Science.gov

Sample records for comminuted heated products

  1. Studies on the Wholesomeness of Ready-to-eat Meat Products II. Chemical Evaluation of Comminuted Heated Products

    PubMed Central

    Saschenbrecker, P. W.; Tittiger, F.

    1973-01-01

    Chemical parameters obtained for 280 samples randomly selected from a variety of ready-to-eat meat products were used to assess nutritional value and wholesomeness. The products investigated in this study include wieners, bologna, meat loaves, sausages, liver products and mortadella. Evaluations of gross composition (moisture, fat, protein,) were found to be insufficient to fully characterize these products. Fat/protein and water/protein quotients reflected well on the nutritional quality. Limitations in the application of these and other parameters are shown. Correlations of physico-chemical parameters such as redox-potential and available water to susceptibility to bacterial spoilage within this closely defined group were statistically insignificant. PMID:4265553

  2. 78 FR 14635 - HACCP Plan Reassessment for Not-Ready-To-Eat Comminuted Poultry Products and Related Agency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... prevalence of Salmonella in NRTE comminuted poultry product announced in the document. The Agency is taking... into account several recent Salmonella outbreaks associated with consumption of comminuted NRTE turkey... NRTE meat or poultry product with an illness outbreak would make subsequently-produced like product...

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    H.J. Walqui; T.C. Eisele; S.K. Kawatra

    2003-07-01

    The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHOUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    H.J. Walqui; T.C. Eisele; S.K. Kawatra

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production.

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    H.J. Walqui, T.C. Eisele, S.K. Kawatra

    2004-04-01

    The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHOUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    H.J. Walqui; T.C. Eisele; S.K. Kawatra

    2003-10-01

    The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding and maximizing energy efficiency, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production.

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; T. Weldum; D. Larsen; R. Mariani; J. Pletka

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This is being accomplished by mathematical modeling of the grinding circuits to determine how to correct this problem. The approaches taken included (1) Modeling of the circuit to determine process bottlenecks that restrict flowrates in one area while forcing other parts of the circuit to overgrind the material; (2) Modeling of hydrocyclones to determine the mechanisms responsible for retaining fine, high-density particles in the circuit until they are overground, and improving existing models to accurately account for this behavior; and (3) Evaluation of advanced technologies to improve comminution efficiency and produce sharper product size distributions with less overgrinding.

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    T.C. Eisele; S.K. Kawatra; H.J. Walqui

    2004-10-01

    The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This is being accomplished by mathematical modeling of the grinding circuits to determine how to correct this problem. The approaches taken included (1) Modeling of the circuit to determine process bottlenecks that restrict flowrates in one area while forcing other parts of the circuit to overgrind the material; (2) Modeling of hydrocyclones to determine the mechanisms responsible for retaining fine, high-density particles in the circuit until they are overground, and improving existing models to accurately account for this behavior; and (3) Evaluation of advanced technologies to improve comminution efficiency and produce sharper product size distributions with less overgrinding.

  9. Optimization of Comminution Circuit Throughput and Product Size Distribution by Simulation and Control

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; T. Weldum; D. Larsen; R. Mariani; J. Pletka

    2005-03-31

    The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This is being accomplished by mathematical modeling of the grinding circuits to determine how to correct this problem. The approaches taken included (1) Modeling of the circuit to determine process bottlenecks that restrict flow rates in one area while forcing other parts of the circuit to overgrind the material; (2) Modeling of hydrocyclones to determine the mechanisms responsible for retaining fine, high-density particles in the circuit until they are overground, and improving existing models to accurately account for this behavior; and (3) Evaluation of advanced technologies to improve comminution efficiency and produce sharper product size distributions with less overgrinding.

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; H.J. Walqui

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this project is to improve the energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. This will save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground to below the target size, and will also reduce the quantity of material wasted as slimes that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production. In the first quarter of this project, work was completed on a basic comminution model that will be used to carry out the subsequent project tasks. This phase of the work was supported by the Electric Power Research Institute, as their cost-share contribution to the project. The model has been implemented as an Excel spreadsheet, which has the advantage of being a very portable format that can be made widely available to the industry once the project is completed.

  11. Optimization of Comminution Circuit Throughput and Product Size Distribution by Simulation and Control

    SciTech Connect

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; T. Weldum; D. Larsen; R. Mariani; J. Pletka

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this project was to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process were used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced could be minimized. The goal was to save energy by reducing the amount of material that was ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that were too fine to be useful. Extensive plant sampling and mathematical modeling of the grinding circuits was carried out to determine how to correct this problem. The approaches taken included (1) Modeling of the circuit to determine process bottlenecks that restrict flowrates in one area while forcing other parts of the circuit to overgrind the material; (2) Modeling of hydrocyclones to determine the mechanisms responsible for retaining fine, high-density particles in the circuit until they are overground, and improving existing models to accurately account for this behavior; and (3) Evaluation of the potential of advanced technologies to improve comminution efficiency and produce sharper product size distributions with less overgrinding. The mathematical models were used to simulate novel circuits for minimizing overgrinding and increasing throughput, and it is estimated that a single plant grinding 15 million tons of ore per year saves up to 82.5 million kWhr/year, or 8.6 x 10{sup 11} BTU/year. Implementation of this technology in the midwestern iron ore industry, which grinds an estimated 150 million tons of ore annually to produce over 50 million tons of iron ore concentrate, would save an estimated 1 x 10{sup 13} BTU/year.

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; H.J. Walqui

    2002-10-01

    The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing he product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. This will save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, and will also reduce the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production. In the seventh quarter of this project, analysis of the plant operation identified sources of overgrinding in the circuit. Overgrinding was primarily caused by two effects: (1) The hydrocyclones used to close the circuit and remove fully-ground particles from the circuit were preferentially returning high-density ore particles to the secondary mills for regrinding even after they were already ground to pass the desired product size, and (2) The primary grinding mills were operating at less than full capacity, suggesting that a shift of grinding load to the primary mills could liberate more material before it reached the secondary mills, allowing more complete liberation with a coarser grind. Circuit modeling is underway to determine how best to modify the circuit to reduce these effects.

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele, H.J. Walqui

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing he product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. This will save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, and will also reduce the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production. In previous quarters, it was determined that the primary grinding mills were operating at less than full capacity, suggesting that a shift of grinding load to the primary mills could liberate more material before it reached the secondary mills, allowing more complete liberation with a coarser grind. In the eighth quarter, further analysis was carried out to determine the full extent of the benefit that could be obtained by this shift in grinding load. A key part of this analysis was the development of a correlation of the circuit capacity with (a) ore work index, (b) the quantity of primary mill ''pebbles'' that were crushed by a cone crusher in the circuit, and (c) the fraction of the crushed pebbles that were also processed by a high-pressure roll mill.

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; H.J. Walqui

    2002-07-01

    The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. This will save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, and will also reduce the quantity of materials wasted as slimes that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production. In the sixth quarter of this project, work was centered on analyzing the considerable plant data gathered during the first year of the project. Modeling is being carried out of the hydrocyclone portion of the grinding circuit, since this has been identified as the primary source of overgrinding and inefficiency.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    H.J. Walqui; T.C. Eisele; S.K. Kawatra

    2004-07-01

    The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This is being accomplished by mathematical modeling of the grinding circuits to determine how to correct this problem. It has been determined that, for mixtures of approximately equal quantities of high-density minerals (such as iron oxides) and low-density minerals (such as quartz), existing hydrocyclone models fail to accurately predict the hydrocyclone behavior. Since the hydrocyclone is the key unit controlling the particle size, an accurate model of these units is required and is being fully developed. Experimental work has demonstrated that the previous models are inaccurate due to incorrect assumptions concerning the change in hydrocyclone cut size as a function of changing particle density.

  16. Evaluation of coloring efficacy of lac dye in comminuted meat product.

    PubMed

    Divya; Singh, R P; Baboo, B; Prasad, K M

    2011-06-01

    Effect of incorporation of graded levels (4, 6, 8, 10, 25 ppm) of lac dye on coloring efficacy and possible use of this natural color in processed meat products was studied. Inclusion of lac dye at different concentrations did not affect the pH significantly whereas a linear increase in the Lovibond red color unit of chicken nuggets was noted with raising the level of lac dye from 4 to 10 ppm. The sensory rating for color was highest at addition level of 25 ppm of lac dye and it was comparable to color score of the product containing 200 ppm sodium nitrite. Lac dye inclusion in nuggets at all concentrations studied had better antimicrobial properties as compared to 200 ppm sodium nitrite. It was concluded that lac dye from 10 to 25 ppm could be incorporated in comminuted meat products as a natural colorant with antimicrobial action.

  17. Ash Production in Eruptive Flows: Comminution in Conduits and Pyroclastic Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufek, J.; Manga, M.; Patel, A.

    2009-05-01

    Processes occurring at the grain scale, termed microphysical processes, can exert strong control of explosive eruption dynamics. In this talk we illustrate the importance of particle-particle interaction on the mass and momentum balance of eruptive flows. In particular we examine the break-up and transport of clasts during particle-particle interactions for two high-energy flow environments: pyroclastic and conduit flows. Abrasion and comminution of pumice clasts during the propagation of pyroclastic flows and post-fragmentation conduit flow have long been recognized as a potential source for the enhanced production of volcanic ash, however its relative importance has eluded quantification. The amount of fine-material produced in-situ can potentially affect runout distance, deposit sorting, the volume of ash introduced in the upper atmosphere, and internal pore pressure in pyroclastic flows. We conduct a series of laboratory experiments on the collisional production of ash that may occur during different regimes of pyroclastic flow transport and conduit flow. Using these laboratory experiments we develop a subgrid model for ash production that can be included in analytical and multiphase numerical procedures to estimate the total volume of ash produced during transport. We find that for most pyroclastic flow conditions, 10-20% of the initially 1 cm clasts comminutes into ash with the percentage increasing as a function of initial flow energy. Most of the ash is produced in the high-energy regions near the flow inlet, although flow acceleration on steep slopes can produce ash far from the vent. On level terrain, collisionally and frictionally produced ash generates gravity currents that detach from the main flow. Ash produced at the frictional base of the flow and in the collisional upper regions of the flow can be redistributed through the entirety of the flow, although frictionally produced ash accumulates preferentially near its source in the bed load. Flows that

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    H.J. Walqui; T.C. Eisele; S.K. Kawatra

    2003-04-01

    The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production. During this quarter, work was focused on three areas: (1) The mathematical relationship developed for predicting plant throughput was improved, based on ore work index and equipment parameters measured in the plant over an extended period. It was determined that the model would need to fit two distinct regimes of grinding circuit operation, depending on the work index of the feed ore. (2) Plans for a proposed change in the circuit configuration at an iron ore plant are being made, to test predictions based on the work done to date in the project. After determining the desired circuit change, which would require screening a portion of the grinding slurry, samples were sent to an industrial screen manufacturer for pilot plant scale testing. These tests indicated that the screening could be carried out economically, and plans are proceeding to conduct trials of the proposed circuit alteration. (2) The mathematical model used for hydrocyclone simulations was found to be unable to fully predict the ''fish-hook'' behavior that is seen in the plant samples. The model was therefore improved by including empirically-determined terms so that it would be able to account for

  19. Combined effect of high hydrostatic pressure and mild heat treatments on pectin methylesterase (PME) inactivation in comminuted orange.

    PubMed

    Tejada-Ortigoza, Viridiana; Escobedo-Avellaneda, Zamantha; Valdez-Fragoso, Aurora; Mújica-Paz, Hugo; Welti-Chanes, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    Comminuted orange, a product obtained by grinding the juice and peel and used to formulate beverages, has a high pectin methylesterase (PME) activity; thus the inactivation of this enzyme is necessary to avoid quality losses related to cloud loss. The use of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and mild temperature allows inactivation of enzymes with minimal quality changes. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of pressure, mild temperature and time of treatment, including come-up and holding time, on the inactivation of PME in comminuted orange, and to apply kinetic and response surface models (RSM) to predict residual PME activity (A/A0 ). During come-up time in treatments at 68 °C, the higher the pressure, the lower was the A/A0 obtained. At 550 MPa/68 °C/10 min the lowest residual activity value was obtained (15.6%). A/A0 was well adjusted to the RSM, and a first-order kinetic model was applied to describe the inactivation of PME. In general, the higher the pressure, the lower was the A/A0 reached, as the increasing values of k from 3.5 × 10(-2) to 55.5 × 10(-2) min(-1) indicated. Activation volume (Va ) values ranging from -9.2 to -17.7 cm(3) mol(-1) , and activation energies (Ea ) between 50.0 and 68.2 kJ mol(-1) were calculated. 550 MPa/68 °C/10 min, 350 MPa/68 °C/10 min and 450 MPa/56 °C/10 min treatments were satisfactory (∼84% inactivation) to inactivate PME. A first-order kinetic model was applied to describe PME inactivation, and the resulting A/A0 adjusted to the RSM. In addition, linearized Arrhenius and Eyring equations were well fitted in order to obtain Ea and Va , respectively. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Modelling the influence of inulin as a fat substitute in comminuted meat products on their physico-chemical characteristics and eating quality using a mixture design approach.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Derek F; Resconi, Virginia C; Kerry, Joseph P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2014-03-01

    The effects of fat substitution using two commercial inulin products on the physico-chemical properties and eating quality of a comminuted meat product (breakfast sausage) were modelled using a specialised response surface experiment specially developed for mixtures. 17 treatments were assigned representing a different substitution level for fat with inulin. Sausages were formulated to contain pork shoulder, back fat/inulin, water, rusk and seasoning (44.3, 18.7, 27.5, 7 and 2.5% w/w). Composition, sensory, instrumental texture and colour characteristics were assessed. Fructan analysis showed that inulin was unaffected by heat or processing treatments. Models showed increasing inulin inclusions decreased cook loss (p<0.0017) and improved emulsion stability (p<0.0001) but also resulted in greater textural and eating quality modification of sausages. Hardness values increased (p<0.0001) with increasing inulin concentration, with panellists also scoring products containing inulin as less tender (p<0.0112). Optimisation predicted two acceptable sausage formulations with significantly lower fat levels than the control, which would contain sufficient inulin to deliver a prebiotic health effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fat reduction in comminuted meat products-effects of beef fat, regular and pre-emulsified canola oil.

    PubMed

    Youssef, M K; Barbut, S

    2011-04-01

    The effects of fat reduction (25.0%, 17.5%, and 10.0%) and substituting beef fat with canola oil or pre-emulsified canola oil (using soy protein isolate, sodium caseinate or whey protein isolate) on cooking loss, texture and color of comminuted meat products were investigated. Reducing fat from 25 to 10% increased cooking loss and decreased hardness. Canola oil or pre-emulsified treatments showed a positive effect on improving yield and restoring textural parameters. Using sodium caseinate to pre-emulsify the oil resulted in the highest hardness value. Cohesiveness was affected by fat type and level. The color of reduced fat meat batters was darker for all, except the beef fat treatments. Using canola oil or pre-emulsified oil resulted in a significant reduction in redness. The results show that pre-emulsification can offset some of the changes in reduced fat meat products when more water is used to substitute for the fat and that pre-emulsification can also help to produce a more stable meat matrix.

  2. Potential use of organogels to replace animal fat in comminuted meat products.

    PubMed

    Barbut, S; Wood, J; Marangoni, A

    2016-12-01

    The replacement of beef fat (BF) with regular or structured canola oil [organogel produced with ethylcellulose (EC) 0.0%, 1.5% or 3.0% sorbitan monostearate (SMS)] was conducted in frankfurters. Substitution with regular oil doubled the hardness of the frankfurters relative to BF. Using an organogel prepared with 8% EC and 1.5 or 3.0% SMS resulted in a hardness value similar to that of BF, by both sensory and texture profile analysis. Without SMS addition, sensory results showed (P<0.05) lower hardness values than regular oil but still higher than BF. Gels prepared using higher EC concentrations (12 and 14%) yielded meat products with a higher sensory hardness than BF (P<0.05). Liquid oil based frankfurters had very small fat globules compared to BF, but structuring the oil yielded larger fat globules. Color measurements indicated that oil-containing frankfurters were lighter than the ones with BF. Smokehouse yields were generally higher for canola oil and organogel containing treatments compared to the beef fat treatment. When SMS was included, fat losses increased over the canola oil treatment. The results demonstrate the possibility to use organogels to replace beef fat and depending on the formulation to manipulate textural properties to resemble traditional products but with lower saturated fat content.

  3. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  4. Apparatus for retorting comminuted oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Strumskis, L.

    1982-04-20

    A continuously operable retort-type processing system for the recovery of petroleum-like products from comminuted oil-bearing shale and other oil-yielding particulate solid materials. The retort portion of the system includes an insulated retort outer shell for a wall jacket-type heat exchanger. Disposed within the retort, all driven from a common axially disposed motor-driven shaft, are a plurality of stirring fingers, wall scrapers and discharge shovels, the latter for use in discharge of spent solid material from the retort. The system envisions burning gases from the process to provide a fluid heat exchange medium as a source of the heat required for the process. The system further includes means for the admixture of steam and acetic acid with the starting particulate materials prior to its introduction into the retort. An additional instrumentality is included at an intermediate position along the reaction path of the materials as they pass through the retort for the addition of additional quantities of steam and acetic acid.

  5. Grainsize evolution and differential comminution in an experimental regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, F.; Cintala, M.; See, T.

    1984-01-01

    The comminution of planetary surfaces by exposure to continuous meteorite bombardment was simulated by impacting the same fragmental gabbro target 200 times. The role of comminution and in situ gardening of planetary regoliths was addressed. Mean grain size continuously decreased with increasing shot number. Initially it decreased linearly with accumulated energy, but at some stage comminution efficiency started to decrease gradually. Point counting techniques, aided by the electron microprobe for mineral identification, were performed on a number of comminution products. Bulk chemical analyses of specific grain size fractions were also carried out. The finest sizes ( 10 microns) display generally the strongest enrichment/depletion factors. Similar, if not exactly identical, trends are reported from lunar soils. It is, therefore, not necessarily correct to explain the chemical characteristics of various grain sizes via different admixtures of materials from distant source terrains. Differential comminution of local source rocks may be the dominating factor.

  6. Grainsize evolution and differential comminution in an experimental regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, F.; Cintala, M.; See, T.

    1984-01-01

    The comminution of planetary surfaces by exposure to continuous meteorite bombardment was simulated by impacting the same fragmental gabbro target 200 times. The role of comminution and in situ gardening of planetary regoliths was addressed. Mean grain size continuously decreased with increasing shot number. Initially it decreased linearly with accumulated energy, but at some stage comminution efficiency started to decrease gradually. Point counting techniques, aided by the electron microprobe for mineral identification, were performed on a number of comminution products. Bulk chemical analyses of specific grain size fractions were also carried out. The finest sizes ( 10 microns) display generally the strongest enrichment/depletion factors. Similar, if not exactly identical, trends are reported from lunar soils. It is, therefore, not necessarily correct to explain the chemical characteristics of various grain sizes via different admixtures of materials from distant source terrains. Differential comminution of local source rocks may be the dominating factor.

  7. Effect of Nitrite and Nitrate on Toxin Production by Clostridium botulinum and on Nitrosamine Formation in Perishable Canned Comminuted Cured Meat

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, L. N.; Johnston, R. W.; Kautter, D. A.; Howard, J. W.; Aunan, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Comminuted ham was formulated with different levels of sodium nitrite and nitrate, inoculated with Clostridium botulinum, and pasteurized to an internal temperature of 68.5 C. When added to the meat, nitrite concentrations decreased, and cooking had little effect on them. Nitrite concentrations decreased more rapidly during storage at 27 than at 7 C; however they remained rather constant at formulated levels throughout the experiment at both incubation temperatures. The level of nitrite added to the meat greatly influenced growth and toxin production of C. botulinum. The concentration of nitrite necessary to effect complete inhibition was dependent on the inoculum level. With 90 C. botulinum spores/g of meat, botulinum toxin developed in samples formulated with 150 but not with 200 μg of nitrite per g of meat. At a spore level of 5,000/g, toxin was detected in samples with 400 but not with 500 μg of nitrite per g of the product incubated at 27 C. At lower concentrations of nitrite, growth was retarded at both spore levels. No toxin developed in samples incubated at 7 C. Nitrate showed a statistically significant inhibitory effect at a given nitrite level; however, the effect was insufficient to be of practical value. Analyses for 14 volatile nitrosamines from samples made with varying levels of nitrite and nitrate were negative at a detection level of 0.01 μg of nitrite or nitrate per g of meat. PMID:4572891

  8. Solid waste comminution machine

    SciTech Connect

    Barclay, R.L.

    1986-08-26

    A solid waste comminution machine is described of the type having two sets of interleaving wheels, including a lower set and an upper set of wheel members. Each set includes a pair of shafts on which the wheel members are mounted, the pairs of shafts mounted on upright, mutually facing, movable arms. The improvement consists of: the upper set of wheel members having ripping and shearing tools attached to the circumferential periphery of the wheel members, the pair of shafts associated with the upper set of wheel members mounted on the movable arms, the lower set of wheel members mounted on a pair of fixed, parallel shafts, the shafts supported at one end of the arms with the lower set of wheel members interleaving in a material shearing relation. The shafts form a fixed pivot axis for the arms, the arms having fixed lengths with inward and outward ends, the outward ends extending beyond the shafts associated with the upper set of wheels thereby forming leverage regions, and hydraulic piston means having fixed ends and free ends, the free ends connected to the leverage regions for bringing the arms toward each other to a point at which the upper set of wheels mesh with sufficient force to enable ripping of material between the upper set of wheels.

  9. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOEpatents

    Quigley, David R.

    1992-01-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  10. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOEpatents

    Quigley, David R.

    1992-12-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  11. Cryo-comminution of plastic waste.

    PubMed

    Gente, Vincenzo; La Marca, Floriana; Lucci, Federica; Massacci, Paolo; Pani, Eleonora

    2004-01-01

    Recycling of plastics is a big issue in terms of environmental sustainability and of waste management. The development of proper technologies for plastic recycling is recognised as a priority. To achieve this aim, the technologies applied in mineral processing can be adapted to recycling systems. In particular, the improvement of comminution technologies is one of the main actions to improve the quality of recycled plastics. The aim of this work is to point out suitable comminution processes for different types of plastic waste. Laboratory comminution tests have been carried out under different conditions of temperature and sample pre-conditioning adopting as refrigerant agents CO2 and liquid nitrogen. The temperature has been monitored by thermocouples placed in the milling chamber. Also different internal mill screens have been adopted. A proper procedure has been set up in order to obtain a selective comminution and a size reduction suitable for further separation treatment. Tests have been performed on plastics coming from medical plastic waste and from a plant for spent lead batteries recycling. Results coming from different mill devices have been compared taking into consideration different indexes for representative size distributions. The results of the performed tests show as cryo-comminution improves the effectiveness of size reduction of plastics, promotes liberation of constituents and increases specific surface size of comminuted particles in comparison to a comminution process carried out at room temperature.

  12. Improving the scheme for final comminution of the coal charge

    SciTech Connect

    Antonov, A.V.; Zagoruiko, S.I.; Vorob'ev, S.E.; Kress, L.A.; Stepura, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    Proceeding from laboratory and pilot plant tests of the screening of fine classes of coal under the effect of gravitational forces on stationary grates, and also from the experience of the Krivoi Rog and Kommunarsk Coke Works, the coal preparation division of OKhMK (Orsk-Khalilovo Intergrated Iron and Steel Works) adopted an industrial scheme of comminution of the coal before coking, screening out the fine classes ahead of the hammer crushers. In the bottom of the feeder chute a stamped screen was installed (dimensions 2100 x 1600 x 5 mm with apertures of 40 x 100 mm) with the large side perpendicular to the flow of coal. The distance between the apertures on the small side of the screen was 20 mm, on the large side 15 mm; the inclination was 60/sup 0/. The overscreen product enters the crusher, and the underscreen product is injected into the crushed charge without comminution.

  13. Method for reducing comminution energy of a biomass fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, J.F.L.; Buder, M.K.; Brown, C.A.; Golike, G.P.; Spurell, R.M.

    1986-05-20

    A process is described for reducing comminution energy required for preparation of a biomass fuel source containing a mixture of materials having differing friability into a particulate fuel capable of self-sustaining combustion in an air suspension fired burner which comprises: providing a principal fuel component from the fuel source in which at least about 90% by weight of the particles do not exceed about 10 mm in any dimension and the moisture content does not exceed about 25%; selecting a sufficient quantity of the more friable material from the fuel source and drying and comminuting this material to provide an ignition component having a particle size not exceeding about 100 ..mu..m diameter and a moisture content not exceeding about 15% in an amount equivalent to at least 10% of the total heat value of the combined principal and ignition fuel components; and adjusting the ratio of principal and ignition fuel components so that when both are fired in an air suspension-type burner the ignition component provides sufficient energy to the principal fuel component to maintain stable combustion, whereby during fuel preparation only a predetermined amount of the most friable material need be finely comminuted thereby reducing the overall energy required for fuel preparation.

  14. Rock comminution as a source of hydrogen for subglacial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telling, J.; Boyd, E. S.; Bone, N.; Jones, E. L.; Tranter, M.; Macfarlane, J. W.; Martin, P. G.; Wadham, J. L.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Skidmore, M. L.; Hamilton, T. L.; Hill, E.; Jackson, M.; Hodgson, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Substantial parts of the beds of glaciers, ice sheets and ice caps are at the pressure melting point. The resulting water harbours diverse subglacial microbial ecosystems capable of affecting global biogeochemical cycles. Such subglacial habitats may have acted as refugia during Neoproterozoic glaciations. However, it is unclear how life in subglacial environments could be supported during glaciations lasting millions of years because energy from overridden organic carbon would become increasingly depleted. Here we investigate the potential for abiogenic H2 produced during rock comminution to provide a continual source of energy to support subglacial life. We collected a range of silicate rocks representative of subglacial environments in Greenland, Canada, Norway and Antarctica and crushed them with a sledgehammer and ball mill to varying surface areas. Under an inert atmosphere in the laboratory, we added water, and measured H2 production with time. H2 was produced at 0 °C in all silicate-water experiments, probably through the reaction of water with mineral surface silica radicals formed during rock comminution. H2 production increased with increasing temperature or decreasing silicate rock grain size. Sufficient H2 was produced to support previously measured rates of methanogenesis under a Greenland glacier. We conclude that abiogenic H2 generation from glacial bedrock comminution could have supported life and biodiversity in subglacial refugia during past extended global glaciations.

  15. Laser comminution of submerged samples

    SciTech Connect

    Mariella, R. Jr.; Rubenchik, A.; Norton, M.; Donohue, G.

    2013-07-07

    With the long-term goal in mind of investigating possible designs for a 'universal, solid-sample comminution technique' for elemental analysis of debris and rubble, we have studied pulsed-laser ablation of solid samples that were submerged in water. Using 351-nm, 15-ns laser pulses with energy between 1 J and 0.35 J, intensities between 500 MW/cm{sup 2} and 30 MW/cm{sup 2}, and samples of broken rock [quartzite] and concrete debris, we have observed conditions in which the laser-driven process can remove material from the solid target substrate, dissolving it and/or converting it into ultrafine particles in a controlled manner. Our study used impure, non-metallic substrates and investigated both the rate of material removal as well as the size distribution of particles that were ablated from the process. We studied ablation at lower regimes of intensity and fluence [below 100 MW/cm{sup 2} and 0.4 J/cm{sup 2}, respectively] than has previously attracted attention and discovered that there appears to be a new regime for energy-efficient material removal [Q* < 4000 J/g, for quartzite and <2000 J/g for concrete] and for the generation of ultrafine particles.

  16. Comminution and frictional melting in volcanic conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallee, Y.; Mitchell, T. M.; Heap, M. J.; Kendrick, J. E.; kennedy, B.; Ashwell, P. A.; Hirose, T.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    Shearing and faulting at active volcanoes may differ to tectonic faulting due to their distinct temperature conditions above those of the Earth's geotherm. In particular, the ascent of high-viscosity magma/rocks in upper conduits leads to shear/fault zones, with/without gouge formation and sometimes frictional melting; yet, details of the deformation and fracture mechanisms in these magma/rocks with different crystallinities reveal a different synopsis. For instance, the extrusion of lava domes proceeds endogenously or exogenically - a distinction generally understood as a shift in magma rheology to brittle failure, without consideration of the subsequent slip process. Exogenic growth and formation of a spine follow the dynamic rupture of the lava and the dome carapace, and suffer slip along the fault surface. Here, we present experimental investigations of the ability of volcanic rocks (with different glass/crystal and vesicle ratios) to sustain friction, and in cases melt, using a high-velocity rotary apparatus. During high-velocity rotary shear test, we find that slip of along andesite and basalt rocks generate heat which leads to frictional melting at temperature of ca. 1000 C, conciding to a total slip of 10-40 m (for slip initiating at room temperature). In contrast, slip along dense obsidian rocks or porous rocks cannot sustain slip along a discrete plane. Alternatively, obsidian can be slipped against a crystalline material. The width of the slip zone decreases in the presence of crystals. The findings suggest that the comminution of crystals is a requirement to the development of a localised slip zone. In absence of crystals, obsidian (and crystal-free magma) shatter catastrophically. We discuss the implication of our findings to the cases of tectonic faults, stability of volcanic edifices and evolution of lava dome eruptions.

  17. Heat production due to intracellular killing activity.

    PubMed

    Hayatsu, H; Masuda, S; Miyamae, T; Yamamura, M

    1990-09-01

    Using Saccharomyces ceravisiae, Candida albicans and Stapylococcus aureus, heat production during phagocytosis was measured in U937 cells which are capable of differentiating to monocytic phagocytes. No increase in heat production of non-differentiated U937 was observed since they were not phagocytic cells. However after differentiation to monocytic phagocytes by lymphokine, U937 cells produced a remarkable amount of heat during phagocytosis. Although Ehrlich ascites tumor cells sensitized with antibody were capable of engulfing S. aureus, no increase in heat nor in superoxide anion production during phagocytosis was detected. It was also found that no heat increase occurred in neutrophils from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). It can thus be concluded that the heat production during phagocytosis is due to the intercellular killing process of phagocytic cells.

  18. Fractal behavior in continental crustal heat production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedanti, N.; Srivastava, R. P.; Pandey, O. P.; Dimri, V. P.

    2011-02-01

    The distribution of crustal heat production, which is the most important component in the elucidation of continental thermal structure, still remains a theoretical assumption. In general the heat production values must decrease with depth, but the form of decrease of heat production in the crust is not well understood. The commonly used heat production models are: "block model", in which heat production is constant from the surface to a given depth and the "exponential model", in which heat production diminishes as an exponential function of depth. The exponential model is more widely used wherein sources of the errors are heterogeneity of rock and long wavelength changes due to changes in lithology and tectonic elements, and as such exponential distribution does not work satisfactorily for the entire crust. In the present study, we analyze for the first time, deep crustal heat production data of six global areas namely Dharwar craton (India), Kaapvaal craton (South Africa), Baltic shield (Kola, Russia), Hidaka metamorphic belt (Japan), Nissho pluton (Japan) and Continental Deep Drilling site (KTB, Germany). The power spectrum of all the studied data sets exhibits power law behaviour. This would mean slower decay of heat production with depth, which conforms to the known geologic composition of the crust. Minimum value of the scaling exponent has been found for the KTB borehole, which is apparently related to higher heat production of gneisses, however for other study areas, scaling exponent is almost similar. We also found that the lower values of scaling exponents are related to higher heat production in the crust as is the case in KTB. Present finding has a direct relevance in computation of temperature-depth profiles in continental regions.

  19. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

    1986-10-14

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

  20. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, William R.; Cassano, Anthony A.; Dunbobbin, Brian R.; Rao, Pradip; Erickson, Donald C.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange.

  1. Heating production fluids in a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Orrego, Yamila; Jankowski, Todd A.

    2016-07-12

    A method for heating a production fluid in a wellbore. The method can include heating, using a packer fluid, a working fluid flowing through a first medium disposed in a first section of the wellbore, where the first medium transfers heat from the packer fluid to the working fluid. The method can also include circulating the working fluid into a second section of the wellbore through a second medium, where the second medium transfers heat from the working fluid to the production fluid. The method can further include returning the working fluid to the first section of the wellbore through the first medium.

  2. Blackening of fault gouge by comminution and pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials during earthquake slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneki, Shunya; Hirono, Tetsuro

    2016-05-01

    Black fault gouges sometimes develop, mainly in sedimentary rocks, but the cause of the color transformation is not well understood. Here we demonstrated the blackening of synthetic mixtures of montmorillonite and bituminous coal and of montmorillonite and magnetite in milling, heating, and friction experiments. Mixed samples with a higher volume fraction of coal or magnetite before the experiments showed lower L* values (lightness index; lower values indicate darker blacks), because coal and magnetite are intrinsically black. The milling and heating experiments showed that the L* values of mixed samples of montmorillonite and coal drastically decreased with longer milling times and higher temperatures. The L* values of mixed samples of montmorillonite and magnetite also decreased with longer milling times, but no notable change was observed in the samples after the heating experiments. Because comminution by milling induces granulation of the constituent materials, blackening of the experimental samples was primarily caused by dispersal through the sample of fine black particles such as coal and magnetite, but it could be strengthened by adsorption onto host particles of organic gases produced by pyrolysis of carbonaceous material at high temperature. The friction experiment with mixed samples of montmorillonite and coal produced the remarkably low L* values. Friction induces both comminution and heating of samples, so the blackening could be greater than after either milling or heating alone. Therefore, relatively black fault gouges, compared with the surrounding host rocks, might have experienced comminution and heating, probably related to earthquake slip. Thus, black coloration could be one of the important information on fieldwork.

  3. Study of the comminution characteristics of coal by single particle breakage test device

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, R.

    2005-09-01

    Single-particle breakage tests of South Blackwater and Ensham coal from the Bowen Basin area in Queensland were conducted by a computer-monitored twin-pendulum device to measure the energy utilization pattern of the breakage particles. Three particle sizes (-16.0+13.2mm, -13.2+11.2mm, -11.2+9.5mm) of each coal were tested by a pendulum device at five input energy levels to measure the specific comminution energy. When particles were tested at constant input energy, the variation of comminution energy between the same size broken particles of Ensham coal was minimal, because Ensham coal is a softer and higher friability coal, which absorbs more input energy than harder coal during breakage tests. For different particle sizes, the specific comminution energy increases linearly with the input energy and the fineness of the breakage products increases with the specific comminution energy. The size distribution graphs are curved but approach linearity in the finer region. At a constant input energy, the twin pendulum breakage product results show that the fineness of the products increases with decrease in particle size and South Blackwater coal produced finer products than the Ensham coal. The t-curves are the family of size distribution curves, which can describe the product size distribution of the breakage particles during single-particle breakage tests.

  4. Improving the scheme for final comminution of the coal charge

    SciTech Connect

    Antonov, A.V.; Kress, L.A.; Stepura, P.G.; Vorob'ev, S.E.; Zayoruiko, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    Proceeding from laboratory and pilot plant tests of the screening of fine classes of coal under the effect of gravitational forces on stationary grates, and also from the experience of the Krivoi Rog and Kommunarsk Coke Works (1,2), the coal preparation division of OKhMK (Orsk-Khalilovo Integrated Iron and Steel Works) adopted an industrial scheme of comminution of coal before coking, screening out the fine classes ahead of the hammer crushers. In the bottom of the feeder chute a stamped screen was installed (dimensions 2100 X 1600 X 5 mm with apertures of 40 X 100 mm) with the large side perpendicular to the flow of coal. The distance between the apertures on the small side of the screen was 20 mm, on the large side 15 mm; the inclination was 60/sup 0/. The overscreen product enters the crusher, and the underscreen product is injected into the crushed charge without comminution. The improvement in the uniformity of the granulometric and qualitative composition of the prepared charge resulted in an improvement in the physicomechanical properties of the blast furnace coke. The mechanical strength of the coke by the M/sub 25/ index rose from 86.4 to 86.6%, while the abradability by the M/sub 10/ index decreased from 7.5 to 7.3%.

  5. Heat and moisture production of modern swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The heat and moisture production (HP and MP) values that are currently published in the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standards are from data collected in either the 1970’s (nursery piglets) or the 1950’s (growing-finishing pigs). This series of ...

  6. Impact of Heat Stress on Poultry Production.

    PubMed

    Lara, Lucas J; Rostagno, Marcos H

    2013-04-24

    Understanding and controlling environmental conditions is crucial to successful poultry production and welfare. Heat stress is one of the most important environmental stressors challenging poultry production worldwide. The detrimental effects of heat stress on broilers and laying hens range from reduced growth and egg production to decreased poultry and egg quality and safety. Moreover, the negative impact of heat stress on poultry welfare has recently attracted increasing public awareness and concern. Much information has been published on the effects of heat stress on productivity and immune response in poultry. However, our knowledge of basic mechanisms associated to the reported effects, as well as related to poultry behavior and welfare under heat stress conditions is in fact scarce. Intervention strategies to deal with heat stress conditions have been the focus of many published studies. Nevertheless, effectiveness of most of the interventions has been variable or inconsistent. This review focuses on the scientific evidence available on the importance and impact of heat stress in poultry production, with emphasis on broilers and laying hens.

  7. Characteristics of Comminuted Forest Biomass

    Treesearch

    Jacob Sprinkle; Dana. Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Transpirational drying and in-woods production of microchips potentially improve the economic efficiency of energy production from forest-derived feedstocks, but yield materials with moisture contents, bulk densities, and particle size distributions that differ from more conventional feedstocks. Ongoing research suggests that transpirational drying reduces the moisture...

  8. Universal constant for heat production in protists

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew D.; Völker, Jens; Moeller, Holly V.; Laws, Edward; Breslauer, Kenneth J.; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2009-01-01

    Using a high sensitivity differential scanning calorimeter in isothermal mode, we directly measured heat production in eukaryotic protists from 5 phyla spanning over 5 orders of magnitude in carbon biomass and 8 orders of magnitude in cell volume. Our results reveal that metabolic heat production normalized to cell mass is virtually constant in these organisms, with a median of 0.037 pW pg C−1 (95% confidence interval = 0.022–0.061 pW pg C−1) at 5 °C. Contrary to allometric models, the relationship between heat production and cell carbon content or surface area is isometric (scaling exponents, 1.056 and 1.057, respectively). That heat production per unit cell surface area is constant suggests that heat flux through the cell surface is effectively instantaneous, and hence that cells are isothermal with their environment. The results further suggest that allometric models of metabolism based on metazoans are not applicable to protists, and that the underlying metabolic processes in the latter polyphyletic group are highly constrained by evolutionary selection. We propose that the evolutionary constraint leading to a universally constant heat production in single-celled eukaryotes is related to cytoplasmic packaging of organelles and surface area to volume relationships controlling diffusion of resources to these organelles. PMID:19346469

  9. Radiogenic heat production in the continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, Claude; Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Iarotsky, Lidia

    2016-10-01

    The thermal structure and evolution of continents depend strongly on the amount and distribution of radioactive heat sources in the crust. Determining the contribution of crustal rocks beneath a superficial layer is a major challenge because heat production depends weakly on major element composition and physical properties such as seismic wavespeed and density. Enriched granitic intrusives that lie at the current erosion level have a large impact on the surface heat flux but little influence on temperatures in the deep crust. Many lower crustal rocks that are poor in heat producing elements are restites from ancient orogenic events, implying that enrichment of the upper crust was achieved at the expense of deeper crustal levels. For the same total heat production, concentrating heat sources in an upper layer acts to reduce temperatures in the lower crust, thereby allowing stabilization of the crust. The present-day structure of the crust is a consequence of orogeny and should not be adopted for thermal models of the orogenic event itself. This review summarizes information extracted from large data sets on heat flow and heat production and provides estimates of crustal stratification and heat production in several geological provinces. Analysis of global and regional data sets reveals the absence of a positive correlation between surface heat flow and crustal thickness, showing that the average crustal heat production is not constant. Differences of heat flow between geological provinces are due in large part to changes of crustal structure and bulk composition. Collating values of the bulk crustal heat production in a few age intervals reveals a clear trend of decrease with increasing age. This trend can be accounted for by radioactive decay, indicating that thermal conditions at the time of crustal stabilization have not changed significantly. For the average crustal thickness of 40 km, Moho temperatures are near solidus values at the time of stabilization

  10. Arkoma exploration heats production builds

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.

    1991-01-21

    This paper reports that exploratory drilling continues with fervor to Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle targets, especially in Arkansas. Pennsylvanian zones continue to yield significant gas discoveries. Gas production from Arkoma basin counties in both states has been rising and stands to climb even further with startup of several new pipelines, assuming gas prices and takes hold up.

  11. PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM

    DOEpatents

    Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

  12. Biomass recycling heat technology and energy products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabakaev, R. B.; Gergelizhiu, P. S.; Kazakov, A. V.; Zavorin, A. S.

    2014-10-01

    Relevance is determined by necessity of utilizing of local low-grade fuels by energy equpment. Most widespread Tomsk oblast (Russian Federation region) low-grade fuels are described and listed. Capability of utilizing is analysed. Mass balances of heat-technology conversion materials and derived products are described. As a result, recycling capability of low-grade fuels in briquette fuel is appraised.

  13. Heat production of nursery and growing piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat and moisture production (HMP) values are used to size ventilation fans in animal housing. The HMP values that are currently published in the ASABE standards were from data published in 1975. This study is one of a series of studies being conducted to update the HMP values for the ASABE and ASHR...

  14. Metabolic heat production and evaporation of poultry.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Sheila T; Maia, Alex S C; Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Nascimento, Carolina C N

    2017-05-03

    Accurate measurements of gas exchange between an animal and its environment is critical in determining metabolic heat production and respiratory functions of broilers. Information on non-invasive methods to measure gas exchange of broiler chicks and chickens under uncontrolled environmental conditions is lacking in the literature. The aims of this study were: (1) to develop an indirect calorimetric system including a hood that allows gas exchange for chickens, (2) to measure gas exchange and respiratory functions (respiration rate, ventilation rate, and tidal volume) of broiler chickens weighing greater than 250 g, and (3) to calculate heat production and respiratory evaporation of the birds based on measured gas and vapor exchanges. We conducted two trials. The first trial involved 6 broiler chicks evaluated for 6 days in 6 different schedules (6 × 6 Latin square). The chicks were kept inside a heat exchanger with a continuous air flow of 150 mL min-1. The second trial involved 12 birds evaluated for 12 days in 12 different schedules (12 × 12 Latin square). Metabolic heat production and evaporation were influenced by live weight of chicks, varying between evaluation days (P < 0.05). The respiratory functions (tidal volume, ventilation rate, and respiratory rate) varied between days, and were strongly influenced by live weight of the broilers (P < 0.05). © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Constraints on Crustal Heat Production from Heat Flow Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, C.; Mareschal, J.-C.

    2003-12-01

    between variations in heat flow and crustal heat production has been investigated systematically ( England et al., 1980; Jaupart, 1983a; Vasseur and Singh, 1986; Ketcham, 1996; Jaupart and Mareschal, 1999). Heat flow determinations on continents have been multiplied by almost a factor of 10 between the compilations by Jessop et al. (1976) and Pollack et al. (1993). Since the last compilation, a large number of high-quality data have been obtained for the poorly studied Precambrian Shield areas of Canada and India ( Mareschal et al., 2000a, b; Roy and Rao, 2000; Rolandone et al., 2002; Lewis et al., 2003).

  16. Determinants of heat production in newborn lambs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eales, F. A.; Small, J.

    1980-06-01

    Measurement of summit metabolism (the maximum rate of heat production) in lambs aged 1 or 4h revealed considerable between animal variation. Summit metabolism per unit body weight decreased as body weight increased whereas summit metabolism per unit body surface area was independent of body weight. Severe pre-partum hypoxia was apparently associated with a low summit metabolism at 1 or 4h of age which made such lambs very susceptible to hypothermia. This deficiency in heat production capacity did not appear to be a permanent featuresince most lambs so affected recovered full thermoregulatory ability by 12h of age. Feeding of colostrum conferred an immediate 18% increase in summit metabolism. The significance of these findings to the prevention of hypothermia in the newborn lamb is discussed.

  17. Non-Heat Treatable Alloy Sheet Products

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, H.W.; Barthold, G.W.; Das, S.K.

    1999-08-01

    ALCAR is an innovative approach for conducting multi-company, pre-competitive research and development programs. ALCAR has been formed to crate a partnership of aluminum producers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Center for Research and Technology Development (ASME/CRTD), the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), three USDOE National Laboratories, and a Technical Advisory Committee for conducting cooperative, pre-competitive research on the development of flower-cost, non-heat treated (NHT) aluminum alloys for automotive sheet applications with strength, formability and surface appearance similar to current heat treated (HT) aluminum alloys under consideration. The effort has been supported by the USDOE, Office of Transportation Technology (OTT) through a three-year program with 50/50 cost share at a total program cost of $3 million. The program has led to the development of new and modified 5000 series aluminum ally compositions. Pilot production-size ingots have bee n melted, cast, hot rolled and cold rolled. Stamping trials on samples of rolled product for demonstrating production of typical automotive components have been successful.

  18. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Narain, Nand K.; Ruether, John A.; Smith, Dennis N.

    1988-01-01

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product.

  19. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Narain, N.K.; Ruether, J.A.; Smith, D.N.

    1987-10-07

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product. 2 figs.

  20. The U-series comminution approach: where to from here

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handley, Heather; Turner, Simon; Afonso, Juan; Turner, Michael; Hesse, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying the rates of landscape evolution in response to climate change is inhibited by the difficulty of dating the formation of continental detrital sediments. The 'comminution age' dating model of DePaolo et al. (2006) hypothesises that the measured disequilibria between U-series nuclides (234U and 238U) in fine-grained continental (detrital) sediments can be used to calculate the time elapsed since mechanical weathering of a grain to the threshold size ( 50 µm). The comminution age includes the time that a particle has been mobilised in transport, held in temporary storage (e.g., soils and floodplains) and the time elapsed since final deposition to present day. Therefore, if the deposition age of sediment can be constrained independently, for example via optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, the residence time of sediment (e.g., a palaeochannel deposit) can be determined. Despite the significant potential of this approach, there is still much work to be done before meaningful absolute comminution ages can be obtained. The calculated recoil loss factor and comminution age are highly dependent on the method of recoil loss factor determination used and the inherent assumptions. We present new and recently published uranium isotope data for aeolian sediment deposits, leached and unleached palaeochannel sediments and bedrock samples from Australia to exemplify areas of current uncertainty in the comminution age approach. In addition to the information gained from natural samples, Monte Carlo simulations have been conducted for a synthetic sediment sample to determine the individual and combined comminution age uncertainties associated to each input variable. Using a reasonable associated uncertainty for each input factor and including variations in the source rock and measured (234U/238U) ratios, the total combined uncertainty on comminution age in our simulation (for two methods of recoil loss factor estimation: weighted geometric and surface area

  1. Intraventricular administration of isoproterenol inhibits both heat production and heat loss mechanisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, M T; Chandra, A; Fan, Y C; Sun, R

    1980-07-15

    At an ambient temperature (Ta) of 8 degrees C, intraventricular administration of isoproterenol inhibited metabolic heat production and led to hypothermia in rats. In contrast, at a Ta of 22 degrees C and of 30 degrees C, isoproterenol decreased cutaneous circulation and led to hyperthermia. The data indicate that isoproterenol inhibits both heat production and heat loss mechanisms in rats.

  2. Heat production in an Archean crustal profile and implications for heat flow and mobilization of heat-producing elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Morgan, P.; Kelley, S. A.; Percival, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Concentrations of heat producing elements (Th, U, and K) in 58 samples representative of the main lithologies in a 100-km transect of the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield have been obtained. The relatively large variation in heat production found among the silicic plutonic rocks is shown to correlate with modal abundances of accessory minerals, and these variations are interpreted as premetamorphic. The present data suggest fundamental differences in crustal radioactivity distributions between granitic and more mafic terrains, and indicate that a previously determined apparently linear heat flow-heat production relationship for the Kapuskasing area does not relate to the distribution of heat production with depth.

  3. Heat production in an Archean crustal profile and implications for heat flow and mobilization of heat-producing elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Morgan, P.; Kelley, S. A.; Percival, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Concentrations of heat producing elements (Th, U, and K) in 58 samples representative of the main lithologies in a 100-km transect of the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield have been obtained. The relatively large variation in heat production found among the silicic plutonic rocks is shown to correlate with modal abundances of accessory minerals, and these variations are interpreted as premetamorphic. The present data suggest fundamental differences in crustal radioactivity distributions between granitic and more mafic terrains, and indicate that a previously determined apparently linear heat flow-heat production relationship for the Kapuskasing area does not relate to the distribution of heat production with depth.

  4. Primary Ankle Arthrodesis for Severely Comminuted Tibial Pilon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Al-Ashhab, Mohamed E

    2017-03-01

    Management of severely comminuted, complete articular tibial pilon fractures (Rüedi and Allgöwer type III) remains a challenge, with few treatment options providing good clinical outcomes. Twenty patients with severely comminuted tibial pilon fractures underwent primary ankle arthrodesis with a retrograde calcaneal nail and autogenous fibular bone graft. The fusion rate was 100% and the varus malunion rate was 10%. Fracture union occurred at a mean of 16 weeks (range, 13-18 weeks) postoperatively. Primary ankle arthrodesis is a successful method for treating highly comminuted tibial pilon fractures, having a low complication rate and a high satisfaction score. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e378-e381.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Development of rapid gas heating process for semifinished steel products

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, L.K. ); Chan, I.S. ); Nelson, J.G. )

    1994-09-01

    The metal heating industry associates quality and high efficiency with electrical induction heating. The ability of induction to rapidly heat product has been a key difference between electrical and combustion heating methods. Conventional gas-fired furnaces rely on radiation from refractory structures to transfer heat to the product. As the metal approaches its target temperature, the rate of heat transfer flows significantly because the temperature difference between the metal and refractory is small. The heating rates of conventional furnaces are typically below those achieved with induction. Despite this, conventional gas-fired furnaces remain the mainstay of the metals industry because of lower capital and operating costs, and greater operating flexibility and reliability than induction systems. Today, there exists a gas-based rapid heating process, Rapidfire, that is capable of achieving considerably higher heating rates than conventional furnaces. Oxygen natural gas fired rapid heating has been developed by Air Products and Chemicals with funding from the Gas Research Institute. This technology is able to provide the end user with heating capabilities similar to induction, but with the flexibility and operating costs typically associated with gas-fired systems. A novel oxygen-natural gas based, rapid heating technology, Rapidfire, has been developed capable of achieving five to six times higher heating rates (200 to 400 F/min for 3 to 4-in. diameter bars) than conventional combustion processes. Anticipated applications include forging, transfer bar edge heating, bar/slab preheating and direct rolling (eg, 2-in. thin cast slabs).

  6. The global joule heat production rate and the AE index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, S.; Ahn, B.-H.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1985-01-01

    The degree of accuracy with which the AE index may be used as a measure of the joule heat production rate is evaluated for a typical substorm event on March 18, 1978, by estimating the global joule heat production rate as a function of time on the basis of data obtained from the IMS's six meridian chains. It is found that, although the AE index is statistically linearly related to the global joule heat production rate, caution is required when one assumes that details of AE index time variations during individual events are representative of those of the joule heat production rate.

  7. Differential comminution of gypsum in cements ground in different mills

    SciTech Connect

    Panigrahy, P.K.; Goswami, G.; Panda, J.D.; Panda, R.K

    2003-07-01

    Identical mixes containing fixed amounts of ordinary Portland cement clinker and gypsum were ground in two types of industrial cement mills - viz. ball mill (BM) and vertical roller mill (VRM) - to identical Blaine fineness to examine the effect of any possible differential comminution of gypsum on cement setting times. The present investigation demonstrates that during comminution of cements, the degree of crystallinity of gypsum, as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), changes with used grinding mills and this causes changes in setting times of similar cements even when ground to identical Blaine fineness.

  8. Technologies for Production of Heat and Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-04-01

    Biomass is a desirable source of energy because it is renewable, sustainable, widely available throughout the world, and amenable to conversion. Biomass is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin components. Cellulose is generally the dominant fraction, representing about 40 to 50% of the material by weight, with hemicellulose representing 20 to 50% of the material, and lignin making up the remaining portion [4,5,6]. Although the outward appearance of the various forms of cellulosic biomass, such as wood, grass, municipal solid waste (MSW), or agricultural residues, is different, all of these materials have a similar cellulosic composition. Elementally, however, biomass varies considerably, thereby presenting technical challenges at virtually every phase of its conversion to useful energy forms and products. Despite the variances among cellulosic sources, there are a variety of technologies for converting biomass into energy. These technologies are generally divided into two groups: biochemical (biological-based) and thermochemical (heat-based) conversion processes. This chapter reviews the specific technologies that can be used to convert biomass to energy. Each technology review includes the description of the process, and the positive and negative aspects.

  9. Future crop production threatened by extreme heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Stefan; Ewert, Frank

    2014-04-01

    Heat is considered to be a major stress limiting crop growth and yields. While important findings on the impact of heat on crop yield have been made based on experiments in controlled environments, little is known about the effects under field conditions at larger scales. The study of Deryng et al (2014 Global crop yield response to extreme heat stress under multiple climate change futures Environ. Res. Lett. 9 034011), analysing the impact of heat stress on maize, spring wheat and soya bean under climate change, represents an important contribution to this emerging research field. Uncertainties in the occurrence of heat stress under field conditions, plant responses to heat and appropriate adaptation measures still need further investigation.

  10. Dispersion strengthened nickel-yttria sheet alloy produced from comminuted powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikora, P. F.; Quatinetz, M.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine whether a nickel matrix with yttria as a dispersoid could be produced by a comminution and blending (wet attrition-NASCAB) approach. Concentration of yttria, powder cleaning temperature, screening (sieving) of the powders, and amount of thermomechanical working were major variables. Tensile strength and stress-rupture life at 1093 C were determined. A product containing 4v/o Y2O3, cleaned at 315 or 371 C with screening exhibited 1093 C tensile strength equivalent to NASCAB Ni-4ThO2 and to commercially produced thoriated nickel sheet.

  11. Martian surface heat production and crustal heat flow from Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, B. C.; McLennan, S. M.; Klein, E. C.

    2011-07-01

    Martian thermal state and evolution depend principally on the radiogenic heat-producing element (HPE) distributions in the planet's crust and mantle. The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft has mapped the surface abundances of HPEs across Mars. From these data, we produce the first models of global and regional surface heat production and crustal heat flow. As previous studies have suggested that the crust is a repository for approximately 50% of the radiogenic elements on Mars, these models provide important, directly measurable constraints on Martian heat generation. Our calculations show considerable geographic and temporal variations in crustal heat flow, and demonstrate the existence of anomalous heat flow provinces. We calculate a present day average surface heat production of 4.9 ± 0.3 × 10-11 W · kg-1. We also calculate the average crustal component of heat flow of 6.4 ± 0.4 mW · m-2. The crustal component of radiogenically produced heat flow ranges from <1 mW · m-2 in the Hellas Basin and Utopia Planitia regions to ˜13 mW · m-2 in the Sirenum Fossae region. These heat production and crustal heat flow values from geochemical measurements support previous heat flow estimates produced by different methodologies.

  12. Multipass rotary shear comminution process to produce corn stover particles

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2015-04-14

    A process of comminution of corn stover having a grain direction to produce a mixture of corn stover, by feeding the corn stover in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of corn stover travel.

  13. RTO heat recovery system decreases production costs and provides payback

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, P.R.

    1999-07-01

    Application of a heat recovery system to an existing regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO) was considered, tested, and selected for decreasing production costs at a pressure sensitive tape manufacturing facility. Heat recovery systems on RTO's are less common than those on other thermal oxidizers (e.g., recuperative) because RTO's, by the nature of the technology, usually provide high thermal efficiencies (without the application of external heat recovery systems). In this case, the production processes were integrated with the emission controls by applying an external heat recovery system and by optimizing the design and operation of the existing drying and cure ovens, RTO system, and ductwork collection system. Integration of these systems provides an estimated annual production cost savings of over $400,000 and a simplified capital investment payback of less than 2 years, excluding possible savings from improved dryer operations. These additional process benefits include more consistent and simplified control of seasonal dryer performance and possibly production throughput increases. The production costs savings are realized by substituting excess RTO heat for a portion of the infrared (IR) electrical heat input to the dryers/ovens. This will be accomplished by preheating the supply air to the oven zones with the excess RTO heat (i.e., heat at the RTO exceeding auto-thermal conditions). Several technologies, including direct air-to-air, indirect air-to-air, hot oil-to-air, waste heat boiler (steam-to-air) were evaluated for transferring the excess RTO heat (hot gas) to the ovens. A waste heat boiler was selected to transfer the excess RTO heat to the ovens because this technology provided the most economical, reliable, and feasible operation. Full-scale production test trials on the coating lines were performed and confirmed the IR electrical costs could be reduced up to 70%.

  14. Heat transfer during heat sterilization and cooling processes of canned products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, I.

    In this paper, an analysis of transient heat transfer during heat sterilization and cooling processes of a cylindrical canned product is presented. In the analysis, most practical case including the boundary condition of third kind (i.e., convection boundary condition, leading to 0.1 <= Bi <= 100) was employed. A simple analytical model for determining effective heat transfer coefficients for such products is developed. For the heat sterilization process, heating coefficient is incorporated into heat transfer coefficient model. An experimental study was performed to measure the thermal center temperatures of the short-cylindrical canned products (i.e., Tuna fish) during heat sterilization at the retort medium temperatures of 115∘C and 121∘C, and during cooling process at 16∘C. The effective heat transfer coefficient model used the experimental temperature data. Using these effective heat transfer coefficients the center temperature distributions were calculated and compared with the experimental temperature distributions. Agreement was found considerably high. The results of the present study indicate that the heat-transfer analysis technique and heat-transfer coefficient model are reliable, and can provide accurate results for such problems.

  15. Heat production as a quantitative parameter of phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hayatsu, H; Miyamae, T; Yamamura, M

    1988-05-09

    Microcalorimetry was applied to measure phagocytosis by human peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes. Heat production was 9.1 +/- 2.6 microW by 1 X 10(6) unstimulated neutrophils and increased to 28.4 +/- 3.2 microW in association with phagocytosis. The increase in heat production was directly proportional to the number of Saccharomyces cerevisiae particles phagocytosed as well as to the concentration of opsonizing serum. No heat increase was observed in the absence of phagocytosis. An increase in heat production by monocytes was also observed in association with phagocytosis, but it was much less obvious than that by neutrophils. Heat production can thus be used as a quantitative measure of phagocytosis.

  16. Uranium comminution age tested by the eolian deposits on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Le; Liu, Xiangjun; Li, Tao; Li, Laifeng; Zhao, Liang; Ji, Junfeng; Chen, Jun; Li, Gaojun

    2017-06-01

    The 234U/238U ratio of fine particles can record the time since their separation from bed rock because of the disruption of uranium series equilibrium introduced by the recoil of daughter 234Th nuclei (precursor of 234U) out of particle surfaces during the decay of 238U. Application of the uranium comminution age method, which has great potential in tracing production and transportation of sediments is however complicated by the weathering dissolution of 234U depleted particle surfaces, the difficulty in determining the fraction of recoiled nuclei, and the precipitation of exogenetic 234U. Here we minimize these complications by using a newly developed precise size separation using electroformed sieve, and a chemical protocol that involves reductive and oxidative leaching. Eolian deposits collected from the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) were used to test the validity of our method. Possible effects of weathering dissolution were also evaluated by comparing samples with different weathering intensities. The results show decreasing 234U/238U ratios in fine eolian particles with increasing sedimentation age, agreeing well with the theoretical prediction of the comminution age model. This successful application of the uranium comminution age approach to the eolian deposits on the CLP is also aided by a stable dust source, the low weathering intensity, the lack of consolidation, and the well-defined age model of the deposits. A transportation time of 242 ± 18 ka was calculated for the eolian deposits, which indicates a long residence time, and thus extensive mixing, of the dust particles in source regions, partly explaining the stable and homogeneous composition of the eolian dust over glacial-interglacial cycles.

  17. Metabolic heat production, heat loss and the circadian rhythm of body temperature in the rat.

    PubMed

    Refinetti, Roberto

    2003-05-01

    Metabolic heat production (calculated from oxygen consumption), dry heat loss (measured in a calorimeter) and body temperature (measured by telemetry) were recorded simultaneously at 6 min intervals over five consecutive days in rats maintained in constant darkness. Robust circadian rhythmicity (confirmed by chi square periodogram analysis) was observed in all three variables. The rhythm of heat production was phase-advanced by about half an hour in relation to the body temperature rhythm, whereas the rhythm of heat loss was phase-delayed by about half an hour. The balance of heat production and heat loss exhibited a daily oscillation 180 deg out of phase with the oscillation in body temperature. Computations indicated that the amount of heat associated with the generation of the body temperature rhythm (1.6 kJ) corresponds to less than 1 % of the total daily energy budget (172 kJ) in this species. Because of the small magnitude of the fraction of heat balance associated with the body temperature rhythm, it is likely that the daily oscillation in heat balance has a very slow effect on body temperature, thus accounting for the 180 deg phase difference between the rhythms of heat balance and body temperature.

  18. A Global compilation of Heat Production in Granitic Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsen, Kiki; Sørensen, Nanna K.; Nielsen, Louise S. K.; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina M.

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of the heat production in the crust is important for understanding the energy balance in Earth. It is assumed that the crust produces a substantial part of the heat in Earth, but its proportion in comparison to the mantle and the contribution from core solidification is not well known. Knowledge of the crustal heat production is required for assessing the mantle heat flow at the crust-mantle interface. Granites probably are the main heat producing rock types in the crust, and therefore their heat production is of crucial importance for understanding Earth heat balance. As part of a B.Sc. thesis study we have compiled a new database based on published values of heat production in various types of granites. The database has about 500 entries for concentrations of U, Th, and K and the total heat generation in different continental regions. The database also includes information on crustal age and the emplacement age of granites, where available. Some of the main conclusions that may be drawn from analyses of this new database are: • Distribution of heat production values is narrow in Archean-early Proterozoic granites but very broad in middle-late Proterozoic granites. • We observe no correlation between granite type and heat production. • Some correlation may be inferred between age and heat production - heat production is relatively low in Archaean-early Proterozoic granites. • Proterozoic granites are dominated by A-type which have high heat production; the I-type Archean granitic rocks seem to have the highest Th/U ratio. • The Th/U ratio is supposed to be 3.7-4.0 based on relative time constants. This is in general correct with a global average value of 3.7. However, it is ca. 3.8 for Phanerozoic and Archaean-early Proterozoic granites and 3.3 for middle-late Proterozoic granites. We speculate if this variation may be caused by major plate reorganization or perhaps by change in global plate tectonic style?

  19. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Iain D.; Kennedy, Chris A.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to <1% of anthropogenic heating in all cities. Heat flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai—the world's most densely populated megacity—at 6.5 W m-2, surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m-2) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m-2). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  20. New industrial heat pump applications to phosphate fertilizer production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    In this study Process Integration techniques based on Pinch Technology have been applied to Chevron's fertilizer complex in Rock Springs, Wyoming. The objectives of the study were to: identify heat pump opportunities and to determine the cost effectiveness of heat pumping compared to other process improvements. Significance of this Work Chevron's fertilizer complex is an example of an exothermic process. The sulfuric acid plant produces more heat than is needed for the rest of the site. The complex has, therefore, no need for a heating utility. The heat created in the sulfuric acid plant is used to produce high pressure steam, which is let down through a turbo generator satisfying most of the site's electrical needs. This type of process would normally not be considered for heat pumping because there is no heating utility load to reduce. However, reducing the requirements for extraction steam will liberate more steam for power generation. Heat recovery and heat pumping, therefore, have the unusual effect of an increase in electricity production, resulting in a reduction in electricity import, rather than a reduction in fuel consumption. Heat recovery opportunities show promise at both the sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid plants. No economically attractive opportunities were found for heat pumps in the process units when they were considered individually; however, the study identified that significant energy savings can be achieved by heat integration between the sulfuric acid plant and the phosphoric acid plant. 16 figs.

  1. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Iain D.; Kennedy, Chris A.

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to <1% of anthropogenic heating in all cities. Heat flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai—the world's most densely populated megacity—at 6.5 W m-2, surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m-2) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m-2). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  2. RF heating for fusion product studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hellsten, T. Johnson, T.; Sharapov, S. E.; Kiptily, V.; Rimini, F.; Eriksson, J.; Mantsinen, M.; Schneider, M.; Tsalas, M.

    2015-12-10

    Third harmonic cyclotron heating is an effective tool for accelerating deuterium (D) beams to the MeV energy range, suitable for studying ITER relevant fast particle physics in plasmas without significant tritium content. Such experiments were recently conducted in JET with an ITER like wall in D plasmas with {sup 3}He concentrations up to 30% in order to boost the fusion reactivity by D-{sup 3}He reactions. The harmonic cyclotron heating produces high-energy tails in the MeV range of D ions by on-axis heating and of {sup 3}He ions by tangential off-axis heating. The discharges are characterized by long sawtooth free periods and a rich spectrum of MHD modes excited by the fast D and {sup 3}He ions. The partitions of the power, which depend on the distribution function of D, vary strongly over several slowing down times. Self-consistent modelling of the distribution function with the SELFO-light code are presented and compared with experimental data from fast particle diagnostics.

  3. RF heating for fusion product studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T.; Sharapov, S. E.; Kiptily, V.; Eriksson, J.; Mantsinen, M.; Schneider, M.; Rimini, F.; Tsalas, M.

    2015-12-01

    Third harmonic cyclotron heating is an effective tool for accelerating deuterium (D) beams to the MeV energy range, suitable for studying ITER relevant fast particle physics in plasmas without significant tritium content. Such experiments were recently conducted in JET with an ITER like wall in D plasmas with 3He concentrations up to 30% in order to boost the fusion reactivity by D-3He reactions. The harmonic cyclotron heating produces high-energy tails in the MeV range of D ions by on-axis heating and of 3He ions by tangential off-axis heating. The discharges are characterized by long sawtooth free periods and a rich spectrum of MHD modes excited by the fast D and 3He ions. The partitions of the power, which depend on the distribution function of D, vary strongly over several slowing down times. Self-consistent modelling of the distribution function with the SELFO-light code are presented and compared with experimental data from fast particle diagnostics.

  4. Radiogenic heat production, thermal regime and evolution of continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Jaupart, Claude

    2013-12-01

    Heat flow and heat production data complement seismic information and provide strong constraints on crustal composition, thickness and evolution. They have helped understand the nature of the Mohorovicic discontinuity and the variations in seismic velocities below the Moho. Notably, heat flow studies have delineated the vertical distribution of heat producing elements throughout the crust and in the upper most mantle lithosphere. Analysis of global data sets on heat flow and crustal thickness demonstrate that there is no correlation between these two variables. This is due to the large spatial variations in crustal composition and heat production that exist within a single geological province. For a given crustal thickness, the Moho temperature varies within a wide range (≈ 300 K) depending on surface heat flux and crustal heat production. Thus one cannot use generic models based on a “type” crustal column to calculate crustal geotherms. In stable regions, lower crustal temperatures depend on the amount and vertical distribution of heat producing elements in the crust. These temperatures determine the conditions of crustal stability and impose a limit on the maximum thickness of a stabilized crust.

  5. Rubisco activase and wheat productivity under heat stress conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rubisco activase (RCA) constrains the photosynthetic potential of plants at high temperature (heat stress). We hypothesized that endogenous levels of RCA could serve as an important determinant of plant productivity under heat stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the possible relation...

  6. NGNP Process Heat Applications: Hydrogen Production Accomplishments for FY2010

    SciTech Connect

    Charles V Park

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes FY10 accomplishments of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Engineering Process Heat Applications group in support of hydrogen production technology development. This organization is responsible for systems needed to transfer high temperature heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) reactor (being developed by the INL NGNP Project) to electric power generation and to potential industrial applications including the production of hydrogen.

  7. Heat-stable Escherichia coli enterotoxin production in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Whipp, S C; Moon, H W; Lyon, N C

    1975-01-01

    Hysterectomy-derived, colostrum-deprived piglets were infected with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli on day 4 of life. Samples of feces and intestinal contents were collected and tested in infant mice for enterotoxic activity. Positive enterotoxic responses were observed in mice given filtrates of feces and intestinal contents from piglets infected withe enterotoxigenic E. coli known to produce heat-stable enterotoxin but not heat-liabile enterotoxin in vitro. It is concluded that heat-stable enterotoxigenic E. coli induce diarrhea by production of heat-stable enterotoxin in vivo. PMID:1097335

  8. A heuristic model of stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nathan B.; Zhong, Pei

    2013-01-01

    A heuristic model is presented to describe the overall progression of stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), accounting for the effects of shock wave dose and the average peak pressure, P+(avg), incident on the stone during the treatment. The model is developed through adaptation of the Weibull theory for brittle fracture, incorporating threshold values in dose and P+(avg) that are required to initiate fragmentation. The model is validated against experimental data of stone comminution from two stone types (hard and soft BegoStone) obtained at various positions in lithotripter fields produced by two shock wave sources of different beam width and pulse profile both in water and in 1,3-butanediol (which suppresses cavitation). Subsequently, the model is used to assess the performance of a newly developed acoustic lens for electromagnetic lithotripters in comparison with its original counterpart both under static and simulated respiratory motion. The results have demonstrated the predictive value of this heuristic model in elucidating the physical basis for improved performance of the new lens. The model also provides a rationale for the selection of SWL treatment protocols to achieve effective stone comminution without elevating the risk of tissue injury. PMID:23927195

  9. A heuristic model of stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nathan B; Zhong, Pei

    2013-08-01

    A heuristic model is presented to describe the overall progression of stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), accounting for the effects of shock wave dose and the average peak pressure, P+(avg), incident on the stone during the treatment. The model is developed through adaptation of the Weibull theory for brittle fracture, incorporating threshold values in dose and P+(avg) that are required to initiate fragmentation. The model is validated against experimental data of stone comminution from two stone types (hard and soft BegoStone) obtained at various positions in lithotripter fields produced by two shock wave sources of different beam width and pulse profile both in water and in 1,3-butanediol (which suppresses cavitation). Subsequently, the model is used to assess the performance of a newly developed acoustic lens for electromagnetic lithotripters in comparison with its original counterpart both under static and simulated respiratory motion. The results have demonstrated the predictive value of this heuristic model in elucidating the physical basis for improved performance of the new lens. The model also provides a rationale for the selection of SWL treatment protocols to achieve effective stone comminution without elevating the risk of tissue injury.

  10. Enthalphyand Heat Capacity of Several Candy Products,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    They are three types of chocolate : ’Extra with Milk,’ ’Sport,’ and ’Soy Bean’ without ground nuts and sugar. For a caloric investigation of the candy products an adiabatic calorimeter was used.

  11. [Coal comminution] progress reports. Semi-annual report, October 1, 1997--March 1, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    This report presents the objectives, approach, and progress on six projects being undertaken at the University of Utah. The six projects, all related to the comminution of coal, are: Administration and Comminution Reference Center; Optimal energy utilization strategies for comminution; Ball mill scale-up; Ball media motion computer code; Fracture of brittle particles in constrained beds measured on the ultrafast load cell; and Development of a prototype oscillating ball mill.

  12. Electricity and heat production by biomass cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marčič, Simon; Marčič, Milan

    2017-07-01

    In Slovenia, approximately 2 % of electricity is generated using cogeneration systems. Industrial and district heating networks ensure the growth of such technology. Today, many existing systems are outdated, providing myriad opportunities for reconstruction. One concept for the development of households and industry envisages the construction of several small biomass units and the application of natural gas as a fuel with a relatively extensive distribution network. This concept has good development potential in Slovenia. Forests cover 56 % of the surface area in Slovenia, which has, as a result, a lot of waste wood to be turned into biomass. Biomass is an important fuel in Slovenia. Biomass is gasified in a gasifier, and the wood gas obtained is used to power the gas engine. This paper describes a biomass cogeneration system as the first of this type in Slovenia, located in Ruše.

  13. Heat stress causes substantial labour productivity loss in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, Kerstin K.; Botzen, Wouter J. W.; Oppermann, Elspeth; Kjellstrom, Tord; Garnett, Stephen T.

    2015-07-01

    Heat stress at the workplace is an occupational health hazard that reduces labour productivity. Assessment of productivity loss resulting from climate change has so far been based on physiological models of heat exposure. These models suggest productivity may decrease by 11-27% by 2080 in hot regions such as Asia and the Caribbean, and globally by up to 20% in hot months by 2050. Using an approach derived from health economics, we describe self-reported estimates of work absenteeism and reductions in work performance caused by heat in Australia during 2013/2014. We found that the annual costs were US$655 per person across a representative sample of 1,726 employed Australians. This represents an annual economic burden of around US$6.2 billion (95% CI: 5.2-7.3 billion) for the Australian workforce. This amounts to 0.33 to 0.47% of Australia’s GDP. Although this was a period when many Australians experienced what is at present considered exceptional heat, our results suggest that adaptation measures to reduce heat effects should be adopted widely if severe economic impacts from labour productivity loss are to be avoided if heat waves become as frequent as predicted.

  14. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Iain D; Kennedy, Chris A

    2016-12-26

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to <1% of anthropogenic heating in all cities. Heat flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai-the world's most densely populated megacity-at 6.5 W m(-2), surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m(-2)) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m(-2)). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  15. Microbiology of Fresh Comminuted Turkey Meat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-12

    raffinose, sorbitol, mefibiose, and melezitose. Isolates mere Salmonella-Shigelia. Bismuth Sulfite, and Brilliant Green Sulfadiazine also examined for their...What the sanitarian should know about staphy- and increased susceptibility to Sulfadiazine and lococci and salmonella in non-dairy products. 1. Milk

  16. Rubisco activase and wheat productivity under heat-stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Ristic, Zoran; Momcilovic, Ivana; Bukovnik, Urska; Prasad, P V Vara; Fu, Jianming; Deridder, Benjamin P; Elthon, Thomas E; Mladenov, Novica

    2009-01-01

    Rubisco activase (RCA) constrains the photosynthetic potential of plants at high temperatures (heat stress). Endogenous levels of RCA could serve as an important determinant of plant productivity under heat-stress conditions. Thus, in this study, the possible relationship between expression levels of RCA and plant yield in 11 European cultivars of winter wheat following prolonged exposure to heat stress was investigated. In addition, the effect of a short-term heat stress on RCA expression in four genotypes of wheat, five genotypes of maize, and one genotype of Arabidopsis thaliana was examined. Immunoblots prepared from leaf protein extracts from control plants showed three RCA cross-reacting bands in wheat and two RCA cross-reacting bands in maize and Arabidopsis. The molecular mass of the observed bands was in the range between 40 kDa and 46 kDa. Heat stress affected RCA expression in a few genotypes of wheat and maize but not in Arabidopsis. In wheat, heat stress slightly modulated the relative amounts of RCA in some cultivars. In maize, heat stress did not seem to affect the existing RCA isoforms (40 kDa and 43 kDa) but induced the accumulation of a new putative RCA of 45-46 kDa. The new putative 45-46 kDa RCA was not seen in a genotype of maize (ZPL 389) that has been shown to display an exceptional sensitivity to heat stress. A significant, positive, linear correlation was found between the expression of wheat 45-46 kDa RCA and plant productivity under heat-stress conditions. Results support the hypothesis that endogenous levels of RCA could play an important role in plant productivity under supraoptimal temperature conditions.

  17. Heat production during contraction in skeletal muscle of hypothyroid mice

    SciTech Connect

    Leijendekker, W.J.; van Hardeveld, C.; Elzinga, G. )

    1987-08-01

    The effect of hypothyroidism on tension-independent and -dependent heat produced during a twitch and a tetanic contraction of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscle of mice was examined. The amount of heat produced during a twitch and the rate of heat development during a tetanus of EDL and soleus were measured at and above optimal length. The effect of hypothyroidism on force production was <30%. Straight lines were used to fit the relation between heat production and force. Hypothyroidism significantly decreases tension-independent heat during contraction of EDL and soleus muscle. Because the tension-independent heat is considered to be related to the Ca{sup 2+} cycling, these findings suggest that ATP splitting due to the Ca{sup 2+} cycling is reduced in hypothyroid mice. This conclusion was strengthened by the observation that the oxalate-supported {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}-uptake activity and {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}-loading capacity of muscle homogenates from hypothyroid mice were reduced, respectively, to 51 and to 65% in soleus and to 63 and 73% in EDL muscle as compared with euthyroid mice. The tension-dependent rate of heat development during a tetanus was also decreased in soleus muscle of hypothyroid mice. This suggests a lower rate of ATP hydrolysis related to cross-bridge cycling in this muscle due to the hypothyroid state.

  18. Ohmic heated sheet for the Ca ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Efremov, A.; Bogomolov, S.; Kazarinov, N.; Kochagov, O.; Loginov, V.

    2008-02-15

    The production of intense accelerated {sup 48}Ca ion beams is the key problem in the experiments on the synthesis of new superheavy nuclei. For this purpose in the FLNR (JINR), an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used at the U-400 cyclotron. The combination of a micro oven with a hot tantalum sheet inside the discharge chamber allowed the production of the intense {sup 48}Ca{sup 5+} ion beam at the {sup 48}Ca consumption of about 0.5 mg/h. In this case, the tantalum sheet is heated by microwaves and plasma electrons. The microwave power of up to 500 W is required to heat the sheet to the temperature of about 500 deg. C. To decrease the required microwave power, a new sheet with a direct Ohmic heating was designed. The present paper describes the method, technique, and preliminary experimental results on the production of the Ca ion beam.

  19. Metabolic heat production of neonatal calves during hypothermia and recovery.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J B; Young, B A

    1988-10-01

    Metabolic heat production and rectal temperature were measured in 19 newborn calves (41.8 +/- 3.7 kg) during hypothermia and recovery when four different means of assistance were provided. Hypothermia of 30 degrees C rectal temperature was induced by immersion in 18 degrees C water. Calves were rewarmed in a 20 to 25 degree C air environment where thermal assistance was provided by added thermal insulation or by supplemental heat from infrared lamps. Other calves were rewarmed by immersion in warm water (38 degrees C), with or without a 40-ml drench of 20% ethanol in water. Resting (prehypothermia) and cold-induced summit metabolism of the calves was 2.5 +/- .1 and 8.2 +/- .22 W/kg and occurred at rectal temperatures of 39.5 +/- .06 and 36.2 +/- .26 degrees C, respectively. During cooling, metabolic heat production declined at the rate of .65 W/kg per degrees C decline in rectal temperature. The time required to regain euthermia from a rectal temperature of 30 degrees C was longer for calves with added insulation and those exposed to heat lamps than for the calves in the warm water and warm water plus ethanol treatments (90 and 92 vs 59 and 63 +/- 6.4 min, respectively). During recovery, the calves rewarmed with the added insulation and heat lamps produced more heat metabolically than the calves rewarmed in warm water. Total heat production during recovery was 34.1, 31.1, 18.3, 16.9 +/- 1.07 kJ/kg for the calves with added insulation, exposed to the heat lamps, in warm water and in warm water plus an oral drench of ethanol, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Modeling Comminution Processes in Ball Mills as a Canonical Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunnardianto, G. K.; Muhandis, .; Diana, F. N.; Handoko, L. T.

    2011-02-01

    A new approach to describe comminution processes in general ball mills as a macroscopic canonical ensemble is proposed. Using hamiltonian method, the model is able to take simultaneously into account the internal dynamics from mechanical motions inside the vial and external effects like electromagnetic and gravitational forces. Relevant physical observables are extracted using statistical mechanics approach through partition function at finite temperature. The method enables numerical calculation using Monte Carlo technique to obtain, for instance particle number evolution in term of system temperature. It is argued that the method is experimentally more verifiable than the conventional approaches based on geometrical displacements. An example of simulation for typical spex mill is also given.

  1. Decomposition products of glycidyl esters of fatty acids by heating.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Wataru; Endo, Yasushi

    2017-03-01

    In this study, decomposition products of glycidyl palmitate (GP) of fatty acids heated at high temperature such as deep frying were investigated. When GP and tripalmitin (TP) were heated at 180 and 200 °C, they were decreased with heating time. The weight of GP was less than that of TP, although both GP and TP were converted to polar compounds after heating. The decomposition rate of GP was higher than TP. Both GP and TP produced considerable amounts of hydrocarbons and aldehydes during heating. Aldehydes produced from GP and TP included saturated aldehydes with carbon chain length of 3-10, while hydrocarbons consisted of carbon chain length of 8-15. It was observed that major hydrocarbons produced from GP during heating were pentadecane. Moreover, the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) released from GP was higher than that of TP. It was suggested that fatty acids in GE might be susceptible to decarboxylation. From these results, GP might be quickly decomposed to hydrocarbons, aldehydes and CO2 besides polar compounds by heating, in comparison with TP.

  2. Antioxidants in heat-processed koji and the production mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Okutsu, Kayu; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Ikeda, Natsumi; Kusano, Tatsuro; Hashimoto, Fumio; Takamine, Kazunori

    2015-11-15

    We previously developed antioxidative heat-processed (HP)-koji via two-step heating (55 °C/2days → 75 °C/3 days) of white-koji. In this study, we isolated antioxidants in HP-koji and investigated their formation mechanisms. The antioxidants were identified to be 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) and 5-(α-D-glucopyranosyloxymethyl)-2-furfural (GMF) based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis. HMF and GMF were not present in intact koji, but were formed by heating at 75 °C. As production of these antioxidants was more effective by two-step heating than by constant heating at 55 °C or 75 °C, we presumed that the antioxidant precursors are derived enzymatically at 55°C and that the antioxidants are formed subsequently by thermal reaction at 75 °C. The heating assay of saccharide solutions revealed glucose and isomaltose as HMF and GMF precursors, respectively, and thus the novel finding of GMF formation from isomaltose. Finally, HMF and GMF were effectively formed by two-step heating from glucose and isomaltose present in koji. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnonics: Selective heat production in nanocomposites with different magnetic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Yu; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2016-03-07

    We theoretically study Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) in nanocomposites focusing on the analysis of heat production. It is demonstrated that at the FMR frequency, the temperature of nanoparticles can be raised at the rate of a few degrees per second at the electromagnetic (EM) irradiation power equivalent to the sunlight power. Thus, using FMR, one can initiate either surface or bulk reaction in the vicinity of a particular magnetic inclusion by purposely delivering heat to the nanoscale at a sufficiently fast rate. We examined the FMR features in (a) the film with a mixture of nanoparticles made of different materials; (b) the laminated films where each layer is filled with a particular type of magnetic nanoparticles. It is shown that different nanoparticles can be selectively heated at the different bands of EM spectrum. This effect opens up new exciting opportunities to control the microwave assisted chemical reactions depending on the heating rate.

  4. Effects of gas bubble production on heat transfer from a volumetrically heated liquid pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Geoffrey R.

    Aqueous solutions of uranium salts may provide a new supply chain to fill potential shortfalls in the availability of the most common radiopharmaceuticals currently in use worldwide, including Tc99m which is a decay product of Mo99. The fissioning of the uranium in these solutions creates Mo99 but also generates large amounts of hydrogen and oxygen from the radiolysis of the water. When the dissolved gases reach a critical concentration, bubbles will form in the solution. Bubbles in the solution affect both the fission power and the heat transfer out of the solution. As a result, for safety and production calculations, the effects of the bubbles on heat transfer must be understood. A high aspect ratio tank was constructed to simulate a section of an annulus with heat exchangers on the inner and outer steel walls to provide cooling. Temperature measurements via thermocouples inside the tank and along the outside of the steel walls allowed the calculation of overall and local heat transfer coefficients. Different air injection manifolds allowed the exploration of various bubble characteristics and patterns on heat transfer from the pool. The manifold type did not appear to have significant impact on the bubble size distributions in water. However, air injected into solutions of magnesium sulfate resulted in smaller bubble sizes and larger void fractions than those in water at the same injection rates. One dimensional calculations provide heat transfer coefficient values as functions of the superficial gas velocity in the pool.

  5. Cost Estimates Of Concentrated Photovoltaic Heat Sink Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    generation. As the CPV market has matured, production costs have come down to near flat-panel photovoltaic (PV) production costs. CPV units...sink designs to increase efficiency. Modern heat sink design can achieve greater overall efficiencies of electricity generation. As the CPV market ...capital costs and intermittency (DASN, 2012). While the price per kWh of solar is falling as the solar market continues to mature, solar installation

  6. Alterations in heat loss and heat production mechanisms in rat exposed to hypergravic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Horwitz, B. A.; Oyama, J.

    1982-01-01

    A review of studies investigating the thermal response of rats exposed to hypergravic fields well below maximum tolerance levels is presented. It is concluded that several lines of evidence indicate that the neural switching network for temperature regulation and cardiovascular channeling of blood flow is transiently affected during the first hour a rat is exposed to hypergravity. Moreover, even after one hour of exposure, when the core temperature has fallen several degrees, shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis are not fully activated. Only after prolonged exposure to hypergravic fields do heat production mechanisms recover sufficiently to bring the core temperature back to a normal level. Thus, the data indicate a more rapid recovery of effector mechanisms for heat loss than for heat production.

  7. Primary subtalar joint arthrodesis for comminuted fractures of the calcaneus.

    PubMed

    Holm, Janson L; Laxson, Steven E; Schuberth, John M

    2015-01-01

    Severely comminuted intra-articular calcaneal fractures often culminate in subtalar arthrosis and stiffness even after operative reduction. In some instances, subtalar arthrodesis is necessary to reduce the symptoms. Primary subtalar arthrodesis for these fractures has gained acceptance in recent years. However, few definite predictors of functional outcome after primary fusion have been found. A series of 17 patients with highly comminuted fractures were studied to determine which radiographic parameters were predictive of functional outcome. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot scale score was obtained at an average of 34 (range 12 to 157) months after arthrodesis. Radiographic measurements included the talocalcaneal, calcaneal inclination, talo-first metatarsal, and Böhler's angles, and the height of the tibial plafond, width of the calcaneus, and the presence of a medial step-off on the injured and uninjured foot. The mean Ankle-Hindfoot scale score was 78 (range 56 to 92), and the mean visual analog score was 1.9 (0 to 4). Statistically significant associations were noted between greater postoperative function and increasing age (p = .028), the quality of restoration of Böhler's angle (p = .038), and the talocalcaneal angle (p = .049). No patient had nonunion. The results of the present study suggest that the outcomes after primary arthrodesis of the subtalar joint are favorable, in particular, when the radiographic relationships of the hindfoot have been restored. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Heat Pre-Treatment of Beverages Wastewater on Hydrogen Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyub, S. Z.; Mohd, N. S.; Ibrahim, S.

    2017-06-01

    At present, a large variety of alternative fuels have been investigated and hydrogen gas is considered as the possible solution for the future due to its unique characteristics. Through dark fermentation process, several factors were found to have significant impact on the hydrogen production either through process enhancement or inhibition and degradation rates or influencing parameters. This work was initiated to investigate the optimum conditions for heat pre-treatment and initial pH for the dark fermentative process under mesophilic condition using a central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM). Different heat treatment conditions and pH were performed on the seed sludge collected from the anaerobic digester of beverage wastewater treatment plant. Heat treatment of inoculum was optimized at different exposure times (30, 90, 120 min), temperatures (80, 90 and 100°C) and pH (4.5, 5.5, 6.5) in order to maximize the biohydrogen production and methanogens activity inhibition. It was found that the optimum heat pre-treatment condition and pH occurred at 100°C for 50 min and the pH of 6.00. At this optimum condition the hydrogen yield was 63.0476 ml H2/mol glucose (H2 Yield) and the COD removal efficiency was 90.87%. In conclusion, it can be hypothesized that different heat treatment conditions led to differences in the initial microbial communities (hydrogen producing bacteria) which resulted in the different hydrogen yields.

  9. Heat production and heat loss responses to cold water immersion after 35 days horizontal bed rest.

    PubMed

    Mekjavic, Igor B; Kounalakis, Stylianos N; Keramidas, Michail E; Biolo, Gianni; Narici, Marco; Eiken, Ola

    2012-05-01

    Bed rest is a terrestrial experimental analogue of unloading experienced during exposure to microgravity. Such unloading causes atrophy predominantly of the postural muscles, especially those of the lower limbs. We tested the hypothesis that 35 d horizontal bed rest alters thermoregulatory responses of subjects (N = 10) immersed in 15 degrees C water, particularly the heat produced by the shivering tremor of the skeletal muscles. Before and after bed rest we measured the thickness of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM), vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA), and biceps brachii (BB) muscles by ultrasonography. During the immersions, we monitored rectal and skin temperatures, heat flux, heart rate, and oxygen uptake. After bed rest, muscle thickness decreased significantly by 12.2 +/- 8.8% and 8.0 +/- 9.1% in the GM and VL, respectively. No changes were observed in the TA and BB muscles. The 35-d bed rest caused a significant reduction in aerobic power, as reflected in maximal oxygen uptake. There were no significant differences in any of the observed thermoregulatory responses between the pre- and post-bed rest immersions. Cardiovascular and muscular deconditioning had no effect on the heat production and heat loss responses. Due to the significant reduction in the mass of the muscles in the lower limbs, concomitant with no change in heat production, we conclude that leg muscles do not play a significant role in shivering thermogenesis.

  10. [Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria sp in heat-processed products].

    PubMed

    Tobía, M B; Mengoni, G B; Pellón, H S

    1997-01-01

    Presence of Listeria monocytogenes in thermoprocessed food which is vacuum packaged, refrigerated stored and eaten uncooked or minimally heated was investigated. Thirty samples including sausage, large sausage with ham, spring large sausage, liverwurst and bologna were examined. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated and identified according to USDA-FSIS method for meat products, simultaneously with McBride agar. Seven out of 30 samples were found to contain listeriae. Five isolates were identified as Listeria monocytogenes through Gram coloration, culture appearance, biochemical test and serotyping. This product results potentially risky for the susceptible population. The presence of this microorganism in this kind of product suggests environmental post-process contamination or insufficient thermal process.

  11. Influence of heat shock on glycerol production in alcohol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Berovic, Marin; Pivec, Aleksandra; Kosmerl, Tatjana; Wondra, Mojmir; Celan, Stefan

    2007-02-01

    The influence of single and double heat shocks induced during the exponential growth phase of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of cultivar Sauvignon Blanc grape must was examined. Rapid temperature changes from 18 degrees C to 34 degrees C have been applied. The effect of the duration of exposure to a high temperature has been analyzed. By the applications of a single heat shock and a double heat shock, up to 8.2 g l(-1) and 11.0 g l(-1) glycerol have been produced, respectively. To prevent the evaporation of fine wine bouquet compounds during the temperature changes, reflux coolers on the top of bioreactors have been employed. By using this method, glycerol production was increased by up to 65%.

  12. Quality assessment of palm products upon prolonged heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai

    2008-01-01

    Extending the frying-life of oils is of commercial and economic importance. Due to this fact, assessment on the thermal stability of frying oils could provide considerable savings to the food processors. In this study, the physico-chemical properties of five palm products mainly palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein, double-fractionated palm olein, red palm olein and palm-based shortening during 80 hours of heating at 180 degrees C were investigated. Heating properties of these products were then compared with that of high oleic sunflower oil, which was used as reference oil. The indices applied in evaluating the quality changes of oils were free fatty acid, smoke point, p-anisidine value, tocols, polar and polymer compounds. Three palm products i.e. palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein and double-fractionated palm olein were identified to be the most stable in terms of lower formation of free fatty acid, polar and polymer compounds as well as preserving higher smoke point and tocols content compared to the other three oils. The low intensity of hydrolytic and oxidative changes due to prolonged heating, suggests that these palm products are inherently suitable for frying purposes.

  13. Birch's Crustal Heat Production-Heat Flow Law: Key to Quantifying Mantle Heat Flow as a function of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, D. D.; Thakur, M.

    2007-12-01

    Birch (1968) first showed the linear correlation of surface heat flow and radioactive heat production (Qs = Qo + bAs ) in granites in New England, USA and discussed implications to the vertical scale of radioactive heat generation in the crust. Subsequently similar relationships have been found worldwide and numerous papers written describing more details and expanding the implications of Birch's Law. The results are a powerful contribution from heat flow research to the understanding of the lithosphere and its evolution. Models are both well constrained experimentally and simple in implications. However, there still exist thermal models of the crust and lithosphere that do not have the same firm foundation and involve unnecessary ad hoc assumptions. A main point of confusion has been that the several of the original relationships were so low in error as to be considered by some to be "fortuitous". Interestingly a "similar" relationship has been proposed based on regional scale averaging of Qs -As data. A second point of confusion is that one admissible crustal radioactivity distribution model (the constant heat generation to depth b) has been criticized as unrealistic for a number of reasons, including the effect of erosion. However, it is appropriate to refer to the Qs -As relationship as a law because in fact the relationship holds as long as the vertical distribution is "geologically realistic." as will be demonstrated in this paper. All geologic and geophysical models of the continental crust imply decreasing heat production as a function of depth (i.e. the seismic layering for example) except in very special cases. This general decrease with depth is the only condition required for the existence of a "linear" Qs -As relationship. A comparison of all the Qs -As relationships proposed for terrains not affected by thermal events over the last 150 to 200 Ma shows a remarkably uniformity in slope (10 ± 3 km) and intercept value (30 ± 5 mWm-2 ). Therefore these

  14. Method of preparing a high heating value fuel product

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, R.; Fan, L.T.

    1989-10-24

    This patent describes a method of preparing a high heating value fuel product. The method comprising the steps of: blending a high heating value waste material with a cellulosic material; mixing an organic reagent to the blended mixture of the waste material and the cellulosic material, the organic reagent being a mixture having a 4-15 weight percent of a chemical selected from the group consisting of: triethylene, glycol, diethylene glycol, and glycerin propylene glycol; introducing a pozzolanic agent to the blended mixture for controlling the rate of solidification; and forming the blended mixture into a form suitable for handling. Also described is the same method with the mixture of the organic reagent further comprising: a 20-32 weight percent calcium chloride solution. Another method of preparing a fuel product is also described.

  15. A New Model for Heat Flow in Extensional Basins: Estimating Radiogenic Heat Production

    SciTech Connect

    Waples, Douglas W.

    2002-06-15

    Radiogenic heat production (RHP) represents a significant fraction of surface heat flow, both on cratons and in sedimentary basins. RHP within continental crust-especially the upper crust-is high. RHP at any depth within the crust can be estimated as a function of crustal age. Mantle RHP, in contrast, is always low, contributing at most 1 to 2 mW/m{sup 2} to total heat flow. Radiogenic heat from any noncrystalline basement that may be present also contributes to total heat flow. RHP from metamorphic rocks is similar to or slightly lower than that from their precursor sedimentary rocks. When extension of the lithosphere occurs-as for example during rifting-the radiogenic contribution of each layer of the lithosphere and noncrystalline basement diminishes in direct proportion to the degree of extension of that layer. Lithospheric RHP today is somewhat less than in the distant past, as a result of radioactive decay. In modeling, RHP can be varied through time by considering the half lives of uranium, thorium, and potassium, and the proportional contribution of each of those elements to total RHP from basement. RHP from sedimentary rocks ranges from low for most evaporites to high for some shales, especially those rich in organic matter. The contribution to total heat flow of radiogenic heat from sediments depends strongly on total sediment thickness, and thus differs through time as subsidence and basin filling occur. RHP can be high for thick clastic sections. RHP in sediments can be calculated using ordinary or spectral gamma-ray logs, or it can be estimated from the lithology.

  16. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Allen; Darlow, Rick; Sanchez, Angel; Pierce, Michael; Sellers, Blake

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  17. Electrostatic aggregation of finely-comminuted geological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J. R.; Greeley, R.

    1986-01-01

    Electrostatic forces are known to have a significant effect on the behavior of finely comminuted particulate material: perhaps the most prevalent expression of this being electrostatic aggregation of particles into relatively coherent clumps. However, the precise role of electrostatic attraction and repulsion in determining the behavior of geological materials (such as volcanic ash and aeolian dust) is poorly understood. Electrostatic aggregation of fine particles is difficult to study on Earth either in the geological or laboratory environment principally because the material in an aggregated state remains airborne for such a short period of time. Experiments conducted in the NASA/JCS - KC135 aircraft are discussed. The aircraft experiments are seen as precursors to more elaborate and scientifically more comprehensive Shuttle or Space Station activities.

  18. Electrostatic aggregation of finely-comminuted geological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, John R.; Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Electrostatic forces are known to have a significant effect on the behavior of finely comminuted particulate material: perhaps the most prevalent expression of this being electrostatic aggregation of particles into relatively coherent clumps. However, the precise role of electrostatic attraction and repulsion in determining the behavior of geological materials (such as volcanic ash and aeolian dust) is poorly understood. Electrostatic aggregation of fine particles is difficult to study on earth either in the geological or laboratory environment principally because the material in an aggregated state remains airborne for such a short period of time. Experiments conducted in the NASA/JSC - KC135 aircraft are discussed. The aircraft experiments are seen as precursors to more elaborate and scientifically more comprehensive Shuttle or Space Station activities.

  19. On the beneficiation and comminution of lunar regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    A major concern in the area of planning for future lunar missions and for establishing a lunar base is the selection of a chemical process for liberation of oxygen from lunar regolith (Lunar Liquid Oxygen or LLOX), and for extraction of other useful materials. The processes currently being considered all require regolith feedstock in various stages of beneficiation. This paper addresses the applicability of terrestrial based comminution (particle grinding and sizing) and beneficiation (mineral/ore separation and concentration) equipment for use in the lunar environment. Classification techniques (screening, settling, cyclonic, and pneumatic), grinding operations (tumbling, fluid energy, impact, and ultrasonic mills), and beneficiation techniques (magnetic and electrostatic) am assessed for use on the lunar surface. The question of optimal source material (rock or regolith) is also addressed.

  20. Severely comminuted radius fracture presenting as a signature patterned injury

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Saurabh; Rajan, Sunil; Srivastava, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Dilemma still prevails, regarding the exact management of mangled extremity injuries between limb salvage versus amputation, each having there own set of complications. We here present a case of severely comminuted fractures of radius (bag of bones) along with the multiple criss-cross shaped lacerated wounds on the forearm and wrist presenting as a “signature pattern injury” caused by entrapment of the limb in the concrete mixer. MESS score of patient was 8, a score valid for amputation, but contrary, we successfully salvaged the patient's limb with use of radio-carpal distracter. Management of mangled injuries should be individualized, with due consideration to the mechanism and force of injury, associated injuries, and the patient profile. PMID:27053813

  1. Severely comminuted radius fracture presenting as a signature patterned injury.

    PubMed

    Jain, Saurabh; Rajan, Sunil; Srivastava, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Dilemma still prevails, regarding the exact management of mangled extremity injuries between limb salvage versus amputation, each having there own set of complications. We here present a case of severely comminuted fractures of radius (bag of bones) along with the multiple criss-cross shaped lacerated wounds on the forearm and wrist presenting as a "signature pattern injury" caused by entrapment of the limb in the concrete mixer. MESS score of patient was 8, a score valid for amputation, but contrary, we successfully salvaged the patient's limb with use of radio-carpal distracter. Management of mangled injuries should be individualized, with due consideration to the mechanism and force of injury, associated injuries, and the patient profile.

  2. Hanford production reactor heat releases 1951--1971

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to document and detail the thermal releases from the Hanford nuclear production reactors during the period 1951 through 1971, and to put these releases in historical perspective with respect to changing Columbia River flows and temperatures. This information can also be used as a foundation for further ecological evaluations. When examining Hanford production reactor thermal releases to the Columbia River all related factors affecting the releases and the characteristics of the river should be considered. The major considerations in the present study were the characteristics of the releases themselves (primarily coolant flow rate, temperatures, discharge facilities, period of operation, and level of operation) and the characteristics of the river in that reach (primarily flow rate, temperature and mixing characteristics; the effects of dam construction were also taken into account). In addition, this study addressed ecological effects of thermal releases on aquatic species. Accordingly, this report includes discussion of the reactor cooling system, historical heat releases, thermal mixing and transport studies, hydroelectric power development, and ecologic effects of Hanford production reactor heat releases on salmon and trout. Appendix A contains reactor operating statistics, and Appendix B provide computations of heat added to the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and Richland, Washington.

  3. Comminuted fractures of the radial head: resection or prosthesis?

    PubMed

    Lópiz, Yaiza; González, Ana; García-Fernández, Carlos; García-Coiradas, Javier; Marco, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    At present, surgical treatment of comminuted radial head fractures without associated instability continues to be controversial. When anatomical reconstruction is not possible, radial head excision is performed. However, the appearance of long-term complications with this technique, along with the development of new radial head implants situates arthroplasty as a promising surgical alternative. The purpose of the present study was to compare the mid-term functional outcomes of both techniques. A retrospective study was performed between 2002 and 2011 on 25 Mason type-III fractures, 11 patients treated with primary radial head resection and 14 who received treatment of the fracture with metal prosthesis. At the end of follow-up, patients were contacted and outcomes evaluated according to: Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score (DASH) and strength measurement. Radiographic assessment (proximal migration of the radius, osteoarthritic changes, and signs of prosthesis loosening) was also performed. The average age of the sample was 53.7 years in the resection group, and 54.4 years in the replacement group, with a mean follow-up of 60.3 and 42 months respectively. According to the MEPS scale, there were 6 excellent cases, 3 good and 2 acceptable in the resection group, and 6 excellent cases, 3 good, 3 acceptable, and 2 poor in the prosthesis group. The mean DASH score were 13.5, and 24.8 for the resection and the replacement group respectively. We found one postoperative complication in the resection group (stiffness and valgus instability) and 6 in the replacement group: 3 of joint stiffness, 1 case of prosthesis breakage, and 2 neurological injuries. Although this is a retrospective study, the high complication rate occurring after radial head replacement in comparison with radial head resection, as well as good functional results obtained with this last technique, leads us to recommend it for comminuted radial head

  4. 9 CFR 318.23 - Heat-processing and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirements for uncured meat patties. 318.23 Section 318.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...: (1) Patty. A shaped and formed, comminuted, flattened cake of meat food product. (2) Comminuted. A... Until Well Done (Internal Meat Temperature 160 degrees F.).” The labeling statement must be adjacent...

  5. 77 FR 74027 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products... integrated circuit packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products containing same...

  6. Effects of heat on workers' health and productivity in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ro-Ting; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2009-11-11

    The impact of global warming on population health is a growing concern and has been widely discussed. The issue of heat stress disorders and consequent productivity reduction among workers has not yet been widely addressed. Taiwan is an island straddling the Tropic of Cancer in the West Pacific and has both subtropical and tropical climates. As of 2008, the economy of Taiwan accounts for 1.1% of the world gross domestic product at purchasing power parity and is listed as 19th in the world and eighth in Asia, according to International Monetary Fund data. The aim of this paper is to identify occupations at risk and the potential health impacts of heat on workers in Taiwan. Historical data relating to meteorology, population, the labour force and economy were obtained from publicly available databases from the Taiwanese government. Hot seasons with an average maximum temperature above 30 degrees C and relative humidity above 74%, lasting for four to six months from May to October, pose health threats to construction, farming and fishery workers. In particular, populations of ageing farmers and physically overloaded construction workers are the two most vulnerable worker categories in which high temperature impacts on health and productivity. Currently, regulations and preventive actions for heat relief are difficult to enforce for several reasons, including lack of equipment for measuring environmental conditions, lack of awareness of potential hazards and strict time constraints imposed on workers. There is an urgent need to systematically and comprehensively assess the impact of a warming climate on workers' health and productivity to provide effective prevention strategies for a better working and living environment in Taiwan.

  7. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat, phase 1 design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-08-01

    The system consists of 42,420 sq ft of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors are oriented in a North-South configuration and track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) is circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370 F and 450 F respectively. These temperatures are constantly maintained via a variable flow rate through the collectors (the flow rate varies in direct proportion to the level of insolation). Superheated steam is the final product of the solar energy system. Final steam quality at the steam generator is 420 F and 165 Psia.

  8. Hydrogen production from coal using a nuclear heat source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quade, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    A strong candidate for hydrogen production in the intermediate time frame of 1985 to 1995 is a coal-based process using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as a heat source. Expected process efficiencies in the range of 60 to 70% are considerably higher than all other hydrogen production processes except steam reforming of a natural gas. The process involves the preparation of a coal liquid, hydrogasification of that liquid, and steam reforming of the resulting gaseous or light liquid product. A study showing process efficiency and cost of hydrogen vs nuclear reactor core outlet temperature has been completed, and shows diminishing returns at process temperatures above about 1500 F. A possible scenario combining the relatively abundant and low-cost Western coal deposits with the Gulf Coast hydrogen users is presented which provides high-energy density transportation utilizing coal liquids and uranium.

  9. Comminution-amorphisation relationships during ball milling of lactose at different milling conditions.

    PubMed

    Pazesh, Samaneh; Gråsjö, Johan; Berggren, Jonas; Alderborn, Göran

    2017-08-07

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between comminution and amorphisation of α-lactose monohydrate particles during ball milling under different milling conditions, including ball-to-powder mass ratio, milling time and ball diameter. The results revealed that at a constant ball filling ratio, ball-to-powder mass ratio of 25:1 resulted in the lowest minimum particle diameter of ∼5μm and the highest degree of apparent amorphous content of 82%. The rate of comminution was high during early stage of milling whereas the degree of apparent amorphous content increased gradually at a slow rate. An increased ball-to-powder mass ratio during milling increased both the rate of comminution and the rate of amorphisation. Using a given ball-to-powder mass ratio, the ball diameter affected the degree of apparent amorphous content of the particles while the particle diameter remained unchanged. The relationship between comminution and amorphisation could be described as consisting of two stages, i.e. comminution dominated and amorphisation dominated stage. It was proposed that the rate constant of comminution and amorphisation are controlled by stress energy distribution in the milling jar and the stress energy distribution is regulated by the ball motion pattern that can be affected by the process parameter used. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Heat Resistance of Salmonella in Various Egg Products

    PubMed Central

    Garibaldi, J. A.; Straka, R. P.; Ijichi, K.

    1969-01-01

    The heat-resistance characteristics of Salmonella typhimurium Tm-1, a reference strain in the stationary phase of growth, were determined at several temperatures in the major types of products produced by the egg industry. The time required to kill 90% of the population (D value) at a given temperature in specific egg products was as follows: at 60 C (140 F), D = 0.27 min for whole egg; D = 0.60 min for whole egg plus 10% sucrose; D = 1.0 min for fortified whole egg; D = 0.20 min for egg white (pH 7.3), stabilized with aluminum; D = 0.40 min for egg yolk; D = 4.0 min for egg yolk plus 10% sucrose; D = 5.1 min for egg yolk plus 10% NaCl; D = 1.0 min for scrambled egg mix; at 55 C (131 F), D = 0.55 min for egg white (pH 9.2); D = 1.2 min for egg white (pH 9.2) plus 10% sucrose. The average Z value (number of degrees, either centigrade or fahrenheit, for a thermal destruction time curve to traverse one logarithmic cycle) was 4.6 C (8.3 F) with a range from 4.2 to 5.3 C. Supplementation with 10% sucrose appeared to have a severalfold greater effect on the heat stabilization of egg white proteins than on S. typhimurium Tm-1. This information should be of value in the formulation of heat treatments to insure that all egg products be free of viable salmonellae. Images PMID:4890741

  11. Flat plate heat exchangers for the new production reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1988-12-07

    The New Production Reactor (NPR) will require heat exchangers (HX) as part of the ancillary equipment. The most common type of heat exchanger in the US is the shell and tube, the type presently in SRP reactor service. This type of design is the one that is normally described in detail in heat transfer texts. Other designs are more efficient, and there was a period when these designs were actively modified. The largest driving force for higher efficiency HX was the OPEC produced energy shortage of the early 1970's. Several comments were made by B.S. Spangler about flat plate HX for the NPR after my initial comparison between shell and tube and flat plate HX (DPST-88-729). Since answers were not readily available, Philippe Marchal of Packinox (Louveciennes, France) agreed to visit SRL. This report contains a series of answers to all comments raised in DPST-88-743 and some general statements comparing flat plate HX to shell and tube HX. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Laser production and heating of plasma for MHD application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments have been made on the production and heating of plasmas by the absorption of laser radiation. These experiments were performed to ascertain the feasibility of using laser-produced or laser-heated plasmas as the input for a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator. Such a system would have a broad application as a laser-to-electricity energy converter for space power transmission. Experiments with a 100-J-pulsed CO2 laser were conducted to investigate the breakdown of argon gas by a high-intensity laser beam, the parameters (electron density and temperature) of the plasma produced, and the formation and propagation of laser-supported detonation (LSD) waves. Experiments were also carried out using a 1-J-pulsed CO2 laser to heat the plasma produced in a shock tube. The shock-tube hydrogen plasma reached electron densities of approximately 10 to the 17th/cu cm and electron temperatures of approximately 1 eV. Absorption of the CO2 laser beam by the plasma was measured, and up to approximately 100 percent absorption was observed. Measurements with a small MHD generator showed that the energy extraction efficiency could be very large with values up to 56 percent being measured.

  13. Optical investigation of heat release and NOx production in combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmerman, B. H.; Patel, S.; Dunkley, P.; Bryanston-Cross, P. J.

    2005-08-01

    Two passive optical techniques are described to investigate combustion. Optical Emission Tomography (OET) is used for non-intrusive study of heat release through the detection of chemiluminescence by the hydroxyl radical that is generated in the burning process. The OET technique described here is based on a passive fibre-optic detection system, which allows spatially resolved high-frequency detection of the flame front in a combustion flame, where all fibres detect the emission signals simultaneously. The system withstands the high pressures and temperatures typically encountered in the harsh environments of gas turbine combustors and IC engines. The sensor-array is non-intrusive, low-cost, compact, simple to configure and can be quickly set up around a combustion field. The maximum acquisition rate is 2 kHz. This allows spatially resolved study of the fast phenomena in combustion. Furthermore, the production of NOx is investigated through the emission of green light as a result of adding tri-methyl-borate to a flame. In combustion, the tri-methyl-borate produces green luminescence in locations where NOx would be produced. Combining the green luminescence visualisation with OET detection of the hydroxyl radical allows monitoring of heat release and of NOx production areas, thus giving a means of studying both the burning process and the resulting NOx pollution.

  14. Comminution of Ceramic Materials Under High-Shear Dynamic Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homel, Michael; Loiseau, Jason; Higgins, Andrew; Herbold, Eric; Hogan, Jamie

    The post-failure ``granular flow'' response of high-strength lightweight ceramics has important implications on the materials' effectiveness for ballistic protection. We study the dynamic compaction and shear flow of ceramic fragments and powders using computational and experimental analysis of a collapsing thick-walled cylinder geometry. Using newly developed tools for mesoscale simulation of brittle materials, we study the effect of fracture, comminution, shear-enhanced dilatation, and frictional contact on the continuum compaction response. Simulations are directly validated through particle Doppler velocimetry measurements at the inner surface of the cylindrical powder bed. We characterize the size distribution and morphologies of the initial and compacted material fragments to both validate the computational model and to elucidate the dominant failure processes. A portion of this work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL-ABS-678862.

  15. In-vitro Comminution of Model Renal Calculi using Histotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Duryea, Alexander P.; Maxwell, Adam D.; Roberts, William W.; Xu, Zhen; Hall, Timothy L.; Cain, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) suffers from the fact that it can produce residual stone fragments of significant size (>2 mm). Mechanistically, cavitation has been shown to play an important role in the reduction of such fragments to smaller debris. In this study we assessed the feasibility of using cavitationally-based pulsed ultrasound therapy (histotripsy) to erode kidney stones. Previous work has shown that histotripsy is capable of mechanically fractionating soft tissue into fine, acellular debris. Here, we investigated the potential for translating this technology to renal calculi through the use of a commonly accepted stone model, Ultracal-30 cement. Stones were sonicated using a 1-MHz focused transducer, with 5-cycle pulses delivered at a rate of 1 kHz. Pulses having peak negative pressures ranging from 3–21 MPa were tested. Results indicate that histotripsy is capable of effectively eroding the Ultracal-30 model, achieving an average stone erosion rate of 26 mg/min at maximum treatment pressure; substantial stone erosion was only observed in the presence of a dense cavitational bubble cloud. Sequential sieving of residual stone fragments indicated that debris produced by histotripsy was smaller than 100 μm in size, and treatment monitoring showed that both the cavitational bubble cloud and model stone appear as hyperechoic regions on B-mode imaging. These preliminary results indicate that histotripsy shows promise in its use for stone comminution, and an optimized erosion process may provide a potential adjunct to conventional SWL procedures. PMID:21622053

  16. The assessment of particulate matter emitted from stone-crushing industry by correlating rock textures with particles generated after comminution and dispersed in air environment.

    PubMed

    Belardi, Girolamo; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Plescia, Paolo; Passeri, Luciano

    2013-07-01

    The generation and emission of particulate matter from abrasion industry are subjects of the pollution monitoring by multidisciplinary study involving earth sciences and engineering disciplines. This work investigates the correlation between textural properties of in situ rock with class size distribution and morphology of particles generated after rock comminution and particles emitted in the air. A special comminution-dust sampling architecture was realised. The combined use of scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyser was considered in performing digital image analysis on both crushed products and airborne particles collected onto membrane filters. The results show that the size and morphology of crushed particles are linked to the petrographic rock properties. In particular, particles with fibrous morphology are prominent in rocks showing foliated textures where elongated minerals occurred, with implication for asbestos-bearing rocks. For what concerns the airborne particles, the results show that their aerodynamic diameters are independent of the crusher operating conditions. External parameters probably intervene in the distribution of the airborne particles emission, including the dynamic air fluxes, or environmental conditions. By applying mathematical models, the morphology and size range of airborne particles following the comminution processes can be predicted, and results has implication for pollutants contamination due to particulate matters emitted by crush stone industry.

  17. Evaluating ventilation rates based on new heat and moisture production data for swine production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat and moisture production (HMP) rates of animals are used for calculation of ventilation rate (VR) in animal housing. New swine HMP data revealed considerable differences from previously reported data. This project determined new design VR and evaluated differences from previously recommended VRs...

  18. Characterization of Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) Product Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Linden; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Alba, Richard Gilbert; Pace, Gregory S.; Fisher, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) is designed to sterilize and process wastes produced during space missions. Benefits of the HMC include reduction of biohazards to the crew, reduction in volume of wastes that would otherwise require storage, production of radiation shielding tiles, and recovery of water and other resources. Water reuse is critical onboard spacecrafts; it reduces the need for resupply missions and saves valuable storage space. The main sources of water in HMC batches are food, beverages, shampoo, disinfecting wipes, toothpaste, and diapers. Water reclaimed by the HMC was analyzed for concentrations of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-­-, NO2-­-, Br-­-, NO3-­-, PO43-­-, SO42-­-, total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC), % total solids, and pH. The data are discussed in relation to the current water input characteristics established for the International Space Station Water Processor Assembly system. Batches with higher than average amounts of food produced HMC product water with higher sulfate content, and batches with higher proportions of disinfectant wipes and food yielded HMC product water with higher ammonium concentration. We also compared theoretical chemical composition of HMC product water based on food labels and literature values to experimental results.

  19. Investigations about the quantitative changes of carbon dioxide production in humans. Report 2: Carbon dioxide production during fever and its relationship with heat production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebermeister, C.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations are cited and explained for carbon dioxide production during fever and its relationship with heat production. The general topics of discussion are: (1) carbon dioxide production for alternating fever attacks; (2) heat balance during the perspiration phase; (3) heat balance during the chill phase; (4) the theory of fever; and (5) chill phase for other fever attacks.

  20. The forgotten component of sub-glacial heat flow: Upper crustal heat production and resultant total heat flux on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton-Johnson, Alex; Halpin, Jacqueline; Whittaker, Joanne; Watson, Sally

    2017-04-01

    Seismic and magnetic geophysical methods have both been employed to produce estimates of heat flux beneath the Antarctic ice sheet. However, both methods use a homogeneous upper crustal model despite the variable concentration of heat producing elements within its composite lithologies. Using geological and geochemical datasets from the Antarctic Peninsula we have developed a new methodology for incorporating upper crustal heat production in heat flux models and have shown the greater variability this introduces in to estimates of crustal heat flux, with implications for glaciological modelling.

  1. The Chemistry of Self-Heating Food Products: An Activity for Classroom Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Pinto, Gabriel; Llorens-Molina, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Two commercial self-heating food products have been used to apply chemical concepts such as stoichiometry, enthalpies of reactions and solutions, and heat transfer in a classroom activity. These products are the self-heating beverages sold in Europe and the Meals, Ready to Eat or MREs used primarily by the military in the United States. The main…

  2. The Chemistry of Self-Heating Food Products: An Activity for Classroom Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Pinto, Gabriel; Llorens-Molina, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Two commercial self-heating food products have been used to apply chemical concepts such as stoichiometry, enthalpies of reactions and solutions, and heat transfer in a classroom activity. These products are the self-heating beverages sold in Europe and the Meals, Ready to Eat or MREs used primarily by the military in the United States. The main…

  3. Singlet oxygen production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Ankush; Ferretti, Ursula; Sedlářová, Michaela; Pospíšil, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, singlet oxygen formation by lipid peroxidation induced by heat stress (40 °C) was studied in vivo in unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Primary and secondary oxidation products of lipid peroxidation, hydroperoxide and malondialdehyde, were generated under heat stress as detected using swallow-tailed perylene derivative fluorescence monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was initiated by enzymatic reaction as inhibition of lipoxygenase by catechol and caffeic acid prevented hydroperoxide formation. Ultra-weak photon emission showed formation of electronically excited species such as triplet excited carbonyl, which, upon transfer of excitation energy, leads to the formation of either singlet excited chlorophyll or singlet oxygen. Alternatively, singlet oxygen is formed by direct decomposition of hydroperoxide via Russell mechanisms. Formation of singlet oxygen was evidenced by the nitroxyl radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping spectroscopy and the imaging of green fluorescence of singlet oxygen sensor green detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Suppression of singlet oxygen formation by lipoxygenase inhibitors indicates that singlet oxygen may be formed via enzymatic lipid peroxidation initiated by lipoxygenase. PMID:26831215

  4. A new heat flux model for the Antarctic Peninsula incorporating spatially variable upper crustal radiogenic heat production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton-Johnson, A.; Halpin, J. A.; Whittaker, J. M.; Graham, F. S.; Watson, S. J.

    2017-06-01

    A new method for modeling heat flux shows that the upper crust contributes up to 70% of the Antarctic Peninsula's subglacial heat flux and that heat flux values are more variable at smaller spatial resolutions than geophysical methods can resolve. Results indicate a higher heat flux on the east and south of the Peninsula (mean 81 mW m-2) where silicic rocks predominate, than on the west and north (mean 67 mW m-2) where volcanic arc and quartzose sediments are dominant. While the data supports the contribution of heat-producing element-enriched granitic rocks to high heat flux values, sedimentary rocks can be of comparative importance dependent on their provenance and petrography. Models of subglacial heat flux must utilize a heterogeneous upper crust with variable radioactive heat production if they are to accurately predict basal conditions of the ice sheet. Our new methodology and data set facilitate improved numerical model simulations of ice sheet dynamics.Plain Language SummaryAs the climate changes, the Antarctic ice sheet represents the single largest potential source of sea level rise. However, one key parameter controlling how the ice sheet flows remains poorly constrained: the effect of <span class="hlt">heat</span> derived from the Earth's geology on the base of the ice sheet (known as subglacial <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux). Although this may not seem like a lot of <span class="hlt">heat</span>, under slow-flowing ice, this "<span class="hlt">heat</span> flux" can control how well the ice sheet can flow over the rocks and even lead to melting of the ice at its base. Current models for Antarctica's <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux use geophysics to determine how thin the crust is and consequently how easily <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the Earth's mantle can warm the surface. We show here that <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced by radioactive decay within the Earth's crust can have an even greater and much more variable contribution to the subglacial <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux than estimated by these previous models. We present a new methodology allowing this crustal <span class="hlt">heat</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810022008','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810022008"><span>A Fresnel collector process <span class="hlt">heat</span> experiment at Capitol Concrete <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hauger, J. S.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>An experiment is planned, conducted and evaluated to determine the feasibility of using a Power Kinetics' Fresnel concentrator to provide process <span class="hlt">heat</span> in an industrial environment. The plant provides process steam at 50 to 60 psig to two autoclaves for curing masonry blocks. When steam is not required, the plant preheats hot water for later use. A second system is installed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory parabolic dish test site for hardware validation and experiment control. Experiment design allows for the extrapolation of results to varying demands for steam and hot water, and includes a consideration of some socio-technical factors such as the impact on <span class="hlt">production</span> scheduling of diurnal variations in energy availability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28651384','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28651384"><span>Agaricus bisporus <span class="hlt">production</span> on substrates pasteurized by self-<span class="hlt">heating</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Colmenares-Cruz, Stephania; Sánchez, José E; Valle-Mora, Javier</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The aim of this work was to determine if the self-<span class="hlt">heating</span> pasteurization procedure is technically applicable to the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. Firstly the substrates alone (corncob, Pangola grass and a mixture of both ingredients with wood shavings) were tested. Two supplementation trials were then undertaken using soybean, wheat bran, sheep manure, sesame seed, black bean and chia. Highest <span class="hlt">production</span> values (BE = 176.3% and Y = 26.6 kg/m(2)) were obtained using a 9% supplement, with a formula consisting of 25% each of soybean, black bean, wheat bran and chia, added at spawning and at casing. These results were comparable to those obtained with the Phase II compost traditionally used for A. bisporus cultivation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26340743','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26340743"><span>Capillarity proposed as the predominant mechanism of water and fat stabilization in cooked <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> meat batters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Wenjie; Lanier, Tyre C; Osborne, Jason A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Fat- and nonfat-containing meat gels structurally became coarser and porous by partial substitution of whey protein isolate for myofibrillar protein, creating a weaker texture plus greater cook loss (CL: fat+water) and expressible water (EW). Microstructure examinations revealed a tendency for fat to coalesce during cooking of the more coarse-structured gels. This tendency was unaffected by fat pre-emulsification prior to addition, arguing against a strong role of an interfacial protein film in stabilizing fat. Instead, a gel structure with evenly distributed small pores leads to lower CL and EW, thus controlling both water- and fat- holding since fat cannot readily permeate small water-filled hydrophilic pores. Only when large pores or continuous fissures are structurally present can water be released, allowing liquid fat to also migrate and coalesce. This changes the current paradigm of understanding regarding the mechanism of fat/water-holding in <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> meat <span class="hlt">products</span>: gel capillarity (gel structure), not fat emulsifying ability of protein, is the likely determining factor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040142087&hterms=monkey&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmonkey','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040142087&hterms=monkey&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmonkey"><span>Light masking of circadian rhythms of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss, and body temperature in squirrel monkeys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Robinson, E. L.; Fuller, C. A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Whole body <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (HP) and <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss (HL) were examined to determine their relative contributions to light masking of the circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of body temperature and activity. Feeding was also measured. Responses to an entraining light-dark (LD) cycle (LD 12:12) and a masking LD cycle (LD 2:2) were compared. HP and HL contributed to both the daily rhythm and the masking changes in Tb. All variables showed phase-dependent masking responses. Masking transients at L or D transitions were generally greater during subjective day; however, L masking resulted in sustained elevation of Tb, HP, and HL during subjective night. Parallel, apparently compensatory, changes of HL and HP suggest action by both the circadian timing system and light masking on Tb set point. Furthermore, transient HL increases during subjective night suggest that gain change may supplement set point regulation of Tb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040142087&hterms=Body+temperature&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBody%2Btemperature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040142087&hterms=Body+temperature&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBody%2Btemperature"><span>Light masking of circadian rhythms of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss, and body temperature in squirrel monkeys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Robinson, E. L.; Fuller, C. A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Whole body <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (HP) and <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss (HL) were examined to determine their relative contributions to light masking of the circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of body temperature and activity. Feeding was also measured. Responses to an entraining light-dark (LD) cycle (LD 12:12) and a masking LD cycle (LD 2:2) were compared. HP and HL contributed to both the daily rhythm and the masking changes in Tb. All variables showed phase-dependent masking responses. Masking transients at L or D transitions were generally greater during subjective day; however, L masking resulted in sustained elevation of Tb, HP, and HL during subjective night. Parallel, apparently compensatory, changes of HL and HP suggest action by both the circadian timing system and light masking on Tb set point. Furthermore, transient HL increases during subjective night suggest that gain change may supplement set point regulation of Tb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26590454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26590454"><span>The reliability of a <span class="hlt">heat</span> acclimation state test prescribed from metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> intensities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Willmott, A G B; Hayes, M; Dekerle, J; Maxwell, N S</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Acclimation state indicates an individual's phenotypic response to a thermally stressful environment, where changes in <span class="hlt">heat</span> dissipation capacity are determined during a <span class="hlt">heat</span> acclimation state test (HAST). Variations in thermoregulatory and sudomotor function are reported while exercising at intensities relative to maximal oxygen uptake. This inter-individual variation is not true when intensity is prescribed to elicit a fixed rate of metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (Ḣprod). This study investigated the reliability of peak Tre and two composite measures (sweat gain and sweat setpoint) derived from indices of thermosensitivity during a HAST prescribed from Ḣprod intensities. Fourteen participants (mean±SD; age 23±3 years, stature 174±7cm, body mass 75.0±9.4kg, body surface area 1.9±0.1m(2), peak oxygen consumption [V̇O2peak] 3.49±0.53Lmin(-1)) completed a lactate threshold-V̇O2peak test and two duplicate Ḣprod HASTs on a cycle ergometer. The HAST consisted of three, 30-min periods of exercise at fixed Ḣprod intensities relative to body mass (3, 4.5 and 6Wkg(-1)), within hot dry conditions (44.7±1.8°C and 18.1±4.7% relative humidity). Peak Tre (38.20±0.36 vs. 38.16±0.42°C, p=0.54), sweat setpoint (36.76±0.34 and 36.79±0.38°C, p=0.68) and sweat gain (0.37±0.14 and 0.40±0.18gs(-1)°C(-1), p=0.40) did not differ between HASTs. Typical error of measurement (TEM), coefficient variation (CV) and intra-class coefficient of correlation (ICC) were 0.19°C, 0.5% and 0.80 for peak Tre, 0.21°C, 0.6% and 0.65 for sweat setpoint and 0.09gs(-1)°C(-1), 28% and 0.68 for sweat gain, respectively. The use of fixed Ḣprod intensities relative to body mass is a reliable method for measuring Tre and ascertaining sweat setpoint during a HAST, whereas, sweat gain displays greater variability. A Ḣprod HAST appears sufficiently reliable for quantifying <span class="hlt">heat</span> acclimation state, where TEM in peak Tre and sweat setpoint are small enough to identify physiologically</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28919477','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28919477"><span>Influence of microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> on biogas <span class="hlt">production</span> from Sida hermaphrodita silage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zieliński, Marcin; Dębowski, Marcin; Rusanowska, Paulina</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>This study compared the effects on biogas <span class="hlt">production</span> of suspended sludge versus a combination of suspended sludge and immobilized biomass, and microwave versus convection <span class="hlt">heating</span>. Biogas <span class="hlt">production</span> was the highest in the hybrid bioreactor <span class="hlt">heated</span> by microwaves (385L/kg VS) and also the most stable, as shown by the FOS/TAC ratio and pH. Regardless of the type of <span class="hlt">heating</span>, biogas <span class="hlt">production</span> was 8% higher with immobilized biomass than without. Although the lag phase of biogas <span class="hlt">production</span> was shorter with microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> than without, the log phase was longer, and biogas <span class="hlt">production</span> in the microwave <span class="hlt">heated</span> bioreactors took about twice as long (ca. 40days) to plateau as in the conventionally <span class="hlt">heated</span> bioreactors. These differences in the profile of biogas <span class="hlt">production</span> are likely due to the athermal effects of microwave irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/986322','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/986322"><span>Uranium-series <span class="hlt">comminution</span> ages of continental sediments: Case study of a Pleistocene alluvial fan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, Victoria E.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Christensen, John N.</p> <p>2010-04-30</p> <p>Obtaining quantitative information about the timescales associated with sediment transport, storage, and deposition in continental settings is important but challenging. The uranium-series <span class="hlt">comminution</span> age method potentially provides a universal approach for direct dating of Quaternary detrital sediments, and can also provide estimates of the sediment transport and storage timescales. (The word"<span class="hlt">comminution</span>" means"to reduce to powder," reflecting the start of the <span class="hlt">comminution</span> age clock as reduction of lithic parent material below a critical grain size threshold of ~;;50 mu m.) To test the <span class="hlt">comminution</span> age method as a means to date continental sediments, we applied the method to drill-core samples of the glacially-derived Kings River Fan alluvial deposits in central California. Sediments from the 45 m core have independently-estimated depositional ages of up to ~;;800 ka, based on paleomagnetism and correlations to nearby dated sediments. We characterized sequentially-leached core samples (both bulk sediment and grain size separates) for U, Nd, and Sr isotopes, grain size, surface texture, and mineralogy. In accordance with the <span class="hlt">comminution</span> age model, where 234U is partially lost from small sediment grains due to alpha recoil, we found that (234U/238U) activity ratios generally decrease with age, depth, and specific surface area, with depletions of up to 9percent relative to radioactive equilibrium. The resulting calculated <span class="hlt">comminution</span> ages are reasonable, although they do not exactly match age estimates from previous studies and also depend on assumptions about 234U loss rates. The results indicate that the method may be a significant addition to the sparse set of available tools for dating detrital continental sediments, following further refinement. Improving the accuracy of the method requires more advanced models or measurements for both the recoil loss factor fa and weathering effects. We discuss several independent methods for obtaining fa on individual samples</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......209L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......209L"><span>Transient fluid flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in petroleum <span class="hlt">production</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Dongqing</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer is an important phenomenon in both wellbore and reservoir. The pertinent temperature distribution can provide a valuable perspective in analyzing and optimizing the oil <span class="hlt">production</span>. In this work, two kinds of co-<span class="hlt">production</span>, <span class="hlt">production</span> fluid through the annulus and tubing, and through two independent tubings, have been modeled using steady state analysis. The fluid temperatures in the <span class="hlt">production</span> string and annulus have been solved analytically in both cases. Furthermore, we extended the theory of steady state energy transport to remedy asphaltene deposition problem by circulating the cooling fluid in the annulus. Due to the complex nature of two-phase flow in the oil/gas <span class="hlt">production</span>, more reliable mechanistic modeling approaches have been developed since early 1980's. Rooted in Hasan-Kabir model, we have developed a wellbore/reservoir coupling simulator for the transient non-Darcy two-phase flow in the flow-after-flow well test. The entire historical flow behavior has been modeled using superposition method and validated with field data. Our second simulation is for the investigation of a blowout well, which is a great concern in the oil field. When the pressure in the wellbore is sufficiently high, the fluids will attain sonic velocity at the wellhead. We presented a computational algorithm to estimate the blowout rate in a given wellbore/reservoir system and examined four major parameters, such as formation permeability, Gas-Oil-Ratio (GOR), reservoir pressure and tubing diameter. The transient nature of this approach also illustrates the evolution process of a blowout. We have also developed a transient simulator to determine the location and severity of a blockage in a gas pipeline based on the theory of two-phase flow and pressure transient analysis. The presence of a sizeable blockage will affect the outlet gas pressure response by decreasing the available pipe volume and increasing the friction loss of the fluid flow. The simulator solves for the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=222745','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=222745"><span>Differential <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock tolerance and expression of <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock inducible proteins in two stored-<span class="hlt">product</span> psocids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The recent recognition of psocid infestations as a major concern in stored <span class="hlt">products</span>, where their management with fumigants and conventional insecticides has proven difficult, and also the recent reemergence of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment as a potential tactic for control of stored-<span class="hlt">product</span> insects led to the pres...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920066924&hterms=recrystallization&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Drecrystallization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920066924&hterms=recrystallization&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Drecrystallization"><span>Meteorite-asteroid spectral comparison - The effects of <span class="hlt">comminution</span>, melting, and recrystallization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clark, Beth E.; Fanale, Fraser P.; Salisbury, John W.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The present laboratory simulation of possible spectral-alteration effects on the optical surface of ordinary chondrite parent bodies duplicated regolith processes through <span class="hlt">comminution</span> of the samples to finer rain sizes. After reflectance spectra characterization, the <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> samples were melted, crystallized, recomminuted, and again characterized. While individual spectral characteristics could be significantly changed by these processes, no combination of the alteration procedures appeared capable of affecting all relevant parameters in a way that improved the match between chondritic meteorites and S-class asteroids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992Icar...97..288C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992Icar...97..288C"><span>Meteorite-asteroid spectral comparison - The effects of <span class="hlt">comminution</span>, melting, and recrystallization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clark, Beth E.; Fanale, Fraser P.; Salisbury, John W.</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>The present laboratory simulation of possible spectral-alteration effects on the optical surface of ordinary chondrite parent bodies duplicated regolith processes through <span class="hlt">comminution</span> of the samples to finer rain sizes. After reflectance spectra characterization, the <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> samples were melted, crystallized, recomminuted, and again characterized. While individual spectral characteristics could be significantly changed by these processes, no combination of the alteration procedures appeared capable of affecting all relevant parameters in a way that improved the match between chondritic meteorites and S-class asteroids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5335W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5335W"><span>Constructing a model of 3D radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Willmot Noller, N. M.; Daly, J. S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> values in the crust and mantle rock inform <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow density data to provide crucial information about the structure of the Earth's lithosphere. In addition, accurate models of horizontal and vertical distribution of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> can help to define geothermal exploration targets. Low-enthalpy district scale space <span class="hlt">heating</span> and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) using hot, dry rock may provide sustainable energy resources in regions currently perceived as having low geothermal energy potential. Ireland is located within stable lithosphere, unaffected by recent tectonism and volcanism, and has an estimated <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow range below the measured global continental average. Nevertheless, borehole data indicate that <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> is variable across the island, with anomalously high rates observed, for example, in Cavan, Meath and Antrim. Data coverage is, however, poor. Radioactive isotopic decay generates <span class="hlt">heat</span> in rock. By using established <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> constants and known concentrations of unstable isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium, along with rock density values, a <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rate in μW m -3 is obtained. With the objective of compiling the first comprehensive database of information about the Irish lithosphere, in three dimensions, the authors present here initial results obtained from published and unpublished whole-rock major and trace element analyses. The presence of systematic trends correlating <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> to properties such as age and lithology are also investigated. Offering insight into the vertical component of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> distribution, Irish xenoliths emplaced in Lower Carboniferous volcanics are regarded as a reliable proxy for the present-day lower crust. Their geochemical composition gives <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> values that are higher than expected for the depths indicated by their thermobarometric data, suggesting that <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rates do not simply reduce with depth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22507130','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22507130"><span>Pref-1 preferentially inhibits <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in brown adipose tissue.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Koppen, Arjen; Kalkhoven, Eric</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>In mammals there are two types of adipocytes with opposing functions. Brown adipocytes are characterized by a high number of mitochondria and are specialized for <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (thermogenesis), expressing thermogenic genes such as UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). White adipocytes, on the other hand, store energy. Although many key regulators in the differentiation of white adipocytes have been established, our current knowledge on the same proteins in brown adipogenesis is lagging behind. One example is Pref-1 (pre-adipocyte factor-1), which maintains white pre-adipocytes in an undifferentiated state, but is only poorly characterized in the brown pre-adipocyte lineage. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Armengol et al. now shed new light on the role and regulation of Pref-1 in brown pre-adipocytes. First, Pref-1 specifically inhibits the thermogenic gene programme in brown pre-adipocytes. Secondly, they identified the transcription factor C/EBPδ (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ) as a direct positive regulator of Pref-1 expression, whereas this protein does not fulfil this role in white adipogenesis. Taken together, these findings indicate that specific manipulation of brown adipocyte differentiation and/or function without interfering with their white adipocyte counterparts may be possible, which may open up new therapeutic ways to combat obesity-associated health problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21905396','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21905396"><span>Climate change, workplace <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure, and occupational health and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in Central America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kjellstrom, Tord; Crowe, Jennifer</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Climate change is increasing <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure in places such as Central America, a tropical region with generally hot/humid conditions. Working people are at particular risk of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress because of the intrabody <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> caused by physical labor. This article aims to describe the risks of occupational <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure on health and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in Central America, and to make tentative estimates of the impact of ongoing climate change on these risks. A review of relevant literature and estimation of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure variable wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) in different locations within the region were used to estimate the effects. We found that <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress at work is a real threat. Literature from Central America and <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure estimates show that some workers are already at risk under current conditions. These conditions will likely worsen with climate change, demonstrating the need to create solutions that will protect worker health and <span class="hlt">productivity</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16202574','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16202574"><span>Influence of nanomechanical crystal properties on the <span class="hlt">comminution</span> process of particulate solids in spiral jet mills.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zügner, Sascha; Marquardt, Karin; Zimmermann, Ingfried</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>Elastic-plastic properties of single crystals are supposed to influence the size reduction process of bulk materials during jet milling. According to Pahl [M.H. Pahl, Zerkleinerungstechnik 2. Auflage. Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig (1993)] and H. Rumpf: [Prinzipien der Prallzerkleinerung und ihre Anwendung bei der Strahlmahlung. Chem. Ing. Tech., 3(1960) 129-135.] fracture toughness, maximum strain or work of fracture for example are strongly dependent on mechanical parameters like hardness (H) and young's modulus of elasticity (E). In addition the dwell time of particles in a spiral jet mill proved to correlate with the hardness of the feed material [F. Rief: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Würzburg (2001)]. Therefore 'near-surface' properties have a direct influence on the effectiveness of the <span class="hlt">comminution</span> process. The mean particle diameter as well as the size distribution of the ground <span class="hlt">product</span> may vary significantly with the nanomechanical response of the material. Thus accurate measurement of crystals' hardness and modulus is essential to determine the ideal operational micronisation conditions of the spiral jet mill. The recently developed nanoindentation technique is applied to examine subsurface properties of pharmaceutical bulk materials, namely calcite, sodium ascorbate, lactose and sodium chloride. Pressing a small sized tip into the material while continuously recording load and displacement, characteristic diagrams are derived. The mathematical evaluation of the force-displacement-data allows for calculation of the hardness and the elastic modulus of the investigated material at penetration depths between 50-300 nm. Grinding experiments performed with a modified spiral jet mill (Type Fryma JMRS 80) indicate the strong impact of the elastic-plastic properties of a given substance on its breaking behaviour. The fineness of milled <span class="hlt">products</span> produced at constant grinding conditions but with different crystalline powders varies significantly as it is dependent on the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1280851','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1280851"><span>The recovery <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in non-myelinated garfish olfactory nerve fibres.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Howarth, J V; Ritchie, J M</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>1. The recovery <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of the non-myelinated fibres of garfish olfactory nerve has been measured. 2. At about 20 degrees C the total recovery <span class="hlt">heat</span> was 381 +/- 26 microcal g-1 impulse-1 at a stimulation frequency of 2 sec-1. 3. The time constant of decay of the recovery <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> after a brief period of stimulation was 78.7 +/- 3.1 sec at about 20 degrees C. 4. Changing the temperature (by +/- 5 degress C) had little effect on the total recovery <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced. 5. However, lowering the temperature reduced both the rate of rise, and the maximum rate of recovery <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> whereas the time constant of decay was increased. Raising the temperature produced corresponding changes in the opposite direction. 6. the recovery <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> measured in the present experiments is consistent with the previously measured oxygen consumption in the same preparation. PMID:490341</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27892683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27892683"><span>Computer simulation for improving radio frequency (RF) <span class="hlt">heating</span> uniformity of food <span class="hlt">products</span>: a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Zhi; Marra, Francesco; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; Wang, Shaojin</p> <p>2016-11-28</p> <p>Radio frequency (RF) <span class="hlt">heating</span> has great potential for achieving rapid and volumetric <span class="hlt">heating</span> in foods, providing safe and high quality food <span class="hlt">products</span> due to deep penetration depth, moisture self-balance effects, and leaving no chemical residues. However, the non-uniform <span class="hlt">heating</span> problem (usually resulting in hot and cold spots in the <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>) needs to be resolved. The inhomogeneous temperature distribution not only affects the quality of the food but also raises the issue of food safety when the microorganisms or insects may not be controlled in the cold spots. The mathematical modelling for RF <span class="hlt">heating</span> processes has been extensively studied in a wide variety of agricultural <span class="hlt">products</span> recently. This paper presents a comprehensive review of recent progresses in computer simulation for RF <span class="hlt">heating</span> uniformity improvement and the offered solutions to reduce the <span class="hlt">heating</span> non-uniformity. It provides a brief introduction on the basic principle of RF <span class="hlt">heating</span> technology, analyzes the applications of numerical simulation, and discusses the factors influencing the RF <span class="hlt">heating</span> uniformity and the possible methods to improve <span class="hlt">heating</span> uniformity. Mathematical modelling improves the understanding of RF <span class="hlt">heating</span> of food and is essential to optimize the RF treatment protocol for pasteurization and disinfestation applications. Recommendations for future research have been proposed to further improve the accuracy of numerical models, by covering both <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfers in the model, validating these models with sample movement and mixing, and identifying the important model parameters by sensitivity analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021152','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021152"><span>Radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in sedimentary rocks of the Gulf of Mexico Basin, south Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McKenna, T.E.; Sharp, J.M.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> within the sedimentary section of the Gulf of Mexico basin is a significant source of <span class="hlt">heat</span>. Radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> should be included in thermal models of this basin (and perhaps other sedimentary basins). We calculate that radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> may contribute up to 26% of the overall surface <span class="hlt">heat</span>-flow density for an area in south Texas. Based on measurements of the radioactive decay rate of ??-particles, potassium concentration, and bulk density, we calculate radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> for Stuart City (Lower Cretaceous) limestones, Wilcox (Eocene) sandstones and mudrocks, and Frio (Oligocene) sandstones and mudrocks from south Texas. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rates range from a low of 0.07 ?? 0.01 ??W/m3 in clean Stuart City limestones to 2.21 ?? 0.24??W/m3 in Frio mudrocks. Mean <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rates for Wilcox sandstones, Frio sandstones, Wilcox mudrocks, and Frio mudrocks are 0.88, 1.19, 1.50, and 1.72 ??W/m3, respectively. In general, the mudrocks produce about 30-40% more <span class="hlt">heat</span> than stratigraphically equivalent sandstones. Frio rocks produce about 15% more <span class="hlt">heat</span> than Wilcox rocks per unit volume of clastic rock (sandstone/mudrock). A one-dimensional <span class="hlt">heat</span>-conduction model indicates that this radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> source has a significant effect on subsurface temperatures. If a thermal model were calibrated to observed temperatures by optimizing basal <span class="hlt">heat</span>-flow density and ignoring sediment <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, the extrapolated present-day temperature of a deeply buried source rock would be overestimated.Radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> within the sedimentary section of the Gulf of Mexico basin is a significant source of <span class="hlt">heat</span>. Radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> should be included in thermal models of this basin (and perhaps other sedimentary basins). We calculate that radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> may contribute up to 26% of the overall surface <span class="hlt">heat</span>-flow density for an area in south Texas. Based on measurements of the radioactive decay rate of ??-particles, potassium concentration, and bulk density, we</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRB..122.4064K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRB..122.4064K"><span>Pitfalls in modeling mantle convection with internal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korenaga, Jun</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>The mantle of the Earth, and probably of other terrestrial planets as well, is <span class="hlt">heated</span> from below and within. The <span class="hlt">heating</span> mode of mantle convection is thus mixed <span class="hlt">heating</span>, and it is also time dependent because the amount of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-producing isotopes in the mantle is steadily decreasing by radioactive decay and because the basal <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux originating in the cooling of the core can vary with time. This mode of transient mixed <span class="hlt">heating</span> presents its own challenges to the study of mantle convection, but such difficulties are not always appreciated in the recent literature. The purpose of this tutorial is to clarify the issue of <span class="hlt">heating</span> mode by explaining relevant concepts in a coherent manner, including the internal <span class="hlt">heating</span> ratio, the Urey ratio, secular cooling, and the connection between the thermal budget of the Earth and the geochemical models of the Earth. The importance of such basic concepts will be explained with some illustrative examples in the context of the thermal evolution of the Earth, and a summary of common pitfalls will be provided, with a possible strategy for how to avoid them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11455789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11455789"><span>Determination of the Maillard <span class="hlt">product</span> oxalic acidmonolysinylamide (OMA) in <span class="hlt">heated</span> milk <span class="hlt">products</span> by ELISA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hasenkopf, K; Ubel, B; Bordiehn, T; Pischetsrieder, M</p> <p>2001-06-01</p> <p>Oxalic acid monolysinylamide (OMA), a Maillard <span class="hlt">product</span> which had initially been identified as a reaction <span class="hlt">product</span> of L-ascorbic acid, was formed, dependent on the reaction conditions, also from other carbohydrate sources. At elevated temperatures and in the presence of oxygen, the reaction of lactose with proteins resulted in the formation of relatively high amounts of OMA. Using a polyclonal antibody, which bound with high specificity and affinity to OMA-modified proteins, a competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure OMA formation in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-treated milk <span class="hlt">products</span>. The assay performance was characterized for OMA-modified beta-lactoglobulin diluted in buffer or pasteurized milk. For the latter, the least detectable dose was determined as 1.4 ng/ml with a linear range for quantification between 2 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml. For some samples intra- and interassay variation were determined. The ELISA was used to measure OMA-formation in <span class="hlt">heated</span> milk and commercially available infant formula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6326211','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6326211"><span><span class="hlt">Production</span> of concrete articles utilizing <span class="hlt">heat</span>-reclaiming system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wauhop Jr., B. J.; Stratz, W. W.</p> <p>1985-07-30</p> <p>A method of producing concrete articles comprises reclaiming a portion of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> energy from the kiln atmosphere during the curing of the concrete articles, and then utilizing the reclaimed <span class="hlt">heat</span> energy to pre-<span class="hlt">heat</span> mixing water used to form other concrete articles, or to add to boiler feed water used to generate low pressure steam, or both. In the case where two or more kilns are operated simultaneously at staggered curing cycles, the high temperature kiln atmosphere from the kiln undergoing cool down is intermixed with the low temperature kiln atmosphere from the kiln undergoing <span class="hlt">heat</span> up thereby reclaiming <span class="hlt">heat</span> energy from one kiln and using it in the other kiln thereby reducing the total energy consumption required for curing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19133482','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19133482"><span>Differential <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock tolerance and expression of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-inducible proteins in two stored-<span class="hlt">product</span> psocids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guedes, R N C; Zhu, K Y; Opit, G P; Throne, J E</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The recent recognition of psocids as a major concern in stored <span class="hlt">products</span> and also the reemergence of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment as a control tactic of stored-<span class="hlt">product</span> insects led to the present investigation. The objectives of this study were to determine whether there are differences in <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock tolerance of two species of stored-<span class="hlt">product</span> psocids--Lepinotus reticulatus Enderlein (Trogiidae) and Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein) (Liposcelididae)--and to determine whether <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock proteins (HSPs) underlay such tolerance. Time-response bioassays were therefore carried out at increasing temperatures for both psocids. The lethal time (LT)50 and LT95 estimates were correlated with the expression of <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock proteins after exposure at the same range of temperatures for 30 min. The expression of HSP was determined through Western blot analyses using HSP 70 antibody. Liposcelis entomophila was more than two-fold more tolerant than L. reticulatus for nearly all of the range of temperatures (> or = 40.0 degrees C). Expression of HSP 70 was not observed for either of the psocid species, but the expression of two low-molecular-mass <span class="hlt">heat</span>-inducible proteins (HIPs; 23 and 27 kDa) was observed in L. entomophila. The expression of these small proteins was induced by exposure to higher temperatures, and the trend was particularly strong for HIP 27. In contrast, no expression of small <span class="hlt">heat</span>-inducible proteins was detected in L. reticulatus, reflecting its higher susceptibility to <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatments. The relatively high <span class="hlt">heat</span> tolerance of L. entomophila might help explain its more common occurrence in grain stored in warmer regions of the world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28835869','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28835869"><span><span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> Patella Fracture in Elderly Patients: A Systematic Review and Case Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matthews, Brent; Hazratwala, Kaushik; Barroso-Rosa, Sergio</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>To review <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> patella fracture in the elderly patients and examine the surgical options to avoid complications such as fixation failure and poor functional outcome. To provide an example of mesh augmentation in <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> patella fracture in the elderly patients. A literature review was conducted by the authors independently using Ovid, Medline, Cochrane, PubMed, and Clinical Key in English. We aimed to review data on patients older than 65 with <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> patella fracture. Search conducted between July and December 2015. Search terms included patella fracture, elderly, and fixation failure. Abstracts were included if they were a case report, cohort series, or randomized control trial. Further inclusion criteria were that they were available in full text and included patient age(s), operative details, follow-up, and outcome discussion. Each study was assessed according to its level of evidence, number of patients, age of patients, fracture patterns described, complications of treatment, and results summarized. Paucity of data and heterogeneity of studies limited statistical analysis. Data are presented as a review table with the key points summarized. In patella fracture, age >65 years and <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fracture pattern are predictors of increased fixation failure and postoperative stiffness, warranting special consideration. There is a trend toward improved functional outcomes when augmented fixation using mesh or plates is used in this group. Further level 1 studies are required to compare and validate new treatment options and compared them to standard surgical technique of tension band wire construct.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/53502','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/53502"><span>Assessing the specific energy consumption and physical properties of <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> Douglas-fir chips for bioconversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Yalan Liu; Jinwu Wang; Michael P. Wolcott</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Size reduction homogenizes the bulk biomass and facilitates downstream feedstock handling, transportation, and storage. Effects of feeding rate, mill-type (hammer and knife mill), screen size, and moisture content on <span class="hlt">comminution</span> energy consumption of commercial Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) pulp chips were quantified. The resulting particles...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27141792','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27141792"><span>[Surgical treatment for Mayo II B <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fracture of the olecranon].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Min; Ping, Li-yuan; Wang, Wei; Yang, Bao-gen</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>To study clinical effects of surgery for the treatment of Mayo II B <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fracture in ulna olecranon. From May 2008 to March 2015, a total of 37 patients with Mayo II B <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fracture in ulua olecranon were treated, including 20 males and 17 females, ranging in age from 40 to 65 years old ,with an average of 53 years old. All the patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation within 4 to 7 days after injuries. All the patients had pain and functional disorder uf elbow joint. The X-ray and CT examination showed ulna olecranon <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fracture of Mayo II B. Postoperative complications were observed ,and Broberg-Morrey criteria was used tu evaluate therapeutic effects. All the patients were followed up ,and the duraiton ranged from 9 to 30 months ,with a mean of 15 months. Two patients had surface infection around incision ,and were healed by changing dressings. No other complications occurred such as needle slipping to stimulate skin ,screw loosening and wire broken. One patient had slight uneveness of joint surface without obvious functional disorder. According to Broberg-Morrey elbow fracture curative effect criteria, 11 paients got an excellent result, 24 good and 2 fair,and the total score was 87.0 ± 7.3. For the Mayo II B <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fracture in ulna olecranon, preoperative preparation, intraoperative restoring of the articular surface smooth and reasonable internal fixation, and postoperative rehabilitation actively, can obtain satisfactory clinical effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26620642','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26620642"><span><span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> C2 Articular Pillar Fracture in a Patient With Multiple Sclerosis and Recurrent Falls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sault, Josiah D; Elliott, James M</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The patient was a 60-year-old woman, with long-standing balance deficits due to multiple sclerosis, referred to physical therapy by her primary care physician secondary to increasing fall frequency. Following evaluation, the physical therapist escorted the patient to her primary care physician's office, where a computed tomography scan was immediately performed, revealing a <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> C2 articular pillar fracture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994PApGe.143..151D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994PApGe.143..151D"><span>The role of the chemical environment in frictional deformation: Stress corrosion cracking and <span class="hlt">comminution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunning, J.; Douglas, B.; Miller, M.; McDonald, S.</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>The roles of chemically assisted crack and fracture propagation and chemically assisted <span class="hlt">comminution</span> in frictional deformation are evaluated in this study. Double cantilever beam (DCB) crack propagation data are presented which show that the role of pH in chemically assisted fracture, and to a lesser extent the role of ionic concentration are important in stress corrosion cracking. Data on very slow crack growth and the stress corrosion limit are also presented. These data suggest that stress corrosion cracking may play an important role in compound earthquakes and in asperity breakdown in faults. The <span class="hlt">comminution</span> literature is also reviewed in order to assess the role of chemically assisted <span class="hlt">comminution</span> in frictional deformation. It appears that chemically assisted <span class="hlt">comminution</span> may be important at low and high ionic strength because it may reduce the effective viscosity and the shear strength of fault gouge. At intermediate ionic concentration the role of pH, as an agent which enhances crack and fracture propagation, appears to be more important in reducing the coefficient of sliding friction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982STIN...8311592H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982STIN...8311592H"><span>Diesel driven low capacity <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump for <span class="hlt">heating</span> and hot water <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoefler, P.</p> <p>1982-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> pumps that reduce primary energy consumption for <span class="hlt">heating</span> needs when they are driven by an internal combustion motor were studied. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced as well from the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump as from the combustion in the diesel motor was used for home <span class="hlt">heating</span> and hot water preparation. The objective was a 25kW capacity for a one familiy house. Material used should be standard, so a special design diesel motor or <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump was not considered. An air/water cooled type diesel motor was coupled to a 12kW capacity <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump for an outdoor temperature of 3 C using R12 freon as refrigerant. Description of all elements is given. Tests were in the laboratory and in a one family house. The expected efficiency factor of 1.34 could not be confirmed and an average annual value of only 1.05 is assumed. The diesel driven <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump can not produce the energy savings hoped for.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5697718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5697718"><span>New industrial <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump applications to fructose <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1990-04-01</p> <p>An energy cost reduction study of the American Fructose Decatur,Inc. High Fructose Corn Syrup process has been completed. The objective was to find cost effective energy cost reduction projects and to develop a coherent strategy for realizing the savings. There are many possible options for reducing energy cost. To facilitate a fair comparison of the options, Pinch Technology was used to identify appropriate <span class="hlt">heat</span> recovery, <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumping and cogeneration options. Of particular interest were the opportunities for utilizing <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps, for energy cost reduction or other profit increasing uses. Therefore, where a <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumping scheme was identified, its merits relative to other potential projects was carefully evaluated to ensure that the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump was technically and economically sound. It is felt that the results obtained in this study are applicable to other wet corn milling sites which include a refinery section, due to the similarity of processes throughout the industry. This study and others indicate that reductions in thermal energy consumption of 15--25% can be expected through increased <span class="hlt">heat</span> recovery. Also, the use of MVR and thermocompression evaporators is appropriate and additional economically viable opportunities exist for using industrial <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps to increase even further the level of energy cost reduction achievable. 17 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5630118','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5630118"><span>New industrial <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump applications to textile <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>Application of pinch technology to the US industries in an early screening study has identified potential for <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps in several standard processes such as distillation and drying processes. Due to lack process information, the previous study was not able to draw any definite conclusion concerning the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump application potential in textile process. However, the commonly encountered drying process in the finishing section of textile plant has been shown to create opportunities for <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump placement. The site selected for this study is a textile plant in North Carolina and the participating utility is Duke Power Company. The objective of this study is to further identify the energy savings potential through advanced <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps and other energy conservation methods developed in the context of pinch technology. The key findings of this study are as follows. The previously unrecoverable waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the exhaust air can now be reclaimed through a spray type air washer and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump system. The recommended <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump system recovers <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the looper exhaust and use it to preheat the air in the gas tenter. A reduction of 50% of the gas consumption in the tenter can be achieved. The removal of lint from the exhaust air reduced the potential of air pollution. The collected lint can be burned in the boiler as a supplemental fuel source to reduce the fuel consumption in the plant. With fuel price predicted to go up and electricity price remain relatively stable in the future, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump system can payback in less than three years. 15 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22252338','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22252338"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">heating</span> system using a geothermal <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump on the <span class="hlt">production</span> performance and housing environment of broiler chickens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>A geothermal <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump (GHP) is a potential <span class="hlt">heat</span> source for the economic <span class="hlt">heating</span> of broiler houses with optimum <span class="hlt">production</span> performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a <span class="hlt">heating</span> system using a GHP on <span class="hlt">production</span> performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional <span class="hlt">heating</span> system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of <span class="hlt">heating</span>, and <span class="hlt">production</span> performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased when chicks were reared in the GHP broiler house compared with that of chicks reared in the conventional broiler house (1.73 vs. 1.62 kg/bird). The <span class="hlt">heating</span> system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the <span class="hlt">heating</span> system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the conventional broiler house compared with those in the GHP house. Fuel consumption was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) and electricity consumption significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the GHP house compared with the consumption in the conventional house during the experiment. The total energy cost of <span class="hlt">heating</span> the GHP house was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of the conventional house. It is concluded that a GHP system could increase the <span class="hlt">production</span> performance of broiler chicks due to increased inside air quality of the broiler house. The GHP system had lower CO(2) and NH(3) emissions with lower energy cost than the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22932754','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22932754"><span>Biomechanical testing of pin configurations in supracondylar humeral fractures: the effect of medial column <span class="hlt">comminution</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silva, Mauricio; Knutsen, Ashleen R; Kalma, Jeremy J; Borkowski, Sean L; Bernthal, Nicholas M; Spencer, Hillard T; Sangiorgio, Sophia N; Ebramzadeh, Edward</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>We measured biomechanical stability in simulated supracondylar humeral fractures fixed with each of 6 pin configurations, 2 with associated medial <span class="hlt">comminution</span>, and developed a technique for reproducible pin placement and divergence. A transverse supracondylar osteotomy was performed on 36 biomechanical humerus models. Of these, 24 (4 groups of 6 specimens each) were fixed with pins in 1 of 4 lateral entry configurations. The remaining 12 (2 groups of 6 specimens each) had a 30-degree medial wedge removed from the distal humerus and were fixed with 1 of 2 configurations. Half of each group was tested under axial rotation and the other half under varus bending. The distal humerus was divided into 4 equal regions from lateral to medial (1-4). Lateral entry pins were inserted through regions 1-3, whereas the medial pin was inserted through region 4. Without <span class="hlt">comminution</span>, 3 widely spaced, divergent lateral entry pins resulted in higher torsional stiffness (0.36 Nm/degree) than 2 pins in adjacent regions (P < 0.055), but similar to 2 pins in nonadjacent regions (P = 0.57). Three lateral entry pins had higher bending stiffness (79.6 N/mm) than 2 pins, which ranged from 46.7 N/mm (P < 0.01) to 62.5 N/mm (P = 0.21). With <span class="hlt">comminution</span>, adding a third medial entry pin increased torsional stiffness (0.13-0.24 Nm/degree, P < 0.01) and increased bending stiffness (38.7-44.7 N/mm, P = 0.10). For fractures without medial column <span class="hlt">comminution</span>, fixation using 3 lateral entry pins may provide the greatest combination of torsional and bending stiffness. With medial <span class="hlt">comminution</span>, adding a third medial pin increased torsional stiffness (P < 0.01) and bending stiffness (P = 0.10).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27441284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27441284"><span>The equivalence of minimum entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> and maximum thermal efficiency in endoreversible <span class="hlt">heat</span> engines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haseli, Y</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to investigate the thermal efficiency and power <span class="hlt">production</span> of typical models of endoreversible <span class="hlt">heat</span> engines at the regime of minimum entropy generation rate. The study considers the Curzon-Ahlborn engine, the Novikov's engine, and the Carnot vapor cycle. The operational regimes at maximum thermal efficiency, maximum power output and minimum entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> rate are compared for each of these engines. The results reveal that in an endoreversible <span class="hlt">heat</span> engine, a reduction in entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> corresponds to an increase in thermal efficiency. The three criteria of minimum entropy <span class="hlt">production</span>, the maximum thermal efficiency, and the maximum power may become equivalent at the condition of fixed <span class="hlt">heat</span> input.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12836950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12836950"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stress on <span class="hlt">production</span> in dairy cattle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>West, J W</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>The southeastern United States is characterized as humid subtropical and is subject to extended periods of high ambient temperature and relative humidity. Because the primary nonevaporative means of cooling for the cow (radiation, conduction, convection) become less effective with rising ambient temperature, the cow becomes increasingly reliant upon evaporative cooling in the form of sweating and panting. High relative humidity compromises evaporative cooling, so that under hot, humid conditions common to the Southeast in summer the dairy cow cannot dissipate sufficient body <span class="hlt">heat</span> to prevent a rise in body temperature. Increasing air temperature, temperature-humidity index and rising rectal temperature above critical thresholds are related to decreased dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield and to reduced efficiency of milk yield. Modifications including shade, barns which enhance passive ventilation, and the addition of fans and sprinklers increase body <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss, lowering body temperature and improving DMI. New technologies including tunnel ventilation are being investigated to determine if they offer cooling advantages. Genetic selection for <span class="hlt">heat</span> tolerance may be possible, but continued selection for greater performance in the absence of consideration for <span class="hlt">heat</span> tolerance will result in greater susceptibility to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. The nutritional needs of the cow change during <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress, and ration reformulation to account for decreased DMI, the need to increase nutrient density, changing nutrient requirements, avoiding nutrient excesses and maintenance of normal rumen function is necessary. Maintaining cow performance in hot, humid climatic conditions in the future will likely require improved cooling capability, continued advances in nutritional formulation, and the need for genetic advancement which includes selection for <span class="hlt">heat</span> tolerance or the identification of genetic traits which enhance <span class="hlt">heat</span> tolerance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/571188','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/571188"><span><span class="hlt">Production</span> of coagulase, deoxyribonuclease and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable deoxyribonuclease by canine isolates of staphylococci.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wierup, M</p> <p>1978-12-01</p> <p>Staphylococci isolated from different infections in dogs have been investigated for <span class="hlt">production</span> of coagulase, deoxyribonuclease (DNase) and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable DNase. Alll coagulase-positive strains (220) also produced DNase and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable nuclease. However, 4 out of 15 coagulase-negative strains were also positive in both the DNase and the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable DNase tests. Several tests for DNase and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable DNase were evaluated. No strains were DNase-positive, <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable DNase-negative, or vice-versa.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22521772','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22521772"><span>r-PROCESS LANTHANIDE <span class="hlt">PRODUCTION</span> AND <span class="hlt">HEATING</span> RATES IN KILONOVAE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.</p> <p>2015-12-20</p> <p>r-process nucleosynthesis in material ejected during neutron star mergers may lead to radioactively powered transients called kilonovae. The timescale and peak luminosity of these transients depend on the composition of the ejecta, which determines the local <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate from nuclear decays and the opacity. Kasen et al. and Tanaka and Hotokezaka pointed out that lanthanides can drastically increase the opacity in these outflows. We use the new general-purpose nuclear reaction network SkyNet to carry out a parameter study of r-process nucleosynthesis for a range of initial electron fractions Y{sub e}, initial specific entropies s, and expansion timescales τ. We find that the ejecta is lanthanide-free for Y{sub e} ≳ 0.22−0.30, depending on s and τ. The <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate is insensitive to s and τ, but certain, larger values of Y{sub e} lead to reduced <span class="hlt">heating</span> rates, due to individual nuclides dominating the <span class="hlt">heating</span>. We calculate approximate light curves with a simplified gray radiative transport scheme. The light curves peak at about a day (week) in the lanthanide-free (-rich) cases. The <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate does not change much as the ejecta becomes lanthanide-free with increasing Y{sub e}, but the light-curve peak becomes about an order of magnitude brighter because it peaks much earlier when the <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate is larger. We also provide parametric fits for the <span class="hlt">heating</span> rates between 0.1 and 100 days, and we provide a simple fit in Y{sub e}, s, and τ to estimate whether or not the ejecta is lanthanide-rich.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...815...82L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...815...82L"><span>r-process Lanthanide <span class="hlt">Production</span> and <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Rates in Kilonovae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>r-process nucleosynthesis in material ejected during neutron star mergers may lead to radioactively powered transients called kilonovae. The timescale and peak luminosity of these transients depend on the composition of the ejecta, which determines the local <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate from nuclear decays and the opacity. Kasen et al. and Tanaka & Hotokezaka pointed out that lanthanides can drastically increase the opacity in these outflows. We use the new general-purpose nuclear reaction network SkyNet to carry out a parameter study of r-process nucleosynthesis for a range of initial electron fractions Ye, initial specific entropies s, and expansion timescales τ. We find that the ejecta is lanthanide-free for Ye ≳ 0.22-0.30, depending on s and τ. The <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate is insensitive to s and τ, but certain, larger values of Ye lead to reduced <span class="hlt">heating</span> rates, due to individual nuclides dominating the <span class="hlt">heating</span>. We calculate approximate light curves with a simplified gray radiative transport scheme. The light curves peak at about a day (week) in the lanthanide-free (-rich) cases. The <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate does not change much as the ejecta becomes lanthanide-free with increasing Ye, but the light-curve peak becomes about an order of magnitude brighter because it peaks much earlier when the <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate is larger. We also provide parametric fits for the <span class="hlt">heating</span> rates between 0.1 and 100 days, and we provide a simple fit in Ye, s, and τ to estimate whether or not the ejecta is lanthanide-rich.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26895234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26895234"><span>Bayesian techniques for comparison of the test performance of PCR and culture for the identification of Campylobacter in enriched <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> chicken samples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ebel, E D; Williams, M S; Golden, N J; Tankson, J</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Using Bayesian methods that do not require the definition of a gold standard, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay are compared to those of an enriched culture assay for detection of Campylobacter in enriched <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> chicken samples. Food Safety and Inspection Service <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> chicken samples were collected from <span class="hlt">production</span> facilities across the United States. Enriched samples were examined using a commercial real-time PCR kit and plated for culture. Allowing for conditional dependence between these approaches and defining relatively uninformed prior distributions, the 'no gold standard' Bayesian methods generated estimates of the means (95% credible interval) of the posterior distributions for sensitivity and specificity of the PCR as 93% (79, 100%) and 95% (87, 100%) respectively. The estimated sensitivity implies a mean false negative frequency of 7%. The estimated means of the posterior distributions for sensitivity and specificity of the culture assay were 91% (76, 100%) and 96% (88, 100%) respectively. In this case, the mean false negative frequency is 9%. Graphical comparisons of the posterior distributions with their corresponding prior distributions suggested only subtle differences in the sensitivities of both tests, but the posterior distributions for specificities are substantially more certain than the prior distributions. The study suggests that the commercial real-time PCR assay is a more sensitive screening test that would provide timelier negative test results. The modest 1% reduction in specificity of this PCR assay, as compared to an enriched culture assay, is less of a concern for regulatory testing programs if a culture-based confirmatory assay is applied to all presumptive positive samples. The sensitivity and specificity of a PCR assay and a culture assay for Campylobacter in <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> poultry produced in the United States were estimated. The PCR assay was shown to be an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/987343','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/987343"><span>Geoneutrinos and <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> in the Earth: Constraints and Implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>McDonough, Bill [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>Recent results from antineutrino (geoneutrino) studies at KamLAND are coincident with geochemical models of Th and U in the Earth.  KamLAND and Borexino detectors are on line, thus uncertainties in counting statistics will be reduced as data are accumulated.  The SNO+ detector, situated in the middle of the North American plate will come on line in ~3 yrs and will be best suited to yield a precise estimate of the continental contribution to the Earth’s Th & U budget.  The distribution of <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements in the Earth drives convection and plate tectonics.  Geochemical models posit that ~40% of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements are in the continental crust, with the remainder in the mantle.  Although models of core formation allow for the incorporation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements, the core contribution of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> is considered to be negligible.  Most parameterized convection models for the Earth require significant amounts of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> of the Earth, a factor of two greater than geochemical models predict.  The initial KamLAND results challenge these geophysical models and support geochemical models calling for a significant contribution from secular cooling of the mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/987343','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/987343"><span>Geoneutrinos and <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> in the Earth: Constraints and Implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McDonough, Bill</p> <p>2008-07-02</p> <p>Recent results from antineutrino (geoneutrino) studies at KamLAND are coincident with geochemical models of Th and U in the Earth.  KamLAND and Borexino detectors are on line, thus uncertainties in counting statistics will be reduced as data are accumulated.  The SNO+ detector, situated in the middle of the North American plate will come on line in ~3 yrs and will be best suited to yield a precise estimate of the continental contribution to the Earth’s Th & U budget.  The distribution of <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements in the Earth drives convection and plate tectonics.  Geochemical models posit that ~40% of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements are in the continental crust, with the remainder in the mantle.  Although models of core formation allow for the incorporation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements, the core contribution of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> is considered to be negligible.  Most parameterized convection models for the Earth require significant amounts of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> of the Earth, a factor of two greater than geochemical models predict.  The initial KamLAND results challenge these geophysical models and support geochemical models calling for a significant contribution from secular cooling of the mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1016794','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1016794"><span>Geoneutrinos and <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> in the Earth: Constraints and Implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McConough, Bill</p> <p>2008-07-02</p> <p>Recent results from antineutrino (geoneutrino) studies at KamLAND are coincident with geochemical models of Th and U in the Earth. KamLAND and Borexino detectors are on line, thus uncertainties in counting statistics will be reduced as data are accumulated. The SNO+ detector, situated in the middle of the North American plate will come on line in {approx}3 yrs and will be best suited to yield a precise estimate of the continental contribution to the Earth's Th & U budget. The distribution of <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements in the Earth drives convection and plate tectonics. Geochemical models posit that {approx}40% of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements are in the continental crust, with the remainder in the mantle. Although models of core formation allow for the incorporation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> producing elements, the core contribution of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> is considered to be negligible. Most parameterized convection models for the Earth require significant amounts of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> of the Earth, a factor of two greater than geochemical models predict. The initial KamLAND results challenge these geophysical models and support geochemical models calling for a significant contribution from secular cooling of the mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15206614','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15206614"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress on <span class="hlt">production</span> parameters and immune responses of commercial laying hens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mashaly, M M; Hendricks, G L; Kalama, M A; Gehad, A E; Abbas, A O; Patterson, P H</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>The present study was conducted to determine the adverse effects of high temperature and humidity not only on live performance and egg quality but also on immune function in commercial laying hens. One hundred eighty 31-wk-old laying hens at peak <span class="hlt">production</span> were used in this study. Hens were housed in cages (15 cages of 4 birds/cage) in each of 3 environmental chambers and received 1 of 3 treatments. The 3 treatments were control (average temperature and relative humidity), cyclic (daily cyclic temperature and humidity), and <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress (constant <span class="hlt">heat</span> and humidity) for 5 wk. Different <span class="hlt">production</span> and immune parameters were measured. Body weight and feed consumption were significantly reduced in hens in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress group. Egg <span class="hlt">production</span>, egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, and specific gravity were significantly inhibited among hens in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress group. Likewise, total white blood cell (WBC) counts and antibody <span class="hlt">production</span> were significantly inhibited in hens in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress group. In addition, mortality was higher in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress group compared to the cyclic and control groups. Even though T- and B-lymphocyte activities were not significantly affected by any of the treatments, lymphocytes from hens in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress group had the least activity at 1 wk following treatment. These results indicate that <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress not only adversely affects <span class="hlt">production</span> performance but also inhibits immune function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA558580','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA558580"><span>Estimated Metabolic <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Helicopter Aircrew Members during Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>individual performed. Metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> was estimated using a mechanical efficiency of 20% for human movement and a standardized conversion to watts (W...various activities an individual performed. Metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> was estimated using a mechanical efficiency of 20% for human movement and a standardized...expenditure for that hour. To calculate metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, a mechanical efficiency of muscular work of 20% was assumed (21, 23). Therefore</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212417V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212417V"><span>Reliable radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of representative lithological groups</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vilà, Miquel; Fernández, Manel</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Determining the temperature distribution within the lithosphere requires the knowledge of the radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (RHP) distribution within the crust and the lithospheric mantle. RHP of crustal rocks varies considerably at different scales as a result of the petrogenetic processes responsible for their formation and therefore RHP depends on the considered lithologies. In this work we address RHP variability of some common lithological groups from a compilation of a total of 2188 representative U, Th and K concentrations of different worldwide rock types derived from 102 geochemical and geophysical datasets previously published. To optimize the use of the generated RHP database we have classified and renamed the rock-type denominations of the original works following a petrologic classification scheme with a hierarchical structure. To compute RHP a reasonable average density was assigned for each lithologic group. The RHP data of each lithological group is presented in cumulative distribution plots, and we report a table with the mean, the standard deviation, the minimum and maximum values, and the significant percentiles (10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th) of these lithological groups. In general, for each lithological group exists a wide zone around the median value with a constant slope indicating RHP values with the same probability of occurrence. This zone usually includes the RHP range defined by the 25th and the 75th percentile. When compare previuos RHP estimates of representative lithological groups with our results it is observed that most of them fall between the 25th and 75th percentiles obtained. We integrate our results in a schematic model of the differentiation processes undergone by lithospheric rocks. This model allows us to discuss the RHP variability for the different igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic lithological groups from a petrogenetic viewpoint. Finally we give some useful guidelines to assign RHP values to lithospheric thermal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-24/pdf/2013-24352.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-24/pdf/2013-24352.pdf"><span>78 FR 63410 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer <span class="hlt">Products</span>: Test Procedures for Direct <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Equipment...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-24</p> <p>...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to revise its test procedures for direct <span class="hlt">heating</span> equipment and pool heaters established under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. This rulemaking will fulfill DOE's statutory obligation to review its test procedures for covered <span class="hlt">products</span> at least once every seven years. For direct <span class="hlt">heating</span> equipment, the proposed amendments would add provisions......</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19758800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19758800"><span>Performance evaluation of adding ethanol <span class="hlt">production</span> into an existing combined <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power plant.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Starfelt, F; Thorin, E; Dotzauer, E; Yan, J</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, the configuration and performance of a polygeneration system are studied by modelling the integration of a lignocellulosic wood-to-ethanol process with an existing combined <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power (CHP) plant. Data from actual plants are applied to validate the simulation models. The integrated polygeneration system reaches a total efficiency of 50%, meeting the <span class="hlt">heating</span> load in the district <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. Excess <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the ethanol <span class="hlt">production</span> plant supplies 7.9 MW to the district <span class="hlt">heating</span> system, accounting for 17.5% of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> supply at full <span class="hlt">heating</span> load. The simulation results show that the <span class="hlt">production</span> of ethanol from woody biomass is more efficient when integrated with a CHP plant compared to a stand-alone <span class="hlt">production</span> plant. The total biomass consumption is reduced by 13.9% while producing the same amounts of <span class="hlt">heat</span>, electricity and ethanol fuel as in the stand-alone configurations. The results showed that another feature of the integrated polygeneration system is the longer annual operating period compared to existing cogeneration. Thus, the renewable electricity <span class="hlt">production</span> is increased by 2.7% per year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=248483','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=248483"><span>Virtual Grower: Software to Calculate <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Costs of Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Production</span> in the US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Greenhouses are used in many climates either for season extension or year-round <span class="hlt">production</span>, and can be expensive to <span class="hlt">heat</span>. Greenhouse users and growers are often faced with management decisions that rely on an understanding of how temperature settings, <span class="hlt">heating</span> systems, fuel types, and construction d...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23690144','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23690144"><span>Working in Australia's <span class="hlt">heat</span>: health promotion concerns for health and <span class="hlt">productivity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Sudhvir; Hanna, Elizabeth G; Kjellstrom, Tord</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>This exploratory study describes the experiences arising from exposure to extreme summer <span class="hlt">heat</span>, and the related health protection and promotion issues for working people in Australia. Twenty key informants representing different industry types and occupational groups or activities in Australia provided semi-structured interviews concerning: (i) perceptions of workplace <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure in the industry they represented, (ii) reported impacts on health and <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, as well as (iii) actions taken to reduce exposure or effects of environmental <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure. All interviewees reported that excessive <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure presents a significant challenge for their industry or activity. People working in physically demanding jobs in temperatures>35°C frequently develop symptoms, and working beyond <span class="hlt">heat</span> tolerance is common. To avoid potentially dangerous health impacts they must either slow down or change their work habits. Such health-preserving actions result in lost work capacity. Approximately one-third of baseline work <span class="hlt">productivity</span> can be lost in physically demanding jobs when working at 40°C. Employers and workers consider that <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure is a 'natural hazard' in Australia that cannot easily be avoided and so must be accommodated or managed. Among participants in this study, the locus of responsibility for coping with <span class="hlt">heat</span> lay with the individual, rather than the employer. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> exposure during Australian summers commonly results in adverse health effects and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> losses, although quantification studies are lacking. Lack of understanding of the hazardous nature of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure exacerbates the serious risk of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress, as entrenched attitudinal barriers hamper amelioration or effective management of this increasing occupational health threat. Educational programmes and workplace <span class="hlt">heat</span> guidelines are required. Without intervention, climate change in hot countries, such as Australia, can be expected to further exacerbate <span class="hlt">heat</span>-related burden of disease and loss</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-06/pdf/2012-13675.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-06/pdf/2012-13675.pdf"><span>77 FR 33486 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple <span class="hlt">Heat</span>-Conducting Paths and <span class="hlt">Products</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-06</p> <p>... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple <span class="hlt">Heat</span>- Conducting Paths and <span class="hlt">Products</span>.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided... sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit packages provided...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7064914','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7064914"><span>Adjustments in metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by squirrel monkeys exposed to microwaves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adair, E.R.; Adams, B.W.</p> <p>1982-04-01</p> <p>The basic fact that microwave exposure can lower metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> has been previously demonstrated for the mouse by Ho and Edwards (1977) and for the rat by Phillips et al. (1975). The general conclusion drawn from both studies was that the metabolic reduction produced by microwave exposure was dose dependent. The present study extends the investigation into the effects of microwave exposure on metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> to a primate, the squirrel monkey. When squirrel monkeys are restrained in cool environments, body temperature is regulated by an increase in metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. The results of the current study demonstrate that either brief or prolonged whole-body exposure to a microwave field will cause a reduction of this elevated <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by an amount directly related to the microwave energy absorbed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988IJBm...32...73K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988IJBm...32...73K"><span>Temperature and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> patterns inside organism clusters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kyaw Tha Paw, U.</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p>Clustering of organisms under cold air temperature conditions is modelled with a finite-difference method. Metabolic functions of temperature are used to simulate completely ectothermic, completely endothermic, and other organisms. To adequately match real conditions, the core temperature is kept constant at a high level, while the periphery of the organism cluster is assigned a lower temperature representing the cold conditions under which clustering is observed for organisms. The numerical model reasonably predicts the observed temperature distribution in honeybee clusters. The results do not support suggestions that organisms could overheat in the core of a cluster if they do not use thermoregulatory mechanisms to cool down. Endothermic organisms are not as efficient as ectothermic ones in <span class="hlt">heating</span> a cluster core temperature to a given level. The general ectothermic metabolic rate function exhibited one of the highest efficiencies for <span class="hlt">heating</span> the cluster.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26168872','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26168872"><span><span class="hlt">Comminution</span> and sizing processes of concrete block waste as recycled aggregates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gomes, P C C; Ulsen, C; Pereira, F A; Quattrone, M; Angulo, S C</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Due to the environmental impact of construction and demolition waste (CDW), recycling is mandatory. It is also important that recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) are used in concrete to meet market demands. In the literature, the influence of RCAs on concrete has been investigated, but very limited studies have been conducted on how the origin of concrete waste and <span class="hlt">comminution</span> processes influence RCA characteristics. This paper aims to investigate the influence of three different <span class="hlt">comminution</span> and sizing processes (simple screening, crushing and grinding) on the composition, shape and porosity characteristics of RCA obtained from concrete block waste. Crushing and grinding implies a reduction of RCA porosity. However, due to the presence of coarse quartz rounded river pebbles in the original concrete block mixtures, the shape characteristics deteriorated. A large amount of powder (<0.15 mm) without detectable anhydrous cement was also generated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1337282','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1337282"><span>A Discrete Element Model of Armor Glass Fragmentation and <span class="hlt">Comminution</span> Failure Under Compression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>Because of its exceptional compressive resistance and crystal-clear appearance, lightweight glass has been traditionally used in transparent armor applications. However, due to its brittle nature, glass fails differently from ductile materials in the sense that glass fragmentation occurs instantly ahead of the projectile tip upon penetration. The effective residual strength of the armor glass then inevitably relies on the damaged glass strength within such <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> zones with confinement from the surrounding intact materials. Physical understanding of damaged glass strength therefore becomes highly critical to the further development of armor designs. In the present study, a discrete element based modeling framework has been developed to understand and predict the evolution of compressive damages and residual strength of armor glasses. With the characteristic fragmentation and <span class="hlt">comminution</span> failures explicitly resolved, their influences on the mechanical degradation of the loaded glass materials have been evaluated. The effects of essential loading conditions and material properties have also been investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3016720','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3016720"><span>Wasp Hawking Induces Endothermic <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> in Guard Bees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tan, K.; Li, H.; Yang, M.X.; Hepburn, H.R.; Radloff, S.E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>When vespine wasps, Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), hawk (capture) bees at their nest entrances alerted and poised guards of Apis cerana cerana F. and Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola (Hymenoptera: Apidae) have average thoracic temperatures slightly above 24° C. Many additional worker bees of A. cerana, but not A. mellifera, are recruited to augment the guard bee cohort and begin wing-shimmering and body-rocking, and the average thoracic temperature rises to 29.8 ± 1.6° C. If the wasps persist hawking, about 30 guard bees of A. cerana that have raised their thoracic temperatures to 31.4 ± 0.9° C strike out at a wasp and form a ball around it. Within about three minutes the core temperature of the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-balling A. cerana guard bees reaches about 46° C, which is above the lethal limit of the wasps, which are therefore killed. Although guard bees of A. mellifera do not exhibit the serial behavioural and physiological changes of A. cerana, they may also <span class="hlt">heat</span>-ball hawking wasps. Here, the differences in the sequence of changes in the behaviour and temperature during “resting” and “<span class="hlt">heat</span>-balling” by A. cerana and A. mellifera are reported. PMID:21073346</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21073346','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21073346"><span>Wasp hawking induces endothermic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in guard bees.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, K; Li, H; Yang, M X; Hepburn, H R; Radloff, S E</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>When vespine wasps, Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), hawk (capture) bees at their nest entrances alerted and poised guards of Apis cerana cerana F. and Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola (Hymenoptera: Apidae) have average thoracic temperatures slightly above 24° C. Many additional worker bees of A. cerana, but not A. mellifera, are recruited to augment the guard bee cohort and begin wing-shimmering and body-rocking, and the average thoracic temperature rises to 29.8 ± 1.6° C. If the wasps persist hawking, about 30 guard bees of A. cerana that have raised their thoracic temperatures to 31.4 ± 0.9° C strike out at a wasp and form a ball around it. Within about three minutes the core temperature of the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-balling A. cerana guard bees reaches about 46° C, which is above the lethal limit of the wasps, which are therefore killed. Although guard bees of A. mellifera do not exhibit the serial behavioural and physiological changes of A. cerana, they may also <span class="hlt">heat</span>-ball hawking wasps. Here, the differences in the sequence of changes in the behaviour and temperature during "resting" and "<span class="hlt">heat</span>-balling" by A. cerana and A. mellifera are reported.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910012859','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910012859"><span>A comparison of microwave versus direct solar <span class="hlt">heating</span> for lunar brick <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yankee, S. J.; Strenski, D. G.; Pletka, B. J.; Patil, D. S.; Mutsuddy, B. C.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two processing techniques considered suitable for producing bricks from lunar regolith are examined: direct solar <span class="hlt">heating</span> and microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span>. An analysis was performed to compare the two processes in terms of the amount of power and time required to fabricate bricks of various sizes. Microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> was shown to be significantly faster than solar <span class="hlt">heating</span> for rapid <span class="hlt">production</span> of realistic-size bricks. However, the relative simplicity of the solar collector(s) used for the solar furnace compared to the equipment necessary for microwave generation may present an economic tradeoff.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10766936','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10766936"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in human skeletal muscle at the onset of intense dynamic exercise.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González-Alonso, J; Quistorff, B; Krustrup, P; Bangsbo, J; Saltin, B</p> <p>2000-04-15</p> <p>1. We hypothesised that <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of human skeletal muscle at a given high power output would gradually increase as <span class="hlt">heat</span> liberation per mole of ATP produced rises when energy is derived from oxidation compared to phosphocreatine (PCr) breakdown and glycogenolysis. 2. Five young volunteers performed 180 s of intense dynamic knee-extensor exercise ( approximately 80 W) while estimates of muscle <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, power output, oxygen uptake, lactate release, lactate accumulation and ATP and PCr hydrolysis were made. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was determined continuously by (i) measuring <span class="hlt">heat</span> storage in the contracting muscles, (ii) measuring <span class="hlt">heat</span> removal to the body core by the circulation, and (iii) estimating <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer to the skin by convection and conductance as well as to the body core by lymph drainage. 3. The rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> storage in knee-extensor muscles was highest during the first 45 s of exercise (70-80 J s-1) and declined gradually to 14 +/- 10 J s-1 at 180 s. 4. The rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> removal by blood was negligible during the first 10 s of exercise, rising gradually to 112 +/- 14 J s-1 at 180 s. The estimated rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> release to skin and <span class="hlt">heat</span> removal via lymph flow was < 2 J s-1 during the first 5 s and increased progressively to 24 +/- 1 J s-1 at 180 s. The rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> increased significantly throughout exercise, being 107 % higher at 180 s compared to the initial 5 s, with half of the increase occurring during the first 38 s, while power output remained essentially constant. 5. The contribution of muscle oxygen uptake and net lactate release to total energy turnover increased curvilinearly from 32 % and 2 %, respectively, during the first 30 s to 86 % and 8 %, respectively, during the last 30 s of exercise. The combined energy contribution from net ATP hydrolysis, net PCr hydrolysis and muscle lactate accumulation is estimated to decline from 37 % to 3 % comparing the same time intervals. 6. The magnitude and rate of elevation in <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10597177','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10597177"><span>Unilateral <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> and complicated fracture of the mandible due to dog attack.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ngeow, W C; Lian, C B</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>Fractures of the mandible and their management are discussed in detail in textbooks and articles dealing with facial trauma. This paper presents the management and treatment of a case of a unilateral <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> and complicated fracture of the mandible due to dog attack on a geriatric patient. The attack also severed the patient's right arm. Due to the severity of the trauma, an emergency surgery was performed on the mandible and arm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27610699','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27610699"><span>Radial Head and Neck Allograft for <span class="hlt">Comminute</span> Irreparable Fracture-Dislocations of the Elbow.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bisicchia, Salvatore; Tudisco, Cosimo</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Fracture-dislocations of the elbow can be difficult to treat, with unsatisfactory results in some cases. In general, it is preferable to preserve the fractured radial head when possible, but some patients present a unique treatment challenge because of extremely <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fractures and bone loss. In these cases, the only options available are radial head prosthesis or allograft. The authors present a case of a 45-year-old man with a fracture-dislocation of the left elbow that was treated with an allograft of the radial head and neck because of extreme <span class="hlt">comminution</span> of the fracture. There have been a few reports about osteochondral allograft transplantation of the radial head, and they all included traumatic or posttraumatic cases treated with a frozen allograft. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the use of osteochondral allograft in the acute setting for the treatment of a <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fracture of the radius involving the whole head and neck. The clinical results were satisfactory at the final follow-up, although mild degenerative changes were present, the screws were coming loose, and the radial head had a slight valgus deformity. Radial head allograft can be an option in selected cases of acute fractures with severe <span class="hlt">comminution</span> and bone loss that are not amenable to a stable internal fixation; for the young and active patient, who is not the best candidate for radial head resection; or in cases in which radial head arthroplasty is not feasible because of severe bone loss. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):e1205-e1208.].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/570824','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/570824"><span>Mineral and trace metal supplement for use with synthetic diets based on <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> chicken.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thorn, J M; Aggett, P J; Delves, H T; Clayton, B E</p> <p>1978-12-01</p> <p>Earlier studies (Alexander et al., 1974; Lawson et al., 1977) suggested a suitable composition for a mineral and trace metal supplement for use with synthetic diets containing some natural food. Such a mixture has been evaluated in patients receiving a diet based on <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> chicken and has been shown to be adequate. This conclusion was based on balance experiments measuring Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, N, and P.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24314872','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24314872"><span>Comparative study of <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> posterior acetabular wall fracture treated with the Acetabular Tridimensional Memory Fixation System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yuntong; Zhao, Xue; Tang, Yang; Zhang, Chuncai; Xu, Shuogui; Xie, Yang</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Posterior wall fractures are one of the most common acetabular fractures. However, only 30% of these fractures involve a single large fragment, and <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> acetabular posterior wall fractures pose a particular surgical challenge. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes between patients who received fixation for <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> posterior wall fracture using the Acetabular Tridimensional Memory Fixation System (ATMFS) and patients who underwent fixation with conventional screws and buttress plates (Plates group). Between April 2003 and May 2007, 196 consecutive patients who sustained a <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> posterior wall fracture of acetabulum were treated with ATMFS or conventional screws and buttress plates. Operative time, fluoroscopy time, blood loss, and any intra-operative complications were recorded. Plain AP and lateral radiographs were obtained at all visits (Matta's criteria). Modified Merle d' Aubigne-Postel score, and Mos SF-36 score were compared between groups. Fifty patients were included in the analysis with 26 in the ATMFS group and 24 in the Plates group. The mean follow-up time was 57.5 months, ranging from 31 to 69 months. All patients had fully healed fractures at the final follow-up. There was no difference in clinical outcomes or radiological evaluations between groups. Patients with <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> posterior wall fractures of the acetabulum treated with the ATMFS or conventional screws and buttress plate techniques achieve a good surgical result. Both techniques are safe, reliable, and practical. Use of the ATMFS technique may reduce blood loss and improve rigid support to marginal bone impaction. The use ATMFS may need additional support when fractures involve the superior roof. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/395376','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/395376"><span>Convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient model for spherical <span class="hlt">products</span> subject to hydrocooling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dincer, I.</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>An analytical model was developed to determine the convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients of spherical <span class="hlt">products</span> being cooled in any medium. In order to verify the present model, the experimental center temperature measurements of the individual spherical <span class="hlt">products</span> (i.e., plums, peaches, tomatoes, pears) were determined in batches containing 5 and 20 kg of <span class="hlt">product</span>. It was found that the convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient of an individual <span class="hlt">product</span> varied with the batch weight. This study shows that the present model is a simple and effective tool to determine such coefficients and could be a benefit to the refrigeration industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8810252','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8810252"><span>Achievement of thermal stability by varying metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in flying honeybees.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harrison, J F; Fewell, J H; Roberts, S P; Hall, H G</p> <p>1996-10-04</p> <p>Thermoregulation of the thorax allows endothermic insects to achieve power outputs during flight that are among the highest in the animal kingdom. Flying endothermic insects, including the honeybee Apis mellifera, are believed to thermoregulate almost exclusively by varying <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss. Here it is shown that a rise in air temperature from 20 degrees to 40 degrees C causes large decreases in metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and wing-beat frequency in honeybees during hovering, agitated, or loaded flight. Thus, variation in <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> may be the primary mechanism for achieving thermal stability in flying honeybees, and this mechanism may occur commonly in endothermic insects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20480852','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20480852"><span>The recycling of <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> glass-fiber-reinforced resin from electronic waste.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duan, Huabo; Jia, Weifeng; Li, Jinhui</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The reuse of <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> glass-fiber-reinforced resin with various granularities gathered from printed circuit manufacturing residues was investigated. As fillers, these residues were converted into polymeric composite board by an extrusion and injection process using polypropylene as a bonding agent. The mechanical properties of the reproduced composite board were examined by considering the effects of mass fraction and glass-fiber distribution. Interfacial-layer micrograph analysis of the composite material fracture surface was used to study the fiber reinforcement mechanism. Results showed that using <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> glass-fiber-reinforced resin as a filler material greatly enhanced the performance properties of the composite board. Although the length and diameter of filler varied, these variations had no appreciable effect on the mechanical properties of the processed board. Maximum values of 48.30 MPa for flexural strength, 31.34 MPa for tensile strength, and 31.34 J/m for impact strength were achieved from a composite board containing mass fractions of 30, 10, and 20% glass-fiber-reinforced resin waste, respectively. It was found that the maximum amount of recyclate that could be added to a composite board was 30% of weight. Beyond these percentages, the materials blend became unmanageable and the mixture less amenable to impregnation with fiber. Presented studies indicated that <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> glass-fiber-reinforced resin waste-filled polypropylene composites are promising candidates for structural applications where high stiffness and fracture resistance are required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5502148','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5502148"><span>The use of 3D-printed titanium mesh tray in treating complex <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> mandibular fractures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ma, Junli; Ma, Limin; Wang, Zhifa; Zhu, Xiongjie; Wang, Weijian</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Rationale: Precise bony reduction and reconstruction of optimal contour in treating <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> mandibular fractures is very difficult using traditional techniques and devices. The aim of this report is to introduce our experiences in using virtual surgery and three-dimensional (3D) printing technique in treating this clinical challenge. Patient concerns: A 26-year-old man presented with severe trauma in the maxillofacial area due to fall from height. Diagnosis: Computed tomography images revealed middle face fractures and <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> mandibular fracture including bilateral condyles. Interventions and outcomes: The computed tomography data was used to construct the 3D cranio-maxillofacial models; then the displaced bone fragments were virtually reduced. On the basis of the finalized model, a customized titanium mesh tray was designed and fabricated using selective laser melting technology. During the surgery, a submandibular approach was adopted to repair the mandibular fracture. The reduction and fixation were performed according to preoperative plan, the bone defects in the mental area were reconstructed with iliac bone graft. The 3D-printed mesh tray served as an intraoperative template and carrier of bone graft. The healing process was uneventful, and the patient was satisfied with the mandible contour. Lessons: Virtual surgical planning combined with 3D printing technology enables surgeon to visualize the reduction process preoperatively and guide intraoperative reduction, making the reduction less time consuming and more precise. 3D-printed titanium mesh tray can provide more satisfactory esthetic outcomes in treating complex <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> mandibular fractures. PMID:28682875</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9703068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9703068"><span>Indirect open reduction through intercartilaginous incision and intranasal Kirschner wire splinting of <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> nasal fractures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burm, J S; Oh, S J</p> <p>1998-08-01</p> <p>The majority of nasal fractures have been managed by using closed reduction and intranasal packing. In <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> nasal fractures, open reduction and internal fixation may be indicated for accurate reduction and rigid fixation, but it is a very aggressive procedure. We developed a new technique for <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> nasal fractures: indirect open reduction and intranasal Kirschner wire splinting. A periosteal elevator is used to elevate the mucoperiosteum posterior to the nasal bone through intercartilaginous incision and to reduce accurately the nasal bone, at the same time detecting the fracture lines. The Kirschner wire is used to insert between the nasal bone and the mucoperiosteum and to splint rigidly the nasal bone. During the follow-up period of 5 weeks to 4 months, 23 of 27 patients (85 percent) had successful cosmetic results. Four patients had slight cosmetic deformity but did not request a late rhinoplasty. Nineteen patients had accurate reduction on a computed tomography scan. Ten patients had undercorrection of the nasal septum on a computed tomography scan, and three patients had significant septal deviation with airway obstruction. Indirect open reduction through intercartilaginous incision and intranasal Kirschner wire splinting is a reliable and useful method for the treatment of <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> nasal fractures because it achieves accurate reduction and rigid, long intranasal support, can be done comfortably under local anesthesia, permits early nasal breathing postoperatively, has no external scar, and minimizes complications such as nasal bleeding, soft-tissue injury, infection, and recurrent displacement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..900..364O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..900..364O"><span>A Passive Technique to Identify Stone <span class="hlt">Comminution</span> During Shock Wave Lithotripsy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Owen, Neil R.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Trusov, Leonid; Crum, Lawrence A.</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>The identification of <span class="hlt">comminution</span> during shock wave lithotripsy can be difficult using fluoroscopy or other imaging modalities. However, correct interpretation is necessary to determine if a stone is breaking and to evaluate the endpoint of therapy. Reported here is a passive method to detect acoustic signals generated by shock wave (SW) impact on a model stone and to correlate the spectrum of the detected signals to stone size. Acoustic scatter from model stones in an electrohydraulic lithotripter was measured in water with a passive, focused receiver before and after the application of either 20 SWs or 50 SWs. The five stones used for each case were dehydrated after the experiment, separated with 3 mm, 2 mm, and 1 mm sequential sieves, and weighed to quantify <span class="hlt">comminution</span>. The detection method was first successfully used to differentiate broken and unbroken stones. Then the system tracked the decreasing size of particles and clearly showed the presence of particles smaller than 2 mm, which was considered passable size. Thus, the detection system gives feedback on whether stones are breaking and when they may be considered fully <span class="hlt">comminuted</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25328479','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25328479"><span>A pediatric <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> talar fracture treated by minimal K-wire fixation without using a tourniquet.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Inal, Sermet; Inal, Canan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Pediatric <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> talar fractures are reported to be rare, and treatment options such as minimal internal K-wire fixation without using a tourniquet to prevent avascular necrosis have not previously been investigated. We report a case of a <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> talar body and a non-displaced neck fracture with dislocation of the tibiotalar, talonavicular and subtalar joints with bimalleolar epiphyseal fractures in an 11-year-old boy due to a fall from height. We present radiological findings, the surgical procedure and clinical outcomes of minimal internal K-wire fixation without using a tourniquet. Avascular necrosis rates are reported to be between 0 % and 66 % after fractures of the neck of the talus and the talar body in children. The likelihood of developing avascular necrosis increases with the severity of the fracture. To avoid avascular necrosis in a <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> talar fracture accompanied by tibiotalar, talonavicular, subtalar dislocations and bimalleolar epiphyseal fractures, a minimal internal K-wire fixation without the use of a tourniquet was performed. The outcome was evaluated by the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score (AOFAS). A score of 90 (excellent) was found at the end of the second year of follow up. Radiology revealed preservation of the joint with no evidence of avascular necrosis, and clinical findings revealed a favorable functional outcome after two years. 4.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26507577','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26507577"><span>Highly <span class="hlt">Comminuted</span>, Articular Fractures of the Distal Antebrachium Managed by Pancarpal Arthrodesis in 8 Dogs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, Gordon; Kalff, Stephen; Gemmill, Toby J; Pink, Jonathan; Oxley, Bill; McKee, W Malcolm; Clarke, Stephen P</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>To describe the surgical management by pancarpal arthrodesis for highly <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> articular fractures of the distal antebrachium in 8 dogs. Retrospective clinical case series. Eight dogs. Medical records (2001-2014) of dogs with antebrachial fractures were reviewed and dogs with highly <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> distal antebrachial fractures were identified. The nature of the injury, surgical management by pancarpal arthrodesis, outcome, and complications were recorded. Nine fractures occurred in 8 dogs. Seven dogs were ex-racing greyhounds (8 fractures) and of these, 6/7 dogs had fractures of the right thoracic limb. Compared with the hospital population of dogs with antebrachial fractures, greyhounds were over-represented for the antebrachial injury (odds ratio 117, 95% confidence interval 13-1022). Five dogs sustained injury during exertional exercise or with relatively minor trauma. Submitted bone samples (n = 4) showed no evidence of underlying neoplasia. Mean followup was 15.5 months with 11 complications recorded in 7/8 dogs, including 1 catastrophic, 5 major, and 5 minor complications. Pancarpal arthrodesis allowed a full functional outcome in 3 dogs and an acceptable outcome in 3. <span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> articular fractures of the distal radius and ulna are complex injuries and have a similar presentation to pathologic fractures. Surgical management by pancarpal arthrodesis is associated with a high risk of complication and a guarded prognosis for a full functional outcome. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28477223','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28477223"><span>Differences in response to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress due to <span class="hlt">production</span> level and breed of dairy cows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gantner, Vesna; Bobic, Tina; Gantner, Ranko; Gregic, Maja; Kuterovac, Kresimir; Novakovic, Jurica; Potocnik, Klemen</p> <p>2017-05-06</p> <p>The climatic conditions in Croatia are deteriorating which significantly increases the frequency of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. This creates a need for an adequate dairy farming strategy. The impact of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress can be reduced in many ways, but the best long-term solution includes the genetic evaluation and selection for <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress resistance. In order to create the basis for genetic evaluation, this research determined the variation in daily milk yield (DMY) and somatic cell count (SCC) as well as the differences in resistance to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress due to <span class="hlt">production</span> level (high, low) and breed (Holstein, Simmental) of dairy cattle breed in Croatia. For statistical analysis, 1,070,554 test-day records from 70,135 Holsteins reared on 5679 farms and 1,300,683 test-day records from 86,013 Simmentals reared on 8827 farms in Croatia provided by the Croatian Agricultural Agency were used. The results of this research indicate that the high-producing cows are much more susceptible to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress than low-producing especially Holsteins. Also, the results of this research indicate that Simmental breed, in terms of daily milk <span class="hlt">production</span> and somatic cell count, could be more resistant to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress than Holstein. The following research should determine whether Simmentals are genetically more appropriate for the challenges that are in store for the future milk <span class="hlt">production</span> in this region. Furthermore, could an adequate <span class="hlt">production</span> level be achieved with Simmentals by maintaining the <span class="hlt">heat</span> resistance?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH23B1871C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH23B1871C"><span>The socio economic impact of <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves in labor <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in the agricultural sector in California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Castillo, F.; Wehner, M. F.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Scientific evidence points to an increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme events related to climate change. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> waves is one such event and it impacts both the urban and rural areas of high and low income countries. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> waves have an important impact on agricultural labor which takes place mostly outdoors. In this study we use weather data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) and the California Department of Agriculture to analyze the impact of <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves on labor <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in the agricultural sector in California. In particular, we analyze 12 counties from the Central and Imperial Valleys and the 10 most important crops (value wise) in each county. Using temperature and relative humidity we develop a <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Index (HI), a measure of relative human discomfort to <span class="hlt">heat</span>. We use the HI as a variable in a <span class="hlt">production</span> function analysis to determine how <span class="hlt">heat</span> extremes impact agricultural <span class="hlt">productivity</span> via the labor factor of <span class="hlt">production</span>. By including crop labor requirements we are able to identify impacts of the HI to specific crops. This analysis allows for a design and implementation of adaptive measures to the future impact of <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves in the agricultural sector in California and, with modifications, elsewhere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJBm..tmp...60G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJBm..tmp...60G"><span>Differences in response to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress due to <span class="hlt">production</span> level and breed of dairy cows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gantner, Vesna; Bobic, Tina; Gantner, Ranko; Gregic, Maja; Kuterovac, Kresimir; Novakovic, Jurica; Potocnik, Klemen</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>The climatic conditions in Croatia are deteriorating which significantly increases the frequency of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. This creates a need for an adequate dairy farming strategy. The impact of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress can be reduced in many ways, but the best long-term solution includes the genetic evaluation and selection for <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress resistance. In order to create the basis for genetic evaluation, this research determined the variation in daily milk yield (DMY) and somatic cell count (SCC) as well as the differences in resistance to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress due to <span class="hlt">production</span> level (high, low) and breed (Holstein, Simmental) of dairy cattle breed in Croatia. For statistical analysis, 1,070,554 test-day records from 70,135 Holsteins reared on 5679 farms and 1,300,683 test-day records from 86,013 Simmentals reared on 8827 farms in Croatia provided by the Croatian Agricultural Agency were used. The results of this research indicate that the high-producing cows are much more susceptible to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress than low-producing especially Holsteins. Also, the results of this research indicate that Simmental breed, in terms of daily milk <span class="hlt">production</span> and somatic cell count, could be more resistant to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress than Holstein. The following research should determine whether Simmentals are genetically more appropriate for the challenges that are in store for the future milk <span class="hlt">production</span> in this region. Furthermore, could an adequate <span class="hlt">production</span> level be achieved with Simmentals by maintaining the <span class="hlt">heat</span> resistance?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...635568A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...635568A"><span>Correlations in quantum thermodynamics: <span class="hlt">Heat</span>, work, and entropy <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alipour, S.; Benatti, F.; Bakhshinezhad, F.; Afsary, M.; Marcantoni, S.; Rezakhani, A. T.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We provide a characterization of energy in the form of exchanged <span class="hlt">heat</span> and work between two interacting constituents of a closed, bipartite, correlated quantum system. By defining a binding energy we derive a consistent quantum formulation of the first law of thermodynamics, in which the role of correlations becomes evident, and this formulation reduces to the standard classical picture in relevant systems. We next discuss the emergence of the second law of thermodynamics under certain—but fairly general—conditions such as the Markovian assumption. We illustrate the role of correlations and interactions in thermodynamics through two examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27767124','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27767124"><span>Correlations in quantum thermodynamics: <span class="hlt">Heat</span>, work, and entropy <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alipour, S; Benatti, F; Bakhshinezhad, F; Afsary, M; Marcantoni, S; Rezakhani, A T</p> <p>2016-10-21</p> <p>We provide a characterization of energy in the form of exchanged <span class="hlt">heat</span> and work between two interacting constituents of a closed, bipartite, correlated quantum system. By defining a binding energy we derive a consistent quantum formulation of the first law of thermodynamics, in which the role of correlations becomes evident, and this formulation reduces to the standard classical picture in relevant systems. We next discuss the emergence of the second law of thermodynamics under certain-but fairly general-conditions such as the Markovian assumption. We illustrate the role of correlations and interactions in thermodynamics through two examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5073246','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5073246"><span>Correlations in quantum thermodynamics: <span class="hlt">Heat</span>, work, and entropy <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Alipour, S.; Benatti, F.; Bakhshinezhad, F.; Afsary, M.; Marcantoni, S.; Rezakhani, A. T.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We provide a characterization of energy in the form of exchanged <span class="hlt">heat</span> and work between two interacting constituents of a closed, bipartite, correlated quantum system. By defining a binding energy we derive a consistent quantum formulation of the first law of thermodynamics, in which the role of correlations becomes evident, and this formulation reduces to the standard classical picture in relevant systems. We next discuss the emergence of the second law of thermodynamics under certain—but fairly general—conditions such as the Markovian assumption. We illustrate the role of correlations and interactions in thermodynamics through two examples. PMID:27767124</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26133477','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26133477"><span>Biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> process from microalgae oil by waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> recovery and process integration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Song, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanyi; Ji, Na; Liu, Qingling; Kansha, Yasuki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In this work, the optimization of microalgae oil (MO) based biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> process is carried out by waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> recovery and process integration. The exergy analysis of each <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger presented an efficient <span class="hlt">heat</span> coupling between hot and cold streams, thus minimizing the total exergy destruction. Simulation results showed that the unit <span class="hlt">production</span> cost of optimized process is 0.592$/L biodiesel, and approximately 0.172$/L biodiesel can be avoided by <span class="hlt">heat</span> integration. Although the capital cost of the optimized biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> process increased 32.5% and 23.5% compared to the reference cases, the operational cost can be reduced by approximately 22.5% and 41.6%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22558920','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22558920"><span>Adaptation to hot climate and strategies to alleviate <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress in livestock <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Renaudeau, D; Collin, A; Yahav, S; de Basilio, V; Gourdine, J L; Collier, R J</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Despite many challenges faced by animal producers, including environmental problems, diseases, economic pressure, and feed availability, it is still predicted that animal <span class="hlt">production</span> in developing countries will continue to sustain the future growth of the world's meat <span class="hlt">production</span>. In these areas, livestock performance is generally lower than those obtained in Western Europe and North America. Although many factors can be involved, climatic factors are among the first and crucial limiting factors of the development of animal <span class="hlt">production</span> in warm regions. In addition, global warming will further accentuate <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress-related problems. The objective of this paper was to review the effective strategies to alleviate <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress in the context of tropical livestock <span class="hlt">production</span> systems. These strategies can be classified into three groups: those increasing feed intake or decreasing metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, those enhancing <span class="hlt">heat</span>-loss capacities, and those involving genetic selection for <span class="hlt">heat</span> tolerance. Under <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress, improved <span class="hlt">production</span> should be possible through modifications of diet composition that either promotes a higher intake or compensates the low feed consumption. In addition, altering feeding management such as a change in feeding time and/or frequency, are efficient tools to avoid excessive <span class="hlt">heat</span> load and improve survival rate, especially in poultry. Methods to enhance <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange between the environment and the animal and those changing the environment to prevent or limit <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress can be used to improve performance under hot climatic conditions. Although differences in thermal tolerance exist between livestock species (ruminants > monogastrics), there are also large differences between breeds of a species and within each breed. Consequently, the opportunity may exist to improve thermal tolerance of the animals using genetic tools. However, further research is required to quantify the genetic antagonism between adaptation and <span class="hlt">production</span> traits to evaluate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10769161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10769161"><span>Contrasting Metamorphic Record of <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> Anomalies in the Penokean Orogen of Northern Michigan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Attoh</p> <p>2000-05-01</p> <p>It is proposed that the contrasting metamorphic mineral assemblages of the isolated amphibolite facies metamorphic highs in the Penokean orogen of northern Michigan may be caused by different <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rates in the Archean basement. This hypothesis is based on concentrations of K, U, and Th in the Archean basement gneisses and Paleoproterozoic metasediments that indicate significant contribution of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heating</span> during Penokean metamorphism. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was anomalously high ( approximately 10.6 µWm-3) where andalusite-bearing mineral assemblages indicate that high temperatures were attained at shallow crustal levels ( approximately 550 degrees -600 degrees C at approximately 3 kbar). In contrast, where exposed metamorphic rocks indicate peak temperatures of 600 degrees -650 degrees C at 6-7 kbar, <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in the Archean basement was lower ( approximately 3.7 µWm-3). The effect of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rates on the metamorphic pressure-temperature paths was tested with numerical thermal models. The calculations show (1) that if the <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rate, where andalusite-bearing assemblages formed, was significantly <6.0 µWm-3, the estimated pressure at peak temperatures (PTmax) would be much higher and lie in the sillimanite or kyanite stability fields; and (2) differences between PTmax estimates for the metamorphic highs based on thermobarometry can be reproduced if thermal history involved significant crustal thickening as well as moderate unroofing rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......263S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......263S"><span>Study of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and transfer in shredded tires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sellassie, Kassahun G.</p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this study is to determine the cause(s) of initial exothermic reactions in shredded tire. The primary hypothesis was that the oxidation of exposed steel wires, the oxidation of rubber, or sulfur causes the exothermic reactions in shredded tire. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer properties of the shredded tires by using a hot-plate apparatus. The experiments were conducted by varying the physical and environmental conditions as follows: (1) Tire size, (2) Wire content, (3) Water content, (4) Effective stress, (5) Air supply, (6) pH, (7) Humic Acid. First, laboratory testing was conducted to determine the effects of tire size on the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer properties of shredded tires. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> coefficient and diffusivity ranged from 3.0 to 3.5 W/m-K and 0.0002 to 0.00084 m 2/hour, respectively. Next, experiments were conducted to determine the effects of wire content on the exothermic reaction rate of tire shreds. When various amounts of wire (i.e., 5% to 15%) were exposed, the reaction rate increased, 2800 Btu for every lb of iron that is oxidized. In comparison, tire shreds with no wire were also tested under the same experimental conditions as above, however, no exothermic reaction occurred. These tests (i.e., with no wire) illustrate that carbon black in rubber molecule considers not oxidize. It was postulated that the reaction between iron in the wire and sulfur in the tire may be a potential cause of the exothermic reaction under low oxygen conditions. Experiments without air supply yielded no exothermic reaction. Thus, sulfur did not cause exotherm, because it is at low energy level and immobilized in the vulcanization process. In addition, experiments were conducted as the air supply was varied from 0 to 4 psi. With air pressure of less than 4-psi, no reaction occurred until 4-psi air was provided for the experiment. In conclusion, the design of an embankment with tire shreds should include shredded tires of bigger size</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6465909','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6465909"><span>System for vaporizing carbon dioxide utilizing the <span class="hlt">heat</span> by-<span class="hlt">product</span> of the refrigeration system as a <span class="hlt">heat</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shaw, H.L.</p> <p>1980-12-23</p> <p>The present invention is directed to a carbonation and refrigeration system wherein the <span class="hlt">heat</span> of the refrigerant output side of the refrigeration compressor is utilized to vaporize liquid carbon dioxide into CO/sub 2/ gas which is introduced into a liquid <span class="hlt">product</span>. The carbonation and refrigeration system successfully utilizes the <span class="hlt">heat</span> of the refrigerant to vaporize the CO/sub 2/ liquid regardless of the cooling demand of the system caused by seasonal temperature variations. For example during the winter months when the cooling demand is as low as 10% of the cooling demand in the summer, the carbonation and refrigeration system operates effectively to vaporize the CO/sub 2/ liquid by means of a <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger and a desuperheater which are connected in communication with the superheated vapor emerging from the output side of a refrigeration compressor. In addition, the carbonation and refrigeration system of the present invention cools more efficiently by extracting some of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the condensed refrigerant entering the receiver of the refrigeration system. In this manner, the refrigeration compressor can operate more efficiently.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21528726','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21528726"><span>Optimization of Salmonella enteritidis recombinant <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock protein 60 <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rainczak, K; Bajzert, J; Galli, J; Selera, A; Wieliczko, A; Borkowski, J; Stefaniak, T</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to optimize conditions for producing Salmonella Enteritidis recombinant <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock protein 60 (rHsp60). Seven Escherichia coli host strains (Rosetta, Turner, C41, C43, Origami, BL21pLys, Rosetta pLys) were transformed by a recombinant plasmid containing Hsp60 gene from Salmonella Enteritidis, and then cultured and induced by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The highest S. Enteritidis rHsp60 yield was obtained using E. coli strain C41. Induction of this strain using IPTG allowed the yield 400 microg of S. Enteritidis Hsp60 protein/2L of culture, but by autoinduction the yield exceeded 800 microg/2L.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040200970','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040200970"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> During Countermeasure Exercises Planned for the International Space Station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rapley, Michael G.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Guilliams, Mark E.; Greenisen, Michael C.; Schneider, Suzanne M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This investigation's purpose was to determine the amount of <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced when performing aerobic and resistance exercises planned as part of the exercise countermeasures prescription for the ISS. These data will be used to determine thermal control requirements of the Node 1 and other modules where exercise hardware might reside. To determine <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during resistive exercise, 6 subjects using the iRED performed 5 resistance exercises which form the core exercises of the current ISS resistive exercise countermeasures. Each exerciser performed a warm-up set at 50% effort, then 3 sets of increasing resistance. We measured oxygen consumption and work during each exercise. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss was calculated as the difference between the gross energy expenditure (minus resting metabolism) and the work performed. To determine <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during aerobic exercise, 14 subjects performed an interval, cycle exercise protocol and 7 subjects performed a continuous, treadmill protocol. Each 30-min. exercise is similar to exercises planned for ISS. Oxygen consumption monitored continuously during the exercises was used to calculate the gross energy expenditure. For cycle exercise, work performed was calculated based on the ergometer's resistance setting and pedaling frequency. For treadmill, total work was estimated by assuming 25% work efficiency and subtracting the calculated <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and resting metabolic rate from the gross energy expenditure. This <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> needs to be considered when determining the location of exercise hardware on ISS and designing environmental control systems. These values reflect only the human subject s produced <span class="hlt">heat</span>; <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced by the exercise hardware also will contribute to the <span class="hlt">heat</span> load.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=314693','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=314693"><span>Genetic interactions for <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress and <span class="hlt">production</span> level: predicting foreign from domestic data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Genetic by environmental interactions were estimated from U.S. national data by separately adding random regressions for <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress (HS) and herd <span class="hlt">production</span> level (HL) to the all-breed animal model to improve predictions of future records and rankings in other climate and <span class="hlt">production</span> situations. Yie...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4977177','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4977177"><span>Effects of dairy <span class="hlt">products</span> on intestinal integrity in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed pigs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sanz Fernandez, M Victoria; Pearce, Sarah C; Mani, Venkatesh; Gabler, Nicholas K; Metzger, Lloyd; Patience, John F; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> stress compromises intestinal integrity which may partially explain its negative effects on animal health and <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. Research suggests that challenged intestinal barrier function improves with dietary dairy <span class="hlt">products</span> in various models. Thus, the study objective was to evaluate the effects of bovine milk whey protein (WP) and colostral whey protein (CWP) on intestinal integrity in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed pigs. Crossbred gilts (39 ± 3 kg body weight) were fed 1 of 4 diets (n = 8 pigs/diet): control (Ct), control diet containing an 80% WP and 20% CWP <span class="hlt">product</span> (WP80), control diet containing a 98% WP and 2% CWP <span class="hlt">product</span> (WP98), and control diet containing a 100% WP <span class="hlt">product</span> (WP100). After 7d on experimental diets, pigs were exposed to constant <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress conditions (32 °C) for 24h. There were no treatment differences in growth or body temperature indices prior to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. During <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure, both rectal temperature and respiration rate increased (+0.85 °C and 3-fold, respectively; P < 0.01), and feed intake and body weight decreased (44% and -0.5kg, respectively; P < 0.01), but neither variable was affected by dietary treatments. Plasma L-lactate and D-lactate concentrations increased (36%; P < 0.01) and tended to increase (19%; P = 0.09) with <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. After 24h of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure, WP100-fed pigs had lower plasma D-lactate relative to Ct-fed pigs. Ileal transepithelial electrical resistance was decreased (37%; P = 0.02) in WP80 pigs, compared with controls. No differences were detected in other intestinal integrity ex vivo measurements. These data demonstrate that dietary WP and CWP did not mitigate intestinal integrity dysfunction during severe <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. PMID:27583294</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27503713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27503713"><span>Mitigation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress-related complications by a yeast fermentate <span class="hlt">product</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Giblot Ducray, Henri Alexandre; Globa, Ludmila; Pustovyy, Oleg; Reeves, Stuart; Robinson, Larry; Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Sorokulova, Iryna</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> stress results in a multitude of biological and physiological responses which can become lethal if not properly managed. It has been shown that <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress causes significant adverse effects in both human and animals. Different approaches have been proposed to mitigate the adverse effects caused by <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress, among which are special diet and probiotics. We characterized the effect of the yeast fermentate EpiCor (EH) on the prevention of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress-related complications in rats. We found that increasing the body temperature of animals from 37.1±0.2 to 40.6±0.2°C by exposure to <span class="hlt">heat</span> (45°C for 25min) resulted in significant morphological changes in the intestine. Villi height and total mucosal thickness decreased in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed rats pre-treated with PBS in comparison with control animals not exposed to the <span class="hlt">heat</span>. Oral treatment of rats with EH before <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress prevented the traumatic effects of <span class="hlt">heat</span> on the intestine. Changes in intestinal morphology of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed rats, pre-treated with PBS resulted in significant elevation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) level in the serum of these animals. Pre-treatment with EH was effective in the prevention of LPS release into the bloodstream of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed rats. Our study revealed that elevation of body temperature also resulted in a significant increase of the concentration of vesicles released by erythrocytes in rats, pre-treated with PBS. This is an indication of a pathological impact of <span class="hlt">heat</span> on the erythrocyte structure. Treatment of rats with EH completely protected their erythrocytes from this <span class="hlt">heat</span>-induced pathology. Finally, exposure to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress conditions resulted in a significant increase of white blood cells in rats. In the group of animals pre-treated with EH before <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress, the white blood cell count remained the same as in non-<span class="hlt">heated</span> controls. These results showed the protective effect of the EH <span class="hlt">product</span> in the prevention of complications, caused by <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28675841','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28675841"><span>Comparison of microwave and conduction-convection <span class="hlt">heating</span> autohydrolysis pretreatment for bioethanol <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aguilar-Reynosa, Alejandra; Romaní, Aloia; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Garrote, Gil; Ruiz, Héctor A</p> <p>2017-06-20</p> <p>This work describes the application of two forms of <span class="hlt">heating</span> for autohydrolysis pretreatment on isothermal regimen: conduction-convection <span class="hlt">heating</span> and microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> processing using corn stover as raw material for bioethanol <span class="hlt">production</span>. Pretreatments were performed using different operational conditions: residence time (10-50 min) and temperature (160-200°C) for both pretreatments. Subsequently, the susceptibility of pretreated solids was studied using low enzyme loads, and high substrate loads. The highest conversion was 95.1% for microwave pretreated solids. Also solids pretreated by microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> processing showed better ethanol conversion in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (92% corresponding to 33.8g/L). Therefore, microwave <span class="hlt">heating</span> processing is a promising technology in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1180158','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1180158"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in chemically skinned smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia coli.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lönnbro, P; Hellstrand, P</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>1. The rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of chemically skinned guinea-pig taenia coli smooth muscle at 25 degrees C was measured using microcalorimetric techniques. 2. Muscle strips were mounted isometrically and incubated in solutions containing MgATP (3.2 mM) and phosphocreatine (PCr, 12 mM), pH 6.9. Activation was obtained by the injection of Ca2+ into the sample compartment of the calorimeter. 3. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rate of the resting preparation (pCa 9) was 0.40 +/- 0.03 mW g-1 wet weight (n = 23). During maximal activation (pCa 4.8) the <span class="hlt">heat</span> rate increased to 1.12 +/- 0.07 mW g-1 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 15). With stepwise increase in [Ca2+] from pCa 9 to 4.8 the energetic cost of force maintenance tended to increase at higher [Ca2+]. 4. After activation by Ca2+, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rate reached its maximum while force was still increasing. 5. Changing ionic strength from 90 to 150 mM had no effect on either basal or activated <span class="hlt">heat</span> rate. Oligomycin, amphotericin B and the adenylate kinase inhibitor Ap5A had no effect on the basal <span class="hlt">heat</span> rate. 6. Exchanging ATP in the incubation medium for inosine triphosphate (ITP) reduced the force and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> after injection of Ca2+. The basal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was not lowered when ATP was exchanged for ITP. 7. The observed enthalpy change for PCr splitting at 25 degrees C (pH 6.9, ionic strength 90 mM) was -28 +/- 3 kJ mol-1 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 9). After correction for the phosphate equilibrium, buffer reactions, and Mg2+ binding to PCr and HPO42-, the net enthalpy change is calculated to be -39 +/- 3 kJ mol-1. 8. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in the skinned smooth muscle consists of one basal component present in relaxed muscle, and one component associated with contraction. The nature of the basal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> is unclear but does not seem to involve turnover of phosphate on the myosin light chains. The increase in the energetic tension cost with increasing activation by Ca2+ has implications for the understanding of the contractile</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JThSc..15..159H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JThSc..15..159H"><span>Local entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> in turbulent shear flows: A tool for evaluating <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herwig, H.; Kock, F.</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>Performance evaluation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer devices can be based on the overall entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> in these devices. In our study we therefore provide equations for the systematic and detailed determination of local entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> due to dissipation of mechanical energy and due to <span class="hlt">heat</span> conduction, both in turbulent flows. After turbulence modeling has been incorporated for the fluctuating parts the overall entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> can be determined by integration with respect to the whole flow domain. Since, however, entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> rates show very steep gradients close to the wall, numerical solutions are far more effective with wall functions for the entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> terms. These wall functions are mandatory when high Reynolds number turbulence models are used. For turbulent flow in a pipe with an inserted twisted tape as <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer promoter it is shown that based on the overall entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> rate a clear statement from a thermodynamic point of view is possible. For a certain range of twist strength there is a decrease in overall entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> compared to the case without insert. Also, the optimum twist strength can be determined. This information is unavailable when only pressure drop and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer data are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/926354','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/926354"><span>Theoretical Design of a Thermosyphon for Efficient Process <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Removal from Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) for <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Hydrogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Piyush Sabharwall; Fred Gunnerson; Akira Tokuhiro; Vivek Utgiker; Kevan Weaver; Steven Sherman</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase Thermosyphon <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer performance with various alkali metals. Thermosyphon is a device for transporting <span class="hlt">heat</span> from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> transport occurs via evaporation and condensation, and the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transport fluid is re-circulated by gravitational force. With this mode of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport <span class="hlt">heat</span> at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. For process <span class="hlt">heat</span>, intermediate <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers (IHX) are required to transfer <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant in the most efficient way possible. The <span class="hlt">production</span> of power at higher efficiency using Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> requires both <span class="hlt">heat</span> at higher temperatures (up to 1000oC) and high effectiveness compact <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers to transfer <span class="hlt">heat</span> to either the power or process cycle. The purpose for selecting a compact <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger is to maximize the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer surface area per volume of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger size and <span class="hlt">heat</span> losses. The IHX design requirements are governed by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet of the NGNP (900oC, based on the current capabilities of NGNP), and the temperatures in the hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> plant. Spiral <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Exchangers (SHE’s) have superior <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer characteristics, and are less susceptible to fouling. Further, <span class="hlt">heat</span> losses to surroundings are minimized because of its compact configuration. SHEs have never been examined for phase-change <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer applications. The research presented provides useful information for thermosyphon design and Spiral <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Exchanger.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/415177','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/415177"><span>Subtask 12D1: Impact properties of <span class="hlt">production</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> of V-4Cr-4Ti</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.; Smith, D.L.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>Following previous reports of excellent properties of a laboratory <span class="hlt">heat</span> of V-4Cr-4Ti, the alloy identified as the primary vanadium-based candidate for application as fusion reactor structural components, a large <span class="hlt">production</span>-scale (500-kg) <span class="hlt">heat</span> of the alloy was fabricated successfully. Since impact toughness has been known to be most sensitive to alloy composition and microstructure, impact testing of the <span class="hlt">production</span>-scale <span class="hlt">heat</span> was conducted in this work between -200{degrees}C and +200{degrees}C. A 500-kg <span class="hlt">heat</span> of V-4Cr-4Ti, an alloy identified previously as the primary vanadium-based candidate alloy for application as fusion reactor structural components, has been produced successfully. Impact tests were conducted at -196{degrees}C to 150{degrees}C on 1/3-size Charpy specimens of the scale-up <span class="hlt">heat</span> in as-rolled condition and after annealing for 1 h at 950, 1000, and 1050{degrees}C in high-quality vacuum. The annealed material remained ductile at all test temperatures; the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was lower than -200{degrees}C. The upper-shelf energy of the <span class="hlt">production</span>-scale <span class="hlt">heat</span> was similar to that of the laboratory-scale ({approx}30-kg) <span class="hlt">heat</span> of V-4Cr-4Ti investigated previously. Effect of annealing temperature was not significant; however, annealing at 1000{degrees}C for 1 h not only produces best impact properties but also ensures a sufficient tolerance to effect of temperature inhomogeneity expected when annealing large components. Effect of notch geometry was also investigated on the <span class="hlt">production</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span>. When annealed properly (e.g., at 1000{degrees}C for 1 h), impact properties were not sensitive to notch geometry (45{degrees}-notch, root radius 0.25 mm; and 300-notch, root radius 0.08 mm). 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25098878','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25098878"><span>Vacuum evaporation treatment of digestate: full exploitation of cogeneration <span class="hlt">heat</span> to process the whole digestate <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guercini, S; Castelli, G; Rumor, C</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Vacuum evaporation represents an interesting and innovative solution for managing animal waste surpluses in areas with high livestock density. To reduce operational costs, a key factor is the availability of an inexpensive source of <span class="hlt">heat</span>, such as that coming from an anaerobic digestion (AD) plant. The aim of this study was to test vacuum evaporation for the treatment of cattle slurry digestate focusing on <span class="hlt">heat</span> exploitation. Tests were performed with a pilot plant fed with the digestate from a full-scale AD plant. The results were used to evaluate if and how cogeneration <span class="hlt">heat</span> can support both the AD plant and the subsequent evaporation of the whole daily digestate <span class="hlt">production</span> in a full-scale plant. The concentrate obtained (12% total solids) represents 40-50% of the influent. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> requirement is 0.44 kWh/kg condensate. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> power availability exceeding the needs of the digestor ranges from 325 (in winter) to 585 kW (in summer) versus the 382 kW required for processing the whole digestate <span class="hlt">production</span>. To by-pass fluctuations, we propose to use the <span class="hlt">heat</span> coming from the cogenerator directly in the evaporator, tempering the digestor with the latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> of distillation vapor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6045810','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6045810"><span>Greenhouse soil <span class="hlt">heating</span> for improved <span class="hlt">production</span> and energy conservation. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roller, W.L.; Elwell, D.L.</p> <p>1981-09-01</p> <p>A three-year study of the beneficial use of simulated power plant reject <span class="hlt">heat</span> for soil <span class="hlt">heating</span> in greenhouses is described. The effect of 25, 30, 35, and 40/sup 0/C warm water on the temperature of and moisture distribution in three diverse, greenhouse soils was studied, and the growth response of variety HR-5 lettuce in this environment was determined. Detailed information on soil temperature and moisture distribution, <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer rates, and lettuce <span class="hlt">production</span> yield under various operating conditions was obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9333C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9333C"><span>Climate change projections of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress in Europe: From meteorological variables to impacts on <span class="hlt">productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Casanueva, Ana; Kotlarski, Sven; Liniger, Mark A.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Future climate change is likely to have important impacts in many socio-economic sectors. In particular, higher summer temperatures or more prolonged <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves may be responsible for health problems and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> losses related to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress, especially affecting people exposed to such situations (e.g. working under outside settings or in non-acclimatized workplaces). <span class="hlt">Heat</span> stress on the body under work load and consequently their <span class="hlt">productivity</span> loss can be described through <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress indices that are based on multiple meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, wind and radiation. Exploring the changes of these variables under a warmer climate is of prime importance for the Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability communities. In particular, the H2020 project <span class="hlt">HEAT</span>-SHIELD aims at analyzing the impact of climate change on <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress in strategic industries in Europe (manufacturing, construction, transportation, tourism and agriculture) within an inter-sectoral framework (climate scientists, biometeorologists, physiologists and stakeholders). In the present work we explore present and future <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress over Europe using an ensemble of the state-of-the-art RCMs from the EURO-CORDEX initiative. Since RCMs cannot be directly used in impact studies due to their partly substantial biases, a standard bias correction method (empirical quantile mapping) is applied to correct the individual variables that are then used to derive <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress indices. The objectives of this study are twofold, 1) to test the ability of the separately bias corrected variables to reproduce the main characteristics of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress indices in present climate conditions and 2) to explore climate change projections of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress indices. We use the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) as primary <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress index, considering two different versions for indoor (or in the shade, based on temperature and humidity conditions) and outdoor settings (including also wind and radiation). The WBGT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1351719','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1351719"><span>On the increase in rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> caused by stretch in frog's skeletal muscle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Clinch, N. F.</p> <p>1968-01-01</p> <p>1. The increase in rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> caused by stretch in the unstimulated frog's sartorius (stretch response) has been measured using a conventional thermopile technique. 2. The rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was found constant between l0 (the distance in vivo between the tendons when the legs were in a straight line) and 1·2 l0, and rose rapidly above this length to reach 3-5 times the basal rate at 1·3 l0. Stretching to greater lengths appeared to damage the muscles. 3. The stretch response is increased by several substances which increase the duration of the active state. 4. Unlike the rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> at l0, the stretch response is increased by procaine; while the presence of CO2 greatly reduces it. 5. Evidence is presented supporting the hypothesis that the stretch response is associated with the appearance of tension in the sarcolemma. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:5652883</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/974750','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/974750"><span>An evaluation of alternate <span class="hlt">production</span> methods for Pu-238 general purpose <span class="hlt">heat</span> source pellets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mark Borland; Steve Frank</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the <span class="hlt">production</span> of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the <span class="hlt">production</span> of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS <span class="hlt">product</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LatJP..49....3K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LatJP..49....3K"><span>Analysis of Competitiveness and Support Instruments for <span class="hlt">Heat</span> and Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span> from Wood Biomass in Latvia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klavs, G.; Kudrenickis, I.; Kundzina, A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Utilisation of renewable energy sources is one of the key factors in a search for efficient ways of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving the energy supply security. So far, the district <span class="hlt">heating</span> supply in Latvia has been based on natural gas, with the wood fuel playing a minor role; the same is true for decentralised combined <span class="hlt">heat</span>-power (CHP) <span class="hlt">production</span>. The paper describes a method for evaluation of the economic feasibility of <span class="hlt">heat</span> and electricity <span class="hlt">production</span> from wood biomass under the competition between different fuel types and taking into account the electricity market. For the simulation, a cost estimation model is applied. The results demonstrate that wood biomass can successfully be utilised for competitive <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by boiler houses, while for electricity <span class="hlt">production</span> by CHP utilities it cannot compete on the market (even despite the low prices on wood biomass fuel) unless particular financial support instruments are applied. The authors evaluate the necessary support level and the impact of two main support instruments - the investment subsidies and the feed-in tariff - on the economic viability of wood-fuelled CHP plants, and show that the feed-in tariff could be considered as an instrument strongly affecting the competitiveness of such type CHP. Regarding the feed-in tariff determination, a compromise should be found between the economy-dictated requirement to develop CHP projects concerning capacities above 5 MWel - on the one hand, and the relatively small <span class="hlt">heat</span> loads in many Latvian towns - on the other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24833618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24833618"><span>Using forecast and observed weather data to assess performance of forecast <span class="hlt">products</span> in identifying <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves and estimating <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave effects on mortality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Kai; Chen, Yeh-Hsin; Schwartz, Joel D; Rood, Richard B; O'Neill, Marie S</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> wave and health warning systems are activated based on forecasts of health-threatening hot weather. We estimated <span class="hlt">heat</span>-mortality associations based on forecast and observed weather data in Detroit, Michigan, and compared the accuracy of forecast <span class="hlt">products</span> for predicting <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves. We derived and compared apparent temperature (AT) and <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave days (with <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves defined as ≥ 2 days of daily mean AT ≥ 95th percentile of warm-season average) from weather observations and six different forecast <span class="hlt">products</span>. We used Poisson regression with and without adjustment for ozone and/or PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm) to estimate and compare associations of daily all-cause mortality with observed and predicted AT and <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave days. The 1-day-ahead forecast of a local operational <span class="hlt">product</span>, Revised Digital Forecast, had about half the number of false positives compared with all other forecasts. On average, controlling for <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves, days with observed AT = 25.3°C were associated with 3.5% higher mortality (95% CI: -1.6, 8.8%) than days with AT = 8.5°C. Observed <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave days were associated with 6.2% higher mortality (95% CI: -0.4, 13.2%) than non-<span class="hlt">heat</span> wave days. The accuracy of predictions varied, but associations between mortality and forecast <span class="hlt">heat</span> generally tended to overestimate <span class="hlt">heat</span> effects, whereas associations with forecast <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves tended to underestimate <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave effects, relative to associations based on observed weather metrics. Our findings suggest that incorporating knowledge of local conditions may improve the accuracy of predictions used to activate <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave and health warning systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19227063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19227063"><span>Microwave <span class="hlt">heated</span> resin injector for advanced composite <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stanculovic, Sebastijan; Feher, Lambert</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A novel microwave (MW) injector at 2.45 GHz for resin infiltration has been developed at the Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Research Center Karlsruhe (FZK), Germany. Resin injection is an essential step in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) for aerospace applications. A compact, low-cost and automated MW injector provides an efficient and safe energy transfer from the MW source to the resin and supports an appropriate electromagnetic field structure for homogeneous infiltration. The system provides temperature monitoring and an automatized MW power switching, which ensures a fast response of the MW system to rapid changes in the temperature for high flow rates of the resin. In low power measurements with a vector network analyzer, the geometry of the injector cavity has been adjusted to provide an efficient system. The MW injector has been tested for specific resin systems infiltrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15076279','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15076279"><span>The use of chemical treatments for improved <span class="hlt">comminution</span> of artificial stones.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heimbach, D; Kourambas, J; Zhong, P; Jacobs, J; Hesse, A; Mueller, S C; Delvecchio, F C; Cocks, F H; Preminger, G M</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>The acoustic and mechanical properties of various stone compositions are significantly different and thus result in varying degrees of fragility. Consequently, results to shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) are influenced accordingly. We report the results of a study of fragility of various stone compositions, and the influence on each stone's baseline physical properties and fragility when exposed to various chemolytic solutions. Before SWL artificial stones of differing compositions were irrigated with various chemolytic solutions. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones were treated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), stones composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate hydrogen were treated with hemiacidrin, and stones made of uric acid (UA) were treated with tromethamine. Synthetic urine served as a control for all stone groups. Using an ultrasound transmission technique, longitudinal wave propagation speed was measured in all groups of artificial stones. Stone density was also measured by using a pycnometer (based on Archimedes' principle). Based on these measurements transverse (shear) wave speed (assuming a constant Poisson's ratio), wave impedance and dynamic mechanical properties of the artificial stones were calculated. Moreover, the microhardness of these artificial stones was measured, and fragility testing using SWL with and without pretreatment with the previously mentioned chemolytic solutions, was performed. Wave speed, wave impedance, dynamic mechanical properties and microhardness of EDTA treated COM stones and tromethamine treated UA stones were found to decrease compared to untreated (synthetic urine) control groups. The suggestion that chemolytic pretreatment increases stone fragility was verified by the finding of increased stone <span class="hlt">comminution</span> after SWL testing. Combining this medical pretreatment and SWL, the findings demonstrate a significant impact of various solvents on stone <span class="hlt">comminution</span>, in particular EDTA treated COM stones, tromethamine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26455162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26455162"><span>[ANATOMICAL PLATE COMBINED WITH CORTICAL BONE PLATE ALLOGRAFTS FOR TREATMENT OF <span class="hlt">COMMINUTED</span> FRACTURES OF FEMORAL CONDYLES].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Zhimin; Gong, Xingxing; Li, Yanwei; Qiu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Meng; Shangguan, Tiancheng; Ao, Qingfang; Liu, Qiang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To summarize the effectiveness of anatomical plate combined with cortical bone plate allografts in the treatment of <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fractures of the femoral condyles. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 18 patients with <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fractures of the femoral condyles were treated, including 13 males and 5 females with an average age of 45 years (range, 23-65 years). Fractures were caused by traffic accident in 11 cases, by falling from height in 4 cases, and by the other in 3 cases. The locations were the left side in 7 cases and the right side in 11 cases. Of 18 fractures, 12 were open fractures and 6 were closed fractures. The mean time from injury to operation was 6 days (range, 4-15 days). The fixation was performed by anatomical plate combined with cortical bone plate allografts, and autograft bone or allogeneic bone grafting were used. Superficial local skin necrosis occurred in 1 case, and was cured after skin graft, and other incisions achieved primary healing. All patients were followed up 12-36 months (mean, 23 months). X-ray films showed that bone union was achieved within 3-12 months (5.6 months on average). No related complication occurred, such as fixation loosening, refracture, infection, or immunological rejection. According to Merchan et al. criteria for knee joint function evaluation, the results were excellent in 7 cases, good in 9 cases, fair in 1 case, and poor in 1 case at last follow-up; the excellent and good rate was 88.9%. Anatomical plate combined with cortical bone plate allograft fixation is a good method to treat <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fractures of the femoral condyles. This method can effectively achieve complete cortical bone on the inside of the femur as well as provide rigid fixation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26755535','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26755535"><span>Torsional Failure of Carbon Fiber Composite Plates Versus Stainless Steel Plates for <span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> Distal Fibula Fractures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilson, William K; Morris, Randal P; Ward, Adam J; Carayannopoulos, Nikoletta L; Panchbhavi, Vinod K</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Carbon fiber composite implants are gaining popularity in orthopedics, but with few independent studies of their failure characteristics under supra-physiologic loads. The objective of this cadaveric study was to compare torsional failure properties of bridge plating a <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> distal fibula fracture with carbon fiber polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composite and stainless steel one-third tubular plates. <span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> fractures were simulated in 12 matched pairs of fresh-frozen human fibulas with 2-mm osteotomies located 3 cm proximal to the tibiotalar joint. Each fibula pair was randomized for fixation and implanted with carbon fiber and stainless steel 5-hole one-third tubular plates. The constructs were loaded in external rotation at a rate of 1-degree/sec until failure with a materials testing system. Torsional stiffness and mode of failure, as well as displacement, torque, and energy absorption for the first instance of failure and peak failure, were determined. Statistical analysis was performed with paired t tests and chi-square. There were no significant differences among the 12 pairs for torsional stiffness, first failure torque, peak failure displacement, peak failure torque, or peak failure energy. Stainless steel plates exhibited significantly higher displacement (P < .001) and energy absorption (P = .001) at the first indication of failure than the carbon fiber plates. Stainless steel plates permanently deformed significantly more often than the carbon fiber plates (P = .035). Carbon fiber plates exhibited no plastic deformation with delamination of the composite, and brittle catastrophic failure in 1 specimen. In a <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> human fibula fracture fixation model, carbon fiber implants exhibited multiple pre-peak failures at significantly lower angles than the first failure for the stainless steel implants, with some delamination of composite layers and brittle catastrophic failure rather than plastic deformation. The torsional failure properties of carbon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3891234','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3891234"><span>Properties of Spent Active Coke Particles Analysed via <span class="hlt">Comminution</span> in Spouted Bed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buczek, Bronislaw</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by <span class="hlt">comminution</span> in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals) through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases. PMID:24459454</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25694665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25694665"><span><span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> fracture of the accessory carpal bone removed via an arthroscopic-assisted arthrotomy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bonilla, Alvaro G; Santschi, Elizabeth M</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>A 16-year-old American paint horse gelding was presented for evaluation of a left forelimb lameness grade III/V. Radiographs and computed tomography revealed a <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fracture of the accessory carpal bone involving the entire articulation with the distal radius and the proximal aspect of the articulation with the ulnar carpal bone. Multiple fragments were present in the palmar pouch of the antebrachiocarpal joint. An arthroscopic-assisted open approach was necessary to remove all fractured fragments. Subsequently the horse was re-admitted for lameness and was treated successfully with antibiotics and long-term supportive bandaging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1080451','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1080451"><span>Methods of pretreating <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> cellulosic material with carbonate-containing solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Francis, Raymond</p> <p>2012-11-06</p> <p>Methods of pretreating <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> cellulosic material with an acidic solution and then a carbonate-containing solution to produce a pretreated cellulosic material are provided. The pretreated material may then be further treated in a pulping process, for example, a soda-anthraquinone pulping process, to produce a cellulose pulp. The pretreatment solutions may be extracted from the pretreated cellulose material and selectively re-used, for example, with acid or alkali addition, for the pretreatment solutions. The resulting cellulose pulp is characterized by having reduced lignin content and increased yield compared to prior art treatment processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26999061','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26999061"><span><span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> long bone fractures in children. Could combined fixation improve the results?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El-Alfy, Barakat; Ali, Ayman M; Fawzy, Sallam I</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> diaphyseal fractures in the pediatric age group represent a major orthopedic problem. It is associated with a high incidence of complications and poor outcomes because of the instability and difficulty in treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined external skeletal fixation and flexible intramedullary nails in reconstruction of <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> diaphyseal fracture in skeletally immature patients. Combined external fixator and elastic stable intramedullary nails were used in the management of 27 pediatric patients (15 males and 12 females) with unstable <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> diaphyseal fractures of the tibia and femur. There were 19 fractures of the femur and eight fractures of the tibia. The average age of the patients was 8.7 years (range 7-14 years) for the femur and 10.8 years (range 6-15 years) for the tibia. Fractures were classified according to the system of Winquist and Hansen as grade II (five cases), grade III (nine cases), and grade IV (13 cases). All cases were operated within 6 days (range 0-6 days) after injury. The mean follow-up period was 2.8 years (range 2-3.5 years). The average duration of the external fixation was 1.6 months for fractures of the tibia, whereas it was 1.4 months for fractures of the femur. The average time for tibia fracture union was 2.8 months for fractures of the tibia, whereas it was 1.9 months for fractures of the femur. Malalignment in varus less than 5° was noted in one patient. One patient had a limb-length discrepancy of 1.5 cms. There were five cases (18.5%) with pin-tract infection. According to the Association for the Study and Application of the Methods of Ilizarov evaluation system, bone results were excellent in 23 cases (85.2%), good in three cases (11.1%), and poor in one case (3.7%). Functional results were excellent in 22 (81.5%) cases and good in five (18.5%) cases. Combined use of external fixators and elastic intramedullary nails is a good method for the treatment of <span class="hlt">comminuted</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4298268','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4298268"><span><span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> fracture of the accessory carpal bone removed via an arthroscopic-assisted arthrotomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bonilla, Alvaro G.; Santschi, Elizabeth M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A 16-year-old American paint horse gelding was presented for evaluation of a left forelimb lameness grade III/V. Radiographs and computed tomography revealed a <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fracture of the accessory carpal bone involving the entire articulation with the distal radius and the proximal aspect of the articulation with the ulnar carpal bone. Multiple fragments were present in the palmar pouch of the antebrachiocarpal joint. An arthroscopic-assisted open approach was necessary to remove all fractured fragments. Subsequently the horse was re-admitted for lameness and was treated successfully with antibiotics and long-term supportive bandaging. PMID:25694665</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22678436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22678436"><span>[The use of hydroxyapatite substance for the ostheosynthesis after <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> thigh fractures].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Protsenko, A I; Gazhev, A Kh; Gordeev, G G; Zheltikov, D I</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The surgical tactics was analyzed in 102 patients operated on the <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> thigh fractures. 95 patients were administered in a state of shock; 48 patients had multiple and combined injuries. All patients were operated on with the use of modern metal constructions. Bone fragments' fixation was performed with the use of splint (n=75) or adaptive ostheosynthesis (n=27), in aggreagation with the "KollapAn" fixation substance. Excellent results were acquired in 64 patients, good - in 25 patients and satisfactory - in 12 patients. The long-term results after the year were obtained in 82 patients. The results of the follow-up coincided with those, achieved in postoperative rehabilitation period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22062037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22062037"><span>Furosine as an index of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment intensity in meat <span class="hlt">products</span>: Its application to cooked ham.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pompei, C; Spagnolello, A</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>Furosine, a <span class="hlt">product</span> of acid hydrolysis of Amadori compounds, has been proposed as an index of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> treament intensity in various food <span class="hlt">products</span>. In this paper we suggest furosine as an index of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment in pork-meat <span class="hlt">products</span> as well. Furosine is not detectable in fresh raw pork muscle and in injected tumbled pork muscle, the latter being used for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of cooked ham. Activation energy of furosine formation in raw muscle and tumbled muscle, in the temperature range of 70 °-90 °C, was 79.2 kJ/mole and 81.7 kJ/mole, respectively. Furosine concentration was assessed in cooked hams whose time-temperature profiles, with reference to the cooking and cooling processes, were well known, thus enabling the verification of the feasibility of its use in the evaluation of <span class="hlt">heat</span> damage. The good correlation between the values found during this investigation and the values foreseen by kinetic calculation confirms that furosine can be used as an index of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment intensity in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of cooked ham.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JVGR..338....1H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JVGR..338....1H"><span>Gamma-ray spectrometry in the field: Radioactive <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in the Central Slovakian Volcanic Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harley, Thomas L.; Westaway, Rob; McCay, Alistair T.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>We report 62 sets of measurements from central-southern Slovakia, obtained using a modern portable gamma-ray spectrometer, which reveal the radioactive <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks of the Late Cenozoic Central Slovakian Volcanic Zone. Sites in granodiorite of the Štiavnica pluton are thus shown to have <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in the range 2.2-4.9 μW m- 3, this variability being primarily a reflection of variations in content of the trace element uranium. Sites in dioritic parts of this pluton have a lower, but overlapping, range of values, 2.1-4.4 μW m- 3. Sites that have been interpreted in adjoining minor dioritic intrusions of similar age have <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in the range 1.4-3.3 μW m- 3. The main Štiavnica pluton has zoned composition, with potassium and uranium content and radioactive <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> typically increasing inward from its margins, reflecting variations observed in other granodioritic plutons elsewhere. It is indeed possible that the adjoining dioritic rocks, hitherto assigned to other minor intrusions of similar age, located around the periphery of the Štiavnica pluton, in reality provide further evidence for zonation of the same pluton. The vicinity of this pluton is associated with surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow 40 mW m- 2 above the regional background. On the basis of our <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> measurements, we thus infer that the pluton has a substantial vertical extent, our preferred estimate for the scale depth for its downward decrease in radioactive <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> being 8 km. Nonetheless, this pluton lacks any significant negative Bouguer gravity anomaly. We attribute this to the effect of the surrounding volcanic caldera, filled with relatively low-density lavas, 'masking' the pluton's own gravity anomaly. We envisage that emplacement occurred when the pluton was much hotter, and thus of lower density, than at present, its continued uplift, evident from the local geomorphology, being the isostatic consequence of localized erosion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9877E..27S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9877E..27S"><span>Detection of <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave using Kalpana-1 VHRR land surface temperature <span class="hlt">product</span> over India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shah, Dhiraj; Pandya, Mehul R.; Pathak, Vishal N.; Darji, Nikunj P.; Trivedi, Himanshu J.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> Waves can have notable impacts on human mortality, ecosystem, economics and energy supply. The effect of <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave is much more intense during summer than the other seasons. During the period of April to June, spells of very hot weather occur over certain regions of India and global warming scenario may result in further increases of such temperature anomalies and corresponding <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves conditions. In this paper, satellite observations have been used to detect the <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave conditions prevailing over India for the period of May-June 2015. The Kalpana-1 VHRR derived land surface temperature (LST) <span class="hlt">products</span> have been used in the analysis to detect the <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave affected regions over India. Results from the analysis shows the detection of <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave affected pixels over Indian land mass. It can be seen that during the study period the parts of the west India, Indo-gangetic plane, Telangana and part of Vidarbh was under severe <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave conditions which is also confirmed with Automatic Weather Station (AWS) air temperature observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJWC..4204001C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJWC..4204001C"><span>Nuclear data <span class="hlt">production</span>, calculation and measurement: a global overview of the gamma <span class="hlt">heating</span> issue</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Colombier, A.-C.; Amharrak, H.; Fourmentel, D.; Ravaux, S.; Régnier, D.; Gueton, O.; Hudelot, J.-P.; Lemaire, M.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The gamma <span class="hlt">heating</span> evaluation in different materials found in current and future generations of nuclear reactor (EPRTM, GENIV, MTR-JHR), is becoming an important issue especially for the design of many devices (control rod, heavy reflector, in-core & out-core experiments…). This paper deals with the works started since 2009 in the Reactor Studies Department of CEA Cadarache in ordre to answer to several problematic which have been identified as well for nuclear data <span class="hlt">production</span> and calculation as for experimental measurement methods. The selected subjects are: <list list-type="bullet" list-content="dash"> <list-item id="bid.1"> Development of a Monte Carlo code (FIFRELIN) to simulate the prompt fission gamma emission which represents the major part of the gamma <span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> inside the core </list-item> <list-item id="bid.2"> <span class="hlt">Production</span> and qualification of new evaluations of nuclear data especially for radiative capture and inelastic neutron scattering which are the main sources of gamma <span class="hlt">heating</span> out-core </list-item> <list-item id="bid.3"> Development and qualification of a recommended method for the total gamma <span class="hlt">heating</span> calculation using the Monte Carlo simulation code TRIPOLI-4 </list-item> <list-item id="bid.4"> Development, test and qualification of new devices dedicated to the in-core gamma <span class="hlt">heating</span> measurement as well in MTR-JHR as in zero power facilities (EOLE-MINERVE) of CEA, Cadarache to increase the experimental measurement accuracy. </list-item> </list></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22864434','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22864434"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment on microbial communities of granular sludge for biological hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alibardi, Luca; Favaro, Lorenzo; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Basaglia, Marina; Casella, Sergio</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Dark fermentation shares many features with anaerobic digestion with the exception that to maximize hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>, methanogens and hydrogen-consuming bacteria should be inhibited. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> treatment is widely applied as an inoculum pre-treatment due to its effectiveness in inhibiting methanogenic microflora but it may not exclusively select for hydrogen-producing bacteria. This work evaluated the effects of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment on microbial viability and structure of anaerobic granular sludge. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> treatment was carried out on granular sludge at 100 °C with four residence times (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h). Hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> of treated sludges was studied from glucose by means of batch test at different pH values. Results indicated that each <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment strongly influenced the granular sludge resulting in microbial communities having different hydrogen <span class="hlt">productions</span>. The highest hydrogen yields (2.14 moles of hydrogen per mole of glucose) were obtained at pH 5.5 using the sludge treated for 4 h characterized by the lowest CFU concentration (2.3 × 10(3)CFU/g sludge). This study demonstrated that <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment should be carefully defined according to the structure of the sludge microbial community, allowing the selection of highly efficient hydrogen-producing microbes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=341278','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=341278"><span>Determining the effects of early gestation in utero <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress on postnatal fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and circulating biomarkers associated with metabolism in growing pigs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The study objective was to determine the effects of in utero <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress (IUHS) on postnatal fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (FHP) in growing pigs. Based on our previous observation of increased postnatal core body temperature ‘set-point’ in IUHS pigs, we hypothesized that FHP would be greater during postna...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6872830','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6872830"><span>Use of geothermal <span class="hlt">heat</span> to recover alcohol and other valuable <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>La Mori, P.N.; Zahradnik, R.L.</p> <p>1982-11-02</p> <p>Method for the use of <span class="hlt">heat</span>, especially ''waste <span class="hlt">heat</span>'', from geothermal steam or brines for the manufacture of chemicals such as alcohol, which comprises, according to one embodiment, flashing the brine to produce steam, passing the steam to a turbine for electrical energy generation, and employing the steam from the turbine discharge and/or the flashed brine to provide some or all of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> requirements for the fermentation distillation process for <span class="hlt">production</span> of alcohols, e.g. (methanol and/or ethanol) from agricultural wastes. The method can also be utilized for the <span class="hlt">production</span> by distillation and/or by industrial fermentation and/or by hydrolysis of other chemicals (such as furfural and acetone).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=287698','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=287698"><span>Alteration of fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study was designed to examine alteration of fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (FHP) during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW=348 ±13 kg) were weight-matched into pairs and utilized in a two period crossover design experiment. Each period consisted of two temperature segments,...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=278549','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=278549"><span>Alteration of fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study was designed to examine alteration of fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (FHP) during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW = 348±26kg) were weight matched into pairs and utilized in a two period crossover design experiment. Each period consisted of two segments, one each at...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5295890','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5295890"><span>Volatile <span class="hlt">production</span> during preignition <span class="hlt">heating</span>. Final technical report, 15 September 1980-30 September 1982</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ballantyne, A.; Chou, H.; Flusberg, A.; Neoh, K.; Orozco, N.; Stickler, D.</p> <p>1983-10-01</p> <p>Pulverized coal particles, in a flowing inert nitrogen stream, have been <span class="hlt">heated</span> by high power Carbon Dioxide Laser. The consequence of such an irradiation have proved to be both novel and surprising as a result of the rapid quenching of primary coal <span class="hlt">products</span>. It ahs been found that the gas phase yield from such <span class="hlt">heating</span> (typically, temperatures in excess of 1400 K at rates approx. 2 x 10/sup 5/ K/s) is very small (< 0.2 percent of coal carbon and hydrogen). Analysis of the solid residue has shown the presence of fine lacy particulate chains of material of 0.1 ..mu..m diameter, which appears to be soluble in tetrahydrofuran. The yields of solute were significantly much higher than for raw coals. Molecular weight of the solute material was high, being in the range of 600 to 3000. The above and substantiating evidence point to a new mechanism of high <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate pyrolysis in which only tar-like materials are produced as primary <span class="hlt">products</span> from the coal. It is hypothesized that gas phase <span class="hlt">products</span> are primarily the result of secondary reactions of these primary <span class="hlt">products</span> in the hot gas environments usually employed by other <span class="hlt">heating</span> techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-05/pdf/2012-16359.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-05/pdf/2012-16359.pdf"><span>77 FR 39735 - Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple <span class="hlt">Heat</span>-Conducting Paths and <span class="hlt">Products</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-05</p> <p>... Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple <span class="hlt">Heat</span>- Conducting Paths and <span class="hlt">Products</span> Containing Same... within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit packages provided with multiple... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=342456','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=342456"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment on antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of orange by-<span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study investigated the changes in functional components, antioxidative activities, antibacterial activities, anti-inflammatory activities of orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by-<span class="hlt">products</span> (OBP) by <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment at 50 and 100 degrees C (hereafter, 50D and 100D extracts, respectively). Optimal...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=325489','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=325489"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, respiratory quotient, and methane loss subsequent to LPS challenge in beef heifers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Respiration calorimetry was used to measure energy utilization during an acute phase response (APR) to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Eight Angus heifers (208 +/- 29.2 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two calorimeters in four 2-day periods for measurement of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (HP), methane (CH4), and r...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19760680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19760680"><span>Assessment of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment of dairy <span class="hlt">products</span> by MALDI-TOF-MS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meltretter, Jasmin; Birlouez-Aragon, Inès; Becker, Cord-Michael; Pischetsrieder, Monika</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The formation of the Amadori <span class="hlt">product</span> from lactose (protein lactosylation) is a major parameter to evaluate the quality of processed milk. Here, MALDI-TOF-MS was used for the relative quantification of lactose-adducts in <span class="hlt">heated</span> milk. Milk was <span class="hlt">heated</span> at a temperature of 70, 80, and 100 degrees C between 0 and 300 min, diluted, and subjected directly to MALDI-TOF-MS. The lactosylation rate of alpha-lactalbumin increased with increasing reaction temperature and time. The results correlated well with established markers for <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment of milk (concentration of total soluble protein, soluble alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin at pH 4.6, and fluorescence of advanced Maillard <span class="hlt">products</span> and soluble tryptophan index; r=0.969-0.997). The method was also applied to examine commercially available dairy <span class="hlt">products</span>. In severely <span class="hlt">heated</span> <span class="hlt">products</span>, protein pre-purification by immobilized metal affinity chromatography improved spectra quality. Relative quantification of protein lactosylation by MALDI-TOF-MS proved to be a very fast and reliable method to monitor early Maillard reaction during milk processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=271080','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=271080"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> and moisture <span class="hlt">production</span> of growing-finishing gilts as affected by environmental temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> and moisture <span class="hlt">production</span> (HMP) values are used to size ventilation fans in animal housing. The HMP values that are currently published in the ASABE (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers) standards were from data collected in the early 1950. This study is one of a series of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2278909','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2278909"><span>Muscle <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and anaerobic energy turnover during repeated intense dynamic exercise in humans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krustrup, Peter; González-Alonso, José; Quistorff, Bjørn; Bangsbo, Jens</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The aim of the present study was to examine muscle <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, oxygen uptake and anaerobic energy turnover throughout repeated intense exercise to test the hypotheses that (i) energy turnover is reduced when intense exercise is repeated and (ii) anaerobic energy <span class="hlt">production</span> is diminished throughout repeated intense exercise. Five subjects performed three 3 min intense one-legged knee-extensor exercise bouts (EX1, EX2 and EX3) at a power output of 65 ± 5 W (mean ±s.e.m.), separated by 6 min rest periods. Muscle, femoral arterial and venous temperatures were measured continuously during exercise for the determination of muscle <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. In addition, thigh blood flow was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood were sampled frequently during exercise for the determination of muscle oxygen uptake. Anaerobic energy turnover was estimated as the difference between total energy turnover and aerobic energy turnover. Prior to exercise, the temperature of the quadriceps muscle was passively elevated to 37.02 ± 0.12 °C and it increased 0.97 ± 0.08 °C during EX1, which was higher (P < 0.05) than during EX2 (0.79 ± 0.05 °C) and EX3 (0.77 ± 0.06 °C). In EX1 the rate of muscle <span class="hlt">heat</span> accumulation was higher (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s compared to EX2 and EX3, whereas the rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> release to the blood was greater (P < 0.05) throughout EX2 and EX3 compared to EX1. The rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, determined as the sum of <span class="hlt">heat</span> accumulation and release, was the same in EX1, EX2 and EX3, and it increased (P < 0.05) from 86 ± 8 during the first 15 s to 157 ± 7 J s−1 during the last 15 s of EX1. Oxygen extraction was higher during the first 60 s of EX2 and EX3 than in EX 1 and thigh oxygen uptake was elevated (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s of EX2 and throughout EX3 compared to EX1. The anaerobic energy <span class="hlt">production</span> during the first 105 s of EX2 and 150 s of EX3 was lower (P < 0.05) than in EX1. The present study demonstrates that when intense exercise</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..111Q2461Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..111Q2461Z"><span>Reduction of tissue injury without compromising stone <span class="hlt">comminution</span> in shock wave lithotripsy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Yufeng; Auge, Brian; Preminger, Glenn M.; Zhong, Pei</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>To ameliorate vascular injury without compromising stone <span class="hlt">comminution</span> in shock wave lithotripsy, we have recently developed an in situ pulse superposition technique to suppress large intraluminal bubble expansion [Zhong and Zhou, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 3283-3291 (2001)]. This strategy was implemented using a simple modification of a HM-3 lithotripter reflector. In this work, further optimization of the reflector geometry was carried out based on theoretical analysis and in vitro pressure waveform measurements using a fiber optical hydrophone. Using the upgraded reflector, no rupture of a cellulose hollow fiber (i.d.=0.2 mm) vessel phantom could be observed around the lithotripter beam focus even after 200 shocks at 24 kV. In comparison, less than 50 shocks were needed to cause a rupture of the vessel phantom using the original reflector at 20 kV. At corresponding output settings, stone <span class="hlt">comminution</span> is comparable between the two reflector configurations, although the size of the fragments produced by the upgraded reflector is slightly larger. In addition, preliminary results from animal studies have demonstrated a significant reduction in tissue injury using the upgraded reflector, which confirms the validity of this approach in vivo. [Work supported by NIH.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24165551','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24165551"><span>Enhancement of fracture healing by electrical stimulation in the <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> intraarticular fracture of distal radius.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kohata, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Soichiro; Takeda, Shu; Kanai, Misa; Yoshioka, Taro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Kimihiro</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Effectiveness of an alternating electric current (AC) stimulation in prevention of bone deformity for <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> intraarticular fracture of distal radius were verified by comparing postoperative results treated with a wrist-bridging external fixator combined with or without an AC stimulator (EF and NEF, respectively), and a palmar locking plate (LP). This study evaluated 92 cases (mean age 67.9 ± 11.4 years) of type C2 and 60 cases (mean age 69.7 ± 9.5 years) of type C3 distal radius fractures, as classified by the Association for Osteosynthesis. In total, 55 and 24 cases were treated with EF and NEF, respectively; and 73 cases were treated with LP. Callus appeared 27.5 ± 4.6 days postoperatively and the external skeletal fixation period was significantly shorter in the EF group than in the NEF group. The decrease in radial length was significantly lower in the EF group when compared to the LP group. There were no significant differences among the groups for the other radiographic and functional parameters. AC stimulation combined to the external fixation may be a promising method to prevent postoperative deformity in the severely <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> intraarticular fractures by accelerating callus maturation and facilitating new bone bridging across the gap of fracture site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1821t0002Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1821t0002Z"><span>The effect of stone size on <span class="hlt">comminution</span> efficiency in shock wave lithotripsy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Ying; Concha, Daniel; Zhong, Pei</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We have investigated the relationship between stone size and stone <span class="hlt">comminution</span> (SC) in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). Begostone phantoms of cylindrical shape in 4-, 7- and 10-mm size (W x H) groups were prepared with appropriately equal total mass (i.e., 1.5 g) in a tube holder and treated in an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter field at various locations and doses. The results reveal a close correlation between SC and the average peak pressure, P+(avg), incident on the stone among differnet size groups. The P+(avg) threshold to initiate stone fragmentation and the slope of SC vs ln (P+(avg)) curve in water were found to increase with decreased stone size. In 1,3-butanediol where cavitation is suppressed, the P+(avg) threshold was found to be similar to the value in water yet the slope of the SC curve was significantly reduced at decreased stone size. Altogether, these results demonstrate a clear dependency of the P+(avg) threshold and rate of SC on stone size, as well as the importance of cavitation in producing efficiency stone <span class="hlt">comminution</span> during SWL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3777638','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3777638"><span>Controlled Cavitation to Augment SWL Stone <span class="hlt">Comminution</span>: Mechanistic Insights In-Vitro</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Duryea, Alexander P.; Roberts, William W.; Cain, Charles A.; Hall, Timothy L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Stone <span class="hlt">comminution</span> in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) has been documented to result from mechanical stresses conferred directly to the stone, as well as the activity of cavitational microbubbles. Studies have demonstrated that the presence of this cavitation activity is crucial for stone subdivision; however, its exact role in the <span class="hlt">comminution</span> process remains somewhat weakly defined, in part due to the fact that it is difficult to isolate the cavitational component from the shock waves themselves. In this study, we further explored the importance of cavitation in SWL stone <span class="hlt">comminution</span> through the use of histotripsy ultrasound therapy. Histotripsy was utilized to target model stones designed to mimic the mid-range tensile fracture strength of naturally occurring cystine calculi with controlled cavitation at strategic time points in the SWL <span class="hlt">comminution</span> process. All SWL was applied at a peak-positive pressure (p+) of 34 MPa and a peak-negative pressure (p−) of 8 MPa; a shock rate of 1 Hz was used. Histotripsy pulses had a p− of 33 MPa and were applied at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 100 Hz. Ten model stones were sonicated in-vitro with each of five different treatment schemes: A. 10 minutes SWL (600 shocks) with 0.7 seconds of histotripsy interleaved between successive shocks (totaling to 42,000 pulses); B. 10 minutes SWL (600 shocks) followed by 10 minutes histotripsy applied in 0.7 second bursts (1 burst per second, totaling to 42,000 pulses); C. 10 minutes histotripsy applied in 0.7 second bursts (42,000 pulses) followed by 10 minutes SWL (600 shocks); D. 10 minutes SWL-only (600 shocks); E. 10 minutes histotripsy-only applied in 0.7 second bursts (42,000 pulses). Following sonication, debris was collected and sieved through 8, 6, 4, and 2 mm filters. It was found that SWL-only generated a broad range of fragment sizes, with an average of 14.9 ± 24.1% of the original stone mass remaining >8 mm. Histotripsy-only eroded the surface of stones to tiny</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003152','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003152"><span>Joule-<span class="hlt">Heated</span> Molten Regolith Electrolysis Reactor Concepts for Oxygen and Metals <span class="hlt">Production</span> on the Moon and Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sibille, Laurent; Dominques, Jesus A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The maturation of Molten Regolith Electrolysis (MRE) as a viable technology for oxygen and metals <span class="hlt">production</span> on explored planets relies on the realization of the self-<span class="hlt">heating</span> mode for the reactor. Joule <span class="hlt">heat</span> generated during regolith electrolysis creates thermal energy that should be able to maintain the molten phase (similar to electrolytic Hall-Heroult process for aluminum <span class="hlt">production</span>). Self-<span class="hlt">heating</span> via Joule <span class="hlt">heating</span> offers many advantages: (1) The regolith itself is the crucible material, it protects the vessel walls (2) Simplifies the engineering of the reactor (3) Reduces power consumption (no external <span class="hlt">heating</span>) (4) Extends the longevity of the reactor. Predictive modeling is a tool chosen to perform dimensional analysis of a self-<span class="hlt">heating</span> reactor: (1) Multiphysics modeling (COMSOL) was selected for Joule <span class="hlt">heat</span> generation and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer (2) Objective is to identify critical dimensions for first reactor prototype.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063973','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063973"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate on slow pyrolysis behavior, kinetic parameters and <span class="hlt">products</span> properties of moso bamboo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Dengyu; Zhou, Jianbin; Zhang, Qisheng</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Effects of <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate on slow pyrolysis behaviors, kinetic parameters, and <span class="hlt">products</span> properties of moso bamboo were investigated in this study. Pyrolysis experiments were performed up to 700 °C at <span class="hlt">heating</span> rates of 5, 10, 20, and 30 °C/min using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a lab-scale fixed bed pyrolysis reactor. The results show that the onset and offset temperatures of the main devolatilization stage of thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) curves obviously shift toward the high-temperature range, and the activation energy values increase with increasing <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate. The <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate has different effects on the pyrolysis <span class="hlt">products</span> properties, including biochar (element content, proximate analysis, specific surface area, <span class="hlt">heating</span> value), bio-oil (water content, chemical composition), and non-condensable gas. The solid yields from the fixed bed pyrolysis reactor are noticeably different from those of TGA mainly because the thermal hysteresis of the sample in the fixed bed pyrolysis reactor is more thorough.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812146K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812146K"><span>Modelling of labour <span class="hlt">productivity</span> loss due to climate change: <span class="hlt">HEAT</span>-SHIELD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kjellstrom, Tord; Daanen, Hein</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Climate change will bring higher <span class="hlt">heat</span> levels (temperature and humidity combined) to large parts of the world. When these levels reach above thresholds well defined by human physiology, the ability to maintain physical activity levels decrease and labour <span class="hlt">productivity</span> is reduced. This impact is of particular importance in work situations in areas with long high intensity hot seasons, but also affects cooler areas during <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves. Our modelling of labour <span class="hlt">productivity</span> loss includes climate model data of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Inter-comparison Project (ISI-MIP), calculations of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress indexes during different months, estimations of work capacity loss and its annual impacts in different parts of the world. Different climate models will be compared for the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and the outcomes of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) agreements. The validation includes comparisons of modelling outputs with actual field studies using historical <span class="hlt">heat</span> data. These modelling approaches are a first stage contribution to the European Commission funded <span class="hlt">HEAT</span>-SHIELD project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24491646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24491646"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> stress impairs the nutritional metabolism and reduces the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of egg-laying ducks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Xianyong; Lin, Yingcai; Zhang, Hanxing; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shang; Ruan, Dong; Jiang, Zongyong</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>This research was conducted to determine the effect of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress on the nutritional metabolism and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of egg-laying shelducks. Healthy shelducks (n=120) in the early laying stage (uniform body weights and normal feed intakes) were randomly assigned to two identical climate chambers and exposed to constant high temperature (34°C) or control temperature (23°C) for 28d. The <span class="hlt">heat</span>-exposed ducks had reduced feed intakes and laying rates (P<0.05), increased frequency of panting and spreading wings and dull featheration; egg weight, eggshell thickness and strength, and Haugh unit also decreased and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of egg yolk increased (P<0.05). Compared with the control ducks, the plasma concentrations of HCO3(-), phosphorus, glucose, thyroxine and activities of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were decreased, while there were increased concentrations of corticosterone (P<0.05). The content of MDA and lactate in plasma and liver was greater in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-exposed than in control ducks, but superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant enzymes (T-AOC) activities and glutathione (GSH) contents were less. The expression of HSP70 gene expression in the liver was increased in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed ducks. The relative weight of oviduct, number of large ovarian follicles, length of the oviduct all decreased (P<0.05) in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-treated ducks, as did expression of carbonic anhydrase and calcium binding protein genes in the shell gland as a result of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. In summary, <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress decreased the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of ducks, which related to reduced feed intake, protein synthesis, endocrine dysfunction, less antioxidant capacity, and derangement of calcium and phosphorous balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V43A2563N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V43A2563N"><span>Modeling the Daly Gap: The Influence of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> in Controlling Magma Extraction and Eruption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nelson, B. K.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Bachmann, O.; Dufek, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A century-old issue in volcanology is the origin of the gap in chemical compositions observed in magmatic series on ocean islands and arcs - the "Daly Gap". If the gap forms during differentiation from a mafic parent, models that predict the dynamics of magma extraction as a function of chemical composition must simulate a process that results in volumetrically biased, bimodal compositions of erupted magmas. The probability of magma extraction is controlled by magma dynamical processes, which have a complex response to magmatic <span class="hlt">heat</span> evolution. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss from the magmatic system is far from a simple, monotonic function of time. It is modified by the crystallization sequence, chamber margin <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux, and is buffered by latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. We use chemical and thermal calculations of MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack, 1995) as input to the physical model of QUANTUM (Dufek & Bachmann, 2010) to predict crystallinity windows of most probable magma extraction. We modeled two case studies: volcanism on Tenerife, Canary Islands, and the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) of Campi Flegrei, Italy. Both preserve a basanitic to phonolitic lineage and have comparable total alkali concentrations; however, CI has high and Tenerife has low K2O/Na2O. Modeled thermal histories of differentiation for the two sequences contrast strongly. In Tenerife, the rate of latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> is almost always greater than sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, with spikes in the ratio of latent to sensible <span class="hlt">heats</span> of up to 40 associated with the appearance of Fe-Ti oxides at near 50% crystallization. This punctuated <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> must cause magma temperature change to stall or slow in time. The extended time spent at ≈50% crystallinity, associated with dynamical processes that enhance melt extraction near 50% crystallinity, suggests the magma composition at this interval should be common. In Tenerife, the modeled composition coincides with that of the first peak in the bimodal frequency-composition distribution. In our</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050071703','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050071703"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> of Combustion of the <span class="hlt">Product</span> Formed by the Reaction of Acetylene, Ethylene, and Diborane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tannenbaum, Stanley</p> <p>1957-01-01</p> <p>The net <span class="hlt">heat</span> of combustion of the <span class="hlt">product</span> formed by the reaction of diborane with a mixture of acetylene and ethylene was found to be 20,440 +/- 150 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water, and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen-bomb calorimeter, and the combustion was believed to be 98 percent complete. The estimated net-<span class="hlt">heat</span> of combustion for complete combustion would therefore be 20,850 +/- 150 Btu per pound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5749033','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5749033"><span>Water flow calorimetry measurements of <span class="hlt">heat</span> loads for a volume <span class="hlt">production</span> H/sup -/ source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Purgalis, P.; Ackerman, G.; Kwan, J.; Wells, R.P.</p> <p>1987-10-01</p> <p>The design of volume-<span class="hlt">production</span> H/sup -/ sources requires the knowledge of <span class="hlt">heat</span> loads on the source components. The arc and filament heater power input to a 20 cm diameter x 23 cm long source can be 50 kW or higher, practically all of which is absorbed in the cooling water. Water flow calorimetry measurements were made to determine the <span class="hlt">heat</span> loads on the bucket walls, grid no. 1, and magnetic filter rods. The measurements are presented for two different filament locations, for three different values of arc power, and for three values of source gas pressure. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4154209','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4154209"><span>Using Forecast and Observed Weather Data to Assess Performance of Forecast <span class="hlt">Products</span> in Identifying <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Waves and Estimating <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Wave Effects on Mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Yeh-Hsin; Schwartz, Joel D.; Rood, Richard B.; O’Neill, Marie S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: <span class="hlt">Heat</span> wave and health warning systems are activated based on forecasts of health-threatening hot weather. Objective: We estimated heat–mortality associations based on forecast and observed weather data in Detroit, Michigan, and compared the accuracy of forecast <span class="hlt">products</span> for predicting <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves. Methods: We derived and compared apparent temperature (AT) and <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave days (with <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves defined as ≥ 2 days of daily mean AT ≥ 95th percentile of warm-season average) from weather observations and six different forecast <span class="hlt">products</span>. We used Poisson regression with and without adjustment for ozone and/or PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm) to estimate and compare associations of daily all-cause mortality with observed and predicted AT and <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave days. Results: The 1-day-ahead forecast of a local operational <span class="hlt">product</span>, Revised Digital Forecast, had about half the number of false positives compared with all other forecasts. On average, controlling for <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves, days with observed AT = 25.3°C were associated with 3.5% higher mortality (95% CI: –1.6, 8.8%) than days with AT = 8.5°C. Observed <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave days were associated with 6.2% higher mortality (95% CI: –0.4, 13.2%) than non–<span class="hlt">heat</span> wave days. The accuracy of predictions varied, but associations between mortality and forecast <span class="hlt">heat</span> generally tended to overestimate <span class="hlt">heat</span> effects, whereas associations with forecast <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves tended to underestimate <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave effects, relative to associations based on observed weather metrics. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that incorporating knowledge of local conditions may improve the accuracy of predictions used to activate <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave and health warning systems. Citation: Zhang K, Chen YH, Schwartz JD, Rood RB, O’Neill MS. 2014. Using forecast and observed weather data to assess performance of forecast <span class="hlt">products</span> in identifying <span class="hlt">heat</span> waves and estimating <span class="hlt">heat</span> wave effects on mortality. Environ Health Perspect 122:912–918;</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20018963','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20018963"><span>Integrated bioenergy complex for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of power, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and bio-ethanol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Taviani, M.; Chiaramonti, D.; Tondi, G.; Grassi, G.</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>In this paper an integrated bioenergy complex for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of power, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and bio-ethanol is presented. Ethanol, in fact, has been recognized as a high-quality transportation fuel. The reduction of petroleum consumption, especially for transport, is a strategic goal especially for those countries that already have or will experience an intensive industrial development in the next future. For these motivations, the <span class="hlt">production</span> of bio-ethanol from Sweet Sorghum (which is now one of the most promising crop for this application in term of <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, inputs demand, and flexibility) is of great interest in most of countries. The proposed integrated complex produces power, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and bio-ethanol: the produced power and <span class="hlt">heat</span> are partly used for bio-ethanol processing and biomass pre-treatment, partly to be sold to the market. This system has important innovations allowing a decentralized energy and ethanol <span class="hlt">production</span> and creating new local jobs. The small power plant is based upon a steam cycle with an advanced low emission combustor, capable of burning different biomass resources with a modest decrease in the efficiency value. The Bioenergy Complex, suitable to satisfy the needs of a 3,000 inhabitants village, is composed by the following sub-systems: (1) Sweet Sorghum plantation (250 ha); the main <span class="hlt">products</span> are: dry bagasse (approximately 3,900 Ton/year), grains (1,300 Ton/y) and sugar (1,850 Ton/y); (2) Cane crushing--sugar juice extraction system; (3) Sugar juice fermentation and distillation ethanol <span class="hlt">production</span> (approx. 835 Ton/y); (4) Biomass pre-treatment components (grinding, drying, briquetting, storage, etc.); and (5) Cogeneration unit--the expansion unit is constituted by a last generation reciprocating steam engine, coupled with a 500 kWe alternator; the <span class="hlt">heat</span> of the expanded flow is removed in the condenser, with an available thermal power of approximately 2,000 kWt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17135606','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17135606"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and body temperature during cooling and rewarming in overweight and lean men.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Claessens-van Ooijen, Anne M J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Wouters, Loek; Schoffelen, Paul F M; van Steenhoven, Anton A; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>To compare overweight and lean subjects with respect to thermogenesis and physiological insulation in response to mild cold and rewarming. Ten overweight men (mean BMI, 29.2 +/- 2.8 kg/m(2)) and 10 lean men (mean BMI, 21.1 +/- 2.0 kg/m(2)) were exposed to cold air for 1 hour, followed by 1 hour of rewarming. Body composition was determined by hydrodensitometry and deuterium dilution. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and body temperatures were measured continuously by indirect calorimetry and thermistors, respectively. Muscle activity was recorded using electromyography. In both groups, <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> increased significantly during cooling (lean, p = 0.004; overweight, p = 0.006). The increase was larger in the lean group compared with the overweight group (p = 0.04). During rewarming, <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> returned to baseline in the overweight group and stayed higher compared with baseline in the lean group (p = 0.003). The difference in <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> between rewarming and baseline was larger in the lean (p = 0.01) than in the overweight subjects. Weighted body temperature of both groups decreased during cold exposure (lean, p = 0.002; overweight, p < 0.001) and did not return to baseline during rewarming. Overweight subjects showed a blunted mild cold-induced thermogenesis. The insulative cold response was not different among the groups. The energy-efficient response of the overweight subjects can have consequences for energy balance in the long term. The results support the concept of a dynamic <span class="hlt">heat</span> regulation model instead of temperature regulation around a fixed set point.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17297103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17297103"><span>Relationship of thermal status to <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed dairy cows given recombinant bovine somatotropin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Settivari, R S; Spain, J N; Ellersieck, M R; Byatt, J C; Collier, R J; Spiers, D E</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>The responses of lactating Holstein cows to daily administration of bovine somatotropin (bST) were measured at thermoneutrality (Tn) and under both constant and cycled <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stress conditions to determine the relationship between thermal status and bST-induced shifts in milk <span class="hlt">production</span>. All tests included a 5-d acclimation period at Tn (18 degrees C), followed by a 2-d increase in ambient temperature to 28.5 degrees C. After d 3, ambient temperature was cycled between 28.5 (day) and 25.5 degrees C (night) for 4 d. Daily injections with either 31 mg of bST or saline began on d 1 of the experiment. Milk <span class="hlt">production</span>, feed intake, and respiratory rate (RR) were measured daily. Intraperitoneal, telemetric temperature transmitters were used for a continuous measure of core body temperature (T(core)). Blood samples were collected during each phase to evaluate the changes in serum chemistry in response to bST and <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. Following a 15-d recovery, cows were switched across injection treatments and the study was repeated. Milk <span class="hlt">production</span> decreased by approximately 18.4% below the initial yield at Tn by the end of 7 d of <span class="hlt">heat</span> challenge. Although a reduction in milk <span class="hlt">production</span> occurred during <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress in both groups, milk <span class="hlt">production</span> was higher in bST-treated cows compared with control cows during periods of constant and cyclic <span class="hlt">heat</span>. Likewise, bST treatment during the entire period increased the milk-to-feed ratio over the control level by approximately 11.3%. Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 and serum nonesterified fatty acids accompanied the increased growth hormone level with bST treatment (approximately 122.0 and 88.8%, respectively), whereas plasma urea nitrogen was reduced by approximately 13.3% to reflect the shift to lipid metabolism. There was no difference in T(core) of the treatment and control groups at Tn. Both bST and control cows increased RR and T(core) above the Tn level by approximately 94.8 and 2.9%, respectively, during constant <span class="hlt">heat</span>, with a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21796051','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21796051"><span>Sweating is greater in NCAA football linemen independently of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deren, Tomasz M; Coris, Eric E; Bain, Anthony R; Walz, Steve M; Jay, Ollie</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The study's purpose was to investigate whether differences in local sweat rates on the upper body between American football linemen (L) and backs (B) exist independently of differences in metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. Twelve NCAA Division I American football players (6 linemen (mass = 141.6 ± 6.5 kg, body surface area (BSA) = 2.67 ± 0.08 m2) and 6 backs (mass = 88.1 ± 13.4 kg, BSA = 2.11 ± 0.19 m2)) cycled at a fixed metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> per unit BSA of 350 W·m(-2) for 60 min in a climatic chamber (t(db) [dry bulb temperature] = 32.4°C ± 1.0°C, t(wb) [wet bulb temperature] = 26.3°C ± 0.6°C, v [air velocity] = 0.9 ± 0.1 m·s(-1)). Local sweat rates on the head, arm, shoulder, lower back, and chest were measured after 10, 30, and 50 min of exercise. Core temperature, mean skin temperature, and HR were measured throughout exercise. Because metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> per unit surface area was fixed between participants, the rate of evaporation required for <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance was similar (L = 261 ± 35 W·m(-2), B = 294 ± 30 W·m(-2), P = 0.11). However, local sweat rates on the head, arm, shoulder, and chest were all significantly greater (P < 0.05) in linemen at all time points, and end-exercise core temperature was significantly greater (P = 0.033) in linemen (38.5°C ± 0.4°C) relative to backs (38.0°C ± 0.2°C) despite a ∼25% lower <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> per unit mass. The change in mean skin temperature from rest was greater in linemen (P < 0.001) after 15, 30, 45, and 60 min, and HR was greater in linemen for the last 30 min of exercise. Football linemen sweat significantly more on the torso and head than football backs independently of any differences in metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> per unit BSA and therefore the evaporative requirements for <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance. Despite greater sweating, linemen demonstrated significantly greater elevations in core temperature suggesting that sweating efficiency (i.e., the proportion of sweat that evaporates) was much lower in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24239977','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24239977"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span>-resistance of Hamigera avellanea and Thermoascus crustaceus isolated from pasteurized acid <span class="hlt">products</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scaramuzza, Nicoletta; Berni, Elettra</p> <p>2014-01-03</p> <p><span class="hlt">Products</span> containing sugar or fruit derivatives are usually subjected to a pasteurization process that can anyway be ineffective to kill ascospores from <span class="hlt">heat</span>-resistant molds. Although the most occurring and economically relevant <span class="hlt">heat</span>-resistant species belong to Byssochlamys, Neosartorya, Talaromyces, and Eupenicillium genera, an increasing number of uncommon <span class="hlt">heat</span>-resistant isolates have been recently detected as spoiling microorganisms in such <span class="hlt">products</span>. Since Hamigera spp. and Thermoascus spp. were those more frequently isolated at SSICA, <span class="hlt">heat</span> resistance of Hamigera avellanea and Thermoascus crustaceus strains from pasteurized acid <span class="hlt">products</span> was studied in apple juice, in blueberry and grape juice and in a buffered glucose solution. Data obtained from thermal death curves and statistical elaboration of raw data showed that D values of H. avellanea may vary between 11.11 and 66.67 min at 87°C, between 4.67 and 13.51 at 90°C, and between 0.43 and 1.52 min at 95°C. Similarly, D values of T. crustaceus may vary between 18.52 and 90.91 min at 90°C, between 2.79 and 19.23 at 93°C, and between 1.11 and 2.53 min at 95°C. For both strains studied, the z-values calculated from the decimal reduction time curves did not prove to be significantly influenced by the <span class="hlt">heating</span> medium, that being 4.35°C, 5.39°C or 5.27°C for H. avellanea and 4.42°C, 3.69°C or 3.37°C for T. crustaceus, respectively in apple juice, in blueberry and grape juice or in the buffered glucose solution. Considering the pasteurization treatments industrially applied to fruit-based foods, the variation of thermal parameters does not seem to be a possible way to avoid <span class="hlt">product</span> spoilage by these two species and only good practices applied to reduce the original load of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-resistant fungi can help producers to prevent losses in contaminated finished <span class="hlt">products</span>, as usually happens for other <span class="hlt">heat</span> resistant molds. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27939928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27939928"><span>How Vial Geometry Variability Influences <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Transfer and <span class="hlt">Product</span> Temperature During Freeze-Drying.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scutellà, Bernadette; Passot, Stéphanie; Bourlés, Erwan; Fonseca, Fernanda; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Vial design features can play a significant role in <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer between the shelf and the <span class="hlt">product</span> and, consequently, in the final quality of the freeze-dried <span class="hlt">product</span>. Our objective was to investigate the impact of the variability of some geometrical dimensions of a set of tubing vials commonly used for pharmaceuticals <span class="hlt">production</span> on the distribution of the vial <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficients (Kv) and its potential consequence on <span class="hlt">product</span> temperature. Sublimation tests were carried out using pure water and 8 combinations of chamber pressure (4-50 Pa) and shelf temperature (-40°C and 0°C) in 2 freeze-dryers. Kv values were individually determined for 100 vials located in the center of the shelf. Vial bottom curvature depth and contact area between the vial and the shelf were carefully measured for 120 vials and these data were used to calculate Kv distribution due to variability in vial geometry. At low pressures commonly used for sensitive <span class="hlt">products</span> (below 10 Pa), the vial-shelf contact area appeared crucial for explaining Kv heterogeneity and was found to generate, in our study, a <span class="hlt">product</span> temperature distribution of approximately 2°C during sublimation. Our approach provides quantitative guidelines for defining vial geometry tolerance specifications and <span class="hlt">product</span> temperature safety margins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ASAJ..113..586Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ASAJ..113..586Z"><span>Suppression of large intraluminal bubble expansion in shock wave lithotripsy without compromising stone <span class="hlt">comminution</span>: Refinement of reflector geometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Yufeng; Zhong, Pei</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Using the Hamilton model [Hamilton, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 93, 1256-1266 (1993)], the effects of reflector geometry on the pulse profile and sequence of the shock waves produced by the original and upgraded reflector of an HM-3 lithotripter were evaluated qualitatively. Guided by this analysis, we have refined the geometry of the upgraded reflector to enhance its suppressive effect on intraluminal bubble expansion without compromising stone <span class="hlt">comminution</span> in shock wave lithotripsy. Using the original HM-3 reflector at 20 kV, rupture of a standard vessel phantom made of cellulose hollow fiber (i.d.=0.2 mm), in which degassed water seeded with ultrasound contrast agents was circulated, was produced at the lithotripter focus after about 30 shocks. In contrast, using the upgraded reflector at 24 kV no rupture of the vessel phantom could be produced within a 20-mm diameter around the lithotripter focus even after 200 shocks. On the other hand, stone <span class="hlt">comminution</span> was comparable between the two reflector configurations, although slightly larger fragments were produced by the upgraded reflector. After 2000 shocks, stone <span class="hlt">comminution</span> efficiency produced by the original HM-3 reflector at 20 kV is 97.15+/-1.92% (mean+/-SD), compared to 90.35+/-1.96% produced by the upgraded reflector at 24 kV (p<0.02). All together, it was found that the upgraded reflector could significantly reduce the propensity for vessel rupture in shock wave lithotripsy while maintaining satisfactory stone <span class="hlt">comminution</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25706149','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25706149"><span>Single-incision open reduction and internal fixation of <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> trapezium fractures with distal radius cancellous autograft.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matzon, Jonas L; Reb, Christopher W; Danowski, Ryan M; Lutsky, Kevin</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Trapezium fractures comprise approximately 3% to 5% of all hand fractures. Although operative management of intra-articular trapezium fractures can result in good functional outcomes, there is very little literature addressing specific operative techniques. We describe a technique for open reduction and internal fixation of severely <span class="hlt">comminuted</span>, intra-articular trapezium fractures, utilizing autogenous cancellous bone graft from the distal radius.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=285480','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=285480"><span>Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick <span class="hlt">comminuting</span> mill</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick <span class="hlt">Comminuting</span> Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24218624','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24218624"><span><span class="hlt">Comminution</span> of solids caused by kinetic energy of high shear strain rate, with implications for impact, shock, and shale fracturing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bazant, Zdenek P; Caner, Ferhun C</p> <p>2013-11-26</p> <p>Although there exists a vast literature on the dynamic <span class="hlt">comminution</span> or fragmentation of rocks, concrete, metals, and ceramics, none of the known models suffices for macroscopic dynamic finite element analysis. This paper outlines the basic idea of the macroscopic model. Unlike static fracture, in which the driving force is the release of strain energy, here the essential idea is that the driving force of <span class="hlt">comminution</span> under high-rate compression is the release of the local kinetic energy of shear strain rate. The density of this energy at strain rates >1,000/s is found to exceed the maximum possible strain energy density by orders of magnitude, making the strain energy irrelevant. It is shown that particle size is proportional to the -2/3 power of the shear strain rate and the 2/3 power of the interface fracture energy or interface shear stress, and that the <span class="hlt">comminution</span> process is macroscopically equivalent to an apparent shear viscosity that is proportional (at constant interface stress) to the -1/3 power of this rate. A dimensionless indicator of the <span class="hlt">comminution</span> intensity is formulated. The theory was inspired by noting that the local kinetic energy of shear strain rate plays a role analogous to the local kinetic energy of eddies in turbulent flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMEP...20..623L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMEP...20..623L"><span>Patellar Shape-Memory Fixator for the Treatment of <span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> Fractures of the Inferior Pole of the Patella</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xin-Wei; Shang, Hui-Juan; Xu, Shuo-Gui; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Chun-Cai; Fu, Qing-Ge</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> and displaced fractures of the inferior pole of the patella are not easy to reduce and it is difficult to fix the fragments soundly enough to allow early movement of the knee. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the internal fixation technique with Patellar Shape-Memory Fixator (PSMF) in acute <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fractures of the inferior pole of the patella. We retrospectively studied 25 patients with <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fractures of the inferior pole of the patella who were treated with PSMF and followed up for a mean period of 26 months (14 to 60). All the fractures healed at a mean of 6 weeks (5 to 7). The mean grading at the final follow-up was 29.5 points (27 to 30) using the Bostman score, with no observable restriction of movement. No breakage of the PSMF or infection occurred. No delayed union, nonunion, and infection were seen. This technique preserved the length of the patella, reduced the <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fragments of the inferior pole and avoided long-term immobilization of the knee.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27669898','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27669898"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and error probability relation in Landauer reset at effective temperature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neri, Igor; López-Suárez, Miquel</p> <p>2016-09-27</p> <p>The erasure of a classical bit of information is a dissipative process. The minimum <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced during this operation has been theorized by Rolf Landauer in 1961 to be equal to kBT ln2 and takes the name of Landauer limit, Landauer reset or Landauer principle. Despite its fundamental importance, the Landauer limit remained untested experimentally for more than fifty years until recently when it has been tested using colloidal particles and magnetic dots. Experimental measurements on different devices, like micro-mechanical systems or nano-electronic devices are still missing. Here we show the results obtained in performing the Landauer reset operation in a micro-mechanical system, operated at an effective temperature. The measured <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange is in accordance with the theory reaching values close to the expected limit. The data obtained for the <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> is then correlated to the probability of error in accomplishing the reset operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5037424','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5037424"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and error probability relation in Landauer reset at effective temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Neri, Igor; López-Suárez, Miquel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The erasure of a classical bit of information is a dissipative process. The minimum <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced during this operation has been theorized by Rolf Landauer in 1961 to be equal to kBT ln2 and takes the name of Landauer limit, Landauer reset or Landauer principle. Despite its fundamental importance, the Landauer limit remained untested experimentally for more than fifty years until recently when it has been tested using colloidal particles and magnetic dots. Experimental measurements on different devices, like micro-mechanical systems or nano-electronic devices are still missing. Here we show the results obtained in performing the Landauer reset operation in a micro-mechanical system, operated at an effective temperature. The measured <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange is in accordance with the theory reaching values close to the expected limit. The data obtained for the <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> is then correlated to the probability of error in accomplishing the reset operation. PMID:27669898</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21636998','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21636998"><span>Molecular responses of Escherichia coli caused by <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress and recombinant protein <span class="hlt">production</span> during temperature induction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Ramírez, Octavio T; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In a recent review, we discussed the extensively used temperature-inducible expression system, based on the pL and/or pR phage lambda promoters that are finely regulated by the thermo-labile cI857 repressor. In this system, an increase in temperature induces the heterologous protein <span class="hlt">production</span> and activates the <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock response, as well as the stringent and SOS responses. The same responses are activated just by the overproduction of recombinant protein. All such responses result in a metabolic burden to the cells, a decrease in the specific growth rate, and alterations in the central carbon metabolism. Altogether, these effects can alter the quantity and quality of the produced foreign protein. Here, we compare and discuss the transcription of selected genes, and the concomitant synthesis of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-shock proteins (hsp) soon after thermal induction, in relation to the responses that occur in other expression systems that also trigger the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-shock response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23361099','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23361099"><span>PCR-SSCP-based reconstruction of the original fungal flora of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-processed meat <span class="hlt">products</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dorn-In, Samart; Hölzel, Christina S; Janke, Tobias; Schwaiger, Karin; Balsliemke, Joachim; Bauer, Johann</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Food processing of spoiled meat is prohibited by law, since it is a deception and does not comply with food safety aspects. In general, spoilage of meat is mostly caused by bacteria. However, a high contamination level of fungi could be also found in some meat or meat <span class="hlt">products</span> with certain preserving conditions. In case that unhygienic meat is used to produce <span class="hlt">heat</span> processed <span class="hlt">products</span>, the microorganisms will be deactivated by <span class="hlt">heat</span>, so that they cannot be detected by a standard cultivation method. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and apply a molecular biological method--polymerase chain reaction and single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP)--to reconstruct the original fungal flora of <span class="hlt">heat</span> processed meat. Twenty primer pairs were tested for their specificity for fungal DNA. Since none of them fully complied with all study criteria (such as high specificity and sensitivity for fungal DNA; suitability of the <span class="hlt">products</span> for PCR-SSCP) in the matrix "meat", we designed a new reverse primer, ITS5.8R. The primer pair ITS1/ITS5.8R amplified DNA from all tested fungal species, but not DNA from meat-producing animals or from ingredients of plant origin (spices). For the final test, 32 DNA bands in acrylamide gel from 15 meat <span class="hlt">products</span> and 1 soy sauce were sequenced-all originating from fungal species, which were, in other studies, reported to contaminate meat e.g. Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida rugosa, C. tropicalis, C. zeylanoides, Eurotium amstelodami and Pichia membranifaciens, and/or spices such as Botrytis aclada, Guignardia mangiferae, Itersonilia perplexans, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Lewia infectoria, Neofusicoccum parvum and Pleospora herbarum. This confirms the suitability of PCR-SSCP to specifically detect fungal DNA in <span class="hlt">heat</span> processed meat <span class="hlt">products</span>, and thus provides an overview of fungal species contaminating raw material such as meat and spices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PMag...91.1864D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PMag...91.1864D"><span>Dissipated energy and entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> for an unconventional <span class="hlt">heat</span> engine: the stepwise `circular cycle'</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>di Liberto, Francesco; Pastore, Raffaele; Peruggi, Fulvio</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>When some entropy is transferred, by means of a reversible engine, from a hot <span class="hlt">heat</span> source to a colder one, the maximum efficiency occurs, i.e. the maximum available work is obtained. Similarly, a reversible <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps transfer entropy from a cold <span class="hlt">heat</span> source to a hotter one with the minimum expense of energy. In contrast, if we are faced with non-reversible devices, there is some lost work for <span class="hlt">heat</span> engines, and some extra work for <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumps. These quantities are both related to entropy <span class="hlt">production</span>. The lost work, i.e. ? , is also called 'degraded energy' or 'energy unavailable to do work'. The extra work, i.e. ? , is the excess of work performed on the system in the irreversible process with respect to the reversible one (or the excess of <span class="hlt">heat</span> given to the hotter source in the irreversible process). Both quantities are analysed in detail and are evaluated for a complex process, i.e. the stepwise circular cycle, which is similar to the stepwise Carnot cycle. The stepwise circular cycle is a cycle performed by means of N small weights, dw, which are first added and then removed from the piston of the vessel containing the gas or vice versa. The work performed by the gas can be found as the increase of the potential energy of the dw's. Each single dw is identified and its increase, i.e. its increase in potential energy, evaluated. In such a way it is found how the energy output of the cycle is distributed among the dw's. The size of the dw's affects entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> and therefore the lost and extra work. The distribution of increases depends on the chosen removal process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007360','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007360"><span>Development of Naphthalene PLIF for Visualizing Ablation <span class="hlt">Products</span> From a Space Capsule <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Shield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Combs, C. S.; Clemens, N. T.; Danehy, P. M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will use an ablative <span class="hlt">heat</span> shield. To better design this <span class="hlt">heat</span> shield and others that will undergo planetary entry, an improved understanding of the ablation process would be beneficial. Here, a technique developed at The University of Texas at Austin that uses planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a low-temperature sublimating ablator (naphthalene) to enable visualization of the ablation <span class="hlt">products</span> in a hypersonic flow is applied. Although high-temperature ablation is difficult and expensive to recreate in a laboratory environment, low-temperature sublimation creates a limited physics problem that can be used to explore ablation-<span class="hlt">product</span> transport in a hypersonic flow-field. In the current work, a subscale capsule reentry vehicle model with a solid naphthalene <span class="hlt">heat</span> shield has been tested in a Mach 5 wind tunnel. The PLIF technique provides images of the spatial distribution of sublimated naphthalene in the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-shield boundary layer, separated shear layer, and backshell recirculation region. Visualizations of the capsule shear layer using both naphthalene PLIF and Schlieren imaging compared favorably. PLIF images have shown high concentrations of naphthalene in the capsule separated flow region, intermittent turbulent structures on the <span class="hlt">heat</span> shield surface, and interesting details of the capsule shear layer structure. It was shown that, in general, the capsule shear layer appears to be more unsteady at lower angels of attack. The PLIF images demonstrated that during a wind tunnel run, as the model <span class="hlt">heated</span> up, the rate of naphthalene ablation increased, since the PLIF signal increased steadily over the course of a run. Additionally, the shear layer became increasingly unsteady over the course of a wind tunnel run, likely because of increased surface roughness but also possibly because of the increased blowing. Regions with a relatively low concentration of naphthalene were also identified in the capsule backshell</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24844887','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24844887"><span>Fracture reduction and primary ankle arthrodesis: a reliable approach for severely <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> tibial pilon fracture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beaman, Douglas N; Gellman, Richard</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Posttraumatic arthritis and prolonged recovery are typical after a severely <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> tibial pilon fracture, and ankle arthrodesis is a common salvage procedure. However, few reports discuss the option of immediate arthrodesis, which may be a potentially viable approach to accelerate overall recovery in patients with severe fracture patterns. (1) How long does it take the fracture to heal and the arthrodesis to fuse when primary ankle arthrodesis is a component of initial fracture management? (2) How do these patients fare clinically in terms of modified American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores and activity levels after this treatment? (3) Does primary ankle arthrodesis heal in an acceptable position when anterior ankle arthrodesis plates are used? During a 2-year period, we performed open fracture reduction and internal fixation in 63 patients. Eleven patients (12 ankles) with severely <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> high-energy tibial pilon fractures were retrospectively reviewed after surgical treatment with primary ankle arthrodesis and fracture reduction. Average patient age was 58 years, and minimum followup was 6 months (average, 14 months; range, 6-22 months). Anatomically designed anterior ankle arthrodesis plates were used in 10 ankles. Ring external fixation was used in nine ankles with concomitant tibia fracture or in instances requiring additional fixation. Clinical evaluation included chart review, interview, the AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score, and radiographic evaluation. All of the ankle arthrodeses healed at an average of 4.4 months (range, 3-5 months). One patient had a nonunion at the metaphyseal fracture, which healed with revision surgery. The average AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score was 83 with 88% having an excellent or good result. Radiographic and clinical analysis confirmed a plantigrade foot without malalignment. No patients required revision surgery for malunion. Primary ankle arthrodesis combined with fracture reduction for the severely <span class="hlt">comminuted</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4610912','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4610912"><span><span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> olecranon fracture fixation with pre-contoured plate: Comparison of composite and cadaver bones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hamilton Jr, David A; Reilly, Danielle; Wipf, Felix; Kamineni, Srinath</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>AIM: To determine whether use of a precontoured olecranon plate provides adequate fixation to withstand supraphysiologic force in a <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> olecranon fracture model. METHODS: Five samples of fourth generation composite bones and five samples of fresh frozen human cadaveric left ulnae were utilized for this study. The cadaveric specimens underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning to quantify the bone quality. The composite and cadaveric bones were prepared by creating a <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> olecranon fracture and fixed with a pre-contoured olecranon plate with locking screws. Construct stiffness and failure load were measured by subjecting specimens to cantilever bending moments until failure. Fracture site motion was measured with differential variable resistance transducer spanning the fracture. Statistical analysis was performed with two-tailed Mann-Whitney-U test with Monte Carlo Exact test. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in fixation stiffness and strength between the composite bones and human cadaver bones. Failure modes differed in cadaveric and composite specimens. The load to failure for the composite bones (n = 5) and human cadaver bones (n = 5) specimens were 10.67 nm (range 9.40-11.91 nm) and 13.05 nm (range 12.59-15.38 nm) respectively. This difference was statistically significant (P ˂ 0.007, 97% power). Median stiffness for composite bones and human cadaver bones specimens were 5.69 nm/mm (range 4.69-6.80 nm/mm) and 7.55 nm/mm (range 6.31-7.72 nm/mm). There was a significant difference for stiffness (P ˂ 0.033, 79% power) between composite bones and cadaveric bones. No correlation was found between the DEXA results and stiffness. All cadaveric specimens withstood the physiologic load anticipated postoperatively. Catastrophic failure occurred in all composite specimens. All failures resulted from composite bone failure at the distal screw site and not hardware failure. There were no catastrophic fracture failures in the cadaveric</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/415171','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/415171"><span>Subtask 12A1: Fabrication of <span class="hlt">production</span>-scale <span class="hlt">heat</span> of V-4Cr-4Ti</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chung, H.M.; Tsai, H.C.; Smith, D.L.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>On the basis of excellent properties that were determined for a laboratory-scale <span class="hlt">heat</span>, V-4Cr-4Ti has been identified previously as the most promising vanadium-based candidate alloy for application in fusion reactor structural components. The objective of this work is to produce a large-scale (500-kg) ingot of the alloy and fabricate various plates and sheets from the ingot, thereby demonstrating a reliable method of fabricating an industrial-scale <span class="hlt">heat</span> of V-4Cr-4Ti that exhibits excellent properties. A 500-kg <span class="hlt">heat</span> of V-4Cr-4Ti, an alloy identified previously as the most promising vanadium-based candidate alloy for application in fusion reactor structural components, has been produced. The ingot was produced by multiple vacuum-arc melting using screened high-quality raw materials of vanadium, chrome, and titanium. Several long bars {approx}64 mm in thickness and {approx}200 mm in width were extruded from the ingot, and plates and sheets of various thicknesses ranging from 1.0 to 29.2 mm were fabricated successfully from the extruded bars. The chemical composition of the ingot and the secondary fabrication procedures, specified on the basis of the experience and knowledge gained from fabrication, testing, and microstructural characterization of a laboratory-scale <span class="hlt">heat</span>, were found to be satisfactory. Charpy-impact tests showed that mechanical properties of the <span class="hlt">production</span>-scale <span class="hlt">heat</span> are as good as those of the laboratory-scale <span class="hlt">heat</span>. This demonstrates a method of reliable fabrication of industrial-scale <span class="hlt">heats</span> of V-4Cr-4Ti that exhibit excellent properties. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20778982','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20778982"><span>Measurements of bremsstrahlung <span class="hlt">production</span> and x-ray cryostat <span class="hlt">heating</span> in VENUS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lyneis, C.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.; Virostek, S.; Loew, T.; Heinen, A.; Tarvainen, O.</p> <p>2006-03-15</p> <p>The VENUS superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is designed to operate at 28 GHz with up to 10 kW of rf power. Most of this power is absorbed by the plasma electrons and then dumped onto the plasma chamber wall. The distribution of <span class="hlt">heating</span> and bremsstrahlung <span class="hlt">production</span> is highly nonuniform and reflects the geometry of the magnetic confinement fields. The nonuniform distribution of electron losses to the wall results in localized <span class="hlt">heating</span> on the aluminum chamber walls, which can lead to burnout. In addition, part of the bremsstrahlung produced by the collision of the hot-electrons with the walls is absorbed by the cold mass of the superconducting magnet leading to an additional <span class="hlt">heat</span> load in the cryostat in the order of several watts. Therefore a new plasma chamber has been installed that incorporates a high-Z tantalum shield to reduce the cryostat <span class="hlt">heating</span> and enhance water cooling to minimize the chance of burnout. In order to better understand the <span class="hlt">heat</span> load, the spectrum of the bremsstrahlung has been carefully measured as a function of rf power, magnetic confinement, and rf frequency. In addition, the distribution of electron <span class="hlt">heating</span> in VENUS magnetic field has been simulated with a three-dimensional computer code [H. Heinen and H. J. Andra, Proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on ECR Sources (CERN, Geneva, 1999), 224; H. J. Andra and A. Heinen, Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on ECR lon Sources, ECRIS'02 (Jyvaeskylae, Finland 2002), 85.] to better understand the <span class="hlt">heat</span> load distribution on the plasma chamber wall. The new plasma chamber design, results of the bremsstrahlung measurements, and the effectiveness of the high-Z shielding are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdWR...79..153H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdWR...79..153H"><span>Dissolved gas exsolution to enhance gas <span class="hlt">production</span> and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance <span class="hlt">heating</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hegele, P. R.; Mumford, K. G.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Condensation of volatile organic compounds in colder zones can be detrimental to the performance of an in situ thermal treatment application for the remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones. A novel method to increase gas <span class="hlt">production</span> and limit convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss in more permeable, potentially colder, zones involves the injection and liberation of dissolved gas from solution during <span class="hlt">heating</span>. Bench-scale electrical resistance <span class="hlt">heating</span> experiments were performed with a dissolved carbon dioxide and sodium chloride solution to investigate exsolved gas saturations and transport regimes at elevated, but sub-boiling, temperatures. At sub-boiling temperatures, maximum exsolved gas saturations of Sg = 0.12 were attained, and could be sustained when the carbon dioxide solution was injected during <span class="hlt">heating</span> rather than emplaced prior to <span class="hlt">heating</span>. This gas saturation was estimated to decrease groundwater relative permeability to krw = 0.64. Discontinuous gas transport was observed above saturations of Sg = 0.07, demonstrating the potential of exsolved CO2 to bridge vertical gas transport through colder zones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17390399','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17390399"><span>Reducing the formation of glucose degradation <span class="hlt">products</span> in peritoneal dialysis solutions by ultrahigh temperature ohmic <span class="hlt">heating</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shapira, Alina; Shazman, Asher; Ungar, Yael; Shimoni, Eyal</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is commonly performed by using preprepared dialysis solutions containing glucose, which are thermally treated to achieve commercial sterilization. A series of glucose degradation <span class="hlt">products</span> (GDPs) are being formed, which react with the tissue during the dialysis procedure, thus baring a negative effect on the patient and the dialysis process. The present study tested the efficacy of ohmic <span class="hlt">heating</span> as an alternative thermal treatment for continuous sterilization of PD solutions. The process was compared to conventional retort treatment, and GDPs accumulation was measured. Thermal treatments using the ohmic <span class="hlt">heating</span> system were performed at three temperatures (105, 125, and 150 degrees C) with residence time at each temperature ranging from 0.84 to 12.0 s. The resulting concentrations of glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO), and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) in the PD solutions were measured. None of these GDPs were found in PD fluids treated by ohmic <span class="hlt">heating</span> at 105 degrees C. The concentration of 3-DG, after a standard sterilization treatment (121 degrees C, 20 or 40 min) was one order of magnitude higher (approximately 140 and 242 microM) than after ohmic <span class="hlt">heating</span> treatment at 125 degrees C. The results of the present study suggest that this technique can be used to produce solutions with much lower content of GDPs. It also demonstrates the advantage of using the ohmic <span class="hlt">heating</span> technology as a tool for high temperature short time treatment of PD fluids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..426H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..426H"><span>Revisiting the global surface energy budgets with maximum-entropy-<span class="hlt">production</span> model of surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Shih-Yu; Deng, Yi; Wang, Jingfeng</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The maximum-entropy-<span class="hlt">production</span> (MEP) model of surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes, based on contemporary non-equilibrium thermodynamics, information theory, and atmospheric turbulence theory, is used to re-estimate the global surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes. The MEP model predicted surface fluxes automatically balance the surface energy budgets at all time and space scales without the explicit use of near-surface temperature and moisture gradient, wind speed and surface roughness data. The new MEP-based global annual mean fluxes over the land surface, using input data of surface radiation, temperature data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (NASA CERES) supplemented by surface specific humidity data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), agree closely with previous estimates. The new estimate of ocean evaporation, not using the MERRA reanalysis data as model inputs, is lower than previous estimates, while the new estimate of ocean sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux is higher than previously reported. The MEP model also produces the first global map of ocean surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux that is not available from existing global reanalysis <span class="hlt">products</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...49.1531H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...49.1531H"><span>Revisiting the global surface energy budgets with maximum-entropy-<span class="hlt">production</span> model of surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Shih-Yu; Deng, Yi; Wang, Jingfeng</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>The maximum-entropy-<span class="hlt">production</span> (MEP) model of surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes, based on contemporary non-equilibrium thermodynamics, information theory, and atmospheric turbulence theory, is used to re-estimate the global surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> fluxes. The MEP model predicted surface fluxes automatically balance the surface energy budgets at all time and space scales without the explicit use of near-surface temperature and moisture gradient, wind speed and surface roughness data. The new MEP-based global annual mean fluxes over the land surface, using input data of surface radiation, temperature data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (NASA CERES) supplemented by surface specific humidity data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), agree closely with previous estimates. The new estimate of ocean evaporation, not using the MERRA reanalysis data as model inputs, is lower than previous estimates, while the new estimate of ocean sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux is higher than previously reported. The MEP model also produces the first global map of ocean surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux that is not available from existing global reanalysis <span class="hlt">products</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1223713','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1223713"><span>Hyperthyroidism increases the uncoupled ATPase activity and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Arruda, Ana Paula; Da-Silva, Wagner S; Carvalho, Denise P; De Meis, Leopoldo</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase is able to modulate the distribution of energy released during ATP hydrolysis, so that a portion of energy is used for Ca2+ transport (coupled ATPase activity) and a portion is converted into <span class="hlt">heat</span> (uncoupled ATPase activity). In this report it is shown that T4 administration to rabbits promotes an increase in the rates of both the uncoupled ATPase activity and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, and that the degree of activation varies depending on the muscle type used. In white muscles hyperthyroidism promotes a 0.8-fold increase of the uncoupled ATPase activity and in red muscle a 4-fold increase. The yield of vesicles from hyperthyroid muscles is 3-4-fold larger than that obtained from normal muscles; thus the rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by the Ca2+-ATPase expressed in terms of g of muscle in hyperthyroidism is increased by a factor of 3.6 in white muscles and 12.0 in red muscles. The data presented suggest that the Ca2+-ATPase uncoupled activity may represent one of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources that contributes to the enhanced thermogenesis noted in hyperthyroidism. PMID:12887329</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28706531','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28706531"><span>Crop <span class="hlt">Production</span> under Drought and <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Stress: Plant Responses and Management Options.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fahad, Shah; Bajwa, Ali A; Nazir, Usman; Anjum, Shakeel A; Farooq, Ayesha; Zohaib, Ali; Sadia, Sehrish; Nasim, Wajid; Adkins, Steve; Saud, Shah; Ihsan, Muhammad Z; Alharby, Hesham; Wu, Chao; Wang, Depeng; Huang, Jianliang</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Abiotic stresses are one of the major constraints to crop <span class="hlt">production</span> and food security worldwide. The situation has aggravated due to the drastic and rapid changes in global climate. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> and drought are undoubtedly the two most important stresses having huge impact on growth and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of the crops. It is very important to understand the physiological, biochemical, and ecological interventions related to these stresses for better management. A wide range of plant responses to these stresses could be generalized into morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses. Interestingly, this review provides a detailed account of plant responses to <span class="hlt">heat</span> and drought stresses with special focus on highlighting the commonalities and differences. Crop growth and yields are negatively affected by sub-optimal water supply and abnormal temperatures due to physical damages, physiological disruptions, and biochemical changes. Both these stresses have multi-lateral impacts and therefore, complex in mechanistic action. A better understanding of plant responses to these stresses has pragmatic implication for remedies and management. A comprehensive account of conventional as well as modern approaches to deal with <span class="hlt">heat</span> and drought stresses have also been presented here. A side-by-side critical discussion on salient responses and management strategies for these two important abiotic stresses provides a unique insight into the phenomena. A holistic approach taking into account the different management options to deal with <span class="hlt">heat</span> and drought stress simultaneously could be a win-win approach in future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5489704','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5489704"><span>Crop <span class="hlt">Production</span> under Drought and <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Stress: Plant Responses and Management Options</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fahad, Shah; Bajwa, Ali A.; Nazir, Usman; Anjum, Shakeel A.; Farooq, Ayesha; Zohaib, Ali; Sadia, Sehrish; Nasim, Wajid; Adkins, Steve; Saud, Shah; Ihsan, Muhammad Z.; Alharby, Hesham; Wu, Chao; Wang, Depeng; Huang, Jianliang</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Abiotic stresses are one of the major constraints to crop <span class="hlt">production</span> and food security worldwide. The situation has aggravated due to the drastic and rapid changes in global climate. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> and drought are undoubtedly the two most important stresses having huge impact on growth and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of the crops. It is very important to understand the physiological, biochemical, and ecological interventions related to these stresses for better management. A wide range of plant responses to these stresses could be generalized into morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses. Interestingly, this review provides a detailed account of plant responses to <span class="hlt">heat</span> and drought stresses with special focus on highlighting the commonalities and differences. Crop growth and yields are negatively affected by sub-optimal water supply and abnormal temperatures due to physical damages, physiological disruptions, and biochemical changes. Both these stresses have multi-lateral impacts and therefore, complex in mechanistic action. A better understanding of plant responses to these stresses has pragmatic implication for remedies and management. A comprehensive account of conventional as well as modern approaches to deal with <span class="hlt">heat</span> and drought stresses have also been presented here. A side-by-side critical discussion on salient responses and management strategies for these two important abiotic stresses provides a unique insight into the phenomena. A holistic approach taking into account the different management options to deal with <span class="hlt">heat</span> and drought stress simultaneously could be a win-win approach in future. PMID:28706531</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26566956','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26566956"><span>Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-not-burn tobacco <span class="hlt">products</span> in Japan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Hoshino, Takahiro; Bekki, Kanae; Inaba, Yohei; Kunugita, Naoki</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In addition to some electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), new <span class="hlt">heat</span>-not-burn tobacco <span class="hlt">products</span> Ploom and iQOS have recently begun to be sold by tobacco companies. These <span class="hlt">products</span> are regulated differently in Japan, depending on whether the contents are liquid or tobacco leaf. Our objective was to estimate percentages of awareness and use of e-cigarettes and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-not-burn tobacco <span class="hlt">products</span> among the Japanese population, including minors. An internet survey (randomly sampled research agency panellists) with a propensity score adjustment for "being a respondent in an internet survey" using a nationally representative sample in Japan. A total of 8240 respondents aged 15-69 years in 2015 (4084 men and 4156 women). Adjusted percentages of awareness and use of e-cigarettes (nicotine or non-nicotine e-cigarettes) and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-not-burn <span class="hlt">products</span> among total participants; <span class="hlt">product</span> types and percentages ever used among e-cigarettes ever users. Of respondents in Japan, 48% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 47-49] were aware of e-cigarettes and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-not-burn tobacco <span class="hlt">products</span>, 6.6% (95% CI = 6.1-7.1) had ever used, 1.3% (95% CI = 1.0-1.5) had used in the last 30 days and 1.3% (95% CI = 1.1-1.6) had experience of > 50 sessions. Seventy-two per cent (95% CI = 69-76) of ever users used non-nicotine e-cigarettes, while 33% (95% CI = 30-37) of them used nicotine e-cigarettes, which has the majority share world-wide; 7.8% (95% CI = 5.5-10.0) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.1-10.7) of them used the new devices, Ploom and iQOS, respectively, with a relatively higher percentage among the younger population. Approximately half the respondents in a Japanese internet survey were aware of e-cigarettes and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-not-burn tobacco <span class="hlt">products</span>, 6.6% had ever used. More than 70% of ever users used non-nicotine e-cigarettes, the sale of which is not legally prohibited, even to minors, in Japan, and 33% of them used nicotine e-cigarettes; 3.5% of never smoking men and 1.3% of never smoking women had ever</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25644782','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25644782"><span>Influence of intra-oral sensory impairment by anaesthesia on food <span class="hlt">comminution</span> and mixing in dentate subjects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoshida, E; Fueki, K; Wakabayashi, N</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Sensory input from sensory receptors regarding food morsels can affect jaw motor behaviours during mastication. The aim was to clarify the effects of intra-oral sensory input on the food-<span class="hlt">comminuting</span> and food-mixing capacities of dentate subjects. Eleven dentate subjects without sensory dysfunction in their oro-facial region participated in this study. Local anaesthesia was achieved on the periodontal structures and on the oral mucosa of the subjects' preferred chewing side by injecting a lidocaine solution with adrenalin. At baseline (control) and after anaesthesia, data on the subjects' food-<span class="hlt">comminuting</span> and food-mixing capacities were gathered. The food-<span class="hlt">comminuting</span> capacity was quantified by measuring the degree of pulverisation of peanuts (objective hardness; 45.3 [Newton, N]) after a prescribed 20 chewing strokes. The food-mixing capacity was measured as the degree of immixture of a two-coloured paraffin wax cube after 10 chewing strokes. Wax cubes of three different hardness levels were used (soft, medium and hard: 20.3, 32.6 and 75.5 [N], respectively) and were chewed in random order. After anaesthesia, the subjects' food-<span class="hlt">comminuting</span> capacity significantly decreased (P < 0.001), as did the food-mixing capacity for each hardness level of the wax cubes (P < 0.01). A significant correlation was observed between the objective hardness values and the anaesthesia effects for the food-mixing capacity (P < 0.05), indicating that after anaesthesia, deterioration of the mixing capacity increased as the hardness increased. In conclusion, intra-oral sensory input can affect both food-<span class="hlt">comminuting</span> and food-mixing capacities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16120480','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16120480"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in Eastern Desert, Egypt.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abbady, Adel G E; El-Arabi, A M; Abbady, A</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Radioactive <span class="hlt">heat-production</span> data of Igneous and Metamorphic outcrops in the Eastern Desert are presented. Samples were analysed using a low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The <span class="hlt">heat-production</span> rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 microWm(-3) (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite ) to 0.91 microWm(-3) (metagabbro). The contribution due to U is about 51%, as that from Th is 31% and 18% from K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%, 19% and 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values except in some areas containing granites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9565242','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9565242"><span>The reduction of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in exercising pigeons after L-carnitine supplementation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Janssens, G P; Buyse, J; Seynaeve, M; Decuypere, E; De Wilde, R</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>Four groups (CS,CR,PS,PR) of nine trained male racing pigeons were deprived of feed for 1 d and then subjected to a respiration chamber test in order to study the effect of oral 1-carnitine supplementation on the energy metabolism during flight. One week before, groups CS and CR were orally supplemented with 90 mg of 1-carnitine daily, whereas PS and PR were given a placebo. Groups CS and PS underwent flight simulation by electrostimulation of the breast muscles. Flight simulation increased <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, kept respiratory quotient from decreasing, decreased thyroxine levels, and increased weight loss. L-Carnitine decreased the rise in <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during electrostimulation but did not influence respiratory quotient, weight loss, or thyroid hormones. L-Carnitine supplementation in pigeons improves fatty acid combustion efficiency during heavy exercise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8181975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8181975"><span>Circadian fluctuation in <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of young calves at different ambient temperatures in relation to posture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schrama, J W; Noordhuizen, J P; Arieli, A; Brandsma, H A; van der Linden, J M; Verstegen, M W</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>Circadian fluctuations in the effect of ambient temperature (Ta) on <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (Htot) and its relation to posture were investigated in young calves in this study. Twenty-three 6-d-old Holstein-Friesian male calves were assigned to one of four Ta treatments: 5, 9, 13, or 18 degrees C. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was measured per calf continuously every 9 min by indirect calorimetry for 5 d. The posture during these 9-min periods was derived from physical activity measurements by Doppler-radar meters. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> varied within a day; it was highest when calves were drinking (milk or water). The influence of Ta on Htot was larger for the light (including feeding periods) than for the dark phase of the day, being related to the larger Ta effect during the feeding periods. Lower critical temperatures (LCT) were 14.1, 15.2, and 16.8 degrees C and extra thermal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">productions</span> below LCT (ETH) were 8.48, 8.28, and 11.55 kJ.kg-.75.d-1.C degrees-1 for the dark, the light (excluding feeding periods), and the feeding phase during the day, respectively. Time spent standing was not affected by Ta but varied during the day (24-h period). Averaged over Ta, 51% of the within day variation in Htot was accounted for by the calf's posture. Correction of Htot for the time spent standing reduced the difference in both ETH and LCT between phases of the day. The present study demonstrates that circadian fluctuations exist in the thermal requirements of young calves. Part of these fluctuations are related to within-day variation in time spent standing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/567635','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/567635"><span>Comparison of thermal compatibility between atomized and <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> U{sub 3}Si dispersion fuels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ryu, Woo-Seog; Park, Jong-Man; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kuk, II-Hyun</p> <p>1997-08-01</p> <p>Thermal compatibility of atomized U{sub 3}Si dispersion fuels were evaluated up to 2600 hours in the temperature range from 250 to 500{degrees}C, and compared with that of <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> U{sub 3}Si. Atomized U{sub 3}Si showed better performance in terms of volume expansion of fuel meats. The reaction zone of U{sub 3}Si and Al occurred along the grain boundaries and deformation bands in U{sub 3}Si particles. Pores around fuel particles appeared at high temperature or after long-term annealing tests to remain diffusion paths over the trench of the pores. The constraint effects of cladding on fuel rod suppressed the fuel meat, and reduced the volume expansion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15620494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15620494"><span>The primary Sauve-Kapandji procedure--for treatment of <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> distal radius and ulnar fractures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Horii, E; Ohmachi, T; Nakamura, R</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p>We have performed primary Sauve-Kapandji procedures on four patients with severe open <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fractures of both the distal radius and ulna. The fragmented distal ulna was fixed to the sigmoid notch in order to stabilize the ulnar side of the carpus, and a proximal pseudoarthrosis was maintained for forearm rotation. All the distal radial fractures united without major complications. The mean wrist flexion/extension arc was 76 degrees , the mean pronation/supination arc was 135 degrees, and grip strength was 64% of the contralateral side. All patients returned to their work or daily activities within short time period without any additional surgical treatment, except for removal of implants in three patients. The primary Sauve-Kapandji procedure is effective for the reconstruction of severely combined distal radius and ulnar fractures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20649010','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20649010"><span>[Research on direct forming of <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fracture surgery orienting model by selective laser melting].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>He, Xingrong; Yang, Yongqiang; Wu, Weihui; Wang, Di; Ding, Huanwen; Huang, Weihong</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>In order to simplify the distal femoral <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fracture surgery and improve the accuracy of the parts to be reset, a kind of surgery orienting model for the surgery operation was designed according to the scanning data of computer tomography and the three-dimensional reconstruction image. With the use of DiMetal-280 selective laser melting rapid prototyping system, the surgery orienting model of 316L stainless steel was made through orthogonal experiment for processing parameter optimization. The technology of direct manufacturing of surgery orienting model by selective laser melting was noted to have obvious superiority with high speed, precise profile and good accuracy in size when compared with the conventional one. The model was applied in a real surgical operation for thighbone replacement; it worked well. The successful development of the model provides a new method for the automatic manufacture of customized surgery model, thus building a foundation for more clinical applications in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25136866','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25136866"><span>En bloc joystick reduction of a <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> intra-articular distal radius fracture: a technical trick.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Siegall, Evan; Ziran, Bruce</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>A patient with a 1-month-old intra-articular distal radius fracture (treated closed in a splint) presented with an unacceptable degree of pain and stiffness caused by shortening and dorsal angulation of the distal radius. The fracture was <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> with 4 or 5 distinct fragments, several involving the articular surface. Surgical correction was attempted. During the procedure, it was noted that, though the distal radius was shortened and angulated, there was actually acceptable congruity of the articular surface itself, despite the intra-articular nature of the fracture. Bone quality was poor and healing incomplete. Thus, we were concerned the currently congruous articular surface would fall apart with manipulation. Given this situation, we used a unique scaffolding technique with Kirschner wires placed in perpendicular fashion to both hold the articular surface intact and manipulate it en bloc. This technique is a simple way to turn a complex fracture into an easily reduced 2-part fracture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1544068','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1544068"><span>Extreme <span class="hlt">heat</span> reduces and shifts United States premium wine <span class="hlt">production</span> in the 21st century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>White, M. A.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Jones, G. V.; Pal, J. S.; Giorgi, F.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Premium wine <span class="hlt">production</span> is limited to regions climatically conducive to growing grapes with balanced composition and varietal typicity. Three central climatic conditions are required: (i) adequate <span class="hlt">heat</span> accumulation; (ii) low risk of severe frost damage; and (iii) the absence of extreme <span class="hlt">heat</span>. Although wine <span class="hlt">production</span> is possible in an extensive climatic range, the highest-quality wines require a delicate balance among these three conditions. Although historical and projected average temperature changes are known to influence global wine quality, the potential future response of wine-producing regions to spatially heterogeneous changes in extreme events is largely unknown. Here, by using a high-resolution regional climate model forced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios A2 greenhouse gas emission scenario, we estimate that potential premium winegrape <span class="hlt">production</span> area in the conterminous United States could decline by up to 81% by the late 21st century. While increases in <span class="hlt">heat</span> accumulation will shift wine <span class="hlt">production</span> to warmer climate varieties and/or lower-quality wines, and frost constraints will be reduced, increases in the frequency of extreme hot days (>35°C) in the growing season are projected to eliminate winegrape <span class="hlt">production</span> in many areas of the United States. Furthermore, grape and wine <span class="hlt">production</span> will likely be restricted to a narrow West Coast region and the Northwest and Northeast, areas currently facing challenges related to excess moisture. Our results not only imply large changes for the premium wine industry, but also highlight the importance of incorporating fine-scale processes and extreme events in climate-change impact studies. PMID:16840557</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SJRUE..12...10R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SJRUE..12...10R"><span>Technological Alternatives or Use of Wood Fuel in Combined <span class="hlt">Heat</span> and Power <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rusanova, Jekaterina; Markova, Darja; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, Kārlis</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Abstract Latvia aims for 40% share of renewable energy in the total final energy use. Latvia has large resources of biomass and developed district <span class="hlt">heating</span> systems. Therefore, use of biomass for <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power <span class="hlt">production</span> is an economically attractive path for increase of the share of renewable energy. The optimum technological solution for use of biomass and required fuel resources have to be identified for energy planning and policy purposes. The aim of this study was to compare several wood fuel based energy conversion technologies from the technical and economical point of view. Three biomass conversion technologies for combined <span class="hlt">heat</span> and electricity <span class="hlt">production</span> (CHP) were analyzed: • CHP with steam turbine technology; • gasification CHP using gas engine; • bio-methane combined cycle CHP. Electricity prices for each alternative are presented. The results show the level of support needed for the analyzed renewable energy technologies and time period needed to reach price parity with the natural gas - fired combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) CHPss. The results also show that bio-methane technology is most competitive when compared with CCGT among the considered technologies regarding fuel consumption and electricity <span class="hlt">production</span>, but it is necessary to reduce investment costs to reach the electricity price parity with the natural gas CCGT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985IJBm...29...37W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985IJBm...29...37W"><span>Supramaximal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> induced by aminophylline in temperature-acclimated rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, L. C. H.</p> <p>1985-03-01</p> <p>Previous studies have shown that aminophylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (thereby increasing intracellular cyclic AMP concentration) elicits supramaximal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and improves cold tolerance in rats acclimated to 22°C. To test whether aminophylline-stimulated supramaximal thermogenesis is independent of both the thermogenic capacity (i.e. aerobic fitness) and the mode of thermogenesis (shivering vs. non-shivering), rats (adult male Sprague-Dawley, approximately 400 g) of two different ages (4 11 month and 9 17 month, n=12 for each) were acclimated to 5, 15, and 25°C in succession and their thermogenic responses to aminophylline subsequently assessed. Aminophylline elicited supramaximal thermogenesis and improved cold tolerance regardless of age or acclimating temperatures. Further, the absolute net increase in <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> stimulated by aminophylline was also similar for all acclimating temperatures. After acclimating to 15°C, a single injection of aminophylline in the older rats elicited thermogenesis greater than that of the controls acclimated to 5°C; in the younger rats, aminophylline duplicated 46% of the increase in thermogenesis observed after acclimating to 5°C. These results indicated that the aminophylline-stimulated extra <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> is independent of both the thermogenic capacity and the mode of thermogenesis. It is possible that an enhanced substrate mobilization consequent to increased intracellular cyclic AMP concentration by aminophylline underlies the common mechanism via which supramaximal thermogenesis is elicited in temperature-acclimated rats.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085115','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085115"><span>Isolation and identification of oxidation <span class="hlt">products</span> of syringol from brines and <span class="hlt">heated</span> meat matrix.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bölicke, Sarah-Maria; Ternes, Waldemar</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>In this study we developed new extraction and detection methods (using HPLC-UV and LC-MS), making it possible to analyze the smoke phenol syringol and its oxidation <span class="hlt">products</span> nitrososyringol, nitrosyringol, and the syringol dimer 3,3',5,5'-tetramethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diol, which were identified in <span class="hlt">heated</span> meat for the first time. Preliminary brine experiments performed with different concentrations of ascorbic acid showed that high amounts of this antioxidant also resulted in almost complete degradation of syringol and to formation of the oxidation <span class="hlt">products</span> when the brines were <span class="hlt">heated</span> at low pH values. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> treatment (80°C) and subsequent simulated digestion applied to meat samples containing syringol, ascorbic acid and different concentrations of sodium nitrite produced 3,3',5,5'-tetramethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diol even at a low nitrite level in the meat matrix, while nitroso- and nitrosyringol were isolated only after the digestion experiments. Increasing amounts of oxygen in the meat matrix decreased the syringol concentration and enhanced the formation of the reaction <span class="hlt">products</span> in comparison to the samples without added oxygen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23848664','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23848664"><span>Dissipation and entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> in deterministic <span class="hlt">heat</span> conduction of quasi-one-dimensional systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morriss, Gary P; Truant, Daniel P</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>We explore the consequences of a deterministic microscopic thermostat-reservoir contact mechanism. With different temperature reservoirs at each end of a two-dimensional system, a <span class="hlt">heat</span> current is produced and the system has an anomalous thermal conductivity. The microscopic form for the local <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux vector is derived and both the kinetic and potential contributions are calculated. The total <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux vector is shown to satisfy the continuity equation. The properties of this nonequilibrium steady state are studied as functions of system size and temperature gradient, identifying key scaling relations for the local fluid properties and separating bulk and boundary effects. The local entropy density calculated from the local equilibrium distribution is shown to be a very good approximation to the entropy density calculated directly from the velocity distribution even for systems that are far from equilibrium. The dissipation and kinetic entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> and flux are compared quantitatively and the differing mechanisms discussed within the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook approximation. For equal-temperature reservoirs the entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> near the reservoir walls is shown to be proportional to the local phase space contraction calculated from the tangent space dynamics. However, for unequal temperatures, the connection between local entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> and local phase space contraction is more complicated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12831998','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12831998"><span>Influence of the hypothalamus on the midbrain tonic inhibitory mechanism on metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uno, Tadashi; Roth, Joachim; Shibata, Masaaki</p> <p>2003-07-15</p> <p>Influence of the hypothalamus on increased body temperature was examined in male rats. Body temperature was increased by removing the midbrain tonic inhibitory mechanism (TIM) on <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> from brown adipose tissue (BAT) by microinjections of a local anesthetic, procaine, into the midbrain. Procaine microinjections in unanesthetized rats increased rectal temperature that was followed by a strong tail skin temperature rise. Procaine microinjections in unanesthetized and decerebrated rats also increased rectal temperature but without skin temperature rise. These decerebrated animals fatally developed hyperthermia. In anesthetized rats, procaine microinjections increased temperature of the interscapular BAT (IBAT) higher with shorter onset for temperature rise than rectal temperature. Increased IBAT temperature by procaine microinjections in anesthetized rats was attenuated during hypothalamic warming, and enhanced during hypothalamic cooling when compared with that observed during thermoneutral hypothalamic temperature. These results suggest that the midbrain TIM is able to function in unanesthetized conscious rats, and that the integrity of the midbrain mechanism to tonically inhibit metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> does not require the presence of intact hypothalamus. These results also suggest that the hypothalamus modulates directly or indirectly IBAT <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> that was induced by removal of the midbrain TIM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18656347','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18656347"><span><span class="hlt">Production</span> of pyrolytic liquids from industrial sewage sludges in an induction-<span class="hlt">heating</span> reactor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsai, Wen-Tien; Chang, Jeng-Hung; Hsien, Kuo-Jung; Chang, Yuan-Ming</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>With the application of induction-<span class="hlt">heating</span>, the pyrolytic experiments have been carried out for three sewage sludges from the food processing factories in an externally <span class="hlt">heated</span> fixed-bed reactor. The thermochemical characteristics of sludge samples were first analyzed. The results indicated that the calorific value had about 15 MJ/kg on an average, suggesting that it had a potential for biomass energy source. However, its nitrogen concentration was relatively high. From the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves, it showed that the pyrolysis reaction can be almost finished in the temperature range of 450-750 degrees C. The yields of resulting liquid and char <span class="hlt">products</span> from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge were discussed for examining the effects of pyrolysis temperature (500-800 degrees C), <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate (200-500 degrees C/min), and holding time (1-8 min). Overall, the variation of yield was not so significant in the experimental conditions for three sewage sludges. All results of the resulting liquid <span class="hlt">products</span> analyzed by elemental analyzer, pH meter, Karl-Fischer moisture titrator and bomb calorimeter were in consistence with those analyses by FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the pyrolysis liquid <span class="hlt">products</span> contained large amounts of water (>73% by weight) mostly derived from the bound water in the biosludge feedstocks and the condensation reactions during the pyrolysis reaction, and fewer contents of oxygenated hydrocarbons composing of carbonyl and nitrogen-containing groups, resulting in low pH and low calorific values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20074730','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20074730"><span>Primary subtalar arthrodesis for the treatment of <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> intra-articular calcaneal fractures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Potenza, V; Caterini, R; Farsetti, P; Bisicchia, S; Ippolito, E</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>We report the short- and mid-term results in six patients (seven feet) affected by markedly <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> intra-articular calcaneal fractures (Sanders type IV), treated by primary subtalar arthrodesis. The average age at surgery was 40 years. In all patients, arthrodesis of the subtalar joint was performed using a limited lateral approach to the calcaneus; it was stabilised with two or three cannulated screws. No patient had a preliminary reduction and internal fixation of the fracture. The time from injury to surgery averaged 20 days because all of the patients had associated visceral and/or other skeletal injuries. All of the patients were followed up clinically and radiographically 2 times, at an average of 12 months and 53 months after surgery. At the short-term follow-up, the mean AOFAS score was 70 points; the X-rays showed a complete fusion of the subtalar joint in all seven feet, without any sign of osteoarthritis of the calcaneo-cuboid and the talo-navicular joints. In all cases, an altered shape of the calcaneus was present. At the mid-term follow-up, the mean AOFAS score increased to 85 points; in one patient, radiographic signs of osteoarthritis of the calcaneo-cuboid and the talo-navicular joints were present and, in another patient, only talo-navicular joint was present, although both patients were free from pain. The difference between the two AOFAS scores was statistically significant. We believe that primary subtalar arthrodesis performed for markedly <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> Sanders type IV calcaneal fractures yielded good mid-term results, and it is especially indicated when surgical treatment is delayed for whatever reason. A preliminary open reduction and internal fixation to restore the normal height of the calcaneus before performing the subtalar arthrodesis, as suggested by several authors, does not seem indispensable to obtain good clinical results. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3560597','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3560597"><span>Reconstruction of <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> long-bone fracture using CF/CPC scaffolds manufactured by rapid prototyping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Sheng-Li; Wen, Bo; Bian, Wei-Guo; Yan, Hong-Wei</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Summary Background Stabilization and bone healing of fractures in weight-bearing long bones are challenging. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a scaffold composed of chitosan fiber and calcium phosphate ceramics (CF/CPC scaffold) on stability and fracture repair in weight-bearing long bones. Material/Methods <span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> fractures of paired radiuses were created in 36 healthy, mature dogs. The left radius of each dog was classified in the experimental group and treated with CF/CPC scaffold, and the right one was not filled, and was used as a blank control. Of the 12 animals in each group that were killed at week 4, 8, and 12 after the operation, 6 were used for histological analysis, and the other 6 used were for biomechanical studies. Both radiuses from each animal were dissected free and stored for these analyses. All the animals underwent X-ray radiograph pre- and post-operatively. Computer-aided rapid-prototyping technologies were adopted for the fabrication of three-dimensional scaffolds with precise geometric control. Results X-ray showed that the bone fracture area in the experimental group was filled with callus at week 12 after surgery. Histological examination detected slow resorption of the cement and new bone formation since week 4. At week 12, the scaffold material partially degraded and was still present in all specimens. Mechanical testing revealed that the failure strength of the radiuses treated with CF/CPC scaffolds was about 3 times that of the radiuses without implanted scaffolds. Conclusions The effect of using CF/CPC scaffold in treating <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> weight-bearing long bone fractures is satisfactory. PMID:23111734</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JKPS...69..852Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JKPS...69..852Y"><span>Fabrication of a customized bone scaffold using a homemade medical 3D printer for <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fractures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Shin, Han-Back; Kim, Moo-Sub; Choe, Bo-Young; Kim, Sunmi; Suh, Tae Suk; Lee, Keum Sil; Xing, Lei</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to show a 3D printed reconstruction model of a bone destroyed by a <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fracture. After a thoracic limb of a cow with a <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fracture was scanned by using computed tomography, a scaffold was designed by using a 3D modeling tool for its reconstruction and fabricated by using a homemade medical 3D printer. The homemade medical 3D printer was designed for medical use. In order to reconstruct the geometry of the destroyed bone, we use the geometry of a similar section (reference geometry) of normal bone in the 3D modeling process. The missing part between the destroyed ridge and the reference geometry was filled with an effective space by using a manual interpolation. Inexpensive materials and free software were used to construct the medical 3D printer system. The fabrication of the scaffold progressed according to the design of reconstructed bone by using this medical 3D printer. The material of the scaffold was biodegradable material, and could be transplanted into the human body. The fabricated scaffold was correctly inserted into the fractured bone in place of the destroyed portion, with good agreement. According to physical stress test results, the performance of printing resolution was 0.1 mm. The average geometrical error of the scaffold was below 0.3 mm. The reconstructed bone by using the fabricated scaffold was able to support the weight of the human body. No process used to obtain the result was complex or required many resources. The methods and results in this study show several possible clinical applications in fields such as orthopedics or oncology without a need to purchase high-price instruments for 3D printing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22063803','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22063803"><span>An examination of factors affecting radio frequency <span class="hlt">heating</span> of an encased meat emulsion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lyng, James G; Cronin, Denis A; Brunton, Nigel P; Li, Wenqu; Gu, Xiaohong</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>The potential of radiofrequency (RF) <span class="hlt">heating</span> for rapid cooking of a cased <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> meat emulsion (white pudding) to a pasteurisation temperature of 73°C was examined. Immersion of the <span class="hlt">product</span> in water was essential in order to prevent thermal damage to the casings by electrical arcing effects during <span class="hlt">heating</span>. Using a polyethylene <span class="hlt">heating</span> cell with non-circulating water the applied RF power, primary electrode distance as well as the mineral content, temperature and volume of the surrounding water all influenced the efficiency of the RF <span class="hlt">heating</span>. Under optimised conditions maximum/minimum temperature gradients (ΔT) across the <span class="hlt">products</span> in excess of 15°C were observed. These could be reduced to around 6°C by <span class="hlt">heating</span> the white puddings in a cell operating with recirculating hot water (80°C). Using an oven power output of 450W a 4.3-fold reduction in cooking time compared to conventional steam oven cooking could be achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1850j0005F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1850j0005F"><span>Perspectives of advanced thermal management in solar thermochemical syngas <span class="hlt">production</span> using a counter-flow solid-solid <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Falter, Christoph; Sizmann, Andreas; Pitz-Paal, Robert</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>A modular reactor model is presented for the description of solar thermochemical syngas <span class="hlt">production</span> involving counter-flow <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers that recuperate <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the solid phase. The development of the model is described including <span class="hlt">heat</span> diffusion within the reactive material as it travels through the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger, which was previously identified to be a possibly limiting factor in <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger design. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer within the reactive medium is described by conduction and radiation, where the former is modeled with the three-resistor model and the latter with the Rosseland diffusion approximation. The applicability of the model is shown by the analysis of <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger efficiency for different material thicknesses and porosities in a system with 8 chambers and oxidation and reduction temperatures of 1000 K and 1800 K, respectively. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> exchanger efficiency is found to rise strongly for a reduction of material thickness, as the element mass is reduced and a larger part of the elements takes part in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange process. An increase of porosity enhances radiation <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange but deteriorates conduction. The overall <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange in the material is improved for high temperatures in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger, as radiation dominates the energy transfer. The model is shown to be a valuable tool for the development and analysis of solar thermochemical reactor concepts involving <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange from the solid phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760008486','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760008486"><span>Studies of the use of high-temperature nuclear <span class="hlt">heat</span> from an HTGR for hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Peterman, D. D.; Fontaine, R. W.; Quade, R. N.; Halvers, L. J.; Jahromi, A. M.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The results of a study which surveyed various methods of hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> using nuclear and fossil energy are presented. A description of these methods is provided, and efficiencies are calculated for each case. The process designs of systems that utilize the <span class="hlt">heat</span> from a general atomic high temperature gas cooled reactor with a steam methane reformer and feed the reformer with substitute natural gas manufactured from coal, using reforming temperatures, are presented. The capital costs for these systems and the resultant hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> price for these cases are discussed along with a research and development program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7658187','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7658187"><span>Effects of solar radiation and wind speed on metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by two mammals with contrasting coat colours.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walsberg, G E; Wolf, B O</p> <p>1995-07-01</p> <p>We report the first empirical data describing the interactive effects of simultaneous changes in irradiance and convection on energy expenditure by live mammals. Whole-animal rates of solar <span class="hlt">heat</span> gain and convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss were measured for representatives of two ground squirrel species, Spermophilus lateralis and Spermophilus saturatus, that contrast in coloration. Radiative <span class="hlt">heat</span> gain was quantified as the decrease in metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> caused by the animal's exposure to simulated solar radiation. Changes in convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss were quantified as the variation in metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> caused by changes in wind speed. For both species, exposure to 780 W m-2 of simulated solar radiation significantly reduced metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> at all wind speeds measured. Reductions were greatest at lower wind speeds, reaching 42% in S. lateralis and 29% in S. saturatus. Solar <span class="hlt">heat</span> gain, expressed per unit body surface area, did not differ significantly between the two species. This <span class="hlt">heat</span> gain equalled 14-21% of the radiant energy intercepted by S. lateralis and 18-22% of that intercepted by S. saturatus. Body resistance, an index of animal insulation, declined by only 10% in S. saturatus and 13% in S. lateralis as wind speed increased from 0.5 to 4.0 ms-1. These data demonstrate that solar <span class="hlt">heat</span> gain can be essentially constant, despite marked differences in animal coloration, and that variable exposure to wind and sunlight can have important consequences for both thermoregulatory stress experienced by animals and their patterns of energy allocation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000HMT....36..217T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000HMT....36..217T"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span>-and-mass transfer analysis from vegetable and fruit <span class="hlt">products</span> stored in cold conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tashtoush, B.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> and mass transfer process taking place during fruit and vegetable <span class="hlt">products</span> in cold storage are studied. A mathematical model describing these processes is presented and the resulting governing equations are solved for different storing conditions. The relative humidity of the ventilating air and the temperature of the stored <span class="hlt">product</span> bulk are found for different initial air relative humidity and airflow rates. As the <span class="hlt">product</span> bulk depth increased up to 4.2m, the relative humidity of the ventilating air approaches the steady state value. When the relative humidity is larger than the equilibrium relative humidity value, an increase in the ventilating air rate reduces the losses of the <span class="hlt">product</span> during the period of its storage, while larger losses occur when the relative humidity values are lower than the equilibrium ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11297291','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11297291"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer properties, moisture loss, <span class="hlt">product</span> yield, and soluble proteins in chicken breast patties during air convection cooking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murphy, R Y; Johnson, E R; Duncan, L K; Clausen, E C; Davis, M D; March, J A</p> <p>2001-04-01</p> <p>Chicken breast patties were processed in an air convection oven at air temperatures of 149 to 218 C, air velocities of 7.1 to 12.7 m3/min, and air relative humidities of 40 to 95%. The air humidity was controlled via introducing steam into the oven. The patties were processed to a final center temperature of 50 to 80 C. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> flux, <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient, moisture loss in the cooked chicken patties, the <span class="hlt">product</span> yield, and the changes of soluble proteins in the <span class="hlt">product</span> were evaluated for the cooking system. During cooking, <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux varied with the processing time. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> flux increased with increasing air humidity. The effective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient was obtained for different cooking conditions. Air humidity in the oven affected the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient. The moisture loss in the cooked <span class="hlt">products</span> increased with increasing the final <span class="hlt">product</span> temperature and the oven air temperature. The soluble proteins in the cooked patties decreased with increasing the final <span class="hlt">product</span> temperature. Increasing humidity increased <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient and therefore reduced cooking time. Reducing oven temperature, reducing internal temperature, and increasing air humidity increased the <span class="hlt">product</span> yield. Soluble proteins might be used as an indicator for the degree of cooking. The results from this study are important for evaluating commercial thermal processes and improving <span class="hlt">product</span> yields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23685851','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23685851"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> exposure, cardiovascular stress and work <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in rice harvesters in India: implications for a climate change future.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sahu, Subhashis; Sett, Moumita; Kjellstrom, Tord</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Excessive workplace <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposures create well-known risks of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stroke, and it limits the workers' capacity to sustain physical activity. There is very limited evidence available on how these effects reduce work <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, while the quantitative relationship between <span class="hlt">heat</span> and work <span class="hlt">productivity</span> is an essential basis for climate change impact assessments. We measured hourly <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure in rice fields in West Bengal and recorded perceived health problems via interviews of 124 rice harvesters. In a sub-group (n = 48) heart rate was recorded every minute in a standard work situation. Work <span class="hlt">productivity</span> was recorded as hourly rice bundle collection output. The hourly <span class="hlt">heat</span> levels (WBGT = Wet Bulb Globe Temperature) were 26-32°C (at air temperatures of 30-38°C), exceeding international standards. Most workers reported exhaustion and pain during work on hot days. Heart rate recovered quickly at low <span class="hlt">heat</span>, but more slowly at high <span class="hlt">heat</span>, indicating cardiovascular strain. The hourly number of rice bundles collected was significantly reduced at WBGT>26°C (approximately 5% per°C of increased WBGT). We conclude that high <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure in agriculture caused <span class="hlt">heat</span> strain and reduced work <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. This reduction will be exacerbated by climate change and may undermine the local economy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3733161','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3733161"><span>Arabidopsis <span class="hlt">HEAT</span> SHOCK TRANSCRIPTION FACTORA1b overexpression enhances water <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, resistance to drought, and infection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Richard, François; Bowden, Laura; Morison, James I.L.; Mullineaux, Philip M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span>-stressed crops suffer dehydration, depressed growth, and a consequent decline in water <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, which is the yield of harvestable <span class="hlt">product</span> as a function of lifetime water consumption and is a trait associated with plant growth and development. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> shock transcription factor (HSF) genes have been implicated not only in thermotolerance but also in plant growth and development, and therefore could influence water <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. Here it is demonstrated that Arabidopsis thaliana plants with increased HSFA1b expression showed increased water <span class="hlt">productivity</span> and harvest index under water-replete and water-limiting conditions. In non-stressed HSFA1b-overexpressing (HSFA1bOx) plants, 509 genes showed altered expression, and these genes were not over-represented for development-associated genes but were for response to biotic stress. This confirmed an additional role for HSFA1b in maintaining basal disease resistance, which was stress hormone independent but involved H2O2 signalling. Fifty-five of the 509 genes harbour a variant of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock element (HSE) in their promoters, here named HSE1b. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR confirmed binding of HSFA1b to HSE1b in vivo, including in seven transcription factor genes. One of these is MULTIPROTEIN BRIDGING FACTOR1c (MBF1c). Plants overexpressing MBF1c showed enhanced basal resistance but not water <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, thus partially phenocopying HSFA1bOx plants. A comparison of genes responsive to HSFA1b and MBF1c overexpression revealed a common group, none of which harbours a HSE1b motif. From this example, it is suggested that HSFA1b directly regulates 55 HSE1b-containing genes, which control the remaining 454 genes, collectively accounting for the stress defence and developmental phenotypes of HSFA1bOx. PMID:23828547</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23340103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23340103"><span>High <span class="hlt">productivity</span> cultivation of a <span class="hlt">heat</span>-resistant microalga Chlorella sorokiniana for biofuel <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Tingting; Zheng, Yubin; Yu, Liang; Chen, Shulin</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>To augment biomass and lipid <span class="hlt">productivities</span> of heterotrophic cultured microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana, the influence of environmental temperature and medium factors, such as carbon source, nitrogen source, and their initial concentrations was investigated in this study. The microalga C. sorokiniana could tolerate up to 42°C and showed the highest growth rate of 1.60d(-1) at 37°C. The maximum dry cell weight (DCW) and corresponding lipid concentration was obtained with 80gL(-1) of initial glucose and 4gL(-1) of initial KNO3 at 37°C. In 5-L batch fermentation, the DCW increased dramatically from 0.9gL(-1) to 37.6gL(-1) in the first 72h cultivation, with the DCW <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of 12.2gL(-1)d(-1). The maximum lipid content of 31.5% was achieved in 96h and the lipid <span class="hlt">productivity</span> was 2.9gL(-1)d(-1). The results showed C. sorokiniana could be a promising strain for biofuel <span class="hlt">production</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6212749','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6212749"><span>Volatile <span class="hlt">production</span> during preignition coal <span class="hlt">heating</span>. Quarterly progress report, April 1981 - June 1981</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1981-07-01</p> <p>The goal of this program is to determine the characteristic pyrolysis behavior of representative coals under laser <span class="hlt">heating</span>. The use of a CO/sub 2/ laser enables a controllable <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate to be given to the coal particles as they pass through the laser beam. The development of such a laser <span class="hlt">heating</span> diagnostic should prove to be an extremely valuable tool for generation of a data base necessary for the future design of coal burning facilities. The experimental configuration is illustrated. A dilute coal/gas stream, surrounded aby an inert shield flow is passed through a laser beam from an Avco HPL CO/sub 2/ laser. Under a prescribed flux density, and thus <span class="hlt">heating</span> rate, the particle pyrolyse. The gaseous <span class="hlt">products</span> are sampled and subsequently analyzed (primarily by gas chromatography) for carbon conversion. Particle temperature is to be monitored by a two-color pyrometer and particle velocity by laser Doppler velocimeter, by which means, evolution of the pyrolysis process can be determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24054220','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24054220"><span>Renoprotective effects of Maillard reaction <span class="hlt">products</span> generated during <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment of ginsenoside Re with leucine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Ji Hoon; Han, Im-Ho; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Young-Joo; Lee, Woojung; Eom, Dae-Woon; Choi, Pilju; Cheon, Gab Jin; Jang, Hyuk-Jai; Kim, Su-Nam; Ham, Jungyeob; Kang, Ki Sung</p> <p>2014-01-15</p> <p>The structural change of ginsenoside and the generation of Maillard reaction <span class="hlt">products</span> (MRPs) are important to the increase in the biological activities of Panax ginseng. This study was carried out to identify the renoprotective active component of P. ginseng using the Maillard reaction model experiment with ginsenoside Re and leucine. Ginsenoside Re was gradually converted into less-polar ginsenosides Rg2, Rg6 and F4 by <span class="hlt">heat</span>-processing, followed by separation of the glucosyl moiety at carbon-20. The free radical-scavenging activity of the ginsenoside Re-leucine mixture was increased by <span class="hlt">heat</span>-processing. The improved free radical-scavenging activity by <span class="hlt">heat</span>-processing was mediated by the generation of MRPs from the reaction of glucose and leucine. The cisplatin-induced LLC-PK1 renal cell damage was also significantly reduced by treatment with MRPs. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-processed glucose-leucine mixture (major MRPs from the ginsenoside Re-leucine mixture) showed protective effects against cisplatin-induced oxidative renal damage in rats through the inhibition of caspase-3 activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/976521','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/976521"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing <span class="hlt">product</span> gas from coal gasifiers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Parkinson, W. J. ,</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger configurations that could be used to extract <span class="hlt">heat</span> from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent <span class="hlt">product</span> gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process <span class="hlt">heat</span> is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28740318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28740318"><span>Increased advanced glycation end <span class="hlt">product</span> specific fluorescence in repeatedly <span class="hlt">heated</span> used cooking oil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chhabra, Anupriya; Bhatia, Alka; Ram, Anil Kumar; Goel, Sumit</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Repeated <span class="hlt">heating</span> of cooking oils is known to cause their degradation and generation of toxins. Dietary Advanced glycation end <span class="hlt">products</span> (dAGEs) are formed when the foods are cooked in dry <span class="hlt">heat</span> at very high temperatures. dAGEs are believed to contribute significantly to total pool of AGEs in body. In this study, cooking oil samples used for frying snacks were collected from 102 shops. AGEs were extracted using Aqueous-TCA-chloroform method. Fluorescent AGE levels were determined using a fluorescence spectrophotometer and compared with AGEs in corresponding fresh oil samples collected from same shops. Palm oil was most commonly (62.5%) used for cooking. Most of the samples were subjected to several rounds of <span class="hlt">heating</span> (1-6). AGE specific fluorescence (ASF) in used oil (range = 8.5-745.11) samples was found to be significantly higher in 88/102 as compared to the corresponding fresh oil samples. Treatment with inhibitors like lime concentrate and vitamin C decreased ASF (10/14 and 10/11 samples respectively) of the used oils. The results suggest that cooking oil subjected to repeated <span class="hlt">heating</span> can contribute to increase in fluorescent AGEs in diet. Simple practices like liberal use of common household substances like lime concentrate may help to reduce these in fried food.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11001057T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11001057T"><span>Thermal Energy Consumption in the <span class="hlt">Heat</span>-Technology <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Solid Composite Fuel From Low-Grade Raw Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tabakaev, Roman; Astafev, Alexander; Kazakov, Alexander; Zavorin, Alexander</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>An evaluation is made of the thermal energy consumed in the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-technology <span class="hlt">production</span> of solid composite fuel from low-grade organic raw materials. It is shown that the <span class="hlt">heat</span> of decomposition of the organic mass and the combustion of the by-<span class="hlt">products</span> of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-technology may be sufficient to cover all the energy needs for processing peat, brown coal and wood chips. Producing solid composite fuel from sapropel requires external resources to compensate for part of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> consumed. Calculations show that it is possible for the thermal processing of raw materials to proceed autothermally due to the <span class="hlt">heat</span> of decomposition when the moisture content at the reactor inlet is limited: for peat it should be no more than 35%, 54% for brown coal, and 37% for wood chips. The low <span class="hlt">heat</span> of decomposition of the sapropel organic mass means that its thermal processing cannot proceed autothermally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28139172','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28139172"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> exposure and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in orchards: Implications for climate change research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Quiller, Grant; Krenz, Jennifer; Ebi, Kristie; Hess, Jeremy J; Fenske, Richard A; Sampson, Paul D; Pan, Mengjie; Spector, June T</p> <p>2017-01-31</p> <p>Recent studies suggest that <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure degrades work <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, but such studies have not considered individual- and workplace-level factors. Forty-six tree fruit harvesters (98% Latino/a) from six orchards participated in a cross-sectional study in Central/Eastern Washington in 2015. The association between maximum measured work-shift Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGTmax) and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> (total weight of fruit bins collected per time worked) was estimated using linear mixed effects models, adjusting for relevant confounders. The mean (standard deviation) WBGTmax was 27.9 (3.6)°C in August and 21.2 (2.0)°C in September. There was a trend of decreasing <span class="hlt">productivity</span> with increasing WBGTmax, but this association was not statistically significant. When individual- and workplace-level factors were included in the model, the association approached the null. Not considering individual, work, and economic factors that affect rest and recovery in projections of the impacts of climate change could result in overestimates of reductions in future <span class="hlt">productivity</span> and underestimate risk of <span class="hlt">heat</span> illness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JSP...137..165S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JSP...137..165S"><span>Fluctuation Theorems for Entropy <span class="hlt">Production</span> and <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Dissipation in Periodically Driven Markov Chains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shargel, Benjamin Hertz; Chou, Tom</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Asymptotic fluctuation theorems are statements of a Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry in the rate function of either the time-averaged entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> or <span class="hlt">heat</span> dissipation of a process. Such theorems have been proved for various general classes of continuous-time deterministic and stochastic processes, but always under the assumption that the forces driving the system are time independent, and often relying on the existence of a limiting ergodic distribution. In this paper we extend the asymptotic fluctuation theorem for the first time to inhomogeneous continuous-time processes without a stationary distribution, considering specifically a finite state Markov chain driven by periodic transition rates. We find that for both entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> and <span class="hlt">heat</span> dissipation, the usual Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry of the rate function is generalized to an analogous relation between the rate functions of the original process and its corresponding backward process, in which the trajectory and the driving protocol have been time-reversed. The effect is that spontaneous positive fluctuations in the long time average of each quantity in the forward process are exponentially more likely than spontaneous negative fluctuations in the backward process, and vice-versa, revealing that the distributions of fluctuations in universes in which time moves forward and backward are related. As an additional result, the asymptotic time-averaged entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> is obtained as the integral of a periodic entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> rate that generalizes the constant rate pertaining to homogeneous dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20545882','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20545882"><span>Scaling of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> by thermogenic flowers: limits to floral size and maximum rate of respiration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seymour, Roger S</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Effect of size of inflorescences, flowers and cones on maximum rate of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> is analysed allometrically in 23 species of thermogenic plants having diverse structures and ranging between 1.8 and 600 g. Total respiration rate (, micromol s(-1)) varies with spadix mass (M, g) according to in 15 species of Araceae. Thermal conductance (C, mW degrees C(-1)) for spadices scales according to C = 18.5M(0.73). Mass does not significantly affect the difference between floral and air temperature. Aroids with exposed appendices with high surface area have high thermal conductance, consistent with the need to vaporize attractive scents. True flowers have significantly lower <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and thermal conductance, because closed petals retain <span class="hlt">heat</span> that benefits resident insects. The florets on aroid spadices, either within a floral chamber or spathe, have intermediate thermal conductance, consistent with mixed roles. Mass-specific rates of respiration are variable between species, but reach 900 nmol s(-1) g(-1) in aroid male florets, exceeding rates of all other plants and even most animals. Maximum mass-specific respiration appears to be limited by oxygen delivery through individual cells. Reducing mass-specific respiration may be one selective influence on the evolution of large size of thermogenic flowers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5595974','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5595974"><span>Species <span class="hlt">production</span> and <span class="hlt">heat</span> release rates in two-layered natural gas fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zukoski, E.E.; Morehart, J.H.; Kubota, T.; Toner, S.J. )</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>A fire burning in an enclosure with restricted ventilation will result in the accumulation of a layer of warm <span class="hlt">products</span> of combustion mixed with entrained air adjacent to the ceiling. For many conditions, the depth of this layer will extend to occupy a significant fraction of the volume of the room. Eventually, the interface between this vitiated ceiling layer and the uncontaminated environment below will position itself so that a large portion of the combustion processes occur in this vitiated layer. A description is given of experimental work concerning the rates of formation of <span class="hlt">product</span> species and <span class="hlt">heat</span> release in a turbulent, buoyant natural gas diffusion flame burning in this two-layered configuration. The enclosure was modeled by placing a hood above a burner so that it accumulated the plume gases, and the unsteady development of the ceiling layer was modeled by the direct addition of air into the upper portion of the hood. Measurements of the composition of these gases allowed the computation of stoichiometries and <span class="hlt">heat</span> release rates. These investigations showed that the species produced in the flame depend primarily on the stoichiometry of the gases present in the ceiling layer and weakly on the temperature of the layer, but are independent of the fuel pair ratio of the mass transported into the layer by the plume. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> release rates in the fires were compared to a theoretical limit based on a stoichiometric reaction of fuel and air with excess components left unchanged by the combustion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012160','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012160"><span>Comment on 'A reinterpretation of the linear <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> relationship for the exponential model of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in the crust' by R.N. Singh & J.G. Negi.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lachenbruch, A.H.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>In their recent paper, Singh & Negi, (This journal, 57, 741-744) contend that if thd slope of the empirical linear relation between <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> is interpreted as the decay-length of an exponential depth-distribution of sources, a discrepancy rises, whereas if it is interpreted as the depth of a step distribution, it does not. I should like to point out that their discrepancy follows from their arbitrary assumption of one of a range of physical possibilities unconstrained by the observations; with an equally valid alternate assumption (Lachenbruch 1970) the discrepancy disappears. In any case such discrepancies are probably minor compared to physical difficulties that arise from the step model, and to uncertainties introduced by other assumptions in any simple model.-Author</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24156585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24156585"><span>Primary shortening of the forearm and Sauvé-Kapandji for severely <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fractures of the distal forearm in elderly patients: a case report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goorens, Chul Ki; Geurts, Ghislain; Goubau, Jean F</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We report a case of an elderly female who sustained a severely <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> distal radial and ulnar fracture, treated by shortening of the forearm, combined with a primary Sauvé-Kapandji procedure and volar plating of the distal radius.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850047888&hterms=thorium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dthorium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850047888&hterms=thorium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dthorium"><span>Crustal radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and the selective survival of ancient continental crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, P.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>It is pointed out that the oldest terrestrial rocks have so far revealed no evidence of the impact phase of earth evolution. This observation suggests that processes other than impact were dominant at the time of stabilization of these units. However, a use of the oldest terrestrial rocks as a sample of the early terrestrial crust makes it necessary to consider the possibility that these rocks may represent a biased sample. In the present study, the global continental <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow data set is used to provide further evidence that potassium, uranium, and thorium abundances are, on the average, low in surviving Archean crust relative to younger continental crust. An investigation is conducted of the implications of relatively low crustal radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> to the stabilization of early continental crust, and possible Archean crustal stabilization models are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850024773&hterms=thorium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dthorium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850024773&hterms=thorium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dthorium"><span>Crustal radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and the selective survival of ancient continental crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, P.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>It is pointed out that the oldest terrestrial rocks have so far revealed no evidence of the impact phase of Earth evolution. This observation suggests that processes other than impact were dominant at the time of stabilization of these units. However, a use of the oldest terrestrial rocks as a sample of the early terrestrial crust makes it necessary to consider the possibility that these rocks may represent a biased sample. In the present study, the global continental <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow data set is used to provide further evidence that potassium, uranium, and thorium abundances are, on the average, low in surviving Archean crust relative to younger continental crust. An investigation is conducted of the implications of relatively low crustal radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> to the stabilization of early continental crust, and possible Archean crustal stabilization models are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18442900','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18442900"><span>Demand for waste as fuel in the swedish district <span class="hlt">heating</span> sector: a <span class="hlt">production</span> function approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Furtenback, Orjan</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper evaluates inter-fuel substitution in the Swedish district <span class="hlt">heating</span> industry by analyzing almost all the district <span class="hlt">heating</span> plants in Sweden in the period 1989-2003, specifically those plants incinerating waste. A multi-output plant-specific <span class="hlt">production</span> function is estimated using panel data methods. A procedure for weighting the elasticities of factor demand to produce a single matrix for the whole industry is introduced. The price of waste is assumed to increase in response to the energy and CO2 tax on waste-to-energy incineration that was introduced in Sweden on 1 July 2006. Analysis of the plants involved in waste incineration indicates that an increase in the net price of waste by 10% is likely to reduce the demand for waste by 4.2%, and increase the demand for bio-fuels, fossil fuels, other fuels and electricity by 5.5%, 6.0%, 6.0% and 6.0%, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4294310','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4294310"><span>Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Method on Pyrolysis <span class="hlt">Products</span> of Wood Biomass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current <span class="hlt">heating</span> was studied. The effects of catalysts on <span class="hlt">product</span> compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current <span class="hlt">heating</span> and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds. PMID:25614894</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740033929&hterms=solar+energy+production&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Benergy%2Bproduction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740033929&hterms=solar+energy+production&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Benergy%2Bproduction"><span>Skylab and solar exploration. [chromosphere-corona structure, energy <span class="hlt">production</span> and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transport processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Von Puttkamer, J.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Review of some of the findings concerning solar structure, energy <span class="hlt">production</span>, and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transport obtained with the aid of the manned Skylab space station observatory launched on May 14, 1973. Among the topics discussed are the observation of thermonuclear fusion processes which cannot be simulated on earth, the observation of short-wave solar radiation not visible to observers on earth, and the investigation of energy-transport processes occurring in the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona. An apparent paradox is noted in that the cooler chromosphere is <span class="hlt">heating</span> the hotter corona, seemingly in defiance of the second law of thermodynamics, thus suggesting that a nonthermal mechanism underlies the energy transport. Understanding of this nonthermal mechanism is regarded as an indispensable prerequisite for future development of plasma systems for terrestrial applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850024773&hterms=Processes+continental+crust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DProcesses%2Bcontinental%2Bcrust','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850024773&hterms=Processes+continental+crust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DProcesses%2Bcontinental%2Bcrust"><span>Crustal radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and the selective survival of ancient continental crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, P.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>It is pointed out that the oldest terrestrial rocks have so far revealed no evidence of the impact phase of Earth evolution. This observation suggests that processes other than impact were dominant at the time of stabilization of these units. However, a use of the oldest terrestrial rocks as a sample of the early terrestrial crust makes it necessary to consider the possibility that these rocks may represent a biased sample. In the present study, the global continental <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow data set is used to provide further evidence that potassium, uranium, and thorium abundances are, on the average, low in surviving Archean crust relative to younger continental crust. An investigation is conducted of the implications of relatively low crustal radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> to the stabilization of early continental crust, and possible Archean crustal stabilization models are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850047888&hterms=Processes+continental+crust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DProcesses%2Bcontinental%2Bcrust','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850047888&hterms=Processes+continental+crust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DProcesses%2Bcontinental%2Bcrust"><span>Crustal radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and the selective survival of ancient continental crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, P.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>It is pointed out that the oldest terrestrial rocks have so far revealed no evidence of the impact phase of earth evolution. This observation suggests that processes other than impact were dominant at the time of stabilization of these units. However, a use of the oldest terrestrial rocks as a sample of the early terrestrial crust makes it necessary to consider the possibility that these rocks may represent a biased sample. In the present study, the global continental <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow data set is used to provide further evidence that potassium, uranium, and thorium abundances are, on the average, low in surviving Archean crust relative to younger continental crust. An investigation is conducted of the implications of relatively low crustal radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> to the stabilization of early continental crust, and possible Archean crustal stabilization models are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000NW.....87..193R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000NW.....87..193R"><span>Thermal Gains Through Collective Metabolic <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> in Social Caterpillars of Eriogaster lanestris</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruf, C.; Fiedler, K.</p> <p></p> <p>We investigated thermal characteristics of aggregations of social, tent-building caterpillars of the small eggar moth Eriogaster lanestris (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae). The highly synchronous behavior of individuals of the colony has important consequences for their thermal ecology. Air temperature in the tent fluctuates according to the caterpillars' activity: air temperature slowly rises about 2.5-3 °C above the surroundings when caterpillars aggregate in the tent after feeding and decreases rapidly when the larvae leave the tent. Thermal energy can be stored for a few hours when ambient temperature drops. Experiments show that metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> sufficiently explains this effect. As even minor additional <span class="hlt">heat</span> gain may reduce developmental time, aggregating in the tent may thus confer selective advantages under overcast weather or at night, when behavioral thermoregulation through basking is not possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22101444','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22101444"><span>Additional paper waste in pulping sludge for biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> by <span class="hlt">heat</span>-shocked sludge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chairattanamanokorn, Prapaipid; Tapananont, Supachok; Detjaroen, Siriporn; Sangkhatim, Juthatip; Anurakpongsatorn, Patana; Sirirote, Pramote</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Dark anaerobic fermentation is an interesting alternative method for producing biohydrogen (H(2)) as a renewable fuel because of its low cost and various usable organic substrates. Pulping sludge from wastewater treatment containing plentiful cellulosic substrate could be feasibly utilized for H(2) <span class="hlt">production</span> by dark fermentation. The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal proportion of pulping sludge to paper waste, the optimal initial pH, and the optimal ratio of carbon and nitrogen (C/N) for H(2) <span class="hlt">production</span> by anaerobic seed sludge pretreated with <span class="hlt">heat</span>. The pulping sludge was pretreated with NaOH solution at high temperature and further hydrolyzed with crude cellulase. Pretreatment of the pulping sludge with 3% NaOH solution under autoclave at 121 °C for 2 h, hydrolysis with 5 FPU crude cellulase at 50 °C, and pH 4.8 for 24 h provided the highest reducing sugar <span class="hlt">production</span> yield (229.68 ± 2.09 mg/g(TVS)). An initial pH of 6 and a C/N ratio of 40 were optimal conditions for H(2) <span class="hlt">production</span>. Moreover, the supplement of paper waste in the pulping sludge enhanced the cumulative H(2) <span class="hlt">production</span> yield. The continuous hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> was further conducted in a glass reactor with nylon pieces as supporting media and the maximum hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> yield was 151.70 ml/g(TVS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982STIN...0314092O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982STIN...0314092O"><span>Calorimetric Determinations of the <span class="hlt">Heat</span> and <span class="hlt">Products</span> of Detonation for Explosives: October 1961 to April 1982</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ornellas, D. L.</p> <p>1982-04-01</p> <p>This report is a compilation of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-of-detonation and <span class="hlt">product</span>-composition data obtained at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the last 21 years. In each determination, a 25-g high-explosive charge was detonated in a bomb calorimeter; a complete calorimetric measurement was made in 1 to 2 h with a precision of 0.3%. Data were interpreted using thermodynamic and hydrodynamic computer calculations. For unconfined or lightly confined charges, the released energy is largely retained in the <span class="hlt">products</span>, which are subsequently shocked considerably off the Chapman-Jouguet isentrope by reflections from the bomb wall. For heavily confined charges, the detonation energy is largely converted to kinetic and internal energy of the confining case, and the <span class="hlt">products</span> expand with minimal reshock along the Chapman-Jouguet isentrope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4390352','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4390352"><span>Solar Radiation during Rewarming from Torpor in Elephant Shrews: Supplementation or Substitution of Endogenous <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thompson, Michelle L.; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi; Bennett, Nigel C.; McKechnie, Andrew E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Many small mammals bask in the sun during rewarming from heterothermy, but the implications of this behaviour for their energy balance remain little understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether solar radiation supplements endogenous metabolic thermogenesis (i.e., rewarming occurs through the additive effects of internally-produced and external <span class="hlt">heat</span>), or whether solar radiation reduces the energy required to rewarm by substituting (i.e, replacing) metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. To address this question, we examined patterns of torpor and rewarming rates in eastern rock elephant shrews (Elephantulus myurus) housed in outdoor cages with access to either natural levels of solar radiation or levels that were experimentally reduced by means of shade cloth. We also tested whether acclimation to solar radiation availability was manifested via phenotypic flexibility in basal metabolic rate (BMR), non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity and/or summit metabolism (Msum). Rewarming rates varied significantly among treatments, with elephant shrews experiencing natural solar radiation levels rewarming faster than conspecifics experiencing solar radiation levels equivalent to approximately 20% or 40% of natural levels. BMR differed significantly between individuals experiencing natural levels of solar radiation and conspecifics experiencing approximately 20% of natural levels, but no between-treatment difference was evident for NST capacity or Msum. The positive relationship between solar radiation availability and rewarming rate, together with the absence of acclimation in maximum non-shivering and total <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> capacities, suggests that under the conditions of this study solar radiation supplemented rather than substituted metabolic thermogenesis as a source of <span class="hlt">heat</span> during rewarming from heterothermy. PMID:25853244</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25853244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25853244"><span>Solar radiation during rewarming from torpor in elephant shrews: supplementation or substitution of endogenous <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thompson, Michelle L; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi; Bennett, Nigel C; McKechnie, Andrew E</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Many small mammals bask in the sun during rewarming from heterothermy, but the implications of this behaviour for their energy balance remain little understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether solar radiation supplements endogenous metabolic thermogenesis (i.e., rewarming occurs through the additive effects of internally-produced and external <span class="hlt">heat</span>), or whether solar radiation reduces the energy required to rewarm by substituting (i.e, replacing) metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. To address this question, we examined patterns of torpor and rewarming rates in eastern rock elephant shrews (Elephantulus myurus) housed in outdoor cages with access to either natural levels of solar radiation or levels that were experimentally reduced by means of shade cloth. We also tested whether acclimation to solar radiation availability was manifested via phenotypic flexibility in basal metabolic rate (BMR), non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity and/or summit metabolism (Msum). Rewarming rates varied significantly among treatments, with elephant shrews experiencing natural solar radiation levels rewarming faster than conspecifics experiencing solar radiation levels equivalent to approximately 20% or 40% of natural levels. BMR differed significantly between individuals experiencing natural levels of solar radiation and conspecifics experiencing approximately 20% of natural levels, but no between-treatment difference was evident for NST capacity or Msum. The positive relationship between solar radiation availability and rewarming rate, together with the absence of acclimation in maximum non-shivering and total <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> capacities, suggests that under the conditions of this study solar radiation supplemented rather than substituted metabolic thermogenesis as a source of <span class="hlt">heat</span> during rewarming from heterothermy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25233167','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25233167"><span>Comparison of cortical bone drilling induced <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> among common drilling tools.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Significant data exist regarding <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of twist drills; however, there are little data regarding cannulated drills or Kirschner (K) wires. This study compared the <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced during bone drilling with twist drills, K wires, and a cannulated drill. It was hypothesized that drilling temperature would increase with tool sizes used in orthopaedic surgery; with twist drills producing the least amount of <span class="hlt">heat</span> followed by cannulated drills and K wires. Twist drills (2.0, 2.5, and 3.5 mm), K wires (1.25, 1.6, and 2.0 mm), and a cannulated drill (2.7 mm) were driven into warmed human cadaveric tibia by a battery-powered hand drill. The drill was secured on a servo-controlled linear actuator to provide a constant advancing speed (1 mm/s) during drilling. Two thermocouples were embedded 2 mm from the surface at 0.5 and 1.5 mm from the drill hole margin. Eight tests were performed for each tool. Twist drills exhibited a positive trend between size and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. The size effect was less significant with K wires. K wires resulted in significantly (P = 0.008 at 0.5 mm) higher peak temperatures than twist drills of the same size. A 2.7-mm cannulated drill produced more than double the temperature rise of a 2.5-mm twist drill. Twist drills produced the smallest temperature rise among all bit types. Thermal effects should not be a reason for choosing K-wire size. The cannulated drill showed significantly higher temperatures when compared with standard drills, reaching maximal temperatures comparable with K wires.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25256946','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25256946"><span>Effects of obesity on body temperature in otherwise-healthy females when controlling hydration and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during exercise in the <span class="hlt">heat</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adams, J D; Ganio, Matthew S; Burchfield, Jenna M; Matthews, Andy C; Werner, Rachel N; Chokbengboun, Amanda J; Dougherty, Erin K; LaChance, Alex A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Previous studies investigating body temperature responses in obese individuals during exercise in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> fail to control metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> or hydration status during exercise. To determine if there are differences in body temperature responses between obese and non-obese females when controlling metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during exercise. Twenty healthy females, ten obese (43.5 ± 4.5 % fat, 77.5 ± 14.4 kg) and ten non-obese (26.3 ± 6.2 % fat, 53.7 ± 6.4 kg), cycled for 60 min in a warm environment (40 °C, 30 % humidity) at a work load that elicited either 300 W of metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (fixed <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>; FHP) or 175 W/m(2) of skin surface area (body surface area, BSA). Before and during exercise, rectal temperature (T re), mean skin temperature (T sk), oxygen uptake (VO2), and sweat rate were measured. Fluid was provided throughout exercise so that euhydration was maintained throughout. In the FHP trial, when absolute <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was similar between obese (287 ± 15 W) and non-obese (295 ± 18 W) individuals (P > 0.05), there were no differences at the end of exercise in T re (38.26 ± 0.40 vs. 38.30 ± 0.30 °C, respectively) or T sk (36.94 ± 1.65 vs. 35.85 ± 0.67 °C) (all P > 0.05). In the BSA trials, relative <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was similar between obese and non-obese individuals (168 ± 8 vs. 176 ± 5 W/m(2), respectively; P > 0.05). Similar to the FHP trials, there were no differences between obese and non-obese T re (38.45 ± 0.33 vs. 38.08 ± 0.29 °C, respectively) or T sk (36.82 ± 1.04 vs. 36.11 ± 0.64 °C) at the end of exercise (all P > 0.05). When obese and non-obese females exercised at a fixed metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and euhydration was maintained, there were no differences in body temperature between groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/7321','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/7321"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">product</span> form, compaction, vibration and <span class="hlt">comminution</span> on energywood bulk density</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Tim P. McDonald; Bryce J. Stokes; J.F. McNeel</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A study was performed to examine the changes in density of stacked roundwood, chips, and chunks as affected by various compaction treatments. Density of stacked roundwood bolts was tested for the effect of stacking orientation, binding of the stack ends, and species. Stacked bolt wood occupied less than 50 percent of the total rack space for all species, giving final...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10685183','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10685183"><span>Extent and economic effect of <span class="hlt">heat</span> loads on dairy cattle <span class="hlt">production</span> in Australia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mayer, D G; Davison, T M; McGowan, M R; Young, B A; Matschoss, A L; Hall, A B; Goodwin, P J; Jonsson, N N; Gaughan, J B</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>To investigate the extent of <span class="hlt">heat</span> load problems, caused by the combination of excessive temperature and humidity, in Holstein-Friesian cows in Australia. Also, to outline how milk <span class="hlt">production</span> losses and consequent costs from this can be estimated and minimised. Long-term meteorological data for Australia were analysed to determine the distribution of hot conditions over space and time. Fifteen dairy <span class="hlt">production</span> regions were identified for higher-resolution data analysis. Both the raw meteorological data and their integration into a temperature-humidity thermal index were compiled onto a computer program. This mapping software displays the distribution of climatic patterns, both Australia-wide and within the selected dairying regions. Graphical displays of the variation in historical records for 200 locations in the 15 dairying regions are also available. As a separate study, <span class="hlt">production</span> data from research stations, on-farm trials and milk factory records were statistically analysed and correlated with the climatic indices, to estimate <span class="hlt">production</span> losses due to hot conditions. Both milk yields and milk constituents declined with increases in the temperature-humidity index. The onset and rate of this decline are dependent on a number of factors, including location, level of <span class="hlt">production</span>, adaptation, and management regime. These results have been integrated into a farm-level economic analysis for managers of dairy properties. By considering the historical patterns of hot conditions over time and space, along with expected <span class="hlt">production</span> losses, managers of dairy farms can now conduct an economic evaluation of investment strategies to alleviate <span class="hlt">heat</span> loads. These strategies include the provision of sprinklers, shade structures, or combinations of these.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800014327','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800014327"><span>Evaluation of thermal energy storage for the proposed Twin Cities District <span class="hlt">Heating</span> system. [using cogeneration <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and aquifiers for <span class="hlt">heat</span> storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meyer, C. F.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The technical and economic feasibility of incorporating thermal energy storage components into the proposed Twin Cities District <span class="hlt">heating</span> project was evaluated. The technical status of the project is reviewed and conceptual designs of district <span class="hlt">heating</span> systems with and without thermal energy storage were compared in terms of estimated capital requirements, fuel consumption, delivered energy cost, and environmental aspects. The thermal energy storage system is based on cogeneration and the storage of <span class="hlt">heat</span> in aquifers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3899060','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3899060"><span>Practical considerations for maximizing <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Subramanian, Manny; Ishmael Parsai, E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: A combination of hyperthermia and radiation in the treatment of cancer has been proven to provide better tumor control than radiation administered as a monomodality, without an increase in complications or serious toxicities. Moreover, concurrent administration of hyperthermia and radiation displays synergistic enhancement, resulting in greater tumor cell killing than hyperthermia and radiation delivered separately. The authors have designed a new thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and <span class="hlt">heat</span> for concurrent brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatments when implanted in solid tumors. This innovative seed, similar in size and geometry to conventional seeds, will have self-regulating thermal properties. Methods: The new seed's geometry is based on the standard BEST Model 2301 125I seed, resulting in very similar dosimetric properties. The TB seed generates <span class="hlt">heat</span> when placed in an oscillating magnetic field via induction <span class="hlt">heating</span> of a ferromagnetic Ni–Cu alloy core that replaces the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard Model 2301. The alloy composition is selected to undergo a Curie transition near 50 °C, drastically decreasing power <span class="hlt">production</span> at higher temperatures and providing for temperature self-regulation. Here, the authors present experimental studies of the magnetic properties of Ni–Cu alloy material, the visibility of TB seeds in radiographic imaging, and the ability of seed prototypes to uniformly <span class="hlt">heat</span> tissue to a desirable temperature. Moreover, analyses are presented of magnetic shielding and thermal expansion of the TB seed, as well as matching of radiation dose to temperature distributions for a short interseed distance in a given treatment volume. Results: Annealing the Ni–Cu alloy has a significant effect on its magnetization properties, increasing the sharpness of the Curie transition. The TB seed preserves the radiographic properties of the BEST 2301 seed in both plain x rays and CT images</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251195','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251195"><span>Practical considerations for maximizing <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Ishmael Parsai, E.; Subramanian, Manny</p> <p>2014-02-15</p> <p>Purpose: A combination of hyperthermia and radiation in the treatment of cancer has been proven to provide better tumor control than radiation administered as a monomodality, without an increase in complications or serious toxicities. Moreover, concurrent administration of hyperthermia and radiation displays synergistic enhancement, resulting in greater tumor cell killing than hyperthermia and radiation delivered separately. The authors have designed a new thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and <span class="hlt">heat</span> for concurrent brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatments when implanted in solid tumors. This innovative seed, similar in size and geometry to conventional seeds, will have self-regulating thermal properties. Methods: The new seed's geometry is based on the standard BEST Model 2301{sup 125}I seed, resulting in very similar dosimetric properties. The TB seed generates <span class="hlt">heat</span> when placed in an oscillating magnetic field via induction <span class="hlt">heating</span> of a ferromagnetic Ni–Cu alloy core that replaces the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard Model 2301. The alloy composition is selected to undergo a Curie transition near 50 °C, drastically decreasing power <span class="hlt">production</span> at higher temperatures and providing for temperature self-regulation. Here, the authors present experimental studies of the magnetic properties of Ni–Cu alloy material, the visibility of TB seeds in radiographic imaging, and the ability of seed prototypes to uniformly <span class="hlt">heat</span> tissue to a desirable temperature. Moreover, analyses are presented of magnetic shielding and thermal expansion of the TB seed, as well as matching of radiation dose to temperature distributions for a short interseed distance in a given treatment volume. Results: Annealing the Ni–Cu alloy has a significant effect on its magnetization properties, increasing the sharpness of the Curie transition. The TB seed preserves the radiographic properties of the BEST 2301 seed in both plain x rays and CT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=281176','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=281176"><span>Using flowering and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-loss models for improving greenhouse energy-use efficiency in annual bedding plant <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In temperate climates, annual bedding plants are typically produced in <span class="hlt">heated</span> greenhouses from late winter through early summer. Temperature, photoperiod, light intensity, and transplant date are commonly manipulated during commercial <span class="hlt">production</span> so that plants are in flower for predetermined market ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1133042','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1133042"><span>Multipass <span class="hlt">comminution</span> process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N</p> <p>2014-05-27</p> <p>A process of <span class="hlt">comminution</span> of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the <span class="hlt">comminution</span> process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25772629','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25772629"><span>Fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and metabolic BW in group-housed broilers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Noblet, J; Dubois, S; Lasnier, J; Warpechowski, M; Dimon, P; Carré, B; van Milgen, J; Labussière, E</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (FHP) is used for characterizing the basal metabolic rate of animals and the corresponding maintenance energy requirements and in the calculation of net energy value of feeds. In broilers, the most recent FHP estimates were obtained in the 1980s in slow-growing and fatter birds than nowadays. The FHP values (n=73; six experiments) measured in 3 to 6-week-old modern lines of broilers weighing 0.6 to 2.8 kg and growing at 80 to 100 g/day were used to update these literature values. Each measurement was obtained in a group of fasting broilers (5 to 14 birds) kept in a respiration chamber for at least 24 h. The FHP estimate corresponds to the asymptotic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> corrected for zero physical activity obtained by modeling the decrease in <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during the fasting day. The compilation of these data indicates that FHP was linearly related to the BW(0.70) (in kg), which can be considered as the metabolic BW of modern broilers. The 0.70 exponent differs from the conventional value of 0.75 used for mature animals. The FHP per kg of BW(0.70) ranged between 410 and 460 kJ/day according to the experiment (P<0.01). An experiment conducted with a shorter duration of fasting (16 h) indicated that FHP values are higher than those obtained over at least 24 h of fasting. Our values are similar to those obtained previously on fatter and slow-growing birds, even though the comparison is difficult since measurement conditions and methodologies have changed during the last 30 years. The FHP values obtained in our trials represent a basis for energy nutrition of modern broilers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4869438','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4869438"><span>Outcome of Radial Head Arthroplasty in <span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> Radial Head Fractures: Short and Midterm Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moghaddam, Arash; Raven, Tim Friedrich; Dremel, Eike; Studier-Fischer, Stefan; Grutzner, Paul Alfred; Biglari, Bahram</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: <span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> radial head fractures are often associated with secondary injuries and elbow instability. Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate how well the modular metallic radial head implant EVOLVE® prosthesis restores functional range of motion (ROM) and stability of the elbow in acute care. Patients and Methods: Eighty-five patients with <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> radial head fractures and associated injuries received treatment with an EVOLVE® prosthesis between May 2001 and November 2009. Seventy-five patients were available for follow-up. On average, patients were followed for 41.5 months (33.0: 4.0 - 93.0). Outcome assessment was done on the basis of pain, ROM, strength, radiographic findings, and functional rating scores such as Broberg and Morrey, the Mayo elbow performance index (MEPI), and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH). Our study is currently the largest analysis of clinical outcome of a modular radial head replacement in the literature. Results: Overall, there were 2 (2.7%) Mason II fractures, 21 (28%) Mason III fractures, and 52 (69.3%) Mason IV fractures. Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur osteosynthesefragen (AO) classification was also determined. Of the 85 patients in our study, 75 were available for follow-up. Follow-up averaged 41.5 months (range, 4 - 93 months). Average scores for the cohort were as follows: Morrey, 85.7 (median 90.2; range 44.4 - 100); MEPI, 83.3 (85.0; 40.0 - 100); and DASH 26.1 points (22.5; 0.0 - 75.8). Mean flexion/extension in the affected joint was 125.7°/16.5°/0° in comparison to the noninjured side 138.5°/0°/1.2°. Mean pronation/supination was 70.5°/0°/67.1° in comparison to the noninjured side 83.6°/0°/84.3°. Handgrip strength of the injured compared to the non-injured arm was 78.8%. The following complications were also documented: 58 patients had periprosthetic radioluceny shown to be neither clinically significant nor relevant according to evaluated scores; 26 patients had</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Th%26Ae..23..755V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Th%26Ae..23..755V"><span>Studying regimes of convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of high-temperature silicate melts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Volokitin, O. G.; Sheremet, M. A.; Shekhovtsov, V. V.; Bondareva, N. S.; Kuzmin, V. I.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The article presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the <span class="hlt">production</span> of high-temperature silicate melts using the energy of low-temperature plasma in a conceptually new setup. A mathematical model of unsteady regimes of convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer is developed and numerically implemented under the assumption of non-Newtonian nature of flow in the melting furnace with plasma-chemical synthesis of high-temperature silicate melts. Experiments on melting silicate containing materials were carried out using the energy of low-temperature plasma. The dependence of dynamic viscosity of various silicate materials (basalt, ash, waste of oil shale) was found experimentally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11001008B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11001008B"><span><span class="hlt">Production</span> of <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Resistant Composite based on Siloxane Elastomer and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bessonov, I. V.; Karelina, N. V.; Kopitsyna, M. N.; Morozov, A. S.; Reznik, S. V.; Skidchenko, V. Yu.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Development of a new generation of composite with unique thermal properties is an important task in the fields of science and technology where material is operated at high temperatures and exposure to a short-wave radiation. Recent studies show that carbon nanomaterials (fullerenes and carbon nanotubes) could improve the thermal, radiation and thermal-oxidative stability of the polymer matrix. In this article the development of a new <span class="hlt">heat</span> resistant composite based on elastomer and carbon nanotubes (CNT) was performed and physicochemical properties of final <span class="hlt">product</span> were evaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=551234','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=551234"><span><span class="hlt">Production</span> and properties of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable extracellular hemolysin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Johnson, M K; Boese-Marrazzo, D</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Of 12 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were found to produce <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable extracellular hemolysin in highly aerated peptone broth supplemented with glycerol, fructose, or mannitol. Glucose supported good hemolysin <span class="hlt">production</span> only in medium that was highly buffered. The yield of both cells and hemolysin was lower with organic acids as supplement. Growth-limiting phosphate concentrations produced maximum hemolysin levels. Purified hemolysin preparations contained two hemolytic glycolipids. The kinetics of hemolysis at various levels of purified lysin and the effects of variation in lysin and erythrocyte concentration are described. Images Fig. 3 PMID:6776058</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413829H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413829H"><span>Modelling Hydraulic and Thermal Responses in a Benchmark for Deep Geothermal <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holzbecher, E.; Oberdorfer, P.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Geothermal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> from deep reservoirs (5000-7000 m) is currently examined within the collaborative research program "Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling" (gebo), funded by the Ministry of Science and Culture of Lower Saxony (Germany) and Baker Hughes. The projects concern exploration and characterization of geothermal reservoirs as well as <span class="hlt">production</span>. They are gathered in the four major topic fields: geosystem, drilling, materials, technical system. We present modelling of a benchmark set-up concerning the geothermal <span class="hlt">production</span> itself. The benchmark model "Horstberg" was originally created by J. Löhken and is based on geological data, concerning the Horstberg site in Lower Saxony. The model region consists of a cube with a side length of 5 km, in which 13 geological layers are included. A fault zone splits the region into two parts with shifted layering. A well is implemented, reaching from the top to an optional depth crossing all layers including the fault zone. The original geological model was rebuilt and improved in COMSOL Multiphysics Version 4.2a. The heterogeneous and detailed configuration makes the model interesting for benchmarking hydrogeological and geothermal applications. It is possible to inject and pump at any level in the well and to study the hydraulic and thermal responses of the system. The hydraulic and thermal parameters can be varied, and groundwater flow can be introduced. Moreover, it is also possible to examine structural mechanical responses to changes in the stress field (which is not further examined here). The main purpose of the presented study is to examine the dynamical flow characteristics of a hydraulic high conductive zone (Detfurth) in connection to a high conductive fault. One example is the fluid injection in the Detfurth zone and <span class="hlt">production</span> in the fault. The high conductive domains can provide a hydraulic connection between the well screens and the initiated flow circuit could be used for geothermal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8333W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8333W"><span>Investigations on <span class="hlt">comminution</span> of sheared prismatic granular materials using the discrete element method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weatherley, D.; Wruck, B.; Hancock, W.; Chitombo, G. P.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">comminution</span> (or breakage) of granular materials under shearing loads is conjectured to strongly influence dynamics of both natural processes (such as fault zone evolution and landslides) and man-made processes (such as underground cave mining and minerals processing). Previous laboratory [1] and numerical studies [4] have demonstrated that two distinct breakage mechanisms contribute to the <span class="hlt">comminution</span> of granular materials under shear. The first mechanism is that of abrasion in which grinding or chipping removes small volumes of material from the surface of larger blocks. The amount of abrasion has been found to be dependent both on the total shear strain and the confining pressure applied to the granular material. The second breakage mechanism is that of bulk-splitting, in which a single block is broken into two or more smaller blocks. The degree of bulk-splitting has been shown to be largely dependent upon confining pressure, and only to a lesser extent the total shear strain. Common to previous laboratory and numerical studies is that the granular material is typically initially mono-disperse and often of a contrived shape (cylindrical [1] or spherical [4]). This approach has two adverse consequences. Firstly, the initial granular material has a porosity much higher than a similar volume of compacted prismatic material. The higher porosity results in less dilation of the granular material as shear commences, which may inhibit breakage via builk-splitting. Secondly, there are fewer edges or corners, the sites most amenable for abrasion both during confinement and shear. This study extends previous studies using the Discrete Element Method (DEM [2]) to investigate the breakge mechanisms of sheared prismatic granular materials whose initial porosity is near zero. The granular prismatic material is constructed by first filling a volume with large spheres of variable size. These spheres are then replaced by convex polyhedra forming planar surfaces between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7285A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7285A"><span>Radiogenic <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> in the Gölcük Caldera and Direkli, Isparta Angle (Southwest Anatolia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ayten Uyanık, Nurten; Öncü, Ziya; Akkurt, İskender</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> is one of the important parameter due to the radioactivity has existed since beginning of universe as prediction of Big-Bang theory. In this study the radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of the Gölcük caldera and Direkli fields of the Isparta-Turkey, has been investigated. Total of 1390 data were obtained in the study area. The study area is included of the Gölcük volcanism and its around that is located in Isparta province of Turkey's Mediterranean region. The Gölcük volcanism is a young volcanism. Around this volcanism the andesite, trachy andesite, tuff, pumice and such a geological units is available. The data were collected using in-situ measurements with gamm-ray spectrometer. These measurements were covered natural radioactive elements (Uranium U, Thorium Th and Potassium K). Radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> values were calculated using the literature relationships and in-situ measurement values of these radioactive elements. Radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> map of study area were obtained using radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> values. In the map the red zone areas shows highest <span class="hlt">heat</span> values while green zones areas of the map presents lowest <span class="hlt">heat</span> values. Key words: Radioactive elements, radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span>, map, Gölcük-Direkli(Isparta), Turkey</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=377937','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=377937"><span>Control of Byssochlamys and Related <span class="hlt">Heat</span>-resistant Fungi in Grape <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>King, A. Douglas; Michener, H. David; Ito, Keith A.</p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span>-resistant strains of Byssochlamys fulva, B. nivea, and other <span class="hlt">heat</span>-resistant fungi were isolated from vineyard soil, grapes, grape-processing lines, and waste pomace. They are known to remain in grape juice occasionally and to grow in grape juice <span class="hlt">products</span>. Ascospores of these fungi have a D value (decimal reduction time) of about 10 min at 190 F (88 C), but in the presence of 90 μliters of SO2 per liter (normally added to the juice) the D value was cut in half. Filtration through a commercial diatomaceous filter aid (also a common processing step) entrapped all but about 0.001% of experimentally added spores. Thus, <span class="hlt">heat</span> in the presence of SO2 and filtration together can reduce the population of these spores by several orders of magnitude. Growth was also prevented by benzoate or sorbate in low concentrations. Oxygen must be reduced to extremely low levels before lack of oxygen limits growth. Images PMID:16349856</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6485220','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6485220"><span>Effects of pulse-modulated microwave radiation and conventional <span class="hlt">heating</span> on sperm <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lebovitz, R.M.; Johnson, L.; Samson, W.K.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The effects on testicular function of pulse-modulated microwave radiation (PM MWR, 1.3 GHz) and of conventional <span class="hlt">heating</span> were studied in the rat. Anesthetized adult males (Sprague-Dawley, 400-500 g) were treated then killed at specific intervals with respect to the 13-day cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. PM MWR at 7.7 mW/g (90 min) yielded a modest decline in daily sperm <span class="hlt">production</span> (DSP) that derived primarily from effects on primary spermatocytes. PM MWR at 4.2 mW/g was ineffective. The mean intratesticular temperature during the former reached 40 degrees C and did not exceed 38 degrees C during the latter. MWR considerably in excess of 7.7 mW/g yielded decrements in virtually all germ cell types, with primary spermatocytes again being most markedly affected. Using conventional <span class="hlt">heating</span>, intratesticular temperatures in excess of 39 degrees C for 60 min were required for significant decrements in DSP. Levels of circulating follicle-stimulating hormone and of leutinizing hormone were resistant to either treatment. We conclude that the damage threshold and the differential sensitivity of immature germ cells to PM MWR can be adequately explained by the consequent macroscopic <span class="hlt">heating</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28682875','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28682875"><span>The use of 3D-printed titanium mesh tray in treating complex <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> mandibular fractures: A case report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Junli; Ma, Limin; Wang, Zhifa; Zhu, Xiongjie; Wang, Weijian</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Precise bony reduction and reconstruction of optimal contour in treating <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> mandibular fractures is very difficult using traditional techniques and devices. The aim of this report is to introduce our experiences in using virtual surgery and three-dimensional (3D) printing technique in treating this clinical challenge. A 26-year-old man presented with severe trauma in the maxillofacial area due to fall from height. Computed tomography images revealed middle face fractures and <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> mandibular fracture including bilateral condyles. The computed tomography data was used to construct the 3D cranio-maxillofacial models; then the displaced bone fragments were virtually reduced. On the basis of the finalized model, a customized titanium mesh tray was designed and fabricated using selective laser melting technology. During the surgery, a submandibular approach was adopted to repair the mandibular fracture. The reduction and fixation were performed according to preoperative plan, the bone defects in the mental area were reconstructed with iliac bone graft. The 3D-printed mesh tray served as an intraoperative template and carrier of bone graft. The healing process was uneventful, and the patient was satisfied with the mandible contour. Virtual surgical planning combined with 3D printing technology enables surgeon to visualize the reduction process preoperatively and guide intraoperative reduction, making the reduction less time consuming and more precise. 3D-printed titanium mesh tray can provide more satisfactory esthetic outcomes in treating complex <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> mandibular fractures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28254007','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28254007"><span>FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies determine structural changes of tilapia fish protein isolate and surimi under different <span class="hlt">comminution</span> conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kobayashi, Yuka; Mayer, Steven G; Park, Jae W</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Tilapia proteins refined by pH shift and water washing were chopped under various <span class="hlt">comminution</span> conditions and their structural changes were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Both techniques revealed the degree of unfolding in protein structure increased when fish protein isolate (FPI) and surimi were chopped at 25°C for 18min compared to samples chopped at 5°C for 6min. Results indicated both hydrophobic interactions and disulfide bonds were significantly enhanced during gelation. FPI and surimi gels prepared at 25°C for 18min exhibited higher β-sheet contents and more chemical bonds such as hydrophobic interactions and disulfide bonds than those at 5°C for 6min. Results suggested that controlling <span class="hlt">comminution</span> is important to improve gel qualities in FPI and surimi from tropical fish like tilapia. Moreover, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies are useful complementary tools for elucidating the change in the structure of protein during <span class="hlt">comminution</span> and gelation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014FrMS....8...87L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014FrMS....8...87L"><span>Use of mineralized collagen bone graft substitutes and dorsal locking plate in treatment of elder metaphyseal <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> distal radius fracture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Ke-Bin; Huang, Kui; Teng, Yu; Qu, Yan-Zheng; Cui, Wei; Huang, Zhen-Fei; Sun, Ting-Fang; Guo, Xiao-Dong</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Bone graft may be needed to fill bone defect in elderly patients with a metaphyseal <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> distal radius fracture. In this retrospective, nonrandomized, single-surgeon study, we evaluated the clinical and radiologic outcomes of using both dorsal locking plates with or without augmentation with mineralized collagen (MC) bone graft for elderly patients with dorsally metaphyseal <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> radius fractures. Patients in group 1 ( n = 12) were treated with dorsal locking plates with MC bone graft application into the metaphyseal bone defect, and those in group 2 ( n = 12) only with dorsal locking plates. Clinical and radiologic parameters were determined at three and 12 months after surgery. At final follow-up, no significant difference was noted between the 2 groups in terms of palmar tilt and radial inclination ( p = 0.80); however, ulnar variance increased significantly in the group 2 treated with dorsal locking plates without augmentation ( p < 0.05). Functionally, there was no significant difference between the groups. Our preliminary study suggests that combination of MC as bone-graft substitutes and dorsal locking plates may be a usefully alternative for elderly patients with metaphyseal <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> distal radius fracture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21348028','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21348028"><span>Use of the volar fixed angle plate for <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> distal radius fractures and augmentation with a hydroxyapatite bone graft substitute.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goto, Akira; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Oka, Kunihiro; Yoshikawa, Hideki</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Treatment of distal radius fractures with a volar fixed angle plate achieves sufficient stabilisation and permits early physical exercise. However, secondary displacement after surgery sometimes occurs in elderly patients with a metaphyseal <span class="hlt">comminution</span> and/or cases in which the subchondral support pegs were not placed immediately below the subchondral zone. We treated elderly patients suffering from distal radius fractures with metaphyseal <span class="hlt">comminution</span>, using both volar fixed angle plate with or without augmentation with a hydroxyapatite bone graft substitute to investigate the benefit of augmentation for maintaining a fracture reduction. We evaluated the differences among radiographic parameters including palmar tilt, radial inclination, and ulnar variance on immediate postoperative and final follow-up radiographs to analyse the maintenance of the initial reduction. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of palmar tilt (P = 0.80) and radial inclination (P = 0.17); however, ulnar variance increased significantly in the group treated with a volar fixed angle plate without augmentation (P < 0.05). It might be useful to use a combination technique of a locking plate system and the hydroxyapatite bone graft substitute as augmentation to treat distal radius <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fractures in elderly patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T24C..07C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T24C..07C"><span>The role of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in the generation of ultra high temperature crustal metamorphism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clark, C.; Healy, D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>How the Earth’s crust can reach temperatures greater than 900°C at depths less than 40 km to produce ultrahigh temperature (UHT) metamorphism is a question exercising the minds of many researchers. Many models of continental geothermal gradients fail to account for this type of metamorphism yet natural examples of these rocks are being identified more frequently in orogenic belts around the world. UHT metamorphism is best preserved in rocks of sedimentary origin. This is in part because sedimentary rocks have chemical compositions that generate distinctive mineral phases under conditions of extreme temperature, but there also is a strong indication that this style of metamorphism is often associated with tectonic inversion of a sedimentary basin. It is widely accepted that such high geothermal gradients require thickening of crustal rocks that are either already anomalously hot, or have the potential to become so through elevated concentrations of U, Th and K. The applicability of these models hinges on two key factors (1) that there is a threshold enrichment of the relevant crustal column in U, Th and K and (2) the crust has enough time to respond conductively to the <span class="hlt">heat</span> generated through the radioactive decay of these elements. In this presentation we will examine these two factors in an ideal natural laboratory, the Madurai Block of the Southern Granulite Terrane, India. We will constrain the duration of high-geothermal metamorphism through the application of in-situ Sensitive High Resolution Ion Probe (SHRIMP) geochronology linked to the development of UHT mineral assemblages. We will also present 1D numerical models for the temporal evolution of geothermal gradients in these rocks. Our models couple the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity and <span class="hlt">heat</span> capacity from recent studies with in-situ radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> measurements from lithologies within the Madurai Block and integrate the effect of the consumption of <span class="hlt">heat</span> due to the initiation of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910017L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910017L"><span>Numerical analysis of temperature distribution due to basement radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, St. Lawrence Lowlands, eastern Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Hejuan; Giroux, Bernard; Harris, Lyal B.; Mansour, John</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Although eastern Canada is considered as having a low potential for high-temperature geothermal resources, the possibility for additional localized radioactive <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources in Mesoproterozoic Grenvillian basement to parts of the Palaeozoic St. Lawrence Lowlands in Quebec, Canada, suggests that this potential should be reassessed. However, such a task remains hard to achieve due to scarcity of <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow data and ambiguity about the nature of the basement. To get an appraisal, the impact of radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> for different Grenville Province crystalline basement units on temperature distribution at depth was simulated using the Underworld Geothermal numerical modelling code. The region south of Trois-Rivières was selected as representative for the St. Lawrence Lowlands. An existing 3D geological model based on well log data, seismic profiles and surface geology was used to build a catalogue of plausible thermal models. Statistical analyses of radiogenic element (U, Th, K) concentrations from neighbouring outcropping Grenville domains indicate that the radiogenic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of rocks in the modelled region is in the range of 0.34-3.24 μW/m3, with variations in the range of 0.94-5.83 μW/m3 for the Portneuf-Mauricie (PM) Domain, 0.02-4.13 μW/m3 for the Shawinigan Domain (Morin Terrane), and 0.34-1.96 μW/m3 for the Parc des Laurentides (PDL) Domain. Various scenarios considering basement characteristics similar to the PM domain, Morin Terrane and PDL Domain were modelled. The results show that the temperature difference between the scenarios can be as much as 12 °C at a depth of 5 km. The results also show that the temperature distribution is strongly affected by both the concentration of radiogenic elements and the thermal conductivity of the basement rocks. The thermal conductivity in the basement affects the trend of temperature change between two different geological units, and the spatial extent of thermal anomalies. The validity of the results was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSH13C2447W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSH13C2447W"><span>Magnetic Influences on Turbulent <span class="hlt">Heating</span> and Jet <span class="hlt">Production</span> in Coronal Holes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woolsey, L. N.; Cranmer, S. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">heating</span> of the solar wind from open-field regions in the corona is the subject of an ongoing body of work in the solar physics community. We present recent progress to understand the role of Alfvén-wave-driven turbulence in flux tubes open to the heliosphere. Our models use three-dimensional, time-dependent forms of the reduced magnetohydrodynamics equations to find the resulting properties of the solar wind. We use the BRAID model (van Ballegooijen et al., 2011) on open flux tubes that epitomize the most common magnetic structures in the corona: a polar coronal hole, an open flux tube on the boundary of an equatorial streamer, and one that neighbors a strong active region. Our results agree with prior work using the time-steady, one-dimensional ZEPHYR model (Cranmer et al., 2007; Woolsey and Cranmer, 2014). In addition, the time dependence in BRAID lets us explore the bursty, nanoflare-like nature of the <span class="hlt">heating</span> in these flux tubes. We find that the transient <span class="hlt">heating</span> can be captured into separate events with an average energy of 1022 erg, with a maximum energy of 1025 erg. The bursty <span class="hlt">heating</span> lead us to pursue a better understanding of the physical processes responsible for the network jets seen in IRIS data (see e.g. Tian et al., 2014). We search for correlations between the supergranular magnetic field properties—using the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager aboard SDO—and jet <span class="hlt">productivity</span> to make better estimates of the mass and energy budget of these small-scale features and to find evidence of the mechanisms responsible for the network jets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11745550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11745550"><span>Metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> as a measure of macrophage response to particles from orthopedic implant materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Charlebois, S J; Daniels, A U; Smith, R A</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>An in vitro method to gauge metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> response of macrophages (MØ) to particulates is described. Whereas the majority of work cited relies on chemical analysis to assess MØ response to particles, we have used isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) for direct continuous measurement of metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> to gauge the response. IMC is a screening method, in that it ensures that no energy-consuming phagocytic response goes undetected, and that the aggregate metabolic magnitude of the responses is determined. A four-well IMC was used in all microcalorimetric measurements. To accommodate "zero-time" monitoring of the interaction of particles and cells, a set of identical test chambers was constructed for use in the IMC. MØs were injected from outside the IMC onto particles contained in collagen or gelatin on glass coverslips at the bottom of each chamber. IMC runs were performed using MØs only, MØs and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) positive control, and MØs and clean or LPS-bound particles of either high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or cobalt-chrome alloy (CoCr). Total <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced by the negative controls (MØs alone) was lower than for MØ exposure to LPS or particles. The trend was a higher response for LPS-bound HDPE compared with clean HDPE particles, though not significant. In conclusion, our results have shown that IMC can be used to detect the <span class="hlt">heat</span> associated with the phagocytosis of particulate materials by MØs in vitro. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.774a2135K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.774a2135K"><span>Development and optimization of a two-stage gasifier for <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kosov, V. V.; Zaichenko, V. M.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The major methods of biomass thermal conversion are combustion in excess oxygen, gasification in reduced oxygen, and pyrolysis in the absence of oxygen. The end <span class="hlt">products</span> of these methods are <span class="hlt">heat</span>, gas, liquid and solid fuels. From the point of view of energy <span class="hlt">production</span>, none of these methods can be considered optimal. A two-stage thermal conversion of biomass based on pyrolysis as the first stage and pyrolysis <span class="hlt">products</span> cracking as the second stage can be considered the optimal method for energy <span class="hlt">production</span> that allows obtaining synthesis gas consisting of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and not containing liquid or solid particles. On the base of the two stage cracking technology, there was designed an experimental power plant of electric power up to 50 kW. The power plant consists of a thermal conversion module and a gas engine power generator adapted for operation on syngas. Purposes of the work were determination of an optimal operation temperature of the thermal conversion module and an optimal mass ratio of processed biomass and charcoal in cracking chamber of the thermal conversion module. Experiments on the pyrolysis <span class="hlt">products</span> cracking at various temperatures show that the optimum cracking temperature is equal to 1000 °C. From the results of measuring the volume of gas produced in different mass ratios of charcoal and wood biomass processed, it follows that the maximum volume of the gas in the range of the mass ratio equal to 0.5-0.6.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040095935&hterms=global+product&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bproduct','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040095935&hterms=global+product&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bproduct"><span>Vertical Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall <span class="hlt">Products</span> from December 1997 to November 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">heating</span> over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America ) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> (maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed <span class="hlt">heating</span> budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (<span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>) as well as improve the GCE model. Review of other latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> algorithms will be discussed in the workshop.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040095935&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtropics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040095935&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtropics"><span>Vertical Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall <span class="hlt">Products</span> from December 1997 to November 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">heating</span> over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America ) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> (maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed <span class="hlt">heating</span> budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (<span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>) as well as improve the GCE model. Review of other latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> algorithms will be discussed in the workshop.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/867128','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/867128"><span>Carbonaceous material for <span class="hlt">production</span> of hydrogen from low <span class="hlt">heating</span> value fuel gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Koutsoukos, Elias P.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A process for the catalytic <span class="hlt">production</span> of hydrogen, from a wide variety of low <span class="hlt">heating</span> value fuel gases containing carbon monoxide, comprises circulating a carbonaceous material between two reactors--a carbon deposition reactor and a steaming reactor. In the carbon deposition reactor, carbon monoxide is removed from a fuel gas and is deposited on the carbonaceous material as an active carbon. In the steaming reactor, the reactive carbon reacts with steam to give hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The carbonaceous material contains a metal component comprising from about 75% to about 95% cobalt, from about 5% to about 15% iron, and up to about 10% chromium, and is effective in suppressing the <span class="hlt">production</span> of methane in the steaming reactor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27869499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27869499"><span>Capsaicinoids improve egg <span class="hlt">production</span> by regulating ovary nuclear transcription factors against <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress in quail.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sahin, N; Orhan, C; Tuzcu, M; Juturu, V; Sahin, K</p> <p>2016-12-12</p> <p>To examine the molecular mechanism of capsaicinoid supplementation from capsicum extract, laying Japanese quail (n = 180, 5 weeks old) were reared either at 22°C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or at 34°C for 8 h/d (<span class="hlt">heat</span> stress, HS) and fed on one of three diets containing 0, 25 or 50 mg of capsaicinoids per kilogram for 12 weeks (2 × 3 factorial arrangement). The results revealed that exposure to HS decreased feed consumption by 10.7% and egg <span class="hlt">production</span> by 13.6%, increased serum and ovary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by 66.9% and 88.1%, respectively, and reduced ovary superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities by 28.3%, 48.7% and 43.8%, respectively. There were magnifications in the ovary nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB) levels by 42.4% and suppressions in nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), protein kinase B (Akt) and haem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) levels by 29.2%, 38.2% and 30.7%, respectively, in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed quail. With increasing supplemental capsaicinoids, there were linear increases in egg <span class="hlt">production</span>, antioxidant enzyme activity, linear decreases in ovary MDA and NF-κB levels and linear increases in ovary Nrf2, Akt and HO-1 levels at a greater extent in quail reared under TN condition than those reared under HS condition. Two-way treatment interactions showed that the degree of restorations in all response variables was more notable under the HS environment than under the TN environment as supplemental capsaicinoid level was increased. In conclusion, capsaicinoid supplementation alleviates oxidative stress through regulating the ovary nuclear transcription factors in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed quail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26953943','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26953943"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Energy Efficiency of Broilers Infected With Necrotic Enteritis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>M'Sadeq, Shawkat A; Wu, Shu-Biao; Choct, Mingan; Swick, Robert A</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Necrotic enteritis (NE) in poultry is the most important bacterial disease in terms of economic losses. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of an experimental challenge with necrotic enteritis on respiration and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in birds pretreated with dietary acylated starch or antibiotics (AB) zinc bacitracin (50 mg/kg) plus salinomycin (60 mg/kg). In total, 48 1-day-old Ross 308 male broilers were assigned to floor pens until day 10. On day 11, birds were randomly placed into 16 calorimetric chambers with four replicates of three birds per treatment. Treatments were: control, AB, acetylated high-amylose maize starch (SA), or butyrylated high-amylose maize starch (SB). Birds were NE challenged by inoculation with 5000 sporulated oocysts each of Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina and 2500 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria brunetti on day 9 and Clostridium perfringens (3.8 × 10(8) colony-forming units) on day 14. The results showed that <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (HP), respiratory quotient (RQ), <span class="hlt">heat</span> increment, weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), and livability (LV) of birds fed control, SA, and SB diets were lower than birds fed AB at 19 and 42 hr postinoculation (P < 0.05). At 65 hr postchallenge, increased FI and WG of birds were observed, indicating recovery from NE. During the entire period, from day 14 to day 17, birds fed control, SA, and SB had lower WG, FI, HP, RQ, metabolizable energy intake (MEI), and metabolizable energy (P < 0.01) than those fed AB. The data demonstrate that Eimeria sp. and C. perfringens challenge reduces growth performance, HP, RQ, metabolizable energy, and MEI of birds fed control, SA, and SB but not AB diets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25084057','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25084057"><span>Gas <span class="hlt">production</span> and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance <span class="hlt">heating</span> of water and trichloroethene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hegele, P R; Mumford, K G</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The effective remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones using in situ thermal treatment requires successful capture of gas that is produced. Replicate electrical resistance <span class="hlt">heating</span> experiments were performed in a thin bench-scale apparatus, where water was boiled and pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) trichloroethene (TCE) and water were co-boiled in unconsolidated silica sand. Quantitative light transmission visualization was used to assess gas <span class="hlt">production</span> and transport mechanisms. In the water boiling experiments, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the gas phase into connected channels were observed at critical gas saturations of Sgc=0.233±0.017, which allowed for continuous gas transport out of the sand. In experiments containing a colder region above a target <span class="hlt">heated</span> zone, condensation prevented the formation of steam channels and discrete gas clusters that mobilized into colder regions were trapped soon after discontinuous transport began. In the TCE-water experiments, co-boiling at immiscible fluid interfaces resulted in discontinuous gas transport above the DNAPL pool. Redistribution of DNAPL was also observed above the pool and at the edge of the vapor front that propagated upwards through colder regions. These results suggest that the subsurface should be <span class="hlt">heated</span> to water boiling temperatures to facilitate gas transport from specific locations of DNAPL to extraction points and reduce the potential for DNAPL redistribution. Decreases in electric current were observed at the onset of gas phase <span class="hlt">production</span>, which suggests that coupled electrical current and temperature measurements may provide a reliable metric to assess gas phase development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCHyd.165...24H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCHyd.165...24H"><span>Gas <span class="hlt">production</span> and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance <span class="hlt">heating</span> of water and trichloroethene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hegele, P. R.; Mumford, K. G.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The effective remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones using in situ thermal treatment requires successful capture of gas that is produced. Replicate electrical resistance <span class="hlt">heating</span> experiments were performed in a thin bench-scale apparatus, where water was boiled and pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) trichloroethene (TCE) and water were co-boiled in unconsolidated silica sand. Quantitative light transmission visualization was used to assess gas <span class="hlt">production</span> and transport mechanisms. In the water boiling experiments, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the gas phase into connected channels were observed at critical gas saturations of Sgc = 0.233 ± 0.017, which allowed for continuous gas transport out of the sand. In experiments containing a colder region above a target <span class="hlt">heated</span> zone, condensation prevented the formation of steam channels and discrete gas clusters that mobilized into colder regions were trapped soon after discontinuous transport began. In the TCE-water experiments, co-boiling at immiscible fluid interfaces resulted in discontinuous gas transport above the DNAPL pool. Redistribution of DNAPL was also observed above the pool and at the edge of the vapor front that propagated upwards through colder regions. These results suggest that the subsurface should be <span class="hlt">heated</span> to water boiling temperatures to facilitate gas transport from specific locations of DNAPL to extraction points and reduce the potential for DNAPL redistribution. Decreases in electric current were observed at the onset of gas phase <span class="hlt">production</span>, which suggests that coupled electrical current and temperature measurements may provide a reliable metric to assess gas phase development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26937586','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26937586"><span>Isolation and identification of oxidation <span class="hlt">products</span> of guaiacol from brines and <span class="hlt">heated</span> meat matrix.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bölicke, Sarah-Maria; Ternes, Waldemar</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this study we investigated the formation of the oxidation <span class="hlt">products</span> of guaiacol in brines and <span class="hlt">heated</span> meat matrix: 6-nitrosoguaiacol, 4-nitroguaiacol and 6-nitroguaiacol. For this purpose we applied a newly developed HPLC-UV and LC-MS method. For the first time, 6-nitrosoguaiacol was determined in brine and meat (containing guaiacol and sodium nitrite), which had been <span class="hlt">heated</span> to 80°C and subsequently subjected to simulated digestion. Application of 500mg/L ascorbic acid to the brines reduced guaiacol degradation at pH3 and simultaneously inhibited the formation of 6-nitrosoguaiacol compared to brines containing only 100mg/L of ASC. The oxidation <span class="hlt">products</span> were isolated with a new extraction method from meat samples containing 400mg/kg sodium nitrite at pH3.6 following simulated digestion. When oxygen was added, 6-nitrosoguaiacol was determined even at legally allowed levels (150mg/kg) of the curing agent. Finally, we developed a new LC-MS method for the separation and qualitative determination of the four main smoke methoxyphenols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28489201','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28489201"><span>Water temperature, body mass and fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aguilar, Fredy A A; Cruz, Thaline M P DA; Mourão, Gerson B; Cyrino, José Eurico P</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Knowledge on fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (HEf) of fish is key to develop bioenergetics models thus improving feeding management of farmed species. The core of knowledge on HEf of farmed, neotropical fish is scarce. This study assessed the effect of body mass and water temperature on standard metabolism and fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, an omnivore, Neotropical fresh water characin important for farming and fisheries industries all through South American continent. An automated, intermittent flow respirometry system was used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR) of pacu (17 - 1,050 g) at five water temperatures: 19, 23, 26, 29 and 33 °C. Mass specific SMR increased with increasing water temperature but decreased as function of body mass. The allometric exponent for scaling HEf was 0.788, and lied in the range recorded for all studied warm-water fish. The recorded van't Hoff factor (Q10) for pacu (2.06) shows the species low response to temperature increases. The model HEf = 0.04643×W0.7882×T1.837 allows to predict HEf (kJ d-1) from body mass (W, kg) and water temperature (T, °C), and can be used in bioenergetical models for the species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/10209','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/10209"><span>Chunkwood: <span class="hlt">Production</span>, characterization, and utilization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Rodger A. Arola</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Presents a collection of U.S. research papers about chunkwood, an alternative form of <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> wood particles that range from finger size up to fairly large, blocky particles of wood. Discusses chunkwood`s characteristics, storage and drying, machinery, and use to build low-volume roads and as furnish for composite flake <span class="hlt">products</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4127713','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4127713"><span>Biomechanical Performance of Variable and Fixed Angle Locked Volar Plates for the Dorsally <span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> Distal Radius</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martineau, D; Shorez, J; Beran, C; Dass, A G; Atkinson, P</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background The ideal treatment strategy for the dorsally <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> distal radius fracture continues to evolve. Newer plate designs allow for variable axis screw placement while maintaining the advantages of locked technology. The purpose of this study is to compare the biomechanical properties of one variable axis plate with two traditional locked constructs. Methods Simulated fractures were created via a distal 1 cm dorsal wedge osteotomy in radius bone analogs. The analogs were of low stiffness and rigidity to create a worst-case strength condition for the subject radius plates. This fracture-gap model was fixated using one of three different locked volar distal radius plates: a variable axis plate (Stryker VariAx) or fixed axis (DePuy DVR, Smith & Nephew Peri-Loc) designs. The constructs were then tested at physiologic loading levels in axial compression and bending (dorsal and volar) modes. Construct stiffness was assessed by fracture gap motion during the different loading conditions. As a within-study control, intact bone analogs were similarly tested. Results All plated constructs were significantly less stiff than the intact control bone models in all loading modes (p<0.040). Amongst the plated constructs, the VariAx was stiffest axially (p=0.032) and the Peri-Loc was stiffest in bending (p<0.024). Conclusion In this analog bone fracture gap model, the variable axis locking technology was stiffer in axial compression than other plates, though less stiff in bending. PMID:25328471</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25328471','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25328471"><span>Biomechanical performance of variable and fixed angle locked volar plates for the dorsally <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> distal radius.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martineau, D; Shorez, J; Beran, C; Dass, A G; Atkinson, P</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The ideal treatment strategy for the dorsally <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> distal radius fracture continues to evolve. Newer plate designs allow for variable axis screw placement while maintaining the advantages of locked technology. The purpose of this study is to compare the biomechanical properties of one variable axis plate with two traditional locked constructs. Simulated fractures were created via a distal 1 cm dorsal wedge osteotomy in radius bone analogs. The analogs were of low stiffness and rigidity to create a worst-case strength condition for the subject radius plates. This fracture-gap model was fixated using one of three different locked volar distal radius plates: a variable axis plate (Stryker VariAx) or fixed axis (DePuy DVR, Smith & Nephew Peri-Loc) designs. The constructs were then tested at physiologic loading levels in axial compression and bending (dorsal and volar) modes. Construct stiffness was assessed by fracture gap motion during the different loading conditions. As a within-study control, intact bone analogs were similarly tested. All plated constructs were significantly less stiff than the intact control bone models in all loading modes (p<0.040). Amongst the plated constructs, the VariAx was stiffest axially (p=0.032) and the Peri-Loc was stiffest in bending (p<0.024). In this analog bone fracture gap model, the variable axis locking technology was stiffer in axial compression than other plates, though less stiff in bending.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12935134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12935134"><span>Shear with <span class="hlt">comminution</span> of a granular material: microscopic deformations outside the shear band.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chambon, G; Schmittbuhl, J; Corfdir, A; Vilotte, J P; Roux, S</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>A correlation imaging velocimetry technique is applied to recover displacement fields in a granular material subjected to extended shear. A thick (10 cm) annular sand sample (grain size: 1 mm) is confined at constant pressure (sigma=0.5 MPa) against a rough moving wall displacing at very low speed (delta=83 microm s(-1)). Localization of the strain rapidly forms a shear band (seven particles wide) in which <span class="hlt">comminution</span> develops. We focused on the strain field outside this shear band and observed a rich dynamics of large and intermittent mechanical clusters (up to 50 particles wide). Quantitative description of the radial velocity profile outside the shear band reveals an exponential decrease. However, a significant slip evolution of the associated characteristic length is observed, indicative of a slow decoupling between the shear band and the rest of the sample. This slow evolution is shown to be well described by power laws with the imposed slip, and has important implications for friction laws and earthquake physics.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24374608','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24374608"><span>Energy-based analysis of cone milling process for the <span class="hlt">comminution</span> of roller compacted flakes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Samanta, Asim Kumar; Wang, Likun; Ng, Ka Yun; Heng, Paul Wan Sia</p> <p>2014-02-28</p> <p>Cone mill is commonly used for the milling of wet and dry agglomerates in the pharmaceutical industry as it is capable of producing milled granules with desired size characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the various cone mill process parameters in terms of milling rate and energy consumption for the <span class="hlt">comminution</span> of roller compacted flakes. A placebo formulation containing microcrystalline cellulose, lactose and magnesium stearate was used to evaluate the milling performance. Results of this study showed that higher milling rate was obtained with the combination of higher impeller speed, teethed round sidearm impeller and grater screen surface profile. Either one of the later two parameters when present in any mill setting was found to be capable of shortening the residence time of flakes inside the milling chamber, thus resulting in a higher milling rate. On the other hand, selection of appropriate screen surface profile and impeller speed was very important at lowering the effective specific energy consumption during milling. Grater screen surface profile and impeller speed between 2000 and 2400 rpm were found to act synergistically as the best combination for an energy sparing process. Impeller sidearm shape was found to have no significant effect on energy consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25351617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25351617"><span>Post traumatic immediate GBR: alveolar ridge preservation after a <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fracture of the anterior maxilla.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Yongsoo; Leem, Dae Ho</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Without a proper intervention, a crushed alveolar process fracture can cause significant dimensional changes on affected hard and soft tissue that lead to difficult circumstances for post traumatic bone augmentation and dental implant placement. We present herein the cases of immediate guided bone regeneration (GBR) for the maxillary anterior alveolar process with <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fracture. Shortly after the hospital visit, guided bone regeneration was conducted for three patients using only xenograft material and bone fragments from traumatic site, without an additional donor site. Resorbable collagen membrane was used on the bone graft site, and titanium mesh was also used if significant bone loss were expected. Radiographic evaluation 6 months after GBR confirmed that all three cases had sufficiently preserved alveolar bone which is clinically required for implant placement. Dental implant installation was carried out for two patients and no specific findings were noted in follow-up after the placement. In this method, additional operation sites for bone collection are not necessary and the number of surgical steps before implant placement can be reduced. Furthermore, this immediate intervention can effectively minimize the alveolar ridge shrinkage of anterior maxilla after injury. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25626484','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25626484"><span>Multiple subluxations and <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fracture of the cervical spine in a sheep.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, C-C; Chen, K-S; Lin, Y-L; Chan, J P-W</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A 5-month-old, 13.5 kg, female Corriedale sheep was referred to the Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital, with a history of traumatic injury of the cervical spine followed by non-ambulatoric tetraparesis that occurred 2 weeks before being admitted to the hospital. At admission, malalignment of the cervical spine with the cranial part of the neck deviating to the right was noted. Neurological examinations identified the absence of postural reactions in both forelimbs, mildly decreased spinal reflexes, and normal reaction to pain perception tests. Radiography revealed malalignment of the cervical vertebrae with subluxations at C1-C2 and C2-C3, and a <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fracture of the caudal aspect of C2. The sheep was euthanized due to a presumed poor prognosis. Necropsy and histopathological findings confirmed injuries of the cervical spine from C1 to C3, which were consistent with the clinical finding of tetraparesis in this case. This paper presents a rare case of multiple subluxations of the cervical spine caused by blunt force trauma in a young sheep. These results highlight the importance of an astute clinical diagnosis for such an acute cervical spine trauma and the need for prompt surgical correction for similar cases in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..838..323B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..838..323B"><span>Role of Shear and Longitudinal Waves in Stone <span class="hlt">Comminution</span> by Lithotripter Shock Waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bailey, Michael R.; Maxwell, Adam D.; MacConaghy, Brian; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Crum, Lawrence A.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Mechanisms of stone fragmentation by lithotripter shock waves were studied. Numerically, an isotropic-medium, elastic-wave model was employed to isolate and assess the importance of individual mechanisms in stone <span class="hlt">comminution</span>. Experimentally, cylindrical U-30 cement stones were treated in an HM-3-style research lithotripter. Baffles were used to block specific waves responsible for spallation, squeezing, or shear. Surface cracks were added to stones to simulate the effect of cavitation, and then tested in water and glycerol (a cavitation suppressive medium). The calculated location of maximum stress compared well with the experimental observations of where cracks naturally formed. Shear waves from the shock wave in the fluid traveling along the stone surface (a kind of dynamic squeezing) led to the largest stresses in the cylindrical stones and the fewest shock waves to fracture. Reflection of the longitudinal wave from the back of the stone — spallation — and bubble-jet impact on the proximal and distal faces of the stone produced lower stresses and required more shock waves to fracture stones, but cavitation stresses become comparable in small stone pieces. Surface cracks accelerated fragmentation when created near the location where the maximum stress was predicted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28713750','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28713750"><span><span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> Laryngeal Fracture Following Blunt Trauma: A Need for Strict Legislation on Roads!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jain, Shraddha; Singh, Pragya; Gupta, Minal; Kamble, Bhavna; Phatak, Suresh S</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Laryngeal fracture is a rare condition with potential life-long implications related to airway patency, voice quality, and swallowing. Rarity of the condition leads to lack of consensus on the most suitable way to manage this injury. The mode of injury can be prevented by strict legislation on the roads. We report a case of a 28-year-old Indian male who sustained a <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> displaced fracture of the thyroid cartilage with disruption of anterior commissure due to blunt trauma caused by the metallic side rod of a ladder projecting from the rear of a vehicle in front of the bike on which he was riding. He presented with breathing difficulty, change in voice, surgical emphysema, and pneumomediastinum, but without any skin changes over the neck. His airway could be restored due to early tracheostomy and open reduction with internal fixation with sutures along with laryngeal stenting. He has no significant swallowing or breathing problem and reasonably good voice 6 months after surgery. This case highlights the need for strict legislation on roads in India and the importance of high level of suspicion for laryngeal fracture in acute trauma patient. Early identification and timely internal fixation not only restore the airway but also improve long-term voice and airway outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3679619','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3679619"><span>Arthroscopic Treatment of <span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> Distal Clavicle Fractures (Latarjet Fractures) Using 2 Double-Button Devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pujol, Nicolas; Desmoineaux, Pierre; Boisrenoult, Philippe; Beaufils, Philippe</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Complex distal clavicle fractures associated with a rupture of the coracoclavicular ligaments (Latarjet fractures) can result in delayed union or nonunion. There is no standard treatment for a clavicle fracture. This report introduces an arthroscopic technique for treating distal clavicle fractures associated with ruptured coracoclavicular ligament using 2 double-button devices. By use of posterior and anterior standard arthroscopic portals, the base of the coracoid process is exposed through the rotator interval. A 4-mm hole is drilled through the clavicle and the coracoid process with a specific ancillary drill guide. The first button is pushed through both holes down the coracoid process. The device is tightened, and the second button is fixed on top of the clavicle, allowing reduction and fixation of the proximal part of the fracture. Then, the undersurface of the lateral clavicle is dissected through standard posterior and lateral subacromial approaches. The inferior clavicle fragment is reduced and fixed to the clavicle body by a double button fixed down and at the top of the clavicle. With this technique, the arthroscopic treatment of distal clavicle fracture has been extended to <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fractures. PMID:23767010</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AIPC..754..164S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AIPC..754..164S"><span>Assessing the Mechanism of Kidney Stone <span class="hlt">Comminution</span> by a Lithotripter Shock Pulse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Maxwell, Adam D.; MacConaghy, Brian; Cleveland, Robin O.; Crum, Lawrence A.</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Comminution</span> of axisymmetric stones by a lithotripter shock wave was studied experimentally and theoretically. In experiments, shock waves were generated by a research electrohydraulic lithotripter modeled after the Dornier HM-3, and stones were made from U-30 cement. Cylindrical stones of various length to diameter ratios, stones of conical shape, and stones with artificial cracks were studied. In other cases, baffles to block specific waves that contribute to spallation or squeezing were used, and glycerol was used to suppress cavitation. The theory was based on the elasticity equations for an isotropic medium. The equations were written in finite differences and integrated numerically. Maximum compression, tensile and shear stresses were predicted depending on the stone shape and side-surface condition in order to investigate the importance of the stone geometry. It is shown that the theoretical model used explains the observed position of a crack in a stone. The theory also predicts the efficiency of stone fragmentation depending on its shape and size, as well as on the presence of cracks on the stone surface and baffles near the stone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMMR33A2651K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMMR33A2651K"><span>Blackening of fault gouge by <span class="hlt">comminution</span> and pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials during earthquake slip</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaneki, S.; Hirono, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Fault gouges often exhibit various colors (white-pink-green-brown-gray-black), and particularly those developed in sedimentary rocks show gray to black. However, the physicochemical process for the color transition accompanied with seismic slip has not yet been fully understood. On the other hand, determination of the peak temperature during slip is crucial to identify the faulting mechanism during an earthquake, so that various temperature proxies have been proposed. For example, 1) magnetite formation at high temperature of ≥400 °C, 2) anomalies in the concentrations of fluid-mobile trace elements (Sr, Cs, Rb, and Li) and in the Sr isotope ratios, indicating presence of high-temperature fluid of ≥350 °C, 3) dehydroxylation of clay minerals, 4) thermal decomposition of carbonate minerals, and 5) thermal maturation of carbonaceous material examined by vitrinite reflectance measurement and by infrared and Raman spectroscopies. However, these proxies required high-level analyses in laboratory, so easy method to detect the record of high temperature preliminarily on field would be expected. In this study, we reproduced the blackening of synthetic fault sample by using high-velocity friction apparatus, thermogravimetric, and milling machine, and evaluated the color transition and organic chemical property of the samples by using UV-visible/NIR spectrophotometer and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We discuss the process of the blackening taking <span class="hlt">comminution</span> and pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials into consideration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008epsc.conf..600G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008epsc.conf..600G"><span>Highly <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> lunar impact ejecta: Earth-based radar and LRO DIVINER observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghent, R. R.; Campbell, B. A.; Pithawala, T.</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>Introduction Recent work [1-3] using Earth-based radar measurements has shown that large impacts on the Moon produce a distinct facies of highly <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> ejecta depleted in fragments >10 cm in diameter, forming concentric radar-dark haloes around the source craters and representing a mantling layer on the order of 10m thick. We have also recently observed similar haloes of fine ejecta surrounding Martian craters >5 km in diameter, characterized by micron- to mm-sized particles. Preliminary measurements suggest that the lunar and Martian fine ejecta haloes are geometrically similar: that is, they scale in much the same way with respect to their source craters. This implies that a) the <span class="hlt">comminution</span> process and emplacement of ejecta on the two planets occur in similar ways; and b) like the Martian case, the lunar crater haloes also have a thin mantling layer of very fine particles, which cannot be detected using Earth-based radar. Because of their extensive spatial coverage and high resolution, LRO DIVINER measurements will provide the first opportunity to bridge this gap and to more completely characterize the rock size distribution represented in lunar continuous ejecta. Radar remote sensing of fine-grained ejecta haloes Fine-grained lunar ejecta haloes were first observed [4], and later studied in detail [1-3], using Earth-based delay-Doppler radar imagery at 70-cm wavelength. Recent observations in two circular polarizations have been made using the Arecibo telescope in Puerto Rico and the Greenbank telescope in West Virginia in a bistatic geometry [5; Campbell et al., IEEE]. In general, the radar backscatter of the lunar regolith is comprised of echoes from the surface, rocks suspended within the fine-grained matrix, and a possible basal regolith interface. The relative importance of each of these components varies with radar wavelength and is a function of surface roughness, surface and volume rock populations, the depth and dielectric properties of the matrix</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/722564','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/722564"><span>Tension and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during isometric contractions and shortening in the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gilbert, S H</p> <p>1978-09-01</p> <p>1. Tension and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> were measured during phasic isometric contractions and isovelocity shortening in the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of Mytilus edulis at 20 degrees C. 2. Isometric tension at lo was 550 +/- 40 mN/mm2 (S.D. for 173 observations in nine muscles), while the isometric maintenance <span class="hlt">heat</span> rate was 1.0 +/- 0.2 mW/g wet wt. (S.D. for seventy-eight observations in eight muscles). 3. Isometric tension and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> were measured as functions of muscle length over a range of 0.79--1.14 lo and were found to bear a linear relation to each other. 4. The force-velocity relation was determined in isovelocity releases imposed during tetanic stimulation and was found to fit the Hill equation with parameters alpha/Po = 0.07 +/- 0.01 and b/lo = 0.016 +/- 0.0007 sec-1 (S.E. from non-linear least-squares regression of the pooled data from seven experiments). 5. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> measured in the same experiments showed that shortening <span class="hlt">heat</span> is produced with a shortening <span class="hlt">heat</span> coefficient alpha/Po of 0.15. Shortening <span class="hlt">heat</span> does not appear to be force-dependent, and separate experiments confirmed that it is a linear function of the amount of shortening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27264277','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27264277"><span>Ability of modern distal tibia plates to stabilize <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> pilon fracture fragments: Is dual plate fixation necessary?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Penny, Phillip; Swords, Michael; Heisler, Jason; Cien, Adam; Sands, Andrew; Cole, Peter</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to examine the screw trajectory of ten commercially available distal tibia plates and compare them to common fracture patterns seen in OTA C type pilon fractures to determine their ability to stabilize the three most common fracture fragments while buttressing anterolateral zones of <span class="hlt">comminution</span>. We hypothesized that a single plate for the distal tibia would fail to adequately stabilize all three main fracture fragments and zones of <span class="hlt">comminution</span> in complex pilon fractures. Ten synthetic distal tibia sawbones models were used in conjunction with ten different locking distal tibia plate designs from three manufacturers (Depuy Synthes, J&J Co, Paoli, PA; Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN; and Stryker, Mawa, NJ). Both medial and anterolateral plates from each company were utilized and separately applied to an individual sawbone model. Three implants allowing variable angle screw placement were used. The location of the locking screws and buttress effect 1cm above the articular surface was noted for each implant using axial computed tomography (CT). The images were then compared to a recently published "pilon fracture map" using an overlay technique to establish the relationship between screw location and known common fracture lines and areas of <span class="hlt">comminution</span>. Each of the three main fragments was considered "captured" by a screw if it was purchased by at least two screws thereby controlling rotational forces on each fragment. Three of four anterolateral plates lacked stable fixation in the medial fragment. Of the 4 anterolateral plates used, only the variable angle anterolateral plate by Depuy Synthes captured the medial fragment with two screws. All four anterolateral plates buttressed the area of highest <span class="hlt">comminution</span> and had an average of 1.25 screws in the medial fragment and an average of 3 screws in the posterolateral fragment. All five direct medial plates had variable fixation within anterolateral and posterolateral fragments with an average of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.C41C0214G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.C41C0214G"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> Flux Comparison Using Buoy- and SAR-derived Motion <span class="hlt">Products</span> From ISW 1992</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geiger, C. A.; Drinkwater, M. R.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Sea-ice kinematics relevant to surface fluxes using ERS-1 SAR images coincident with buoys in the western Weddell Sea in Austral Autumn of 1992 is examined. Using a toy model, effects of aliasing in surface flux determination are tested. Results show variability associated with storms, ocean tides, inertial oscillations, and other high frequency forcing affects integrated sea-ice growth rates along this shelf/slope location. Integrated salt and new ice <span class="hlt">production</span> rates computed from buoys are found to be two times larger than those using ERS-1 SAR motion <span class="hlt">products</span>. Cognizant of the limitations in satellite image pairs separated by time, we report on differences in salt and ice <span class="hlt">production</span> rates, it follows directly that the differences in salt and ice <span class="hlt">production</span> rates result primarily from inadequate temporal resolution of shorter than daily (sub-daily) <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux variability and sea-ice divergence. Comparison with other studies shows the problem is widespread thereby impacting the modeling of sea-ice mass balance and variability. These small-scale processes have significant ramifications to larger scales and the global thermohaline circulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3651413','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3651413"><span>Effects of steam pretreatment and co-<span class="hlt">production</span> with ethanol on the energy efficiency and process economics of combined biogas, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and electricity <span class="hlt">production</span> from industrial hemp</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background The study presented here has used the commercial flow sheeting program Aspen Plus™ to evaluate techno-economic aspects of large-scale hemp-based processes for producing transportation fuels. The co-<span class="hlt">production</span> of biogas, district <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power from chopped and steam-pretreated hemp, and the co-<span class="hlt">production</span> of ethanol, biogas, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power from steam-pretreated hemp were analysed. The analyses include assessments of <span class="hlt">heat</span> demand, energy efficiency and process economics in terms of annual cash flows and minimum biogas and ethanol selling prices (MBSP and MESP). Results Producing biogas, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power from chopped hemp has the highest overall energy efficiency, 84% of the theoretical maximum (based on lower <span class="hlt">heating</span> values), providing that the maximum capacity of district <span class="hlt">heat</span> is delivered. The combined <span class="hlt">production</span> of ethanol, biogas, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power has the highest energy efficiency (49%) if district <span class="hlt">heat</span> is not produced. Neither the inclusion of steam pretreatment nor co-<span class="hlt">production</span> with ethanol has a large impact on the MBSP. Ethanol is more expensive to produce than biogas is, but this is compensated for by its higher market price. None of the scenarios examined are economically viable, since the MBSP (EUR 103–128 per MWh) is higher than the market price of biogas (EUR 67 per MWh). The largest contribution to the cost is the cost of feedstock. Decreasing the retention time in the biogas process for low solids streams by partly replacing continuous stirred tank reactors by high-rate bioreactors decreases the MBSP. Also, recycling part of the liquid from the effluent from anaerobic digestion decreases the MBSP. The <span class="hlt">production</span> and prices of methane and ethanol influence the process economics more than the <span class="hlt">production</span> and prices of electricity and district <span class="hlt">heat</span>. Conclusions To reduce the <span class="hlt">production</span> cost of ethanol and biogas from biomass, the use of feedstocks that are cheaper than hemp, give higher output of ethanol and biogas, or combined <span class="hlt">production</span> with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23607263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23607263"><span>Effects of steam pretreatment and co-<span class="hlt">production</span> with ethanol on the energy efficiency and process economics of combined biogas, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and electricity <span class="hlt">production</span> from industrial hemp.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barta, Zsolt; Kreuger, Emma; Björnsson, Lovisa</p> <p>2013-04-22</p> <p>The study presented here has used the commercial flow sheeting program Aspen Plus™ to evaluate techno-economic aspects of large-scale hemp-based processes for producing transportation fuels. The co-<span class="hlt">production</span> of biogas, district <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power from chopped and steam-pretreated hemp, and the co-<span class="hlt">production</span> of ethanol, biogas, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power from steam-pretreated hemp were analysed. The analyses include assessments of <span class="hlt">heat</span> demand, energy efficiency and process economics in terms of annual cash flows and minimum biogas and ethanol selling prices (MBSP and MESP). Producing biogas, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power from chopped hemp has the highest overall energy efficiency, 84% of the theoretical maximum (based on lower <span class="hlt">heating</span> values), providing that the maximum capacity of district <span class="hlt">heat</span> is delivered. The combined <span class="hlt">production</span> of ethanol, biogas, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and power has the highest energy efficiency (49%) if district <span class="hlt">heat</span> is not produced. Neither the inclusion of steam pretreatment nor co-<span class="hlt">production</span> with ethanol has a large impact on the MBSP. Ethanol is more expensive to produce than biogas is, but this is compensated for by its higher market price. None of the scenarios examined are economically viable, since the MBSP (EUR 103-128 per MWh) is higher than the market price of biogas (EUR 67 per MWh). The largest contribution to the cost is the cost of feedstock. Decreasing the retention time in the biogas process for low solids streams by partly replacing continuous stirred tank reactors by high-rate bioreactors decreases the MBSP. Also, recycling part of the liquid from the effluent from anaerobic digestion decreases the MBSP. The <span class="hlt">production</span> and prices of methane and ethanol influence the process economics more than the <span class="hlt">production</span> and prices of electricity and district <span class="hlt">heat</span>. To reduce the <span class="hlt">production</span> cost of ethanol and biogas from biomass, the use of feedstocks that are cheaper than hemp, give higher output of ethanol and biogas, or combined <span class="hlt">production</span> with higher value <span class="hlt">products</span> are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.T14A..04H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.T14A..04H"><span>Evolution Of The West Antarctic Rift System And the Importance of Crustal <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huerta, A. D.; Harry, D. L.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p> boundary due to <span class="hlt">heat</span> conducted from the warm East Antarctic crust. Thus, crustal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> can play an important role in controlling the deformational evolution of extensional systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cmns...11..178K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cmns...11..178K"><span>Excess <span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> in Pd/D during Periodic Pulse Discharge Current in Various Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karabut, A. B.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>Experimental data from low-energy nuclear reactions (LERN) in condensed media are presented. The nuclear reactions <span class="hlt">products</span> were found in solid cathode media used in glow discharge. Apparently, the nuclear reactions were initiated when bombarding the cathode surface by plasma ions with the energy of 1.0-2.0 keV. Excess <span class="hlt">heat</span> from a high current glow discharge reaction in D2, Xe, and Kr using cathodes already charged with preliminary deuterium-charged Pd and Ti cathode samples are given. Excess <span class="hlt">heat</span> up to 10-15 W and efficiency up to 130% was recorded under the experiments for Pd cathode samples in D2 discharge. Excess <span class="hlt">heat</span> up to 5 W and efficiency up to 150% was recorded for Pd cathodes that were charged with deuterium before the run, in Xe and Kr discharges. At the same time excess <span class="hlt">heat</span> was not observed for pure Pd cathode samples in Xe and Kr discharges. The formation of impurity nuclides (7Li, 13C, 15N, 20Ne, 29Si, 44Ca, 48Ca, 56Fe, 57Fe, 59Co, 64Zn, 66Zn, 75As, 107Ag, 109Ag, 110Cg, 111Cg, 112Cg, 114Cg, and 115In) with the efficiency up to 1013 at./s was recorded. The isotopic ratios of these new nuclides ware quite different from the natural ratios. Soft X-ray radiation from the solid-state cathode with the intensity up to 0.01 Gy/s was recorded in experiments with discharges in H2, D2, Ar, Xe, and Kr. The X-ray radiation was observed in bursts of up to 106 photons, with up to 105 bursts per second while the discharge was formed and within 100 ms after turning off the discharge current. The results of the X-ray radiation registration showed that the exited energy levels have a lifetime up to 100 ms or more, and the energy of 1.2-2.5 keV. A possible mechanism for producing excess <span class="hlt">heat</span> and nuclear transmutation reactions in the solid medium with the exited energy levels is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60.1377S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60.1377S"><span>Assessment of <span class="hlt">heat</span> tolerance and <span class="hlt">production</span> performance of Aardi, Damascus, and their crossbred goats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samara, Emad Mohammed; Abdoun, Khalid Ahmed; Okab, Aly Bassunny; Al-Badwi, Mohammed Abdo; El-Zarei, Mohamed Fawzy; Al-Seaf, Ali Mohamed; Al-Haidary, Ahmed Abrahim</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The question of whether the adaptability and <span class="hlt">production</span> performance in goats may be enhanced using a crossbreeding program between bucks of a native and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-tolerant breed and does of an exotic and dual-purpose breed was approached and examined herein by comparing purebred Aardi and Damascus goats and their crossbred lines (i.e., 1/2 Aardi 1/2 Damascus (½A½D) and 1/4 Aardi 3/4 Damascus (¼A¾D)) reared in a region characterized by dry and hot bioclimatic conditions. Twenty-four male 6-month-old kids randomly segregated into four groups (six replicates/group) were used for the experiment. Climatic, thermo-physiological, biophysiological, metabolic, blood hematological, and biochemical measurements were all determined. The obtained results indicated that such a program was proven to be successful. This conclusion was demonstrated by the findings that crossbred goats (i.e., 1/2A1/2D and 1/4A3/4D) under such bioclimatic conditions were able to show ( P < 0.05) higher <span class="hlt">heat</span> tolerance capabilities compared to purebred Damascus goats as well as manifested ( P < 0.05) higher <span class="hlt">production</span> performance compared to the purebred Aardi goats. Accordingly, these evidences could emphasize that the crossbreeding may enable these animals to display a simultaneous improvement of both traits by the possible benefits that could arise from heterosis and breed complementarity. Researches dealing with this aspect may very well improve our understanding of goat's <span class="hlt">production</span> and welfare under harsh environmental conditions. Future studies should include an economic analysis of traits that have the potential to impact the overall profitability to a vertically coordinated system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040035731&hterms=global+product&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bproduct','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040035731&hterms=global+product&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bproduct"><span>Vertical Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release over the Global Tropics Using TRMM Rainfall <span class="hlt">Products</span> from December 1997 to November 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">heating</span> over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> (maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in straitform percentage estimates from PR on latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMXX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM- LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed <span class="hlt">heating</span> budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (<span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>) as well as improve the GCE model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030020782&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtropics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030020782&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtropics"><span>Vertical Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM rainfall <span class="hlt">products</span> from December 1997 to November 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2001. Rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DE 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">heating</span> over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs. west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> (maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in strtaiform percentage estimates from PR on latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed <span class="hlt">heating</span> budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (<span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>) as well as improve the GCE model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040035731&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtropics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040035731&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtropics"><span>Vertical Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release over the Global Tropics Using TRMM Rainfall <span class="hlt">Products</span> from December 1997 to November 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">heating</span> over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> (maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in straitform percentage estimates from PR on latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMXX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM- LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed <span class="hlt">heating</span> budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (<span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>) as well as improve the GCE model.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020081030&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtropics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020081030&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtropics"><span>Vertical Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release Over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall <span class="hlt">Products</span> from December 1997 to November 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">heating</span> over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> (maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed <span class="hlt">heating</span> budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (<span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>) as well as improve the GCE model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030020782&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtropics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030020782&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtropics"><span>Vertical Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM rainfall <span class="hlt">products</span> from December 1997 to November 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2001. Rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DE 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">heating</span> over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs. west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> (maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in strtaiform percentage estimates from PR on latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed <span class="hlt">heating</span> budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (<span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>) as well as improve the GCE model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020081030&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtropics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020081030&hterms=tropics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtropics"><span>Vertical Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release Over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall <span class="hlt">Products</span> from December 1997 to November 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">heating</span> over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> (maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed <span class="hlt">heating</span> budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (<span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>) as well as improve the GCE model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf"><span>24 CFR 200.950 - Building <span class="hlt">product</span> standards and certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Systems...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf"><span>24 CFR 200.950 - Building <span class="hlt">product</span> standards and certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Systems...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf"><span>24 CFR 200.950 - Building <span class="hlt">product</span> standards and certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Systems...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf"><span>24 CFR 200.950 - Building <span class="hlt">product</span> standards and certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Systems...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title24-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title24-vol2-sec200-950.pdf"><span>24 CFR 200.950 - Building <span class="hlt">product</span> standards and certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... certification program for solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water <span class="hlt">heating</span> systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water <span class="hlt">Heating</span> Systems...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990HM.....44..125K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990HM.....44..125K"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in Littorina saxatilis Olivi and Littorina neritoides L. (gastropoda: Prosobranchia) during an experimental exposure to air</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kronberg, Inge</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>The adaptation of littorinid molluscs to prolonged aerial exposure was investigated by the determination of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. Littorina saxatilis, inhabiting the upper eulittoral, reached a maximum metabolic activity during submersion (<span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>: 3.26×10-3J s-1 (gadw)-1. On the first three days of desiccation, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was continuously reduced to 40% of the submersed value. A prolonged aerial exposure was lethal for this species. In the supralittoral L. neritoides, three stages of energy metabolism could be observed: An intermediate <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> during submersion (1.97×10-3Js-1 (gadw)-1), an increased metabolism during the first hour of aerial exposure (<span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> 204% of submersed value), and a minimal metabolism (39% of the submersed value and 19% of maximum value) during the following days and weeks of desiccation. Recovery depended on water salinity; L. saxatilis proved to be less euryhaline than L. neritoides. Thus, the metabolic adaptations correlate with the level of littoral habitat; inactivity combined with a drastically reduced energy consumption is a metabolically economic way to survive in periodically dry environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24316604','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24316604"><span>Different assay conditions for detecting the <span class="hlt">production</span> and release of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-labile and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable toxins in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rocha, Letícia B; Ozaki, Christiane Y; Horton, Denise S P Q; Menezes, Caroline A; Silva, Anderson; Fernandes, Irene; Magnoli, Fabio C; Vaz, Tania M I; Guth, Beatriz E C; Piazza, Roxane M F</p> <p>2013-12-02</p> <p>Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produce <span class="hlt">heat</span>-labile (LT) and/or <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stable enterotoxins (ST). Despite that, the mechanism of action of both toxins are well known, there is great controversy in the literature concerning the in vitro <span class="hlt">production</span> and release of LT and, for ST, no major concerns have been discussed. Furthermore, the majority of published papers describe the use of only one or a few ETEC isolates to define the <span class="hlt">production</span> and release of these toxins, which hinders the detection of ETEC by phenotypic approaches. Thus, the present study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of ST and LT toxin <span class="hlt">production</span> and release under laboratory conditions. Accordingly, a collection of 90 LT-, ST-, and ST/LT-producing ETEC isolates was used to determine a protocol for toxin <span class="hlt">production</span> and release aimed at ETEC detection. For this, we used previously raised anti-LT antibodies and the anti-ST monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies described herein. The presence of bile salts and the use of certain antibiotics improved ETEC toxin <span class="hlt">production</span>/release. Triton X-100, as chemical treatment, proved to be an alternative method for toxin release. Consequently, a common protocol that can increase the <span class="hlt">production</span> and release of LT and ST toxins could facilitate and enhance the sensitivity of diagnostic tests for ETEC using the raised and described antibodies in the present work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJT....32..523J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJT....32..523J"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> and Mass Transfer Measurements for Tray-Fermented Fungal <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jou, R.-Y.; Lo, C.-T.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this study, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer in static tray fermentation, which is widely used in solid-state fermentation (SSF) to produce fungal <span class="hlt">products</span>, such as enzymes or koji, is investigated. Specifically, kinetic models of transport phenomena in the whole-tray chamber are emphasized. The effects of temperature, moisture, and humidity on microbial growth in large-scale static tray fermentation are essential to scale-up SSF and achieve uniform fermentation. In addition, <span class="hlt">heat</span> and mass transfer of static tray fermentation of Trichoderma fungi with two tray setups—traditional linen coverings and stacks in a temperature-humidity chamber is examined. In both these setups, the following factors of fermentation were measured: air velocity, air temperature, illumination, pH, carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, and substrate temperature, and the effects of bed height, moisture of substrate, and relative humidity of air are studied. A thin (1 cm) bed at 28 °C and 95 % relative humidity is found to be optimum. Furthermore, mixing was essential for achieving uniform fermentation of Trichoderma fungi. This study has important applications in large-scale static tray fermentation of fungi.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10173667','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10173667"><span>Performance of a CEBAF <span class="hlt">production</span> cavity after high-temperature <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kneisel, P.; Rao, M.</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>CEBAF`s <span class="hlt">production</span> cavities are tested in a vertical configuration after appropriate chemical surface treatment prior to installation into the accelerator. The performance of these cavities is excellent, often exceeding the specifications of E{sub acc}=5 MV/m at 2 K by factors of 2 to 3. In such cases the cavities are often limited by thermal-magnetic breakdown. A cavity that exhibited a limiting gradient of E{sub acc} {le} 16.4 MV/m has been <span class="hlt">heat</span>-treated at 1400{degrees}C for 6 hours in the presence of titanium as a solid state gettering material to improve the thermal stability of the niobium. After the <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment a gradient of E{sub acc}=20.5 MV/m corresponding to a peak surface electric field of E{sub peak}=52 MV/m has been measured. In addition to the cavity results, data on thermal conductivity and tensile properties of samples which have undergone the same treatments as the cavity are reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPS...351...45R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPS...351...45R"><span>Electrical power <span class="hlt">production</span> from low-grade waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> using a thermally regenerative ethylenediamine battery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rahimi, Mohammad; D'Angelo, Adriana; Gorski, Christopher A.; Scialdone, Onofrio; Logan, Bruce E.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Thermally regenerative ammonia-based batteries (TRABs) have been developed to harvest low-grade waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> as electricity. To improve the power <span class="hlt">production</span> and anodic coulombic efficiency, the use of ethylenediamine as an alternative ligand to ammonia was explored here. The power density of the ethylenediamine-based battery (TRENB) was 85 ± 3 W m-2-electrode area with 2 M ethylenediamine, and 119 ± 4 W m-2 with 3 M ethylenediamine. This power density was 68% higher than that of TRAB. The energy density was 478 Wh m-3-anolyte, which was ∼50% higher than that produced by TRAB. The anodic coulombic efficiency of the TRENB was 77 ± 2%, which was more than twice that obtained using ammonia in a TRAB (35%). The higher anodic efficiency reduced the difference between the anode dissolution and cathode deposition rates, resulting in a process more suitable for closed loop operation. The thermal-electric efficiency based on ethylenediamine separation using waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> was estimated to be 0.52%, which was lower than that of TRAB (0.86%), mainly due to the more complex separation process. However, this energy recovery could likely be improved through optimization of the ethylenediamine separation process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/664627','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/664627"><span><span class="hlt">Production</span> of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources for the Cassini mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>George, T.G.; Foltyn, E.M.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>NASA{close_quote}s Cassini mission to Saturn, scheduled to launch in October, 1997, is perhaps the most ambitious interplanetary explorer ever constructed. Electric power for the spacecraft{close_quote}s science instruments and on-board computers will be provided by three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) powered by 216 {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}-fueled General-Purpose <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Source (GPHS) capsules. In addition, critical equipment and instruments on the spacecraft and Huygens probe will be warmed by 128 Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). Fabrication and assembly of the GPHS capsules and LWRHU <span class="hlt">heat</span> sources was performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) between January 1994 and September 1996. During this <span class="hlt">production</span> campaign, LANL pressed and sintered 315 GPHS fuel pellets and 181 LWRHU pellets. By October 1996, NMT-9 had delivered a total of 235 GPHS capsules to EG&G Mound Applied Technologies (EG&G MAT) in Miamisburg, Ohio. EG&G MAT conditioned the capsules for use, loaded the capsules into the Cassini RTGs, tested the RTGs, and coordinated transportation to Kennedy Space Center (KSC). LANL also fabricated and assembled a total of 180 LWRHUs. The LWRHUs required for the Cassini spacecraft were shipped to KSC in mid-1997. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JOM....67b.484R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JOM....67b.484R"><span>Changes in Quartz During <span class="hlt">Heating</span> and the Possible Effects on Si <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ringdalen, Eli</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>In Si and FeSi <span class="hlt">production</span>, the main Si source is SiO2, in the form of quartz. Reactions with SiO2 generate SiO gas that further reacts with SiC to Si. During <span class="hlt">heating</span>, quartz will transform to other SiO2 modifications with cristobalite as the stable high-temperature phase. Transformation to cristobalite is a slow process. Its rate has been investigated for several industrial quartz sources and has been shown to vary considerably among the different quartz types. Other differences in behavior during <span class="hlt">heating</span> between these quartz sources, such as softening temperature and volume expansion, have also been studied. The quartz-cristobalite ratio will affect the rate of reactions involving SiO2. The industrial consequences and other implications of the observed difference between quartz types are discussed. Initial studies of industrial quartz were published by Ringdalen et al. In the current work, a new experimental method has been developed, and an investigation of several new quartz sources has confirmed the earlier observed large variation between different sources. The repeatability of the data has been studied and the effect of gas atmosphere investigated. The results from the earlier work are included as a basis for the discussion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3372821','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3372821"><span>Dry period <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress relief effects on prepartum progesterone, calf birth weight, and milk <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wolfenson, D; Flamenbaum, I; Berman, A</p> <p>1988-03-01</p> <p>Effects of cooling high producing dairy cows during the dry period were examined in 84 pluriparous Israeli-Holstein cows. Cooling was by a combination of wetting and forced ventilation from 0600 to 1800 h until parturition and common management afterwards for both groups. Cooling maintained diurnal increase in rectal temperature within .2 degrees C as compared with .5 degrees C in control cows in warmer months, Mean rectal temperatures at 1400 h in control cows were moderate, within 39.2 degrees C. Cooling did not affect prepartum or postpartum body condition score or mean blood progesterone during the dry period. Results suggested a possible increase in blood progesterone in later pregnancy by cooling during hot weather. Cooling increased mean 150-d milk <span class="hlt">production</span> by 3.6 kg/d (3.1 kg FCM/d). Prepartum cooling negatively affected first lactation month yield in cows calving in early summer. Prepartum cooling might prevent adaptation to <span class="hlt">heat</span> and impair subsequent postpartum performance. Prepartum progesterone was not related to milk yield. Calves' birth weight increased by cooling, but the effect was mostly in older cows. Birth weight was related to milk yield, independently of cooling effect, mostly in older cows. Cooling during the dry period might increase milk yield as it does during lactation. Results indicate possible benefit of cooling dry cows even under mild <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000032790','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000032790"><span>Retrieved Vertical Profiles of Latent <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Release Using TRMM Rainfall <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Olson, W. S.; Meneghini, R.; Yang, S.; Simpson, J.; Kummerow, C.; Smith, E.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This paper represents the first attempt to use TRMM rainfall information to estimate the four dimensional latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> structure over the global tropics for February 1998. The mean latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles over six oceanic regions (TOGA COARE IFA, Central Pacific, S. Pacific Convergence Zone, East Pacific, Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean) and three continental regions (S. America, Central Africa and Australia) are estimated and studied. The <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles obtained from the results of diagnostic budget studies over a broad range of geographic locations are used to provide comparisons and indirect validation for the <span class="hlt">heating</span> algorithm estimated <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles. Three different latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> algorithms, the Goddard Convective-Stratiform (CSH) <span class="hlt">heating</span>, the Goddard Profiling (GPROF) <span class="hlt">heating</span>, and the Hydrometeor <span class="hlt">heating</span> (HH) are used and their results are intercompared. The horizontal distribution or patterns of latent <span class="hlt">heat</span> release from the three different <span class="hlt">heating</span> retrieval methods are quite similar. They all can identify the areas of major convective activity (i.e., a well defined ITCZ in the Pacific, a distinct SPCZ) in the global tropics. The magnitude of their estimated latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> release is also not in bad agreement with each other and with those determined from diagnostic budget studies. However, the major difference among these three <span class="hlt">heating</span> retrieval algorithms is the altitude of the maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level. The CSH algorithm estimated <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles only show one maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> level, and the level varies between convective activity from various geographic locations. These features are in good agreement with diagnostic budget studies. By contrast, two maximum <span class="hlt">heating</span> levels were found using the GPROF <span class="hlt">heating</span> and HH algorithms. The latent <span class="hlt">heating</span> profiles estimated from all three methods can not show cooling between active convective events. We also examined the impact of different TMI (Multi-channel Passive Microwave Sensor) and PR (Precipitation Radar</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006198','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006198"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> transfer and pressure distributions on hemisphere-cylinders in methane-air combustion <span class="hlt">products</span> at Mach 7</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weinstein, I.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span>-transfer and pressure distributions were measured over the surfaces of three hemisphere-cylinder models tested at a nominal Mach number of 7 in the Langley 8-foot high-temperature structures tunnel which uses methane-air <span class="hlt">products</span> of combustion as a test medium. The results showed that the <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer and pressure distributions over the surface of the models were in good agreement with experimental data obtained in air and also with theoretical predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5615759','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5615759"><span>Microstructural Investigation of <span class="hlt">Heat</span>-Treated Ultra-High Performance Concrete for Optimum <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kang, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hyung; Hong, Sung-Gul; Moon, Juhyuk</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>For optimum <span class="hlt">production</span> of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), the material and microstructural properties of UHPC cured under various <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment (HT) conditions are studied. The effects of HT temperature and duration on the hydration reaction, microstructure, and mechanical properties of UHPC are investigated. Increasing HT temperature accelerates both cement hydration and pozzolanic reaction, but the latter is more significantly affected. This accelerated pozzolanic reaction in UHPC clearly enhances compressive strength. However, strength after the HT becomes stable as most of the hydration finishes during the HT period. Particularly, it was concluded that the mechanical benefit of the increased temperature and duration on the 28 day-strength is not noticeable when the HT temperature is above 60 °C (with a 48 h duration) or the HT duration is longer than 12 h (with 90 °C temperature). On the other hand, even with a minimal HT condition such as 1 day at 60 °C or 12 h at 90 °C, outstanding compressive strength of 179 MPa and flexural tensile strength of 49 MPa are achieved at 28 days. Microstructural investigation conducted herein suggests that portlandite content can be a good indicator for the mechanical performance of UHPC regardless of its HT curing conditions. These findings can contribute to reducing manufacturing energy consumption, cost, and environmental impact in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of UHPC and be helpful for practitioners to better understand the effect of HT on UHPC and optimize its <span class="hlt">production</span>. PMID:28930189</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28930189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28930189"><span>Microstructural Investigation of <span class="hlt">Heat</span>-Treated Ultra-High Performance Concrete for Optimum <span class="hlt">Production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kang, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hyung; Hong, Sung-Gul; Moon, Juhyuk</p> <p>2017-09-20</p> <p>For optimum <span class="hlt">production</span> of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), the material and microstructural properties of UHPC cured under various <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment (HT) conditions are studied. The effects of HT temperature and duration on the hydration reaction, microstructure, and mechanical properties of UHPC are investigated. Increasing HT temperature accelerates both cement hydration and pozzolanic reaction, but the latter is more significantly affected. This accelerated pozzolanic reaction in UHPC clearly enhances compressive strength. However, strength after the HT becomes stable as most of the hydration finishes during the HT period. Particularly, it was concluded that the mechanical benefit of the increased temperature and duration on the 28 day-strength is not noticeable when the HT temperature is above 60 °C (with a 48 h duration) or the HT duration is longer than 12 h (with 90 °C temperature). On the other hand, even with a minimal HT condition such as 1 day at 60 °C or 12 h at 90 °C, outstanding compressive strength of 179 MPa and flexural tensile strength of 49 MPa are achieved at 28 days. Microstructural investigation conducted herein suggests that portlandite content can be a good indicator for the mechanical performance of UHPC regardless of its HT curing conditions. These findings can contribute to reducing manufacturing energy consumption, cost, and environmental impact in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of UHPC and be helpful for practitioners to better understand the effect of HT on UHPC and optimize its <span class="hlt">production</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24811351','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24811351"><span>Detection of soybean proteins in fermented soybean <span class="hlt">products</span> by using <span class="hlt">heating</span> extraction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morishita, Naoki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Toyoda, Masatake</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Soybean is used in processed foods worldwide. Because soybean can cause adverse reactions in some atopic patients, appropriate labeling regarding its content in processed foods is needed to better protect consumers. In the previous study, we developed a reliable sandwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method with high sensitivity and specificity for detecting soybean proteins by using antibody to Gly m Bd 30K, which was originally characterized as a vacuolar protein with a molecular mass of 34 kDa in soybean. The ELISA displayed satisfactory repeatability and reproducibility in an interlaboratory evaluation. However, it could not detect soybean protein in fermented soybean <span class="hlt">products</span>. We therefore developed an extraction method combined with a <span class="hlt">heating</span> process to inhibit soybean protein degradation by microbial proteolytic enzymes in fermented soybean <span class="hlt">products</span>. This extraction method enables the sensitive detection of soybean protein in fermented soybean <span class="hlt">products</span> such as natto and miso. It was able to detect with high-sensitivity soybean protein present at 10 μg/g levels in model processed foods. This method is suitable for quantifying soybean protein in processed foods without the degrading effects of microbial proteolytic enzymes. The present extraction method can be used sensitively to monitor labeling systems in a reliable manner and should be useful for the mandatory inspections required under Japanese regulations. The extraction and ELISA methods that we developed enable sensitive detection of soybean protein in soybean <span class="hlt">products</span>, including fermented foods. These methods should be useful for reliable and sensitive monitoring of <span class="hlt">product</span> labeling systems and should help to solve the problem of insensitive in soybean labeling of processed foods. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15752327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15752327"><span>Improvement of bioinsecticides <span class="hlt">production</span> through adaptation of Bacillus thuringiensis cells to <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment and NaCl addition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ghribi, D; Zouari, N; Jaoua, S</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The present work aimed to increase yields of delta-endotoxin <span class="hlt">production</span> through adaptation of Bacillus thuringiensis cells to <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock and sodium chloride and to investigate their involvements in bioinsecticides <span class="hlt">production</span> improvement. Growing B. thuringiensis cells were <span class="hlt">heat</span> treated after different incubation times to study the response of the adaptative surviving cells in terms of delta-endotoxin synthesis. Similarly, adaptation of B. thuringiensis cells to sodium chloride was investigated. Adaptation to combined stressors was also evaluated. When applied separately in the glucose-based medium, 20-min <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment of 6-h-old cultures and addition of 7 g l(-1) NaCl at the beginning of the incubation gave respectively 38 and 27% delta-endotoxin <span class="hlt">production</span> improvements. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> shock improved toxin synthesis yields, while NaCl addition improved delta-endotoxin <span class="hlt">production</span> by increasing the spore titres without significant effect on toxin synthesis yields. Cumulative improvements (66%) were obtained by combination of the two stressors at the conditions previously established for each one. Interestingly, when the similar approach was conducted by using the large scale <span class="hlt">production</span> medium based on gruel and fish meal, 17, 8 and 29% delta-endotoxin <span class="hlt">production</span> improvements were respectively, obtained with <span class="hlt">heat</span> shock, NaCl and combined stressors. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> treatment of vegetative B. thuringiensis cells and NaCl addition to the culture media improved bioinsecticides <span class="hlt">production</span>. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> treatment increased toxin synthesis yields, while addition of NaCl increased biomass <span class="hlt">production</span> yields. Cumulative improvements of 66 and 29% were obtained in glucose and economic <span class="hlt">production</span> media, respectively. Overproduction of bioinsecticides by B. thuringiensis could be obtained by the combination of <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment of vegetative cells and addition of NaCl to the culture medium. This should contribute to a significant reduction of the cost of B. thuringiensis bioinsecticides <span class="hlt">production</span> and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090016332','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090016332"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> of Combustion of the <span class="hlt">Product</span> Formed by the Reaction of Diborane with 1,3-Butadiene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tannenbaum, Stanley; Allen, Harrison, Jr.</p> <p>1953-01-01</p> <p>The net <span class="hlt">heat</span> of combustion of the <span class="hlt">product</span> formed by the reaction of diborane with 1,3-butadiene was found to be 18,700+/-150 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water, and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen-bomb calorimeter, and the combustion was believed to be 98 percent complete. The estimated net <span class="hlt">heat</span> of combustion for complete combustion would therefore be 19,075+/-150 Btu per pound. Since this value is approximately the same as the <span class="hlt">heat</span> of combustion of butadiene, it seems certain that the material is partially oxidized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25708407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25708407"><span>Biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> from waste frying oil using waste animal bone and solar <span class="hlt">heat</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corro, Grisel; Sánchez, Nallely; Pal, Umapada; Bañuelos, Fortino</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A two-step catalytic process for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of biodiesel from waste frying oil (WFO) at low cost, utilizing waste animal-bone as catalyst and solar radiation as <span class="hlt">heat</span> source is reported in this work. In the first step, the free fatty acids (FFA) in WFO were esterified with methanol by a catalytic process using calcined waste animal-bone as catalyst, which remains active even after 10 esterification runs. The trans-esterification step was catalyzed by NaOH through thermal activation process. Produced biodiesel fulfills all the international requirements for its utilization as a fuel. A probable reaction mechanism for the esterification process is proposed considering the presence of hydroxyapatite at the surface of calcined animal bones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1734e0036O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1734e0036O"><span>Experimental investigation of solid by-<span class="hlt">product</span> as sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> storage material: Characterization and corrosion study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ortega-Fernández, Iñigo; Faik, Abdessamad; Mani, Karthik; Rodriguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; D'Aguanno, Bruno</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The experimental investigation of water cooled electrical arc furnace (EAF) slag used as filler material in the storage tank for sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> storage application was demonstrated in this study. The physicochemical and thermal properties of the tested slags were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microcopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and laser flash analysis, respectively. In addition, the chemical compatibility between slags and molten nitrate salt (60 wt. % NaNO3 and 40 wt. % KNO3) was investigated at 565 °C for 500 hrs. The obtained results were clearly demonstrated that the slags showed a good corrosion resistance in direct contact with molten salt at elevated temperature. The present study was clearly indicated that a low-cost filler material used in the storage tank can significantly reduce the overall required quantities of the relatively higher cost molten salt and consequently reduce the overall cost of the electricity <span class="hlt">production</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18445304','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18445304"><span>Fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and energy cost of standing activity in veal calves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Labussière, Etienne; Dubois, Serge; van Milgen, Jaap; Bertrand, Gérard; Noblet, Jean</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Metabolic body size of veal calves is still calculated by using the 0.75 exponent and no data were available to determine energy cost of physical activity during the whole fattening period. Data from two trials focusing on protein and/or energy requirements were used to determine the coefficient of metabolic body size and the energy cost of standing activity in male Prim'Holstein calves. Total <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> was measured by indirect calorimetry in ninety-five calves weighing 60-265 kg and was divided using a modelling approach between components related to the BMR, physical activity and feed intake. The calculation of the energy cost of standing activity was based on quantifying the physical activity by using force sensors on which the metabolism cage was placed and on the interruption of an IR beam allowing the determination of standing or lying position of the calf. The best exponent relating zero activity fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (FHP 0) to metabolic body size was 0.85, which differed significantly from the traditionally used 0.75. Per additional kJ metabolizable energy (ME) intake, FHP 0 increased by 0.28 kJ; at a conventional daily 650 kJ/kg body weight (BW)0.85 ME intake, daily FHP 0 averaged 310 kJ/kg BW 0.85. Calves stood up sixteen times per day; total duration of standing increased from 5.1 to 6.4 h per day as animals became older. The hourly energy cost of standing activity was proportional to BW 0.65 and was estimated as 12.4 kJ/kg BW 0.65. These estimates allow for a better estimation of the maintenance energy requirements in veal calves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4902478','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4902478"><span>Biomechanical Evaluation of Four Methods for Internal Fixation of <span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> Subtrochanteric Fractures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Jie; Ma, Jian-xiong; Jia, Hao-bo; Chen, Yang; Yang, Yang; Ma, Xin-long</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Subtrochanteric fractures are common and result in significant morbidity and mortality. Various kinds of implants have been used to fix it. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical performance of PFN, DHS, DCS, and the PFLP in the treatment of subtrochanteric <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fractures. A total of 32 antiseptic human femurs from 16 donors were randomly allocated to 4 groups for fixation with PFN, DHS, DCS, and PFLP. A 2-cm cylindrical bone fragment was removed 1 cm below the lesser trochanter to simulate OTA/AO 32-C3.2 post instrumentation fracture. All specimens in single-leg stance situation were preloaded 5 times at 100 N in the axial direction to eliminate the time effect of relaxation and settling, followed by cyclic testing at a rate of 1 Hz with stepwise increasing load. Keeping the valley load at a constant level of 100 N during the entire cyclic test, the peak load, starting at 200 N, was increased by 100 N at 300-cycle steps until a maximum of 1500 cycles or until failure of the bone-implant construct occurred. Each specimen was kept unloaded under 100 N compression for 30 minutes between the 300-cycle steps. Femoral head displacement after 1500 cycles was 1.09 mm ± 0.13 for PFN, 1.78 mm ± 0.25 for DHS, 2.63 mm ± 0.46 for DCS, and 2.26 mm ± 0.16 for PFLP, with significant difference between any 2 implants (P < 0.01). The required load to reach 1-mm femoral head displacement was 563.04 N ± 158.34 for PFN, 485.73 N ± 147.27 for DHS, 258.44 N ± 97.23 for DCS, and 332.68 N ± 100.34 for PFLP. Significant differences were detected between any 2 implants (P < 0.001), except between DCS and PFLP and between DHS and PFN. The number of cycles until 1-mm femoral head displacement was 1458 ± 277 for PFN, 908 ± 184 for DHS, 369 ± 116 for DCS, and 603 ± 162 for PFLP. Significant differences were detected between any 2 implants (P < 0.01), except</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26074243','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26074243"><span><span class="hlt">Production</span> and physiological responses of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed lactating dairy cattle to conductive cooling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perano, Kristen M; Usack, Joseph G; Angenent, Largus T; Gebremedhin, Kifle G</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>C cooling water was 0.3°C lower than the rectal temperature with 10°C cooling water, but the other measurements (respiration rate, milk <span class="hlt">production</span>, and DMI) did not show a statistically significant difference between the cooling water temperatures. Placing waterbeds on concrete stalls without additional cooling did not have a measurable effect in alleviating the <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress of the cows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24492566','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24492566"><span>The effect of cyclical and mild <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress on <span class="hlt">productivity</span> and metabolism in Afshari lambs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mahjoubi, E; Amanlou, H; Mirzaei-Alamouti, H R; Aghaziarati, N; Yazdi, M Hossein; Noori, G R; Yuan, K; Baumgard, L H</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>To investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress (HS) on <span class="hlt">production</span> and metabolism of Afshari sheep, 32 intact male lambs (33.2 ± 4.5 kg) were used in a completely randomized design using 2 experimental periods. In period 1 all 32 lambs were housed in thermal neutral (TN) conditions (25.6 ± 2.6°C and a temperature-humidity index [THI] of 72.0 ± 2.6) and fed ad libitum for 8 d. In period 2 (P2; 9 d), 16 lambs were subjected to cyclical HS (29.0 to 43.0°C and a THI ≥80 for 24 h/d) and the other 16 lambs were maintained in TN conditions but pair fed (pair-fed thermal neutral [PFTN]) to the HS lambs. During each period DMI and water intake were measured daily. Respiration rate, rectal temperature, and skin temperature at the shoulder, rump, and front and rear leg were recorded at 0700 and 1400 h daily. Water intake increased (P < 0.05) during P2 in both HS and TN lambs (88 and 35%, respectively). <span class="hlt">Heat</span> stress increased the 0700 and 1400 h surface temperature at the shoulder (3.0 and 10.6%), rump (2.7 and 12.7%), rear leg (3.1 and 13%), and front leg (3.0 and 13%) and respiratory rates (72 and 124%; P < 0.01, respectively, for 0700 and 1400 h) but only the 1400 h rectal temperature was increased (P < 0.01; 0.54°C) in HS lambs. Plasma glucose concentration decreased in P2 (P < 0.01) in both the HS and PFTN lambs. Basal insulin concentrations decreased in PFTN controls but increased in HS lambs (environment × period interaction; P < 0.05). Blood urea nitrogen concentration was not affected by environment or period, but NEFA levels were slightly elevated (P < 0.01) in both PFTN and HS lambs during P2. Interestingly, HS did not affect DMI, but ADG was reduced (36%; P < 0.01) compared to the PFTN lambs. These results indicate that the direct effects of <span class="hlt">heat</span> (not mediated by reduced DMI) are partially responsible for reduced growth in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed lambs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3990064','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3990064"><span>Separate Vertical Wiring for the Fixation of <span class="hlt">Comminuted</span> Fractures of the Inferior Pole of the Patella</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Song, Hyung Keun; Yoo, Je Hyun; Byun, Young Soo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose Among patients over 50 years of age, separate vertical wiring alone may be insufficient for fixation of fractures of the inferior pole of the patella. Therefore, mechanical and clinical studies were performed in patients over the age of 50 to test the strength of augmentation of separate vertical wiring with cerclage wire (i.e., combined technique). Materials and Methods Multiple osteotomies were performed to create four-part fractures in the inferior poles of eight pairs of cadaveric patellae. One patella from each pair was fixed with the separate wiring technique, while the other patella was fixed with a combined technique. The ultimate load to failure and stiffness of the fixation were subsequently measured. In a clinical study of 21 patients (average age of 64 years), <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fractures of the inferior pole of the patellae were treated using the combined technique. Operative parameters were recorded from which post-operative outcomes were evaluated. Results For cadaveric patellae, whose mean age was 69 years, the mean ultimate loads to failure for the separate vertical wiring technique and the combined technique were 216.4±72.4 N and 324.9±50.6 N, respectively (p=0.012). The mean stiffness for the separate vertical wiring technique and the combined technique was 241.1±68.5 N/mm and 340.8±45.3 N/mm, respectively (p=0.012). In the clinical study, the mean clinical score at final follow-up was 28.1 points. Conclusion Augmentation of separate vertical wiring with cerclage wire provides enough strength for protected early exercise of the knee joint and uneventful healing. PMID:24719149</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24719149','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24719149"><span>Separate vertical wiring for the fixation of <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fractures of the inferior pole of the patella.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Song, Hyung Keun; Yoo, Je Hyun; Byun, Young Soo; Yang, Kyu Hyun</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Among patients over 50 years of age, separate vertical wiring alone may be insufficient for fixation of fractures of the inferior pole of the patella. Therefore, mechanical and clinical studies were performed in patients over the age of 50 to test the strength of augmentation of separate vertical wiring with cerclage wire (i.e., combined technique). Multiple osteotomies were performed to create four-part fractures in the inferior poles of eight pairs of cadaveric patellae. One patella from each pair was fixed with the separate wiring technique, while the other patella was fixed with a combined technique. The ultimate load to failure and stiffness of the fixation were subsequently measured. In a clinical study of 21 patients (average age of 64 years), <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> fractures of the inferior pole of the patellae were treated using the combined technique. Operative parameters were recorded from which post-operative outcomes were evaluated. For cadaveric patellae, whose mean age was 69 years, the mean ultimate loads to failure for the separate vertical wiring technique and the combined technique were 216.4±72.4 N and 324.9±50.6 N, respectively (p=0.012). The mean stiffness for the separate vertical wiring technique and the combined technique was 241.1±68.5 N/mm and 340.8±45.3 N/mm, respectively (p=0.012). In the clinical study, the mean clinical score at final follow-up was 28.1 points. Augmentation of separate vertical wiring with cerclage wire provides enough strength for protected early exercise of the knee joint and uneventful healing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25540005','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25540005"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> shock induces <span class="hlt">production</span> of reactive oxygen species and increases inner mitochondrial membrane potential in winter wheat cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fedyaeva, A V; Stepanov, A V; Lyubushkina, I V; Pobezhimova, T P; Rikhvanov, E G</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Heat</span> shock leads to oxidative stress. Excessive ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation could be responsible for expression of genes of <span class="hlt">heat</span>-shock proteins or for cell death. It is known that in isolated mammalian mitochondria high protonic potential on the inner membrane actuates the <span class="hlt">production</span> of ROS. Changes in viability, ROS content, and mitochondrial membrane potential value have been studied in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultured cells under <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment. Elevation of temperature to 37-50°C was found to induce elevated ROS generation and increased mitochondrial membrane potential, but it did not affect viability immediately after treatment. More severe <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure (55-60°C) was not accompanied by mitochondrial potential elevation and increased ROS <span class="hlt">production</span>, but it led to instant cell death. A positive correlation between mitochondrial potential and ROS <span class="hlt">production</span> was observed. Depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane by the protonophore CCCP inhibited ROS generation under the <span class="hlt">heating</span> conditions. These data suggest that temperature elevation leads to mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization in winter wheat cultured cells, which in turn causes the increased ROS <span class="hlt">production</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12861168','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12861168"><span>Ten-minute umbilical cord occlusion markedly reduces cerebral blood flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in fetal sheep.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lotgering, Fred K; Bishai, John M; Struijk, Piet C; Blood, Arlin B; Hunter, Christian J; Power, Gordon G; Longo, Lawrence D</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>The study was undertaken to determine to what extent a 10-minute total umbilical cord occlusion affects autoregulation of cerebral blood flow and cerebral <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in the fetus. In seven chronically catheterized late-gestation fetal sheep (127-131 days' gestation), we studied fetal blood gas, hemodynamic, and thermal responses to 10-minute total umbilical cord occlusion. Ten-minute umbilical cord occlusion resulted in marked hypoxia/ischemia, with oxygen content decreasing from 6.5 +/- 0.4 to 0.6 +/- 0.1 vol% and lactate concentration increasing from 1.8 +/- 0.2 to 10.7 +/- 0.7 mmol/L. During this period, the fetuses showed reductions in heart rate from 163.5 +/- 3.4 to 97.1 +/- 5.4 beats/min, mean arterial pressure from 39.4 +/- 2.1 to 21.2 +/- 2.5 mm Hg, cerebral blood flow from 101.3% +/- 8.9% to 49.7% +/- 10.3%, and cerebral <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> from 95.0% +/- 6.3% to 29.6% +/- 4.8%. During cord occlusion, cerebral blood flow was pressure passive from the fourth minute onward. The reduction in cerebral <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> preceded the reduction in perfusion pressure and cerebral blood flow. Recovery of cerebral blood flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> to control values was incomplete for more than 60 minutes after restoration of umbilical flow. Ten-minute total umbilical cord occlusion results in major reductions in cerebral blood flow and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow was lost within 4 minutes of occlusion, probably as a result of hypoxia, combined with hypotension. The fact that the reduction in cerebral <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> preceded and exceeded the reduction in blood flow may suggest active down-regulation of cerebral metabolism, the mechanism of which is unclear at present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996AIPC..369..289K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996AIPC..369..289K"><span>Effect of fusion reaction <span class="hlt">products</span> <span class="hlt">heating</span> on the volume ignition of DT and D3He fuel pellets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khoda-Bakhsh, R.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>Laser fusion simulations are carried out for the DT and D-3He pellets by using a hydrodynamic code including <span class="hlt">heating</span> from all charged reaction <span class="hlt">products</span> and neutron. It is shown that, the inclusion of the side reactions and <span class="hlt">heating</span> from all reactions <span class="hlt">products</span> in the fuel pellets has an appreciable affect on the plasma temperature, the ICF drive energy requirement, fusion gain and the ignition conditions. The total input energy is decreased, the burn efficiency and total gain are increased compared to the results of simple volume ignition calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050071702','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050071702"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> of Combustion of the <span class="hlt">Product</span> Formed by the Reaction of Acetylene and Diborane (LFPL-CZ-3)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Allen, Harrison, Jr.; Tannenbaum, Stanley</p> <p>1957-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">heat</span> of combustion of the <span class="hlt">product</span> formed by the reaction acetylene and diborane was found to be 20,100 +/- 100 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water, and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen-bomb calorimeter, and chemical analyses both of the sample and of the combustion <span class="hlt">products</span> indicated combustion in the bomb calorimeter to have been 97 percent complete. The estimated net <span class="hlt">heat</span> of combustion for complete combustion would therefore be 20,700 +/- 100 Btu per pound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981745"><span>Enhancing methane <span class="hlt">production</span> from waste activated sludge using combined free nitrous acid and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pre-treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>Methane <span class="hlt">production</span> from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often limited by the slow degradation and poor substrate availability of WAS. Our previous study revealed that WAS pre-treatment using free nitrous acid (FNA, i.e. HNO2) is an economically feasible and environmentally friendly method for promoting methane <span class="hlt">production</span>. In order to further improve methane <span class="hlt">production</span> from WAS, this study presents a novel strategy based on combined FNA and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pre-treatment. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated for 24 h with FNA alone (0.52-1.43 mg N/L at 25 °C), <span class="hlt">heat</span> alone (35, 55 and 70 °C), and FNA (0.52-1.11 mg N/L) combined with <span class="hlt">heat</span> (35, 55 and 70 °C). The pre-treated WAS was then used for biochemical methane potential tests. Compared to the control (no FNA or <span class="hlt">heat</span> pre-treatment of WAS), biochemical methane potential of the pre-treated WAS was increased by 12-16%, 0-6%, 17-26%, respectively; hydrolysis rate was improved by 15-25%, 10-25%, 20-25%, respectively, for the three types of pre-treatment. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> pre-treatment at 55 and 70 °C, independent of the presence or absence of FNA, achieved approximately 4.5 log inactivation of pathogens (in comparison to ∼1 log inactivation with FNA treatment alone), thus capable of producing Class A biosolids. The combined FNA and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pre-treatment is an economically and environmentally attractive technology for the pre-treatment of WAS prior to anaerobic digestion, particularly considering that both FNA and <span class="hlt">heat</span> can be produced as by-<span class="hlt">products</span> of anaerobic sludge digestion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12018417','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12018417"><span>Physiological and <span class="hlt">production</span> responses to feeding schedule in lactating dairy cows exposed to short-term, moderate <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ominski, K H; Kennedy, A D; Wittenberg, K M; Moshtaghi Nia, S A</p> <p>2002-04-01</p> <p>The objective of this research was to characterize the <span class="hlt">production</span> responses of lactating dairy cows during and after short-term, moderate <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure, and to determine whether evening (p.m.) feeding would alleviate the associated <span class="hlt">production</span> losses. In a two-period, cross-over design, eight mature lactating cows were fed a total mixed ration at either 0830 or 2030 h. Each 15-d period consisted of a 5-d thermoneutral phase, a 5-d <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress phase and a 5-d thermoneutral recovery phase. Mean daily vaginal temperature and respiration rate increased by 0.6 +/- 0.04 degrees C and 27 +/- 1.3 breaths/min, respectively, during short-term <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure. Daily dry matter intake, milk yield and solids-not-fat were depressed by 1.4 +/- 0.13 kg, 1.7 +/- 0.32 kg and 0.07 +/- 0.023%, respectively, during <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure. During the recovery phase, dry matter intake remained depressed, milk protein declined by 0.05 +/- 0.020%, and daily milk yield exhibited a further decline of 1.2 +/- 0.32 kg. Time of feeding had no effect on vaginal temperature, respiration rate, dry matter intake, water intake, milk yield, fat-corrected milk, protein percent, solids-non-fat percent or somatic cell count during <span class="hlt">heat</span> exposure or during the recovery period that followed. Fat percent was, however, significantly lower in p.m.-fed animals. These data indicate that short-term, moderate <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress, which occurs during the spring and summer months in Canada and the Northern United States, will significantly decrease <span class="hlt">production</span> in the lactating cow. Shifting from morning to evening feeding did not alleviate <span class="hlt">production</span> losses associated with this type of <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24055972','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24055972"><span>Co-composting of eggshell waste in self-<span class="hlt">heating</span> reactors: monitoring and end <span class="hlt">product</span> quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida M J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Industrial eggshell waste (ES) is classified as an animal by-<span class="hlt">product</span> not intended to human consumption. For reducing pathogen spreading risk due to soil incorporation of ES, sanitation by composting is a pre-treatment option. This work aims to evaluate eggshell waste recycling in self-<span class="hlt">heating</span> composting reactors and investigate ES effect on process evolution and end <span class="hlt">product</span> quality. Potato peel, grass clippings and rice husks were the starting organic materials considered. The incorporation of 30% (w/w) ES in a composting mixture did not affect mixture biodegradability, nor its capacity to reach sanitizing temperatures. After 25 days of composting, ES addition caused a nitrogen loss of about 10 g N kg(-1) of initial volatile solids, thus reducing nitrogen nutritional potential of the finished compost. This study showed that a composting mixture with a significant proportion of ES (30% w/w) may be converted into calcium-rich marketable compost to neutralize soil acidity and/or calcium deficiencies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28458215','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28458215"><span>Transformation of iodide and formation of iodinated by-<span class="hlt">products</span> in <span class="hlt">heat</span> activated persulfate oxidation process.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Lu; Kong, Deyang; Ji, Yuefei; Lu, Junhe; Yin, Xiaoming; Zhou, Quansuo</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Formation of halogenated disinfection by-<span class="hlt">products</span> (DBPs) in sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs) have attracted considerable concerns recently. Previous studies have focused on the formation of chlorinated and brominated DBPs. This research examined the transformation of I(-) in <span class="hlt">heat</span> activated PS oxidation process. Phenol was employed as a model compound to mimic the reactivity of dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) toward halogenation. It was found that I(-) was transformed to free iodine which attacked phenol subsequently leading to iodinated DBPs such as iodoform and iodoacetic acids. Iodophenols were detected as the intermediates during the formation of the iodoform and triiodoacetic acid (TIAA). However, diiodoacetic acid (DIAA) was formed almost concomitantly with iodophenols. In addition, the yield of DIAA was significantly higher than that of TIAA, which is distinct from conventional halogenation process. Both the facts suggest that different pathway might be involved during DIAA formation in SR-AOPs. Temperature and persulfate dose were the key factors governing the transformation process. The iodinated by-<span class="hlt">products</span> can be further degraded by excessive SO4(-) and transformed to iodate. This study elucidated the transformation pathway of I(-) in SR-AOPs, which should be taken into consideration when persulfate was applied in environmental matrices containing iodine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25474205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25474205"><span>Detection of horse meat contamination in raw and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-processed meat <span class="hlt">products</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P; Ofori, Jack A</p> <p>2014-12-31</p> <p>Europe's recent problems with the adulteration of beef <span class="hlt">products</span> with horse meat highlight the need for a reliable method for detecting horse meat in food for human consumption. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (mAb) based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for horse meat detection. Two mAbs, H3E3 (IgG2b) and H4E7 (IgG2a), were characterized as horse-selective, and competitive ELISAs (cELISAs) employing these mAbs were developed. The cELISAs were found to be capable of detecting levels as low as 1% of horse meat in raw, cooked, and autoclaved ground beef or pork, being useful analytical tools for addressing the health, economic, and ethical concerns associated with adulterating meat <span class="hlt">products</span> with horse meat. However, due to cross-reaction with raw poultry meat, it is recommended that samples be <span class="hlt">heated</span> (100 °C for 15 min) prior to analysis to eliminate possible false-positive results.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5357927','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5357927"><span>The use of mini plates for intermaxillary fixation in a severely <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> mandibular fracture with bilateral condylar fractures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Clohessy, James William; Chang, Frank; Subramaniam, Shiva S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Intermaxillary fixation (IMF) is an integral technique utilized by maxillofacial surgeons to appropriately reduce and relate maxillary and mandibular fractures to both one another and the facial skeleton. This case report reviews the management of a <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> mandibular fracture including inoperable bilateral condylar fractures that precluded the use of convention IMF techniques necessitating an alternative technique. This was achieved in the form of modified bony plates extending intraorally. Postoperative review showed favorable results with occlusion and range of motion comparable to the premorbid function and no unforeseen complications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21276527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21276527"><span>Primary subtalar joint arthrodesis with internal and external fixation for the repair of a diabetic <span class="hlt">comminuted</span> calcaneal fracture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Facaros, Zacharia; Ramanujam, Crystal L; Zgonis, Thomas</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Comminuted</span>, intra-articular calcaneal fractures can cause severe lower extremity impairment and have devastating effects on a patient's well being. Diabetes is a multisystem process that may cause neuropathy and loss of protective sensation further complicating the prognosis. Not all calcaneal fractures are created equal and when considering the patient's overall presentation and extent of injury, the combined approach of internal and external fixation for fracture reduction may be beneficial for restoration of anatomic alignment and function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3790S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3790S"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in depth up to 2500m via in situ combustion of methane using a counter-current <span class="hlt">heat</span>-exchange reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schicks, Judith Maria; Spangenberg, Erik; Giese, Ronny; Heeschen, Katja; Priegnitz, Mike; Luzi-Helbing, Manja; Thaler, Jan; Abendroth, Sven; Klump, Jens</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In situ combustion is a well-known method used for exploitation of unconventional oil deposits such as heavy oil/bitumen reservoirs where the required <span class="hlt">heat</span> is produced directly within the oil reservoir by combustion of a small percentage of the oil. A new application of in situ combustion for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of methane from hydrate-bearing sediments was tested at pilot plant scale within the first phase of the German national gas hydrate project SUGAR. The applied method of in situ combustion was a flameless, catalytic oxidation of CH4 in a counter-current <span class="hlt">heat</span>-exchange reactor with no direct contact between the catalytic reaction zone and the reservoir. The catalyst permitted a flameless combustion of CH4 with air to CO2 and H2O below the auto-ignition temperature of CH4 in air (868 K) and outside the flammability limits. This led to a double secured application of the reactor. The relatively low reaction temperature allowed the use of cost-effective standard materials for the reactor and prevented NOx formation. Preliminary results were promising and showed that only 15% of the produced CH4 was needed to be catalytically burned to provide enough <span class="hlt">heat</span> to dissociate the hydrates in the environment and release CH4. The location of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> source right within the hydrate-bearing sediment is a major advantage for the gas <span class="hlt">production</span> from natural gas hydrates as the <span class="hlt">heat</span> is generated where it is needed without loss of energy due to transportation. As part of the second period of the SUGAR project the reactor prototype of the first project phase was developed further to a borehole tool. The dimensions of this counter-current <span class="hlt">heat</span>-exchange reactor are about 540 cm in length and 9 cm in diameter. It is designed for applications up to depths of 2500 m. A functionality test and a pressure test of the reactor were successfully carried out in October 2013 at the continental deep drilling site (KTB) in Windischeschenbach, Germany, in 600 m depth and 2000 m depth, respectively</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...744864L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...744864L"><span>Near-surface <span class="hlt">Heating</span> of Young Rift Sediment Causes Mass <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Discharge of Reactive Dissolved Organic Matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Yu-Shih; Koch, Boris P.; Feseker, Tomas; Ziervogel, Kai; Goldhammer, Tobias; Schmidt, Frauke; Witt, Matthias; Kellermann, Matthias Y.; Zabel, Matthias; Teske, Andreas; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Ocean margin sediments have been considered as important sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the deep ocean, yet the contribution from advective settings has just started to be acknowledged. Here we present evidence showing that near-surface <span class="hlt">heating</span> of sediment in the Guaymas Basin, a young extensional depression, causes mass <span class="hlt">production</span> and discharge of reactive dissolved organic matter (DOM). In the sediment <span class="hlt">heated</span> up to ~100 °C, we found unexpectedly low DOC concentrations in the pore waters, reflecting the combined effect of thermal desorption and advective fluid flow. <span class="hlt">Heating</span> experiments suggested DOC <span class="hlt">production</span> to be a rapid, abiotic process with the DOC concentration increasing exponentially with temperature. The high proportions of total hydrolyzable amino acids and presence of chemical species affiliated with activated hydrocarbons, carbohydrates and peptides indicate high reactivity of the DOM. Model simulation suggests that at the local scale, near-surface <span class="hlt">heating</span> of sediment creates short and massive DOC discharge events that elevate the bottom-water DOC concentration. Because of the heterogeneous distribution of high <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow areas, the expulsion of reactive DOM is spotty at any given time. We conclude that hydrothermal <span class="hlt">heating</span> of young rift sediments alter deep-ocean budgets of bioavailable DOM, creating organic-rich habitats for benthic life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24255828','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24255828"><span>On the existence of another source of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> for the earth and planets, and its connection with gravitomagnetism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elbeze, Alexandre Chaloum</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Recent revised estimates of the Earth's surface <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux are in the order of 47 TW. Given that its internal radiogenic (mantle and crust) <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> is estimated to be around 20 TW, the Earth has a thermal deficit of around 27 TW. This article will try to show that the action of the gravitational field of the Sun on the rotating masses of the Earth is probably the source of another <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> in order of 54TW, which would satisfy the thermal balance of our celestial body and probably explain the reduced <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow Qo. We reach this conclusion within the framework of gravitation implied by Einstein's special and general relativity theory (SR, GR). Our results show that it might possible, in principle, to calculate the <span class="hlt">heat</span> generated by the action of the gravitational field of celestial bodies on the Earth and planets of the Solar System (a phenomenon that is different to that of the gravitational tidal effect from the Sun and the Moon). This result should help physicists to improve and develop new models of the Earth's <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance, and suggests that contrary to cooling, the Earth is in a phase of thermal balance, or even reheating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5361187','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5361187"><span>Near-surface <span class="hlt">Heating</span> of Young Rift Sediment Causes Mass <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Discharge of Reactive Dissolved Organic Matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, Yu-Shih; Koch, Boris P.; Feseker, Tomas; Ziervogel, Kai; Goldhammer, Tobias; Schmidt, Frauke; Witt, Matthias; Kellermann, Matthias Y.; Zabel, Matthias; Teske, Andreas; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Ocean margin sediments have been considered as important sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the deep ocean, yet the contribution from advective settings has just started to be acknowledged. Here we present evidence showing that near-surface <span class="hlt">heating</span> of sediment in the Guaymas Basin, a young extensional depression, causes mass <span class="hlt">production</span> and discharge of reactive dissolved organic matter (DOM). In the sediment <span class="hlt">heated</span> up to ~100 °C, we found unexpectedly low DOC concentrations in the pore waters, reflecting the combined effect of thermal desorption and advective fluid flow. <span class="hlt">Heating</span> experiments suggested DOC <span class="hlt">production</span> to be a rapid, abiotic process with the DOC concentration increasing exponentially with temperature. The high proportions of total hydrolyzable amino acids and presence of chemical species affiliated with activated hydrocarbons, carbohydrates and peptides indicate high reactivity of the DOM. Model simulation suggests that at the local scale, near-surface <span class="hlt">heating</span> of sediment creates short and massive DOC discharge events that elevate the bottom-water DOC concentration. Because of the heterogeneous distribution of high <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow areas, the expulsion of reactive DOM is spotty at any given time. We conclude that hydrothermal <span class="hlt">heating</span> of young rift sediments alter deep-ocean budgets of bioavailable DOM, creating organic-rich habitats for benthic life. PMID:28327661</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28327661','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28327661"><span>Near-surface <span class="hlt">Heating</span> of Young Rift Sediment Causes Mass <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Discharge of Reactive Dissolved Organic Matter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Yu-Shih; Koch, Boris P; Feseker, Tomas; Ziervogel, Kai; Goldhammer, Tobias; Schmidt, Frauke; Witt, Matthias; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Zabel, Matthias; Teske, Andreas; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe</p> <p>2017-03-22</p> <p>Ocean margin sediments have been considered as important sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the deep ocean, yet the contribution from advective settings has just started to be acknowledged. Here we present evidence showing that near-surface <span class="hlt">heating</span> of sediment in the Guaymas Basin, a young extensional depression, causes mass <span class="hlt">production</span> and discharge of reactive dissolved organic matter (DOM). In the sediment <span class="hlt">heated</span> up to ~100 °C, we found unexpectedly low DOC concentrations in the pore waters, reflecting the combined effect of thermal desorption and advective fluid flow. <span class="hlt">Heating</span> experiments suggested DOC <span class="hlt">production</span> to be a rapid, abiotic process with the DOC concentration increasing exponentially with temperature. The high proportions of total hydrolyzable amino acids and presence of chemical species affiliated with activated hydrocarbons, carbohydrates and peptides indicate high reactivity of the DOM. Model simulation suggests that at the local scale, near-surface <span class="hlt">heating</span> of sediment creates short and massive DOC discharge events that elevate the bottom-water DOC concentration. Because of the heterogeneous distribution of high <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow areas, the expulsion of reactive DOM is spotty at any given time. We conclude that hydrothermal <span class="hlt">heating</span> of young rift sediments alter deep-ocean budgets of bioavailable DOM, creating organic-rich habitats for benthic life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1216015','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1216015"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> Exchange System Improvement Saves Energy and Improves <span class="hlt">Production</span> at a Winery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>In 2000, Fetzer Vineyards implemented a project to improve its process <span class="hlt">heating</span> cycle at its Hopland Winery in Hopland, California. In an effort to reduce expenditures on natural gas, Fetzer reviewed their wine process <span class="hlt">heating</span> cycle and discovered that they could reduce their natural gas purchases and improve efficiency by installing a <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMDI33A..03B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMDI33A..03B"><span>U, Th, and K in planetary cores: Implications for volatile elements and <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boujibar, A.; Habermann, M.; Righter, K.; Ross, D. K.; Righter, M.; Chidester, B.; Rapp, J. F.; Danielson, L. R.; Pando, K.; Andreasen, R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The accretion of terrestrial planets is known to be accompanied with volatile loss due to strong solar winds produced by the young Sun and due to energetic impacts. It was previously expected that Mercury, the innermost planet is depleted in volatile elements in comparison to other terrestrial planets. These predictions have been recently challenged by the MESSENGER mission to Mercury that detected relatively high K/U and K/Th ratios on Mercury's surface, suggesting a volatile content similar to Earth and Mars. However previous studies showed that Fe-rich metals can incorporate substantial U, Th and K under reducing conditions and with high sulfur contents, which are two conditions relevant to Mercury. In order to quantify the fractionation of these <span class="hlt">heat</span>-producing elements during core segregation, we determined experimentally their partition coefficients (Dmet/sil) between metal and silicate at varying pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity and sulfur content. Our data confirm that U, Th, and K become more siderophile with decreasing fO2 and increasing sulfur content, with a stronger effect for U and Th in comparison to K. Hence Mercury's core is likely to have incorporated more U and Th than K, resulting in the elevated K/U and K/Th ratios measured on the surface. The bulk concentrations of U, Th, and K in terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) are calculated based on geochemical constraints on core-mantle differentiation. Significant amounts of U, Th and K are partitioned into the cores of Mercury, Venus and Earth, but much less into Mars' core. The resulting bulk planet K/U and K/Th correlate with the heliocentric distance, which suggests an overall volatile depletion in the inner Solar System. These results have important implications for internal <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. The role of impact erosion on the evolution of Th/U ratio will also be addressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25622754','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25622754"><span>Chromium-histidinate ameliorates <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed Japanese quails through reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting <span class="hlt">heat</span>-shock protein expression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akdemir, F; Sahin, N; Orhan, C; Tuzcu, M; Sahin, K; Hayirli, A</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a histidine complex of chromium (chromium histidinate, CrHis) on egg <span class="hlt">production</span>, lipid peroxidation and the expression of hepatic nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-shock proteins (HSPs) in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress (HS). A total of 180 5-week-old female quails were reared either at 22°C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or 34°C for 8 h/d (<span class="hlt">heat</span> stress, HS) for 12 weeks. Birds in both environments were randomly given one of three diets: basal diet and basal diet supplemented with 400 or 800 µg of elemental Cr as CrHis per kg of diet. Blood, egg yolk and liver samples collected at the end of the trial were analysed to determine concentrations of cholesterol and malondialdehyde (MDA) and expressions of transcription and <span class="hlt">heat</span>-shock proteins. Exposure to HS caused reductions in feed intake (-8.1%) and egg <span class="hlt">production</span> (-15.8%), elevations in serum (14.8%) and egg-yolk (29.0%) cholesterol concentrations, decreases in serum (113%) and egg-yolk (73.0%) MDA concentrations and increases in the expressions of hepatic NF-κB (52.3%) and HSPs (averaging 53.6%). The effects of increasing supplemental CrHis on the response variables were more notable in the HS environment than in the TN environment. There were considerable improvements in feed intake and egg <span class="hlt">production</span>, decreases in serum and egg-yolk cholesterol concentrations and suppressions in the expressions of hepatic nuclear protein and HSPs in response to increasing supplemental CrHis concentration in the diet of quails reared under the HS environment. In conclusion, supplemental CrHis improves <span class="hlt">productivity</span> through alleviating oxidative stress and modulating the expressions of hepatic NF-κB and HSPs in <span class="hlt">heat</span>-stressed quails.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27231012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27231012"><span>Thermoregulation in boys and men exercising at the same <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> per unit body mass.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leites, Gabriela T; Cunha, Giovani S; Obeid, Joyce; Wilk, Boguslaw; Meyer, Flavia; Timmons, Brian W</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Child-adult thermoregulatory comparisons may be biased by differences in metabolic <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> ([Formula: see text]). We compared thermoregulatory responses of boys and men exercising at two intensities prescribed to elicit either a fixed [Formula: see text] per unit body mass (BM) or a fixed absolute [Formula: see text]. Ten boys (10-12 years) and 10 men (19-25 years) performed 4 × 20-min cycling at a fixed [Formula: see text] per BM (W kg(-1)) at 35 °C and 35 % relative humidity (MENREL). Men also cycled (MENABS) at the same absolute [Formula: see text] (in W) as the boys. [Formula: see text] was lower in boys compared with MENREL, but similar to MENABS (mean ± SD, 233.6 ± 38.4, 396.5 ± 72.3, 233.6 ± 34.1 W, respectively, P < 0.001). Conversely, [Formula: see text] per unit BM was similar between boys and MENREL, and lower in MENABS (5.7 ± 1.0, 5.6 ± 0.8 and 3.3 ± 0.3 W kg(-1), respectively; P < 0.001). The change in rectal temperature was similar between boys and MENREL (0.6 ± 0.2 vs. 0.7 ± 0.2 °C, P = 0.92) but was lower in MENABS (0.3 ± 0.2 °C, P = 0.004). Sweat volume was lower in boys compared to MENABS (500 ± 173 vs. 710 ± 150 mL; P = 0.041), despite the same evaporative <span class="hlt">heat</span> balance requirement (E req) (199.1 ± 34.2 vs. 201.0 ± 32.7 W, P = 0.87). Boys and men demonstrated similar thermoregulatory responses to 80 min of exercise in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> performed at a fixed [Formula: see text] per unit BM. Sweat volume was lower in boys compared to men, despite similarities in absolute [Formula: see text] and E req.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPS...195.2346A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPS...195.2346A"><span>Exergy analysis of an integrated solid oxide fuel cell and organic Rankine cycle for cooling, <span class="hlt">heating</span> and power <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.; Dincer, Ibrahim; Hamdullahpur, Feridun</p> <p></p> <p>The study examines a novel system that combined a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for cooling, <span class="hlt">heating</span> and power <span class="hlt">production</span> (trigeneration) through exergy analysis. The system consists of an SOFC, an ORC, a <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger and a single-effect absorption chiller. The system is modeled to produce a net electricity of around 500 kW. The study reveals that there is 3-25% gain on exergy efficiency when trigeneration is used compared with the power cycle only. Also, the study shows that as the current density of the SOFC increases, the exergy efficiencies of power cycle, cooling cogeneration, <span class="hlt">heating</span> cogeneration and trigeneration decreases. In addition, it was shown that the effect of changing the turbine inlet pressure and ORC pump inlet temperature are insignificant on the exergy efficiencies of the power cycle, cooling cogeneration, <span class="hlt">heating</span> cogeneration and trigeneration. Also, the study reveals that the significant sources of exergy destruction are the ORC evaporator, air <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger at the SOFC inlet and <span class="hlt">heating</span> process <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..175a2036K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..175a2036K"><span>The composite reinforcement <span class="hlt">production</span> in digital manufacturing: experimental validation of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and cure modeling results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kazakov, I.; Krasnovskii, A.; Kutin, A.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The experimental validation of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and cure modeling results for 8-mm fiber-reinforced thermosetting composite reinforcement is reported in this article. The temperature and degree of cure of composite reinforcement are predicted using a two-dimensional <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer and curing model. The model uses the infrared radiant <span class="hlt">heating</span> theory and takes into account the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer between the composite rod and the surrounding air. The implicit finite difference method was used to solve the system of governing equations. The results obtained using mathematical model was compared to experimental data: the temperature field inside the composite reinforcement was measured by means of naked thermocouple; Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure the degree of cure of the final <span class="hlt">product</span>. Calculated and measured temperature and degree of cure fields were in good agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/170588','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/170588"><span>Convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer behavior of the <span class="hlt">product</span> slurry of the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Muguercia, I.; Yang, G.; Ebadian, M.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mattus, A.J.; Hunt, R.D.</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for immobilizing liquid form low level radioactive waste (LLW). An experimental study has been conducted to measure the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer properties of the NAC <span class="hlt">product</span> slurry. The results indicate that the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient for both concentration slurries is much higher than that of pure water, which may be due to the higher conductivity of the gibbsite powder. For the 20% concentration slurry, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient increased as the generalized Reynolds number and slurry temperature increased. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer coefficient of 40% is a function of the Reynolds number only. The test results also indicate that the thermal entrance region can be observed only when the generalized Reynolds number is smaller than 1,000. The correlation equation is also developed based on the experimental data in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMEP41C0812B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMEP41C0812B"><span>Combining natural experiments in source lithology with laboratory tumbling to quantify sediment resistance to <span class="hlt">comminution</span> and its role in downstream fining</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beyeler, J. D.; Sklar, L. S.; Riebe, C. S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Mountain rivers convey sediment from alpine headwaters through valleys to basins, providing both erosive tools for fluvial incision and protective alluvial cover depending on sediment supply. It is widely observed that particles reduce in size during fluvial transport, directly influencing bed sediment grain size distributions and thus channel morphology, habitat quality, and the sedimentary record of climatic and tectonic effects on landscapes. However it is difficult to quantify the contribution of <span class="hlt">comminution</span> to downstream fining of bed material due to the confounding effects of sediment resupply from hillslopes and sorting by size selective transport. Here we take advantage of natural experiments where lithologic contacts create discrete upstream source areas of particular rock types, such that downstream of the contact we can exclude hillslope resupply and isolate the evolution of grain size distributions due to particle breakdown. Where the upstream source area supplies two or more rock types of differing durability, we can use the relationship between lab measurements of size reduction and tensile strength to distinguish in the field between sorting and particle <span class="hlt">comminution</span>. We are applying this approach in the Sierra Nevada of California, where plutonic and metamorphic bedrock vary in durability and outcrop in favorable configurations for this natural experiment. For all rock types in this study, we measure rock tensile strength in the laboratory with Brazilian tensile splitting tests and quantify <span class="hlt">comminution</span> as exponential mass loss coefficients from barrel tumbling experiments. In the field we measure size reduction of bed material through pebble counts by rock type, which are combined with downstream travel distances for a field estimate of sediment fining rates. We then compare field results with laboratory strength measurements and tumbling abrasion coefficients to estimate field size reduction due solely to <span class="hlt">comminution</span>. Our field and lab results will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/901210','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/901210"><span>THERM 2.0: a PC Program for Analyzing Two-Dimensional <span class="hlt">Heat</span>Transfer through Building <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Windows and Daylighting Group</p> <p>1997-12-08</p> <p>THERM is a state-of-the-art, Microsoft Windows{trademark}-based computer program developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for use by building component manufacturers, engineers, educators, students, architects, and others interested in <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer. Using THERM, you can model two-dimensional <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer effects in building components such as windows, walls, foundations, roofs, and doors; appliances; and other <span class="hlt">products</span> where thermal bridges are of concern. THERM's <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer analysis allows you to evaluate a <span class="hlt">product</span>'s energy efficiency and local temperature patterns, which may relate directly to problems with condensation, moisture damage, and structural integrity. THERM's two-dimensional conduction <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer analysis is based on the finite-element method, which can model the complicated geometries of building <span class="hlt">products</span>. The program's graphic interface allows you to draw cross sections of <span class="hlt">products</span> or components to be analyzed. To create the cross sections, you can trace imported files in DXF or bitmap format, or input the geometry from known dimensions. Each cross section is represented by a combination of polygons. You define the material properties for each polygon and introduce the environmental conditions to which the component is exposed by defining the boundary conditions surrounding the cross section. Once the model is created, the remaining analysis (mesher and <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer) is automatic. You can view results from THERM in several forms, including U-factors, isotherms, <span class="hlt">heat</span>-flux vectors, and local temperatures. This version of THERM includes several new technical and user interface features; the most significant is a radiation view-factor algorithm. This feature increases the accuracy of calculations in situations where you are analyzing non-planar surfaces that have different temperatures and exchange energy through radiation <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer. This <span class="hlt">heat</span>-transfer mechanism is important in greenhouse windows, hollow cavities, and some</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985iece.confQ....C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985iece.confQ....C"><span>Gamma Stirling configuration and simultaneous <span class="hlt">production</span> of shaft power and <span class="hlt">heat</span> pumping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crowley, J. L.; Griffin, F. P.; West, C. D.</p> <p>1985-05-01</p> <p>In an ideal gamma configuration Stirling engine, the volume of the cold end of the displacer varies 180(0) out of phase with that at the hot end; therefore, exactly as much <span class="hlt">heat</span> must be rejected as the hot end absorbs. The power piston, moving with a different phase, produces mechanical energy, so the power piston cylinder must absorb <span class="hlt">heat</span> for there to be an overall energy balance. In other words, the engine simultaneously produces mechanical power and pumps <span class="hlt">heat</span> between the two sections of the compression space. Inclusion of a second regenerator, between the cold displacer cylinder and the power piston cylinder, can capture this <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow; the resulting machine is a <span class="hlt">heat</span>-actuated <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump that also produces shaft power. Unlike the duplex Stirling <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump, the new configuration has only one working space and produces a surplus of shaft power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23183257','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23183257"><span>Enhanced seed <span class="hlt">production</span> under prolonged <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana plants deficient in cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase 2.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Miller, Gad; Sejima, Hiroe; Harper, Jeffery; Mittler, Ron</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Reactive oxygen species play a key role in the response of plants to abiotic stress conditions. Their level is controlled in Arabidopsis thaliana by a large network of genes that includes the H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzymes cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APX) 1 and 2. Although the function of APX1 has been established under different growth conditions, genetic evidence for APX2 function, as well as for the mode of cooperation between APX1 and APX2, is very limited. This study characterized the response of Arabidopsis mutants deficient in APX1, APX2, and APX1/APX2 to <span class="hlt">heat</span>, salinity, light, and oxidative stresses. The findings reveal that deficiency in APX2 resulted in a decreased tolerance to light stress, as well as an enhanced tolerance to salinity and oxidative stresses. Interestingly, plants lacking APX2 were more sensitive to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress at the seedling stage, but more tolerant to <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress at the reproductive stage. Cooperation between APX1 and APX2 was evident during oxidative stress, but not during light, salinity, or <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress. The findings demonstrate a role for APX2 in the response of plants to light, <span class="hlt">heat</span>, salinity, and oxidative stresses. The finding that plants lacking APX2 produced more seeds under prolonged <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress conditions suggests that redundant mechanisms activated in APX2-deficient plants during <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress play a key role in the protection of reproductive tissues from <span class="hlt">heat</span>-related damage. This finding is very important because <span class="hlt">heat</span>-associated damage to reproductive tissues in different crops is a major cause for yield loss in agriculture <span class="hlt">production</span> worldwide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=278551','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=278551"><span>Evaluation of a rapid determination of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and respiratory quotient in Holstein steers using the washed rumen technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The objective of this study was to validate use of the washed rumen technique for rapid measurement of fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (FHP) and respiratory quotient (RQ), and compare this with heart rate (HR) and core temperature (CT). The experiment used 8 Holstein steers (322±30 kg) under controlled temp...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=297528','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=297528"><span>Effect of intake on fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>, respiratory quotient and plasma metabolites measured using the washed rumen technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The objective was to investigate the effect of intake prior to fasting on concentrations of metabolites and hormones, respiratory quotient (RQ) and fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (HP) using the washed rumen technique and to compare these values with those from the fed state. Six Holstein steers (360 ± 22 k...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=282956','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=282956"><span>Evaluation of a rapid determination of <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> and respiratory quotient in holstein steers using the washed rumen technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The objective of this study was to validate use of the washed rumen technique for rapid measurement of fasting <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> (FHP) and RQ, and to compare this with heart rate (HR) and core temperature (CT). Eight Holstein steers (322 ± 30 kg) were maintained in a controlled temperature (21°C) envi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=291865','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=291865"><span>Validation and recovery rates of an indirect calorimetry headbox system used to measure <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> of cattle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A headbox system was constructed at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to determine <span class="hlt">heat</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> from dairy cattle using indirect calorimetry. The system was designed for use in a tie-stall barn to allow the animal to be comfortable and was mounted on wheels to transport between animals between s...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6915392','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6915392"><span>Summary of channel catfish and rainbow trout <span class="hlt">production</span> at the Gallatin Waste <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Aquaculture Facility, 1979-1980</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Collins, C.M.; Schweinforth, R.L.; Burton, G.L.</p> <p>1984-02-01</p> <p>These studies have indicated that channel catfish and rainbow trout can be intensively cultured in concrete raceways using waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> effluent water from the Gallatin Steam Plant. Optimum <span class="hlt">production</span> was attained, especially with channel catfish, when desirable water temperatures and proper environmental conditions occurred. High density culture is possible during the winter and early spring months.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1092979','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1092979"><span><span class="hlt">Comminution</span> process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N</p> <p>2013-08-13</p> <p>A process of <span class="hlt">comminution</span> of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the <span class="hlt">comminution</span> process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1185302','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1185302"><span><span class="hlt">Comminution</span> process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.</p> <p>2015-06-23</p> <p>A process of <span class="hlt">comminution</span> of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, wherein W.sub.C>L.sub.C, and wherein the <span class="hlt">comminution</span> process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is less than T.sub.D.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMPSo..64..236C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMPSo..64..236C"><span>Impact <span class="hlt">comminution</span> of solids due to local kinetic energy of high shear strain rate: II-Microplane model and verification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caner, Ferhun C.; Bažant, Zdeněk P.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The new theory presented in the preceding paper, which models the dynamic <span class="hlt">comminution</span> of concrete due to very high shear strain rate, is now compared to recent test data on the penetration of projectiles through concrete walls of different thicknesses, ranging from 127 to 254 mm. These data are analyzed by an explicit finite element code using the new microplane constitutive model M7 for concrete, which was previously shown to provide the most realistic description of the quasi-static uni-, bi- and tri-axial test data with complex loading path and unloading. Model M7 incorporates the quasi-static strain rate effects due viscoelasticity and to the rate of cohesive crack debonding based on activation energy of bond ruptures, which are expected to extend to very high rates. Here model M7 is further enhanced by apparent viscosity capturing the energy dissipation due to the strain-rate effect of <span class="hlt">comminution</span>. The maximum shear strain rates in the computations are of the order of 105 s-1. The simulations document that, within the inevitable uncertainties, the measured exit velocities of the projectiles can be matched quite satisfactorily and the observed shapes of the entry and exit craters can be reproduced correctly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391884','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391884"><span>A novel process route for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of spherical SLS polymer powders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Jochen; Sachs, Marius; Blümel, Christina; Winzer, Bettina; Toni, Franziska; Wirth, Karl-Ernst; Peukert, Wolfgang</p> <p>2015-05-22</p> <p>Currently, rapid prototyping gradually is transferred to additive manufacturing opening new applications. Especially selective laser sintering (SLS) is promising. One drawback is the limited choice of polymer materials available as optimized powders. Powders produced by cryogenic grinding show poor powder flowability resulting in poor device quality. Within this account we present a novel process route for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of spherical polymer micron-sized particles of good flowability. The feasibility of the process chain is demonstrated for polystyrene e. In a first step polymer microparticles are produced by a wet grinding method. By this approach the mean particle size and the particle size distribution can be tuned between a few microns and several 10 microns. The applicability of this method will be discussed for different polymers and the dependencies of <span class="hlt">product</span> particle size distribution on stressing conditions and process temperature will be outlined. The <span class="hlt">comminution</span> <span class="hlt">products</span> consist of microparticles of irregular shape and poor powder flowability. An improvement of flowability of the ground particles is achieved by changing their shape: they are rounded using a <span class="hlt">heated</span> downer reactor. The influence of temperature profile and residence time on the <span class="hlt">product</span> properties will be addressed applying a viscous-flow sintering model. To further improve the flowability of the cohesive spherical polymer particles nanoparticles are adhered onto the microparticles’ surface. The improvement of flowability is remarkable: rounded and dry-coated powders exhibit a strongly reduced tensile strength as compared to the <span class="hlt">comminution</span> <span class="hlt">product</span>. The improved polymer powders obtained by the process route proposed open new possibilities in SLS processing including the usage of much smaller polymer beads.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/571636','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/571636"><span>Combined <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment and acid hydrolysis of cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Agu, R.C.; Amadife, A.E.; Ude, C.M.; Onyia, A.; Ogu, E.O.; Okafor, M.; Ezejiofor, E.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>The effect of combined <span class="hlt">heat</span> treatment and acid hydrolysis (various concentrations) on cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol <span class="hlt">production</span> was investigated. At high concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (1--5 M), hydrolysis of the CGW biomass was achieved but with excessive charring or dehydration reaction. At lower acid concentrations, hydrolysis of CGW biomass was also achieved with 0.3--0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, while partial hydrolysis was obtained below 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the lowest acid concentration that hydrolyzed CGW biomass) at 120 C and 1 atm pressure for 30 min. A 60% process efficiency was achieved with 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in hydrolyzing the cellulose and lignin materials present in the CGW biomass. High acid concentration is therefore not required for CGW biomass hydrolysis. The low acid concentration required for CGW biomass hydrolysis, as well as the minimal cost required for detoxification of CGW biomass because of low hydrogen cyanide content of CGW biomass would seem to make this process very economical. From three liters of the CGW biomass hydrolysate obtained from hydrolysis with 0.3M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, ethanol yield was 3.5 (v/v%) after yeast fermentation. However, although the process resulted in gainful utilization of CGW biomass, additional costs would be required to effectively dispose new by-<span class="hlt">products</span> generated from CGW biomass processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6334779','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6334779"><span>Comparison of conventional and solar-water-<span class="hlt">heating</span> <span class="hlt">products</span> and industries report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Noreen, D; LeChevalier, R; Choi, M; Morehouse, J</p> <p>1980-07-11</p> <p>President Carter established a goal that would require installation of at least one million solar water heaters by 1985 and 20 million water-<span class="hlt">heating</span> systems by the year 2000. The goals established require that the solar industry be sufficiently mature to provide cost-effective, reliable designs in the immediate future. The objective of this study was to provide the Department of Energy with quantified data that can be used to assess and redirect, if necessary, the program plans to assure compliance with the President's goals. Results deal with the <span class="hlt">product</span>, the industry, the market, and the consumer. All issues are examined in the framework of the conventional-hot-water industry. Based on the results of this solar hot water assessment study, there is documented proof that the solar industry is blessed with over 20 good solar hot water systems. A total of eight generic types are currently being produced, but a majority of the systems being sold are included in only five generic types. The good systems are well-packaged for quality, performance and installation ease. These leading systems are sized and designed to fit the requirements of the consumer in every respect. This delivery end also suffers from a lack of understanding of the best methods for selling the <span class="hlt">product</span>. At the supplier end, there are problems also, including: some design deficiencies, improper materials selection and, occasionally, the improper selection of components and subsystems. These, in total, are not serious problems in the better systems and will be resolved as this industry matures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5023967','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5023967"><span>Mass <span class="hlt">production</span> of two-dimensional oxides by rapid <span class="hlt">heating</span> of hydrous chlorides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhao, Chunsong; Zhang, Haitian; Si, Wenjie; Wu, Hui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Two-dimensional (2D) nanoscale oxides have attracted research interest owing to their electronic, magnetic optical and catalytic properties. If they could be manufactured on a large scale, 2D oxides would be attractive for applications ranging from electronics to energy conversion and storage. Herein, we report facile fabrication of oxide nanosheets by rapid thermal annealing of corresponding hydrous-chloride compounds. By <span class="hlt">heating</span> CrCl3·6H2O, ZrOCl2·8H2O, AlCl3·6H2O and YCl3·6H2O crystals as precursors, we immediately collect large quantities of ultrathin Cr2O3, ZrO2, Al2O3 and Y2O3 nanosheets, respectively. The formation of layered nanosheets relies on exfoliation driven by rapid evaporation of water and/or other gas molecules generated under annealing. Our route allows simple, efficient and inexpensive <span class="hlt">production</span> of 2D oxides. As a demonstration, we evaluate Cr2O3 nanosheets prepared by our method as anodes in lithium-ion batteries and find superior performance in comparison with their microcrystalline counterparts. PMID:27610589</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..497L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..497L"><span>The critical role of extreme <span class="hlt">heat</span> for maize <span class="hlt">production</span> in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lobell, David B.; Hammer, Graeme L.; McLean, Greg; Messina, Carlos; Roberts, Michael J.; Schlenker, Wolfram</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Statistical studies of rainfed maize yields in the United States and elsewhere have indicated two clear features: a strong negative yield response to accumulation of temperatures above 30°C (or extreme degree days (EDD)), and a relatively weak response to seasonal rainfall. Here we show that the process-based Agricultural <span class="hlt">Production</span> Systems Simulator (APSIM) is able to reproduce both of these relationships in the Midwestern United States and provide insight into underlying mechanisms. The predominant effects of EDD in APSIM are associated with increased vapour pressure deficit, which contributes to water stress in two ways: by increasing demand for soil water to sustain a given rate of carbon assimilation, and by reducing future supply of soil water by raising transpiration rates. APSIM computes daily water stress as the ratio of water supply to demand, and during the critical month of July this ratio is three times more responsive to 2°C warming than to a 20% precipitation reduction. The results suggest a relatively minor role for direct <span class="hlt">heat</span> stress on reproductive organs at present temperatures in this region. Effects of elevated CO2 on transpiration efficiency should reduce yield sensitivity to EDD in the coming decades, but at most by 25%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993AIPC..271.1127S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993AIPC..271.1127S"><span>A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator <span class="hlt">heat</span> source <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sherrell, Dennis L.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A shielded storage rack has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE's Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual <span class="hlt">production</span> throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which processes and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGs. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford's MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford's calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...712543Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...712543Z"><span>Mass <span class="hlt">production</span> of two-dimensional oxides by rapid <span class="hlt">heating</span> of hydrous chlorides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Chunsong; Zhang, Haitian; Si, Wenjie; Wu, Hui</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Two-dimensional (2D) nanoscale oxides have attracted research interest owing to their electronic, magnetic optical and catalytic properties. If they could be manufactured on a large scale, 2D oxides would be attractive for applications ranging from electronics to energy conversion and storage. Herein, we report facile fabrication of oxide nanosheets by rapid thermal annealing of corresponding hydrous-chloride compounds. By <span class="hlt">heating</span> CrCl3.6H2O, ZrOCl2.8H2O, AlCl3.6H2O and YCl3.6H2O crystals as precursors, we immediately collect large quantities of ultrathin Cr2O3, ZrO2, Al2O3 and Y2O3 nanosheets, respectively. The formation of layered nanosheets relies on exfoliation driven by rapid evaporation of water and/or other gas molecules generated under annealing. Our route allows simple, efficient and inexpensive <span class="hlt">production</span> of 2D oxides. As a demonstration, we evaluate Cr2O3 nanosheets prepared by our method as anodes in lithium-ion batteries and find superior performance in comparison with their microcrystalline counterparts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/42524','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/42524"><span>Lunar South Pole ice as <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink for Lunar cryofuel <span class="hlt">production</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zuppero, A.; Stanley, M.; Modro, S.M.; Whitman, P.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>Recent Clementine bistatic radar data suggest that water ice may be present in a {open_quotes}forever shaded{close_quotes} depression or crater at the South Pole of the Moon. The ice is a feedstock for the electrolysis <span class="hlt">production</span> of cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen rocket fuels for a transportation system on the moon and for leaving and descending on to the moon. The ice also provides a convective <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink critical to the practical implementation of high throughput electric power generators and refrigerators that liquefy and cool the oxygen and hydrogen into cryogenic rocket fuel. This brief analysis shows that about a hundred tonnes of hardware delivered to the lunar surface can produce tens of thousands of tonnes of rocket fuel per year, on the moon. And it makes the point that if convective cooling is used instead of radiative cooling, then power and processing systems can be used that exist and have been tested already. This shortens the time by an order of magnitude to develop lunar operations. Quick deploymen