic aciduria associated protein (MMAA) cause methylmalonic aciduria, which is often fatal. The central role of MeaB from bacteria to humans suggests that MeaB is also important in other, pathogenic bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the identity of the mycobacterial MeaB homolog is presently unclear. Here, we identify the M. tuberculosis protein Rv1496 and its homologs in M. smegmatis and M. thermoresistibile as MeaB. The crystal structures of all three homologs are highly similar to MeaB and MMAA structures and reveal a characteristic three-domain homodimer with GDP bound in the G domain active site. A structure of Rv1496 obtained from a crystal grown in the presence of GTP exhibited electron density for GDP, suggesting GTPase activity. These structures identify the mycobacterial MeaB and provide a structural framework for therapeutic targeting of M. tuberculosis MeaB.

  3. Aligning the NWEA RIT Scale with the Maine Educational Assessments (MEA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, John

    2004-01-01

    Recently Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) completed a project to connect the scale of the MEA with NWEA's RIT scale. Six Maine school systems participated in the study, using test information from a group of over 800 students enrolled in fourth and eighth grade who took both the MEA and NWEA reading and mathematics tests in the spring of…

  4. Crystal structures of Mycobacterial MeaB and MMAA-like GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Baugh, Loren; Bullen, Jameson; Baydo, Ruth O.; Witte, Pam; Thompkins, Kaitlin; Phan, Isabelle Q.H.; Abendroth, Jan; Clifton, Matthew C.; Sankaran, Banumathi; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.; Staker, Bart L.; Grundner, Christoph; Lorimer, Donald D.

    2015-01-01

    The methylmalonyl Co-A mutase-associated GTPase MeaB from Methylobacterium extorquens is involved in glyoxylate regulation and required for growth. In humans, mutations in the homolog methylmalonic aciduria associated protein (MMAA) cause methylmalonic aciduria, which is often fatal. The central role of MeaB from bacteria to humans suggests that MeaB is also important in other, pathogenic bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the identity of the mycobacterial MeaB homolog is presently unclear. Here, we identify the M. tuberculosis protein Rv1496 and its homologs in M. smegmatis and M. thermoresistibile as MeaB. The crystal structures of all three homologs are highly similar to MeaB and MMAA structures and reveal a characteristic three-domain homodimer with GDP bound in the G domain active site. A structure of Rv1496 obtained from a crystal grown in the presence of GTP exhibited electron density for GDP, suggesting GTPase activity. These structures identify the mycobacterial MeaB and provide a structural framework for therapeutic targeting of M. tuberculosis MeaB. PMID:25832174

  5. Modelling and Analysis of Electrical Potentials Recorded in Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs).

    PubMed

    Ness, Torbjørn V; Chintaluri, Chaitanya; Potworowski, Jan; Łęski, Szymon; Głąbska, Helena; Wójcik, Daniel K; Einevoll, Gaute T

    2015-10-01

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs), substrate-integrated planar arrays of up to thousands of closely spaced metal electrode contacts, have long been used to record neuronal activity in in vitro brain slices with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, the analysis of the MEA potentials has generally been mainly qualitative. Here we use a biophysical forward-modelling formalism based on the finite element method (FEM) to establish quantitatively accurate links between neural activity in the slice and potentials recorded in the MEA set-up. Then we develop a simpler approach based on the method of images (MoI) from electrostatics, which allows for computation of MEA potentials by simple formulas similar to what is used for homogeneous volume conductors. As we find MoI to give accurate results in most situations of practical interest, including anisotropic slices covered with highly conductive saline and MEA-electrode contacts of sizable physical extensions, a Python software package (ViMEAPy) has been developed to facilitate forward-modelling of MEA potentials generated by biophysically detailed multicompartmental neurons. We apply our scheme to investigate the influence of the MEA set-up on single-neuron spikes as well as on potentials generated by a cortical network comprising more than 3000 model neurons. The generated MEA potentials are substantially affected by both the saline bath covering the brain slice and a (putative) inadvertent saline layer at the interface between the MEA chip and the brain slice. We further explore methods for estimation of current-source density (CSD) from MEA potentials, and find the results to be much less sensitive to the experimental set-up.

  6. Removal characteristics of CO2 using aqueous MEA/AMP solutions in the absorption and regeneration process.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Joon; Seo, Jong-Beom; Jang, Sang-Yong; Jung, Jong-Hyeon; Oh, Kwang-Joong

    2009-01-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2) removal efficiency, reaction rate, and CO2 loading into aqueous blended monoethanolamine (MEA) + 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) solutions to enhance absorption characteristics of MEA and AMP were carried out by the absorption/regeneration process. As a result, compared to aqueous MEA and AMP solutions, aqueous blended MEA + AMP solutions have a higher CO2 loading than MEA and a higher reaction rate than AMP. The CO2 loading of rich amine of aqueous 18 wt.% MEA + 12 wt.% AMP solution was 0.62 mol CO2/mol amine, which is 51.2% more than 30 wt.% MEA (0.41 mol CO2/mol amine). Consequently, blending MEA and AMP could be an effective way to design considering economical efficiency and used to operate absorber for a long time.

  7. Validation of long-term primary neuronal cultures and network activity through the integration of reversibly bonded microbioreactors and MEA substrates.

    PubMed

    Biffi, Emilia; Menegon, Andrea; Piraino, Francesco; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Fiore, Gianfranco B; Rasponi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    In vitro recording of neuronal electrical activity is a widely used technique to understand brain functions and to study the effect of drugs on the central nervous system. The integration of microfluidic devices with microelectrode arrays (MEAs) enables the recording of networks activity in a controlled microenvironment. In this work, an integrated microfluidic system for neuronal cultures was developed, reversibly coupling a PDMS microfluidic device with a commercial flat MEA through magnetic forces. Neurons from mouse embryos were cultured in a 100 µm channel and their activity was followed up to 18 days in vitro. The maturation of the networks and their morphological and functional characteristics were comparable with those of networks cultured in macro-environments and described in literature. In this work, we successfully demonstrated the ability of long-term culturing of primary neuronal cells in a reversible bonded microfluidic device (based on magnetism) that will be fundamental for neuropharmacological studies.

  8. Deposition of 18-MEA onto alkaline-color-treated weathered hair to form a persistent hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Tanamachi, Hiroto; Inoue, Shigeto; Tanji, Noriyuki; Tsujimura, Hisashi; Oguri, Masashi; Ishita, Mio; Tokunaga, Shinichi; Sazanami, Fumiko

    2009-01-01

    A technology for the deposition of a persistent hydrophobicity to alkaline-color-treated weathered hair surfaces using 18-MEA (18-methyleicosanoic acid) is presented. Two approaches were examined in order to make 18-MEA bind tightly to the alkaline-color-treated weathered hair surface. One was to apply 18-MEA as an acid form and the other was to apply 18-MEA as a salt or complex. It was found that the combination of 18-MEA with specific cationic surfactants [stearoxypropyldimethylamine (SPDA) and docosyldimethylamine (DSDA)] makes the alkaline-color-treated weathered hair surface hydrophobic and that its hydrophobicity is maintained even after shampooing. Characterization of adsorbed layers of 18-MEA/SPDA on a mica surface, as a possible hydrophilic surface model, was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS). The results revealed that 18-MEA/SPDA formed a layer with high wear resistance, with an alkyl chain, the hydrophobic moiety, oriented at an angle of around 25 degrees to the air interface.

  9. Optogenetic stimulation of multiwell MEA plates for neural and cardiac applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Isaac P.; Millard, Daniel C.; Nicolini, Anthony M.; Preyer, Amanda J.; Grier, Robert; Heckerling, Andrew; Blum, Richard A.; Tyler, Phillip; McSweeney, K. M.; Lu, Yi-Fan; Hall, Diana; Ross, James D.

    2016-03-01

    Microelectrode array (MEA) technology enables advanced drug screening and "disease-in-a-dish" modeling by measuring the electrical activity of cultured networks of neural or cardiac cells. Recent developments in human stem cell technologies, advancements in genetic models, and regulatory initiatives for drug screening have increased the demand for MEA-based assays. In response, Axion Biosystems previously developed a multiwell MEA platform, providing up to 96 MEA culture wells arrayed into a standard microplate format. Multiwell MEA-based assays would be further enhanced by optogenetic stimulation, which enables selective excitation and inhibition of targeted cell types. This capability for selective control over cell culture states would allow finer pacing and probing of cell networks for more reliable and complete characterization of complex network dynamics. Here we describe a system for independent optogenetic stimulation of each well of a 48-well MEA plate. The system enables finely graded control of light delivery during simultaneous recording of network activity in each well. Using human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derived cardiomyocytes and rodent primary neuronal cultures, we demonstrate high channel-count light-based excitation and suppression in several proof-of-concept experimental models. Our findings demonstrate advantages of combining multiwell optical stimulation and MEA recording for applications including cardiac safety screening, neural toxicity assessment, and advanced characterization of complex neuronal diseases.

  10. Data Curation for the Exploitation of Large Earth Observation Products Databases - The MEA system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantovani, Simone; Natali, Stefano; Barboni, Damiano; Cavicchi, Mario; Della Vecchia, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    National Space Agencies under the umbrella of the European Space Agency are performing a strong activity to handle and provide solutions to Big Data and related knowledge (metadata, software tools and services) management and exploitation. The continuously increasing amount of long-term and of historic data in EO facilities in the form of online datasets and archives, the incoming satellite observation platforms that will generate an impressive amount of new data and the new EU approach on the data distribution policy make necessary to address technologies for the long-term management of these data sets, including their consolidation, preservation, distribution, continuation and curation across multiple missions. The management of long EO data time series of continuing or historic missions - with more than 20 years of data available already today - requires technical solutions and technologies which differ considerably from the ones exploited by existing systems. Several tools, both open source and commercial, are already providing technologies to handle data and metadata preparation, access and visualization via OGC standard interfaces. This study aims at describing the Multi-sensor Evolution Analysis (MEA) system and the Data Curation concept as approached and implemented within the ASIM and EarthServer projects, funded by the European Space Agency and the European Commission, respectively.

  11. Adaptive Process Controls and Ultrasonics for High Temperature PEM MEA Manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Walczyk, Daniel F.

    2015-08-26

    The purpose of this 5-year DOE-sponsored project was to address major process bottlenecks associated with fuel cell manufacturing. New technologies were developed to significantly reduce pressing cycle time for high temperature PEM membrane electrode assembly (MEA) through the use of novel, robust ultrasonic (U/S) bonding processes along with low temperature (<100°C) PEM MEAs. In addition, greater manufacturing uniformity and performance was achieved through (a) an investigation into the causes of excessive variation in ultrasonically and thermally bonded MEAs using more diagnostics applied during the entire fabrication and cell build process, and (b) development of rapid, yet simple quality control measurement techniques for use by industry.

  12. Incidence of upper genital tract occlusion following microwave endometrial ablation (MEA).

    PubMed

    Tawfeek, S; Sholapurkar, S; Sharp, N

    2006-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of occlusion of the upper genital tract following microwave endometrial ablation (MEA) in women treated for therapy-resistant menorrhagia. A total of 35 women were recruited between January 1997 and January 2005, Royal United Hospital Bath, to have interval hysterosalpingogram (HSG) post-MEA. After a successful MEA, either with general or local anaesthesia, 35 HSGs were performed 3 or more months later. Complete occlusion of the upper genital tract was found in 30 women (85.7%) and incomplete occlusion with tubal patency persisted in 5 (14.3%).

  13. Burst and Principal Components Analyses of MEA Data Separates Chemicals by Class

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) detect drug and chemical induced changes in action potential "spikes" in neuronal networks and can be used to screen chemicals for neurotoxicity. Analytical "fingerprinting," using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) on spike trains recorded from prim...

  14. Burst and Principal Components Analyses of MEA Data Separates Chemicals by Class

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) detect drug and chemical induced changes in action potential "spikes" in neuronal networks and can be used to screen chemicals for neurotoxicity. Analytical "fingerprinting," using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) on spike trains recorded from prim...

  15. Imprinting of the MEA Polycomb gene is controlled by antagonism between MET1 methyltransferase and DME glycosylase.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenyan; Gehring, Mary; Choi, Yeonhee; Margossian, Linda; Pu, Hong; Harada, John J; Goldberg, Robert B; Pennell, Roger I; Fischer, Robert L

    2003-12-01

    The MEA Polycomb gene is imprinted in the Arabidopsis endosperm. DME DNA glycosylase activates maternal MEA allele expression in the central cell of the female gametophyte, the progenitor of the endosperm. Maternal mutant dme or mea alleles result in seed abortion. We identified mutations that suppress dme seed abortion and found that they reside in the MET1 methyltransferase gene, which maintains cytosine methylation. Seeds with maternal dme and met1 alleles survive, indicating that suppression occurs in the female gametophyte. Suppression requires a maternal wild-type MEA allele, suggesting that MET1 functions upstream of, or at, MEA. DME activates whereas MET1 suppresses maternal MEA::GFP allele expression in the central cell. MET1 is required for DNA methylation of three regions in the MEA promoter in seeds. Our data suggest that imprinting is controlled in the female gametophyte by antagonism between the two DNA-modifying enzymes, MET1 methyltransferase and DME DNA glycosylase.

  16. Local degradation analysis of a real long-term operated DMFC stack MEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Peter; Gerteisen, Dietmar

    2012-12-01

    Understanding degradation of the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) is important technically and scientifically for the advancement of this technology. In this work, we carry out a spatially resolved investigation of the degradation of an MEA, which has been degraded through its operation lifetime. The MEA has an active area of 320 cm2 and has been used in operation of a DMFC stack for more than 3000 h to power a lift truck. The analysis of degradation with respect to the local position of the flow field pattern was carried out by cutting the MEA into small pieces that are characterized in a 1 cm2 sized test cell with a reference electrode setup. The characterization techniques involved measurement of anode and cathode polarization curves, electrode potential relaxation curves after current interruption, MeOH-stripping voltammograms, cyclic voltammetry and SEM/EDX analysis. The MEA pieces were prepared by Laser ablation technique to realize the reference electrodes. The analysis yielded an independence of performance from the local position of the MEAs within the stack in terms of the anode and cathode flow fields.

  17. Gas phase oxidation of monoethanolamine (MEA) with OH radical and ozone: kinetics, products, and particles.

    PubMed

    Borduas, Nadine; Abbatt, Jonathan P D; Murphy, Jennifer G

    2013-06-18

    Monoethanolamine (MEA) is currently the benchmark solvent in carbon capture and storage (CCS), a technology aimed at reducing CO2 emissions in large combustion industries. To accurately assess the environmental impact of CCS, a sound understanding of the fate of MEA in the atmosphere is necessary. Relative and absolute rate kinetic experiments were conducted in a smog chamber using online proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to follow the decay of MEA. The room temperature (295 ± 3K) kinetics of oxidation with hydroxyl radicals from light and dark sources yield an average value of (7.02 ± 0.46) × 10(-11) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1), in good agreement with previously published data. For the first time, the rate coefficient for MEA with ozone was measured: (1.09 ± 0.05) × 10(-18) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1). An investigation into the oxidation products was also conducted using online chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI-TOFMS) where formamide, isocyanic acid as well as higher order products including cyclic amines were detected. Significant particle numbers and mass loadings were observed during the MEA oxidation experiments and accounted for over 15% of the fate of MEA-derived nitrogen.

  18. A high sensitivity MEA probe for measuring real time rat brain glucose flux.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wenjing; Song, Yilin; Shi, Wentao; Lin, Nansen; Jiang, Tingjun; Cai, Xinxia

    2014-05-15

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) relies on a constant supply of external glucose for its undisturbed operation. This article presents an implantable Multi-Electrode Array (MEA) probe for brain glucose measurement. The MEA was implemented on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafer using Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) methods. There were 16 platinum recording sites on the probe and enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized on them. The glucose sensitivity of the MEA probe was as high as 489 µA mM(-1) cm(-2). 1,3-Phenylenediamine (mPD) was electropolymerized onto the Pt recording surfaces to prevent larger molecules such as ascorbic acid (AA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) from reaching the recording sites surface. The MEA probe was implanted in the anesthetized rat striatum and responded to glucose levels which were altered by intraperitoneal injection of glucose and insulin. After the in vivo experiment, the MEA probe still kept sensitivity to glucose, these suggested that the MEA probe was reliable for glucose monitoring in brain extracellular fluid (ECF).

  19. Multielectrode Array (MEA) Assay for Profiling Electrophysiological Drug Effects in Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Clements, Mike

    2016-05-04

    More relevant and reliable preclinical cardiotoxicity tests are required to improve drug safety and reduce the cost of drug development. Human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hSC-CMs) provide a potential model for the development of superior assays for preclinical drug safety screening. One such hSC-CM assay that has shown significant potential for enabling more predictive drug cardiac risk assessment is the MEA assay. The Multi-electrode Array (MEA) assay is an electrophysiology-based technique that uses microelectrodes embedded in the culture surface of each well to measure fluctuations in extracellular field potential (FP) generated from spontaneously beating hSC-CMs. Perturbations to the recorded FP waveform can be used as an unbiased method of predicting the identity of ion channel(s) impacted on drug exposure. Here, a higher throughput MEA assay using hSC-CMs in 48-well MEA plates is described for profiling compound-induced effects on cardiomyocyte electrophysiology. Techniques for preparing hSC-CM monolayers in MEA plates and methods to contextualize MEA assay experimental results are also covered. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. MEaSUREs Land Surface Temperature from GOES satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Ma, Yingtao; Chen, Wen; Hulley, Glynn; Borbas, Eva; Hain, Chris; Hook, Simon

    2016-04-01

    to generate the MOD21 product. The MEaSUREs (MODIS- ASTER Global Infrared Combined Emissivity) product produced from the University of Wisconsin Global Infrared Land Surface Emissivity (UWIREMIS) and the ASTER Global Emissivity (GED) Database have been used in both methods. We will describe the two methodologies and present results of evaluation for the year 2004 against various available products, such as MOD11, and ground observations.

  1. High efficiency, site-specific transfection of adherent cells with siRNA using microelectrode arrays (MEA).

    PubMed

    Patel, Chetan; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2012-09-13

    of the stimulated electrodes. The independent control of the micro-electrodes provides spatial and temporal control over transfection and also enables multiple transfection based experiments to be performed on the same culture increasing the experimental throughput and reducing culture-to-culture variability. Here we describe the experimental setup and the protocol for targeted transfection of adherent HeLa cells with a fluorescently tagged scrambled sequence siRNA using electroporation. The same protocol can also be used for transfection of plasmid vectors. Additionally, the protocol described here can be easily extended to a variety of mammalian cell lines with minor modifications. Commercial availability of MEAs with both pre-defined and custom electrode patterns make this technique accessible to most research labs with basic cell culture equipment.

  2. Atmospheric Chemistry of the Carbon Capture Solvent Monoethanolamine (MEA): A Theoretical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, G.

    2012-12-01

    The development of amine solvent technology for carbon capture and storage has the potential to create large new sources of amines to the atmosphere. The atmospheric chemistry of amines generally, and carbon capture solvents in particular, is not well understood. We have used quantum chemistry and master equation modelling to investigate the OH radical initiated oxidation of monoethanolamine (NH2CH2CH2OH), or MEA, the archetypal carbon capture solvent. The OH radical can abstract H atoms from either carbon atom in MEA, with negative reaction barriers. Treating these reactions with a two transition state model can reliably reproduce experimental rate constants and their temperature dependence. The products of the MEA + OH reaction, the NH2CHCH2OH and NH2CH2CHOH radicals, undergo subsequent reaction with O2, which has also been studied. In both cases chemically activated reactions that bypass peroxyl radical intermediates dominate, producing 2-iminoethanol + HO2 (from NH2CHCH2OH) or aminoacetaldehyde + HO2 (from NH2CH2CHOH), making the process HOx-neutral. The operation of chemically activated reaction mechanisms has implications for the ozone forming potential of MEA. The products of MEA photo-oxidation are proposed as important species in the formation of both organic and inorganic secondary aerosols, particularly through uptake of the imine 2-iminoethanol and subsequent hydrolysis to ammonia and glycolaldehyde.

  3. [A case of a nonseminomatous germ cell tumor responding to MEA therapy].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yasuharu; Minami, Takafumi; Itami, Yoshitaka; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Hayashi, Taiji; Nozawa, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Tokumi; Uemura, Hirotugu

    2013-10-01

    We experienced a case of testicular cancer that was successfully treated by salvage chemotherapy comprised of methotrexate, actinomycin D and etoposide (MEA). A 25-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of stage III B2 (JUA classification) testicular cancer. The patient had multiple lung metastases, and underwent a left orchiectomy. A histopathological examination revealed a choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, mature teratoma, and a yolk sac tumor. Tumor marker levels were elevated ; human chorionic gonadotropin β was 46 mIU/ml and alpha fetoprotein was 437 ng/ml. Although he was treated post-operatively with two courses of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin therapy, four courses of high-dose carboplatin, etoposide and iphosphamide (VIP) therapy, and two courses of CPT-11+ cisplatin therapy, tumor maker levels remained elevated and lung metastases were stable. Accordingly, he received three courses of MEA therapy. MEA therapy is regimen used to treat gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. After MEA therapy, levels of the tumor markers normalized. He then underwent a partial resection of lung and enucleation of lung metastasis by the video assisted thoracoscopic surgery method. Histopathological examination of the lung metastasis revealed only necrotic tissue. Tumor recurrence has not been observed in the 14 months since the MEA therapy.

  4. The Two-Component Monooxygenase MeaXY Initiates the Downstream Pathway of Chloroacetanilide Herbicide Catabolism in Sphingomonads

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Minggen; Meng, Qiang; Yang, Youjian; Chu, Cuiwei; Chen, Qing; Li, Yi; Cheng, Dan; Hong, Qing; He, Jian

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to the extensive use of chloroacetanilide herbicides over the past 60 years, bacteria have evolved catabolic pathways to mineralize these compounds. In the upstream catabolic pathway, chloroacetanilide herbicides are transformed into the two common metabolites 2-methyl-6-ethylaniline (MEA) and 2,6-diethylaniline (DEA) through N-dealkylation and amide hydrolysis. The pathway downstream of MEA is initiated by the hydroxylation of aromatic rings, followed by its conversion to a substrate for ring cleavage after several steps. Most of the key genes in the pathway have been identified. However, the genes involved in the initial hydroxylation step of MEA are still unknown. As a special aniline derivative, MEA cannot be transformed by the aniline dioxygenases that have been characterized. Sphingobium baderi DE-13 can completely degrade MEA and use it as a sole carbon source for growth. In this work, an MEA degradation-deficient mutant of S. baderi DE-13 was isolated. MEA catabolism genes were predicted through comparative genomic analysis. The results of genetic complementation and heterologous expression demonstrated that the products of meaX and meaY are responsible for the initial step of MEA degradation in S. baderi DE-13. MeaXY is a two-component flavoprotein monooxygenase system that catalyzes the hydroxylation of MEA and DEA using NADH and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as cofactors. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis confirmed that MeaXY hydroxylates MEA and DEA at the para-position. Transcription of meaX was enhanced remarkably upon induction of MEA or DEA in S. baderi DE-13. Additionally, meaX and meaY were highly conserved among other MEA-degrading sphingomonads. This study fills a gap in our knowledge of the biochemical pathway that carries out mineralization of chloroacetanilide herbicides in sphingomonads. IMPORTANCE Much attention has been paid to the environmental fate of chloroacetanilide herbicides used for the past 60 years. Microbial

  5. The Two-Component Monooxygenase MeaXY Initiates the Downstream Pathway of Chloroacetanilide Herbicide Catabolism in Sphingomonads.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Minggen; Meng, Qiang; Yang, Youjian; Chu, Cuiwei; Chen, Qing; Li, Yi; Cheng, Dan; Hong, Qing; Yan, Xin; He, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Due to the extensive use of chloroacetanilide herbicides over the past 60 years, bacteria have evolved catabolic pathways to mineralize these compounds. In the upstream catabolic pathway, chloroacetanilide herbicides are transformed into the two common metabolites 2-methyl-6-ethylaniline (MEA) and 2,6-diethylaniline (DEA) through N-dealkylation and amide hydrolysis. The pathway downstream of MEA is initiated by the hydroxylation of aromatic rings, followed by its conversion to a substrate for ring cleavage after several steps. Most of the key genes in the pathway have been identified. However, the genes involved in the initial hydroxylation step of MEA are still unknown. As a special aniline derivative, MEA cannot be transformed by the aniline dioxygenases that have been characterized. Sphingobium baderi DE-13 can completely degrade MEA and use it as a sole carbon source for growth. In this work, an MEA degradation-deficient mutant of S. baderi DE-13 was isolated. MEA catabolism genes were predicted through comparative genomic analysis. The results of genetic complementation and heterologous expression demonstrated that the products of meaX and meaY are responsible for the initial step of MEA degradation in S. baderi DE-13. MeaXY is a two-component flavoprotein monooxygenase system that catalyzes the hydroxylation of MEA and DEA using NADH and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as cofactors. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis confirmed that MeaXY hydroxylates MEA and DEA at the para-position. Transcription of meaX was enhanced remarkably upon induction of MEA or DEA in S. baderi DE-13. Additionally, meaX and meaY were highly conserved among other MEA-degrading sphingomonads. This study fills a gap in our knowledge of the biochemical pathway that carries out mineralization of chloroacetanilide herbicides in sphingomonads.IMPORTANCE Much attention has been paid to the environmental fate of chloroacetanilide herbicides used for the past 60 years. Microbial degradation

  6. A topographically modified substrate-embedded MEA for directed myotube formation at electrode contact sites.

    PubMed

    Langhammer, Christopher G; Kutzing, Melinda K; Luo, Vincent; Zahn, Jeffrey D; Firestein, Bonnie L

    2013-02-01

    Myoblast fusion into functionally distinct myotubes, and their subsequent integration with the nervous system, is a poorly understood phenomenon with important applications in basic science research, skeletal muscle tissue engineering, and cell-based biosensor development. We have previously demonstrated the ability of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) to record the extracellular action potentials of myotubes, and we have shown that this information reveals the presence of multiple, electrophysiologically independent myotubes even in unstructured cultures where there is extensive physical contact between cells (Langhammer et al., Biotechnol Prog 27:891-895, 2011). In this paper, we explore the ability of microscale topographical trenches to guide the myoblast alignment and fusion processes and use our findings to create a substrate-embedded MEA containing topographical trenches that are able to direct myotube contractility to specific locations. By combining substrate-embedded MEA technology with topographical patterns, we have developed a lab-on-a-chip test bed for the non-invasive examination of myotubes.

  7. Nanostructuration strategies to enhance microelectrode array (MEA) performance for neuronal recording and stimulation.

    PubMed

    Heim, Matthias; Yvert, Blaise; Kuhn, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are widely used tools for recording and stimulating extracellular neuronal activity. Major limitations when decreasing electrode size in dense arrays are increased noise level and low charge injection capability. Nanostructuration of the electrode sites on MEAs presents an efficient way to overcome these problems by decreasing the impedance of the electrode/solution interface. Here, we review different techniques used to achieve this goal including template assisted electrodeposition for generating macro- and mesoporous films, immobilization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and deposition of conducting polymers onto microelectrodes. When tested during in vitro and in vivo measurements, nanostructured MEAs display improved sensitivity during recording of neuronal activity together with a higher efficiency in the stimulation process compared to conventional microelectrodes.

  8. Mea6 controls VLDL transport through the coordinated regulation of COPII assembly

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaqing; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Hongsheng; Fan, Junwan; Zhang, Feng; Yu, Mei; Shi, Lei; Yang, Lin; Lam, Sin Man; Wang, Huimin; Chen, Xiaowei; Wang, Yingchun; Gao, Fei; Shui, Guanghou; Xu, Zhiheng

    2016-01-01

    Lipid accumulation, which may be caused by the disturbance in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion in the liver, can lead to fatty liver disease. VLDL is synthesized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transported to Golgi apparatus for secretion into plasma. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for VLDL transport is still poorly understood. Here we show that hepatocyte-specific deletion of meningioma-expressed antigen 6 (Mea6)/cutaneous T cell lymphoma-associated antigen 5C (cTAGE5C) leads to severe fatty liver and hypolipemia in mice. Quantitative lipidomic and proteomic analyses indicate that Mea6/cTAGE5 deletion impairs the secretion of different types of lipids and proteins, including VLDL, from the liver. Moreover, we demonstrate that Mea6/cTAGE5 interacts with components of the ER coat protein complex II (COPII) which, when depleted, also cause lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. Our findings not only reveal several novel factors that regulate lipid transport, but also provide evidence that Mea6 plays a critical role in lipid transportation through the coordinated regulation of the COPII machinery. PMID:27311593

  9. How to Culture, Record and Stimulate Neuronal Networks on Micro-electrode Arrays (MEAs)

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Chadwick M.; Rolston, John D.; Potter, Steve M.

    2010-01-01

    For the last century, many neuroscientists around the world have dedicated their lives to understanding how neuronal networks work and why they stop working in various diseases. Studies have included neuropathological observation, fluorescent microscopy with genetic labeling, and intracellular recording in both dissociated neurons and slice preparations. This protocol discusses another technology, which involves growing dissociated neuronal cultures on micro-electrode arrays (also called multi-electrode arrays, MEAs). There are multiple advantages to using this system over other technologies. Dissociated neuronal cultures on MEAs provide a simplified model in which network activity can be manipulated with electrical stimulation sequences through the array's multiple electrodes. Because the network is small, the impact of stimulation is limited to observable areas, which is not the case in intact preparations. The cells grow in a monolayer making changes in morphology easy to monitor with various imaging techniques. Finally, cultures on MEAs can survive for over a year in vitro which removes any clear time limitations inherent with other culturing techniques.1 Our lab and others around the globe are utilizing this technology to ask important questions about neuronal networks. The purpose of this protocol is to provide the necessary information for setting up, caring for, recording from and electrically stimulating cultures on MEAs. In vitro networks provide a means for asking physiologically relevant questions at the network and cellular levels leading to a better understanding of brain function and dysfunction. PMID:20517199

  10. 76 FR 35110 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Miscellaneous Expense Allowance (MEA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... MEA may be paid in one of two alternative amounts. A transferring employee without an immediate family... with an immediate family is entitled to a lump-sum of two weeks' basic gross pay, up to $1000. If... or two weeks basic pay depending on whether or not the employee has an immediate family, not to...

  11. Policies and Procedures for Accommodations and Alternate Assessment to the MEA, 2004-05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Learning Results" legislation clearly articulates that all students will be included in state assessment at the fourth grade, eighth grade, and eleventh grade levels. The Maine Educational Assessment (MEA) has been revised to measure the standards detailed in Maine's "Learning Results." All students in Maine will participate in the state level…

  12. A classification of bioinformatics algorithms from the viewpoint of maximizing expected accuracy (MEA).

    PubMed

    Hamada, Michiaki; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2012-05-01

    Many estimation problems in bioinformatics are formulated as point estimation problems in a high-dimensional discrete space. In general, it is difficult to design reliable estimators for this type of problem, because the number of possible solutions is immense, which leads to an extremely low probability for every solution-even for the one with the highest probability. Therefore, maximum score and maximum likelihood estimators do not work well in this situation although they are widely employed in a number of applications. Maximizing expected accuracy (MEA) estimation, in which accuracy measures of the target problem and the entire distribution of solutions are considered, is a more successful approach. In this review, we provide an extensive discussion of algorithms and software based on MEA. We describe how a number of algorithms used in previous studies can be classified from the viewpoint of MEA. We believe that this review will be useful not only for users wishing to utilize software to solve the estimation problems appearing in this article, but also for developers wishing to design algorithms on the basis of MEA.

  13. 41 CFR 302-16.203 - What are examples of types of costs not covered by the MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What are examples of types of costs not covered by the MEA? 302-16.203 Section 302-16.203 Public Contracts and Property... the MEA? Examples of costs which are not reimbursable from this allowance are: (a) Losses in...

  14. 41 CFR 302-16.203 - What are examples of types of costs not covered by the MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are examples of types of costs not covered by the MEA? 302-16.203 Section 302-16.203 Public Contracts and Property... the MEA? Examples of costs which are not reimbursable from this allowance are: (a) Losses in...

  15. 41 CFR 302-16.203 - What are examples of types of costs not covered by the MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are examples of types of costs not covered by the MEA? 302-16.203 Section 302-16.203 Public Contracts and Property... the MEA? Examples of costs which are not reimbursable from this allowance are: (a) Losses in...

  16. 41 CFR 302-16.203 - What are examples of types of costs not covered by the MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are examples of types of costs not covered by the MEA? 302-16.203 Section 302-16.203 Public Contracts and Property... the MEA? Examples of costs which are not reimbursable from this allowance are: (a) Losses in...

  17. 41 CFR 302-16.203 - What are examples of types of costs not covered by the MEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are examples of types of costs not covered by the MEA? 302-16.203 Section 302-16.203 Public Contracts and Property... the MEA? Examples of costs which are not reimbursable from this allowance are: (a) Losses in...

  18. Modelling of the MEA float zone using accelerometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. Iwan D.

    1993-01-01

    During a floating zone experiment involving the growth of indium on a recent orbiter mission, (STS 32) oscillation of the zone shapes were observed to occur in response to the background acceleration. An understanding of the nature of the response of the zone shape to forced (g-jitter) oscillations and predictions of its impact on future experiments is of great interest not only to the PI's but to other commercial and academic investigators who plan to fly similar experiments in the orbiter and on space station. Motivated by this, a 15 month study was undertaken to analyze the nature of the g-sensitivity of the STS 32 floating zone crystal growth experiment. Numerical models were used to describe the time-dependent free surface motion of the zone as it responds to the spacecraft residual acceleration. Relevant experimental data concerning the acceleration environment was obtained from the Honeywell in Space Accelerometer (HISA) investigators through MSFC's ACAP program and processed and analyzed. For the indium floating zone experiment, a series of calculations were made using time-dependent axial accelerations g(t). The form of g(t) included simple sinusoidal disturbances as well as actual data (subject to appropriate filtering) measured on the STS 32 mission. Focus was on the calculation of the response of the free surface of the zone as well as the internal flows and internal heat transfer. The influence of solidification on the response of the zone shape was also examined but found to be negligible.

  19. BioMEA: a versatile high-density 3D microelectrode array system using integrated electronics.

    PubMed

    Charvet, Guillaume; Rousseau, Lionel; Billoint, Olivier; Gharbi, Sadok; Rostaing, Jean-Pierre; Joucla, Sébastien; Trevisiol, Michel; Bourgerette, Alain; Chauvet, Philippe; Moulin, Céline; Goy, François; Mercier, Bruno; Colin, Mikael; Spirkovitch, Serge; Fanet, Hervé; Meyrand, Pierre; Guillemaud, Régis; Yvert, Blaise

    2010-04-15

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) offer a powerful tool to both record activity and deliver electrical microstimulations to neural networks either in vitro or in vivo. Microelectronics microfabrication technologies now allow building high-density MEAs containing several hundreds of microelectrodes. However, dense arrays of 3D micro-needle electrodes, providing closer contact with the neural tissue than planar electrodes, are not achievable using conventional isotropic etching processes. Moreover, increasing the number of electrodes using conventional electronics is difficult to achieve into compact devices addressing all channels independently for simultaneous recording and stimulation. Here, we present a full modular and versatile 256-channel MEA system based on integrated electronics. First, transparent high-density arrays of 3D-shaped microelectrodes were realized by deep reactive ion etching techniques of a silicon substrate reported on glass. This approach allowed achieving high electrode aspect ratios, and different shapes of tip electrodes. Next, we developed a dedicated analog 64-channel Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) including one amplification stage and one current generator per channel, and analog output multiplexing. A full modular system, called BIOMEA, has been designed, allowing connecting different types of MEAs (64, 128, or 256 electrodes) to different numbers of ASICs for simultaneous recording and/or stimulation on all channels. Finally, this system has been validated experimentally by recording and electrically eliciting low-amplitude spontaneous rhythmic activity (both LFPs and spikes) in the developing mouse CNS. The availability of high-density MEA systems with integrated electronics will offer new possibilities for both in vitro and in vivo studies of large neural networks.

  20. Intensive time series data exploitation: the Multi-sensor Evolution Analysis (MEA) platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantovani, Simone; Natali, Stefano; Folegani, Marco; Scremin, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of the temporal evolution of natural phenomena must be performed in order to ensure their correct description and to allow improvements in modelling and forecast capabilities. This assumption, that is obvious for ground-based measurements, has not always been true for data collected through space-based platforms: except for geostationary satellites and sensors, that allow providing a very effective monitoring of phenomena with geometric scale from regional to global; smaller phenomena (with characteristic dimension lower than few kilometres) have been monitored with instruments that could collect data only with a time interval in the order of several days; bi-temporal techniques have been the most used ones for years, in order to characterise temporal changes and try identifying specific phenomena. The more the number of flying sensor has grown and their performance improved, the more their capability of monitoring natural phenomena at a smaller geographic scale has grown: we can now count on tenth of years of remotely sensed data, collected by hundreds of sensors that are now accessible from a wide users' community, and the techniques for data processing have to be adapted to move toward a data intensive exploitation. Starting from 2008, the European Space Agency has initiated the development of the Multi-sensor Evolution Analysis (MEA) platform (https://mea.eo.esa.int), whose first aim was to permit the access and exploitation of long term remotely sensed satellite data from different platforms: 15 years of global (A)ATSR data together with 5 years of regional AVNIR-2 data were loaded into the system and were used, through a web-based graphic user interface, for land cover change analysis. The MEA data availability has grown during years integrating multi-disciplinary data that feature spatial and temporal dimensions: so far tenths of Terabytes of data in the land and atmosphere domains are available and can be visualized and exploited, keeping the

  1. Stress and plastic deformation of MEA in fuel cells. Stresses generated during cell assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bograchev, Daniil; Gueguen, Mikael; Grandidier, Jean-Claude; Martemianov, Serguei

    A linear elastic-plastic 2D model of fuel cell with hardening is developed for analysis of mechanical stresses in MEA arising in cell assembly procedure. The model includes the main components of real fuel cell (membrane, gas diffusion layers, graphite plates, and seal joints) and clamping elements (steel plates, bolts, nuts). The stress and plastic deformation in MEA are simulated with ABAQUS code taking into account the realistic clamping conditions. The stress distributions are obtained on the local and the global scales. The first one corresponds to the single tooth/channel structure. The global scale deals with features of the entire cell (the seal joint and the bolts). Experimental measurements of the residual membrane deformations have been provided at different bolts torques. The experimental data are in a good agreement with numerical predictions concerning the beginning of the plastic deformation.

  2. MEAs and 3D nanoelectrodes: electrodeposition as tool for a precisely controlled nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Weidlich, Sabrina; Krause, Kay J; Schnitker, Jan; Wolfrum, Bernhard; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2017-01-31

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are gaining increasing importance for the investigation of signaling processes between electrogenic cells. However, efficient cell-chip coupling for robust and long-term electrophysiological recording and stimulation still remains a challenge. A possible approach for the improvement of the cell-electrode contact is the utilization of three-dimensional structures. In recent years, various 3D electrode geometries have been developed, but we are still lacking a fabrication approach that enables the formation of different 3D structures on a single chip in a controlled manner. This, however, is needed to enable a direct and reliable comparison of the recording capabilities of the different structures. Here, we present a method for a precisely controlled deposition of nanoelectrodes, enabling the fabrication of multiple, well-defined types of structures on our 64 electrode MEAs towards a rapid-prototyping approach to 3D electrodes.

  3. MEAs and 3D nanoelectrodes: electrodeposition as tool for a precisely controlled nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidlich, Sabrina; Krause, Kay J.; Schnitker, Jan; Wolfrum, Bernhard; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are gaining increasing importance for the investigation of signaling processes between electrogenic cells. However, efficient cell–chip coupling for robust and long-term electrophysiological recording and stimulation still remains a challenge. A possible approach for the improvement of the cell–electrode contact is the utilization of three-dimensional structures. In recent years, various 3D electrode geometries have been developed, but we are still lacking a fabrication approach that enables the formation of different 3D structures on a single chip in a controlled manner. This, however, is needed to enable a direct and reliable comparison of the recording capabilities of the different structures. Here, we present a method for a precisely controlled deposition of nanoelectrodes, enabling the fabrication of multiple, well-defined types of structures on our 64 electrode MEAs towards a rapid-prototyping approach to 3D electrodes.

  4. The NASA MEaSUREs-2006 Science Datasets Distributed at GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shie, C.; Alcott, G. T.; Chen, M.; Johnson, J. E.; Kempler, S. J.; Lei, G.; Ostrenga, D. M.; Savtchenko, A. K.; Shen, S.; Teng, W. L.; Vadnais, E.; Vollmer, B.; Wei, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Making Earth System data records for Use in Research Environments program's 2006 (MEaSUREs-2006) solicitation aimed to select projects providing Earth science data products and services highly motivated by NASA's Earth science objectives and contributing to advancing NASA Earth system 'missions to measurements' concept. As a result, thirty projects were awarded for funding in October 2007. Through the successful MEaSUREs-2006, NASA has continued its commitment in extending the understanding of the Earth system using consistent records, i.e., particularly focusing on the creation of Earth System Data Records (ESDRs), including Climate Data Records. An ESDR is defined as 'a unified and coherent set of observations of a given parameter of the Earth system, which is optimized to meet specific requirements for addressing science questions'. The Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is responsible for managing data distribution and providing user services for seven of the MEaSUREs-2006 projects. These seven projects created long-term (varying from seven years to longer than thirty years) of global and satellite-based (single- or multi-sensor, or hybrid with assimilation) products. These MEaSUREs science data are diverse and represent (1) total ozone column and ozone vertical profiles; (2) ozone chemistry and related trace gases for the stratosphere; (3) aerosol data records over land and ocean; (4) Earth surface and atmosphere reflectivity; (5) water vapor climate record using cloud classification; (6) air-sea turbulent fluxes; and (7) the major components (storages and fluxes) of the terrestrial water cycle. Each of the seven science data products will be presented in a systematic manner from project introduction, data description to science application. The six currently available products have worldwide attracted many users since their official releases (the earliest issued in October 2010). Useful and interesting info on data

  5. The thickness of 18-MEA on an ultra-high-sulfur protein surface by molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Upendra; Robbins, Clarence

    2010-01-01

    The use of computational chemistry techniques via molecular modeling software provides additional support to the hair surface model by Negri et al. (1) and refines the thickness of the 18-methyl eicosanoic acid (18-MEA) lipid layer attached by thioester linkages to an ultra-high-sulfur protein (UHSP) at 1.08 ± 0.2 nm. This value compares favorably to the thickness of that same layer from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements by Ward et al. (2) at 1.00 ± 0.5 nm on Soxhlet-extracted wool. The model clarifies that the results of Ward et al. via XPS are not an artifact of high vacuum (3), but due to relaxation of the 18-MEA structure onto the wool protein backbone as suggested by Zahn et al. (4). In this molecular model, 18-MEA is attached to beta sheets of an UHSP via thioester linkages as suggested by Negri et al. in their 1993 study (15) and by earlier work by Evans et al. (5). The beta sheets of this model provide an intersheet spacing of 0.7 nm and a beta sheet density of 1.42 g/cm(3) compared with Allworden membrane fractions that varied from 1.39 to 1.54 g/cm(3) (6).

  6. Modelling atmospheric oxidation of 2-aminoethanol (MEA) emitted from post-combustion capture using WRF-Chem.

    PubMed

    Karl, M; Svendby, T; Walker, S-E; Velken, A S; Castell, N; Solberg, S

    2015-09-15

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a technological solution that can reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the use of fossil fuel in power plants and other industries. A leading method today is amine based post-combustion capture, in which 2-aminoethanol (MEA) is one of the most studied absorption solvents. In this process, amines are released to the atmosphere through evaporation and entrainment from the CO2 absorber column. Modelling is a key instrument for simulating the atmospheric dispersion and chemical transformation of MEA, and for projections of ground-level air concentrations and deposition rates. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model inline coupled with chemistry, WRF-Chem, was applied to quantify the impact of using a comprehensive MEA photo-oxidation sequence compared to using a simplified MEA scheme. Main discrepancies were found for iminoethanol (roughly doubled in the detailed scheme) and 2-nitro aminoethanol, short MEA-nitramine (reduced by factor of two in the detailed scheme). The study indicates that MEA emissions from a full-scale capture plant can modify regional background levels of isocyanic acid. Predicted atmospheric concentrations of isocyanic acid were however below the limit value of 1 ppbv for ambient exposure. The dependence of the formation of hazardous compounds in the OH-initiated oxidation of MEA on ambient level of nitrogen oxides (NOx) was studied in a scenario without NOx emissions from a refinery area in the vicinity of the capture plant. Hourly MEA-nitramine peak concentrations higher than 40 pg m(-3) did only occur when NOx mixing ratios were above 2 ppbv. Therefore, the spatial variability and temporal variability of levels of OH and NOx need to be taken into account in the health risk assessment. The health risk due to direct emissions of nitrosamines and nitramines from full-scale CO2 capture should be investigated in future studies.

  7. Cloning and molecular characterization of cDNA encoding a mouse male-enhanced antigen-2 (Mea-2): a putative family of the Golgi autoantigen.

    PubMed

    Kondo, M; Sutou, S

    1997-01-01

    The male-enhanced antigen-2 (Mea-2) gene was originally identified with a monoclonal histocompatibility Y (H-Y) antibody (mAb4VII). There is no report of the full length cDNA encode for Mea-2 product until this report. In this study, we isolated the full length mouse Mea-2 cDNA by screening a testis cDNA library with a PCR-amplified Mea-2 product, and direct PCR amplification of its upstream sequences from the cDNA library. The primary structure of the Mea-2 peptide, deduced from this nucleotide sequence, shows that it encode a 150 kDa protein, of 1325 amino acid residues, which contained five putative N-glycosylation sites and four leucine zipper motifs. A data bank search indicated that it has high homology with a human Golgi autoantigen (golgin-160) both in its nucleotides (78%) and amino acids sequence (83%). This suggests that Mea-2 gene product may encode a golgi structural protein. In situ hybridization analysis suggested that the Mea-2 gene is expressed in spermatids during spermatogenesis as already shown by Mea-1, suggesting that Mea-2 gene product as well as Mea-1 have also some role for spermatogenesis.

  8. Tolerance requirements to prevent fluid leakage in the crucible/plunger MEA experiment MPS 770030

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathz, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Molten Al-In leaked unexpectedly out of the crucible of a proposed MEA materials processing in space experiment. The molten metals use a spring loaded plunger to eliminate most free surfaces. The critical criteria necessary to initiate flow and the rate of fluid flow into the crucible/plunger annulus is calculated. Experimental in situ X-radiographs are interpreted according to the calculations. A note on possible effects of capillary flow if wetting occurs between crucible/plunger and liquids is included.

  9. Neurotoxicity screening of (illicit) drugs using novel methods for analysis of microelectrode array (MEA) recordings.

    PubMed

    Hondebrink, L; Verboven, A H A; Drega, W S; Schmeink, S; de Groot, M W G D M; van Kleef, R G D M; Wijnolts, F M J; de Groot, A; Meulenbelt, J; Westerink, R H S

    2016-07-01

    Annual prevalence of the use of common illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPS) is high, despite the often limited knowledge on the health risks of these substances. Recently, cortical cultures grown on multi-well microelectrode arrays (mwMEAs) have been used for neurotoxicity screening of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and toxins with a high sensitivity and specificity. However, the use of mwMEAs to investigate the effects of illicit drugs on neuronal activity is largely unexplored. We therefore first characterised the cortical cultures using immunocytochemistry and show the presence of astrocytes, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Neuronal activity is concentration-dependently affected following exposure to six neurotransmitters (glutamate, GABA, serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and nicotine). Most neurotransmitters inhibit neuronal activity, although glutamate and acetylcholine transiently increase activity at specific concentrations. These transient effects are not detected when activity is determined during the entire 30min exposure window, potentially resulting in false-negative results. As expected, exposure to the GABAA-receptor antagonist bicuculline increases neuronal activity. Exposure to a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA-receptor (diazepam) or to glutamate receptor antagonists (CNQX and MK-801) reduces neuronal activity. Further, we demonstrate that exposure to common drugs (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and amphetamine) and NPS (1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) and methoxetamine (MXE)) decreases neuronal activity. MXE most potently inhibits neuronal activity with an IC50 of 0.5μM, whereas 4-FA is least potent with an IC50 of 113μM. Our data demonstrate the importance of analysing neuronal activity within different time windows during exposure to prevent false-negative results. We also show that cortical cultures grown on mwMEAs can successfully be applied to investigate the effects of

  10. Identification and functional analysis of the transfer region of plasmid pMEA300 of the methylotrophic actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica.

    PubMed Central

    Vrijbloed, J W; van der Put, N M; Dijkhuizen, L

    1995-01-01

    Amycolatopsis methanolica contains a 13.3-kb plasmid (pMEA300) that is present either as an integrated element or as an autonomously replicating plasmid. Conjugational transfer of pMEA300 results in pock formation, zones of growth inhibition that become apparent when plasmid-carrying donor cells develop in a confluent lawn of plasmid-lacking recipient cells. A 6.2-kb pMEA300 DNA region specifying the functions of conjugation and pock formation was sequenced, revealing 10 open reading frames. This is the first sequence of the transfer region of a plasmid from a nonstreptomycete actinomycete. No clear similarities were found between the deduced sequences of the 10 putative Tra proteins of pMEA300 and those of Streptomyces plasmids. All Tra proteins of pMEA300 thus may represent unfamiliar types. A detailed mutational analysis showed that at least four individual proteins, TraG (9,488 Da), TraH (12,586 Da), TraI (40,468 Da), and TraJ (81,109 Da), are required for efficient transfer of pMEA300. Their disruption resulted in a clear reduction in the conjugational transfer frequencies, ranging from (5.2 x 10(1))-fold (TraG) to (2.3 x 10(6))-fold (TraJ), and in reduced pock sizes. At least two putative proteins, TraA (10,698 Da) and TraB (31,442 Da), were shown to be responsible for pock formation specifically. Specific binding of the pMEA300-encoded KorA protein to the traA-korA intragenic region was observed. PMID:7592426

  11. LP DAAC MEaSUREs Project Artifact Tracking Via the NASA Earthdata Collaboration Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) is a NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) DAAC that supports selected EOS Community non-standard data products such as the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Database (GED), and also supports NASA Earth Science programs such as Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) to contribute in providing long-term, consistent, and mature data products. As described in The LP DAAC Project Lifecycle Plan (Daucsavage, J.; Bennett, S., 2014), key elements within the Project Inception Phase fuse knowledge between NASA stakeholders, data producers, and NASA data providers. To support and deliver excellence for NASA data stewardship, and to accommodate long-tail data preservation with Community and MEaSUREs products, the LP DAAC is utilizing NASA's own Earthdata Collaboration Environment to bridge stakeholder communication divides. By leveraging a NASA supported platform, this poster describes how the Atlassian Confluence software combined with a NASA URS/Earthdata support can maintain each project's members, status, documentation, and artifact checklist. Furthermore, this solution provides a gateway for project communities to become familiar with NASA clients, as well as educating the project's NASA DAAC Scientists for NASA client distribution.

  12. Biofilm dynamics characterization using a novel DO-MEA sensor: mass transport and biokinetics.

    PubMed

    Guimerà, Xavier; Moya, Ana; Dorado, Antonio David; Villa, Rosa; Gabriel, David; Gabriel, Gemma; Gamisans, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradation process modeling is an essential tool for the optimization of biotechnologies related to gaseous pollutant treatment. In these technologies, the predominant role of biofilm, particularly under conditions of no mass transfer limitations, results in a need to determine what processes are occurring within the same. By measuring the interior of the biofilms, an increased knowledge of mass transport and biodegradation processes may be attained. This information is useful in order to develop more reliable models that take biofilm heterogeneity into account. In this study, a new methodology, based on a novel dissolved oxygen (DO) and mass transport microelectronic array (MEA) sensor, is presented in order to characterize a biofilm. Utilizing the MEA sensor, designed to obtain DO and diffusivity profiles with a single measurement, it was possible to obtain distributions of oxygen diffusivity and biokinetic parameters along a biofilm grown in a flat plate bioreactor (FPB). The results obtained for oxygen diffusivity, estimated from oxygenation profiles and direct measurements, revealed that changes in its distribution were reduced when increasing the liquid flow rate. It was also possible to observe the effect of biofilm heterogeneity through biokinetic parameters, estimated using the DO profiles. Biokinetic parameters, including maximum specific growth rate, the Monod half-saturation coefficient of oxygen, and the maintenance coefficient for oxygen which showed a marked variation across the biofilm, suggest that a tool that considers the heterogeneity of biofilms is essential for the optimization of biotechnologies.

  13. Application of multielectrode array (MEA) chips for the evaluation of mixtures neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Scelfo, Bibiana; Politi, Matteo; Reniero, Fabiano; Palosaari, Taina; Whelan, Maurice; Zaldívar, José-Manuel

    2012-09-28

    Cortical neurons grown on multielectrode array (MEA) chips have been shown to be a valuable alternative method to study electrophysiological properties of the central nervous system neurons and to perform functional toxicological screening. Here we studied the effects of binary mixtures on neuronal networks cultured on MEAs. We have considered compounds with similar and different mode-of-action (MoA) to characterize and assess their combined effects. Individual and binary mixture dose-response curves based on spontaneous neuronal activity have been generated and the IC(50) has been considered as the end-point for neurotoxicity assessment. The two classical approaches of mixtures toxicity studies: concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) have been applied to compare calculated and experimental results. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been employed to confirm no chemical reaction or complexation between mixtures components. The results suggest that both CA and IA are able to predict the toxicity of the mixture and that the combination of in vitro test methods with theoretical dose-response models has a strong potential as an alternative tool for the prediction of mixtures neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Commercial lumber

    Treesearch

    Kent A. McDonald; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types, and in various commercial establishments, both wholesale and retail. Most commercial lumber is graded by standardized rules that make purchasing more or less uniform throughout the country...

  15. Determination of the radioprotective effects of topical applications of MEA, WR-2721, and N-acetylcysteine on murine skin

    SciTech Connect

    Verhey, L.J.; Sedlacek, R.

    1983-01-01

    Topical applications of MEA (beta-mercaptoethylamine or cysteamine), WR-2721 (S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)-ethylphosphorothioic acid), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were tested for their ability to protect the normal skin of the hind legs of mice against acute and late damage from single doses of /sup 137/Cs radiation. No significant protection was observed with either WR-2721 or NAC. MEA was shown to offer significant protection against acute skin damage in both buffered and unbuffered forms, but no significant protection against late contraction. The use of topical MEA on unanesthetized animals breathing carbogen (95% O2, 5% CO2) appears to give an enhanced level of radioprotection over that shown for anesthetized, air-breathing animals.

  16. The use of microelectrode array (MEA) to study rat peritoneal mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Chi-Kong; Law, Jessica Ka-Yan; Sam, Sze-Wing; Ingebrandt, Sven; Lau, Hang-Yung Alaster; Rudd, John Anthony; Chan, Mansun

    2008-06-01

    We performed this study to demonstrate the applicability of the microelectrode array (MEA) to study electrophysiological changes of rat peritoneal mast cells in the presence of compound 48/80 under normal, Ca(2+)-free, Ca(2+)-free with EDTA, and Cl(-)-free conditions. The use of high extracellular K(+) (KCl, 150 mM), charybdotoxin (ChTX, 100 nM), and Cl(-)-free containing ChTX buffers verified that the hyperpolarizing signal was due to the activation of mainly K(+) and, to a lesser extent, Cl(-) channels. Compound 48/80 concentration-dependently shortened the latent periods (the onset of response) and increased both the spatial (the K(+) and Cl(-) hyperpolarizing field potentials, HFP) and temporal measurements (the duration of response). Ca(2+)-free buffer had no effect on the latent period of compound 48/80 but increased the HFP at high concentrations. The latent period increased while the HFP diminished when cells were equilibrated in Ca(2+)-free buffer containing EDTA. Durations of the HFP were generally longer when cells were in either Ca(2+)-free or Ca(2+)-free containing EDTA buffers than when cells were in normal buffer. The EC(50) values confirmed that effects were only affected in Ca(2+)-free buffer containing EDTA but not in Ca(2+)-free or Cl(-)-free buffers, further reinforcing the hypothesis that the presence of Ca(2+) is not essential to the action of compound 48/80. The present study is the first application of MEA to study rat peritoneal mast cells, and our results indicate that it could be of value in future pharmacological research on other non-excitable cells.

  17. Modeling extracellular electrical neural stimulation: from basic understanding to MEA-based applications.

    PubMed

    Joucla, Sébastien; Yvert, Blaise

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular electrical stimulation of neural networks has been widely used empirically for decades with individual electrodes. Since recently, microtechnology provides advanced systems with high-density microelectrode arrays (MEAs). Taking the most of these devices for fundamental goals or developing neural prosthesis requires a good knowledge of the mechanisms underlying electrical stimulation. Here, we review modeling approaches used to determine (1) the electric potential field created by a stimulation and (2) the response of an excitable cell to an applied field. Computation of the potential field requires solving the Poisson equation. While this can be performed analytically in simple electrode-neuron configurations, numerical models are required for realistic geometries. In these models, special care must be taken to model the potential drop at the electrode/tissue interface using appropriate boundary conditions. The neural response to the field can then be calculated using compartmentalized cell models, by solving a cable equation, the source term of which (called activating function) is proportional to the second derivative of the extracellular field along the neural arborization. Analytical and numerical solutions to this equation are first presented. Then, we discuss the use of approximated solutions to intuitively predict the neuronal response: Either the "activating function" or the "mirror estimate", depending on the pulse duration and the cell space constant. Finally, we address the design of optimal electrode configurations allowing the selective activation of neurons near each stimulation site. This can be achieved using either multipolar configurations, or the "ground surface" configuration, which can be easily integrated in high-density MEAs. Overall, models highlighting the mechanisms of electrical microstimulation and improving stimulating devices should help understanding the influence of extracellular fields on neural elements and developing

  18. Actinomycete integrative and conjugative pMEA-like elements of Amycolatopsis and Saccharopolyspora decoded.

    PubMed

    te Poele, Evelien M; Samborskyy, Markiyan; Oliynyk, Markiyan; Leadlay, Peter F; Bolhuis, Henk; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2008-05-01

    Actinomycete integrative and conjugative elements (AICEs) are present in diverse genera of the actinomycetes, the most important bacterial producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Comparison of pMEA100 of Amycolatopsis mediterranei, pMEA300 of Amycolatopsis methanolica and pSE211 of Saccharopolyspora erythraea, and other AICEs, revealed a highly conserved structural organisation, consisting of four functional modules (replication, excision/integration, regulation, and conjugative transfer). Features conserved in all elements, or specific for a single element, are discussed and analysed. This study also revealed two novel putative AICEs (named pSE222 and pSE102) in the Sac. erythraea genome, related to the previously described pSE211 and pSE101 elements. Interestingly, pSE102 encodes a putative aminoglycoside phosphotransferase which may confer antibiotic resistance to the host. Furthermore, two of the six pSAM2-like insertions in the Streptomyces coelicolor genome described by Bentley et al. [Bentley, S.D., Chater, K.F., Cerdeno-Tarraga, A.M., et al., 2002. Complete genome sequence of the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Nature 417, 141-147] could be functional AICEs. Homologues of various AICE proteins were found in other actinomycetes, in Frankia species and in the obligate marine genus Salinispora and may be part of novel AICEs as well. The data presented provide a better understanding of the origin and evolution of these elements, and their functional properties. Several AICEs are able to mobilise chromosomal markers, suggesting that they play an important role in horizontal gene transfer and spread of antibiotic resistance, but also in evolution of genome plasticity.

  19. Lightning Relative to Graupel Occurrence in a Tornadic Supercell Storm during MEaPRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGorman, D.; Rust, D.; van der Velde, O.; Askelson, M.; Krehbiel, P.; Thomas, R.; Rison, B.

    2001-12-01

    In 1998, the MCS Electrification and Polarimetric Radar Studies (MEaPRS) field program acquired data from a 10-cm polarimetric radar operated by the National Severe Storms Laboratory and from the lightning mapping array operated by New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. One of the storms observed by MEaPRS was a supercell storm that produced weak to strong tornadoes in the Oklahoma City area on June 13. This storm was positioned well for data collection by both the lightning mapping array and the polarimetric radar for roughly one hour, during which it produced tornadoes and large hail. This is the period analyzed by this paper. The majority of cloud-to-ground flashes that occurred during this period were the anomalous flashes that lower positive charge to ground. Also, many of the cloud flashes that occurred in the upper part of the storm during this period appeared to discharge negative charge above positive charge, a polarity which is inverted from what is normally observed. Shortly after the storm moved beyond the range of three-dimensional lightning mapping data, it weakened and dissipated. The data show that trends in the number of VHF radiation sources near and within the mixed phase region of the storm were similar to trends for the mass and volume of graupel in this region. Graupel mass at still higher altitudes appeared unrelated to lightning. Severe weather was not preceded by rapid jumps in flash rates, as has been reported for Florida severe storms by other investigators, possibly because flash rates were very large in the Oklahoma City storm throughout most of the period. However, the rate of VHF emissions tended to increase at middle levels of the storm prior to tornadoes. Furthermore, the maximum height of VHF sources tended to increase shortly before or coincident with severe weather, in a pattern suggestive of updrafts and cloud turrets penetrating above the equilibrium level.

  20. Burst and Principal Components Analyses of MEA Data for 16 Chemicals Describe at Least Three Effects Classes.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) detect drug and chemical induced changes in neuronal network function and have been used for neurotoxicity screening. As a proof-•of-concept, the current study assessed the utility of analytical "fingerprinting" using Principal Components Analysis (P...

  1. Burst and Principal Components Analyses of MEA Data for 16 Chemicals Describe at Least Three Effects Classes.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) detect drug and chemical induced changes in neuronal network function and have been used for neurotoxicity screening. As a proof-•of-concept, the current study assessed the utility of analytical "fingerprinting" using Principal Components Analysis (P...

  2. Determination of relative potencies for chemical inhibition of spontaneous neuronal activity using a four amplifier MEA system.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potency determination is important to identify the most promising drug candidates as well as identification of and ranking of compound toxicity. In our laboratory, we have utilized MEA recording techniques to determine the relative potency of 11 insecticidal compounds and rank th...

  3. Atmospheric chemistry of 2-aminoethanol (MEA): reaction of the NH2(•)CHCH2OH radical with O2.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gabriel

    2012-11-15

    The alkanolamine 2-aminoethanol (NH(2)CH(2)CH(2)OH), otherwise known as monoethanolamine (MEA), is a widely used solvent for carbon capture, yet relatively little is known about its atmospheric chemistry. The hydroxyl radical initiated oxidation of MEA is thought to predominantly form the α-aminoalkyl radical NH(2)(•)CHCH(2)OH, which will subsequently react with O(2) in the atmosphere to produce a peroxyl radical. We have investigated the reaction of O(2) with the NH(2)(•)CHCH(2)OH radical using quantum chemical calculations and master equation kinetic modeling. This reaction is found to proceed predominantly via a chemically activated mechanism under tropospheric conditions to directly produce the imine 2-iminoethanol (NH═CHCH(2)OH) + HO(2)(•), with lesser amounts of the collisionally deactivated peroxyl radical NH(2)CH(O(2)(•))CH(2)OH. By largely bypassing a peroxyl radical intermediate, this process avoids ozone-promoting conversion of NO to NO(2) and makes the oxidation of MEA to 2-iminoethanol HO(x)-neutral overall. The imine product of MEA oxidation is proposed as an important intermediate in the formation of aerosols via uptake to water droplets and subsequent hydrolysis to ammonia and glycolaldehyde.

  4. Determination of relative potencies for chemical inhibition of spontaneous neuronal activity using a four amplifier MEA system.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potency determination is important to identify the most promising drug candidates as well as identification of and ranking of compound toxicity. In our laboratory, we have utilized MEA recording techniques to determine the relative potency of 11 insecticidal compounds and rank th...

  5. NASA's MEaSUREs Program: Making Earth System data records for Use in Research Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiden, M. E.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2008-12-01

    A major need stated by the NASA Earth science research strategy is to develop long-term, consistent, and calibrated data and products that are valid across multiple missions and satellite sensors. NASA coined the term Earth System Data Record, or ESDR, and defined the term to mean a unified and coherent set of observations of a given parameter of the Earth system, which is optimized to meet specific requirements in addressing science questions. For creating these basic records, a science measurement focus brings together expertise in multiple instrument characterization and calibration, data processing, science-based product generation and distribution, science tools, and interactive relationships with the broader science community. There is a sense that these important records must have a maturity that includes vetting within the community that utilizes them. Responsible NASA Managers ensure that each Project seeks guidance from community scrutiny and review of product quality and acceptability. MEaSUREs Projects have requirements to make data available on a nonexclusive basis. For example, each Project must maintain a public WWW-compliant presence and plan on transferring the final version of the data products to a NASA-designated Data Center. Principal Investigators for these Projects enter into Cooperative Agreements (instead of Grants) with NASA. Nominally, an alternate Data Rights section in these Agreements codifies an agreement that the input data, the scientific software used for processing the raw instrument data into scientific data, including source code, and the ESDRs with accompanying metadata and quality assessments, is exchanged without restriction as to its disclosure, use, or duplication. For these important records, complete scientific validation must be enabled and full utilization encouraged. The first request for proposals under the MEaSUREs Program was sent out by NASA in late 2006 and resulted in the selection of 29 projects covering

  6. A three-dimensional PEM fuel cell model with consistent treatment of water transport in MEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Hua

    In this paper, a three-dimensional PEM fuel cell model with a consistent water transport treatment in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) has been developed. In this new PEM fuel cell model, the conservation equation of the water concentration is solved in the gas channels, gas diffusion layers, and catalyst layers while a conservation equation of the water content is established in the membrane. These two equations are connected using a set of internal boundary conditions based on the thermodynamic phase equilibrium and flux equality at the interface of the membrane and the catalyst layer. The existing fictitious water concentration treatment, which assumes thermodynamic phase equilibrium between the water content in the membrane phase and the water concentration, is applied in the two catalyst layers to consider water transport in the membrane phase. Since all the other conservation equations are still developed and solved in the single-domain framework without resort to interfacial boundary conditions, the present new PEM fuel cell model is termed as a mixed-domain method. Results from this mixed-domain approach have been compared extensively with those from the single-domain method, showing good accuracy in terms of not only cell performances and current distributions but also water content variations in the membrane.

  7. Automated sample preparation facilitated by PhyNexus MEA purification system for oligosaccharide mapping of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Prater, Bradley D; Anumula, Kalyan R; Hutchins, Jeff T

    2007-10-15

    A reproducible high-throughput sample cleanup method for fluorescent oligosaccharide mapping of glycoproteins is described. Oligosaccharides are released from glycoproteins using PNGase F and labeled with 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid, AA). A PhyNexus MEA system was adapted for automated isolation of the fluorescently labeled oligosaccharides from the reaction mixture prior to mapping by HPLC. The oligosaccharide purification uses a normal-phase polyamide resin (DPA-6S) in custom-made pipette tips. The resin volume, wash, and elution steps involved were optimized to obtain high recovery of oligosaccharides with the least amount of contaminating free fluorescent dye in the shortest amount of time. The automated protocol for sample cleanup eliminated all manual manipulations with a recycle time of 23 min. We have reduced the amount of excess AA by 150-fold, allowing quantitative oligosaccharide mapping from as little as 500 ng digested recombinant immunoglobulin G (rIgG). This low sample requirement allows early selection of a cell line with desired characteristics (e.g., oligosaccharide profile and high specific productivity) for the production of glycoprotein drugs. In addition, the use of Tecan or another robotic platform in conjunction with this method should allow the cleanup of 96 samples in 23 min, a significant decrease in the amount of time currently required to process such a large number of samples.

  8. Electrode porosity and effective electrocatalyst activity in electrode-membrane-assemblies (MEAs) of PEMFCs

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, A.; Wendt, H.

    1996-12-31

    New production technologies of membrane-electrode-assemblies for PEWCs which ensure almost complete catalyst utilization by {open_quotes}wetting{close_quotes} the internal catalyst surface with the ionomeric electrolyte, allow for a reduction of Pt-loadings from prior 4 mg cm{sup -2} to now less than 0.5 mg cm{sup -2}. Such electrodes are not thicker than from 5 to 10 {mu}m. Little has been published hitherto about the detailed micromorphology of such electrodes and the role of electrode porosity on electrode performance. It is well known, that the porosity of thicker fuel cell electrodes, e.g. of PAFC or AFC electrodes is decisive for their performance. Therefore the issue of this investigation is to measure and to modify the porosity of electrodes prepared by typical MEA production procedures and to investigate the influence of this porosity on the effective catalyst activity for cathodic reduction of oxygen from air in membrane cells. It may be anticipated that any mass transfer hindrance of gaseous reactants into porous electrodes would manifest itself rather in the conversion of dilute gases than in the conversion of pure gases (e.g. neat oxygen). Therefore in this investigation the performance of membrane cell cathodes with non pressurized air had been compared to that with neat oxygen at cathodes which had a relatively low Pt-loading of 0.15 mg cm{sup -2}.

  9. MultiElec: A MATLAB Based Application for MEA Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Vassilis; Stephanou, Anastasis; Townsend, Paul A; Jackson, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    We present MultiElec, an open source MATLAB based application for data analysis of microelectrode array (MEA) recordings. MultiElec displays an extremely user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) that allows the simultaneous display and analysis of voltage traces for 60 electrodes and includes functions for activation-time determination, the production of activation-time heat maps with activation time and isoline display. Furthermore, local conduction velocities are semi-automatically calculated along with their corresponding vector plots. MultiElec allows ad hoc signal suppression, enabling the user to easily and efficiently handle signal artefacts and for incomplete data sets to be analysed. Voltage traces and heat maps can be simply exported for figure production and presentation. In addition, our platform is able to produce 3D videos of signal progression over all 60 electrodes. Functions are controlled entirely by a single GUI with no need for command line input or any understanding of MATLAB code. MultiElec is open source under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, version 3. Both the program and source code are available to download from http://www.cancer.manchester.ac.uk/MultiElec/.

  10. Mast cell growth-enhancing activity (MEA) is structurally related and functionally identical to the novel mouse T cell growth factor P40/TCGFIII (interleukin 9).

    PubMed

    Hültner, L; Druez, C; Moeller, J; Uyttenhove, C; Schmitt, E; Rüde, E; Dörmer, P; Van Snick, J

    1990-06-01

    We have previously shown that certain bone marrow-derived mast cell (BMMC) lines proliferate in response to a mast cell growth-enhancing activity (MEA) that is distinct from interleukin (IL) 3 and IL 4. Here we provide evidence that MEA is identical with the recently cloned mouse T cell growth factor P40. The evidence is as follows: (a) recombinant P40 displayed all the biological activities ascribed to MEA: it supported the growth of MEA-sensitive BMMC lines, it induced IL 6 secretion by these cells, and it enhanced survival of primary mast cell cultures; (b) highly purified MEA stimulated the growth of P40-dependent cell lines; (c) a rabbit monospecific antiserum directed against P40 specifically inhibited the action of MEA on BMMC; (d) specific binding sites for P40 were detected on BMMC and (e) MEA competed with P40 for binding to P40-dependent T cells, indicating that the two molecules interact with the same receptor. These observations further extend the range of biological activities ascribed to P40 and warrant its proposed designation as IL9.

  11. Genomic sequence analysis of the bovine male-enhanced antigen-1 (Mea-1) and differential localization of its transcripts and products during spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kondo, M; Terouchi, S; Tsukasa, N; Sato, S; Ishida, N; Sutou, S

    1996-01-01

    The male-enhanced antigen-1 (Mea-1) gene was previously isolated from a bovine testicular cDNA library. In the present study, we cloned the full-length bovine genomic Mea-1 gene and compared this with the Mea-1 cDNA. The 1035-nucleotide bovine mRNA for Mea-1 (excluding the poly (A) tail) is encoded in three exons distributed over 3123 base pairs of the genome. Analysis of the 5' flanking sequence by primer extension mapping identified two main transcription start sites and several minor ones. The 5' region contained transcription-related sequences such as TATA/CAAT boxes, GC-rich regions, and several cis elements. When chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activities of 5'-deleted clones were measured in CHO, TM4, and BALB/3T3 cells, a critical region for transcription was identified around -249 to -113 bp region from transcription start site. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry indicate that transcripts of the Mea-1 gene were localized in primary and secondary spermatocytes, and spermatids, but the protein products were detected only in spermatids. Intensive transcription of Mea-1 gene and specific localization of the gene product suggest that Mea-1 may play a important role in the late stage of spermatogenesis.

  12. Mutations in the FIE and MEA genes that encode interacting polycomb proteins cause parent-of-origin effects on seed development by distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yadegari, R; Kinoshita, T; Lotan, O; Cohen, G; Katz, A; Choi, Y; Katz, A; Nakashima, K; Harada, J J; Goldberg, R B; Fischer, R L; Ohad, N

    2000-12-01

    In flowering plants, two cells are fertilized in the haploid female gametophyte. Egg and sperm nuclei fuse to form the embryo. A second sperm nucleus fuses with the central cell nucleus, which replicates to generate the endosperm, a tissue that supports embryo development. The FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) and MEDEA (MEA) genes encode WD and SET domain polycomb proteins, respectively. In the absence of fertilization, a female gametophyte with a loss-of-function fie or mea allele initiates endosperm development without fertilization. fie and mea mutations also cause parent-of-origin effects, in which the wild-type maternal allele is essential and the paternal allele is dispensable for seed viability. Here, we show that FIE and MEA polycomb proteins interact physically, suggesting that the molecular partnership of WD and SET domain polycomb proteins has been conserved during the evolution of flowering plants. The overlapping expression patterns of FIE and MEA are consistent with their suppression of gene transcription and endosperm development in the central cell as well as their control of seed development after fertilization. Although FIE and MEA interact, differences in maternal versus paternal patterns of expression, as well as the effect of a recessive mutation in the DECREASE IN DNA METHYLATION1 (DDM1) gene on mutant allele transmission, indicate that fie and mea mutations cause parent-of-origin effects on seed development by distinct mechanisms.

  13. Description of the Process Model for the Technoeconomic Evaluation of MEA versus Mixed Amines for Carbon Dioxide Removal from Stack Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Dale A.

    2013-11-08

    This model description is supplemental to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) report LLNL-TR-642494, Technoeconomic Evaluation of MEA versus Mixed Amines for CO2 Removal at Near- Commercial Scale at Duke Energy Gibson 3 Plant. We describe the assumptions and methodology used in the Laboratory’s simulation of its understanding of Huaneng’s novel amine solvent for CO2 capture with 35% mixed amine. The results of that simulation have been described in LLNL-TR-642494. The simulation was performed using ASPEN 7.0. The composition of the Huaneng’s novel amine solvent was estimated based on information gleaned from Huaneng patents. The chemistry of the process was described using nine equations, representing reactions within the absorber and stripper columns using the ELECTNRTL property method. As a rate-based ASPEN simulation model was not available to Lawrence Livermore at the time of writing, the height of a theoretical plate was estimated using open literature for similar processes. Composition of the flue gas was estimated based on information supplied by Duke Energy for Unit 3 of the Gibson plant. The simulation was scaled at one million short tons of CO2 absorbed per year. To aid stability of the model, convergence of the main solvent recycle loop was implemented manually, as described in the Blocks section below. Automatic convergence of this loop led to instability during the model iterations. Manual convergence of the loop enabled accurate representation and maintenance of model stability.

  14. Techno-economic study of CO{sub 2} capture from an existing cement plant using MEA scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Nazmul Hassan; Peter L. Douglas; Eric Croiset

    2007-03-15

    Carbon dioxide is the major greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Man-made CO{sub 2} emissions contribute approximately 63% of greenhouse gases and the cement industry is responsible for approximately 5% of CO{sub 2} emissions emitting nearly 900 kg of CO{sub 2} per 1000 kg of cement. CO{sub 2} from a cement plant was captured and purified to 98% using the monoethanolamine (MEA) based absorption process. The capture cost was $51 per tonne of CO{sub 2} captured, representing approximately 90% of total cost. Steam was the main operating cost representing 39% of the total capture cost. Switching from coal to natural gas reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by about 18%. At normal load, about 36 MW of waste heat is available for recovery to satisfy the parasitic heat requirements of MEA process; however, it is very difficult to recover. 18 refs.

  15. Techno-economic study of CO{sub 2} capture from an existing cement plant using MEA scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, S.M.N.; Douglas, P.L.; Croiset, E.

    2007-03-15

    Carbon dioxide is the major greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Man-made CO{sub 2} emissions contribute approximately 63% of greenhouse gases and the cement industry is responsible for approximately 5% of CO{sub 2} emissions emitting nearly 900 kg of CO{sub 2} per 1000 kg of cement. CO{sub 2} from a cement plant was captured and purified to 98% using the monoethanolamine (MEA) based absorption process. The capture cost was $51 per tonne of CO{sub 2} captured, representing approximately 90% of total cost. Steam was the main operating cost representing 39% of the total capture cost. Switching from coal to natural gas reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by about 18%. At normal load, about 36 MW of waste heat is available for recovery to satisfy the parasitic heat requirements of MEA process; however, it is very difficult to recover.

  16. Does economic, financial and institutional developments matter for environmental quality? A comparative analysis of EU and MEA countries.

    PubMed

    Abid, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) with a sample of 58 MEA (Middle East & African) and 41 EU (European Union) countries for the period 1990 to 2011. The empirical analysis is carried out using the GMM-system method to solve the problem of endogenous variables. We focused on direct and indirect effects of institutional quality (through the efficiency of public expenditure, financial development, trade openness and foreign direct investment) and the income-emission relationship. We found a monotonically increasing relationship between CO2 emissions and GDP in both MEA and EU regions. The policy implication is clear: in order to have sustainable positive economic performance and to reduce carbon dioxide emission in the country at the same time, policy makers should regulate and enhance the role and efficiency of domestic institutions.

  17. Approach to Managing MeaSURES Data at the GSFC Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vollmer, Bruce; Kempler, Steven J.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2009-01-01

    A major need stated by the NASA Earth science research strategy is to develop long-term, consistent, and calibrated data and products that are valid across multiple missions and satellite sensors. (NASA Solicitation for Making Earth System data records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) 2006-2010) Selected projects create long term records of a given parameter, called Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs), based on mature algorithms that bring together continuous multi-sensor data. ESDRs, associated algorithms, vetted by the appropriate community, are archived at a NASA affiliated data center for archive, stewardship, and distribution. See http://measures-projects.gsfc.nasa.gov/ for more details. This presentation describes the NASA GSFC Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) approach to managing the MEaSUREs ESDR datasets assigned to GES DISC. (Energy/water cycle related and atmospheric composition ESDRs) GES DISC will utilize its experience to integrate existing and proven reusable data management components to accommodate the new ESDRs. Components include a data archive system (S4PA), a data discovery and access system (Mirador), and various web services for data access. In addition, if determined to be useful to the user community, the Giovanni data exploration tool will be made available to ESDRs. The GES DISC data integration methodology to be used for the MEaSUREs datasets is presented. The goals of this presentation are to share an approach to ESDR integration, and initiate discussions amongst the data centers, data managers and data providers for the purpose of gaining efficiencies in data management for MEaSUREs projects.

  18. Proarrhythmia Risk Assessment in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Using the Maestro MEA Platform.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yusheng; Vargas, Hugo M

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (SC-CM) using multi-electrode array (MEA) has attracted attention as a novel model to detect drug-induced arrhythmia. An experiment was conducted to determine if MEA recording from human induced pluripotent SC-CM (hiPSC-CM) could assess proarrhythmic risk. Ten hERG blockers, 4 Na(+) blockers, and 1 IKs blocker were evaluated blindly. Eight drugs are associated with Torsades de Pointes (TdP) and 4 are not. Multiple parameters, including field potential duration (FPD), Na(+) slope, Na(+) amplitude, beat rate (BR), and early after-depolarization (EAD) were recorded. Minimum effective concentrations (MEC) that elicited a significant change were calculated. Our results determined that FPD and EAD were unable to distinguish torsadogenic from benign compounds, Na(+) slope and amplitude could not differentiate Na(+) channel blockade from hERG blockade, BR had an inconsistent response to pharmacological treatment, and that hiPSC-CM were, in general, insensitive to IKs inhibition. A ratio was calculated that relates MEC for evoking FPD prolongation, or triggering EAD, to the human therapeutic unbound Cmax (MEC/Cmax). The key finding was that the ratio was sensitive, but specificity was low. Consistently, the ratio had high positive predictive value and low negative predictive value. In conclusion, MEA recordings of hiPSC-CM were sensitive for FPD and EAD detection, but unable to distinguish agents with low- and high-risk for TdPs. Although some published reports suggested great potential for MEA recordings in hSC-CM to assess preclinical cardiac toxicity, the current evaluation implies that this model would have a high false-positive rate in regard to proarrhythmic risk.

  19. Cardiomyocyte MEA data analysis (CardioMDA)--a novel field potential data analysis software for pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Pradhapan, Paruthi; Kuusela, Jukka; Viik, Jari; Aalto-Setälä, Katriina; Hyttinen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac safety pharmacology requires in-vitro testing of all drug candidates before clinical trials in order to ensure they are screened for cardio-toxic effects which may result in severe arrhythmias. Micro-electrode arrays (MEA) serve as a complement to current in-vitro methods for drug safety testing. However, MEA recordings produce huge volumes of data and manual analysis forms a bottleneck for high-throughput screening. To overcome this issue, we have developed an offline, semi-automatic data analysis software, 'Cardiomyocyte MEA Data Analysis (CardioMDA)', equipped with correlation analysis and ensemble averaging techniques to improve the accuracy, reliability and throughput rate of analysing human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocyte (CM) field potentials. With the program, true field potential and arrhythmogenic complexes can be distinguished from one another. The averaged field potential complexes, analysed using our software to determine the field potential duration, were compared with the analogous values obtained from manual analysis. The reliability of the correlation analysis algorithm, evaluated using various arrhythmogenic and morphology changing signals, revealed a mean sensitivity and specificity of 99.27% and 94.49% respectively, in determining true field potential complexes. The field potential duration of the averaged waveforms corresponded well to the manually analysed data, thus demonstrating the reliability of the software. The software has also the capability to create overlay plots for signals recorded under different drug concentrations in order to visualize and compare the magnitude of response on different ion channels as a result of drug treatment. Our novel field potential analysis platform will facilitate the analysis of CM MEA signals in semi-automated way and provide a reliable means of efficient and swift analysis for cardiomyocyte drug or disease model studies.

  20. Conception and optimization of a membrane electrode assembly microbial fuel cell (MEA-MFC) for treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, O; Uzabiaga, A; Shen, Y J; Tan, Z; Cheng, Y P; Liu, W; Ng, H Y

    2011-01-01

    A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for microbial fuel cells (MEA-MFC) was developed for continuous electricity production while treating domestic wastewater concurrently. It was optimized via three upgraded versions (noted α, β and γ) in terms of design (current collectors, hydrophilic separator nature) and operating conditions (hydraulic retention time, external resistance, aeration rate, recirculation). An overall rise of power by over 100% from version α to γ shows the importance of factors such as the choice of proper construction materials and prevention of short-circuits. A power of 2.5 mW was generated with a hydraulic retention time of 2.3 h when a Selemion proton exchange membrane was used as a hydrophilic separator in the MEA and 2.8 mW were attained with a reverse osmosis membrane. The MFC also showed a competitive value of internal resistance (≈40-50 Ω) as compared to the literature, especially considering its large volume (3 L). However, the operation of our system in a complete loop where the anolyte was allowed to trickle over the cathode (version γ) resulted in system failure.

  1. Final Report - Advanced MEA's for Enhanced Operating Conditions, Amenable to High Volume Manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Debe, Mark K.

    2007-09-30

    This report summarizes the work completed under a 3M/DOE contract directed at advancing the key fuel cell (FC) components most critical for overcoming the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance, durability & cost barriers. This contract focused on the development of advanced ion exchange membranes & electrocatalysts for PEMFCs that will enable operation under ever more demanding automotive operating conditions & the use high volume compatible processes for their manufacture. Higher performing & more durable electrocatalysts must be developed for PEMFCs to meet the power density & lifetime hours required for FC vehicles. At the same time the amount of expensive Pt catalyst must be reduced to lower the MEA costs. While these two properties are met, the catalyst must be made resistant to multiple degradation mechanisms to reach necessary operating lifetimes. In this report, we present the work focused on the development of a completely new approach to PEMFC electrocatalyts, called nanostructured thin film (NSTF) catalysts. The carbon black supports are eliminated with this new approach which eliminates the carbon corrosion issue. The thin film nature of the catalyst significantly improves its robustness against dissolution & grain growth, preserving the surface area. Also, the activity of the NSTF for oxygen reduction is improved by over 500% compared to dispersed Pt catalyts. Finally, the process for fabricating the NSTF catalysts is consistent with high volume roll-good manufacturing & extremely flexible towards the introduction of new catalyst compositions & structures. This report documents the work done to develop new multi-element NSTF catalysts with properties that exceed pure Pt, that are optimized for use with the membranes discussed below, & advance the state-of-the-art towards meeting the DOE 2010 targets for PEMFC electrocatalysts. The work completed advances the understanding of the NSTF catalyst technology, identifies new NSTF

  2. Fully automatic test facilities for the characterisation of DMFC and PEFC MEAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülzow, E.; Weißhaar, S.; Reissner, R.; Schröder, W.

    Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for polymer electrolyte fuel cells with hydrogen fuel (H 2-PEFC) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are under development at DLR. For their characterisation fully automatic test units have been designed and realised to guarantee reproducible test results. The identical oxidant supply at the cathode side of the H 2-PEFC and DMFC as well as similar test cells and test conditions offer the possibility to realise both modifications in one test unit. The pipework system and all fittings of the cathode supply can be used simultaneously. Different conditions have to be realised particularly in the anode supply. At the anode of the DMFC liquids (methanol/water) and in the H 2-PEFC gas (hydrogen) are supplied. By integration of an electronic software-supported control unit operating modes can be changed in the test unit depending upon requirement. In order to show the reproducibility of fuel cell operations it is necessary that parameters will be kept within very low deviation limits. An automatic regulation permits impact onto all controllable parameters e.g. pressures, temperatures and mass flow rates. When achieving stationary operating conditions current-voltage-curves can be recorded by automatic change of the electronic cell load. Measured values for current, voltage and all operating parameters are recorded by the software and stored for later interpretation. During data acquisition the parameters are visualised on a graphic interface. It is possible to influence the control at any time. To permit an unguarded long-term experimental operation a sophisticated safety system is necessary. The pre-defined safety parameters are monitored by computer software as well as by an industrial type Programmable Logic Controller (PLC).

  3. Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-ionic liquid coating improves neural recording and stimulation functionality of MEAs

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhanhong Jeff; Luo, Xiliang; Weaver, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    In vivo multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) can sense electrical signals from a small set of neurons or modulate neural activity through micro-stimulation. Electrode's geometric surface area (GSA) and impedance are important for both unit recording and neural stimulation. Smaller GSA is preferred due to enhanced selectivity of neural signal, but it tends to increase electrode impedance. Higher impedance leads to increased electrical noise and signal loss in single unit neural recording. It also yields a smaller charge injection window for safe neural stimulation. To address these issues, poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) - ionic liquid (PEDOT-IL) conducting polymers were electrochemically polymerized on the surface of the microelectrodes. The PEDOT-IL coating reduced the electrode impedance modulus by over 35 times at 1 kHz. It also exhibited compelling nanostructure in surface morphology and significant impedance reduction in other physiologically relevant range (100Hz-1000Hz). PEDOT-IL coated electrodes exhibited a Charge Storage Capacity (CSC) that was about 20 times larger than that of bare electrodes. The neural recording performance of PEDOT-IL coated electrodes was also compared with uncoated electrodes and PEDOT-poly (styrenesulfonate) (PSS) coated electrodes in rat barrel cortex (SI). Spontaneous neural activity and sensory evoked neural response were utilized for characterizing the electrode performance. The PEDOT-IL electrodes exhibited a higher unit yield and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in vivo. The local field potential recording was benefited from the low impedance PEDOT-IL coating in noise and artifact reduction as well. Moreover, cell culture on PEDOT-IL coating demonstrated that the material is safe for neural tissue and reduces astrocyte fouling. Taken together, PEDOT-IL coating has the potential to benefit neural recording and stimulation electrodes, especially when integrated with novel small GSA electrode arrays designed for high recording density

  4. Microelectrode array (MEA) platform as a sensitive tool to detect and evaluate Ostreopsis cf. ovata toxicity.

    PubMed

    Alloisio, Susanna; Giussani, Valentina; Nobile, Mario; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Novellino, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    In the last decade, the occurrence of harmful dinoflagellate blooms of the genus Ostreopsis has increased both in frequency and in geographic distribution with adverse impacts on public health and the economy. Ostreopsis species are producers of palytoxin-like toxins (putative palytoxin and ovatoxins) which are among the most potent natural non-protein compounds known to date, exhibiting extreme toxicity in mammals, including humans. Most existing toxicological data are derived from in vivo mouse assay and are related to acute effects of pure palytoxin, without considering that the toxicity mechanism of dinoflagellates can be dependent on the varying composition of complex biotoxins mixture and on the presence of cellular components. In this study, in vitro neuronal networks coupled to microelectrode array (MEA)-based system are proposed, for the first time, as sensitive biosensors for the evaluation of marine alga toxicity on mammalian cells. Toxic effect was investigated by testing three different treatments of laboratory cultured Ostreopsis cf. ovata cells: filtered and re-suspended algal cells; filtered, re-suspended and sonicated algal cells; conditioned growth medium devoid of algal cells. The great sensitivity of this system revealed the mixture of PTLX-complex analogues naturally released in the growth medium and the different potency of the three treatments to inhibit the neuronal network spontaneous electrical activity. Moreover, by means of the multiparametric analysis of neuronal network activity, the approach revealed a different toxicity mechanism of the cellular component compared to the algal conditioned growth medium, highlighting the potential active role of the first treatment.

  5. The Mercury Electron Analyzers (MEA) for Bepi Colombo: variable geometric factor spectrometers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvaud, Jean-Andre; Fedorov, A.; Aoustin, C.; Medale, J.-L.; Rouzaud, J.; Le Comte, E.; Saito, Y.

    While only partial electron measurements were made onboard Mariner 10 as the protective cover of the sunward-facing electrostatic analyzers did not open fully after launch, the Messenger mission, which will be the first one to orbit the planet, does not have a low energy electron spectrometer onboard. The low energy electron measurements that will be performed on the fast spinning MMO spacecraft of the Bepi-Colombo mission thus appear of utmost importance for a thorough study of the plasma processes inside the magnetosphere of Mercury, a weakly magnetized planet without a conducting ionosphere. The Mercury Electron Analyzer (MEA) is made of two ‘top-hat' sensors combining the selection of incoming electrons according to their energy by electrostatic deflection in symmetrical toroidal analyzers having a uniform angle energy response with a fast imaging particle detection system. This particle imaging is accomplished by microchannel plate (MCP) electron multipliers and position encoding by discrete anodes. Each sensor has a 360° x 8° field of view in a plane parallel to the satellite spin axis and samples a 360x360 deg. field of fiew in half a spin of the spacecraft, i.e. in 2s. The two sensor view planes being perpendicular, the time resolution to obtain a 3D distribution of electrons between 5 eV and 30,000 eV is 1s. Because the electron fluxes are expected to cover more than 6 decades, an electronic device allowing varying the geometrical factor by a factor up to 100 has been implemented for the first time in the top-hat analyzers. A part of the inner tore facing the top hat is biased to a different potential than the rest of the tore. This device has required the development of new HV converters design to obtain the necessary accuracy of the selectable geometrical factor. Detailed laboratory calibrations of the instrument present a fine agreement with the results of numerical simulations.

  6. Commercial Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Phil McAlister delivers a presentation by the Commercial Crew (CC) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to...

  7. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  8. Comprehensive kinetic and thermodynamic study of the reactions of CO2(aq) and HCO3(-) with monoethanolamine (MEA) in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Conway, William; Wang, Xiaoguang; Fernandes, Debra; Burns, Robert; Lawrance, Geoffrey; Puxty, Graeme; Maeder, Marcel

    2011-12-22

    The temperature dependence of the reversible reaction between CO(2)(aq) and monoethanolamine (MEA) has been investigated using stopped-flow spectrophotometry by following the pH changes during the reactions with colored acid-base indicators. Multivariate global analysis of both the forward and backward kinetic measurements for the reaction of CO(2)(aq) with MEA yielded the rate and equilibrium constants, including the protonation constant of MEA carbamate, for the temperature range of 15-45 °C. Analysis of the rate and equilibrium constants in terms of the Arrhenius, Eyring, and van't Hoff relationships gave the relevant thermodynamic parameters. In addition, the rate and equilibrium constants for the slow, reversible reaction of bicarbonate with MEA are reported at 25.0 °C. At high pH, reactions of the amine with CO(2) and with bicarbonate are significant.

  9. Mast cell growth-enhancing activity (MEA) stimulates interleukin 6 production in a mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell line and a malignant subline.

    PubMed

    Hültner, L; Moeller, J

    1990-09-01

    A novel mast cell growth-enhancing activity (MEA/P40/interleukin 9 [IL-9]) purified from the conditioned medium of a murine interleukin 2 (IL-2)-dependent Mlsa-specific T-cell line (MLS4.2) was tested for its capacity to induce interleukin 6 (IL-6) production in a mouse bone marrow-derived factor-dependent mast cell line (L138.8A). This interleukin 3 (IL-3)/interleukin 4 (IL-4)/MEA-responsive cell line was demonstrated recently to express IL-6 mRNA and to secrete IL-6 when cultured with IL-3/IL-4. Now we were able to show that conditioned medium from L138.8A mast cells stimulated with MEA alone contained growth factor activity for the IL-6-dependent mouse hybridoma cell line 7TD1 that was completely blocked by the monoclonal anti-IL-6 antibody 6B4. A dose-response study including IL-3, IL-4, and MEA tested either alone or in different combinations revealed that among these growth factors MEA was the most potent inducer of IL-6 in L138.8A cells. Moreover, IL-4 but not IL-3 had a strong synergistic effect on MEA-induced IL-6 production. The autonomous malignant mast cell subline L138Cauto also showed enhanced IL-6 production when stimulated with MEA. Our findings indicate that MEA (IL-9) not only provides a proliferation signal, but also leads to a marked functional activation of responsive mast cells.

  10. Effect of nitrogen post-doping on a commercial platinum-ruthenium/carbon anode catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corpuz, April R.; Wood, Kevin N.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Dameron, Arrelaine A.; Joghee, Prabhuram; Olson, Tim S.; Bender, Guido; Dinh, Huyen N.; Gennett, Thomas; Richards, Ryan M.; O'Hayre, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    This work investigates the effects of after-the-fact chemical modification of a state-of-the-art commercial carbon-supported PtRu catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). A commercial PtRu/C (JM HiSPEC-10000) catalyst is post-doped with nitrogen by ion-implantation, where "post-doped" denotes nitrogen doping after metal is carbon-supported. Composition and performance of the PtRu/C catalyst post-modified with nitrogen at several dosages are evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), rotating disk electrode (RDE), and membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for DMFC. Overall, implantation at high dosage results in 16% higher electrochemical surface area and enhances performance, specifically in the mass transfer region. Rotating disk electrode (RDE) results show that after 5000 cycles of accelerated durability testing to high potential, the modified catalyst retains 34% more electrochemical surface area (ECSA) than the unmodified catalyst. The benefits of nitrogen post-doping are further substantiated by DMFC durability studies (carried out for 425 h), where the MEA with the modified catalyst exhibits higher surface area and performance stability in comparison to the MEA with unmodified catalyst. These results demonstrate that post-doping of nitrogen in a commercial PtRu/C catalyst is an effective approach, capable of improving the performance of available best-in-class commercial catalysts.

  11. A Life Cycle Assessment Case Study of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation with Humidity Swing Direct Air Capture of CO2 versus MEA-Based Postcombustion Capture.

    PubMed

    van der Giesen, Coen; Meinrenken, Christoph J; Kleijn, René; Sprecher, Benjamin; Lackner, Klaus S; Kramer, Gert Jan

    2017-01-17

    Most carbon capture and storage (CCS) envisions capturing CO2 from flue gas. Direct air capture (DAC) of CO2 has hitherto been deemed unviable because of the higher energy associated with capture at low atmospheric concentrations. We present a Life Cycle Assessment of coal-fired electricity generation that compares monoethanolamine (MEA)-based postcombustion capture (PCC) of CO2 with distributed, humidity-swing-based direct air capture (HS-DAC). Given suitable temperature, humidity, wind, and water availability, HS-DAC can be largely passive. Comparing energy requirements of HS-DAC and MEA-PCC, we find that the parasitic load of HS-DAC is less than twice that of MEA-PCC (60-72 kJ/mol versus 33-46 kJ/mol, respectively). We also compare other environmental impacts as a function of net greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation: To achieve the same 73% mitigation as MEA-PCC, HS-DAC would increase nine other environmental impacts by on average 38%, whereas MEA-PCC would increase them by 31%. Powering distributed HS-DAC with photovoltaics (instead of coal) while including recapture of all background GHG, reduces this increase to 18%, hypothetically enabling coal-based electricity with net-zero life-cycle GHG. We conclude that, in suitable geographies, HS-DAC can complement MEA-PCC to enable CO2 capture independent of time and location of emissions and recapture background GHG from fossil-based electricity beyond flue stack emissions.

  12. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  13. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  14. Commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Togai, Masaki

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on commercial applications of fuzzy logic in Japan are presented. Topics covered include: suitable application area of fuzzy theory; characteristics of fuzzy control; fuzzy closed-loop controller; Mitsubishi heavy air conditioner; predictive fuzzy control; the Sendai subway system; automatic transmission; fuzzy logic-based command system for antilock braking system; fuzzy feed-forward controller; and fuzzy auto-tuning system.

  15. Burst and principal components analyses of MEA data for 16 chemicals describe at least three effects classes.

    PubMed

    Mack, Cina M; Lin, Bryant J; Turner, James D; Johnstone, Andrew F M; Burgoon, Lyle D; Shafer, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) can be used to detect drug and chemical induced changes in neuronal network function and have been used for neurotoxicity screening. As a proof-of-concept, the current study assessed the utility of analytical "fingerprinting" using principal components analysis (PCA) and chemical class prediction using support vector machines (SVMs) to classify chemical effects based on MEA data from 16 chemicals. Spontaneous firing rate in primary cortical cultures was increased by bicuculline (BIC), lindane (LND), RDX and picrotoxin (PTX); not changed by nicotine (NIC), acetaminophen (ACE), and glyphosate (GLY); and decreased by muscimol (MUS), verapamil (VER), fipronil (FIP), fluoxetine (FLU), chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), domoic acid (DA), deltamethrin (DELT) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP). PCA was performed on mean firing rate, bursting parameters and synchrony data for concentrations above each chemical's EC50 for mean firing rate. The first three principal components accounted for 67.5, 19.7, and 6.9% of the data variability and were used to identify separation between chemical classes visually through spatial proximity. In the PCA, there was clear separation of GABAA antagonists BIC, LND, and RDX from other chemicals. For the SVM prediction model, the experiments were classified into the three chemical classes of increasing, decreasing or no change in activity with a mean accuracy of 83.8% under a radial kernel with 10-fold cross-validation. The separation of different chemical classes through PCA and high prediction accuracy in SVM of a small dataset indicates that MEA data may be useful for separating chemicals into effects classes using these or other related approaches. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Optimization of water use and cost of electricity for an MEA carbon capture process, January 26, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Eslick, J.; Miller, D.

    2012-01-01

    DOE goals are: 90% CO{sub 2} capture, Less than 30% increase in COE, and to reduce water use by 70% at 50% cost of dry cooling. Objectives are: (1) Develop detailed models of supercritical power plant, MEA carbon capture process, CO{sub 2} compression; and (2) Optimize process for conflicting goals of minimizing water use and COE CO{sub 2} capture greatly increases COE and water use, power gen. 1/3 of fresh water use, and water scarcity is increasing.

  17. NeuroMap: A Spline-Based Interactive Open-Source Software for Spatiotemporal Mapping of 2D and 3D MEA Data.

    PubMed

    Abdoun, Oussama; Joucla, Sébastien; Mazzocco, Claire; Yvert, Blaise

    2011-01-01

    A major characteristic of neural networks is the complexity of their organization at various spatial scales, from microscopic local circuits to macroscopic brain-scale areas. Understanding how neural information is processed thus entails the ability to study them at multiple scales simultaneously. This is made possible using microelectrodes array (MEA) technology. Indeed, high-density MEAs provide large-scale coverage (several square millimeters) of whole neural structures combined with microscopic resolution (about 50 μm) of unit activity. Yet, current options for spatiotemporal representation of MEA-collected data remain limited. Here we present NeuroMap, a new interactive Matlab-based software for spatiotemporal mapping of MEA data. NeuroMap uses thin plate spline interpolation, which provides several assets with respect to conventional mapping methods used currently. First, any MEA design can be considered, including 2D or 3D, regular or irregular, arrangements of electrodes. Second, spline interpolation allows the estimation of activity across the tissue with local extrema not necessarily at recording sites. Finally, this interpolation approach provides a straightforward analytical estimation of the spatial Laplacian for better current sources localization. In this software, coregistration of 2D MEA data on the anatomy of the neural tissue is made possible by fine matching of anatomical data with electrode positions using rigid-deformation-based correction of anatomical pictures. Overall, NeuroMap provides substantial material for detailed spatiotemporal analysis of MEA data. The package is distributed under GNU General Public License and available at http://sites.google.com/site/neuromapsoftware.

  18. Expression and parent-of-origin effects for FIS2, MEA, and FIE in the endosperm and embryo of developing Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Luo, M; Bilodeau, P; Dennis, E S; Peacock, W J; Chaudhury, A

    2000-09-12

    The promoters of MEA (FIS1), FIS2, and FIE (FIS3), genes that repress seed development in the absence of pollination, were fused to beta-glucuronidase (GUS) to study their activity pattern. The FIS2GUS product is found in the embryo sac, in each of the polar cell nuclei, and in the central cell nucleus. After pollination, the maternally derived FIS2GUS protein occurs in the nuclei of the cenocytic endosperm. Before cellularization of the endosperm, activity is terminated in the micropylar and central nuclei of the endosperm and subsequently in the nuclei of the chalazal cyst. MEAGUS has a pattern of activity similar to that of FIS2GUS, but FIEGUS protein is found in many tissues, including the prepollination embryo sac, and in embryo and endosperm postpollination. The similarity in mutant phenotypes; the activity of FIE, MEA, and FIS2 in the same cells in the embryo sac; and the fact that MEA and FIE proteins interact in a yeast two-hybrid system suggest that these proteins operate in the same system of control of seed development. Maternal and not paternal FIS2GUS, MEAGUS, and FIEGUS show activity in early endosperm, so these genes may be imprinted. When fis2, mea, and fie mutants are pollinated, seed development is arrested at the heart embryo stage. The seed arrest of mea and fis2 is avoided when they are fertilized by a low methylation parent. The wild-type alleles of MEA or FIS2 are not required. The parent-of-origin-determined differential activity of MEA, FIS2, and FIE is not dependent on DNA methylation, but methylation does control some gene(s) that have key roles in seed development.

  19. A Comparative Study of the CO2 Absorption in Some Solvent-Free Alkanolamines and in Aqueous Monoethanolamine (MEA).

    PubMed

    Barzagli, Francesco; Mani, Fabrizio; Peruzzini, Maurizio

    2016-07-05

    The neat secondary amines 2-(methylamino)ethanol, 2-(ethylamino)ethanol, 2-(isopropylamino)ethanol, 2-(benzylamino)ethanol and 2-(butylamino)ethanol react with CO2 at 50-60 °C and room pressure yielding liquid carbonated species without their dilution with any additional solvent. These single-component absorbents have the theoretical CO2 capture capacity of 0.50 (mol CO2/mol amine) due to the formation of the corresponding amine carbamates and protonated amines that were identified by the (13)C NMR analysis. These single-component absorbents were used for CO2 capture (15% and 40% v/v in air) in two series of different procedures: (1) batch experiments aimed at investigating the efficiency and the rate of CO2 capture; (2) continuous cycles of absorption-desorption carried out in packed columns with absorption temperatures brought at 50-60 °C and desorption temperatures at 100-120 °C at room pressure. A number of different amines and experimental setups gave CO2 capture efficiency greater than 90%. For comparison purposes, 30 wt % aqueous MEA was used for CO2 capture under the same operational conditions described for the solvent-free amines. The potential advantages of solvent-free alkanolamines over aqueous MEA in the CO2 capture process were discussed.

  20. Enhanced MEA Performance for PEMFCs under Low Relative Humidity and Low Oxygen Content Conditions via Catalyst Functionalization

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Le; Yang, Fan; Xie, Jian; Yang, Zhiwei; Kariuki, Nancy N.; Myers, Deborah J.; Peng, Jui-Kun; Wang, Xiaohua; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Yu, Kang; Ferreira, Paulo J.; Bonastre, Alex Martinez; Fongalland, Dash; Sharman, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates that functionalizing annealed-Pt/Ketjen black EC300j (a-Pt/KB) and dealloyed-PtNi/Ketjen black EC300j (d-PtNi/KB) catalysts using p-phenyl sulfonic acid can effectively enhance performance in the membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The functionalization increased the size of both Pt and PtNi catalyst particles and resulted in the further leaching of Ni from the PtNi catalyst while promoting the formation of nanoporous PtNi nanoparticles. The size of the SO3H-Pt/KB and SO3H-PtNi/KB carbon-based aggregates decreased dramatically, leading to the formation of catalyst layers with narrower pore size distributions.MEA tests highlighted the benefits of the surface functionalization, in which the cells with SO3H-Pt/KB and SO3H-PtNi/KB cathode catalysts showed superior high current density performance under reduced RH conditions, in comparison with cells containing annealed Pt/KB (a-Pt/KB) and de-alloyed PtNi/KB (d-PtNi/KB) catalysts. The performance improvement was particularly evident when using reactant gases with low relative humidity, indicating that the hydrophilic functional groups on the carbon improved the water retention in the cathode catalyst layer. These results show a new avenue for enhancing catalyst performance for the next generation of catalytic materials for PEMFCs.

  1. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-12-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  2. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  3. Novel MEA Platform with PDMS Microtunnels Enables Detection of Action Potential Propagation from Isolated Axons in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Dworak, Bradley J.; Wheeler, Bruce C.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated a novel multi-electrode-array (MEA) design capable of long-term and highly selective recordings of axonal signals using PDMS microtunnels. We successfully grew neurons in culture so that only axons extended through narrow (10 µm wide by 3 µm high) and long (750 µm) microtunnels under which multiple electrodes were integrated. This permitted the recording of relatively large (up to 200 µV) electrical signals, including the propagation speed and direction of these travelling action potentials. To further demonstrate the operation of the device as a diagnostic tool for drug screening assays, the drug mepivacaine was applied in washout experiments. Here, we identified significant changes in mean spiking rate and conduction velocity. PMID:19156289

  4. Novel MEA platform with PDMS microtunnels enables the detection of action potential propagation from isolated axons in culture.

    PubMed

    Dworak, Bradley J; Wheeler, Bruce C

    2009-02-07

    This study investigated a novel multi-electrode-array (MEA) design capable of long-term and highly selective recordings of axonal signals using PDMS microtunnels. We successfully grew neurons in culture so that only axons extended through narrow (10 microm wide by 3 microm high) and long (750 microm) microtunnels under which multiple electrodes were integrated. This permitted the recording of relatively large (up to 200 microV) electrical signals, including the propagation speed and direction of these travelling action potentials. To further demonstrate the operation of the device as a diagnostic tool for drug screening assays, the drug mepivacaine was applied in washout experiments. Here, we identified significant changes in mean spiking rate and conduction velocity.

  5. Theoretical study of differential enthalpy of absorption of CO2 with MEA and MDEA as a function of temperature.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mayuri; da Silva, Eirik F; Hartono, Ardi; Svendsen, Hallvard F

    2013-08-15

    Temperature dependent correlations for enthalpy of deprotonation, carbamate formation, and heat of absorption of the overall reaction between aqueous MEA and MDEA and gaseous CO2 are calculated on the basis of computational chemistry based ln K values input to the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. Temperature dependency of reaction equilibrium constants for deprotonation and carbamate formation reactions is calculated with the SM8T continuum solvation model coupled with density functional theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Calculated reaction equilibrium constants and enthalpies of individual reactions and overall heat of absorption are compared against experimental data in the temperature range 273.15-373 K. Temperature dependent correlations for different reaction equilibrium constants and enthalpies of reactions are given. These correlated results can be used in thermodynamic models such as UNIQUAC and NRTL for better understanding of post-combustion CO2 capture solvent chemistry.

  6. Commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  7. Characterization of ToxCast Phase II compounds disruption of spontaneous network activity in cortical networks grown on multi-well microelectrode array (mwMEA) plates.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of multi-well microelectrode array (mwMEA) systems has increased in vitro screening throughput making them an effective method to screen and prioritize large sets of compounds for potential neurotoxicity. In the present experiments, a multiplexed approach was used...

  8. Utilizing Model Eliciting Activities (MEA's) to engage middle school teachers and students in storm water management practices to mitigate human impacts of land development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazaz, A.; Wilson, R. M.; Schoen, R.; Blumsack, S.; King, L.; Dyehouse, M.

    2013-12-01

    'The Integrating STEM Project' engaged 6-8 grade teachers through activities incorporating mathematics, science and technology incorporating both Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and Common Core State Standards-Mathematics (CCSS-Math). A group of researchers from Oceanography, Mathematics, and Education set out to provide middle school teachers with a 2 year intensive STEM integration professional development with a focus on environmental topics and to monitor the achievement outcomes in their students. Over the course of 2 years the researchers created challenging professional development sessions to expand teacher knowledge and teachers were tasked to transform the information gained during the professional development sessions for classroom use. One lesson resource kit presented to the teachers, which was directly applicable to the classroom, included Model Eliciting Activities (MEA's) to explore the positive and negative effects land development has on climate and the environment, and how land development impacts storm water management. MEA's were developed to encourage students to create models to solve complex problems and to allow teachers to investigate students thinking. MEA's are a great curriculum technique used in engineering fields to help engage students by providing hands on activities using real world data and problems. We wish to present the Storm Water Management Resource toolkit including the MEA and present the outcomes observed from student engagement in this activity.

  9. Structural kinetics of a Pt/C cathode catalyst with practical catalyst loading in an MEA for PEFC operating conditions studied by in situ time-resolved XAFS.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Nozomu; Saida, Takahiro; Uruga, Tomoya; Sekizawa, Oki; Nagasawa, Kensaku; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi; Yokoyama, Toshihiko; Tada, Mizuki

    2013-11-21

    The structural kinetics of surface events on a Pt/C cathode catalyst in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with a practical catalyst loading (0.5 mgPt cm(-2)) for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell were investigated by in situ time-resolved X-ray absorption fine structure analysis (XAFS; time resolution: 100 ms) for the first time. The rate constants of structural changes in the Pt/C cathode catalyst in the MEA during voltage cycling were successfully estimated. For voltage-cycling processes, all reactions (electrochemical reactions and structural changes in the Pt catalyst) in the MEA were found to be much faster than those in an MEA with a thick cathode catalyst layer, but the in situ time-resolved XAFS analysis revealed that significant time lags similarly existed between the electrochemical reactions and the structural changes in the Pt cathode catalyst. The time-resolved XAFS also revealed differences in the structural kinetics of the Pt/C cathode catalyst for the voltage-cycling processes under N2 and air flows at the cathode.

  10. Agreement Between the Board of Control of Ferris State College, Big Rapids, Michigan and The Ferris Faculty Association - MEA-NEA 1973-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris State Coll., Big Rapids, MI.

    This agreement between the Board of Control of Ferris State College and the Ferris Faculty Association--MEA-NEA covers the period 1973-75. Sections of the agreement cover the basic contractual provisions, rights of the association, faculty rights, administrative responsibilities, promotions and transfers, teaching conditions, retrenchment,…

  11. Characterization of ToxCast Phase II compounds disruption of spontaneous network activity in cortical networks grown on multi-well microelectrode array (mwMEA) plates.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of multi-well microelectrode array (mwMEA) systems has increased in vitro screening throughput making them an effective method to screen and prioritize large sets of compounds for potential neurotoxicity. In the present experiments, a multiplexed approach was used...

  12. A Nitrogen Response Pathway Regulates Virulence Functions in Fusarium oxysporum via the Protein Kinase TOR and the bZIP Protein MeaB[C][W

    PubMed Central

    López-Berges, Manuel S.; Rispail, Nicolas; Prados-Rosales, Rafael C.; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    During infection, fungal pathogens activate virulence mechanisms, such as host adhesion, penetration and invasive growth. In the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 is required for plant infection and controls processes such as cellophane penetration, vegetative hyphal fusion, or root adhesion. Here, we show that these virulence-related functions are repressed by the preferred nitrogen source ammonium and restored by treatment with l-methionine sulfoximine or rapamycin, two specific inhibitors of Gln synthetase and the protein kinase TOR, respectively. Deletion of the bZIP protein MeaB also resulted in nitrogen source–independent activation of virulence mechanisms. Activation of these functions did not require the global nitrogen regulator AreA, suggesting that MeaB-mediated repression of virulence functions does not act through inhibition of AreA. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) supplied with ammonium rather than nitrate showed a significant reduction in vascular wilt symptoms when infected with the wild type but not with the ΔmeaB strain. Nitrogen source also affected invasive growth in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and the wheat head blight pathogen Fusarium graminearum. We propose that a conserved nitrogen-responsive pathway might operate via TOR and MeaB to control virulence in plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:20639450

  13. Pilot plant studies of the CO{sub 2} capture performance of aqueous MEA and mixed MEA/MDEA solvents at the University of Regina CO{sub 2} capture technology development plant and the Boundary Dam CO{sub 2} capture demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Idem, R.; Wilson, M.; Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Chakma, A.; Veawab, A.; Aroonwilas, A.; Gelowitz, D.

    2006-04-12

    Evaluations of the benefits of using a mixed MEA/MDEA solvent for CO{sub 2} capture in terms of the heat requirement for solvent regeneration, lean and rich loadings, CO{sub 2} production, and solvent stability were performed by comparing the performance of aqueous 5 kmol/m{sup 3} MEA with that of an aqueous 4:1 molar ratio MEA/MDEA blend of 5 kmol/ml total amine concentration as a function of the operating time. The tests were performed using two pilot CO{sub 2} capture plants of the International Test Centre for CO{sub 2} Capture (ITC), which provided two different sources and compositions of flue gas. The University of Regina CO{sub 2} plant (UR unit) processes flue gas from the combustion of natural gas while the Boundary Dam CO{sub 2} plant (BD unit) processes flue gas from a coal-fired electric power station. The results show that a huge heat-duty reduction can be achieved by using a mixed MEA/MDEA solution instead of a single MEA solution in an industrial environment of a CO{sub 2} capture plant. However, this benefit is dependent on whether the chemical stability of the solvent can be maintained.

  14. Identification of metabolites in urine and feces from rats dosed with the heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeA alpha C).

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, H; Frandsen, H

    2004-06-01

    2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeA alpha C) is a proximate mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine formed during ordinary cooking. In model systems, MeA alpha C can be formed by pyrolyses of either tryptophan or proteins of animal or vegetable origin. In the present study, the in vivo metabolism of MeA alpha C in rats was investigated. Rats were dosed with tritium-labeled MeA alpha C, and urine and feces were collected over 3 days. The metabolites of MeA alpha C were identified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. Conjugated metabolites were characterized by enzymatic hydrolyzes with beta-glucuronidase or arylsulfatase. The data showed that the metabolic pattern of MeA alpha C was similar in all rats. About 65% of the dose was excreted in urine and feces, and the major amount of MeA alpha C-metabolites was excreted during the first 24 h. Thirty-four percent of the dose was found in the rat urine samples collected to 24 h. In addition to unmetabolized MeA alpha C and two phase I metabolites, 6-OH-MeA alpha C and 7-OH-MeA alpha C, the following conjugated metabolites were identified: MeA alpha C-N(2)-glucuronide, A alpha C-3-CH(2)O-glucuronide, 3-carboxy-A alpha C and 3-carboxy-A alpha C-glucuronide, and sulfate and glucuronide conjugates of 6-OH-MeA alpha C and 7-OH-MeA alpha C. Also, a large amount of a rather unstable compound proposed to be of MeA alpha C-N1-glucuronide was found. About 21% of the dose was excreted in feces during the first 24 h, and MeA alpha C and 7-OH-MeA alpha C were the only compounds identified in feces. Any activated metabolites of MeA alpha C were not detected in rat urine or feces.

  15. Direct Determination of the Rate Coefficient for the Reaction of OH Radicals with Monoethanol Amine (MEA) from 296 to 510 K.

    PubMed

    Onel, L; Blitz, M A; Seakins, P W

    2012-04-05

    Monoethanol amine (H2NCH2CH2OH, MEA) has been proposed for large-scale use in carbon capture and storage. We present the first absolute, temperature-dependent determination of the rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with MEA using laser flash photolysis for OH generation, monitoring OH removal by laser-induced fluorescence. The room-temperature rate coefficient is determined to be (7.61 ± 0.76) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), and the rate coefficient decreases by about 40% by 510 K. The temperature dependence of the rate coefficient is given by k1= (7.73 ± 0.24) × 10(-11)(T/295)(-(0.79±0.11)) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The high rate coefficient shows that gas-phase processing in the atmosphere will be competitive with uptake onto aerosols.

  16. Application of micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) as an emerging technology for developmental neurotoxicity: evaluation of domoic acid-induced effects in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Hogberg, Helena T; Sobanski, Tomasz; Novellino, Antonio; Whelan, Maurice; Weiss, Dieter G; Bal-Price, Anna K

    2011-01-01

    Due to lack of knowledge only a few industrial chemicals have been identified as developmental neurotoxicants. Current developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) guidelines (OECD and EPA) are based entirely on in vivo studies that are both time consuming and costly. Consequently, there is a high demand to develop alternative in vitro methods for initial screening to prioritize chemicals for further DNT testing. One of the most promising tools for neurotoxicity assessment is the measurement of neuronal electrical activity using micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) that provides a functional and neuronal specific endpoint that until now has been used mainly to detect acute neurotoxicity. Here, electrical activity measurements were evaluated to be a suitable endpoint for the detection of potential developmental neurotoxicants. Initially, primary cortical neurons grown on MEA chips were characterized for different cell markers over time, using immunocytochemistry. Our results show that primary cortical neurons could be a promising in vitro model for DNT testing since some of the most critical neurodevelopment processes such as progenitor cell commitment, proliferation and differentiation of astrocytes and maturation of neurons are present. To evaluate if electrical activity could be a suitable endpoint to detect chemicals with DNT effects, our model was exposed to domoic acid (DomA), a potential developmental neurotoxicant for up to 4 weeks. Long-term exposure to a low concentration (50nM) of DomA increased the basal spontaneous electrical activity as measured by spike and burst rates. Moreover, the effect induced by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline was significantly lower in the DomA treated cultures than in the untreated ones. The MEA measurements indicate that chronic exposure to DomA changed the spontaneous electrical activity leading to the possible neuronal mal functioning. The obtained results suggest that the MEAs could be a useful tool to identify compounds with

  17. Making Earth Science Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Projects Data and Services at the GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vollmer, Bruce E.; Ostrenga, D.; Savtchenko, A.; Johnson, J.; Wei, J.; Teng, W.; Gerasimov, I.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Program is dedicated to advancing Earth remote sensing and pioneering the scientific use of satellite measurements to improve human understanding of our home planet. Through the MEaSUREs Program, NASA is continuing its commitment to expand understanding of the Earth system using consistent data records. Emphasis is on linking together multiple data sources to form coherent time-series, and facilitating the use of extensive data in the development of comprehensive Earth system models. A primary focus of the MEaSUREs Program is the creation of Earth System Data Records (ESDRs). An ESDR is defined as a unified and coherent set of observations of a given parameter of the Earth system, which is optimized to meet specific requirements for addressing science questions. These records are critical for understanding Earth System processes; for the assessment of variability, long-term trends, and change in the Earth System; and for providing input and validation means to modeling efforts. Seven MEaSUREs projects will be archived and distributed through services at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC).

  18. Making Earth Science Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Projects Data and Services at the GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, B.; Ostrenga, D.; Savtchenko, A. K.; Johnson, J. E.; Wei, J. C.; Teng, W. L.; Gerasimov, I.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Program is dedicated to advancing Earth remote sensing and pioneering the scientific use of satellite measurements to improve human understanding of our home planet. Through the MEaSUREs Program, NASA is continuing its commitment to expand understanding of the Earth system using consistent data records. Emphasis is on linking together multiple data sources to form coherent time-series, and facilitating the use of extensive data in the development of comprehensive Earth system models. A primary focus of the MEaSUREs Program is the creation of Earth System Data Records (ESDRs). An ESDR is defined as a unified and coherent set of observations of a given parameter of the Earth system, which is optimized to meet specific requirements for addressing science questions. These records are critical for understanding Earth System processes; for the assessment of variability, long-term trends, and change in the Earth System; and for providing input and validation means to modeling efforts. Seven MEaSUREs projects will be archived and distributed through services at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information and Services Center (GES DISC). The seven projects include: 1. Reprocessing and Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes (GSSTF) Data Set for Global Water and Energy Cycle Research 2. Creating a Long Term Multi-Sensor Ozone Data Record 3. Consistent Long-Term Aerosol Data Records over Land and Ocean from SeaWIFS 4. GOZCARDS: Global Ozone Chemistry and Related trace gas Data Records for the Stratosphere 5. Earth Surface and Atmosphere Reflectivity Since 1979 from Multiple Satellites (TOMS, SBUV, SBUV-2, OMI, SeaWiFS, NPP, and NPOESS) 6. A Multi-Sensor Water Vapor Climate Data Record Using Cloud Classification 7. Developing Consistent Earth System Data Records for the global terrestrial water cycle A web portal for the MEaSUREs dataset (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/measures) has been made accessible to the user community to provide information

  19. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  20. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.

  1. Commercialization of Nanotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    NATO LECTURES M. Meyyappan Commercialization of Nanotechnology Abstract Nanotechnology is an enabling technology and as such, will have an...years), medium term (10 years) and long term (> 15 years) prospects. In addition, the challenges currently being faced to commercialize nanotechnology...will be discussed in detail. A summary outlining efforts across the world in terms of commercialization , startup activities, participation of major

  2. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  3. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  4. COMMERCIAL FOODS, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DORNFIELD, BLANCHE E.

    THE UNDERSTANDING AND MASTERY OF FUNDAMENTAL MATHEMATICS IS A NECESSARY PART OF COMMERCIAL FOODS WORK. THIS STUDENT HANDBOOK WAS DESIGNED TO ACCOMPANY A COMMERCIAL FOODS COURSE AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL FOR STUDENTS WITH APPROPRIATE APTITUDES AND COMMERCIAL FOOD SERVICE GOALS. THE MATERIAL, TESTED IN VARIOUS INTERESTED CLASSROOMS, WAS PREPARED BY…

  5. Evaluation of handling and reuse approaches for the waste generated from MEA-based CO2 capture with the consideration of regulations in the UAE.

    PubMed

    Nurrokhmah, Laila; Mezher, Toufic; Abu-Zahra, Mohammad R M

    2013-01-01

    A waste slip-stream is generated from the reclaiming process of monoethanolamine (MEA) based Post-Combustion Capture (PCC). It mainly consists of MEA itself, ammonium, heat-stable salts (HSS), carbamate polymers, and water. In this study, the waste quantity and nature are characterized for Fluor's Econamine FGSM coal-fired CO2 capture base case. Waste management options, including reuse, recycling, treatment, and disposal, are investigated due to the need for a more environmentally sound handling. Regulations, economic potential, and associated costs are also evaluated. The technical, economic, and regulation assessment suggests waste reuse for NOx scrubbing. Moreover, a high thermal condition is deemed as an effective technique for waste destruction, leading to considerations of waste recycling into a coal burner or incineration. As a means of treatment, three secondary-biological processes covering Complete-Mix Activated Sludge (CMAS), oxidation ditch, and trickling filter are designed to meet the wastewater standards in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). From the economic point of view, the value of waste as a NOx scrubbing agent is 6,561,600-7,348,992 USD/year. The secondary-biological treatment cost is 0.017-0.02 USD/ton of CO2, while the cost of an on-site incinerator is 0.031 USD/ton of CO2 captured. In conclusion, secondary biological treatment is found to be the most economical option.

  6. Multifunctional microelectrode array (mMEA) chip for neural-electrical and neural-chemical interfaces: characterization of comb interdigitated electrode towards dopamine detection.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Min-Chieh; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Annie Ho, Ja-An; Chen, You-Yin

    2013-03-15

    Microelectrode array platforms have attracted considerable interest owing to their ability to facilitate interactive communications between investigators and neuronal network. We herein present an integrated multifunctional microelectrode array (mMEA) chip harnessed with multiple measurement modalities of both neural-electrical and neural-chemical recordings to enable simultaneous monitoring of action potential and the level of the specific neurotransmitter. A dopamine sensor modality fabricated in interdigitated electrodes (IDE) fashion was realized and characterized, subsequently applied to trace dopamine exocytosis in PC12 cells cultured on such mMEA chip. Facile fabrication process leveraging electroplating technique to implement the regulation of gap width was investigated and resulted in preferred IDE configuration. Collection efficiency and amplification effect were systematically evaluated. The as-fabricated sensing device exhibited a favorable diffusion-determining behavior reflected by the steady state current output, and in virtue of this feature, to detect dopamine in connection with limit of detection at 0.62 μM. The current signal was observed linear against the level of dopamine over the investigated concentration range with a resulting sensitivity of 0.096 nA μM(-1).

  7. The use of microelectrode array (MEA) to study the protective effects of potassium channel openers on metabolically compromised HL-1 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Law, J K Y; Yeung, C K; Hofmann, B; Ingebrandt, S; Rudd, J A; Offenhäusser, A; Chan, M

    2009-02-01

    The microelectrode array (MEA) was used to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of adenosine triphosphate sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel activation using potassium channel openers (KCOs) on HL-1 cardiomyocytes subjected to acute chemically induced metabolic inhibition. Beat frequency and extracellular action potential (exAP) amplitude were measured in the presence of metabolic inhibitors (sodium azide (NaN(3)) or 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG)) or KCOs (pinacidil (PIN, a cyanoguanidine derivative, activates sarcolemmal K(ATP) channels) or SDZ PCO400 (SDZ, a benzopyran derivative, activates mitochondrial K(ATP) channels)). The protective effects of these KCOs on metabolically inhibited HL-1 cells were subsequently investigated. Signal shapes indicated that NaN(3) and 2-DG reduced the rate of the sodium (Na(+)) influx signal as reflected by a reduction in beat frequency. PIN and SDZ appeared to reduce both rate of depolarization and extent of the Na(+) influx signals. Pre-treating cardiomyocytes with PIN (0.1 mM), but not SDZ, prevented the reduction of beat frequency associated with NaN(3)- or 2-DG-induced metabolic inhibition. The exAP amplitude was not affected by either KCO. The cardioprotective effect of PIN relative to SDZ may be due to the opening of different K(ATP) channels. This metabolic inhibition model on the MEA may provide a stable platform for the study of cardiac pathophysiology in the future.

  8. Structure determination of DNA methylation lesions N1-meA and N3-meC in duplex DNA using a cross-linked protein-DNA system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lianghua; Yi, Chengqi; Jian, Xing; Zheng, Guanqun; He, Chuan

    2010-07-01

    N(1)-meA and N(3)-meC are cytotoxic DNA base methylation lesions that can accumulate in the genomes of various organisms in the presence of S(N)2 type methylating agents. We report here the structural characterization of these base lesions in duplex DNA using a cross-linked protein-DNA crystallization system. The crystal structure of N(1)-meA:T pair shows an unambiguous Hoogsteen base pair with a syn conformation adopted by N(1)-meA, which exhibits significant changes in the opening, roll and twist angles as compared to the normal A:T base pair. Unlike N(1)-meA, N(3)-meC does not establish any interaction with the opposite G, but remains partially intrahelical. Also, structurally characterized is the N(6)-meA base modification that forms a normal base pair with the opposite T in duplex DNA. Structural characterization of these base methylation modifications provides molecular level information on how they affect the overall structure of duplex DNA. In addition, the base pairs containing N(1)-meA or N(3)-meC do not share any specific characteristic properties except that both lesions create thermodynamically unstable regions in a duplex DNA, a property that may be explored by the repair proteins to locate these lesions.

  9. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

  10. Regulating Commercial Telephone Solicitations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    also proposed that telephone subscribers be given the right to indicate if they do not want to receive commercial advertising calls , whether from...federal government should prohibit all commercial advertising calls. Advertisers have rights to free speech , and some consumers, I am told , don ’t...of the same arguments against giving subscribers the right to refuse commercial advertising calls that they made in 1965. They have stated that placing

  11. Commercialization of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, James T.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1988-01-01

    Space-commercialization activities are grouped into five categories: private sector development from existing technology for private sector use; pure privatization; private sector development for U.S. government use; private sector development from novel technology for private sector use; and, finally, full commercialization. The commercialization of space categories is defined, and the key issues in each are highlighted. A description of key NASA actions is included for each category. It is concluded that NASA and other government agency involvement is a common thread across the spectrum of space commercialization activities.

  12. Action potential-based MEA platform for in vitro screening of drug-induced cardiotoxicity using human iPSCs and rat neonatal myocytes.

    PubMed

    Jans, Danny; Callewaert, Geert; Krylychkina, Olga; Hoffman, Luis; Gullo, Francesco; Prodanov, Dimiter; Braeken, Dries

    2017-09-01

    Drug-induced cardiotoxicity poses a negative impact on public health and drug development. Cardiac safety pharmacology issues urged for the preclinical assessment of drug-induced ventricular arrhythmia leading to the design of several in vitro electrophysiological screening assays. In general, patch clamp systems allow for intracellular recordings, while multi-electrode array (MEA) technology detect extracellular activity. Here, we demonstrate a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based MEA system as a reliable platform for non-invasive, long-term intracellular recording of cardiac action potentials at high resolution. Quinidine (8 concentrations from 10(-7) to 2.10(-5)M) and verapamil (7 concentrations from 10(-11) to 10(-5)M) were tested for dose-dependent responses in a network of cardiomyocytes. Electrophysiological parameters, such as the action potential duration (APD), rates of depolarization and repolarization and beating frequency were assessed. In hiPSC, quinidine prolonged APD with EC50 of 2.2·10(-6)M. Further analysis indicated a multifactorial action potential prolongation by quinidine: (1) decreasing fast repolarization with IC50 of 1.1·10(-6)M; (2) reducing maximum upstroke velocity with IC50 of 2.6·10(-6)M; and (3) suppressing spontaneous activity with EC50 of 3.8·10(-6)M. In rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, verapamil blocked spontaneous activity with EC50 of 5.3·10(-8)M and prolonged the APD with EC50 of 2.5·10(-8)M. Verapamil reduced rates of fast depolarization and repolarization with IC50s of 1.8 and 2.2·10(-7)M, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed action potential-based MEA platform offers high quality and stable long-term recordings with high information content allowing to characterize multi-ion channel blocking drugs. We anticipate application of the system as a screening platform to efficiently and cost-effectively test drugs for cardiac safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Commercial Crew Launch America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thon, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation is intended to discuss NASA's long term human exploration goals of our solar system. The emphasis will be on how our CCP (Commercial Crew Program) supports our space bound human exploration goals by encouraging commercial entities to perform missions to LEO (Low Earth Orbit), thus allowing NASA to focus on beyond LEO human exploration missions.

  14. Commercialism in Intercollegiate Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delany, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the history of intercollegiate athletics and the evolution of commercialization in college sports, particularly through television. Argues that few Division I programs could be self-sufficient; the issue is the degree to which sports are commercialized for revenue, and the challenge to balance schools' needs, private sector interests, and…

  15. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation outlines a competition that has as its goal to explores the viability of using public-private partnerships to open space frontier for commercial uses. The teams have the objective of designing a business plan to open the space frontier to commercial interests.

  16. Commercial Crew Launch America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thon, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation is intended to discuss NASA's long term human exploration goals of our solar system. The emphasis will be on how our CCP (Commercial Crew Program) supports our space bound human exploration goals by encouraging commercial entities to perform missions to LEO (Low Earth Orbit), thus allowing NASA to focus on beyond LEO human exploration missions.

  17. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  18. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  19. In-situ hybrid study of thermal behaviour of Znsbnd Ni and Znsbnd Nisbnd Al2O3 nanocrystallite thin films induced TEA/MEA by electrocodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulwahab, M.; Fayomi, O. S. I.; Popoola, A. P. I.; Dodo, M. R.

    Our present investigation focuses on the thermal stability of already developed electroforms of Znsbnd Ni and Znsbnd Nisbnd Al2O3 thin films induced with triethylamine (TEA) and monoethylamine (MEA) as surfactant by electrocodeposition on mild steel substrate with the aim to re-examine its micro-hardness and degradation behaviour in static sodium chloride solution. In the event, the samples were thermally treated at 200 °C and air cooled. The results obtained showed that the developed composites are thermally stable with hardness value of the Znsbnd Nisbnd Al2O3 coated; 185 Hv increased to 190.5 Hv indicating a 2.89% improvement. Noticeably, in the Znsbnd Ni coatings, a decrease in the hardness with 26.67% was observed. The oxidation resistance was however favored for both composites.

  20. Commercial considerations for immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    The underlying drivers of scientific processes have been rapidly evolving, but the ever-present need for research funding is typically foremost amongst these. Successful laboratories are embracing this reality by making certain that their projects have commercial value right from the beginning of the project conception. Which factors to be considered for commercial success need to be well thought out and incorporated into a project plan with similar levels of detail as would be the technical elements. Specific examples of commercial outcomes in the field of Immunoproteomics are exemplified in this discussion.

  1. Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny C. Servo, Ph.D.

    2004-07-12

    In order to fulfill the objective of Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), the Department of Energy funds an initiative referred to as the Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP). The over-arching purpose of the CAP is to facilitate transition of the SBIR-funded technology to Phase III defined as private sector investment or receipt of non-sbir dollars to further the commercialization of the technology. Phase III also includes increased sales. This report summarizes the stages involved in the implementation of the Commercialization Assistance Program, a program which has been most successful in fulfilling its objectives.

  2. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  3. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  4. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA-sponsored and assisted commercial space activities of 1989 are presented. Industrial R and D in space, centers for the commercial development of space, and new cooperative agreements are addressed in the U.S. private sector in space section. In the building U.S. competitiveness through technology section, the following topics are presented: (1) technology utilization as a national priority; (2) an exploration of benefits; and (3) honoring Apollo-Era spinoffs. International and domestic R and D trends, and the space sector are discussed in the section on selected economic indicators. Other subjects included in this report are: (1) small business innovation; (2) budget highlights and trends; (3) commercial programs management; and (4) the commercial programs advisory committee.

  5. Comparing Commercial WWW Browsers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1995-01-01

    Four commercial World Wide Web browsers are evaluated for features such as handling of WWW protocols and different URLs: FTP, Telnet, Gopher and WAIS, and e-mail and news; bookmark capabilities; navigation features; file management; and security support. (JKP)

  6. Commercial Float Zone Furnace

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-25

    S77-E-5094 (25 May 1996) --- Astronaut Marc Garneau, mission specialist representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), stands at the Commercial Float Zone Furnace (CFZF) in the Spacehab Module onboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  7. Comparing Commercial WWW Browsers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1995-01-01

    Four commercial World Wide Web browsers are evaluated for features such as handling of WWW protocols and different URLs: FTP, Telnet, Gopher and WAIS, and e-mail and news; bookmark capabilities; navigation features; file management; and security support. (JKP)

  8. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  9. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MW power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full-sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MW Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  10. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MR power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full- sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, and (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MR Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  11. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease: results of MEA (methotrexate, etoposide and dactinomycin) as first-line chemotherapy in high risk disease and EA (etoposide and dactinomycin) as second-line therapy for low risk disease

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, L S; Lorigan, P C; Coleman, R E; Hancock, B W

    2000-01-01

    Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease is potentially fatal, but the majority of patients are cured with chemotherapy. Any developments in treatment are therefore being directed towards maintaining efficacy and reducing toxicity. We evaluated efficacy and toxicity of methotrexate, etoposide and dactinomycin (MEA) as first-line therapy for high risk disease and etoposide and dactinomycin (EA) as second-line therapy for methotrexate-refractory low risk disease in a retrospective analysis of 73 patients (38 MEA, 35 EA) treated since 1986 at a supra-regional centre. The median follow-up period was 5.5 years and the median number of cycles received was 7. The overall complete response rate was 85% (97% for EA, 75% for MEA). Of eight patients who failed to respond, four have since died and four were cured with platinum-based chemotherapy. Alopecia was universal. Grade II or worse nausea, emesis, or stomatitis was observed in 29%, 30% and 37% respectively. Fifty-one per cent experienced grade II/III anaemia, 8% grade II or higher thrombocytopenia and 64% grade III or IV neutropenia; in six cases this was complicated by sepsis. Fifty-four per cent of patients went on to have a normal pregnancy. No patient has developed a second malignancy. In conclusion, the MEA and EA chemotherapy regimens for persistent trophoblastic disease are very well tolerated, do not appear to affect future fertility and are associated with excellent, sustained complete response rates. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10789722

  12. The influence of mild stressors on neurons containing interleukin-1β in the central (CeA) and medial (MeA) amygdala in the ageing process of rats.

    PubMed

    Badowska-Szalewska, Ewa; Ludkiewicz, Beata; Spodnik, Jan H; Krawczyk, Rafał; Moryś, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine - interleukin 1β (IL-1β) plays an important role in stress reactions in the structures of limbic system. The impact of stress on IL-1β may depend on the ontogenetic age. The study examined the influence of acute and chronic exposure to forced swim (FS) or high-light open-field (HL-OF) stressors on neurons containing IL-1β. Double immunofluorescence staining was used to reveal the density of IL-1β/NeuN (NeuN - a neuronal nuclear marker) - immunoreactive (ir) cells in the amygdaloid central (CeA) and medial (MeA) nuclei, which are closely involved in the regulation of emotional stressors and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activation. Adult (P90; P - postnatal day), middle-aged (P360), and aged (P720) male Wistar Han rats were used in these experiments. We observed an age-dependent increase in the basal density of IL-1β/NeuN-ir cells in CeA and MeA in P90 vs. P360 and P360 vs. P720 rats. Neither acute nor chronic FS caused significant changes in the density of IL-1β-ir neurons in any of the investigated nuclei in P90, P360, and P720 rats as compared with the non-stressed groups. However, chronic but not acute HL-OF caused a marked increase in the density of IL-1β/NeuN-ir cells in the CeA and MeA of P360 rats and in MeA of the P720 animals. Moreover, chronic HL-OF led to an increase in the density of IL-1β-ir neurons in relation to acute HL-OF in the CeA and MeA of both P360 and P720 rats. Our results may indicate the involvement of IL-1β neurons in the development of ageing processes in CeA and MeA. Furthermore, our results point out that chronic HL-OF is an aggravating factor that induces an increase in the density of IL-1β/NeuN-ir cells in the MeA and/or CeA of middle-aged and aged rats. The increase is possibly due to insufficient control of the HPA axis associated with involutional ageing processes and seems to be a common denominator of the ageing process and stress.

  13. Television Commercials' Effects on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quisenberry, James D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses research focused on characteristics of children's TV commercials, the relationship between commercials and children's learning and reasoning, and effects of commercials on children's language, attitudes, and beliefs. (Author/RH)

  14. Commercialization of animal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Faber, D C; Molina, J A; Ohlrichs, C L; Vander Zwaag, D F; Ferré, L B

    2003-01-01

    Commercialization of animal biotechnology is a wide-ranging topic for discussion. In this paper, we will attempt to review embryo transfer (ET) and related technologies that relate to food-producing mammals. A brief review of the history of advances in biotechnology will provide a glimpse to present and future applications. Commercialization of animal biotechnology is presently taking two pathways. The first application involves the use of animals for biomedical purposes. Very few companies have developed all of the core competencies and intellectual properties to complete the bridge from lab bench to product. The second pathway of application is for the production of animals used for food. Artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization (IVF), cloning, transgenics, and genomics all are components of the toolbox for present and future applications. Individually, these are powerful tools capable of providing significant improvements in productivity. Combinations of these technologies coupled with information systems and data analysis, will provide even more significant change in the next decade. Any strategies for the commercial application of animal biotechnology must include a careful review of regulatory and social concerns. Careful review of industry infrastructure is also important. Our colleagues in plant biotechnology have helped highlight some of these pitfalls and provide us with a retrospective review. In summary, today we have core competencies that provide a wealth of opportunities for the members of this society, commercial companies, producers, and the general population. Successful commercialization will benefit all of the above stakeholders. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  15. Recent advances in environmental monitoring using commercial microwave links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Pinhas; David, Noam; Messer-Yaron, Hagit; Samuels, Rana

    2013-04-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic radiation in the lower atmosphere, at centimeter wavelengths, is impaired by atmospheric conditions. Absorption and scattering of the radiation, at frequencies of tens of GHz, are directly related to the atmospheric phenomena, primarily precipitation, oxygen, mist, fog and water vapor. As we have recently shown, commercial wireless communication networks supply high resolution precipitation measurements at ground level while often being situated in flood prone areas, covering large parts of these hazardous regions. On the other hand, at present, there are no satisfactory real time flash flood warning facilities found to cope well with this phenomenon. I will exemplify the flash flood warning potential of the commercial wireless communication system for two different semi-arid region cases when floods occurred in the Judean desert and in the northern Negev in Israel. In addition, I will review our recent improvements in monitoring rainfall as well as other-than-rain phenomena like, atmospheric moisture. Special focus on fog monitoring potential will be discussed. This research was supported by THE ISRAEL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (grant No. 173/08) and the PROCEMA VI coordinated by H. Kunstmann. The research was also supported by the by the United States- Israel BINATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (BSF, Grant No. 2010342). References: N. David, P. Alpert, and H. Messer, "Technical Note: Novel method for water vapour monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2413-2418, 2009. A. Rayitsfeld, R. Samuels, A. Zinevich, U. Hadar and P. Alpert,"Comparison of two methodologies for long term rainfall monitoring using a commercial microwave communication system", Atmospheric Research 104-105, 119-127, 2012. N. David, P. Alpert, and H. Messer, "Novel method for fog monitoring using cellular networks infrastructures", Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss, 5, 5725-5752, 2012.

  16. Commercialization of NESSUS: Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thacker, Ben H.; Millwater, Harry R.

    1991-01-01

    A plan was initiated in 1988 to commercialize the Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress (NESSUS) probabilistic structural analysis software. The goal of the on-going commercialization effort is to begin the transfer of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) developed technology into industry and to develop additional funding resources in the general area of structural reliability. The commercialization effort is summarized. The SwRI NESSUS Software System is a general purpose probabilistic finite element computer program using state of the art methods for predicting stochastic structural response due to random loads, material properties, part geometry, and boundary conditions. NESSUS can be used to assess structural reliability, to compute probability of failure, to rank the input random variables by importance, and to provide a more cost effective design than traditional methods. The goal is to develop a general probabilistic structural analysis methodology to assist in the certification of critical components in the next generation Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  17. Commercial space services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of space service opportunities as identified by a Wyle Laboratories' research team is given. Through the use of a baseline space scenario, a variety of space hardware, services, and commercial activities are identified and related on a time-phased basis. A model is presented to relate the potential functions of government and the private sector in a commercialized space environment during the period 1984 to 2004. Barriers, incentives and key issues are likewise identified and addressed to aid in the implementation of private sector activities for spacerelated programs. Broader awareness, legislative actions, incentive development and benefit analyses are considered in the presentation. The time-phased plan provides a useful planning and management tool, allows broader communication, and supports overall space commercialization program assessment.

  18. Commercialization of biobanks.

    PubMed

    Evers, Kathinka; Forsberg, Joanna; Hansson, Mats

    2012-02-01

    Biobank policy and regulations profoundly vary between different societies. One area with profound differences in culture and tradition concerns commercialization, and the possibility of using the human body as a capital resource. In the United States there is acceptance of this possibility, whereas European law is based on principles that categorically prohibit selling parts of the human body. We suggest that questions of commercialization in the area of biobanking must be considered in relation to different ethical values, notably the principle of best possible use of collected biobank materials for the benefit of vital patient interests.

  19. Commercial Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  20. Commercial Fisheries Surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Richards, R. Anne; Murphy, Brian R.; Willis, David W.

    1996-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe methods for sampling commercial fisheries and identify factors affecting the design of sampling plans. When sampled properly, commercial fisheries can provide important information on the response of aquatic organisms to exploitation; such information can be used by management agencies to develop regulations for ensuring long-term production of the resource and long-term economic benefit. Fishery statistics are typically used to estimate abundance, mortality, recruitment, growth, and other vital characterisitcs of populations. Fishery statistics can also be used to study changes in fish community composition resulting from differential exploitation of species.

  1. Commercial Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  2. Novel composite polybenzimidazole-based proton exchange membranes as efficient and sustainable separators for microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angioni, S.; Millia, L.; Bruni, G.; Ravelli, D.; Mustarelli, P.; Quartarone, E.

    2017-04-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are gaining increasing technological relevance for wastewater remediation and ancillary energy production. MFC separators are often fabricated with ion-exchange perfluorinated membranes, the most common of them being Nafion™. Here, we prepared composite separators based on polybenzimidazole (PBI), where the filler is made of SBA-15 mesostructured silica functionalized with sulphonic moieties. These membranes allowed strong increase of power density (up to one order of magnitude), operating life and wastewater treatment efficiency with respect to Nafion™. Moreover, our sustainability and cost analysis clearly showed that PBI is more convenient than Nafion™ for making these membranes. Therefore, we conclude that PBI-based membranes are very promising as separators for MFCs.

  3. The neural networks based modeling of a polybenzimidazole-based polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell: Effect of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, Justo; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A.; Linares, José J.; Piuleac, Ciprian-George; Curteanu, Silvia

    Neural network models represent an important tool of Artificial Intelligence for fuel cell researchers in order to help them to elucidate the processes within the cells, by allowing optimization of materials, cells, stacks, and systems and support control systems. In this work three types of neural networks, that have as common characteristic the supervised learning control (Multilayer Perceptron, Generalized Feedforward Network and Jordan and Elman Network), have been designed to model the performance of a polybenzimidazole-polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells operating upon a temperature range of 100-175 °C. The influence of temperature of two periods was studied: the temperature in the conditioning period and temperature when the fuel cell was operating. Three inputs variables: the conditioning temperature, the operating temperature and current density were taken into account in order to evaluate their influence upon the potential, the cathode resistance and the ohmic resistance. The Multilayer Perceptron model provides good predictions for different values of operating temperatures and potential and, hence, it is the best choice among the study models, recommended to investigate the influence of process variables of PEMFCs.

  4. Commercializing Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  5. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  6. Commercial Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) at Stennis Space Center, Applied Analysis, Inc. developed a new tool for analyzing remotely sensed data. The Applied Analysis Spectral Analytical Process (AASAP) detects or classifies objects smaller than a pixel and removes the background. This significantly enhances the discrimination among surface features in imagery. ERDAS, Inc. offers the system as a modular addition to its ERDAS IMAGINE software package for remote sensing applications. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant. Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP), Ocean and Coastal Environmental Sensing (OCENS) developed SeaStation for marine users. SeaStation is a low-cost, portable, shipboard satellite groundstation integrated with vessel catch and product monitoring software. Linked to the Global Positioning System, SeaStation provides real time relationships between vessel position and data such as sea surface temperature, weather conditions and ice edge location. This allows the user to increase fishing productivity and improve vessel safety. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant.

  7. Commercial Float Zone Furnace

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-25

    S77-E-5093 (25 May 1996) --- Astronaut Marc Garneau, mission specialist representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), makes a visual check of the Commercial Float Zone Furnace (CFZF), a single-rack-mounted facility in the Spacehab Module onboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scene was recorded with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  8. Frameworks for commercial success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-11-01

    Taking chemical technology from the bench to the consumer is a formidable challenge, but it is how research can ultimately benefit wider society. Companies are now beginning to incorporate metal-organic frameworks into commercial products, heralding a new era for the field.

  9. Commercial applications of telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natiello, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    Telemedicine Systems Corporation was established in 1976 and is a private commercial supplier of telemedicine systems. These systems are various combinations of communications and diagnostic technology, designed to allow the delivery of health care services to remote facilities. The technology and the health care services are paid for by the remote facilities, such as prisons.

  10. Estolides - Ready for commercialization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estolides have shown great promise as a bio-based lubricant and are ready for commercialization. Estolides are nontoxic and biodegradable. Testing has shown estolides have increased oxidative stability over vegetable oil based lubricants and have a relatively low pour point, allowing them to be use...

  11. Kids vs. commercials.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A; Lewis, C E

    1975-11-01

    A game show with fifth and sixth graders effectively demonstrated their ability to critically evaluate television commercials about health-related products. While the family physician is in a unique position to affect future drug utilization patterns of children by counseling parents, a more active role, such as this exercise in the evaluation of TV messages, may be even more effective.

  12. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  13. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  14. Commercial Science and Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    blank) 9 Naval Research Advisory Committee ABB Helsinki, Finland ALCATEL Paris, France ALSTOM Rugby, England Nokia Helsinki, Finland Siemens Erlangen...DON CTO Telecommunications Siemens Telecommunications Nokia Telecommunications Alcatel Power Electronics ABB Marine Power Electronics Alstom Power...panel received many briefs, including presentations on commercial research issues from multiple speakers at Siemens, Nokia, Alcatel, ABB and Alstom . To

  15. Commercializing Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  16. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  17. The Commercial Speech Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebke, Barbara F.

    In its 1942 ruling in the "Valentine vs. Christensen" case, the Supreme Court established the doctrine that commercial speech is not protected by the First Amendment. In 1975, in the "Bigelow vs. Virginia" case, the Supreme Court took a decisive step toward abrogating that doctrine, by ruling that advertising is not stripped of…

  18. Commercial Carpentry: Instructional Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Donald W.; Penner, Wayman R.

    This manual contains instructional materials which measure student performance on commercial carpentry behavioral objectives; criterion-referenced evaluation instruments are also included. Each of the manual's eleven sections consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional unit includes behavioral objectives, suggested activities…

  19. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  20. Containerless processing of glass forming melts: D-1, MEA/A-2 experiment 81F01 conducted on STS-61A flight, October 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, D. E.; Ray, C. S.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experiment 81F01, which was conducted in the Material Experiment Assembly MEA/A-2 on the D-1 Spacelab Mission (STS-61A), are presented. The general plan of the experiment was to heat, melt, and quench six spherical samples of different glass forming compositions while they were levitated in a single axis acoustic levitator furnace (SAAL). In addition, two non-melting sintered alumina samples were used to check the operational characteristics of the SAAL under reduced gravity conditions. Three of the eight samples were levitated between 1250 and 1500 C before the lack of coolant created an over-temperature condition that caused the SAAL to shut down prematurely. Two of the three samples processed were calcia-gallia-silica and soda-lime-silica glass forming compositions. Evidence of a two to three times increase in the tendency for glass formation was obtained for the calcia-gallia-silica. The final glass appeared reasonably homogeneous even though it was made from hot pressed powders containing deliberate heterogeneities. A photographic record was obtained of the microgravity sample processing sequences.

  1. Enhanced wet adhesion and shear of elastomeric micro-fiber arrays with mushroom tip geometry and a photopolymerized p(DMA-co-MEA) tip coating.

    PubMed

    Glass, Paul; Chung, Hoyong; Washburn, Newell R; Sitti, Metin

    2010-11-16

    Using principles inspired by the study of naturally occurring sticky systems such as the micro- and nanoscale fibers on the toes of geckos and the adhesive proteins secreted by marine animals such as mussels, this study describes the development and evaluation of a novel patterned and coated elastomeric microfibrillar material for enhanced repeatable adhesion and shear in wet environments. A multistep fabrication process consisting of optical lithography, micromolding, polymer synthesis, dipping, stamping, and photopolymerization is described to produce uniform arrays of polyurethane elastomeric microfibers with mushroom-shaped tips coated with a thin layer of lightly cross-linked p(DMA-co-MEA), an intrinsically adhesive synthetic polymer. Adhesion and shear force characterization of these arrays in contact with a glass hemisphere is demonstrated, and significant pull-off force, overall work of adhesion, and shear force enhancements in submerged aqueous environments are shown when compared to both unpatterned and uncoated samples, as well as previously evaluated patterned and coated arrays with differing geometry. Such materials may have potential value as repeatable adhesives for wet environments, such as for medical devices.

  2. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Kathy Lueders, program manager of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, speaks during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Kathy Lueders, program manager of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, speaks, as Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, left, and Astronaut Mike Fincke, a former commander of the International Space Station look on during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    From left, NASA Public Affairs Officer Stephanie Schierholz, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Kathy Lueders, program manager of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, and Astronaut Mike Fincke, a former commander of the International Space Station, are seen during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Commercial jet transport crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widmayer, E.; Brende, O. B.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a study to identify areas of research and approaches that may result in improved occupant survivability and crashworthiness of transport aircraft are given. The study defines areas of structural crashworthiness for transport aircraft which might form the basis for a research program. A 10-year research and development program to improve the structural impact resistance of general aviation and commercial jet transport aircraft is planned. As part of this program parallel studies were conducted to review the accident experience of commercial transport aircraft, assess the accident performance of structural components and the status of impact resistance technology, and recommend areas of research and development for that 10-year plan. The results of that study are also given.

  6. Opportunities for commercial organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vardaman, W. K.; Atkins, H.; Taylor, K. R.

    1984-01-01

    The possible applications of technology of materials processing in low gravity is discussed. A special office established by NASA to familiarize commercial organizations with materials processing in low gravity is described. This office provides information on present research and will, if requested, hold a seminar to present the technological and business aspects of joint investigations and joint endeavors to interested organizations. Arrangements can be made for visits to laboratories where ground based research is in progress.

  7. Commercialization of microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Volpatti, Lisa R; Yetisen, Ali K

    2014-07-01

    Microfluidic devices offer automation and high-throughput screening, and operate at low volumes of consumables. Although microfluidics has the potential to reduce turnaround times and costs for analytical devices, particularly in medical, veterinary, and environmental sciences, this enabling technology has had limited diffusion into consumer products. This article analyzes the microfluidics market, identifies issues, and highlights successful commercialization strategies. Addressing niche markets and establishing compatibility with existing workflows will accelerate market penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. European commercial aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zandt, J Parker

    1925-01-01

    During the months of June to September, 1924, I personally visited the principal airports of Europe and traveled as a passenger some 6500 air miles on English, French, Romanian, Polish, German and Dutch air lines in order to investigate the development of commercial aviation abroad. The results of the investigation are embodied in a series of reports, of which a summary of the general findings is given below.

  9. Commercialization of nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hobson, David W

    2009-01-01

    The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization.

  10. EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One concern involves the materials in wipes used to collect pesticide residues or other contact materials on the skin. In recent studies (e.g., National Human Exposure Assessment Survey; NHEXAS), isopropyl alcohol has been used as a solvent in conjunction with a cloth wipe to obtain samples from the hands of adults and children. Although isopropyl alcohol is generally considered innocuous, the use of commercially available products could eliminate concerns about exposure to alcohol. A few studies have evaluated the potential of commercially available baby wipes to collect personal exposure samples for metals research, but not for the area of pesticide research (Millson et al., 1994; Campbell et al., 1993; Lichtenwalner et al., 1993). Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the potential for using commercially available baby wipes for collecting pesticide samples from skin and other surfaces. Another concern involves establishing a convenient and safe method for assessing overall dermal exposure for children, especially for those in crawling stage. One route that the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would like to investigate is the use of cotton body suits (infant sleepers) as an indicator

  11. Space Station Freedom commercial infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barquinero, Kevin

    1990-01-01

    Several approaches to initiating the provision of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) commercial infrastructure are discussed, including proposals from the private sector, the commercial development of infrastructure, and the commercial operation of infrastructure. Specific options for SSF commercial infrastructure which are currently being studied by NASA are described. One candidate for commercial service is the supplemental power for SSF beyond the Assembly Complete phase. The methods which a company could use in providing supplemental power are discussed, with special attention given to the use of solar dynamic power elements attached ot the SSF evolution structure. Another option under evaluation is commercial provision of SSF logistics services using ELVs.

  12. Options for commercial tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1986-07-01

    Systems studies have been performed at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) to assess commercial tokamak options. One study investigates the economics of high-beta operation and determines an optimum operating range of 10 to 20% beta, with a corresponding neutron wall loading of 6 to 8 MW/m/sup 2/. A second study determines conditions under which small, low-power tokamaks can be economically combined into a 1200-MW(electric) multiplex power plant. The results of these studies have directed future efforts at the FEDC toward a high-beta, tokamak design using a modular maintenance configuration.

  13. Process economics and commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Katzen, R.; Doncheck, J.

    1995-12-31

    This session has been organized to present new developments in biomass conversion that could improve process economics and lead toward commercialization of such novel technology. Papers in this session will cover such matters as design and testing of pilot facilities for new biomass conversion technology. The technical and economic evaluation approach will also be covered for traditional and unique reactors, as well as for overall installations for conversion of cellulosic wastes to fuels and chemicals. papers will cover not only the major current interest in ethanol, but also other products, such as acetic and lactic acids, which can be produced by bioconversion of biomass.

  14. Commercialization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny C Servo, Ph D

    2008-02-15

    The Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP) is offered to Phase II awardees of the Department of Energy's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. The purpose of this program is to increase both the likelihood and speed of technology transition to Phase III of technologies which DOE has funded. This program has been offered to DOE SBIR firms since 1990 and has resulted in significant and well documented return on investment. This final report decribes the results of the CAP that was offered to participants during the last cycle.

  15. Management: Commercial Activities Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    or agreements with commercial sources, state and local governments, and federal agencies outside the Department of Defense. This regu- lation...s t a n d o b t a i n H Q D A a p p r o v a l t h r o u g h MACOM before transferring contracted work to a MTOE unit . When the unit departs the...the Department of Labor . The contracting officer will request a wage determination from Department of Labor no earlier than 120 calen- dar days, and no

  16. Commercial television bladder dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Vande Walle, J; Theunis, M; Renson, C; Raes, A; Hoebeke, P

    1995-05-01

    Bladderdysfunction seems to have an increasing frequency in infancy, and especially in children without obvious congenital organic or functional bladderdysfunction. The disorder seems is related with changes in our behaviour, that are stimulated by familial and social pseudo-reasons. Commercial interests and marketing play a major role. This leads to wrong dry-training, an exaggerated hygienic education, prudisheness, wrong toilet-posture, lack of time to void, post-poning, wrong drink- and void-pattern, wrong food-pattern and increasing constipation. Prevention is necessary by an adapted reeducation of parents ans society.

  17. Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.

  18. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  19. Overview of Commercial Buildings, 2003

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration conducts the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to collect information on energy-related building characteristics and types and amounts of energy consumed in commercial buildings in the United States.

  20. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  1. Aerocapacitor commercialization plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-12

    The purpose of the Power-One Aerocapacitor Commercialization Plan is to communicate to members of management and to all employees the overall objectives of the corporation. Power-One, Inc., has participated in a US Federal Government Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Power Conversion based on the Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}: the project is a group effort, with Lawrence Livermore National Labs, GenCorp/Aerojet, PolyStor Corp. (a start-up company), and Power-One forming the consortium. The expected resulting technology is the {open_quotes}Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}, which possesses much higher performance levels than the usual capacitors on the market today. Power-One hopes to incorporate the Aerocapacitor into some of its products, hence enhancing their performance, as well as market privately-labeled aerocapacitors through its distribution channels. This document describes the details of Power-One`s plan to bring to market and commercialize the Aerocapacitor and Aerocapacitor-based products. This plan was formulated while Power-One was part of the Oerocap project. It has since pulled out of this project. What is presented in this plan is the work which was developed prior to the business decision to terminate this work.

  2. MPRS (URBOT) commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccimaro, Donny; Baker, William; Hamilton, Ian; Heikkila, Leif; Renick, Joel

    2003-09-01

    The Man Portable Robotic System (MPRS) project objective was to build and deliver hardened robotic systems to the U.S. Army"s 10 Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York. The system, specifically designed for tunnel and sewer reconnaissance, was equipped with visual and audio sensors that allowed the Army engineers to detect trip wires and booby traps before personnel entered a potentially hostile environment. The MPRS system has shown to be useful in government and military supported field exercises, but the system has yet to reach the hands of civilian users. Potential users in Law Enforcement and Border Patrol have shown a strong interest in the system, but robotic costs were thought to be prohibitive for law enforcement budgets. Through the Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technology (CCAT) program, an attempt will be made to commercialize the MPRS. This included a detailed market analysis performed to verify the market viability of the technologies. Hence, the first step in this phase is to fully define the marketability of proposed technologies in terms of actual market size, pricing and cost factors, competitive risks and/or advantages, and other key factors used to develop marketing and business plans.

  3. Commercialization of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bharucha, N.

    1994-12-31

    The steps to commercialization are reviewed in respect of their relative costs, the roles of the government and business sectors, and the need for scientific, technological, and economic viability. The status of commercialization of selected clean coal technologies is discussed. Case studies related to a clean coal technology are reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the factors that determine commercialization.

  4. TV Commercials Can Teach Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Catherine

    1974-01-01

    In California non-commercial "commercials" short spots of pantomime and bilingual messages fitted into and around television's entertainment programs, are used as a means of providing nutrition education to urban and rural low-income people. As revealed by audience requests for nutritional information offered, the commercials are popular…

  5. The commercialization of migration.

    PubMed

    Abrera-mangahas, M A

    1989-01-01

    International migration is not new to the Philippines. In the recent outflow of contract workers to the Middle East, there is a shift from individual and family initiated migrations to the more organized, highly commercial variety. While profit-taking intermediaries have played some role in the past, the increase in the number and influence of these intermediaries has altered the story of migration decision-making. In 1975, the signing of the bilateral labor agreement between the governments of Iran and the Philippines signalled the rising demand for Filipino contract workers. From 1970 to 1975, the number of Asian migrant workers in the Gulf countries rose from about 120,000 to 370,000. These figures rose dramatically to 3.3 million in 1985. The growing share of organized and commercialized migration has altered migration decision making. Primarily, intermediaries are able to broaden access to foreign job and high wage opportunities. Commercialization effectively raises the transaction costs for contract migration. Studies on recruitment costs and fees show that self-solicited foreign employment costs less than employment obtained through recruitment agents and intermediaries. The difference in the 2 prices is due, not only to overhead costs of intermediation, but more importantly to the rent exacted by agents from having job information and placement rights. In the Philippines in October 1987 the average placement fee was P8000, greatly exceeding the mandated maximum fee level of P5000. This average is understated because the computation includes the 17% who do not pay any fees. The widespread and popular view of recruitment intermediaries is negative, dominated by images of abuses and victims. Private intermediaries and the government bureaucracy need each other. Intermediaries need government; their consistent demand for incentives and protection is indicative. On the other hand, government expands its supervision of control of overseas employment via the

  6. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, speaks during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Astronaut Mike Fincke, a former commander of the International Space Station, speaks during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, announces the agency’s selection of Boeing and SpaceX to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft as Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida looks on at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden listens to a reporter’s question after he announced the agency’s selection of Boeing and SpaceX to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Commercializing solar hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.T.; Prairie, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for a government-supported program to commercialize hydrogen production methods which use solar energy as the main source of energy. Current methods use hydrocarbons and generate large amounts of carbon dioxide. The paper describes results from a literature survey performed to identify technologies using direct solar energy that were likely to succeed on an industrial scale in the near term. Critical parameters included calculated efficiencies, measured efficiencies, and development status. The cost of solar collectors is cited as the reason most promising solar hydrogen research is not taken to the pilot plant stage. The author recommends use of existing DOE facilities already in operation for pilot plant testing. 14 refs. (CK)

  11. Multilayer ceramic actuator commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Andrew P.

    1995-05-01

    AVX is the largest US manufacturer of multilayer ceramic capacitors, producing 10's of millions per day. Multilayer ceramic actuators are manufactured using virtually identical fabrication methods. Fabrication from this ceramic tape allows tremendous latitude in device shape, size and material choice. This paper will discuss several different actuator configurations-including stacks, plates and chips- with respect to performance and cost tradeoffs. Virtually all developing smart material applications are 'technology driven,' however the widespread availability of devices at commercial scale relies on 'market pull' to achieve a balance of high annualized volumes and low cost. Given sufficient demand, devices can be produced such that the raw materials themselves dominate the unit cost. Generalized price-volume-performance relationships for the different actuator configurations can both guide system designers and focus long-term component development efforts.

  12. Commercial aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J.

    The history of aircraft noise control development is traced with an eye to forecasting the future. Noise control became imperative with the advent of the first generation of commercial jet aircraft, which were extremely loud. The steady increases in the size of turbofans have nearly matched the progress in noise reduction capabilities in recent years. Only 5 dB of reduction in fleet noise has been achieved since early standards were met. Current engine design is concentrated on increasing fuel efficiency rather than lowering noise emissions. Further difficulties exist because of continued flights with older aircraft. Gains in noise reduction have been made mainly by decreasing exhaust velocities from 600-700 m/sec to 300-400 m/sec. New techniques being explored comprise mixing the core and bypass flows, interaction tone control, reduction of broadband sources, development of acoustic liner technology and alterations in the number of fan blades and stage spacing.

  13. Endotoxins in commercial vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Geier, M R; Stanbro, H; Merril, C R

    1978-01-01

    Twenty samples of commercial vaccines intended for administration to humans were assayed for the presence of bacterial endotoxins by using the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Sixteen of the vaccines contained more than 0.1 ng of endotoxin per ml (which corresponds to 103 bacterial cell wall equivalents per ml in the undiluted vaccines). These results suggest that at some stage of preparation, the vaccines have contained varying amounts of gram-negative bacteria and may indicate the presence of other bacterial products as well. It might be useful to list the level of endotoxins, phage, and other contaminants on each vaccine lot to facilitate studies on any side effects of these contaminants. Selection of vaccine lots with the least endotoxin might reduce some of the adverse effects of vaccinations. PMID:727776

  14. Whither Commercial Nanobiosensors?

    SciTech Connect

    Achyuthan, Komandoor

    2011-01-01

    The excitement surrounding the marriage of biosensors and nanotechnology is palpable even from a cursory examination of the scientific literature. Indeed, the word “nano” might be in danger of being overused and reduced to a cliché, although probably essential for publishing papers or securing research funding. The biosensor literature is littered with clever or catchy acronyms, birds being apparently favored (“CANARY”, “SPARROW”), quite apart from “electronic tongue,” “electronic nose,” and so on. Although biosensors have been around since glucose monitors were commercialized in the 1970s, the transition of laboratory research and innumerable research papers on biosensors into the world of commerce has lagged. There are several reasons for this phenomenon including the infamous “valley of death” afflicting entrepreneurs emerging from academic environment into the industrial world, where the rules for success can be radically different. In this context, musings on biosensors and especially nanobiosensors in an open access journal such as Journal of Biosensors and Bioelectronics is topical and appropriate especially since market surveys of biosensors are prohibitively expensive, sometimes running into thousands of dollars for a single copy. The contents and predictions of market share for biosensors in these reports also keep changing every time a report is published. Not only that, the market share projections for biosensors differs considerably amongst various reports. An editorial provides the opportunity to offer personal opinions and perhaps stimulate debate on a particular topic. In this sense, editorials are a departure from the rigor of a research paper. This editorial is no exception. With this preamble, it is worthwhile to stop and ponder the status of commercial biosensors and nanobiosensors.

  15. Taxol commercial supply strategy.

    PubMed

    DeFuria, M D; Horovitz, Z

    1993-01-01

    Evidence of Taxol's safety and efficacy for treatment of refractory ovarian cancer convinced the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to seek a pharmaceutical partner and approval. After an open competition, NCI entered a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (BMS) to obtain approval of a New Drug Application (NDA) so that Taxol could be marketed as well as to provide supplies for clinical trials and compassionate use. To assure a successful commercialization of Taxol, BMS developed a strategic plan for expanding drug supplies. The strategy included immediately increasing the amount of Taxol derived from yew bark and establishing a broad research program to evaluate alternative sourcing options and their commercial feasibility. The options included precursor isolation and semisynthesis, yew plantations for biomass production, plant cell culture, and total synthesis. A number of both academic and industrial investigators, already interested in various Taxol supply issues, were enlisted for collaborations with the company. Progress on this research during the first 18 months has enabled BMS to do the following: 1) double the yield of Taxol from bark extraction; 2) exceed NCI's request for drug supplies in 1991, permitting establishment of an ovarian cancer treatment referral center (TRC) with a national network of comprehensive cancer centers; 3) increase NCI supplies from 5000 to 50,000 vials/month in 1992, permitting establishment of TRC protocol for breast cancer; 4) identify several potentially viable alternative sources; 5) schedule production of large amounts of Taxol by precursor conversion during 1993; and 6) ensure that sufficient quantities of the product will be available for treatment and continued clinical research.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Commercializing medical technology.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Kevin J; Lieberman, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880's, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930's-1970's) because the German scientists fled Hitler's government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980's. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain, Singapore

  17. Commercializing medical technology

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880’s, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930’s–1970’s) because the German scientists fled Hitler’s government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980’s. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain

  18. Advanced commercial tokamak study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.L.; Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Brown, T.G.; Bussell, G.T.

    1985-12-01

    Advanced commercial tokamak studies were performed by the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) as a participant in the Tokamak Power Systems Studies (TPSS) project coordinated by the Office of Fusion Energy. The FEDC studies addressed the issues of tokamak reactor cost, size, and complexity. A scoping study model was developed to determine the effect of beta on tokamak economics, and it was found that a competitive cost of electricity could be achieved at a beta of 10 to 15%. The implications of operating at a beta of up to 25% were also addressed. It was found that the economics of fusion, like those of fission, improve as unit size increases. However, small units were found to be competitive as elements of a multiplex plant, provided that unit cost and maintenance time reductions are realized for the small units. The modular tokamak configuration combined several new approaches to develop a less complex and lower cost reactor. The modular design combines the toroidal field coil with the reactor structure, locates the primary vacuum boundary at the reactor cell wall, and uses a vertical assembly and maintenance approach. 12 refs., 19 figs.

  19. Commercial users panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Joseph S.; Flatau, Carl; Hodge, David C.; Hollis, Ralph; Leach, Eugene F.; Gilbert, Ray; Cleland, John; Leifer, Larry; Naser, Joseph; Schmuter, Samson D.

    1987-01-01

    The discussions of motives and requirements for telerobotics application demonstrated that, in many cases, lack of progress was a result not of limited opportunities but of inadequate mechanisms and resources for promoting opportunities. Support for this conclusion came from Telerobotics, Inc., one of the few companies devoted primarily to telerobot systems. They have produced units for such diverse applications as nuclear fusion research, particle accelerators, cryogenics, firefighting, marine biology/undersea systems and nuclear mobile robotics. Mr. Flatau offered evidence that telerobotics research is only rarely supported by the private sector and that it often presents a difficult market. Questions on the mechanisms contained within the NASA technology transfer process for promoting commercial opportunities were fielded by Ray Gilbert and Tom Walters. A few points deserve emphasis: (1) NASA/industry technology transfer occurs in both directions and NASA recognizes the opportunity to learn a great deal from industry in the fields of automation and robotics; (2) promotion of technology transfer projects takes a demand side approach, with requests to industry for specific problem identification. NASA then proposes possible solutions; and (3) comittment ofmotivated and technically qualified people on each end of a technology transfer is essential.

  20. Negotiating Commercial Interests in Biospecimens.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jessica L

    2017-03-01

    Proposed changes to the Common Rule would require publicly funded researchers to disclose whether a subject's biospecimens could be used for commercial profit and whether the subject will share in those proceeds. Disclosing commercial interests will inform research participants that their tissue may have commercial value, a possibility that those individuals might not have previously considered. The proposed changes may then provide people with an opportunity to negotiate commercial rights in their biospecimens despite the well-accepted legal precedent that individuals maintain no interests in their excised tissue.

  1. Commercial Art I and Commercial Art II: An Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    A teacher's guide for two sequential one-year commercial art courses for high school students is presented. Commercial Art I contains three units: visual communication, product design, and environmental design. Students study visual communication by analyzing advertising techniques, practicing fundamental drawing and layout techniques, creating…

  2. Commercial potential of RNAi.

    PubMed

    Jain, K K

    2006-11-01

    The commercial potential of RNAi is assessed on the basis of successful translation of technology into applications in three areas: (1) drug discovery and research-currently the biggest segment; (2) potential therapeutic applications; and (3) the role of microRNA in molecular diagnostics. RNAi is an important method for analyzing gene function and identifying new drug targets that use dsRNA to knock down or silence specific genes. Sets of siRNAs focused on a specific gene class (siRNA libraries) have the capacity to greatly increase the pace of pathway analysis and functional genomics. RNAi plays an important role in drug discovery by facilitating target validation. The discovery of the role of microRNA (miRNAs) in various pathological processes opens up possible applications in molecular diagnostics, particularly that of cancer. The advantages of RNAi-based therapeutics over traditional pharmaceuticals include the capability for more specific therapies with small molecule siRNA. Drawbacks include the development of resistance in cancer and viral infections as well as the interferon effect. RNAi is closely related to gene therapy and the vectors developed for gene therapy are also being used for delivery of siRNAs. RNAi, along with other related technologies, will contribute to the development of personalised medicine. Although none of the RNAi-based drugs is in the market yet, some are in clinical trials. By the year 2010 the market for RNAi-based drugs is expected to be worth 3.5 billion dollars and is expected to expand to 10.5 billion dollars by the year 2015.

  3. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  4. Commercial researcher perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucas, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Protein crystallography--a research tool used to study the structure of the complex building blocks of living systems--has a lot to gain from space-based research. In order to know how a protein works in the human body, researchers must understand its molecular structure. Researchers have identified 150,000 different proteins in the body, but they now know the structure of less than a third of them. The only viable technique for analyzing the structure of these proteins is x-ray diffraction of the proteins in their crystal form. The better the quality of a protein crystal, the more useful it is to researchers who are trying to delineate its structure. The microgravity environment of space allows protein crystals to grow nearly undisturbed by convection and other gravity-driven forces that cause flaws to form in them on the ground. In space, lack of convection enables protein crystals to grow more slowly than they do on Earth, and the slower a protein crystal grows, the fewer flaws it will have. Protein crystal growth experiments have already flown on 14 Space Shuttle missions. This year's USML-1 Spacelab mission included protein crystal growth experiments conducted for commercial researchers. The results of protein crystal experiments flown thus far have been larger crystals with more uniform morphologies. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (A NASA-cosponsored CCDS) currently builds flight hardware to meet researchers' needs and handles sample loading and retrieval for flight experiments. Protein crystallography enables 'rational drug design': the development of drugs that bind only with the target protein and, hence, do not cause side effects. For example, pharmaceutical companies presently are interested in developing drugs that can inhibit purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a protein that plays a role in auto-immune diseases. To continue these kinds of investigations, researchers need a constant supply of protein crystals that are as free of flaws

  5. Commercial researcher perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delucas, Larry

    Protein crystallography--a research tool used to study the structure of the complex building blocks of living systems--has a lot to gain from space-based research. In order to know how a protein works in the human body, researchers must understand its molecular structure. Researchers have identified 150,000 different proteins in the body, but they now know the structure of less than a third of them. The only viable technique for analyzing the structure of these proteins is x-ray diffraction of the proteins in their crystal form. The better the quality of a protein crystal, the more useful it is to researchers who are trying to delineate its structure. The microgravity environment of space allows protein crystals to grow nearly undisturbed by convection and other gravity-driven forces that cause flaws to form in them on the ground. In space, lack of convection enables protein crystals to grow more slowly than they do on Earth, and the slower a protein crystal grows, the fewer flaws it will have. Protein crystal growth experiments have already flown on 14 Space Shuttle missions. This year's USML-1 Spacelab mission included protein crystal growth experiments conducted for commercial researchers. The results of protein crystal experiments flown thus far have been larger crystals with more uniform morphologies. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (A NASA-cosponsored CCDS) currently builds flight hardware to meet researchers' needs and handles sample loading and retrieval for flight experiments. Protein crystallography enables 'rational drug design': the development of drugs that bind only with the target protein and, hence, do not cause side effects. For example, pharmaceutical companies presently are interested in developing drugs that can inhibit purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a protein that plays a role in auto-immune diseases. To continue these kinds of investigations, researchers need a constant supply of protein crystals that are as free of flaws

  6. Space Station commercial user development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The commercial utilization of the space station is investigated. The interest of nonaerospace firms in the use of the space station is determined. The user requirements are compared to the space station's capabilities and a feasibility analysis of a commercial firm acting as an intermediary between NASA and the private sector to reduce costs is presented.

  7. Getting smarter about commercialization opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Pamela; McMakin, Andrea H.; Arnold, Todd

    2005-08-31

    The Disruptive Market Research method, pioneered by Dr. Pam Henderson of Meridian Strategies, helps technology developers make better commercialization decisions and find industry parters. More than 120 entrepreneurial organizations, ranging from the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to Fortune 500 firms, have used the method to evaluate the commercial potential of new products and to shape business strategies.

  8. Teaching Commercial German Through Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyer, Elfriede A.

    Advertisements can be used in many ways to facilitate the teaching of a commercial language. If reproduced as slides or other visual aids, they serve as a visual warm-up exercise for each class period, either reinforcing previously discussed topics or introducing new ones. Catchy headlines in commercials promote rapid expansion of vocabulary and…

  9. Advanced Technologies for Commercial Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    263-page report addresses what advanced electrical and electronic spacecraft technologies can be applied in commercial airplanes. Report discusses a study in which technologies used in the Space Shuttle were evaluated for their potential in commercial transports. Describes new technologies, airplanes, tradeoffs and methods of evaluation. Concludes that major beneficiary would be an advanced wide-body transport (500 passenger).

  10. Teaching Commercial German Through Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyer, Elfriede A.

    Advertisements can be used in many ways to facilitate the teaching of a commercial language. If reproduced as slides or other visual aids, they serve as a visual warm-up exercise for each class period, either reinforcing previously discussed topics or introducing new ones. Catchy headlines in commercials promote rapid expansion of vocabulary and…

  11. NASA's approach to space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillam, Isaac T., IV

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Office of Commercial Programs fosters private participation in commercially oriented space projects. Five Centers for the Commercial Development of Space encourage new ideas and perform research which may yield commercial processes and products for space ventures. Joint agreements allow companies who present ideas to NASA and provide flight hardware access to a free launch and return from orbit. The experimenters furnish NASA with sufficient data to demonstrate the significance of the results. Ground-based tests are arranged for smaller companies to test the feasibility of concepts before committing to the costs of developing hardware. Joint studies of mutual interest are performed by NASA and private sector researchers, and two companies have signed agreements for a series of flights in which launch costs are stretched out to meet projected income. Although Shuttle flights went on hold following the Challenger disaster, extensive work continues on the preparation of commercial research payloads that will fly when Shuttle flights resume.

  12. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health. PMID:24948916

  13. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  14. Pilot production & commercialization of LAPPD™

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minot, Michael J.; Bennis, Daniel C.; Bond, Justin L.; Craven, Christopher A.; O`Mahony, Aileen; Renaud, Joseph M.; Stochaj, Michael E.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Mane, Anil U.; Demarteau, Marcellinus W.; Wagner, Robert G.; McPhate, Jason B.; Helmut Siegmund, Oswald; Elagin, Andrey; Frisch, Henry J.; Northrop, Richard; Wetstein, Matthew J.

    2015-07-01

    We present a progress update on plans to establish pilot production and commercialization of Large Area (400 cm2) Picosecond Photodetector (LAPPD™). Steps being taken to commercialize this MCP and LAPPD™ technology and begin tile pilot production are presented including (1) the manufacture of 203 mm×203 mm borosilicate glass capillary arrays (GCAs), (2) optimization of MCP performance and creation of an ALD coating facility to manufacture MCPs and (3) design, construction and commissioning of UHV tile integration and sealing facility to produce LAPPDs. Taken together these plans provide a "pathway toward commercialization".

  15. The puzzle of graphene commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seongjun

    2016-11-01

    The commercialization of graphene-based products is challenging, because many engineering and economical aspects have to be taken into consideration. A stronger collaboration between academia and industry would be beneficial for accelerating the process.

  16. Commercialization of parabolic dish systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washom, B.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of recent federal tax and regulatory legislation on the commercialization of parabolic solar reflector technology is assessed. Specific areas in need of technical or economic improvement are noted.

  17. Commercial and Institutional Case Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Throughout the country, commercial and institutional (CI) building owners and facility managers are taking actions to reduce their water use, implementing many of the operations and maintenance, retrofit, and replacement projects.

  18. Commercialization of parabolic dish systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washom, B.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of recent federal tax and regulatory legislation on the commercialization of parabolic solar reflector technology is assessed. Specific areas in need of technical or economic improvement are noted.

  19. Les entreprises commerciales (Commercial Enterprises).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Wallace

    1979-01-01

    Examines the legal concept of "corporate body" in French and English law, as well as that of the "company," the "corporation," and the "society"; and discusses the manifestations of a dual legal heritage in commercial enterprises in Quebec. (AM)

  20. The Seasat commercial demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccandless, S. W.; Miller, B. P.; Montgomery, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The background and development of the Seasat commercial demonstration program are reviewed and the Seasat spacecraft and its sensors (altimeter, wind field scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer) are described. The satellite data distribution system allows for selected sets of data, reformatted or tailored to specific needs and geographical regions, to be available to commercial users. Products include sea level and upper atmospheric pressure, sea surface temperature, marine winds, significant wave heights, primary wave direction and period, and spectral wave data. The results of a set of retrospective case studies performed for the commercial demonstration program are described. These are in areas of application such as marine weather and ocean condition forecasting, offshore resource exploration and development, commercial fishing, and marine transportation.

  1. Commercial Crew Planning Status Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA presents an overview of common themes captured from industry responses provided to NASA's Commercial Crew Initiative Request for Information (RFI) published on May 21, 2010. The forum includes...

  2. Commercialization in NASA Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Charlene E.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with commercialization in NASA space operations are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) NASA's financial outlook; 2) Space operations; 3) Space operations technology; and 4) Strategies associated with these operations.

  3. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them.

  4. Industry's Commercial Initiatives on ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, C. E.; Kessler, C.; Lavitola, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    For more than ten years, private industry has worked to develop a commercial human space market and to create a sustainable ISS commercial utilization customer base. Before ISS assembly was underway - and long before NASA and the international space agencies began to craft ISS commercial business terms and conditions - industry planted and nurtured the seeds of interest in exploiting human space utilization for commerce. These early initiatives have yielded the impetus and framework for industry approaches to ISS commercial utilization today and for NASA's and the International Partners' planned accommodation of private sector interests and desires on the ISS. This paper chronicles major industry initiatives for commercial ISS utilization, emphasizing successful marketing and business approaches and why these approaches have a higher likelihood of success than others. It provides an overview of individual companies' initiatives, as well as collaborative efforts that cross company lines and country borders; and it assesses the relative success of each. Rather than emphasize negative issues and barriers, this paper characterizes and prioritizes actionable success factors for industry and government to make ISS commercial utilization a sustainable reality.

  5. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  6. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  7. Benchmarking Commercial Conformer Ensemble Generators.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Nils-Ole; de Bruyn Kops, Christina; Flachsenberg, Florian; Sommer, Kai; Rarey, Matthias; Kirchmair, Johannes

    2017-10-02

    We assess and compare the performance of eight commercial conformer ensemble generators (ConfGen, ConfGenX, cxcalc, iCon, MOE LowModeMD, MOE Stochastic, MOE Conformation Import and OMEGA) and one leading free algorithm, the distance geometry (DG) algorithm implemented in RDKit. The comparative study is based on a new version of the Platinum Diverse Dataset, a high-quality benchmarking dataset of 2859 protein-bound ligand conformations extracted from the PDB. Differences in the performance of commercial algorithms are much smaller than those observed for free algorithms in our previous study (J. Chem. Inf. 2017, 57, 529-539). For commercial algorithms the median minimum RMSDs measured between protein-bound ligand conformations and ensembles of a maximum of 250 conformers are between 0.46 and 0.61 Å. Commercial conformer ensemble generators are characterized by their high robustness, with at least 99% of all input molecules successfully processed and few or even no substantial geometrical errors detectable in their output conformations. The RDKit DG algorithm (with minimization enabled) appears to be a good free alternative since its performance is comparable to that of the mid-ranked commercial algorithms. Based on a statistical analysis, we elaborate on which algorithms to use and how to parameterize them for best performance in different application scenarios.

  8. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial aircraft manufacturers are making production commitments to composite structure for future aircraft and modifications to current production aircraft. Flight service programs with advanced composites sponsored by NASA during the past 10 years are described. Approximately 2.5 million total composite component flight hours have been accumulated since 1970 on both commercial transports and helicopters. Design concepts with significant mass savings were developed, appropriate inspection and maintenance procedures were established, and satisfactory service was achieved for the various composite components. A major NASA/U.S. industry technology program to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites was undertaken. Ground and flight environmental effects on the composite materials used in the flight service programs supplement the flight service evaluation.

  9. Commercial Crew Development Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Commercial Crew Development Program is designed to stimulate efforts within the private sector that will aid in the development and demonstration of safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities. With the goal of delivery cargo and eventually crew to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) the program is designed to foster the development of new spacecraft and launch vehicles in the commercial sector. Through Space Act Agreements (SAAs) in 2011 NASA provided $50M of funding to four partners; Blue Origin, The Boeing Company, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and SpaceX. Additional, NASA has signed two unfunded SAAs with ATK and United Space Alliance. This paper will give a brief summary of these SAAs. Additionally, a brief overview will be provided of the released version of the Commercial Crew Development Program plans and requirements documents.

  10. Evaluation of commercial compost quality.

    PubMed

    Tomati, Umberto; Belardinelli, Monica; Andreu, Monica; Galli, Emanuela; Capitani, Donatella; Proietti, Noemi; De Simone, Claudio

    2002-10-01

    Ten commercial composts were evaluated on the basis of chemical, physical and biological characteristics and compared with a compost produced by a safe matrix in controlled conditions. FT-IR spectra, (13)C CP-MAS NMR spectra and molecular weights were also assayed on humic acids extracted from the composts. The results show that the origin of the starting materials affects the quality of the end products especially for their heavy metal content and genotoxic effect. The presence of a high percentage of low molecular weight fractions generally recorded in the humic acids from commercial composts could be due to uncorrected composting process. FT-IR and (13)C CP-MAS NMR spectra agree with functional group assignments, characterising the level of humification. The results show that commercial composts can display harmful properties probably due to the origin of the starting material, therefore a regulation about both compost production and characterisation should be suitable.

  11. 30 GHz Commercial Satellite Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Ponchak, George E.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's research and development work in satellite communications for the past 10 years has included a major technology thrust aimed at opening the Ka frequency band to commercial exploitation. This has included the development and testing of advanced system network architectures, on-board switching and processing, multibeam and phased array antennas, and satellite and ground terminal RF and digital hardware. Development work in system hardware has focused on critical components including power amplifiers, satellite IF switch matrices, low noise receivers, baseband processors, and high data rate bandwidth efficient modems. This paper describes NASA's work in developing and testing 30 GHz low noise satellite receivers for commercial space communications uplink applications. Frequencies allotted for fixed service commercial satellite communications in the Ka band are 27.5 - 30.0 GHz for uplink transmission and 17.7 - 20.2 GHz for downlink transmission. The relatively large 2.5 GHz bandwidth lends itself to wideband, high data rate digital transmission applications.

  12. Microbiologic evaluation of commercial probiotics.

    PubMed

    Weese, J Scott

    2002-03-15

    To evaluate contents of commercial probiotic products marketed for veterinary or human administration. Microbiologic culture assay. 8 veterinary probiotics and 5 human probiotics. Quantitative bacteriologic culture was performed on all products, and isolates were identified via biochemical characteristics. Comparison of actual contents versus label claims was performed. Label descriptions of organisms and concentrations accurately described the actual contents of only 2 of 13 products. Five veterinary products did not specifically list their contents. Most products contained low concentrations of viable organisms. Five products did not contain 1 or more of the stated organisms, and 3 products contained additional species. Some products contained organisms with no reported probiotic effects; some of these organisms could be pathogens. Most commercial veterinary probiotic preparations are not accurately represented by label claims. Quality control appears to be poor for commercial veterinary probiotics.

  13. Transitioning NASA Space Operations to Commercial Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Charlene E.

    1998-01-01

    Major considerations associated with "Transitioning NASA Space Operations to Commercial Services" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Government use of commercial frequencies vs. commercial use of commercial frequencies for government use; 2) Commercial use of government frequencies; 3) Government vs commercial: Access techniques, data formats, and modulation and coding; 4) Government need for multiple sources: backup and competition; 5) Government in perceived competition with commercial service providers if TDRSS is used for commercial purposes; and 6) Coordination required among plans for CSOC, NSCP, and satellite industry.

  14. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  15. Patient Transport via Commercial Airlines

    PubMed Central

    Macnab, Andrew John

    1992-01-01

    Because the frequency of patient transport from one hospital to another is increasing and the popularity of air travel continues to rise, physicians should be aware of the procedures for patient transport by commercial airlines. Major airlines in Canada have experienced personnel and established procedures that facilitate the transportation of patients with special medical needs. By working with the airline medical health officers and using up-to-date equipment, physicians can achieve safe, cost-effective transport of appropriate patients via commercial aircraft. PMID:21221401

  16. Successful commercialization of nanophotonic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Supriya L.; Clarke, Roger B. M.; Hyde, Sam C. W.

    2006-08-01

    The exploitation of nanotechnology from proof of principle to realizable commercial applications encounters considerable challenges in regards to high volume, large scale, low cost manufacturability and social ethics. This has led to concerns over converting powerful intellectual property into realizable, industry attractive technologies. At The Technology Partnership we specifically address the issue of successful integration of nanophotonics into industry in markets such as biomedical, ophthalmic, energy, telecommunications, and packaging. In this paper we draw on a few examples where we have either developed industrial scale nanophotonic technology or engineering platforms which may be used to fortify nano/microphotonic technologies and enhance their commercial viability.

  17. Commercial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of Commercial Antifreezes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    accomplished by atomic absorption spectroscopy . No attempt \\%as made to identify minor components. Conley, James H.’and Jamison, Robert G.. "Evaluation...freeze point depressant. Analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy shows that all products, except Antifreeze G, contain boron. All II commercial

  19. Commercial expendable launch vehicle liability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearings before a subcommittee of the House Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation are presented. Cost and availability of insurance for commercial launch providers was discussed. The contribution of the domestic launch industry to the Space Program is examined. All written testimony and submittals for the record are also included.

  20. Commercial Art 103, 203, 303.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    As part of the high school vocational industrial program in Manitoba, this course has been designed to provide students with the foundation for a career in commercial art. The program introduces and provides opportunities for student skill development in the theories and techniques of drawing, lettering, composition and design, graphics,…

  1. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden's reflection is seen in a TV monitor during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    Mike Gass, President and Chief Executive, United Launch Alliance is seen during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    Jane Poynter, President and Chair, Paragon Space Development Corp. is seen during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    Robert Millman of Blue Origin is seen during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    Brewster Shaw, VP and General Manager, NASA Systems, Boeing is seen during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Commercial Uses of Broadband Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Ephraim

    The need for commercial communications is expected to grow substantially in the future. Whether telephone companies meet most of this demand seems to depend on three major factors: regulatory actions, the development of alternative technology, and the telephone companies themselves. The Federal Communications Commission is considering requiring…

  8. Commercial Theme-Writing Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Joan; Kent, Laura

    This survey of the Higher Education Panel (HEP) of the American Council on Education was conducted in response to the growing concern among many members of the academic community about the threat posed to our higher education system by a new commercial service for college students, the theme writing firm. These companies make available to…

  9. Commercial Software for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, William L.

    Computer software packages that are commercially available for physics instruction are compiled in this paper. Information for each program includes: the broad subject category (i.e., mechanics, waves and sound, heat and thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, optics and light, modern physics, mathematical models, or general reference/testing…

  10. College Companies and Commercial Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    A feasibility study determined the number and scope of existing college companies set up by permission of the Commercial Activities in Further Education Act in Great Britain. A sample of six colleges was studied; managing directors of the six companies took part in semistructured interviews to explore some issues in greater depth. The advantages…

  11. Commercial Software for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, William L.

    Computer software packages that are commercially available for physics instruction are compiled in this paper. Information for each program includes: the broad subject category (i.e., mechanics, waves and sound, heat and thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, optics and light, modern physics, mathematical models, or general reference/testing…

  12. Technology Transfer/Commercialization Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: (1) Who we are. (2) Technology opportunities and successes in 2002: Hilbert-Huang transform; new sensors via sol-gel-filled fiber optics; hierarchical segmentation software. (3) Activities in 2002: encouraging researcher involvement; inventorying new technologies; patenting Goddard technologies; promoting Goddard technologies; establishing new agreements;seeking and bestowing awards. (4) How to reach Goddard's: technology commercialization office.

  13. Albatros Commercial Airplane L 73

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhl, Karl; Wiederhold, Hasso

    1926-01-01

    The Albatros was a two engine commercial biplane carrying 2 pilots, eight passengers, and 160 KG of baggage. The framework is metal, the wings having plywood and fabric over the steel tubing. The L 73 was the first 2 engine biplane to be made in Germany.

  14. On Selecting Commercial Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Möhr, J.R.; Sawinski, R.; Kluge, A.; Alle, W.

    1984-01-01

    As more commercial information systems become available, the methodology for their selection gains importance. An instances where the method employed for the selection of laboratory information systems was multilevel assessment. The method is described and the experience gained in the project is summarized and discussed. Evidence is provided that the employed method is comprehensive, reproducible, valid and economic.

  15. Reflections on Commercializing University Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hum, Derek

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the extent of commercialization of research in Canadian universities, explains why copyright enforcement is difficult, and discusses the benefits and disadvantages of licensing an innovation versus creating a spinoff company to exploit university discoveries. Explores issues related to sharing benefits of university discoveries. (SLD)

  16. NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagwell, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Coordination/Integration of government program; 2) Achievement of seamless interoperable satellite and terrestrial networks; 3) Establishment of program to enhance Satcom professional and technical workforce; 4) Precompetitive technology development; and 5) Effective utilization of spectrum and orbit assets.

  17. Commercial Art: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a commercial art vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and the…

  18. Commercialization of vein contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal; Vrancken, Carlos; Zhang, Yong; Zeman, Herbert D.; Weinberg, Devin

    2003-07-01

    An ongoing clinical study of an experimental infrared (IR) device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE) that visualizes surface veins for medical access, indicates that a commercial device with the performance of the existing VCE would have significant clinical utility for even a very skilled phlebotomist. A proof-of-principle prototype VCE device has now been designed and constructed that captures IR images of surface veins with a commercial CCD camera, transfers the images to a PC for real-time software image processing to enhance the vein contrast, and projects the enhanced images back onto the skin with a modified commercial LCD projector. The camera and projector are mounted on precision slides allowing for precise mechanical alignment of the two optical axes and for measuring the effects of axes misalignment. Precision alignment of the captured and projected images over the entire field-of-view is accomplished electronically by software adjustments of the translation, scaling, and rotation of the enhanced images before they are projected back onto the skin. This proof-of-principle prototype will be clinically tested and the experience gained will lead to the development of a commercial device, OnTarget!, that is compact, easy to use, and will visualize accessible veins in almost all subjects needing venipuncture.

  19. Commercialism in Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kirstin

    Businesses are increasingly making inroads into the classroom, particularly in underfunded schools. The dramatic rise in commercial activities in schools has sparked intense public debate, triggering a U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) report and various regulatory attempts at district, state, and federal levels. This digest offers an overview…

  20. The Battle over Commercialized Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Garcia, David

    2006-01-01

    For the last 15 years, the Education Policy Studies Laboratory has studied trends in schoolhouse commercialism and has found that this practice is increasingly pervasive and diverse. The manifestations of marketing in public schools include incentive programs, such as Pizza Hut's "Book It!" program; contracts that grant soft drink and junk food…

  1. The Battle over Commercialized Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Garcia, David

    2006-01-01

    For the last 15 years, the Education Policy Studies Laboratory has studied trends in schoolhouse commercialism and has found that this practice is increasingly pervasive and diverse. The manifestations of marketing in public schools include incentive programs, such as Pizza Hut's "Book It!" program; contracts that grant soft drink and junk food…

  2. Commercial Security on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Carrie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses commercial security on the Internet and explains public key technology as successfully melding the conflicting requirements of openness for practical business applications and isolation and confidentiality for protection of data. Examples of public key value-added products are described, including encryption, digital signature and…

  3. Commercial Security on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Carrie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses commercial security on the Internet and explains public key technology as successfully melding the conflicting requirements of openness for practical business applications and isolation and confidentiality for protection of data. Examples of public key value-added products are described, including encryption, digital signature and…

  4. Commercial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ovens

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ovens that are effective as of January 1, 2014. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=ovens.pr_crit_comm_ovens

  6. Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications through the Fundamental Understanding of Membrane and MEA Degradation Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Randal L.

    2013-10-31

    The Project focused on mitigation of degradation processes on membrane electrode assemblies. The approach was to develop a model to improve understanding of the mechanisms, and to use it to focus mitigation strategies. The detailed effects of various accelerated stress tests (ASTs) were evaluated to determine the best subset to use in model development. A combination of ASTs developed by the Fuel Cell Commercialization Conference of Japan and the Fuel Cell Tech Team were selected for use. The ASTs were compared by measuring effects on performance, running in-situ diagnostics, and performing microscopic analyses of the membrane electrode assemblies after the stress tests were complete. Nissan ran FCCJ AST protocols and performed in situ and ex-situ electrochemical testing. DuPont ran FCTT and USFCC AST protocols, performed scanning and transmission electron microscopy and ran in-situ electrochemical tests. Other ex-situ testing was performed by IIT, along with much of the data analysis and model development. These tests were then modified to generate time-dependent data of the degradation mechanisms. Three different catalyst types and four membrane variants were then used to generate data for a theoretically-based degradation model. An important part of the approach was to use commercially available materials in the electrodes and membranes made in scalable semiworks processes rather than lab-based materials. This constraint ensured all materials would be practicable for full-scale testing. The initial model for the electrode layer was tested for internal consistency and agreement with the data. A Java-based computer application was developed to analyze the time-dependent AST data using polarization curves with four different cathode gas feeds and generate model parameters. Data showed very good reproducibility and good consistency as cathode catalyst loadings were varied. At the point of termination of the project, a basic electrode model was in hand with several

  7. 78 FR 37474 - Commercial Radio Operators

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 13 Commercial Radio Operators AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... years, the information collection associated with commercial radio licenses, as well as for Commercial Operator License Examination Managers (COLEM(s)) that administer commercial radio operator licenses across...

  8. 27 CFR 10.21 - Commercial bribery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commercial bribery. 10.21 Section 10.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.21 Commercial bribery. It...

  9. 27 CFR 10.21 - Commercial bribery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial bribery. 10.21 Section 10.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.21 Commercial bribery. It...

  10. 36 CFR 271.4 - Commercial license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial license. 271.4... BEARâ SYMBOL § 271.4 Commercial license. (a) The Chief may authorize the commercial manufacture... a use or royalty charge which is reasonably related to the commercial enterprise has...

  11. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in... other vehicles when used in transporting movable property for a fee or profit, either as a direct charge...

  12. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in... other vehicles when used in transporting movable property for a fee or profit, either as a direct charge...

  13. Exploiting The New Commercial Space Race

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-10

    strategy anticipated a strong market for launching commercial satellites that would drive down cost for launching government satellites. The commercial... market demand failed to materialize. Since 2006, a joint venture created between Lockheed Martin and Boeing, United Launch Alliance (ULA), has...strategy relied on the strong commercial viability of both vehicles to lower unit costs. The anticipated commercial market demand failed to materialize

  14. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in... other vehicles when used in transporting movable property for a fee or profit, either as a direct...

  15. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in... other vehicles when used in transporting movable property for a fee or profit, either as a direct...

  16. Commercialization of nickel and iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1996-12-31

    Metallurgists are taught that intermetallics are brittle phases and should be avoided in alloys of commercial interest. This education is so deeply rooted that irrespective of significant advances made in ductilization of aluminides,the road to their acceptance commercialization is extremely difficult. This paper identifies the requirements for commercialization of any new alloys and reports the activities carried out to commercialize Ni and Fe aluminides. The paper also identifies areas which meet the current commercialization requirements and areas needing additional effort.

  17. Commercial space initiatives - Signs of hope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Wood, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses the evolution and status of commercial space development along with the U.S. Government's role in commercial development. Special attention is given to several activities in the NASA program in this area. These activities include the development of space technology to meet the needs of promising commercial applications (such as new satellite communications and remote sensing technology), serving as a customer to commercial space ventures, and providing direct assistance to private sector commercial space initiatives.

  18. Commercial applications of satellite oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that in the next decade the oceans' commercial users will require an operational oceanographic satellite system or systems capable of maximizing real-time coverage over all ocean areas. Seasat studies suggest that three spacecraft are required to achieve this. Here, the sensor suite would measure surface winds, wave heights (and spectral energy distribution), ice characteristics, sea-surface temperature, ocean colorimetry, height of the geoid, salinity, and subsurface thermal structure. The importance of oceanographic data being distributed to commercial users within two hours of observation time is stressed. Also emphasized is the importance of creating a responsive oceanographic satellite data archive. An estimate of the potential dollar benefits of such an operational oceanographic satellite system is given.

  19. Space America's commercial space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, N. H.

    1984-01-01

    Space America prepared a private sector land observing space system which includes a sensor system with eight spectral channels configured for stereoscopic data acquisition of four stereo pairs, a spacecraft bus with active three-axis stabilization, a ground station for data acquisition, preprocessing and retransmission. The land observing system is a component of Space America's end-to-end system for Earth resources management, monitoring and exploration. In the context of the Federal Government's program of commercialization of the US land remote sensing program, Space America's space system is characteristic of US industry's use of advanced technology and of commercial, entrepreneurial management. Well before the issuance of the Request for Proposals for Transfer of the United States Land Remote Sensing Program to the Private Sector by the US Department of Commerce, Space Services, Inc., the managing venturer of Space America, used private funds to develop and manage its sub-orbital launch of its Conestoga launch vehicle.

  20. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  1. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  2. The commercialization of plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Eric

    2013-09-01

    The last decade has brought a major challenge to the traditional practice of plastic surgery from corporations that treat plastic surgery as a commercial product and market directly to the public. This corporate medicine model may include promotion of a trademarked procedure or device, national advertising that promises stunning results, sales consultants, and claims of innovation, superiority, and improved safety. This article explores the ethics of this business practice and whether corporate medicine is a desirable model for patients and plastic surgeons.

  3. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy Dr. John P. Holdren speaks during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, and Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy Dr. John P. Holdren are seen during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    Mark Sirangelo, VP and Chair, SNC Space Systems Board, Sierra Nevada Corp. is seen during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Commercializing the transfer orbit stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    Key milestones necessary to establish the transfer orbit stage are examined. The selection of the project concept and synthesis of the company are described followed by an analysis venture capability support and the selection of a major aerospace company as prime contractor. A landmark agreement with NASA sanctioned the commercial TOS concept and provided the critical support necessary to raise the next round of venture capital. Project management and customer commitments are also discussed.

  7. Commercial aviation icing research requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koegeboehn, L. P.

    1981-01-01

    A short range and long range icing research program was proposed. A survey was made to various industry and goverment agencies to obtain their views of needs for commercial aviation ice protection. Through these responsed, other additional data, and Douglas Aircraft icing expertise; an assessment of the state-of-the-art of aircraft icing data and ice protection systems was made. The information was then used to formulate the icing research programs.

  8. CFZF - Commercial Float Zone Furnace

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-05

    STS077-392-033 (19-29 May 1996) --- Astronaut Marc Garneau, mission specialist, works at the Commercial Float Zone Furnace (CFZF) in the Spacehab Module onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. Garneau, representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and five other astronauts went on to spend almost ten-days aboard Endeavour in support of the Spacehab 4 mission and a number of other payloads.

  9. Commercialization of the Space Frontier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, William M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the current outlook for space business, how growing space business will improve the quality of life for all, and identified strategies for better relating international space research, technology, and space system operations to commercial interests in space. By drawing on recent assessments of the future potential for business in space, opportunities will be defined for encouraging the growth of business uses of space and regaining the public's awareness and support for expanding the space frontier.

  10. Performance Metrics for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Wang, Na; Romero, Rachel L.; Deru, Michael P.

    2010-09-30

    Commercial building owners and operators have requested a standard set of key performance metrics to provide a systematic way to evaluate the performance of their buildings. The performance metrics included in this document provide standard metrics for the energy, water, operations and maintenance, indoor environmental quality, purchasing, waste and recycling and transportation impact of their building. The metrics can be used for comparative performance analysis between existing buildings and industry standards to clarify the impact of sustainably designed and operated buildings.

  11. Viruses of commercialized insect pollinators.

    PubMed

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2017-07-01

    Managed insect pollinators are indispensable in modern agriculture. They are used worldwide not only in the open field but also in greenhouses to enhance fruit set, seed production, and crop yield. Managed honey bee (Apis mellifera, Apis cerana) colonies provide the majority of commercial pollination although other members of the superfamily Apoidea are also exploited and commercialized as managed pollinators. In the recent past, it became more and more evident that viral diseases play a key role in devastating honey bee colony losses and it was also recognized that many viruses originally thought to be honey bee specific can also be detected in other pollinating insects. However, while research on viruses infecting honey bees started more than 50years ago and the knowledge on these viruses is growing ever since, little is known on virus diseases of other pollinating bee species. Recent virus surveys suggested that many of the viruses thought to be honey bee specific are actually circulating in the pollinator community and that pollinator management and commercialization of pollinators provide ample opportunity for viral diseases to spread. However, the direction of disease transmission is not always clear and the impact of these viral diseases on the different hosts remains elusive in many cases. With our review we want to provide an up-to-date overview on the viruses detected in different commercialized pollinators in order to encourage research in the field of pollinator virology that goes beyond molecular detection of viruses. A deeper understanding of this field of virology is urgently needed to be able to evaluate the impact of viruses on pollinator health and the role of different pollinators in spreading viral diseases and to be able to decide on appropriate measures to prevent virus-driven pollinator decline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M.C.; Foley, L.O.; Jarnagin, R.E.

    1990-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is planning to implement a conservation acquisition program in new and existing commercial buildings. In anticipation of that program, Bonneville is examining the potential environmental effects of conservation measures in commercial buildings. An important conservation measure is the installation of new energy-efficient lighting fixtures. Some of the old lighting fixtures that these new lights will be replacing were manufactured before 1978, when polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were still used in the capacitors of the lighting ballasts. This report focuses on a summary of information about PCBs in fluorescent light fixtures manufactured before 1978. A key issue associated with these PCBs is the potential effect of lamp change-outs on ballast failure. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) speculates that installing energy-efficient lamps in old, PCB-laden ballasts may contribute to ballast failure and PCB leaks, which is addressed in Section 3 of this report. Section 2 discusses applicable standards and regulations; Section 4 describes PCB concentrations in commercial buildings. Sections 5 and 6 discuss cleanup practices and disposal options. 4 tabs.

  13. Commercial-Aircraft Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Russell L., Jr.; Wolff, Peter H.

    2004-09-01

    Recent world events have identified needs for a commercial aircraft defense system against Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS), such as SA-7 and Stinger shoulder launched surface-to-air missiles. Technical challenges include target detection, identification and countermeasures. Political and societal challenges include cost, time to deployment, ground and air safety, and reliability. These challenges, as well as many others, have been met and overcome with the development of Thor Systems' Commercial-Aircraft Protection System (C-APS). C-APS makes use of commercial technology such as radar and infrared sensors with a laser-based countermeasure. Unlike adapted military systems, C-APS detects the threat long before the military versions by employing a 360 degree hemispherical scan, identifying the threat with an infrared sensor and employing a directed laser to not only deflect the target but to permanently disable its seeker. Enhanced capabilities include multiple threat elimination and closed-loop technology for kill verification. All of this is accomplished with development costs less than half that required to convert military technology, manufacturing costs significantly less than competitive products, and a maintenance cycle coincident with standard FAA requirements, which are significantly longer than current systems.

  14. Application and commercialization of nematodes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Arne

    2013-07-01

    While nematodes are most commonly known for their negative impact on plants, animals, and humans, there are a number of species which are commercially explored. This review highlights some of the most important success stories for the application of nematodes. They are used as bioindicators in ecological and toxicity studies, as model organisms for elucidating fundamental biological questions and for high throughput screening of drugs. Besides these indirect uses, direct applications include the use of Beddingia siricidicola against a major forest pest and the commercialization of Steinernema, Heterorhabditis, and Phasmarhabditis as biological pest control products. New directions for the commercialization of nematodes are the use as living food, specifically loaded with essential nutrients for various fish and shrimp larvae. Even human parasites or closely related species have been successfully used for curing autoimmune disorders and are currently in the process of being developed as drugs. With the striving development of life sciences, we are likely to see more applications for nematodes in the future. A prerequisite is that we continue to explore the vast number of yet undiscovered nematode species.

  15. Commercialization of New Beam Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Joseph

    1996-05-01

    The commercialization of electron processing applications is driven by demonstrated technical advantages over current practice. Mature and reliable accelerator technology has permitted more consistent product quality and the development of new processes. However, the barriers to commercial adoption are often not amenable to solution within the laboratory alone. Aspects of the base accelerator technology, plant engineering, production, project management, financing, regulatory control, product throughput and plant operational efficiency all contribute to the business risk. Experiences in building three 10 MeV, 50 kW, IMPELA electron accelerators at approximately 8 M each and achieving cumulative operational availability greater than 98% in commercial environments have identified key parameters defining those aspects. The allowed ranges of these parameters to generate the 1.5 M annual revenue that is typically necessary to support outlays of this scale are presented. Such data have been used in proposals to displace expensive chemicals in the viscose industry, sterilize sewage sludge, detoxify chemically contaminated soils and build radiation service centers for a diversity of applications. The proposals face stiff competition from traditional chemical methods. Quantitative technical and business details of these activities are provided and an attempt is made to establish realistic expectations for the exploitation of electron beam technologies in emerging applications.

  16. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the identities of building owners might be revealed and

  17. 76 FR 126 - Requirement for Commercial Users To Use Commercial Public Key Information (PKI) Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Department of the Army Requirement for Commercial Users To Use Commercial Public Key Information (PKI... commercial accounts accessing transportation systems and applications to use a commercial PKI certificate or... commercial entities by the Surface Deployment and Distribution Command, the United States Department of...

  18. 48 CFR 227.7202 - Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... software and commercial computer software documentation. 227.7202 Section 227.7202 Federal Acquisition... REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7202 Commercial computer software and commercial computer software documentation....

  19. NASA's telemedicine testbeds: Commercial benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doarn, Charles R.; Whitten, Raymond

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been developing and applying telemedicine to support space flight since the Agency's beginning. Telemetry of physiological parameters from spacecraft to ground controllers is critical to assess the health status of humans in extreme and remote environments. Requisite systems to support medical care and maintain readiness will evolve as mission duration and complexity increase. Developing appropriate protocols and procedures to support multinational, multicultural missions is a key objective of this activity. NASA has created an Agency-wide strategic plan that focuses on the development and integration of technology into the health care delivery systems for space flight to meet these challenges. In order to evaluate technology and systems that can enhance inflight medical care and medical education, NASA has established and conducted several testbeds. Additionally, in June of 1997, NASA established a Commercial Space Center (CSC) for Medical Informatics and Technology Applications at Yale University School of Medicine. These testbeds and the CSC foster the leveraging of technology and resources between government, academia and industry to enhance health care. This commercial endeavor will influence both the delivery of health care in space and on the ground. To date, NASA's activities in telemedicine have provided new ideas in the application of telecommunications and information systems to health care. NASA's Spacebridge to Russia, an Internet-based telemedicine testbed, is one example of how telemedicine and medical education can be conducted using the Internet and its associated tools. Other NASA activities, including the development of a portable telemedicine workstation, which has been demonstrated on the Crow Indian Reservation and in the Texas Prison System, show promise in serving as significant adjuncts to the delivery of health care. As NASA continues to meet the challenges of space flight, the

  20. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    From left, Jane Poynter, President and Chair, Paragon Space Development Corp., Brewster Shaw, VP and General Manager, NASA Systems, Boeing, Robert Millman of Blue Origin and Mike Gass, President and Chief Executive, United Launch Alliance are seen during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden listens to his introduction by Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy Dr. John P. Holdren during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. The Commercial Challenges Of Pacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanden Brink, John A.

    1984-08-01

    The increasing use of digital imaging techniques create a need for improved methods of digital processing, communication and archiving. However, the commercial opportunity is dependent on the resolution of a number of issues. These issues include proof that digital processes are more cost effective than present techniques, implementation of information system support in the imaging activity, implementation of industry standards, conversion of analog images to digital formats, definition of clinical needs, the implications of the purchase decision and technology requirements. In spite of these obstacles, a market is emerging, served by new and existing companies, that may become a $500 million market (U.S.) by 1990 for equipment and supplies.

  3. Transitioning HELs to Commercial Viability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    laser concepts such as thin disks and high efficiency diode lasers are reviewed. 11.. iv S6 Chemical - EDL’s - Solid State Laser tMSAIIM irnCS...commercial use and are part of open literature throughout the world in the laser field ;2, IV .. W a’ Real HEL’s Uses and Needs .,... Military uses...Chemical Lasers: COIL., HF, DF, (CO2) -Platforms: ABL, THEL, SBL, ATL Why have Electric Lasers not been a viable option? *Low- costo Future Needs

  4. Magnetic fusion commercial power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John

    1994-09-01

    Toroidal magnetic systems offer the best opportunity to make a commercial fusion power plant. They have, between them, all the features needed; however, no one system yet meets the ideal requirements. The tokamak is the most advanced system, and the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will build upon the existing program to prepare for an advanced tokamak demonstration plant. Complementary toroidal systems such as the spherical torus, stellarator, reversed-field pinch, field-reversed configuration, and spheromak offer, between them, potential advantages in each area and should be studied in a balanced fusion development program.

  5. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welt, M. A.

    In July 1981, the first specifically designed multi-purpose irradiation facility for food irradiation was put into service by the Radiation Technology, Inc. subsidiary Process Technology, Inc. in West Memphis, Arkansas. The operational experience gained, resulted in an enhanced design which was put into commercial service in Haw River, North Carolina, by another subsidiary, Process Technology (N.C.), Inc. in October 1983. These facilities have enabled the food industry to assess the commercial viability of food irradiation. Further impetus towards commercialization of food irradiation was gained in March 1981 with the filing in the Federal Register, by the FDA, of an Advanced Proposed Notice of Rulemaking for Food Irradiation. Two years later in July 1983, the FDA approved the first food additive regulation involving food irradiation in nineteen years, when they approved the Radiation Technology, Inc. petition calling for the sanitization of spices, onion powder and garlic powder at a maximum dosage of 10 kGy. Since obtaining the spice irradiation approval, the FDA has accepted four additional petitions for filing in the Federal Register. One of the petitions which extended spice irradiation to include insect disinfestation has issued into a regulation while the remaining petitions covering the sanitization of herbs, spice blends, vegetable seasonings and dry powdery enzymes as well as the petition to irradiate hog carcasses and pork products for trichinae control at 1 kGy, are expected to issue either before the end of 1984 or early in 1985. More recently, food irradiation advocates in the United States received another vote of confidence by the announcement that a joint venture food irradiation facility to be constructed in Hawaii by Radiation Technology, is backed by a contractual committment for the processing of 40 million pounds of produce per year. Another step was taken when the Port of Salem, New Jersey announced that the Radiation Technology Model RT-4104

  6. The commercial aircraft noise problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J. T.

    1989-01-01

    The history and future developments of commercial aircraft noise are discussed. The use of the turbofan engine to replace the louder turbojet engine is identified as a step forward in reducing noise. The increasing use of two engine planes for medium and even long hauls is seen as a positive trend. An increase in the number of aircraft movements is predicted. An upturn in noise exposure around the end of the century is predicted. The development goals of Rolls Royce in meeting the noise reduction challenges of the next decades are discussed.

  7. Commercial Products from Demilitarization Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    NaAsO2 + H+ - HAsO 2 + Na+ Step (3) is the couversion of sodium metaarsenite to metaarsenious acid . (4) HAsO2 +-H+ Cd - As +H 20 + Cd+2 Step (4...shows the electrochemical reduction of metaarsenious acid in sulfuric acid at pH 2.32 5 SECTION 5 PREPARATION OF HIGH-PURITY ARSENIC A number of methods...reutralization of the acid can drive the reaction to the right. No commentary regarding the commercial use of thiodiglycol. 3. Study of the Conversion of

  8. Training Researchers To Commercialize Research Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sijde, P. C.; Cuyvers, R.

    2003-01-01

    A training course was designed to prepare researchers for research commercialization for researchers. It introduces concepts involved in the publishing of knowledge such as protection of intellectual property, spin-off companies, and working with commercial companies. (JOW)

  9. 36 CFR 272.4 - Commercial use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OWLâ SYMBOL § 272.4 Commercial use. (a) General. The Chief may authorize the Commercial manufacture... the status of Woodsy Owl as a national symbol for a public service campaign to promote wise use of the...

  10. 36 CFR 272.4 - Commercial use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OWLâ SYMBOL § 272.4 Commercial use. (a) General. The Chief may authorize the Commercial manufacture... the status of Woodsy Owl as a national symbol for a public service campaign to promote wise use of the...

  11. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  12. Commercial Human Space Flight Industry Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-24

    Membership Executive Members include developers and operators of:  Spaceships  Spaceports  Orbital spaceflight facilities Associate members include...commercial passenger flights possible thereafter Orbital systems  Development of spaceships under way NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services

  13. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  14. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  15. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  16. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  17. Television Commercials in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirble, Rosanne

    1977-01-01

    This article suggests using both Spanish and English television commercials to stimulate classroom dialogue and language practice. Drills can be contextualized if based on these commercials and the films can stimulate socio-cultural conversations in the target language. (CHK)

  18. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be filmed or any television production or sound track may be made, which involves the...

  19. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be filmed or any television production or sound track may be made, which involves the...

  20. Commercial Crew Program CCiCap Partners

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program and its newest Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) partners are embracing the American spirit as they advance their integrated rocket and spacecraft design...

  1. 76 FR 39018 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards; Corrections AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... establishes new minimum Federal standards for States to issue the commercial learner's permit (CLP). Since the...

  2. Macromolecular cross-linked polybenzimidazole based on bromomethylated poly (aryl ether ketone) with enhanced stability for high temperature fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; Zhao, Chengji; Ma, Wenjia; Zhang, Na; Liu, Zhongguo; Zhang, Gang; Na, Hui

    2013-12-01

    A series of macromolecular cross-linked polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes have been successfully prepared for the high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) applications. Bromomethylated poly (aryl ether ketone) (BrPAEK) is synthesized and used as a macromolecular cross-linker, the cross-linking reaction can be accomplished at 160 °C using an easy facial heating treatment. The resulting cross-linked membranes CBrPBI-X (X is the weight fraction of the cross-linker) display excellent mechanical strength. After phosphoric acid (PA) doping, the mechanical strength and proton conductivity of the PA/CBrPBI-X membranes are both enhanced comparing with the pristine PA/PBI. Considering the tradeoff of the mechanical strength and proton conductivity, 10 wt% BrPAEK is demonstrated to be an optimum content in the matrix. For instance, the proton conductivity of PA/CBrPBI-10 is 0.038 S cm-1 at 200 °C, which is higher than that of pristine PA/PBI with the proton conductivity of 0.029 S cm-1 at the same temperature. Other properties of the cross-linked membranes are also investigated in detail, including the oxidative stability, solubility and thermal stability. All the results indicate that the PA/CBrPBI-10 membrane has the potential application in HT-PEMFCs.

  3. Enhancement of the fuel cell performance of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell running with titanium composite polybenzimidazole-based membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, Justo; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A.; Úbeda, Diego; Pinar, F. Javier

    2011-10-01

    The fuel cell performance of a composite PBI-based membrane with TiO2 has been studied. The behaviour of the membrane has been evaluated by comparison with the fuel cell performance of other PBI-based membranes, all of which were cast from the same polymer with the same molecular weight. The PBI composite membrane incorporating TiO2 showed the best performance and reached 1000 mW cm-2 at 175 °C. Moreover, this new titanium composite PBI-based membrane also showed the best stability during the preliminary long-term test under our operation conditions. Thus, the slope of the increase in the ohmic resistance of the composite membrane was 0.041 mΩ cm2 h-1 and this is five times lower than that of the standard PBI membrane. The increased stability was due to the high phosphoric acid retention capacity - as confirmed during leaching tests, in which the Ti-based composite PBI membrane retained 5 mol of H3PO4/PBI r.u. whereas the PBI standard membrane only retained 1 mol H3PO4/PBI r.u. Taking into account the results obtained in this study, the TiO2-PBI based membranes are good candidates as electrolytes for high temperature PEMFCs.

  4. Identification of Commercial Items Risk Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    profitable ) commercial customer-base. This means that the commercial vendors have several customers and their products are manufactured to meet more...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited IDENTIFICATION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS...of Commercial Items Risk Factors 6. AUTHOR(S) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School

  5. An Evolutionary Approach to Space Launch Commercialization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    target profits . We are ignoring the award fee in the discussion here. Utilization of Commercial Launch Services 33 ities are 98 percent in the last 10...reluctant to charge a commercial customer a lower price for fear of lowering the profit margin on government contracts, even if commercial launches... Commercialization Brian G. Chow Prepared fir the Under Secretary of Defensefor Acquisition National Defense Research Institute Approved for public release

  6. Unconventional Reservoirs: Ideas to Commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    There is no shortage of coal, oil, and natural gas in the world. What are sometimes in short supply are fresh ideas. Scientific innovation combined with continued advances in drilling and completion technology revitalized the natural gas industry in North America by making production from shale economic. Similar advances are now happening in shale oil. The convergence of ideas and technology has created a commercial environment in which unconventional reservoirs could supply natural gas to the North American consumer for 50 years or more. And, although not as far along in terms of resource development, oil from the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales and the oil sands in Alberta could have a similar impact. Without advanced horizontal drilling, geosteering, staged hydraulic-fracture stimulation, synthetic and natural proppants, evolution of hydraulic fluid chemistry, and high-end monitoring and simulation, many of these plays would not exist. Yet drilling and completion technology cannot stand alone. Also required for success are creative thinking, favorable economics, and a tolerance for risk by operators. Current understanding and completion practices will leave upwards of 80% of oil and natural gas in the shale reservoirs. The opportunity to enhance recovery through advanced reservoir understanding and imaging, as well as through recompletions and infill drilling, is considerable. The path from ideas to commercialization will continue to provide economic results in unconventional reservoirs.

  7. Commercial Space with Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

    2013-01-01

    To provide affordable space transportation we must be capable of using common fixed assets and the infrastructure for multiple purposes simultaneously. The Space Shuttle was operated for thirty years, but was not able to establish an effective continuous improvement program because of the high risk to the crew on every mission. An unmanned capability is needed to provide an acceptable risk to the primary mission. This paper is intended to present a case where a commercial space venture could share the large fixed cost of operating the infrastructure with the government while the government provides new advanced technology that is focused on reduced operating cost to the common launch transportation system. A conceivable commercial space venture could provide educational entertainment for the country's youth that would stimulate their interest in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through access at entertainment parks or the existing Space Visitor Centers. The paper uses this example to demonstrate how growing public-private space market demand will re-orient space transportation industry priorities in flight and ground system design and technology development, and how the infrastructure is used and shared.

  8. Commercial Development Suborbital Rocket Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The enclosed report provides information on the sixth flight of the Consort suborbital rocket series. Consort 6 is currently scheduled for launch on February 19, 1993, with lift off at 11:00 a.m., Mountain Time. It will carry seven materials and biotechnology experiments, two accelerometer systems, a controller and battery packs in a module nearly 12 feet tall and weighing approximately 1,004 pounds. Consort 6 will reach an apogee of approximately 200 miles providing about 7 minutes of microgravity time. The entire mission, from launch to touchdown, is expected to last approximately 15 minutes. The Consort series is part of a unique suborbital rocket launch services program conducted by the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) in conjunction with its Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS). This service is managed through the Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS), a CCDS based University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). at the This suborbital rocket program provides CCDS investigators with a microgravity environment to achieve commercial development objectives, or to test developmental hardware or techniques in preparation for orbital flights or additional follow-on work. Rocket and launch services for Consort 6, including use of the Starfire 1 launch vehicle, are provided by EER Systems Corporation. Integration of the payload into Starfire 1 will be handled by McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company.

  9. Commercial Development Suborbital Rocket Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The enclosed report provides information on the sixth flight of the Consort suborbital rocket series. Consort 6 is currently scheduled for launch on February 19, 1993, with lift off at 11:00 a.m., Mountain Time. It will carry seven materials and biotechnology experiments, two accelerometer systems, a controller and battery packs in a module nearly 12 feet tall and weighing approximately 1,004 pounds. Consort 6 will reach an apogee of approximately 200 miles providing about 7 minutes of microgravity time. The entire mission, from launch to touchdown, is expected to last approximately 15 minutes. The Consort series is part of a unique suborbital rocket launch services program conducted by the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) in conjunction with its Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS). This service is managed through the Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS), a CCDS based University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). at the This suborbital rocket program provides CCDS investigators with a microgravity environment to achieve commercial development objectives, or to test developmental hardware or techniques in preparation for orbital flights or additional follow-on work. Rocket and launch services for Consort 6, including use of the Starfire 1 launch vehicle, are provided by EER Systems Corporation. Integration of the payload into Starfire 1 will be handled by McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company.

  10. Commercial industry on the horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, J.

    2000-01-01

    About 5,000 Tcf of stranded gas reserves exist worldwide--gas that is not economically feasible to recover and move to market through pipelines. For oil producers, this is problematic for a number of reasons. What do you do with associated gas when environmental regulations worldwide are banning flaring due to concerns over greenhouse gas emissions? Reinjection is costly and may not be the best solution in every reservoir. While many producers have enormous gas reserves, they are of no value if that gas is just sitting in the ground with no potential markets at hand. How can you monetize these reserves? A potential solution to the problem of stranded gas reserves is GTL processing. This process takes methane and converts it to synthesis gas, uses the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process to convert the synthesis gas to syncrude, and upgrades the syncrude to various hydrocarbon chains to produce a variety of refined products. Three recent developments favor commercial GTL development: environmental regulations are creating a premium for ultraclean fuels; new technology is lowering the capital costs and operating costs of GTL development; and world oil prices have risen above $20/bbl. Therefore, the oil and gas industry is taking a serious look at commercialization of GTL.

  11. Commercialization of solar space power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Alok; Sera, Gary

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to help U.S. companies commercialize renewable energy in India, with a special focus on solar energy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) is working with ENTECH, Inc., a solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems manufacturer to form partnerships with Indian companies. MCTTC has conducted both secondary and primary market research and obtained travel funding to meet potential Indian partners face to face. MCTTC and ENTECH traveled to India during June 2-20, 1994, and visited New Delhi, Bombay, Pune and Calcutta. Meetings were held with several key government officials and premier Indian business houses and entrepreneurs in the area of solar energy. A firsthand knowledge of India's renewable energy industry was gained, and companies were qualified in terms of capabilities and commitment to the SPV business. The World Bank has awarded India with 280 million to commercialize renewable energies, including 55 million for SPV. There is a market in India for both small-scale (kW) and large SPV (MW) applications. Each U.S. company needs to form a joint venture with an Indian firm and let the latter identify the states and projects with the greatest business potential. Several big Indian companies and entrepreneurs are planning to enter the SPV business, and they currently are seeking foreign technology partners. Since the lager companies have adopted a more conservative approach, however, partnerships with entrepreneurs might offer the quickest route to market entry in India.

  12. Fgd residues: a commercial opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Juzwiak, J.H.; Smith, C.L. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper focuses on actual operating experience in the handling and processing of ash and FGD by-products by Conversion Systems at the Orlando Utility Commission Stanton Energy Center at Orlando, Florida. The discussion discloses how the Poz-O-Tec stabilization technology, the most widely used disposal technology for wet FGD sludge, has been modified and improved to maximize the by-product recycling and produce the most cost effective disposal option. Recently, CSI has directed 100% of the Stanton Facility FGD stabilization production into the generation of the commercial aggregate called Poz-O-Lite Aggregate. This aggregate product is used in the manufacture of concrete block, replacing ordinary crushed stone. CSI has been able to develop this reuse application using the low permeability and superior strength of the stabilized material. The utility also benefits from the stabilized material which is not recycled as it offers opportunity for co-disposal of other combustion residues from some of the utility's oil fired plants in cells that are lined and then capped with the stabilized material. In summary, virtually all production of the by-products, from combustion or flue gas desulfurization at the Stanton Energy Center are now being used for commercial application, except that specifically required as liners for the disposal of other materials on site.

  13. Exercise among commercial truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lisa M; Reed, Deborah B

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the exercise habits and perceived barriers to exercise of a convenience sample of 300 commercial truck drivers. Participants reported minimal amounts of exercise, with nearly 20% not exercising in the past week. A high prevalence of obesity was found in this sample: 93.3% of study participants had a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or higher. Drivers with BMIs of greater than 30 were significantly more likely to rate the exercise environment as terrible/bad. Drivers who had at least one health condition engaged in significantly less aerobic exercise, used fewer strengthening exercises, did not exercise for 30 minutes continuously, and had a higher BMI. Drivers who spent most of their off-duty time in their truck while their partner drove were also significantly more likely to not exercise regularly. Most drivers cited lack of time and place as the primary barriers to exercising. This study adds to the limited knowledge about exercise behaviors among commercial truck drivers.

  14. 12 CFR 541.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft, or...

  15. 12 CFR 541.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft, or...

  16. 12 CFR 141.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial paper. 141.5 Section 141.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 141.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft, or...

  17. 12 CFR 141.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial paper. 141.5 Section 141.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 141.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft, or...

  18. 12 CFR 541.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft, or...

  19. 12 CFR 141.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial paper. 141.5 Section 141.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 141.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft, or...

  20. 12 CFR 541.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft, or...

  1. Commercial lumber, round timbers, and ties

    Treesearch

    David E. Kretschmann

    2010-01-01

    When sawn, a log yields round timber, ties, or lumber of varying quality. This chapter presents a general discussion of grading, standards, and specifications for these commercial products. In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types...

  2. 32 CFR 37.1250 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial firm. 37.1250 Section 37.1250... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1250 Commercial firm... does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial marketplace....

  3. 76 FR 60474 - Commercial Item Handbook

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Commercial Item Handbook AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... Commercial Item Handbook. The purpose of the Handbook is to help acquisition personnel develop sound business strategies for procuring commercial items. DoD is seeking industry input on the contents before...

  4. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005.5 Section 1005.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may...

  5. 77 FR 41331 - Commercial Mobile Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 10 Commercial Mobile Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection requirements associated with the Commission's Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMS), Second Report... relating to the Commercial Mobile Alert System rules contained in the Commission's Second Report and Order...

  6. The Commercial Transformation of Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    2006-01-01

    This essay reviews the history of school commercialization in the USA and the forms that it has taken over time, with particular attention paid to research measuring the scope and variety of commercialization trends in US public schools. The implications of commercialization activities such as those that promote the consumption of nutritionally…

  7. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles...

  8. Selling Violence: Television Commercials Targeted to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmerton, Patricia R.; Judas, Jeff

    Noting that little research has addressed the question of violence in commercials directed to children, a study examined commercials aired during the 21 top-rated children's cartoons during one broadcast week in late spring 1993. Commercials were analyzed for violent content, gender of primary actors and recipients of violent action, primary…

  9. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used in...

  10. Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Charles F.

    Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and…

  11. Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Charles F.

    Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and…

  12. Strategies for Defeating Commercial Imagery Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    STRATEGIES FOR DEFEATING COMMERCIAL IMAGERY SYSTEMS by Stephen Latchford, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF December 2005 Occasional...DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Strategies for Defeating Commercial Imagery Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...FOR DEFEATING COMMERCIAL IMAGERY SYSTEMS Stephen Latchford, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF December 2005 The Occasional papers series was

  13. The Commercial Transformation of Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    2006-01-01

    This essay reviews the history of school commercialization in the USA and the forms that it has taken over time, with particular attention paid to research measuring the scope and variety of commercialization trends in US public schools. The implications of commercialization activities such as those that promote the consumption of nutritionally…

  14. Children and Host-Selling Television Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Dale

    This study explores children's understanding of television commercials that feature the same primary characters as those in the adjacent program content, a commercial technique known as "host-selling." Responses of children 4 to 5 and 7 to 8 years of age to identical commercials presented in both a host-selling and normal viewing…

  15. Selling Out Kids. Commercialism in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Commercialism in schools takes many forms, ranging from the overt sale of advertising space to the presence of corporate logos. There are risks to in-school commercialism that parents must understand and deal with. Includes sidebars on PTA positions and a rating scale of in-school commercialism. (SM)

  16. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used...

  17. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used...

  18. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Commercial vehicles. 1005.6....6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but not be limited to trucks, station wagons, pickups, passenger cars or other vehicles when used...

  19. 12 CFR 541.5 - Commercial paper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft,...

  20. Coal gasifiers: commercial and technical risk

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, P.A.

    1982-05-01

    At present, only two gasifier designs (Koppers-Totzek and Lurgi) are offered on the basis of the offerer having recent commercial experience with the design. Development and demonstration programs will soon add five new concepts to the list of offerings that lie within the realm of reasonable commercial risk. These include the Allis-Chalmers, British slagging Lurgi, Saarberg-Otto, Texaco, and Westinghouse gasifiers. The actual date these units will become commercial depends on when the developers actually get their demonstration unit on line and operating. Other developers may assume a greater portion of the commercial risk in order to accelerate the introduction of their process into a commercial setting.

  1. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    From left, Ken Bowersox, VP Astronaut Safety, SpaceX, David Thompson, CEO, Orbital Science Corporation, Mark Sirangelo, VP and Chair, SNC Space Systems Board, Sierra Nevada Corp., NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy Dr. John P. Holdren, Jane Poynter, President and Chair, Paragon Space Development Corp., Brewster Shaw, VP and General Manager, NASA Systems, Boeing, Robert Millman of Blue Origin, and, Mike Gass, President and Chief Executive, United Launch Alliance, pose for a group photo during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. TEPC measurements in commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G C; Bentley, R D; Horwood, N A; Hunter, R; Iles, R H; Jones, J B L; Powell, D; Thomas, D J

    2004-01-01

    The collaborative project involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL), Virgin Atlantic Airways (VAA), the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has been performing tissue-equivalent proportional counter measurements of cosmic ray doses in commercial aircraft since January 2000. In that time data have been recorded on over 700 flights, including over 150 flights with Air New Zealand (ANZ). This substantial set of data from the southern hemisphere is an ideal complement to the London-based measurements performed primarily on VAA flights. Although some ANZ data remains to be analysed, dose information from 111 flights has been compared with the CARI and EPCARD computer codes. Overall, the agreement between the measurements and EPCARD was excellent (within 1% for the total ambient dose equivalent), and the difference in the total effective doses predicted by EPCARD and CARI was <5%.

  3. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  4. Leasecraft - A commercial space platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrowbridge, D. R.

    The Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) is the result of a NASA program concerned with the identification of new approaches to spacecraft design. A mandatory requirement regarding the MMS was flexibility to accommodatae a wide variety of payloads. MMS derived subsystems will provide a platform in low orbit for scientific, commercial, and government users on a leased or service contract basis. The payload may consist of scientific instruments, materials processing equipment, or remote sensors. Secondary payloads may be mounted in standard MMS module boxes. The platform forms a part of the 'Leasecraft' system, which was developed by an American aerospace company. Attention is given to the Leasecraft vehicle, details regarding the Leasecraft platform, and payload accommodations and Leasecraft missions.

  5. Health among commercial airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, J S; Butler, G C; Lackland, D T; Tessier, G S; Mohr, L C; Hoel, D G

    2001-09-01

    The airline pilot works within a complex exposure environment that may present physiological challenges to long-term health. This study investigated self-reported disease outcomes among a large group of active and retired commercial airline pilots in the United States and Canada. A survey methodology was used, including the collection of historical information. Of 10,678 surveys mailed, 6609 were returned (6533 men, 63 women). Given the limitations of survey methodology, increased disease rates among pilots were suggested for melanoma, motor neuron disease, and cataracts. However, rates for other diseases were in general lower than those for the U.S. population. Further study has been initiated to verify and follow reported cases, to expand the study to a larger group, and to collect more in-depth information on flight histories, occupational exposures, and lifestyle factors.

  6. Commercial Applications Multispectral Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birk, Ronald J.; Spiering, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is funding a multispectral sensor system to be used in the development of remote sensing applications. The Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) is designed to provide versatility in acquiring spectral and spatial information. The ATLAS system will be a test bed for the development of specifications for airborne and spaceborne remote sensing instrumentation for dedicated applications. This objective requires spectral coverage from the visible through thermal infrared wavelengths, variable spatial resolution from 2-25 meters; high geometric and geo-location accuracy; on-board radiometric calibration; digital recording; and optimized performance for minimized cost, size, and weight. ATLAS is scheduled to be available in 3rd quarter 1992 for acquisition of data for applications such as environmental monitoring, facilities management, geographic information systems data base development, and mineral exploration.

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of Commercial Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajjar, Priyanka; Pettee, Brian; Britt, David W.; Huang, Wenjie; Johnson, William P.; Anderson, Anne J.

    2009-07-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are finding increased use in applications ranging from biosensors to prophylactic antimicrobials embedded in socks. The release of heavy metal-containing nanoparticles (NP) into the environment may be harmful to the efficacy of beneficial microbes that function in element cycling, pollutant degradation, and plant growth. Antimicrobial activity of commercial NP of Ag, CuO, and ZnO is demonstrated here against the beneficial soil microbe, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which was modified to serve as a bioluminescent sentinel organism. "As manufactured" preparations of nano- Ag, -CuO, and -ZnO caused rapid, dose dependent loss of light output in the biosensor. Bulk equivalents of these products showed no inhibitory activity, indicating that particle size was determinant in activity.

  8. CARES/LIFE Software Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has entered into a letter agreement with BIOSYM Technologies Inc. (now merged with Molecular Simulations Inc. (MSI)). Under this agreement, NASA will provide a developmental copy of the CARES/LIFE computer program to BIOSYM for evaluation. This computer code predicts the time-dependent reliability of a thermomechanically loaded component. BIOSYM will become familiar with CARES/LIFE, provide results of computations useful in validating the code, evaluate it for potential commercialization, and submit suggestions for improvements or extensions to the code or its documentation. If BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations reaches a favorable evaluation of CARES/LIFE, NASA will enter into negotiations for a cooperative agreement with BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations to further develop the code--adding features such as a user-friendly interface and other improvements. This agreement would give BIOSYM intellectual property rights in the modified codes, which they could protect and then commercialize. NASA would provide BIOSYM with the NASA-developed source codes and would agree to cooperate with BIOSYM in further developing the code. In return, NASA would receive certain use rights in the modified CARES/LIFE program. Presently BIOSYM Technologies Inc. has been involved with integration issues concerning its merger with Molecular Simulations Inc., since both companies used to compete in the computational chemistry market, and to some degree, in the materials market. Consequently, evaluation of the CARES/LIFE software is on hold for a month or two while the merger is finalized. Their interest in CARES continues, however, and they expect to get back to the evaluation by early November 1995.

  9. Commercial Product Activation Using RFID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be used for commercial product activation, according to a proposal. What is new here is the concept of combining RFID with activation - more specifically, using RFID for activating commercial products (principally, electronic ones) and for performing such ancillary functions as tracking individual product units on production lines, tracking shipments, and updating inventories. According to the proposal, an RFID chip would be embedded in each product. The information encoded in the chip would include a unique number for identifying the product. An RFID reader at the point of sale would record the number of the product and would write digital information to the RFID chip for either immediate activation of the product or for later interrogation and processing. To be practical, an RFID product-activation system should satisfy a number of key requirements: the system should be designed to be integrable into the inventory-tracking and the data-processing and -communication infrastructures of businesses along the entire supply chain from manufacture to retail; the system should be resistant to sophisticated hacking; activation codes should be made sufficiently complexity to minimize the probability of activating stolen products; RFID activation equipment at points of sale must be capable to two-way RF communication for the purposes of reading information from, and writing information to, embedded RFID chips; the equipment at points of sale should be easily operable by sales clerks with little or no training; the point-of-sale equipment should verify activation and provide visible and/or audible signals indicating verification or lack thereof; and, the system should be able to handle millions of products per year with minimal human intervention, among other requirements.

  10. CARES/LIFE Software Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has entered into a letter agreement with BIOSYM Technologies Inc. (now merged with Molecular Simulations Inc. (MSI)). Under this agreement, NASA will provide a developmental copy of the CARES/LIFE computer program to BIOSYM for evaluation. This computer code predicts the time-dependent reliability of a thermomechanically loaded component. BIOSYM will become familiar with CARES/LIFE, provide results of computations useful in validating the code, evaluate it for potential commercialization, and submit suggestions for improvements or extensions to the code or its documentation. If BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations reaches a favorable evaluation of CARES/LIFE, NASA will enter into negotiations for a cooperative agreement with BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations to further develop the code--adding features such as a user-friendly interface and other improvements. This agreement would give BIOSYM intellectual property rights in the modified codes, which they could protect and then commercialize. NASA would provide BIOSYM with the NASA-developed source codes and would agree to cooperate with BIOSYM in further developing the code. In return, NASA would receive certain use rights in the modified CARES/LIFE program. Presently BIOSYM Technologies Inc. has been involved with integration issues concerning its merger with Molecular Simulations Inc., since both companies used to compete in the computational chemistry market, and to some degree, in the materials market. Consequently, evaluation of the CARES/LIFE software is on hold for a month or two while the merger is finalized. Their interest in CARES continues, however, and they expect to get back to the evaluation by early November 1995.

  11. Commercializing Space Weather using GAIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Schunk, Robert; Sojka, Jan J.

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the en-ergy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the space environment domains that are affected by space weather, the ionosphere is the key region that affects com-munication and navigation systems. The Utah State University (USU) Space Weather Center (SWC) was organized in 2009 to develop commercial space weather applications. It uses the Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) system as the basis for providing improvements to communication and navigation systems. For example, in August 2009 SWC released, in conjunction with Space Environment Technologies, the world's first real-time space weather via an iPhone app, Space WX. It displays the real-time, current global ionosphere to-tal electron content along with its space weather drivers, is available through the Apple iTunes store, and is used around the world. The GAIM system is run operationally at SWC for global and regional (continental U.S.) conditions. Each run stream continuously ingests up to 10,000 slant TEC measurements every 15-minutes from approximately 500 stations in a Kalman filter to adjust the background output from the physics-based Ionosphere Forecast Model (IFM). Additionally, 80 real-time digisonde data streams from around the world provide ionosphere characterization up to the F-region peak. The combination of these data dramatically improves the current epoch ionosphere specification beyond the physics-based solution. The altitudinal range is 90-1500 km for output TEC, electron densities, and other data products with a few degrees resolution in latitude and longitude at 15-minute time granularity. We describe the existing SWC products that are used as commercial space weather information. SWC funding is provided by the State of Utah's Utah Science Technology and Research (USTAR) initiative. The SWC is physically located on the USU campus in Logan, Utah.

  12. Recall of television commercials as a function of viewing context: the impact of program-commercial congruity on commercial messages.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A

    2000-10-01

    The effect of the congruity between the involvement types of advertising commercial and a television program on the effectiveness of the commercial was studied. Participants (N = 103) viewed either a cognitive or an affective commercial for a product, which was embedded in either a cognitive or an affective television program. The results showed that the effects of the congruence influence the impact on memory. Free recall and cued recall were significantly influenced by the program-commercial congruity. Free recall and cued recall were significantly higher for the cognitively involving commercial in the cognitively involving program context than in the affectively involving program context. Similarly, free recall and cued recall were significantly higher for the affectively involving commercial in the affectively involving program context than in the cognitively involving program context.

  13. Issues in fuel cell commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, A. J.

    After 25 years of effort, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is approaching commercialization as cell stack assemblies (CAS) show convincingly low degradation and its balance-of-plant (BOP) achieves mature reliability. A high present capital cost resulting from limited cumulative production remains an issue. The primary PAFC developer in the USA (International Fuel Cells, IFC) has only manufactured 40 MW of PAFC components to date, the equivalent of a single large gas turbine aero-engine or 500 compact car engines. The system is therefore still far up the production learning curve. Even so, the next generation of on-site 40% electrical efficiency (LHV) combined heat-and-power (CHP) PAFC system was available for order from IFC in 1995 at US 3000/kW (1995). To effectively compete in the marketplace with diesel generators, the dispersed cogeneration PAFC must cost approximately US 1550/kW (1995) in the USA and Europe. At somewhat lower costs than this, dispersed cogeneration PAFCs will compete with large combined-cycle generators. However, in Japan, costs greater than US 2000/kW will be competitive, based on the late-1995 trade exchange rate of 100-105 Yen/US ). The perceived advantages of fuel cell technologies over developments of more conventional generators (e.g., ultra-low emissions, siting) are not strong selling points in the marketplace. The ultimate criterion is cost. Cost reduction is now the key to market penetration. This must include reduced installation costs, for which the present goal is US$ 385/kW (1995). How further capital cost reductions can be achieved by the year 2000 is discussed. Progress to date is reviewed, and the potential for pressurized electric utility PAFC units is determined. Markets for high-temperature fuel cell system (molten carbonate, MCFC, and solid oxide, SOFC), which many consider to be 20 and 30 years, respectively, behind the PAFC, are discussed. Their high efficiency and high-quality waste heat should make them attractive

  14. System approach to MEMS commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaganov, Vladimir I.; Belov, Nickolai; in't Hout, Sebastiaan R.

    2003-04-01

    It is common to underestimate the challenges of integrating the at least four technologies in any MEMS product: the three technologies of any semiconductor device (electronics, packaging and testing) plus the MEMS microstructure. For some specific areas of application, for example for photonics, optics technology/components must also be integrated. While traditional semiconductor devices utilize standardized and inexpensive packaging and testing procedures and equipment, MEMS require custom solutions that introduce multiple physical domains, such as light in the case of photonics, directly to a potentially moving structure on the die. This heightened complexity coupled with nonstandard packaging, testing and other (optics) technologies has a dramatic impact on functionality, reliability and cost. Being developed and successfully proven for a period of about twenty-five years the System Approach to MEMS Commercialization is based on three major principles: A priori understanding of the interdependence of technologies integrated into MEMS products: micro-machining, IC technology, packaging, testing and other (optics) technologies. Parallel development or implementation of these technologies within the MEMS product. Redistribution of manufacturing complexity from individual to batch realm. Integrating packaging and testing and other (optics) components into the microstructure and including some of the testing and functional algorithms in the ASIC reduce cost by simplifying more expensive individual manufacturing steps. The overall results of redistribution complexity from individual manufacturing technologies into batch manufacturing technologies are dramatic cost reduction, performance and quality improvement and shorter time to market.

  15. The commercial Aquila Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flittie, Kirk J.; McFarlane, Scott

    1991-06-01

    The American Rocket Company's (AMROC) Aquila Launch Vehicle is a ground-launched, four-stage, all-hybrid propulsion, inertially-guided commercial space booster designed to deliver 2000 pound payloads into low earth orbit. By using AMROC's low-cost hybrid propulsion, the Aquila launch service will provide quick, on-demand, routine access to space; high accuracy orbital placement; and an unprecedented degree of production, ground and flight safety. The first launch of the Aquila will be in early 1995. Aquila utilizes AMROc's unique hybrid propulsion systems consisting of an inert solid polybutadiene fuel and either liquid oxygen or nitrous oxide as oxidizer. A hybrid propulsion system is distinct from all other rocket propulsion systems in that hybrids cannot explode; hybrids offer safe handling, operation and launch pad abort; and hybrids offer start/stop and full throttling capability for trajectory optimization and precise payload placement on orbit. In addition, the exhaust products do not contain hydrogen chlorides which are environmentally degrading.

  16. Advanced technology commercial fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, L. B.; Smith, P. J.; Walker, T. H.; Johnson, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    Boeing's program for Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structure (ATCAS) has focused on the manufacturing and performance issues associated with a wide body commercial transport fuselage. The primary goal of ATCAS is to demonstrate cost and weight savings over a 1995 aluminum benchmark. A 31 foot section of fuselage directly behind the wing to body intersection was selected for study purposes. This paper summarizes ATCAS contract plans and review progress to date. The six year ATCAS program will study technical issues for crown, side, and keel areas of the fuselage. All structural details in these areas will be included in design studies that incorporate a design build team (DBT) approach. Manufacturing technologies will be developed for concepts deemed by the DBT to have the greatest potential for cost and weight savings. Assembly issues for large, stiff, quadrant panels will receive special attention. Supporting technologies and mechanical tests will concentrate on the major issues identified for fuselage. These include damage tolerance, pressure containment, splices, load redistribution, post-buckled structure, and durability/life. Progress to date includes DBT selection of baseline fuselage concepts; cost and weight comparisons for crown panel designs; initial panel fabrication for manufacturing and structural mechanics research; and toughened material studies related to keel panels. Initial ATCAS studies have shown that NASA's Advanced Composite Technology program goals for cost and weight savings are attainable for composite fuselage.

  17. Mycoflora in commercial pet foods.

    PubMed

    Bueno, D J; Silva, J O; Oliver, G

    2001-05-01

    This article reports on the identification of mycoflora of 21 dry pet foods (12 belonging to dogs and 9 to cats) that corresponded to 8 commercial brands made in Argentina and imported. The isolation frequency and relative density of the prevalent fungal genera are compared too. Ten genera and fungi classified as Mycelia sterilia were identified. The predominant genera were Aspergillus (62%), Rhizopus (48%), and Mucor (38%). The most prevalent among Aspergillus was Aspergillus flavus followed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus. The predominant Mucor was Mucor racemosus followed by Mucor plumbeus and Mucor globosus. The moisture content of these foods ranged from 5.6 to 10.0% and from 7.2 to 9.9% for dog and cat foods, respectively. A greater moisture content in food for the senior category (9.5 +/- 0.2) was observed only in comparison to adult and kitten/puppy. If the moisture content can be maintained at these levels, mold growth would be prevented or at least it would remain at an insignificant level. Some genera and species isolated and identified from the foods analyzed are potentially producing toxins, which are known as mycotoxins. This involves a risk for animal health.

  18. Commercial Parts Technology Qualification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Many high-reliability systems, including space systems, use selected commercial parts (including Plastic Encapsulated Microelectronics or PEMs) for unique functionality, small size, low weight, high mechanical shock resistance, and other factors. Predominantly this usage is subjected to certain 100% tests (typically called screens) and certain destructive tests usually (but not always) performed on the flight lot (typically called qualification tests). Frequently used approaches include those documented in EEE-INST-002 and JPL DocID62212 (which are sometimes modified by the particular aerospace space systems manufacturer). In this study, approaches from these documents and several space systems manufacturers are compared to approaches from a launch systems manufacturer (SpaceX), an implantable medical electronics manufacturer (Medtronics), and a high-reliability transport system process (automotive systems). In the conclusions section, these processes are outlined for all of these cases and presented in tabular form. Then some simple comparisons are made. In this introduction section, the PEM technology qualification process is described, as documented in EEE-INST-002 (written by the Goddard Space Flight Center, GSFC), as well as the somewhat modified approach employed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Approaches used at several major NASA contractors are also described

  19. Cerebral encephalomalacia in commercial turkeys.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Cummings, T S; Wages, D P

    1993-01-01

    A flock of 9 1/2-week-old commercial tom turkeys experienced high mortality after consuming a complete feed containing an unidentified toxic substance. Initially, turkeys were found dead. Clinically, the birds were calm and still but became hyperexcitable with noise. A small percentage of birds exhibited torticollis, opisthotonos, circling, ataxia, and blindness. Findings at necropsy and upon microscopic examination were bilaterally symmetrical areas of necrosis of the cerebral hemispheres in the area of the neostriatum that were well demarcated from the surrounding normal neuropil. A feeding trial with the suspect feed in twelve 4-week-old turkey hens induced clinical disease and gross and microscopic brain changes similar to those observed in the field case. Analyses for the following substances in the suspect feed were either negative or within acceptable limits: salt, selenium, furazolidone, monensin, amprolium, 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, ochratoxin, fumonisin, organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and carbamates. The toxic component of the feed remains unidentified.

  20. Enhancing avifauna in commercial plantations.

    PubMed

    Nájera, Andrea; Simonetti, Javier A

    2010-02-01

    The occurrence of fauna in commercial plantations is often associated with structural complexity. Through a meta-analysis, we tested whether the structural complexity of plantations could enhance bird species assemblages and whether bird assemblages respond differently depending on taxonomic affiliation, body size, and diet. Our analyses included 167 case studies in 31 countries in which bird assemblages in forests and plantations were compared and 42 case studies in 14 countries in which bird assemblages in plantations of different structural complexity were compared. Species richness, but not abundance, was higher in forests than in plantations. Both species richness and abundance were significantly higher in complex than in structurally simple plantations. Taxonomic representation and body size did not differ between forest and plantations, except that there were fewer insectivorous birds in plantations than in forests. In the comparison of simple versus complex plantations, abundance of all taxonomic and dietary groups was higher in complex plantations. Body size did not affect bird species richness or abundance. Independent of the type of plantation, bird richness and abundance were greater in structurally complex plantations. Enhancing the structural complexity of plantations may mitigate their impact and offer habitat for some native species.

  1. Non-US approaches to space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    The approaches to the commercialization of space taken by the four foreign countries most active in the field - Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Japan are described. National space program elements with commercial potential are examined in the context of national industrial and science policies, with special attention to objectives, timetables, and budgetary priority relative to other sectors. The role of the European Space Agency in attaining national and regional commercialization objectives is also examined.

  2. Fifty years of commercial caesium clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, Leonard S.

    2005-06-01

    The first commercial caesium-beam clock was the Atomichron, developed by National Company. The first unit was delivered in 1956. This paper first presents a brief history of commercial caesium-beam clocks. It then covers many of the sources of frequency error and frequency instability. Some details of the technical design of the caesium-tube and electronics are presented. Finally, we present some possible directions for future commercial caesium clocks.

  3. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy...

  4. Advanced materials systems as commercial opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.J.

    1987-04-01

    This paper shows that commercial opportunities in the materials area lie principally in materials systems, and much less in components made from differentiated individual materials. Examples are given.

  5. Space commercialization and power system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H., Jr.; Faymon, K. A.

    1987-01-01

    The development and application of power and energy technologies important to the commercialization of space is discussed, stressing the significance of these technologies to space transportation systems, on-orbit services and on-orbit commercial production and processing ventures. Energy conversion systems examined include solar photovoltaic systems, solar thermal dynamic power systems, and nuclear power systems. Energy storage systems include electrochemical systems, inertial storage systems, and magnetic energy storage systems. In addition, power management and distribution systems used in space commercialization and NASA programs for the commercial development of space are discussed.

  6. Beginning the discussion of commercialism in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Marcia A; Roth, Kathleen; Ralls, Stephen A; Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing concern over commercialism in dentistry. Multiple factors contribute to this trend, which has the potential for fragmenting the profession, exacerbating the access issue, and eroding the public's confidence in dentistry. There are both positive and negative aspects of commercialism. Positive approaches for promoting oral health in the face of commercialism hold the greatest promise. The core theme in the recommendations from Ethics Summit on Commercialism is that competent, comprehensive, and continuous oral health care is appropriate and should be promoted to the American public.

  7. ASK ME--A Merit Promotion System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Michael L.; McCloskey, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed at the Red River Army Depot, Texarkana, Texas, for selecting and evaluating personnel called AKS ME (Ability, Skill and Knowledge Merit Evaluation), consisting of four basic steps: job analysis, examination plan, candidate evaluation, and validation. (MF)

  8. Four Pedagogical Mistakes: A "Mea Culpa"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The theological pedagogies which dominate degree-granting schools originated in the courses of study and graduate programs of the teachers. These pedagogies foster a deep rift between theology as an academic or scholarly discipline (science?) and the situations and interests of students. Students are taught to imitate what scholars do:…

  9. Precious Metal Recovery from Fuel Cell MEA's

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, Lawrence

    2004-04-27

    In 2003, Engelhard Corporation received a DOE award to develop a cost-effective, environmentally friendly approach to recover Pt from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies (MEA’s). The most important precious metal used in fuel cells is platinum, but ruthenium is also added to the anode electrocatalyst if CO is present in the hydrogen stream. As part of the project, a large number of measurements of Pt and Ru need to be made. A low-cost approach to measuring Pt is using the industry standard spectrophotometric measurement of Pt complexed with stannous chloride. The interference of Ru can be eliminated by reading the Pt absorbance at 450 nm. Spectrophotometric methods for measuring Ru, while reported in the literature, are not as robust. These slides will discuss the options for measuring Pt and Ru using the method of UV-VIS spectrophotometry

  10. Cosmic radiation in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Michael

    2008-05-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge of cosmic radiation and its applicability to commercial aviation. Galactic cosmic radiation emanates from outside the solar system, while occasionally a disturbance in the suns' atmosphere leads to a surge in radiation particles. Protection is provided by the suns' magnetic field, the earths' magnetic field, and the earths' atmosphere. Dose rates are dependent on the altitude, the geomagnetic latitude and the solar cycle. For occupational exposure to ionising radiation, which includes aircrew, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends maximum mean body effective dose limits of 20mSv/yr (averaged over 5 years, with a maximum in any 1 year of 50mSv). Radiation doses can be measured during flight or may be calculated using a computer-modelling program such as CARI, EPCARD, SIEVERT or PCAIRE. Mean ambient equivalent dose rates are consistently reported in the region of 4-5microSv/h for long-haul pilots and 1-3microSv/h for short-haul, giving an annual mean effective exposure of the order 2-3mSv for long-haul and 1-2mSv for short-haul pilots. Epidemiological studies of flight crew have not shown conclusive evidence for any increase in cancer mortality or cancer incidence directly attributable to ionising radiation exposure. Whilst there is no level of radiation exposure below which effects do not occur, current evidence indicates that the probability of airline crew or passengers suffering adverse health effects as a result of exposure to cosmic radiation is very low.

  11. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well. PMID:17005024

  12. Commercial application of rainfall simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Rob J.

    2010-05-01

    Landloch Pty Ltd is a commercial consulting firm, providing advice on a range of land management issues to the mining and construction industries in Australia. As part of the company's day-to-day operations, rainfall simulation is used to assess material erodibility and to investigate a range of site attributes. (Landloch does carry out research projects, though such are not its core business.) When treated as an everyday working tool, several aspects of rainfall simulation practice are distinctively modified. Firstly, the equipment used is regularly maintained, and regularly upgraded with a primary focus on ease, safety, and efficiency of use and on reliability of function. As well, trained and experienced technical support is considered essential. Landloch's chief technician has over 10 years experience in running rainfall simulators at locations across Australia and in Africa and the Pacific. Secondly, the specific experimental conditions established for each set of rainfall simulator runs are carefully considered to ensure that they accurately represent the field conditions to which the data will be subsequently applied. Considerations here include: • wetting and drying cycles to ensure material consolidation and/or cementation if appropriate; • careful attention to water quality if dealing with clay soils or with amendments such as gypsum; • strong focus on ensuring that the erosion processes considered are those of greatest importance to the field situation of concern; and • detailed description of both material and plot properties, to increase the potential for data to be applicable to a wider range of projects and investigations. Other important company procedures include: • For each project, the scientist or engineer responsible for analysing and reporting rainfall simulator data is present during the running of all field plots, as it is essential that they be aware of any specific conditions that may have developed when the plots were subjected

  13. Collaborative Commercial Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T. S.; Hendrix, D.; Sibert, D.; Hall, R. A.; Therien, W.

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing recognition by commercial and civil space operators of the need for space situational awareness (SSA) data to support ongoing conjunction analysis, maneuver planning, and radio frequency interference mitigation as part of daily operations. While some SSA data is available from the Joint Space Operations Center via the Space Track web site, access to raw observations and photometric data is limited due to national security considerations. These data, however, are of significant value in calibrating intra- and inter-operator orbit determination results, determining inter-system biases, and assessing operating profiles in the geostationary orbit. This paper details an ongoing collaborative effort to collect and process optical observations and photometric data using a network of low-cost telescope installations and shows how these data are being used to support ongoing operations in the Space Data Center. This presentation will demonstrate how by leveraging advance photometric processing algorithms developed for Missile Defense Agency and the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) mission ExoAnalytic and AGI have been able to provide actionable SSA for satellite operators from small telescopes in less than optimal viewing conditions. Space has become an increasingly cluttered environment requiring satellite operators to remain forever vigilant in order to prevent collisions to preserve their assets and prevent further cluttering the space environment. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which tracks all objects in earth orbit, reports possible upcoming conjunctions to operators by providing Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs). However due to large positional uncertainties in the forward predicted position of space objects at the time closest approach the volume of CSMs is excessive to the point that maneuvers in response to CSMs without additional screening is cost prohibitive. CSSI and the Space Data Association have been able to screen most

  14. Suborbital commercial spaceflight crewmember medical issues.

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    As directed by the Council of the Aerospace Medical Association, the Commercial Spaceflight Working Group has developed the following position paper concerning medical issues for commercial suborbital spaceflight crewmembers. This position paper has been approved by the AsMA Council to become a policy of the AsMA.

  15. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  16. 78 FR 32165 - Commercial Radio Operators; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 0 Commercial Radio Operators; Correction AGENCY: Federal Communication Commission... rules concerning radio operator licenses for maritime and aviation in order to reduce administrative...) Administers the Commission's commercial radio operator program (part 13 of this chapter); the Commission's...

  17. 76 FR 30301 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Competitiveness Act (CSCA) of 1992. NASA may enter into multi-year anchor tenancy contracts for commercial space... NASA's authority under Section 401 of the Commercial Space Competitiveness Act (CSCA) of 1992 (15 U.S.C... Competitiveness Act, 15 U.S.C. 5806, allows NASA, subject to appropriations, to enter into multi-year...

  18. Commercial Buildings High Performance Rooftop Unit Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commercial Building Energy Alliances (CBEAs) are releasing a new design specification for high performance rooftop air conditioning units (RTUs). Manufacturers who develop RTUs based on this new specification will find strong interest from the commercial sector due to the energy and financial savings.

  19. CASH 2021: commercial access and space habitation.

    PubMed

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Feretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frederic; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-01-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.

  20. CASH 2021: Commercial access and space habitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Ferretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frédéric; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J. Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-07-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.