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Sample records for common baltic concern

  1. The Security Concerns of the Baltic States as NATO Allies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    national cyber attack on Estonia, apparently mounted from Russia, is another point of friction. In the Baltic States, there are large Russian...results when it is presented as an attrac- tive proposition to the local populations and govern- ments. Soft power backed up by lies, bullying , and...All the 35 Estonians noted that national cyber protection was an important security concern. This is understandable, because in April and May 2007

  2. Common menstrual concerns of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Diane

    1998-01-01

    Symptoms associated with menstruation are among the most common concerns of adolescent women. However, the factual information that adolescent women need is not always available to them. Physicians can do much to correct the myths and misinformation that the teenager may have concerning her menstrual cycle. This paper addresses clinical office concerns about normal menstruation, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea and dysfunctional uterine bleeding. PMID:20401253

  3. Breastfeeding FAQs: Some Common Concerns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Breastfeeding FAQs: Some Common Concerns KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding ... breastfeeding is not necessary. My baby bites during breastfeeding. Can I stop it? Babies will often play ...

  4. A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Alexander P.; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Boudreau, Marc; McKellar, Ryan C.; Basinger, James F.; Garrett, Amber

    2009-01-01

    Baltic amber constitutes the largest known deposit of fossil plant resin and the richest repository of fossil insects of any age. Despite a remarkable legacy of archaeological, geochemical and palaeobiological investigation, the botanical origin of this exceptional resource remains controversial. Here, we use taxonomically explicit applications of solid-state Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with multivariate clustering and palaeobotanical observations, to propose that conifers of the family Sciadopityaceae, closely allied to the sole extant representative, Sciadopitys verticillata, were involved in the genesis of Baltic amber. The fidelity of FTIR-based chemotaxonomic inferences is upheld by modern–fossil comparisons of resins from additional conifer families and genera (Cupressaceae: Metasequoia; Pinaceae: Pinus and Pseudolarix). Our conclusions challenge hypotheses advocating members of either of the families Araucariaceae or Pinaceae as the primary amber-producing trees and correlate favourably with the progressive demise of subtropical forest biomes from northern Europe as palaeotemperatures cooled following the Eocene climate optimum. PMID:19570786

  5. Evidence of chromosomal damage in common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from the Baltic Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matson, C.W.; Franson, J.C.; Hollmén, Tuula E.; Kilpi, Mikael; Hario, Martti; Flint, P.L.; Bickham, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Common eiders nesting in the Baltic Sea are exposed to generally high levels of contaminants including potentially genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorines. Blood samples were collected from eiders at eight sites in the Baltic Sea and two sites in the Beaufort Sea. DNA content variation was estimated using the flow cytometric method, and subsequently utilized as a biomarker of genetic damage. We observed no significant differences in genetic damage among populations within either the Baltic or Beaufort Seas. However, eider populations from the Baltic Sea had significantly elevated estimates of genetic damage compared to populations from the Beaufort Sea.

  6. Evidence of chromosomal damage in common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Matson, Cole W; Franson, J Christian; Hollmén, Tuula; Kilpi, Mikael; Hario, Martti; Flint, Paul L; Bickham, John W

    2004-12-01

    Common eiders nesting in the Baltic Sea are exposed to generally high levels of contaminants including potentially genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorines. Blood samples were collected from eiders at eight sites in the Baltic Sea and two sites in the Beaufort Sea. DNA content variation was estimated using the flow cytometric method, and subsequently utilized as a biomarker of genetic damage. We observed no significant differences in genetic damage among populations within either the Baltic or Beaufort Seas. However, eider populations from the Baltic Sea had significantly elevated estimates of genetic damage compared to populations from the Beaufort Sea.

  7. Common Concerns of School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkus, Amy J.; Musser, Lynn M.

    This study assessed common concerns of school-age children. Participating were 138 children in grades 1, 3, and 5. Concerns were spontaneously generated by children during Phase 1 of the study, and common stressors most frequently mentioned were ranked on a 10-item rank-order task during Phase 2. In Phase 3, children completed questionnaires…

  8. Vaccinating Your Preteen: Addressing Common Concerns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Vaccinating Your Preteen: Addressing Common Concerns Page Content ​​​​As a parent, ... should have their children vaccinated. FAQs About All Preteen Vaccines Do adolescent vaccines have serious side effects? ...

  9. Biomarker Validation: Common Data Analysis Concerns

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Biomarker validation, like any other confirmatory process based on statistical methodology, must discern associations that occur by chance from those reflecting true biological relationships. Validity of a biomarker is established by authenticating its correlation with clinical outcome. Validated biomarkers can lead to targeted therapy, improve clinical diagnosis, and serve as useful prognostic and predictive factors of clinical outcome. Statistical concerns such as confounding and multiplicity are common in biomarker validation studies. This article discusses four major areas of concern in the biomarker validation process and some of the proposed solutions. Because present-day statistical packages enable the researcher to address these common concerns, the purpose of this discussion is to raise awareness of these statistical issues in the hope of improving the reproducibility of validation study findings. PMID:25001264

  10. Genital size: a common adolescent male concern.

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter A; Reiter, Edward O

    2002-02-01

    Long before adolescence, males hear insinuations about adequacy of penis size. This concern may heighten during teen years and persist to varying degrees into adulthood. Men tend to underestimate their own penis size. This chapter provides objective information about anatomy and growth of the penis, including data about normal sizes. Published data indicate that, although full growth may be reached at different ages during adolescence, size is similar for most adult males. Hopefully, this information will provide the basis for teenaged males to develop a healthy perspective and to avoid intimidation by unfounded claims about sexual enhancement or size enlargement techniques.

  11. A Look at Our Profession: Common Concerns, Common Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finocchiaro, Mary

    An experienced teacher of English as a second language (ESL) laments the lack of dialogue between ESL and other foreign language teachers and outlines some of her concerns about the foreign language teaching profession, including the lack of strong linguistic theory to replace the earlier structural emphasis, unrealistic methodologies, incomplete…

  12. Synthesis of common management concerns associated with dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tullos, Desiree D.; Collins, Mathias J.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Managers make decisions regarding if and how to remove dams in spite of uncertainty surrounding physical and ecological responses, and stakeholders often raise concerns about certain negative effects, regardless of whether or not these concerns are warranted at a particular site. We used a dam-removal science database supplemented with other information sources to explore seven frequently-raised concerns, herein Common Management Concerns (CMCs). We investigate the occurrence of these concerns and the contributing biophysical controls. The CMCs addressed are: degree and rate of reservoir sediment erosion, excessive channel incision upstream of reservoirs, downstream sediment aggradation, elevated downstream turbidity, drawdown impacts on local water infrastructure, colonization of reservoir sediments by non-native plants, and expansion of invasive fish. Biophysical controls emerged for some of the concerns, providing managers with information to assess whether a given concern is likely to occur at a site. To fully assess CMC risk, managers should concurrently evaluate site conditions and identify the ecosystem or human uses that will be negatively affected if the biophysical phenomenon producing the CMC occurs. We show how many CMCs have one or more controls in common, facilitating the identification of multiple risks at a site, and demonstrate why CMC risks should be considered in the context of other factors like natural watershed variability and disturbance history.

  13. Persistent organic pollutant levels and the importance of source proximity in Baltic and Svalbard breeding common eiders.

    PubMed

    Fenstad, Anette A; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Gabrielsen, Kristin M; Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim; Bustnes, Jan O; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Moe, Børge; Herzke, Dorte; Krøkje, Åse

    2016-06-01

    The distance to sources and the long-range transport potential of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are important in understanding the impact of anthropogenic pollution on natural seabird populations. The present study documented blood concentrations of POPs in the Baltic Sea (Tvärminne, Finland) population of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in 2009 and in 2011 and compared the concentrations with the presumably less exposed Arctic population in Svalbard (Kongsfjorden, Norway). The Baltic population had 26, 10, and 5 times greater concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane, polychlorinated biphenyls, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene than the Svalbard population. Unexpectedly, concentrations of chlordanes were higher in Svalbard eiders, whereas concentrations of hexachlorobenzenes (HCBs) did not differ between the 2 populations. Although the similar HCB levels may partly be explained by the high transport potential of HCBs, unknown factors may have been more important than distance to sources and long-range transport potential for the chlordanes. One plausible explanation may be that the fasting-related redistribution of POPs from fat to blood was greater throughout the incubation in Arctic eiders, causing them to have higher blood levels of these POPs at the end of incubation. The blood concentrations of POPs in Baltic eiders were higher than documented in any other eider population and were comparable to levels in seabirds feeding at higher trophic positions in the food chain. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1526-1533. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  14. Valuing the commons: An international study on the recreational benefits of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Ahtiainen, Heini; Artell, Janne; Budziński, Wiktor; Hasler, Berit; Hasselström, Linus; Meyerhoff, Jürgen; Nõmmann, Tea; Semeniene, Daiva; Söderqvist, Tore; Tuhkanen, Heidi; Lankia, Tuija; Vanags, Alf; Zandersen, Marianne; Żylicz, Tomasz; Hanley, Nick

    2015-06-01

    The Baltic Sea provides benefits to all of the nine nations along its coastline, with some 85 million people living within the catchment area. Achieving improvements in water quality requires international cooperation. The likelihood of effective cooperation is known to depend on the distribution across countries of the benefits and costs of actions needed to improve water quality. In this paper, we estimate the benefits associated with recreational use of the Baltic Sea in current environmental conditions using a travel cost approach, based on data from a large, standardized survey of households in each of the 9 Baltic Sea states. Both the probability of engaging in recreation (participation) and the number of visits people make are modeled. A large variation in the number of trips and the extent of participation is found, along with large differences in current annual economic benefits from Baltic Sea recreation. The total annual recreation benefits are close to 15 billion EUR. Under a water quality improvement scenario, the proportional increases in benefits range from 7 to 18% of the current annual benefits across countries. Depending on how the costs of actions are distributed, this could imply difficulties in achieving more international cooperation to achieve such improvements.

  15. Kaliningrad and Baltic Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    impossible to solve. By shifting the paradigm toward regional development and regional cooperation to address common problems, the future security relationship of the Baltic littoral becomes more optimistic.

  16. Between the Balkans and the Baltic: Phylogeography of a Common Vole Mitochondrial DNA Lineage Limited to Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Stojak, Joanna; McDevitt, Allan D; Herman, Jeremy S; Kryštufek, Boris; Uhlíková, Jitka; Purger, Jenő J; Lavrenchenko, Leonid A; Searle, Jeremy B; Wójcik, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    The common vole (Microtus arvalis) has been a model species of small mammal for studying end-glacial colonization history. In the present study we expanded the sampling from central and eastern Europe, analyzing contemporary genetic structure to identify the role of a potential 'northern glacial refugium', i.e. a refugium at a higher latitude than the traditional Mediterranean refugia. Altogether we analyzed 786 cytochrome b (cytb) sequences (representing mitochondrial DNA; mtDNA) from the whole of Europe, adding 177 new sequences from central and eastern Europe, and we conducted analyses on eight microsatellite loci for 499 individuals (representing nuclear DNA) from central and eastern Europe, adding data on 311 new specimens. Our new data fill gaps in the vicinity of the Carpathian Mountains, the potential northern refugium, such that there is now dense sampling from the Balkans to the Baltic Sea. Here we present evidence that the Eastern mtDNA lineage of the common vole was present in the vicinity of this Carpathian refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Younger Dryas. The Eastern lineage expanded from this refugium to the Baltic and shows low cytb nucleotide diversity in those most northerly parts of the distribution. Analyses of microsatellites revealed a similar pattern but also showed little differentiation between all of the populations sampled in central and eastern Europe.

  17. Between the Balkans and the Baltic: Phylogeography of a Common Vole Mitochondrial DNA Lineage Limited to Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Stojak, Joanna; McDevitt, Allan D.; Herman, Jeremy S.; Kryštufek, Boris; Uhlíková, Jitka; Purger, Jenő J.; Lavrenchenko, Leonid A.; Searle, Jeremy B.; Wójcik, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    The common vole (Microtus arvalis) has been a model species of small mammal for studying end-glacial colonization history. In the present study we expanded the sampling from central and eastern Europe, analyzing contemporary genetic structure to identify the role of a potential ‘northern glacial refugium’, i.e. a refugium at a higher latitude than the traditional Mediterranean refugia. Altogether we analyzed 786 cytochrome b (cytb) sequences (representing mitochondrial DNA; mtDNA) from the whole of Europe, adding 177 new sequences from central and eastern Europe, and we conducted analyses on eight microsatellite loci for 499 individuals (representing nuclear DNA) from central and eastern Europe, adding data on 311 new specimens. Our new data fill gaps in the vicinity of the Carpathian Mountains, the potential northern refugium, such that there is now dense sampling from the Balkans to the Baltic Sea. Here we present evidence that the Eastern mtDNA lineage of the common vole was present in the vicinity of this Carpathian refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Younger Dryas. The Eastern lineage expanded from this refugium to the Baltic and shows low cytb nucleotide diversity in those most northerly parts of the distribution. Analyses of microsatellites revealed a similar pattern but also showed little differentiation between all of the populations sampled in central and eastern Europe. PMID:27992546

  18. Challenges to natural process restoration: common dam removal management concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, M. J.; Tullos, D. D.; Bellmore, J. R.; Bountry, J.; Connolly, P. J.; Shafroth, P. B.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Practitioners must make dam removal decisions in spite of uncertainty about physical and ecological responses. This can result in implementing structural controls or other interventions at a site to avoid anticipated negative effects, sometimes even if a given concern is not warranted. We used a newly available dam removal science database and other information sources to explore seven frequently raised issues we call "Common Management Concerns" (CMCs), investigating their occurrence and the contributing biophysical controls. We describe these controls to enable managers to better assess if further analyses are warranted at their sites before interventions are planned and implemented. The CMCs addressed are: rate and degree of reservoir sediment erosion; drawdown impacts on local water infrastructure; excessive channel incision; downstream sediment aggradation; elevated turbidity; colonization of reservoir sediments by non-native plants; and expansion of invasive fish. The relative dearth of case studies available for many CMCs limited the generalizable conclusions we could draw about prevalence, but the available data and established understanding of relevant processes revealed important biophysical phenomena controlling the likelihood of CMC occurrence. To assess CMC risk, we recommend managers concurrently evaluate if site conditions suggest the ecosystem, infrastructure, or other human uses will be negatively affected if the biophysical phenomenon producing the CMC occurs. We show how many CMCs have one or more controls in common, facilitating the identification of multiple risks at a site, and demonstrate why CMC risks should be considered in the context of other important factors like watershed disturbance history, natural variability, and dam removal tradeoffs. Better understanding CMCs and how to evaluate them will enable practitioners to avoid unnecessary interventions and thus maximize opportunities for working with natural processes to restore river

  19. Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Himberg, M.; Harju, L.; Ek, P.; Lindroos, A.; Wiklund, T.; Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H.; Heselius, S.-J.; Hägerstrand, H.

    2014-01-01

    Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (˜3300 μg/g) was 2-3 times higher than that of perch and pike (˜1400 μg/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (˜450 μg/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (˜60 μg/g) than those of pike (˜30 μg/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely.

  20. Synthesis of common management concerns associated with dam removal

    Treesearch

    Desirée D. Tullos; Mathias J. Collins; J. Ryan Bellmore; Jennifer A. Bountry; Patrick J. Connolly; Patrick B. Shafroth; Andrew C. Wilcox

    2016-01-01

    Managers make decisions regarding if and how to remove dams in spite of uncertainty surrounding physical and ecological responses, and stakeholders often raise concerns about certain negative effects, regardless of whether these concerns are warranted at a particular site. We used a dam-removal science database supplemented with other information sources to explore...

  1. Habitat-mediated impact of alien mink predation on common frog densities in the outer archipelago of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Salo, Pälvi; Ahola, Markus P; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2010-06-01

    Alien predators have been recognised as one possible cause for amphibian declines around the world, but little is known of habitat-mediated predation impacts especially on adult amphibians. We studied common frog Rana temporaria under American mink Mustela vison predation in the outer archipelago of the Baltic Sea, south-western Finland. Using egg batches as an index of breeding frog female numbers we compared frog numbers and densities between a large, long-term mink-removal area and a comparable control area. Frog numbers in the removal area were at least 2.7-fold higher than those in the control area. In the presence of mink, frog densities increased with the amount of vegetation cover on the islands, indicating that mink predation affected frog densities especially on less-vegetated islands. An opposite trend appeared to be true for frogs in the mink-removal area, where other predators like snakes could induce a decline of frog densities on more vegetated islands. Shrub or grass vegetation seems to provide frogs shelter against alien mink predation. Our result highlights the importance of landscape-level habitat management as a conservation tool for amphibian populations.

  2. Common contractual concerns for the oral and maxillofacial surgeon.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Eugene W

    2008-02-01

    Whether new to private practice or a seasoned practitioner, an oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) needs to understand how to handle complicated and often stressful negotiations of contracts for which he or she usually is untrained. This article is designed to give a general understanding of certain common contractual language. It is not comprehensive in scope, but it attempts to cover contracts that are most often seen by an OMS in practice. It is a general discussion of common legal concepts that could face an OMS, but it is not, nor is it intended to be, legal advice.

  3. Ethics of social media research: common concerns and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Goniu, Natalie; Moreno, Peter S; Diekema, Douglas

    2013-09-01

    Social media Websites (SMWs) are increasingly popular research tools. These sites provide new opportunities for researchers, but raise new challenges for Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) that review these research protocols. As of yet, there is little-to-no guidance regarding how an IRB should review the studies involving SMWs. The purpose of this article was to review the common risks inherent in social media research and consider how researchers can consider these risks when writing research protocols. We focused this article on three common research approaches: observational research, interactive research, and survey/interview research. Concomitant with these research approaches, we gave particular attention to the issues pertinent to SMW research, including privacy, consent, and confidentiality. After considering these challenges, we outlined key considerations for both researchers and reviewers when creating or reviewing SMW IRB protocols. Our goal in this article was to provide a detailed examination of relevant ethics and regulatory issues for both researchers and those who review their protocols.

  4. Sugar content, cariogenicity, and dental concerns with commonly used medications.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Mark; Goodchild, Jason H; Epstein, Joel B

    2015-02-01

    Oral adverse events such as cariogenicity are often overlooked as drug-associated effects because the sugar content of many medications may be negligible compared with the patients' overall dietary intake of sugar. There are, however, several liquid formulations of medications with significantly high sugar content that are commonly used in patients with swallowing difficulties. These medications may be associated with negative oral health sequelae and should be considered part of the oral health care providers' differential diagnosis of oral pathologies. We reviewed the literature regarding the sugar content of oral liquid medications commonly prescribed by oral health care providers, with consideration to their caries potential. Where not available via public sources, pharmaceutical companies were contacted directly for additional information on the sugar (carbohydrate) content of these oral liquid medication formulations. Over 50 commonly used oral liquid medications prescribed for patients with swallowing difficulties were reviewed and found to contain sugar in varying amounts up to 4 grams per dose (usually 1 teaspoon or 5 milliliters). Patients who are required to take multiple doses per day of these sugar-containing oral liquid medications may be at increased risk for caries and associated oral health consequences. Recognition and avoidance of sugar-containing oral liquid medications can help clinicians optimize patient treatment, decreasing the risk for potential drug-induced caries while emphasizing patient safety and improved oral health. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Consumer opinion concerning the treatment of a common sleep problem.

    PubMed

    Bramble, D

    1996-11-01

    In an uncontrolled, open, pilot study, 15 severely learning disabled children suffering from severe and lifelong night-settling and night-waking (NS/NW) problems were treated with a brief behavioural modification approach based upon the behavioural therapy principles of rapid extinction, cueing and stimulus control. Following the treatment positive changes in these problems occurred quickly (within a few days) and these were sustained at both the 4- and 18-month follow-up stages in the majority of the children. Despite the misgivings of previous commentators concerning rapid extinction techniques, the children's parents found this treatment approach to be safe, helpful and acceptable. This study explores their views about this form of treatment and also about previous help they had received.

  6. Ethics of Social Media Research: Common Concerns and Practical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Goniu, Natalie; Moreno, Peter S.; Diekema, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Social media Websites (SMWs) are increasingly popular research tools. These sites provide new opportunities for researchers, but raise new challenges for Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) that review these research protocols. As of yet, there is little-to-no guidance regarding how an IRB should review the studies involving SMWs. The purpose of this article was to review the common risks inherent in social media research and consider how researchers can consider these risks when writing research protocols. We focused this article on three common research approaches: observational research, interactive research, and survey/interview research. Concomitant with these research approaches, we gave particular attention to the issues pertinent to SMW research, including privacy, consent, and confidentiality. After considering these challenges, we outlined key considerations for both researchers and reviewers when creating or reviewing SMW IRB protocols. Our goal in this article was to provide a detailed examination of relevant ethics and regulatory issues for both researchers and those who review their protocols. PMID:23679571

  7. Baltic Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magner, Thomas F., Ed.; Schmalstieg, William R., Ed.

    The 20 papers in this collection are: "The Dative of Subordination in Baltic and Slavic"--H. Andersen; "The Vocalic Phonemes of the Old Prussian Elbing Vocabulary"--M.L. Burwell; "The Nominative Plural and Preterit Singular of the Active Participles in Baltic"--W. Cowgill; "The State of Linguistics in Soviet…

  8. Addressing Common Concerns about Online Student Ratings of Instruction: A Research-Informed Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winer, Laura; DiGenova, Lina; Costopoulos, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Concerns over the usefulness and validity of student ratings of instruction (SRI) have continued to grow with online processes. This paper presents seven common and persistent concerns identified and tested during the development and implementation of a revised SRI policy at a Canadian research-intensive university. These concerns include bias due…

  9. Size matters: relationships between body size and body mass of common coastal, aquatic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Åsa; Bergström, Ulf; Donadi, Serena; Eriksson, Britas D.H.K.; Hansen, Joakim; Sundblad, Göran

    2017-01-01

    Background Organism biomass is one of the most important variables in ecological studies, making biomass estimations one of the most common laboratory tasks. Biomass of small macroinvertebrates is usually estimated as dry mass or ash-free dry mass (hereafter ‘DM’ vs. ‘AFDM’) per sample; a laborious and time consuming process, that often can be speeded up using easily measured and reliable proxy variables like body size or wet (fresh) mass. Another common way of estimating AFDM (one of the most accurate but also time-consuming estimates of biologically active tissue mass) is the use of AFDM/DM ratios as conversion factors. So far, however, these ratios typically ignore the possibility that the relative mass of biologically active vs. non-active support tissue (e.g., protective exoskeleton or shell)—and therefore, also AFDM/DM ratios—may change with body size, as previously shown for taxa like spiders, vertebrates and trees. Methods We collected aquatic, epibenthic macroinvertebrates (>1 mm) in 32 shallow bays along a 360 km stretch of the Swedish coast along the Baltic Sea; one of the largest brackish water bodies on Earth. We then estimated statistical relationships between the body size (length or height in mm), body dry mass and ash-free dry mass for 14 of the most common taxa; five gastropods, three bivalves, three crustaceans and three insect larvae. Finally, we statistically estimated the potential influence of body size on the AFDM/DM ratio per taxon. Results For most taxa, non-linear regression models describing the power relationship between body size and (i) DM and (ii) AFDM fit the data well (as indicated by low SE and high R2). Moreover, for more than half of the taxa studied (including the vast majority of the shelled molluscs), body size had a negative influence on organism AFDM/DM ratios. Discussion The good fit of the modelled power relationships suggests that the constants reported here can be used to quickly estimate organism dry- and

  10. Environmental Concern and Cooperative-Competitive Behavior in a Simulated Commons Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeffrey M.; Bell, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents study results examining behavior associated with preservation and destruction of slowly regenerating natural resources by using commons dilemma simulation games. Reports that neither environmental concern nor proenvironmental behaviors were related to commons dilemma performance. Concludes that cooperation and competition were better…

  11. Disentangling the Common Variance of Perfectionistic Strivings and Perfectionistic Concerns: A Bifactor Model of Perfectionism

    PubMed Central

    Gäde, Jana C.; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Klein, Andreas G.

    2017-01-01

    Perfectionism nowadays is frequently understood as a multidimensional personality trait with two higher-order dimensions of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. While perfectionistic concerns are robustly found to correlate with negative outcomes and psychological malfunctioning, findings concerning the outcomes of perfectionistic strivings are inconsistent. There is evidence that perfectionistic strivings relate to psychological maladjustment on the one hand but to positive outcomes on the other hand as well. Moreover, perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns frequently showed substantial overlap. These inconsistencies of differential relations and the substantial overlap of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns raise questions concerning the factorial structure of perfectionism and the meaning of its dimensions. In this study, several bifactor models were applied to disentangle the common variance of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns at the item level using Hill et al.’s (2004) Perfectionism Inventory (PI). The PI measures a broad range of perfectionism dimensions by four perfectionistic strivings and four perfectionistic concerns subscales. The bifactor-(S – 1) model with one general factor defined by concern over mistakes as the reference facet, four specific perfectionistic strivings factors, and three specific perfectionistic concerns factors showed acceptable fit. The results revealed a clear separation between perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns, as the general factor represented concern over mistakes, while the perfectionistic strivings factors each explained a substantial amount of reliable variance independent of the general factor. As a result, factor scores of the specific perfectionistic strivings factors and the general factor had differential relationships with achievement motivation, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and self-efficacy that met with

  12. Disentangling the Common Variance of Perfectionistic Strivings and Perfectionistic Concerns: A Bifactor Model of Perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Jana C; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Klein, Andreas G

    2017-01-01

    Perfectionism nowadays is frequently understood as a multidimensional personality trait with two higher-order dimensions of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. While perfectionistic concerns are robustly found to correlate with negative outcomes and psychological malfunctioning, findings concerning the outcomes of perfectionistic strivings are inconsistent. There is evidence that perfectionistic strivings relate to psychological maladjustment on the one hand but to positive outcomes on the other hand as well. Moreover, perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns frequently showed substantial overlap. These inconsistencies of differential relations and the substantial overlap of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns raise questions concerning the factorial structure of perfectionism and the meaning of its dimensions. In this study, several bifactor models were applied to disentangle the common variance of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns at the item level using Hill et al.'s (2004) Perfectionism Inventory (PI). The PI measures a broad range of perfectionism dimensions by four perfectionistic strivings and four perfectionistic concerns subscales. The bifactor-(S - 1) model with one general factor defined by concern over mistakes as the reference facet, four specific perfectionistic strivings factors, and three specific perfectionistic concerns factors showed acceptable fit. The results revealed a clear separation between perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns, as the general factor represented concern over mistakes, while the perfectionistic strivings factors each explained a substantial amount of reliable variance independent of the general factor. As a result, factor scores of the specific perfectionistic strivings factors and the general factor had differential relationships with achievement motivation, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and self-efficacy that met with theoretical

  13. How valid are the common concerns raised against water birth? A focused review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Young, Kate; Kruske, Sue

    2013-06-01

    Women have birthed in water for many years, with researchers finding a number of benefits for mother and baby. Despite these benefits, many health institutions and clinicians are hesitant to support women's access to water immersion in birth for a number of reasons. As such, this paper aimed to (1) select five common concerns raised against water birth and (2) examine whether research supports these concerns as being evidence-based. A literature review was conducted to (1) select the concerns for review and to (2) review each selected concern as to whether they were supported by the current evidence. A recent review of women's access to, and uptake of, water immersion in Queensland, Australia, was also used to determine the concerns for review in order to better capture concerns relevant to Australian practice. Three clinical concerns were selected for review: water aspiration, neonatal and maternal infection, and neonatal and maternal thermo-regulation; and two concerns around the practice of water birth were selected: skills and education of workforce, and emergency procedures in case of maternal collapse. The three clinical concerns were not found to be supported by the available evidence and the two practice concerns can be addressed by appropriate policy, guidelines and practice. The reviewed common concerns against water birth are not evidence-based nor are they sufficient to prevent women from accessing the use of water in labour and birth. Health institutions and clinicians should ensure they take adequate precautions to enable women access to this valued and effective method of birth. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Verbal Aspects in Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Alfred

    1949-01-01

    This study examines the theory of Prokosch concerning the Germanic-Slavic-Baltic tense and aspect systems. The interrelatedness and influence of languages and dialects in Slavic (Russian and Old Church Slavic), Baltic (Lithuanian), and Germanic (Old High German and Gothic) are demonstrated. Examples illustrating the use of the perfective present…

  15. Phenotypic variation in sexually and asexually recruited individuals of the Baltic Sea endemic macroalga Fucus radicans: in the field and after growth in a common-garden.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Kerstin; Forslund, Helena; Capetillo, Nastassja Astrand; Kautsky, Lena; Johansson, Daniel; Pereyra, Ricardo T; Råberg, Sonja

    2012-02-22

    Most species of brown macroalgae recruit exclusively sexually. However, Fucus radicans, a dominant species in the northern Baltic Sea, recruits new attached thalli both sexually and asexually. The level of asexual recruitment varies among populations from complete sexual recruitment to almost (> 90%) monoclonal populations. If phenotypic traits have substantial inherited variation, low levels of sexual activity will decrease population variation in these traits, which may affect function and resilience of the species. We assessed the level of inherited variation in nine phenotypic traits by comparing variation within and among three monoclonal groups and one group of unique multilocus genotypes (MLGs) sampled in the wild. Of the nine phenotypic traits, recovery after freezing, recovery after desiccation, and phlorotannin content showed substantial inherited variation, that is, phenotypic variation in these traits were to a large extend genetically determined. In contrast, variation in six other phenotypic traits (growth rate, palatability to isopod grazers, thallus width, distance between dichotomies, water content after desiccation and photochemical yield under ambient conditions) did not show significant signals of genetic variation at the power of analyses used in the study. Averaged over all nine traits, phenotypic variation within monoclonal groups was only 68% of the variation within the group of different MLGs showing that genotype diversity does affect the overall level of phenotypic variation in this species. Our result indicates that, in general, phenotypic diversity in populations of Fucus radicans increases with increased multilocus genotype (MLG) diversity, but effects are specific for individual traits. In the light of Fucus radicans being a foundation species of the northern Baltic Sea, we propose that increased MLG diversity (leading to increased trait variation) will promote ecosystem function and resilience in areas where F. radicans is common

  16. Phenotypic variation in sexually and asexually recruited individuals of the Baltic Sea endemic macroalga Fucus radicans: in the field and after growth in a common-garden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most species of brown macroalgae recruit exclusively sexually. However, Fucus radicans, a dominant species in the northern Baltic Sea, recruits new attached thalli both sexually and asexually. The level of asexual recruitment varies among populations from complete sexual recruitment to almost (> 90%) monoclonal populations. If phenotypic traits have substantial inherited variation, low levels of sexual activity will decrease population variation in these traits, which may affect function and resilience of the species. We assessed the level of inherited variation in nine phenotypic traits by comparing variation within and among three monoclonal groups and one group of unique multilocus genotypes (MLGs) sampled in the wild. Results Of the nine phenotypic traits, recovery after freezing, recovery after desiccation, and phlorotannin content showed substantial inherited variation, that is, phenotypic variation in these traits were to a large extend genetically determined. In contrast, variation in six other phenotypic traits (growth rate, palatability to isopod grazers, thallus width, distance between dichotomies, water content after desiccation and photochemical yield under ambient conditions) did not show significant signals of genetic variation at the power of analyses used in the study. Averaged over all nine traits, phenotypic variation within monoclonal groups was only 68% of the variation within the group of different MLGs showing that genotype diversity does affect the overall level of phenotypic variation in this species. Conclusions Our result indicates that, in general, phenotypic diversity in populations of Fucus radicans increases with increased multilocus genotype (MLG) diversity, but effects are specific for individual traits. In the light of Fucus radicans being a foundation species of the northern Baltic Sea, we propose that increased MLG diversity (leading to increased trait variation) will promote ecosystem function and resilience in areas

  17. Teachers' Understanding of and Concerns about Mathematical Modeling in the Common Core Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Nancy Butler

    2013-01-01

    Educational reform is most likely to be successful when teachers are knowledgeable about the intended reform, and when their concerns about the reform are understood and addressed. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is an effort to establish a set of nationwide expectations for students and teachers. This study examined teacher understanding…

  18. A qualitative analysis of common concerns about challenges facing pharmacy experiential education programs.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Jennifer; Craddick, Karen; Eccles, Dayl; Kwasnik, Abigail; O'Sullivan, Teresa A

    2015-02-17

    To qualitatively analyze free-text responses gathered as part of a previously published survey in order to systematically identify common concerns facing pharmacy experiential education (EE) programs. In 2011, EE directors at all 118 accredited pharmacy schools in the US were asked in a survey to describe the most pressing issues facing their programs. Investigators performed qualitative, thematic analysis of responses and compared results against demographic data (institution type, class size, number of practice sites, number and type of EE faculty member/staff). Expert and novice investigators identified common themes via an iterative process. To check validity, additional expert and novice reviewers independently coded responses. The Cohen kappa coefficient was calculated and showed good agreement between investigators and reviewers. Seventy-eight responses were received (66% response rate) representing 75% of publicly funded institutions and 71% of schools with class sizes 51-150. Themes identified as common concerns were site capacity, workload/financial support, quality assurance, preceptor development, preceptor stipends, assessment, onboarding, and support/recognition from administration. Good agreement (mean percent agreement 93%, ƙ range=0.59-0.92) was found between investigators and reviewers. Site capacity for student placements continues to be the foremost concern for many experiential education programs. New concerns about preceptor development and procedures for placing and orienting students at individual practice sites (ie, "onboarding") have emerged and must be addressed as new accreditation standards are implemented.

  19. Responsible conduct in nanomedicine research: environmental concerns beyond the common rule.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine research raises ethical concerns beyond those covered by the Common Rule. Investigators and research institutions should comply with environmental and occupational health laws protect research staff and the environment. Though the IRB should concentrate on risks to human research participants, it should also consider risks to identifiable third parties. Investigators should also address risks to identifiable third parties. Professional and governmental organizations should deal with the long-term social, ethical, and environmental consequences of nanomedicine. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  20. Brackish-water submergence of the common periwinkle, Littorina littorea, and its digenean parasites in the Baltic Sea and in the Kattegat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauckner, G.

    1984-03-01

    North Sea and Baltic Sea populations of Littorina littorea differ with respect to their vertical distribution. In the North Sea L. littorea is strictly intertidal while in the Baltic Sea maximum population densities occur in the sublittoral. Levels of infestation with larval digenetic trematodes diminish qualitatively (number of species recorded) and quantitatively (number of hosts infested) with decreasing salinity. Both the host and two parasite species — Cryptocotyle lingua and Microphallus pygmaeus — display ‘brackish-water submergence’ under conditions of reduced surface salinity.

  1. Flame retardants at the top of a simulated baltic marine food web--a case study concerning African penguins from the Gdansk Zoo.

    PubMed

    Reindl, Andrzej R; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2015-02-01

    The present study estimated hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) as a sum of three main isomers (α, β, and γ) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) from Gdansk Zoo and in their sole food, Baltic herring (Clupea harengus), from Gdansk Bay. The average concentration of HBCD in whole herring was 22.0 ± 9.9 ng/g lw, whereas TBBPA was approximately 10-fold lower (2.3 ± 1.3 ng/g lw). Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were also found in muscle and liver of herring. The estimated daily dietary exposure of the penguins to HBCD was 252.9 ± 113.7 ng, whereas for TBBPA it was 26.3 ± 14.9 ng. The ability of BFRs to accumulate in the liver, muscles, fatty tissue, and brain of penguin was confirmed. The highest concentrations of HBCD (326.9 ng·g(-1) lw) and TBBPA (14.8 ng·g(-1) lw) were found in the brain of an adult penguin. The strongest accumulation factor for BFRs was also established for brain tissue, but it showed stronger magnification in muscle than in liver. HBCD and TBBPA were found in penguin guano and eggs, thus showing effective removal from the birds' systems. BFRs content in yolk was approximately ten times greater than in albumen indicating the lipophilic character of these compounds.

  2. Andrographolide: antibacterial activity against common bacteria of human health concern and possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Malabika; Parai, Debaprasad; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2017-01-17

    Increasing bacterial resistance to common drugs is a major public health concern for the treatment of infectious diseases. Certain naturally occurring compounds of plant sources have long been reported to possess potential antimicrobial activity. This study was aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity and possible mechanism of action of andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone from a traditional medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata. Extent of antibacterial action was assessed by minimal bactericidal concentration method. Radiolabeled N-acetyl glucosamine, leucine, thymidine, and uridine were used to determine the effect of Andro on the biosyntheses of cell wall, protein, DNA, and RNA, respectively. In addition, anti-biofilm potential of this compound was also tested. Andro showed potential antibacterial activity against most of the tested Gram-positive bacteria. Among those, Staphylococcus aureus was found to be most sensitive with a minimal inhibitory concentration value of 100 μg/mL. It was found to be bacteriostatic. Specific inhibition of intracellular DNA biosynthesis was observed in a dose-dependent manner in S. aureus. Andro mediated inhibition of biofilm formation by S. aureus was also found. Considering its antimicrobial potency, Andro might be accounted as a promising lead for new antibacterial drug development.

  3. 77 FR 39567 - Common Law Tort Claims Concerning Design and Marking of DOT Specification 39 Compressed Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... ``package, container, or packaging component * * * qualified for use in transporting hazardous materials in... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Common Law Tort Claims Concerning Design and Marking of DOT Specification 39 Compressed Gas Cylinders AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  4. Common questions and concerns from government users of industrial treated wood products

    Treesearch

    Stan Lebow; James Wacker

    2011-01-01

    Because pressure-treated wood is perceived as economical and relatively easy to install, federal, state and local government agencies sometimes utilize treated wood for industrial-type applications. When these agencies have questions or concerns about treated wood they may make inquiries to the US Forest Products Laboratory. These inquiries provide an indication of...

  5. New model framework and structure and the commonality evaluation model. [concerning unmanned spacecraft projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development of a framework and structure for shuttle era unmanned spacecraft projects and the development of a commonality evaluation model is documented. The methodology developed for model utilization in performing cost trades and comparative evaluations for commonality studies is discussed. The model framework consists of categories of activities associated with the spacecraft system's development process. The model structure describes the physical elements to be treated as separate identifiable entities. Cost estimating relationships for subsystem and program-level components were calculated.

  6. Common Core and Other State Standards: Superintendents Feel Optimism, Concern and Lack of Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnan, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    For months, the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have been debated throughout the media, legislatures, education organizations, and households across the country. Education groups have released statements both in favor of the standards and opposed. As these arguments are being tossed around, 44 states and D.C. are implementing CCSS and other…

  7. Learning to Play--Common Concerns for the Visually Impaired Preschool Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recchia, Susan L.

    Certain play situations are very difficult for young visually impaired children. This booklet focuses on three areas of play: exploring toys and materials, making transitions from one activity to another, and playing with other children. Through anecdotal descriptions of common situations encountered by caregivers, the booklet discusses why these…

  8. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the Baltic countries.

    PubMed

    Lazdane, G; Bukovskis, M

    1997-01-01

    According to the UN definition the Baltic countries belong to the group of countries whose economy is in transition. This transition period has created changes in life-style, priorities and living standards. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, distribution and control of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the Baltic countries and to draw some comparisons with data from Scandinavia. We have compared the official statistical data concerning STDs from 1991-94 in all three Baltic countries and have attempted to obtain information about the way these reports are collected. We have come to the following conclusions: -the incidence rate of STD in the Baltic countries is increasing, -the average age of patients suffering from STDs is decreasing, -the specificity of the diagnostic methods used for STDs (especially Chlamydia trachomatis) needs to be improved. Facilities for diagnosing HSV and HPV should be made available.

  9. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  10. Potential health concerns of trace elements and mineral content in commonly consumed greenhouse vegetables in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Rezaee-Ebrahim-Saraee, Khadijeh; Fard, Mehdi Rezvani; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the potential health concerns of trace elements and mineral content of commonly consumed greenhouse vegetables in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: Six kinds of greenhouse vegetables namely; Raphanus sativus (Radish), Cucumis sativus (Cucumber), Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato), green Capsicum annuum (Green bell pepper), yellow C. annuum (Yellow bell pepper), and red C. annuum (Red bell pepper) were collected from Isfahan greenhouses, between December 2012 and March 2013. The vegetables were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of trace elements and trace minerals using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Results: The results of INAA showed that the concentrations of aluminum, bromine, cobalt, rubidium and strontium of these vegetables were varied from 7.2 to 28.4 mg/kg, 0.6–11.7 mg/kg, 0.1–0.5 mg/kg, 4.2–8.4 mg/kg, and 12.0–141.0 mg/kg, respectively. The trace mineral concentrations of As, Cr, Cs, Sc, Th, and U in all of the samples were less than the defined tolerable upper intake level. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that considering the measured trace elements and mineral content levels, Isfahan greenhouse vegetables do not impose any serious health harmful effects for individuals in the studied area due to their meal consumptions. PMID:26605243

  11. Curonian Spit, Baltic Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On July 25, 2006, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying on NASA's Terra satellite, captured this image of the Curonian (or Courland)spit, the Curonian Lagoon (also known as the Courland Lagoon) it encloses, and part of the Baltic Sea. Just 3,800 meters (about 12,460 feet) at its widest point, the spit encloses a lagoon of some 1,620 square kilometers (625 square miles). In this image, dark blue indicates deep water, and lighter blue indicates shallow and/or sediment-laden water. Different shades of blue distinguish the deeper Baltic Sea and the shallower Curonian Lagoon. Vegetation appears in varying shades of green, paved surfaces and bare ground appear in shades of beige and gray, and sandy areas appear off-white. Obvious sandy areas appear along the length of the spit. On the Baltic Sea side, a thin off-white band of beach runs the length of the spit; on the Curonian Lagoon side, intermittent beaches carve their way into the narrow strip of land.

  12. Lower paleozoic of Baltic Area

    SciTech Connect

    Haselton, T.M.; Surlyk, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Baltic Sea offers a new and exciting petroleum play in northwestern Europe. The Kaliningrad province in the Soviet Union, which borders the Baltic Sea to the east, contains an estimated 3.5 billion bbl of recoverable oil from lower Paleozoic sandstones. To the south, in Poland, oil and gas fields are present along a trend that projects offshore into the Baltic. Two recent Petrobaltic wells in the southern Baltic have tested hydrocarbons from lower Paleozoic sandstone. Minor production comes from Ordovician reefs on the Swedish island of Gotland in the western Baltic. The Baltic synclise, which began subsiding in the late Precambrian, is a depression in the East European platform. Strate dip gently to the south where the Baltic Synclise terminates against a structurally complex border zone. Depth to the metamorphosed Precambrian basement is up to 4,000 m. Overlying basement is 200-300 m of upper Precambrian arkosic sandstone. The Lower Cambrian consists of shallow marine quartzites. During Middle and Late Camnbrian, restricted circulation resulted in anoxic conditions and the deposition of Alum shale. The Lower Ordovician consists of quartzites and shale. The Upper Ordovician includes sandstones and algal reefs. The Silurian contains marginal carbonates and shales. For the last 25 years, exploration in northwest Europe has concentrated on well-known Permian sandstone, Jurassic sandstone, and Cretaceous chalk plays. Extrapolation of trends known and exploited in eastern Europe could open an entirely new oil province in the lower Paleozoic in the Baltic.

  13. The Baltics: Regional energy profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic`s exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

  14. The Baltics: Regional energy profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic's exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

  15. Climate change effects on the Baltic Sea borderland between land and sea.

    PubMed

    Strandmark, Alma; Bring, Arvid; Cousins, Sara A O; Destouni, Georgia; Kautsky, Hans; Kolb, Gundula; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Hambäck, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Coastal habitats are situated on the border between land and sea, and ecosystem structure and functioning is influenced by both marine and terrestrial processes. Despite this, most scientific studies and monitoring are conducted either with a terrestrial or an aquatic focus. To address issues concerning climate change impacts in coastal areas, a cross-ecosystem approach is necessary. Since habitats along the Baltic coastlines vary in hydrology, natural geography, and ecology, climate change projections for Baltic shore ecosystems are bound to be highly speculative. Societal responses to climate change in the Baltic coastal ecosystems should have an ecosystem approach and match the biophysical realities of the Baltic Sea area. Knowledge about ecosystem processes and their responses to a changing climate should be integrated within the decision process, both locally and nationally, in order to increase the awareness of, and to prepare for climate change impacts in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.

  16. Tuberculosis in St. Petersburg and the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Samarina, Arina; Zhemkov, Vladimir; Zakharova, Olga; Hoffner, Sven

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health concern and challenges the national structures for infection control and health care, as well as international institutions, to develop and implement new strategies to control and combat this disease. In our report, we investigated the TB epidemiological situation in St. Petersburg and the countries around the Baltic Sea using national epidemiological statistics and epidemiological reports of international organizations, such as the WHO and Euro-TB. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, a steep increase in tuberculosis was seen in the Russian Federation, St. Petersburg and the Baltic States, after which it stabilized at levels significantly higher compared to the Nordic countries. Moreover, the epidemiological situation in St. Petersburg and the Baltic States was aggravated by the emergence and spread of TB/HIV coinfection, as well as that of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis, which imposed further difficulties in gaining control of TB. During the studied period, the TB burden in neither St. Petersburg nor Baltic States has had a significant impact on the epidemiology in the low TB burden neighbouring countries around the Baltic Sea.

  17. Commonality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E., Jr.

    Commonality analysis is an attempt to understand the relative predictive power of the regressor variables, both individually and in combination. The squared multiple correlation is broken up into elements assigned to each individual regressor and to each possible combination of regressors. The elements have the property that the appropriate sums…

  18. An Investigation into the Implementation of the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics: Teacher Concerns and Understandings of Transformation Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSSM) represent a major attempt in a long line of attempts to reform the American Education system surrounding Mathematics. These standards aim to establish a nationwide set of curriculum, seeking to ensure equity for all students in the U.S.A. Some of the standards included are new to all teachers…

  19. An Investigation into the Implementation of the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics: Teacher Concerns and Understandings of Transformation Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSSM) represent a major attempt in a long line of attempts to reform the American Education system surrounding Mathematics. These standards aim to establish a nationwide set of curriculum, seeking to ensure equity for all students in the U.S.A. Some of the standards included are new to all teachers…

  20. BALTEX - A science broker for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckermann, M.; von Storch, H.; Langner, J.; Omstedt, A. T.

    2010-12-01

    BALTEX (the Baltic Sea Experiment) is an interdisciplinary research network of scientists involved in environmental research dedicated to the Baltic Sea drainage basin (including disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, biogeochemistry and climate research). Originally founded in 1992 as a Continental Scale Experiment in GEWEX (the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment within the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) of the World Meteorological Organization, WMO), it was intended to form a common science, communication and data platform with the overall goal to integrate efforts to gain a better understanding of the water and energy cycle in the Baltic Sea basin. BALTEX Phase II (since 2003) has extended the scope to research on regional climate change and variability, climate change impacts on biogeochemistry and water management, but also made first steps towards overarching social and political issues as cross-cutting activities in the context of the scientific objectives. An important aspect of BALTEX Phase II is a more holistic approach towards observing, understanding and modelling major environmental relevant for the entire Baltic Sea region. Parts of the BALTEX Phase II research activities thus contribute to the establishment of a high resolution integrated modelling system for Northern Europe, embedded in an Earth System Model. An outstanding product of BALTEX as a “knowledge broker” for regional political institutions is the BACC report. Following to a large extent the method of IPCC, a regional assessment report on climate change in the Baltic Sea basin was compiled, which summarizes the published scientifically legitimate knowledge on regional climate change in the Baltic Sea basin and its impacts. The assessment, known as the BACC report (BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin; BACC author team 2008, Reckermann et al., 2008) was published in 2008 as a book. A survey among climate researchers in the area

  1. What causes the barren bottoms of the Baltic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2010-05-01

    One of the largest impacts on the Baltic Sea ecosystem health is eutrophication, which causes hypoxia (< 2mg/l dissolved oxygen). It is estimated that the hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased about four times in area since 1960 due to surplus loads of waterborne and airborne nutrients (N and P) from anthropogenic sources. Hypoxia has barren vast areas of the sea-floor, reduced the macrobenthic communities and disrupted benthic food webs in the whole Baltic basin. Hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles; it increases the internal load of phosphorus released from sediments, which causes low nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) ratios during summer - a factor that favors cyanobacterial blooms. Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea is not unique to the modern era. Based on a compilation of Baltic geological records Zillén et al., (2008) showed that the deeper depressions of the Baltic Proper have experienced intermittent hypoxia during most of the Holocene. Hypoxia occurred basin-wide, at water depths varying between 73-240 m during three major periods; i.e. between c. 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr BP and subsequent to AD 1800. These periods overlap the Holocene Thermal Maximum HTM (c. 9000-5000 cal. yr BP), the Medieval Warm Period MWP (c. AD 750-1200) and the modern historical period (AD 1800 to present). In contrast, oxic bottom conditions were common between c. 7000-6000, c. 4000-2000 and c. 800-200 cal. yr BP. The latter period coincides with the Little Ice Age (LIA) and its characteristic server winters. Although we know that hypoxia has occurred in the past and probably co-varied with external forces, such as climate change and nutrient fluxes, the relative importance of these two forcing mechanisms is unresolved, which restricts predictions about the Baltic Sea ecosystem response to future climate and anthropogenic stressors. Most previous research suggests that there may be a correlation between the oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea and climate variability in the past

  2. Have the Answers to Common Legal Questions Concerning Nutrition Support Changed Over the Past Decade? 10 Questions for 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Barrocas, Albert; Cohen, Michael L

    2016-06-01

    Clinical nutrition specialists (CNSs) are often confronted with technological, ethical, and legal questions, that is, what can be done technologically, what should be done ethically, and what must be done legally, which conflict at times. The conflict represents a "troubling trichotomy" as discussed in the lead article of this issue of Nutrition in Clinical Practice (NCP). During Clinical Nutrition Week in 2006, a symposium covering these 3 topics was presented, and later that year, an article covering the same topic was published in NCP In this article, we revisit several legal questions/issues that were raised 10 years ago and discuss current answers and approaches. Some of the answers remain unchanged. Other answers have been modified by additional legislation, court decisions, or regulations. In addition, new questions/issues have arisen. Some of the most common questions regarding nutrition support involve the following: liability, informed consent, medical decisional incapacity vs legal competence, advance directive specificity, surrogate decision making, physician orders for life-sustaining treatment and electronic medical orders for life-sustaining treatment, legal definition of death, patient vs family decision making, the noncompliant patient, and elder abuse obligations. In the current healthcare environment, these questions and issues are best addressed via a transdisciplinary team that focuses on function rather than form. The CNS can play a pivotal role in dealing with these challenges by applying the acronym ACT: being Accountable and Communicating with all stakeholders while actively participating as an integral part of the transdisciplinary Team.

  3. Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in the Baltic States Region: Problems and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satkovskiene, Dalia

    2008-03-01

    In this contribution the gender equality problem in physics will be discussed on the basis of the results obtained implementing the project ``Baltic States Network: Women in Sciences and High Technology'' (BASNET) initiated by Lithuanian women physicists and financed by European Commission. The main goal of BASNET project was creation of the regional Strategy how to deal with women in sciences problem in the Baltic States. It has some stages and the contribution follows them. The first one was in depth sociological study aiming to find out disincentives and barriers women scientists face in their career and work at science and higher education institutions. Analysis of results revealed wide range of problems concerned with science organization, management and financing common for both counterparts. However it also proved the existence of women discrimination in sciences. As main factors influencing women under-representation in Physics was found: the stereotypes existing in the society where physics is assigned to the masculine area of activity; failings of the science management system, where highest positions are distributed not using the institutionalized objective criteria but by voting, where the correctness of majority solutions is anticipated implicitly. In physics where male scientists are the majority (they also usually compose executive boards, committees etc.) results of such a procedures often are unfavorable for women. The same reasons also influence women ``visibility'' in physicist's community and as the consequence possibility to receive needed recourses for their research as well as appropriate presentation of results obtained. The study revealed also the conservatism of scientific community- reluctance to face existing in the scientific society problems and to start solving them. On the basis of the results obtained as well practice of other countries the common strategy of solving women in physics (sciences) in the Baltic States region was

  4. Model simulation of inflow water to the Baltic Sea based on ¹²⁹I.

    PubMed

    Yi, P; Chen, X G; Bao, D X; Qian, R Z; Aldahan, A; Tian, F Y; Possnert, G; Bryhn, A C; Gu, T F; Hou, X L; He, P; Yu, Z B; Wang, B

    2013-12-01

    The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea represents a vital economic and recreational resource for more than 90 million people inhabiting its coasts. Extensive contamination of this sea by a variety of anthropogenic pollutants has raised the concern of the people in the region. Quantifying seawater inflow is crucial for estimating potential environmental risks as well as to find the best remedial strategy. We present here a model to estimate water inflow from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea by utilizing ¹²⁹I as a tracer. The results predicted inflow range of 230-450 km³/y with best fit value around 330 km³/y from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea during 1980-1999. Despite limited time series data on ¹²⁹I, the model presented here demonstrates a new management tool for the Baltic Sea to calculate inflow water compared to conventional methods (such as salinity, temperature and hydrographic models).

  5. Climate change in the Baltic sea region: a cross-country analysis of institutional stakeholder perceptions.

    PubMed

    Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Hansson, Anders; Hjerpe, Mattias; Chubarenko, Boris; Karmanov, Konstantin

    2012-09-01

    Before climate change is considered in long-term coastal management, it is necessary to investigate how institutional stakeholders in coastal management conceptualize climate change, as their awareness will ultimately affect their actions. Using questionnaires in eight Baltic Sea riparian countries, this study examines environmental managers' awareness of climate change. Our results indicate that problems related to global warming are deemed secondary to short-term social and economic issues. Respondents agree that problems caused by global warming will become increasingly important, but pay little attention to adaptation and mitigation strategies. Current environmental problems are expected to continue to be urgent in the future. We conclude that an apparent gap exists between decision making, public concerns, and scientific consensus, resulting in a situation in which the latest evidence rarely influences commonly held opinions.

  6. Bioaccumulation of mercury in the trophic chain of flatfish from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna

    2012-10-01

    Mercury concentrations in three flatfish species - flounder (Platichtys flesus), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), and Baltic turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), netted in the southern Baltic Sea were assessed and compared to concentrations of this metal in sediments, sea water, and flatfish food - bivalve Macoma balthica, isopod Saduria entomon, and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Collected simultaneously with flatfish in 2009 and 2010. Different concentrations of mercury depending on species, tissue or organ, sex, individual length, kind of food, and region were determined. The muscle tissues of turbot had the highest concentrations of the metal. The bioaccumulation (BF) and biomagnification (BMF) factors has been counted showing that the muscle tissues of turbot have maximum affinity for mercury, and thus best reflected the metal contamination of the Baltic Sea environment. The data suggest that the common Baltic turbot (S. maximus) is an important model species, suitable and cost-effective to biomonitor environmental mercury pollution for ecological research.

  7. Past Occurrences of Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zillen, L.; Conley, D. J.; Bjorck, S.

    2007-12-01

    The hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased in area by about four times since 1950. Widespread oxygen deficiency below the halocline has severely reduced macro benthic communities in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland over the past decades and negatively effected food chain dynamics, fish habitats and fisheries in the entire Baltic Sea. In addition, hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles. The cause of the increased hypoxia is believed to be enhanced eutrophication through increased anthropogenic input of nutrients, such as phosphorous and nitrogen. Conditions prior to the 1950s are considered as the benchmark and some authors suggest that the earlier Baltic Sea was an oligothrophic, clear-water body with oxygenated deep waters. By contrast, studies of short sediment cores reveal that hypoxia has been present in some of the deepest basins for at least the last 100-200 years. In addition, long sediment cores suggest that hypoxia in the Baltic Sea has occurred intermittently in deep basins over the last c. 8500 years. Thus, the occurrence of present day hypoxia in the deeper basins need not necessarily be attributed to human activity but rather to natural oceanographic, geologic and climate conditions. We present a compilation of previous publications that reported the occurrence of laminated sediments (i.e. a palaeo-proxy for hypoxia) in the Baltic Sea. This review shows that the deeper parts of the Baltic Sea have experienced either intermittent or more regular hypoxia during most of the Holocene and that more continuous laminations started to form c. 7800-8500 cal. yr BP ago, in association with the establishment of a permanent halocline during the transition from the Ancylus Lake to the Littorina Sea. Laminated sediments were more common during the early and late Holocene and coincided with intervals of high organic productivity (high TOC content) and high salinity during the Holocene Thermal Maximum and the Medieval Climate Optimum. This study

  8. The Warsaw Pact Baltic Fleet.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    excess of fresh water . The water in the northern end of the Gulf of Bothnia is so low in salt content as to be drinkable . This is reminiscent of the...ground forces could restrict Soviet passage of the Straits, making a difficult mission even more difficult. The mission can be simplified by the use of...force structures of the Warsaw Pact nations (East Germany, Poland, and the Soviet Ubion) which make up the Warsaw Pact Baltic Fleet are examined

  9. The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

    2001-12-01

    increasing extent, agreed professional contacts. Networks of engaged people were in all sites a resource for and promoter of the sustainability path. In order to succeed and to maintain the zeal, they need strong institutional support and common goals. Public programmes in the Baltic, ie. the work of the Helsinki Commission and Baltic Agenda 21, have developed instruments to enhance sustainability beneficial for the management of these watersheds. But critical tasks remain to be done in developing a shared understanding of ways to improve management of ecosystems with social factors.

  10. Anthropogenic and naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) from two sites in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin; Bignert, Anders; Legradi, Jessica; Legler, Juliette; Asplund, Lillemor

    2016-02-01

    In the eutrophicated Baltic Sea, several naturally produced hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been found in marine biota. OH-PBDEs are toxic to adult and developing zebrafish and shown to be potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Disturbed OXPHOS can result in altered energy metabolism and weight loss. In herring, the concentration of OH-PBDEs (i.e. 2'-OH-BDE68 and 6-OH-BDE47) has increased during the period 1980-2010 in the Baltic Proper. Over the same time period, the condition and fat content in Baltic herring have decreased. Given the toxicity and increasing trends of OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring it is important to further assess the exposure to OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring. In this study, the concentrations of OH-PBDEs and related brominated substances i.e. polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in herring sampled in the northern Baltic Proper (Askö, n = 12) and the southern Bothnian Sea (Ängskärsklubb, n = 12). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g l.w.) at Askö and Ängskärsklubb were; Σ2PBPs: 4.3 and 9.6, Σ(2)PBAs: 34 and 20, Σ(6)OH-PBDEs: 9.4 and 10, Σ(7)MeO-PBDEs: 42 and 150, Σ(6)PBDEs: 54 and 27, respectively. 6-OH-BDE47 dominated the OH-PBDE profile and comprised 87% (Askö) and 91% (Ängskärsklubb) of the ΣOH-PBDEs. At Ängskärsklubb the mean concentration of ΣMeO-PBDEs (150 ng/g l.w.) was 15 times higher than ΣOH-PBDEs. As other fish species are known to metabolically transform MeO-PBDEs to OH-PBDEs, high levels of MeO-PBDEs can be of concern as a precursor for more toxic OH-PBDEs in herring and their roe.

  11. Baltic Sea nutrient reductions--what should we aim for?

    PubMed

    Ahtiainen, Heini; Artell, Janne; Elmgren, Ragnar; Hasselström, Linus; Håkansson, Cecilia

    2014-12-01

    Nutrient load reductions are needed to improve the state of the Baltic Sea, but it is still under debate how they should be implemented. In this paper, we use data from an environmental valuation study conducted in all nine Baltic Sea states to investigate public preferences of relevance to three of the involved decision-dimensions: First, the roles of nitrogen versus phosphorus reductions causing different eutrophication effects; second, the role of time - the lag between actions to reduce nutrient loads and perceived improvements; and third; the spatial dimension and the roles of actions targeting the coastal and open sea environment and different sub-basins. Our findings indicate that respondents view and value the Baltic Sea environment as a whole, and are not focussed only on their local sea area, or a particular aspect of water quality. We argue that public preferences concerning these three perspectives should be one of the factors guiding marine policy. This requires considering the entire range of eutrophication effects, in coastal and open sea areas, and including long-term and short-term measures.

  12. HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan--a regional programme of measures for the marine environment based on the Ecosystem Approach.

    PubMed

    Backer, Hermanni; Leppänen, Juha-Markku; Brusendorff, Anne Christine; Forsius, Kaj; Stankiewicz, Monika; Mehtonen, Jukka; Pyhälä, Minna; Laamanen, Maria; Paulomäki, Hanna; Vlasov, Nikolay; Haaranen, Tarja

    2010-05-01

    The Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) Baltic Sea Action Plan, adopted by the coastal countries of the Baltic Sea and the European Community in November 2007, is a regional intergovernmental programme of measures for the protection and management of the marine environment explicitly based on the Ecosystem Approach. The Action Plan is structured around a set of Ecological Objectives used to define indicators and targets, including effect-based nutrient input ceilings, and to monitor implementation. The Action Plan strongly links Baltic marine environmental concerns to important socio-economic fields such as agriculture and fisheries and promotes cross-sectoral tools including marine spatial planning. Due to complementarities with the European Union (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive, the Action Plan is in essence a pilot for this process without neglecting the important role of the Russian Federation - the only Baltic coastal country not a member of the EU.

  13. Assessment of Marine Mammal Impact Zones for Use of Military Sonar in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Mathias H; Johansson, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Military sonars are known to have caused cetaceans to strand. Navies in shallow seas use different frequencies and sonar pulses, commonly frequencies between 25 and 100 kHz, compared with most studied NATO sonar systems that have been evaluated for their environmental impact. These frequencies match the frequencies of best hearing in the harbor porpoises and seals resident in the Baltic Sea. This study uses published temporary and permanent threshold shifts, measured behavioral response thresholds, technical specifications of a sonar system, and environmental parameters affecting sound propagation common for the Baltic Sea to estimate the impact zones for harbor porpoises and seals.

  14. Scandinavia and the Baltic Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. The image extends from 64oN, 0oE in the northwest to 56oN, 32oE in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey. It is displayed in an equidistant conic projection.

    The image area includes southern Norway, Sweden and Finland, northern Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and part of western Russia. Norway's rugged western coastline is deeply indented by fjords. Elongated lakes, formed by glacial erosion and deposition, are characteristic of the entire region, and are particularly dense throughout Finland and Sweden. Numerous islands are present, and a virtually continuous chain of small, scattered islands occur between Sweden and Finland. The northern and eastern waters of the Baltic Sea are almost fresh, since the Baltic receives saltwater only from the narrow and shallow sounds between Denmark and Sweden that connect it to the North Sea. Most of the major cities within the image area are coastal, including St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Helsinki, Riga, and Oslo.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  15. Scandinavia and the Baltic Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. The image extends from 64oN, 0oE in the northwest to 56oN, 32oE in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey. It is displayed in an equidistant conic projection.

    The image area includes southern Norway, Sweden and Finland, northern Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and part of western Russia. Norway's rugged western coastline is deeply indented by fjords. Elongated lakes, formed by glacial erosion and deposition, are characteristic of the entire region, and are particularly dense throughout Finland and Sweden. Numerous islands are present, and a virtually continuous chain of small, scattered islands occur between Sweden and Finland. The northern and eastern waters of the Baltic Sea are almost fresh, since the Baltic receives saltwater only from the narrow and shallow sounds between Denmark and Sweden that connect it to the North Sea. Most of the major cities within the image area are coastal, including St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Helsinki, Riga, and Oslo.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  16. Hexachlorocyclohexane - Long term variability and spatial distribution in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Marion; Theobald, Norbert; Schulz-Bull, Detlef

    2017-02-01

    In response to the HELCOM commitment the Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemuende conducts a monitoring program on listed substances of concern for the Baltic Sea environment which comprises the isomers of technical hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). After World War II the HCH compounds were applied globally in huge amounts as insecticidal formulation in which only γ-HCH is the effective agent. Monitoring was conducted in water samples from a large Baltic Sea area. Mostly, the HCH compounds were evenly distributed in the Baltic Sea. Data from 1975 to 2015 from the Arkona Basin depict a substantial reduction of the HCH pressure (12,500 to < 400 pg/L). Longest residence is shown for β-HCH, which is currently the predominant HCH isomer in the Baltic Sea (α/β/γ:1/2/1). Half lives were determined to be 4-8 years for α- and γ-HCH and 5-20 years for β-HCH.

  17. Access to distributed marine databases on the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, A.; Axe, P.; Bock, S.; Kaitala, S.; Manscher, O. H.; Rodriguez-Medina, M.; Olsonen, R.; Priha, I.; Tikka, K.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic Nest Institute, Stockholm University (Sweden) in cooperation with Department of Bioscience/DCE, National Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus University (Denmark), Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (Germany), Finnish Environment Institute, Finnish Meteorological Institute and Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute developed a data assessment system, aimed at providing tools for online analysis of marine environmental data (temperature, salinity, chemical properties) from distributed collection of databases on the Baltic Sea. Such approach allows users to have fast access to the most recent data from all major data providers and providers remain in control of their data. The system contains a web data portal, which provides concurrent access to distributed marine databases and presents information in a unified way. Two client programs use the data portal and provide tools to analyse the data. The DAS - Data Assimilation System (http://nest.su.se/das/) accesses databases through the data portal and allow analysing the raw data and creating gridded data, which can be used as initial fields for 3D hydrodynamic models. A decision support system Nest (http://nest.su.se/nest/) developed and maintained at the Stockholm University as a tool to support decision-making at international negotiations regarding the Baltic Sea environment also uses the data portal to access marine data, provide access to the raw data and perform time-series analysis. The data portal designed to output data in a common format (CSV) for further post-processing using other software. It makes the system open to develop another client programs for data analysis.

  18. Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea Limits the Reproduction and Population Expansion of the Newly Invaded Comb Jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi

    PubMed Central

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Møller, Lene Friis; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The recent invasion of the comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi into northern European waters is of major public and scientific concern. One of the key features making M. leidyi a successful invader is its high fecundity combined with fast growth rates. However, little is known about physiological limitations to its reproduction and consequent possible abiotic restrictions to its dispersal. To evaluate the invasion potential of M. leidyi into the brackish Baltic Sea we studied in situ egg production rates in different regions and at different salinities in the laboratory, representing the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. During October 2009 M. leidyi actively reproduced over large areas of the Baltic Sea. Egg production rates scaled with animal size but decreased significantly with decreasing salinity, both in the field (7–29) and in laboratory experiments (6–33). Temperature and zooplankton, i.e. food abundance, could not explain the observed differences. Reproduction rates at conditions representing the Kattegat, south western and central Baltic Sea, respectively, were 2.8 fold higher at the highest salinities (33 and 25) than at intermediate salinities (10 and 15) and 21 times higher compared from intermediate to the lowest salinity tested (6). Higher salinity areas such as the Kattegat, and to a lower extent the south western Baltic, seem to act as source regions for the M. leidyi population in the central Baltic Sea where a self-sustaining population, due to the low salinity, cannot be maintained. PMID:21887373

  19. Salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea limits the reproduction and population expansion of the newly invaded comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Møller, Lene Friis; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The recent invasion of the comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi into northern European waters is of major public and scientific concern. One of the key features making M. leidyi a successful invader is its high fecundity combined with fast growth rates. However, little is known about physiological limitations to its reproduction and consequent possible abiotic restrictions to its dispersal. To evaluate the invasion potential of M. leidyi into the brackish Baltic Sea we studied in situ egg production rates in different regions and at different salinities in the laboratory, representing the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. During October 2009 M. leidyi actively reproduced over large areas of the Baltic Sea. Egg production rates scaled with animal size but decreased significantly with decreasing salinity, both in the field (7-29) and in laboratory experiments (6-33). Temperature and zooplankton, i.e. food abundance, could not explain the observed differences. Reproduction rates at conditions representing the Kattegat, south western and central Baltic Sea, respectively, were 2.8 fold higher at the highest salinities (33 and 25) than at intermediate salinities (10 and 15) and 21 times higher compared from intermediate to the lowest salinity tested (6). Higher salinity areas such as the Kattegat, and to a lower extent the south western Baltic, seem to act as source regions for the M. leidyi population in the central Baltic Sea where a self-sustaining population, due to the low salinity, cannot be maintained.

  20. Impact of climate change on fish population dynamics in the Baltic sea: a dynamical downscaling investigation.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Meier, H E Markus; Lindegren, Martin; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Eero, Margit; Blenckner, Thorsten; Tomczak, Maciej T; Niiranen, Susa

    2012-09-01

    Understanding how climate change, exploitation and eutrophication will affect populations and ecosystems of the Baltic Sea can be facilitated with models which realistically combine these forcings into common frameworks. Here, we evaluate sensitivity of fish recruitment and population dynamics to past and future environmental forcings provided by three ocean-biogeochemical models of the Baltic Sea. Modeled temperature explained nearly as much variability in reproductive success of sprat (Sprattus sprattus; Clupeidae) as measured temperatures during 1973-2005, and both the spawner biomass and the temperature have influenced recruitment for at least 50 years. The three Baltic Sea models estimate relatively similar developments (increases) in biomass and fishery yield during twenty-first century climate change (ca. 28 % range among models). However, this uncertainty is exceeded by the one associated with the fish population model, and by the source of global climate data used by regional models. Knowledge of processes and biases could reduce these uncertainties.

  1. A multivariate Baltic Sea environmental index.

    PubMed

    Dippner, Joachim W; Kornilovs, Georgs; Junker, Karin

    2012-11-01

    Since 2001/2002, the correlation between North Atlantic Oscillation index and biological variables in the North Sea and Baltic Sea fails, which might be addressed to a global climate regime shift. To understand inter-annual and inter-decadal variability in environmental variables, a new multivariate index for the Baltic Sea is developed and presented here. The multivariate Baltic Sea Environmental (BSE) index is defined as the 1st principal component score of four z-transformed time series: the Arctic Oscillation index, the salinity between 120 and 200 m in the Gotland Sea, the integrated river runoff of all rivers draining into the Baltic Sea, and the relative vorticity of geostrophic wind over the Baltic Sea area. A statistical downscaling technique has been applied to project different climate indices to the sea surface temperature in the Gotland, to the Landsort gauge, and the sea ice extent. The new BSE index shows a better performance than all other climate indices and is equivalent to the Chen index for physical properties. An application of the new index to zooplankton time series from the central Baltic Sea (Latvian EEZ) shows an excellent skill in potential predictability of environmental time series.

  2. DNA double-strand breaks in incubating female common eiders (Somateria mollissima): Comparison between a low and a high polluted area.

    PubMed

    Fenstad, Anette A; Bustnes, Jan O; Bingham, Christopher G; Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim; Moe, Børge; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Moody, A John; Gabrielsen, Kristin M; Herzke, Dorte; Lierhagen, Syverin; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Krøkje, Åse

    2016-11-01

    Alterations in the genetic material may have severe consequences for individuals and populations. Hence, genotoxic effects of environmental exposure to pollutants are of great concern. We assessed the impact of blood concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury (Hg) on DNA double-strand break (DSB) frequency, in blood cells of a high-exposed Baltic, and lower exposed Arctic population of common eiders (Somateria mollissima). Furthermore, we examined whether the genotoxic response was influenced by antioxidant concentration (plasma total glutathione (tGSH) and total antioxidant capacity) and female body mass. The DNA DSB frequency did not differ between the two populations. We found significant positive relationships between Hg and DNA DSB frequency in Baltic, but not in Arctic eiders. Although both p,p'-DDE and PCB 118 had a lesser effect than Hg, they exhibited a positive association with DNA DSB frequency in Baltic eiders. Antioxidant levels were not important for the genotoxic effect, suggesting alternative mechanisms other than GSH depletion for the relationship between Hg and DNA DSBs. Hence, the Baltic population, which is considered to be endangered and is under the influence of several environmental stressors, may be more susceptible to genotoxic effects of environmental exposure to Hg than the Arctic population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Morphological abnormalities in gonads of the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras): Description of types and prevalence in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rajasilta, Marjut; Elfving, Mikael; Hänninen, Jari; Laine, Päivi; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Paranko, Jorma

    2016-03-01

    Due to heavy anthropogenic influence and variation of the environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea, reproductive disorders are becoming a major environmental concern. We show here an increasing prevalence of gonadal malformations in the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras), a key species of the Baltic ecosystem and important in commercial fishery. During 1987-2014, the spawning herring population in the Archipelago Sea (AS) (North Baltic Sea, Finland) was monitored annually and analyzed for gross morphology of the gonads [total number (n) of analyzed fish = 38 284]. Four different types of malformations were repeatedly found and named as asymmetric, rudimentary, segmented, and branched gonads, but also hermaphroditic gonads and miscellaneous (unidentified) disorders were recorded. In 2013, additional samplings (n of fish analyzed = 541) showed similar malformations in herring from the Bothnian Sea. In some gonad types, histological examination revealed disintegration of seminiferous tubules and hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue. In 2014, the overall prevalence of malformations was still relatively low in the AS (frequency = 0-3.4 %; n = 750) and had apparently minimal effect on population recruitment. However, an increasing trend in the time-series (GLM; F = 32.65; p < 0.001) and a significantly higher prevalence in the Bothnian Sea (frequency = 0.7-5.0 %; n = 541; χ (2) = 6.24; p < 0.05) suggest that gonadal malformations may become a new threat for fish in the Baltic Sea. The observed gonad atrophies may be due to environmental endocrine disruption; however, also other explanations may exist and potential explanations are discussed.

  4. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 distribution in Baltic Sea waters

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1988-09-01

    The strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentrations determined in 1983 in the Baltic Sea proper and the Gulf of Finland and in the Soviet Baltic rivers are furnished. The cesium-137 content has been found to be directly proportional to the salinity of the water. Significant influx of technogenic radioactive contaminants from the North to the Baltic Sea was noted in 1983.

  5. At Odds: Concerns Raised by Using Odds Ratios for Continuous or Common Dichotomous Outcomes in Research on Physical Activity and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Lovasi, Gina S; Underhill, Lindsay J; Jack, Darby; Richards, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher; Rundle, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Research on obesity and the built environment has often featured logistic regression and the corresponding parameter, the odds ratio. Use of odds ratios for common outcomes such obesity may unnecessarily hinder the validity, interpretation, and communication of research findings. METHODS: We identified three key issues raised by the use of odds ratios, illustrating them with data on walkability and body mass index from a study of 13,102 New York City residents. RESULTS: First, dichotomization of continuous measures such as body mass index discards theoretically relevant information, reduces statistical power, and amplifies measurement error. Second, odds ratios are systematically higher (further from the null) than prevalence ratios; this inflation is trivial for rare outcomes, but substantial for common outcomes like obesity. Third, odds ratios can lead to incorrect conclusions during tests of interactions. The odds ratio in a particular subgroup might higher simply because the outcome is more common (and the odds ratio inflated) compared with other subgroups. CONCLUSION: Our recommendations are to take full advantage of continuous outcome data when feasible and to use prevalence ratios in place of odds ratios for common dichotomous outcomes. When odds ratios must be used, authors should document outcome prevalence across exposure groups.

  6. At Odds: Concerns Raised by Using Odds Ratios for Continuous or Common Dichotomous Outcomes in Research on Physical Activity and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lovasi, Gina S.; Underhill, Lindsay J.; Jack, Darby; Richards, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher; Rundle, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Research on obesity and the built environment has often featured logistic regression and the corresponding parameter, the odds ratio. Use of odds ratios for common outcomes such obesity may unnecessarily hinder the validity, interpretation, and communication of research findings. Methods We identified three key issues raised by the use of odds ratios, illustrating them with data on walkability and body mass index from a study of 13,102 New York City residents. Results First, dichotomization of continuous measures such as body mass index discards theoretically relevant information, reduces statistical power, and amplifies measurement error. Second, odds ratios are systematically higher (further from the null) than prevalence ratios; this inflation is trivial for rare outcomes, but substantial for common outcomes like obesity. Third, odds ratios can lead to incorrect conclusions during tests of interactions. The odds ratio in a particular subgroup might higher simply because the outcome is more common (and the odds ratio inflated) compared with other subgroups. Conclusion Our recommendations are to take full advantage of continuous outcome data when feasible and to use prevalence ratios in place of odds ratios for common dichotomous outcomes. When odds ratios must be used, authors should document outcome prevalence across exposure groups. PMID:23002407

  7. Microplastics in the Baltic Sea water: fibers everywhere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatmullina, Lilia; Bagaev, Andrey; Chubarenko, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Presence of thin synthetic fibres (microfibres, tens of micrometres in diameter) in the surface waters and sediments is documented in different studies; however, the data on their exact abundances in the marine environment are commonly not presented owing to the shortcomings of the sampling procedure and general absence of well-established methodology for microplastics data collection. Nevertheless, we made an attempt to qualitatively analyse the amounts of microplastic fibres in the water column of the Baltic Sea. Water samples acquired during 6 cruises over the Baltic Sea Proper in 2015-2016 were filtered using 174 μm filters, which were subsequently analysed by microscope. From the total of 95 examined filters, 63% contained fibres. They were identified by colour and the reaction to the mechanical action of a thin needle: justification of anthropogenic origin was considered to be enough; any questionable objects were discarded. Fibres comprise more than 90% of the whole microplastic particles found in the near-bottom layers in the coastal zone and around 24% of microplastics in the surface and intermediate waters, with mean concentrations of 0.71 and 0.07 fibres per litre, respectively. Although the methodology still requires a lot of enhancement, even the preliminary results indicate ubiquitous distribution of the microfibres in the water column of the Baltic Sea with surface and bottom layers revealing higher abundances of microfibres in comparison with intermediate layers, and open-sea waters being less contaminated than the coastal ones. Apart from enhancing the sampling technics, we consider that it is crucial to understand principal physical features of fibers behavior in the marine environment (e.g., settling, entrainment by currents), as it would provide an opportunity to parameterize their transport and further on to model distribution of fibers in the water column. The research is supported by the Russian Science Foundation grant number 15-17-10020.

  8. BIAS: A Regional Management of Underwater Sound in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Sigray, Peter; Andersson, Mathias; Pajala, Jukka; Laanearu, Janek; Klauson, Aleksander; Tegowski, Jaroslaw; Boethling, Maria; Fischer, Jens; Tougaard, Jakob; Wahlberg, Magnus; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Folegot, Thomas; Matuschek, Rainer; Verfuss, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Management of the impact of underwater sound is an emerging concern worldwide. Several countries are in the process of implementing regulatory legislations. In Europe, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive was launched in 2008. This framework addresses noise impacts and the recommendation is to deal with it on a regional level. The Baltic Sea is a semienclosed area with nine states bordering the sea. The number of ships is one of the highest in Europe. Furthermore, the number of ships is estimated to double by 2030. Undoubtedly, due to the unbound character of noise, an efficient management of sound in the Baltic Sea must be done on a regional scale. In line with the European Union directive, the Baltic Sea Information on the Acoustic Soundscape (BIAS) project was established to implement Descriptor 11 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in the Baltic Sea region. BIAS will develop tools, standards, and methodologies that will allow for cross-border handling of data and results, measure sound in 40 locations for 1 year, establish a seasonal soundscape map by combining measured sound with advanced three-dimensional modeling, and, finally, establish standards for measuring continuous sound. Results from the first phase of BIAS are presented here, with an emphasis on standards and soundscape mapping as well as the challenges related to regional handling.

  9. FREQUENT CLONALITY IN FUCOIDS (FUCUS RADICANS AND FUCUS VESICULOSUS; FUCALES, PHAEOPHYCEAE) IN THE BALTIC SEA(1).

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Kerstin; Johansson, Daniel; Larsson, Karl H; Huenchuñir, Cecilia J; Perus, Jens; Forslund, Helena; Kautsky, Lena; Pereyra, Ricardo T

    2011-10-01

    Asexual reproduction by cloning may affect the genetic structure of populations, their potential to evolve, and, among foundation species, contributions to ecosystem functions. Macroalgae of the genus Fucus are known to produce attached plants only by sexual recruitment. Recently, however, clones of attached plants recruited by asexual reproduction were observed in a few populations of Fucus radicans Bergström et L. Kautsky and F. vesiculosus L. inside the Baltic Sea. Herein we assess the distribution and prevalence of clonality in Baltic fucoids using nine polymorphic microsatellite loci and samples of F. radicans and F. vesiculosus from 13 Baltic sites. Clonality was more common in F. radicans than in F. vesiculosus, and in both species it tended to be most common in northern Baltic sites, although variation among close populations was sometimes extensive. Individual clonal lineages were mostly restricted to single or nearby locations, but one clonal lineage of F. radicans dominated five of 10 populations and was widely distributed over 550 × 100 km of coast. Populations dominated by a few clonal lineages were common in F. radicans, and these were less genetically variable than in other populations. As thalli recruited by cloning produced gametes, a possible explanation for this reduced genetic variation is that dominance of one or a few clonal lineages biases the gamete pool resulting in a decreased effective population size and thereby loss of genetic variation by genetic drift. Baltic fucoids are important habitat-forming species, and genetic structure and presence of clonality have implications for conservation strategies. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  10. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-06

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants.

  11. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  12. Characteristics of the Baltic Sea Cold Intermediate Layer on the base of field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Olga; Chubarenko, Natalia; Chubarenko, Irina

    2010-05-01

    Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) is observed in the Baltic Sea deep areas (depth more than ~60 m) from March to September/October and is easily identifiable at depths 30-60 m by its low temperature (~2-4 C). The main objectives of the work were (i) to develop a criterion of allocation of the CIL in general thermo-haline structure, (ii) to define the CIL using this criterion on the basis of real field data for 2004-2006 years and (iii) to analyze a range of its characteristics (temperature, salinity, density, thickness, location, stability at interfaces, etc.) after those winters (of different severity). Even though cold intermediate layers are often found in inland seas with strong pycno/halocline (the Black Sea, the Marmara Sea, the Mediterranean), quite different criteria of their allocation are used. For the Baltic, there isn't commonly used criterion. It has been found most convenient to use the following one: the CIL in the Baltic Sea is to be defined as a layer between maximum negative and maximum positive temperature gradient within vertical water column. With this definition, allocation of the CIL on vertical temperature/salinity/density profiles was performed using field data obtained in 2005-2006 during cruises of r/v "Professor Stockman" (P.P.Shirshov Istitute of Oceanology RAS; data courtesy Dr.V.Paka, Dr.D.Dorohov) in the Baltic Sea coastal zone and of r/v "Gauss" (Baltic Sea Research Institute at Warnemuende; data courtesy Dr.R.Feistel) in the Baltic Proper. Analysis of mean annual data, published on CD with the book "State and Evolution of the Baltic Sea 1952-2005" (data of IOW), has demonstrated that from about 80 quadrates (1' x 1') of the Baltic Sea area, in 43 quadrates water temperature within the CIL is lower than the lowest water surface temperature. This shows that the CIL contains waters advected horizontally. In order to find spatial correlations, T-S analysis was applied, demonstrating that the CIL waters might drift from south-western rather

  13. Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L.; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2010-01-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity. PMID:20824189

  14. Environmental Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alma, Peter

    1995-04-01

    This series of A-level social biology topic books responds to the changing demands of social biology syllabuses, with each text dealing with a particular area of interest. Although the series is primarily intended for students of A-level social biology, the books will appeal to students studying a wide range of biological subjects at A-level. Environmental Concerns covers topics common to several A-level human and social biology syllabuses. It is particularly relevant to the human ecology and conservation options. The text focuses on the social and economic implications of current ecological issues as well as the basic biological concepts involved. It deals with the causes, effects and prevention of atmospheric and water pollution as well as with the disruption of ecosystems by changes in land use. The conflict of interests between conservation and exploitation is discussed, along with management techniques including the controversial method of culling to maintain diversity. The moral and aesthetic aspects of conservation and management are emphasised throughout, in addition to the scientific background of these techniques.

  15. Lack of recognition of genetic biodiversity: International policy and its implementation in Baltic Sea marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Laikre, Linda; Lundmark, Carina; Jansson, Eeva; Wennerström, Lovisa; Edman, Mari; Sandström, Annica

    2016-10-01

    Genetic diversity is needed for species' adaptation to changing selective pressures and is particularly important in regions with rapid environmental change such as the Baltic Sea. Conservation measures should consider maintaining large gene pools to maximize species' adaptive potential for long-term survival. In this study, we explored concerns regarding genetic variation in international and national policies that governs biodiversity and evaluated if and how such policy is put into practice in management plans governing Baltic Sea Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Sweden, Finland, Estonia, and Germany. We performed qualitative and quantitative textual analysis of 240 documents and found that agreed international and national policies on genetic biodiversity are not reflected in management plans for Baltic Sea MPAs. Management plans in all countries are largely void of goals and strategies for genetic biodiversity, which can partly be explained by a general lack of conservation genetics in policies directed toward aquatic environments.

  16. Baltic Eye: Focusing on Science and Communication to Improve Policy Making for the Baltic Sea Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrackin, M. L.

    2016-02-01

    In order to better communicate relevant scientific knowledge to policy- and decision makers, Stockholm University and the Baltic Sea 2020 Foundation partnered to create Baltic Eye in 2014. Seven scientists and two communicators constitute the core team of this initiative. The team integrates communications with scientific analysis and synthesis of Baltic Sea environmental issues. In the past year, the team has focused on two main issues: fisheries management and microplastics. Baltic Sea cod stocks are in poor condition, with large numbers of small individuals. Baltic Eye recommended improvements to the European Union's multiannual fisheries plan to better align with ecosystem-based management principles: prioritization of cod stock recovery, greater consideration of natural variability of temperature and salinity (which affects cod spawning success), and inclusion of mechanisms to adjust quotas in the event of major environmental changes. Communications included policy briefs and debate articles targeted to the European Parliament, national government ministries, and non-governmental organizations. Every year, up to 40 tons of microplastics from personal care products are released in the Baltic Sea catchment. Baltic Eye raised awareness of the issue and made recommended ways to reduce microplastic emissions. Communications included a public presentation to journalists, politicians, and representatives of Swedish government ministries. A policy brief was provided Heads of Delegates of the Helsinki Commission (for protrection of the Baltic Sea environment) in advance of a meeting to develop a plan of action for marine litter. Researchers were interviewed for radio, TV, and print media in Sweden, Finland, and Germany. Next steps are to engage with multinational manufacturers about plans to voluntarily phase out microplastics in personal care products.

  17. Baltic Eye: Focusing on Science and Communication to Improve Policy Making for the Baltic Sea Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrackin, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    In order to better communicate relevant scientific knowledge to policy- and decision makers, Stockholm University and the Baltic Sea 2020 Foundation partnered to create Baltic Eye in 2014. Seven scientists and two communicators constitute the core team of this initiative. The team integrates communications with scientific analysis and synthesis of Baltic Sea environmental issues. In the past year, the team has focused on two main issues: fisheries management and microplastics. Baltic Sea cod stocks are in poor condition, with large numbers of small individuals. Baltic Eye recommended improvements to the European Union's multiannual fisheries plan to better align with ecosystem-based management principles: prioritization of cod stock recovery, greater consideration of natural variability of temperature and salinity (which affects cod spawning success), and inclusion of mechanisms to adjust quotas in the event of major environmental changes. Communications included policy briefs and debate articles targeted to the European Parliament, national government ministries, and non-governmental organizations. Every year, up to 40 tons of microplastics from personal care products are released in the Baltic Sea catchment. Baltic Eye raised awareness of the issue and made recommended ways to reduce microplastic emissions. Communications included a public presentation to journalists, politicians, and representatives of Swedish government ministries. A policy brief was provided Heads of Delegates of the Helsinki Commission (for protrection of the Baltic Sea environment) in advance of a meeting to develop a plan of action for marine litter. Researchers were interviewed for radio, TV, and print media in Sweden, Finland, and Germany. Next steps are to engage with multinational manufacturers about plans to voluntarily phase out microplastics in personal care products.

  18. Practical applicability and preliminary results of the Baltic Environmental Satellite Remote Sensing System (SatBaltic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, B.; Ostrowska, M.; Bradtke, K.; Darecki, M.; Dera, J.; Dudzinska-Nowak, J.; Dzierzbicka, L.; Ficek, D.; Furmanczyk, K.; Kowalewski, M.; Krezel, A.; Majchrowski, R.; Paszkuta, M.; Ston-Egiert, J.; Stramska, M.; Zapadka, T.

    2012-04-01

    SatBaltic (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment) project is being realized in Poland by the SatBaltic Scientific Consortium, specifically appointed for this purpose, which associates four scientific institutions: the Institute of Oceanology PAN in Sopot - coordinator, the University of Gdańsk (Institute of Oceanography), the Pomeranian Academy in Słupsk (Institute of Physics) and the University of Szczecin (Institute of Marine Sciences). We present the first the results of the first year and a half of SatBaltic's implementation. The final result of the project is to be the creation and setting in motion of the SatBaltic Operational System (SBOS), the aim of which is to monitor effectively and comprehensively the state of the Baltic Sea environment using remote sensing techniques. Various aspects of the practical applicability of SBOS to the monitoring of the Baltic ecosystem are discussed. We present some examples of the maps of the various characteristics of the Baltic obtained using the current version of SBOS, including algorithms and models that are still in an unfinished state. At the current stage of research, these algorithms apply mainly to the characteristics of the solar energy influx and the distribution of this energy among the various processes taking place in the atmosphere-sea system, and also to the radiation balance of the sea surface, the irradiance conditions for photosynthesis and the condition of plant communities in the water, sea surface temperature distributions and some other marine phenomena correlated with this temperature. Also given are results of preliminary inspections of the accuracy of the magnitudes shown on the maps.

  19. The Baltic haline conveyor belt or the overturning circulation and mixing in the Baltic.

    PubMed

    Döös, Kristofer; Meier, H E Markus; Döscher, Ralf

    2004-06-01

    A study of the water-mass circulation of the Baltic has been undertaken by making use of a three dimensional Baltic Sea model simulation. The saline water from the North Atlantic is traced through the Danish Sounds into the Baltic where it upwells and mixes with the fresh water inflow from the rivers forming a Baltic haline conveyor belt. The mixing of the saline water from the Great Belt and Oresund with the fresh water is investigated making use of overturning stream functions and Lagrangian trajectories. The overturning stream function was calculated as a function of four different vertical coordinates (depth, salinity, temperature and density) in order to understand the path of the water and where it upwells and mixes. Evidence of a fictive depth overturning cell similar to the Deacon Cell in the Southern Ocean was found in the Baltic proper corresponding to the gyre circulation around Gotland, which vanishes when the overturning stream function is projected on density layers. A Lagrangian trajectory study was performed to obtain a better view of the circulation and mixing of the saline and fresh waters. The residence time of the water masses in the Baltic is calculated to be 26-29 years and the Lagrangian dispersion reaches basin saturation after 5 years.

  20. The fish in the turtle: on the functionality of the oropharynx in the common musk turtle Sternotherus odoratus (Chelonia, Kinosternidae) concerning feeding and underwater respiration.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Egon; Natchev, Nikolay; Beisser, Christian; Lemell, Patrick; Weisgram, Josef

    2010-08-01

    In tetrapods, the oropharyngeal cavity and its anatomical structures are mainly, but not exclusively, responsible for the uptake and intraoral transport of food. In this study, we provide structural evidence for a second function of the oropharynx in the North American common musk turtle, Sternotherus odoratus, Kinosternidae: aquatic gas exchange. Using high-speed video, we demonstrate that S. odoratus can grasp food on land by its jaws, but is afterward incapable of lingual based intraoral transport; food is always lost during such an attempt. Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy reveal that the reason for this is a poorly developed tongue. Although small, the tongue bears a variety of lobe-like papillae, which might be misinterpreted as an adaptation for terrestrial food uptake. Similar papillae also cover most of the oropharynx. They are highly vascularized as shown by light microscopy and may play an important role in aquatic gas exchange. The vascularization of the oropharyngeal papillae in S. odoratus is then compared with that in Emys orbicularis, an aquatic emydid with similar ecology but lacking the ability of underwater respiration. Oropharyngeal papillae responsible for aquatic respiration are also found in soft-shelled turtles (Trionychidae), the putative sister group of the kinosternids. This trait could therefore represent a shared, ancestral character of both groups involving advantages in the aquatic environment they inhabit.

  1. Seeds of Failure in Colbert's Baltic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Richard William

    1984-01-01

    This investigation of French mercantilist initiatives and policies in the seventeenth century focuses on the attempts of Colbert, the controller general of finance to Louis XIV, to stimulate French trade with the Baltic by establishing a Company of the North. (RM)

  2. DMI's Baltic Sea Coastal operational forecasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murawski, Jens; Berg, Per; Weismann Poulsen, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Operational forecasting is challenged with bridging the gap between the large scales of the driving weather systems and the local, human scales of the model applications. The limit of what can be represented by local model has been continuously shifted to higher and higher spatial resolution, with the aim to better resolve the local dynamic and to make it possible to describe processes that could only be parameterised in older versions, with the ultimate goal to improve the quality of the forecast. Current hardware trends demand a str onger focus on the development of efficient, highly parallelised software and require a refactoring of the code with a solid focus on portable performance. The gained performance can be used for running high resolution model with a larger coverage. Together with the development of efficient two-way nesting routines, this has made it possible to approach the near-coastal zone with model applications that can run in a time effective way. Denmarks Meteorological Institute uses the HBM(1) ocean circulation model for applications that covers the entire Baltic Sea and North Sea with an integrated model set-up that spans the range of horizontal resolution from 1nm for the entire Baltic Sea to approx. 200m resolution in local fjords (Limfjord). For the next model generation, the high resolution set-ups are going to be extended and new high resolution domains in coastal zones are either implemented or tested for operational use. For the first time it will be possible to cover large stretches of the Baltic coastal zone with sufficiently high resolution to model the local hydrodynamic adequately. (1) HBM stands for HIROMB-BOOS-Model, whereas HIROMB stands for "High Resolution Model for the Baltic Sea" and BOOS stands for "Baltic Operational Oceanography System".

  3. LGBT Caregiver Concerns

    MedlinePlus

    LGBT CAREGIVER CONCERNS IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS FOR LGBT CAREGIVERS LGBT CAREGIVER CONSIDERATIONS As a caregiver for someone with Alzheimer’s disease, you will face various challenges. Some are common among all ...

  4. Framing environmental risks in the Baltic Sea: a news media analysis.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Anna Maria

    2011-03-01

    Scientific complexity and uncertainty is a key challenge for environmental risk governance and to understand how risks are framed and communicated is of utmost importance. The Baltic Sea ecosystem is stressed and exposed to different risks like eutrophication, overfishing, and hazardous chemicals. Based on an analysis of the Swedish newspaper Dagens Nyheter, this study discusses media representations of these risks. The results show that the reporting on the Baltic Sea has been fairly stable since the beginning of the 1990s. Many articles acknowledge several risks, but eutrophication receives the most attention and is also considered the biggest threat. Authorities, experts, organizations, and politicians are the dominating actors, while citizens and industry representatives are more or less invisible. Eutrophication is not framed in terms of uncertainty concerning the risk and consequences, but rather in terms of main causes.

  5. Eutrophication assessment of the Baltic Sea Protected Areas by available data and GIS technologies.

    PubMed

    Ranft, Susanne; Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried; Boedeker, Dieter; Paulomäki, Hanna; Fagerli, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Concerning increased degradation of marine ecosystems, there is a great political and institutional demand for an array of different tools to restore a good environmental status. Thereby, eutrophication is acknowledged as one of the major human induced stressors which has to be monitored and reduced. The present study concentrates on an assessment of the eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea Protected Areas by use of available data and GIS technologies. Two geodata layers were used for analysis: (1) a map on the eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea generated by the Helsinki Commission applying the HELCOM Eutrophication Assessment Tool (HEAT), and (2) modelled data on atmospheric nitrogen deposition made available by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The results yielded comprehensive and conclusive data indicating that most of the BSPAs may be classified as being 'affected by eutrophication' and underlining the need to decrease the overall emissions of nutrients.

  6. The use of bathymetric data in society and science: a review from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hell, Benjamin; Broman, Barry; Jakobsson, Lars; Jakobsson, Martin; Magnusson, Ake; Wiberg, Patrik

    2012-03-01

    Bathymetry, the underwater topography, is a fundamental property of oceans, seas, and lakes. As such it is important for a wide range of applications, like physical oceanography, marine geology, geophysics and biology or the administration of marine resources. The exact requirements users may have regarding bathymetric data are, however, unclear. Here, the results of a questionnaire survey and a literature review are presented, concerning the use of Baltic Sea bathymetric data in research and for societal needs. It is demonstrated that there is a great need for detailed bathymetric data. Despite the abundance of high-quality bathymetric data that are produced for safety of navigation purposes, the digital bathymetric models publicly available to date cannot satisfy this need. Our study shows that DBMs based on data collected for safety of navigation could substantially improve the base data for administrative decision making as well as the possibilities for marine research in the Baltic Sea.

  7. Wind Wave Climate of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, Alisa

    2017-04-01

    Storms in the Baltic Sea in autumn and winter are very frequent. In this research the goal is to estimate decadal and interannual changes of the wave fields for the entire Baltic Sea. The wave parameters, such as significant wave heights and periods, were simulated for the period 1979-2015 years based on NCEP/CFSR Reanalysis data fields and for the period 1948-2010 years based on NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data. For accuracy estimation of the model the statistical characteristics, such as correlation coefficient, bias, scatter index and RMSE were calculated. Also two computational meshes were compared: rectangular and triangulated. In this study the third generation spectral wind-wave model SWAN was used for simulations. For wind input data two types of wind reanalysis were chosen: NCEP/CFSR with 1-hour time step and NCEP/NCAR with time step of 6 hours. The final computational grid for rectangular mesh for the Baltic Sea is 0.05×0.05°. The simulated data were compared with instrumental data of the Sweden buoys and of the acoustic wave recorder fixed at the Russian oil platform. The results reveal that for the Baltic Sea it is more efficient to use rectangular mesh for the deep open area and irregular mesh near the coast. Simulations using wind data from NCEP/NCAR significantly decreases the quality of the results compared with NCEP/CFSR wind data: Bias increases in 10 times (-0.730), RMSE - in 2-3 times (0.89). The following results of numerical modeling using NCEP/NCAR the storm situations, when the significant wave height exceeded 2 meters, were identified for the 63-year period. An average of about 50 storms per year happened in the Baltic Sea in this time period. The storminess of the Baltic Sea tends to increase. The twenty-year periodicity with the increase in the 70-s and 90-s years of XX century was revealed. The average yearly significant wave height increases in the second part of the century too and differs from 2.4 to 3.3 m. Storm cyclones are connected

  8. Introduction for the SI "Understanding the Baltic Sea"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikauniece, Anda; Markus Meier, H. E.; Kalniņa, Laimdota

    2017-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea with a low salinity, slow water exchange and distinguished stratification. Natural properties of the Baltic thus promote development of anoxic areas at the deepest parts of the sea. In addition, the coasts of the Baltic Sea are heavily populated - 85 million inhabitants living in the drainage basin and 9 countries surrounding the sea, most of them highly industrially developed. Anthropogenic activities consequently add considerable pressure on the already vulnerable environment of the sea. Eutrophication, over-fishing and changed food-web, oil pollution, occurrence of hazardous substances, damage of seafloor by trawling and construction works are all present in the Baltic Sea.

  9. Biotope map of the German Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Kerstin S; Darr, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L; Friedland, René; Tauber, Franz; von Weber, Mario; Voss, Joachim

    2015-07-15

    Full-coverage maps on the distribution of marine biotopes are a necessary basis for Nature Conservation and Marine Spatial Planning. Yet biotope maps do not exist in many regions. We are generating the first full-coverage biotope map for the German Baltic Sea according to the HELCOM Underwater biotope and habitat classification system (HUB). Species distribution modelling is applied to create full-coverage spatial information of biological features. The results of biomass modelling of twelve target taxa and presence/absence modelling of three target taxa enabled the identification of biological levels up to HUB level 6. Environmental data on bathymetry, light penetration depth and substrate are used to identify habitat levels. HUB biotope levels were combined with HUB habitat levels to create a biotope map. Altogether, 68 HUB biotopes are identified in the German Baltic Sea. The new biotope map combining substrate characteristics and biological communities will facilitate marine management in the area.

  10. The Baltic Inflow Event 2014 and its Biogeochemical Response in the Anoxic Central Baltic Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz-Bull, D. E.; Naumann, M.; Mohrholz, V.; Nausch, G.; Prien, R. D.

    2016-02-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea and the deeper anoxic basins in the central parts are occasionally ventilated by the intrusion of high saline and oxygen rich water from the North Atlantic entering the Baltic Sea. With a volume of 198 km3 containing 4 Gt salt, the inflow event in 2014 was the third largest ever observed. As a result the redox conditions in the anoxic parts of the Baltic Sea changed. In the Bornholm Basin and the Gotland Deep area the biogeochemical conditions for many elements and redox sensitive substances changed crucial by the inflow water. Oxidation of the hydrogen sulfide and consequent changes in the pH and the carbonate system were observed. Other chemicals such as the nitrogen nutrients, phosphate, trace metals and the dissolved organic matter react with the fresh inflow water ingredients. The chronological sequence of the biogeochemical reactions following the inflow event where monitored by autonomous stations and several ship expeditions in high spatial and temporal resolution.

  11. Reduction of Baltic Sea nutrient inputs and allocation of abatement costs within the Baltic Sea catchment.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Fredrik; Humborg, Christoph; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viesturs; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Smart, James C R; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per; Swaney, Dennis P; Thodsen, Hans; Was, Adam; Zylicz, Tomasz

    2014-02-01

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, which means that the nutrient reduction goals of 135 000 tons N and 15 000 tons P, as formulated in the BSAP from 2007, correspond to a reduction in nutrient loadings to watersheds by 675 000 tons N and 158 000 tons P. A cost-minimization model was used to allocate nutrient reductions to measures and countries where the costs for reducing loads are low. The minimum annual cost to meet BSAP basin targets is estimated to 4.7 billion Euro.

  12. Challenges for the Baltic Sea Regional Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Pacific region, Europeans, especially the Baltic States, are left anxious about the future . Downsizing U.S. military forces in Europe might have a...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Word Count: 6677 14. ABSTRACT U.S. military presence in Europe after World War II played a significant role in maintaining...deterrence against Soviet expansion and influence in Western Europe during the Cold War. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, most European countries

  13. Cultural Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on cultural concerns in human resource development (HRD). "Race, Gender, and Mentoring Patterns" (Linda M. Hite) examines mentoring patterns and opportunities among black female professionals and reports results reinforcing the need for increased availability of same-sex, same-race mentors in…

  14. The costs of meeting the environmental objectives for the Baltic Sea: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Elofsson, Katarina

    2010-02-01

    The environmental targets of the recently agreed Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) targets are likely associated with a considerable cost, which motivates a search for low-cost policies. The following review shows there is a substantial literature on cost-efficient nutrient reduction strategies, including suggestions regarding low-cost abatement, but actual policies at international and national scale tend to be considerably more expensive due to lack of instruments that ensure a cost-efficient allocation of abatement across countries and sectors. Economic research on the costs of reducing hazardous substances and oil spill damages in the Baltic Sea is not available, but lessons from the international literature suggest that resources could be used more efficiently if appropriate analysis is undertaken. Common to these pollution problems is the need to ensure that all countries in the region are provided with positive incentives to implement international agreements.

  15. Iodine isotopes (129I and 127I) in the Baltic Proper, Kattegat, and Skagerrak basins.

    PubMed

    Yi, P; Aldahan, A; Hansen, V; Possnert, G; Hou, X L

    2011-02-01

    Radioactive anthropogenic pollution has raised concerns about the present and future environmental status of the semienclosed Baltic Sea. We here study the distribution and inventory of the anthropogenic radioactive (129)I in water depth profiles collected from 16 sites in August 2006 and 19 sites in April 2007 in the Baltic Proper and related Kattegat and Skagerrak basins. The results reveal considerable differences of (129)I concentration in terms of spatial and temporal variability and expose relatively high concentrations in the deep waters. Variability in the concentration of (127)I, stable natural isotope of iodine, seems to follow changes in the seawater salinity, but in oxygen-poor bottom waters sediment diagenetic release may contribute to the concentration of both isotopes in the water body. Inventory estimates show that (129)I in August 2006 (24.2 ± 15.4 kg) is higher than that in April 2007 (14.4 ± 8.3 kg) within the southern and central Baltic Proper whereas almost a constant load occurs in the Kattegat Basin. Calculated model inventory shows correspondence to empirical data and provides a guideline for future environmental assessment on the impact of (129)I load in the studied region.

  16. Contaminant exposure and effects in Baltic ringed and grey seals as assessed by biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Madeleine; Bergknut, Magnus; Fant, Marie Louise; Raunio, Hannu; Jestoi, Marika; Bengs, Charlotta; Murk, Albertinka; Koistinen, Jaana; Bäckman, Christina; Pelkonen, Olavi; Tysklind, Mats; Hirvi, Timo; Helle, Eero

    2003-02-01

    The Baltic Sea ecosystem has suffered from a heavy pollutant load for more than three decades. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals have been of most concern due to their persistence and toxic properties. Ringed seals (Phoca hispida baltica) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) living in the Baltic Sea have been suffering from pathological impairments, including reproductive disturbances, which have resulted in a depressed reproductive capacity. We investigated several biochemical parameters as potential biomarkers for exposure to and effects of the contaminant load in the Baltic seals. Seals from less polluted areas were used as reference material in terms of the pollution load. In both Baltic seal populations, the levels of some biochemical parameters diverged from those in the reference seals, and some of these showed a clear correlation with the individual contaminant load. Of the potential bioindicators, we propose cytochrome P4501A activity and vitamin E levels, in blubber or plasma, as exposure biomarkers for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in both species. The arylhydrocarbon receptor-mediated chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) response reflects the whole PCB and DDT burden in ringed seals. Retinyl palmitate (vitamin A) levels showed a negative correlation with the individual POP load, and is proposed as potential effect biomarkers for the depletion of the vitamin A stores. As the nutritional levels of both vitamin A and E have an impact on the vitamin levels in the seals, more information on the dietary vitamin levels is needed before any conclusions can be drawn. As the relationship between biochemical parameters and contaminants varied between the two species, species-specific characteristics has to be considered when monitoring the health status and possible toxic effects of the contaminant load in ringed and grey seals.

  17. Sex-specific distribution and diet of Platichthys flesus at the end of spawning in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Borg, J P G; Westerbom, M; Lehtonen, H

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the relationship of seascape structure, prey availability and sex on the post-spawning distribution and diet of European flounder Platichthys flesus in the northern Baltic Sea. The objectives were to determine whether: (1) wave exposure and substratum affect abundance and distribution of P. flesus, (2) diet reflects the benthic prey composition and (3) sex affects the distribution or diet of P. flesus. The results showed that P. flesus was evenly spread in the archipelago with no correlation to wave exposure. The distribution was, however, sex specific; reproductive males dominated the exposed zone and mainly post-reproductive females dominated the intermediate and sheltered zones. Platichthys flesus fed mainly on two bivalve prey species: blue mussels Mytilus edulis and Baltic tellins Macoma balthica. Hard substratum invertebrates dominated the diet in all habitats and apart from some typical soft substratum species, there was no clear link between fish feeding and the dominance structure of benthic prey. Diet was further sex specific, with females showing a broader range of diet than males. Results suggest that P. flesus is a specialist molluscivore found commonly and equally in soft- and hard-substratum habitats throughout the archipelago area. Previous studies on P. flesus in the Baltic Sea have yielded inconsistent results regarding diet and it has commonly been believed that the distribution of Baltic Sea P. flesus is linked to sand and soft substrata. The present findings emphasize the importance of including the entire range of habitats when diet and regional species distributions are assessed.

  18. What can ARGO's tell us on the processes in Baltic Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiha, Petra; Siiriä, Simo-Matti; Nummelin, Aleksi; Aro, Eemeli; Purokoski, Tero

    2014-05-01

    Finnish Meteorological Institute has been testing ARGO floats in the Baltic Sea as a mean for collecting data from the sea areas that are not easily reachable by research vessels or remote sensing. The observational data for Baltic Sea off-shore areas is very sparse and new observational methods are needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge and collect new data for different purposes, such as, operational activities, modelling and ocean science. The ARGO floats have been used successfully in the deep oceans. However, applying the ARGO floats in Baltic Sea is not straight forward, as the conditions differ greatly: the water is brackish, some areas are heavily trafficked and the northern parts freeze during the winter. In addition, the mean depth is only 54 metres, which is only a fraction of depths where ARGO floats have commonly been used. FMI has deployed three ARGO floats in Baltic Sea for different missions. The first ARGO was deployed in 2012 with normal diving algorithm, which checks the pressure hourly. The second float was modified by Aalto University so that the algorithm checks the pressure every 15 minutes. The first float was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013 and it measured over 200 profiles during its half year mission. The float with faster pressure detection was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013, and during it's 4 month mission it measured succesfully over 120 profiles. Another, longer test is ongoing on Eastern Gotland basin, where another ARGO float was deployed at Aug 2013, and still measures at Jan 2014. This one differs from earlier experiments as it has additional oxygen and scattering meters, also the area of measurements is deeper (200+ meters). The missions so far indicate, that with proper control and monitoring, ARGO's can be operated, and can measure long series of profiles. In addition to the actual measurements, the movement of ARGO floats gives possibilities to analyse currents in deeper areas of Baltic, and help

  19. The challenge of bridging science and policy in the Baltic Sea eutrophication governance in Finland: the perspective of science.

    PubMed

    Pihlajamäki, Mia; Tynkkynen, Nina

    2011-03-01

    This article examines the views of scientists on intricacies of scientific knowledge that affect science-policy interface in the Baltic Sea eutrophication governance in Finland. The analysis demonstrates that these intricacies can be divided into five categories: (1) uncertainty of knowledge concerning ecological processes, (2) heterogeneity of knowledge, (3) societal and political call for (certain) knowledge, (4) contingency of the knowledge that ends up taken as a baseline for decision making and further research, and (5) linkages of knowledge production, processing, and communication to particular characteristics of individual researchers and research societies. By explicating these aspects, this article illustrates the ways in which scientific knowledge concerning eutrophication is human-bound and susceptible to interpretation, thus adding on to the uncertainty of the Baltic Sea environmental governance. The aim is, then, to open up perspectives on how ambiguities related to science-policy interface could be coped with.

  20. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  1. Giving advice on cost effective measures for a cleaner Baltic Sea: a challenge for science.

    PubMed

    Wulff, F; Bonsdorff, E; Gren, I M; Johansson, S; Stigebrandt, A

    2001-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of the world's seas that is most severely affected by human activities. Although there is an international agreement that nutrient input to the Baltic should be reduced, the measures taken so far have not resulted in major reductions in nutrient inputs nor in environmental improvements. The reasons for this are partly due to lack of knowledge on large-scale relationships and couplings between physics, biogeochemistry and ecological properties. But there is also a lack of overall drainage basin-wide analyses on cost-effective measures. There is a danger in making the wrong decisions, e.g. implement reduction schemes that are at worst ineffective or at best, far from cost effective. Researchers from many disciplines are faced with a common challenge: To develop a decision-support system, which can be used as the scientific base for cost-effective measures for the entire Baltic Sea. Such an effort is now being made within the research program MARE (http://www.mare.su.se).

  2. Ice formation and growth shape bacterial community structure in Baltic Sea drift ice.

    PubMed

    Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Lyra, Christina; Rintala, Janne-Markus; Jürgens, Klaus; Ikonen, Vilma; Kaartokallio, Hermanni

    2015-02-01

    Drift ice, open water and under-ice water bacterial communities covering several developmental stages from open water to thick ice were studied in the northern Baltic Sea. The bacterial communities were assessed with 16S rRNA gene terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning, together with bacterial abundance and production measurements. In the early stages, open water and pancake ice were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, which are common bacterial groups in Baltic Sea wintertime surface waters. The pancake ice bacterial communities were similar to the open-water communities, suggesting that the parent water determines the sea-ice bacterial community in the early stages of sea-ice formation. In consolidated young and thick ice, the bacterial communities were significantly different from water bacterial communities as well as from each other, indicating community development in Baltic Sea drift ice along with ice-type changes. The thick ice was dominated by typical sea-ice genera from classes Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, similar to those in polar sea-ice bacterial communities. Since the thick ice bacterial community was remarkably different from that of the parent seawater, results indicate that thick ice bacterial communities were recruited from the rarer members of the seawater bacterial community.

  3. Occurrence of Plasmids in the Aromatic Degrading Bacterioplankton of the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Jutkina, Jekaterina; Heinaru, Eeva; Vedler, Eve; Juhanson, Jaanis; Heinaru, Ain

    2011-01-01

    Plasmids are mobile genetic elements that provide their hosts with many beneficial traits including in some cases the ability to degrade different aromatic compounds. To fulfill the knowledge gap regarding catabolic plasmids of the Baltic Sea water, a total of 209 biodegrading bacterial strains were isolated and screened for the presence of these mobile genetic elements. We found that both large and small plasmids are common in the cultivable Baltic Sea bacterioplankton and are particularly prevalent among bacterial genera Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. Out of 61 plasmid-containing strains (29% of all isolates), 34 strains were found to carry large plasmids, which could be associated with the biodegradative capabilities of the host bacterial strains. Focusing on the diversity of IncP-9 plasmids, self-transmissible m-toluate (TOL) and salicylate (SAL) plasmids were detected. Sequencing the repA gene of IncP-9 carrying isolates revealed a high diversity within IncP-9 plasmid family, as well as extended the assumed bacterial host species range of the IncP-9 representatives. This study is the first insight into the genetic pool of the IncP-9 catabolic plasmids in the Baltic Sea bacterioplankton. PMID:24710296

  4. Astaxanthin dynamics in Baltic Sea mesozooplankton communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeijs, Pauline; Häubner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The red pigment astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant, which occurs in eggs and body tissues of crustaceans and fish. It is produced by crustaceans from algal carotenoids. In a two-year field study we assessed natural concentrations and dynamics of astaxanthin in mesozooplankton communities in the brackish Baltic Sea area. Astaxanthin levels varied between 0.37 and 36 ng L- 1. They increased with salinity along the Baltic Sea gradient and were linked to zooplankton biomass and phytoplankton community composition. Astaxanthin concentrations showed typical seasonal patterns and varied from 0.2 to 5.1 ng ind- 1, 0.2 to 3.4 ng (μg C)- 1 and 6 to 100 ng mm- 3. These concentrations were inversely related to water temperature and strongly linked to zooplankton community composition. Communities dominated by the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus acuspes and Eurytemora spp. generally held the highest concentrations. With increasing cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios community astaxanthin concentrations decreased and with higher relative biomass of Acartia spp. the proportion of astaxanthin diesters decreased. Diesters prevailed in the cold season and they are thought to improve the antioxidant protection of storage lipids during winter. Climate change causes higher temperature and lower salinity in the Baltic Sea proper. This modifies zooplankton community composition, but not necessarily into a community with lower concentrations of astaxanthin since T. longicornis (high concentrations) has been reported to increase with higher temperature. However, decreased astaxanthin production in the ecosystem is expected if a basin-wide increase in the cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios would occur with further climate change.

  5. Bathymetry of four deep Baltic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reissmann, Jan H.

    1999-12-01

    Extensive hydrographic field campaigns were carried out by the Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemuende (IOW) in four deep basins of the Baltic Sea during different seasons from 1996 to 1999. The spreading and transformation of dense deep water was studied using a fixed eddy-resolving station grid within the framework of the German-Russian project MESODYN (meso scale dynamics). The station spacing of each survey was 2.5 nm, which corresponds to a station distance of 2.5’ meridionally and about 4.5’ zonally. Using the Global Positioning System (GPS) for navigation, statistical uncertainties of the mean ship position during station work are on the order of ± 37 m in each direction. In this way, shipborne echosounders provided representative topographic data sets for the deepest parts of the Arkona Basin, the Bornholm Basin, the Stolpe Furrow and the Eastern Gotland Basin. The absolute accuracy of water depths lies in the range of ± 1 m while its spatially determined mean standard deviation does not exceed ± 0.2 m in each survey. The resulting topographic maps are presented. Derived direction tendencies of deep circulation patterns result from conservation of their potential vorticity above topographic irregularities. Resulting vectors suggest a permanent tendency for cyclonic circulation within all four deep Baltic basins. The most intense topographic control of the deep circulation must be expected above both the eastern and western flanks of the Eastern Gotland Basin. Beneath closed bathymetric contours, depthareavolume relationships have been estimated numerically to characterise the storage capacity of each basin for dense deep water.

  6. The Baltic: A Sea in Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Stealth Craft," Jane’s Defence Weekly, 30 March 1991. Reed, Carol, "The EC’s Security Options," Jane’s Defence Weekly, 27 July 1991. Remnick , David ...year, passing through the Danish Straits. (Garde, 1989, p. 35) A brief look at any world history book would suggest that peace in the region might not...Carl, "Submarine Incursions: Sweden Fights Back," Jane’s Naval Review, Fourth Year, Jane’s Publishing Ltd, 1985. Binder, David , "Baltics Are Gaining

  7. RNA:DNA ratios of Baltic Sea herring larvae and copepods in embayment and open sea habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höök, Tomas O.; Gorokhova, Elena; Hansson, Sture

    2008-01-01

    Elucidation of important nursery habitats for young fish can aid in the management and assessment of fish stocks. Herring ( Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea primarily spawn in coastal areas, but larvae are also present in off-shore, open sea areas. To investigate if sheltered coastal habitats provide a better growth environment for larval herring, we compared short-term growth (as indexed by whole body RNA:DNA ratios) of larval herring from three habitat types of the northwest Baltic proper (sheltered inner bay, exposed outer bay, and open sea). In addition, we compared individual RNA content of adult female Eurytemora affinis (a common Baltic copepod) among these different habitats. High RNA levels in these copepods indicate high production of nauplii, which are important food for larval herring. Both RNA:DNA ratios of larval herring and RNA content of E. affinis were significantly greater in embayment habitats, suggesting that the sheltered coastal areas are high quality nursery habitats for young Baltic herring.

  8. Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and their main food, Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus × Mytilus edulis).

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin; Chen, Vivian Lindberg; Larsson, Kjell; Bergman, Åke; Asplund, Lillemor

    2016-02-01

    Long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) that breed in northern Europe and western Siberia and commonly winter in the Baltic Sea, are threatened by a significant population decrease. The ducks are, by primarily feeding on Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus × Mytilus edulis) while wintering in the Baltic Sea, potentially subjected to high levels of toxic hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). To assess long-tailed ducks exposure to polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), their methylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), livers of ten long-tailed ducks wintering in the Baltic Sea were analysed. Pattern and levels of analytes in long-tailed ducks (liver) and blue mussels sampled in March and May at nine sites in the Baltic Sea were compared. The geometric mean concentration (ng/g l.w.) in livers of long-tailed ducks and Baltic blue mussels were: Σ(2)PBPs: 0.57 and 48; Σ(2)PBAs: 0.83 and 11; Σ(7)OH-PBDEs: 6.1 and 45; Σ(7)MeO-PBDEs: 3.8 and 69; Σ(7)PBDEs: 8.0 and 7.2, respectively. Based on an estimated daily intake of 450 g fresh blue mussel meat, long-tailed ducks daily dietary intake of brominated substances while foraging in the Baltic Sea in March-May was estimated to; 390 ng Σ(2)PBPs, 90 ng Σ(2)PBAs, 370 ng Σ(7)OH-PBDEs, 590 ng Σ(7)MeO-PBDEs and 59 ng Σ(7)PBDEs. The low levels of PBPs, PBAs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in the long-tailed duck livers compared to blue mussel, despite a continuous daily intake, suggest that these compounds are poorly retained in long-tailed ducks. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. An Earth System Science Program for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, H. E. M.; Rutgersson, A.; Reckermann, M.

    2014-04-01

    From Russia in the east to Sweden, Denmark, and Germany in the west, reaching south to the tips of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Ukraine, the Baltic Sea watershed drains nearly 20% of Europe (see Figure 1). In the highly populated south, the temperate climate hosts intensive agriculture and industry. In the north, the landscape is boreal and rural. In the Baltic Sea itself, complex bathymetry and stratification patterns as well as extended hypoxic and anoxic deep waters add to the diversity. Yet in recent history, the differences across the Baltic Sea region have been more than physical: In the mid-20th century, the watershed was split in two.

  10. Migration waves to the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, T; Laitinen, V; Salmela, E; Andersen, P; Huoponen, K; Savontaus, M-L; Lahermo, P

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the population history of the Baltic Sea region, known to be affected by a variety of migrations and genetic barriers, was analyzed using both mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal data. Over 1200 samples from Finland, Sweden, Karelia, Estonia, Setoland, Latvia and Lithuania were genotyped for 18 Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms and 9 STRs, in addition to analyzing 17 coding region polymorphisms and the HVS1 region from the mtDNA. It was shown that the populations surrounding the Baltic Sea are genetically similar, which suggests that it has been an important route not only for cultural transmission but also for population migration. However, many of the migrations affecting the area from Central Europe, the Volga-Ural region and from Slavic populations have had a quantitatively different impact on the populations, and, furthermore, the effects of genetic drift have increased the differences between populations especially in the north. The possible explanations for the high frequencies of several haplogroups with an origin in the Iberian refugia (H1, U5b, I1a) are also discussed.

  11. Hydrogeological model of the Baltic Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virbulis, Janis; Bethers, Uldis; Saks, Tomas; Sennikovs, Juris; Timuhins, Andrejs

    2013-06-01

    The Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB) is a complex multi-layered hydrogeological system in the south-eastern Baltic covering about 480,000 km2. The aim of this study is to develop a closed hydrogeological mathematical model for the BAB. Heterogeneous geological data from different sources were used to build the geometry of the model, i.e. geological maps and stratigraphic information from around 20,000 boreholes. The finite element method was used for the calculation of the steady-state three-dimensional (3D) flow of unconfined groundwater. The 24-layer model was divided into about 1,000,000 finite elements. A simple recharge model was applied to describe the rate of infiltration, and the discharge was set at the water-supply wells. Variable hydraulic conductivities were used for the upper (Quaternary) deposits, while constant hydraulic conductivity values were assumed for the deeper layers. The model was calibrated on the statistically weighted borehole water-level measurements, applying L-BFGS-B (automatic parameter optimization method) for the hydraulic conductivities of each layer. The principal flows inside the BAB and the integral flow parameters were analyzed. The modeling results suggest that deeper aquifers are characterized by strong southeast-northwest groundwater flow, which is altered by the local topography in the upper, active water-exchange aquifers.

  12. Pole tide in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, I. P.; Rabinovich, A. B.; Kulikov, E. A.

    2014-03-01

    The pole tide, which is driven by the Chandler Wobble, has a period of about 14 months and typical amplitudes in the World Ocean of ˜0.5 cm. However, in the Baltic Sea the pole tide is anomalously high. To examine this effect we used long-term hourly sea level records from 23 tide gauges and monthly records from 64 stations. The lengths of the series were up to 123 years for hourly records and 211 years for monthly records. High-resolution spectra revealed a cluster of neighboring peaks with periods from 410 to 440 days. The results of spectral analysis were applied to estimate the integral amplitudes of pole tides from all available tide gauges along the coast of the Baltic Sea. The height of the pole tide was found to gradually increase from the entrance (Danish Straits, 1.5-2 cm) to the northeast end of the sea. The largest amplitudes—up to 4.5-7 cm—were observed in the heads of the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia. Significant temporal fluctuations in amplitudes and periods of the pole tide were observed during the 19th and 20th centuries.

  13. CLIMLINK: Climate forcing factors for marine environmental change during the mid- and late Holocene - a link between the NE Atlantic and the Baltic Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polovodova Asteman, Irina; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Bąk, Małgorzata; Binczewska, Anna; Borówka, Ryszard; Dobosz, Sławomir; Jansen, Eystein; Kaniak, Aleksandra; Moros, Matthias; Perner, Kerstin; Sławinska, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has a strong amplifying effect on the environment of marginal seas such as the Baltic Sea. Owing to the connection of the Baltic Sea with the Atlantic (and the resultant pathway of water exchange via the narrow Danish Straits), changes in the Baltic region are suggested to be driven by external oceanic and atmospheric forcing originating in the Atlantic, particularly in the eastern Nordic seas, the Skagerrak, and the Kattegat. CLIMLINK aims to reconstruct mid- to late Holocene ecosystem changes in these regions and identify linkages, common forcing factors and effects for the Baltic Sea on a millennial to decadal time scale. High-resolution sediment records from selected key sites in the Norwegian Trench, and central Baltic Sea are studied by using a multi-proxy approach. Micropalaeontological studies of diatoms and foraminifera are combined with geochemical proxies, such as stable isotopes, Mg/Ca, TOC, TIC, C/N, XRF and magnetic susceptibility in order to achieve a more comprehensive view on environmental changes during the last 6000 to 8000 years. The chronology of the sediment cores is secured by using multiple dating tools: Hg-pollution records, 137Cs, 210Pb, 14C and tephra layers. Herein we present the initial results of the project.

  14. Contracaecum osculatum and other anisakid nematodes in grey seals and cod in the Baltic Sea: molecular and ecological links.

    PubMed

    Zuo, S; Kania, P W; Mehrdana, F; Marana, M H; Buchmann, K

    2017-01-26

    Populations of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), sprats (Sprattus sprattus) and cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea are relatively stationary. The present work, applying classical and molecular helminthological techniques, documents that seals and cod also share a common parasite, the anisakid nematode Contracaecum osculatum, which uses seals as the final host and fish as transport hosts. Sequencing mitochondrial genes (COX1 and COX2) in adult worms from seals and third-stage larvae from livers of Baltic fish (sprats and cod), showed that all gene variants occur in both seals and fish. Other anisakid nematodes Pseudoterranova decipiens and Anisakis simplex are also found in both seals and cod in the Baltic Sea, but at much lower rates. The Baltic grey seal population was left at a critically low level (comprising a few hundred individuals) during the latter part of the 20th century, but since the year 2000 a marked increase in the population has been observed, reaching more than 40,000 individuals at present. Ecological consequences of the increased seal abundance may result from increased predation on fish stocks, but recent evidence also points to the influence of elevated parasitism on fish performance. Contracaecum osculatum larvae preferentially infect the liver of Baltic cod, considered a vital organ of the host. Whereas low prevalences and intensities in cod were reported during the 1980s and 1990s, the present study documents 100% prevalence and a mean intensity of above 80 worms per fish. Recent studies have also indicated the zoonotic potential of C. osculatum larvae in fish, following the consumption of raw or under-cooked fish. Therefore the present work discusses the impact of parasitism on the cod stock and the increasing risk for consumer health, and lists possible solutions for control.

  15. Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria stimulates production in Baltic food webs.

    PubMed

    Karlson, Agnes M L; Duberg, Jon; Motwani, Nisha H; Hogfors, Hedvig; Klawonn, Isabell; Ploug, Helle; Barthel Svedén, Jennie; Garbaras, Andrius; Sundelin, Brita; Hajdu, Susanna; Larsson, Ulf; Elmgren, Ragnar; Gorokhova, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria form extensive summer blooms in the Baltic Sea. Their ability to fix dissolved N2 allows cyanobacteria to circumvent the general summer nitrogen limitation, while also generating a supply of novel bioavailable nitrogen for the food web. However, the fate of the nitrogen fixed by cyanobacteria remains unresolved, as does its importance for secondary production in the Baltic Sea. Here, we synthesize recent experimental and field studies providing strong empirical evidence that cyanobacterial nitrogen is efficiently assimilated and transferred in Baltic food webs via two major pathways: directly by grazing on fresh or decaying cyanobacteria and indirectly through the uptake by other phytoplankton and microbes of bioavailable nitrogen exuded from cyanobacterial cells. This information is an essential step toward guiding nutrient management to minimize noxious blooms without overly reducing secondary production, and ultimately most probably fish production in the Baltic Sea.

  16. Polonium, uranium and plutonium in the southern Baltic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skwarzec, B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the measurement of polonium, uranium and plutonium alpha radio-nuclides in seawater and biota of the southern Baltic ecosystem as well as the recognition of their accumulation processes in the trophic chain. Investigation of the polonium210Po and plutonium239+240Pu concentrations in Baltic biota revealed that these radionuclides are strongly accumulated by some species. Mean values of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) fell within the range 9·102 to 3.7·104. The Baltic Sea algae, benthic animals and fish concentrated uranium radioisotopes only to a small extent and mean BCF values for this element range from 1 to 55, which is several orders of magnitude lower than that for polonium and plutonium. Moreover, it was found that Baltic fish constitute an important source of polonium210Po for humans.

  17. Polonium, uranium and plutonium in the southern Baltic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skwarzec, B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the measurement of polonium, uranium and plutonium alpha radio-nuclides in seawater and biota of the southern Baltic ecosystem as well as the recognition of their accumulation processes in the trophic chain. Investigation of the polonium210Po and plutonium239+240Pu concentrations in Baltic biota revealed that these radionuclides are strongly accumulated by some species. Mean values of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) fell within the range 9·102 to 3.7·104. The Baltic Sea algae, benthic animals and fish concentrated uranium radioisotopes only to a small extent and mean BCF values for this element range from 1 to 55, which is several orders of magnitude lower than that for polonium and plutonium. Moreover, it was found that Baltic fish constitute an important source of polonium210Po for humans.

  18. Meteorological conditions influencing the formation of level ice within the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, A. K.; Krezel, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Baltic Sea is covered by ice every winter and on average, the ice-covered area is 45% of the total area of the Baltic Sea. The beginning of ice season usually starts in the end of November, ice extent is the largest between mid-February and mid-March and sea ice disappears completely in May. The ice covered areas during a typical winter are the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Riga. The studies of sea ice in the Baltic Sea are related to two aspects: climate and marine transport. Depending on the local weather conditions during the winter different types of sea ice can be formed. From the point of winter shipping it is important to locate level and deformed ice areas (rafted ice, ridged ice, and hummocked ice). Because of cloud and daylight independency as well as good spatial resolution, SAR data seems to be the most suitable source of data for sea ice observation in the comparatively small area of the Baltic Sea. We used ASAR Wide Swath Mode data with spatial resolution 150 m. We analyzed data from the three winter seasons which were examples of severe, typical and mild winters. To remove the speckle effect the data were resampled to 250 m pixel size and filtred using Frost filter 5x5. To detect edges we used Sobel filter. The data were also converted into grayscale. Sea ice classification was based on Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA). Object-based methods are not a common tool in sea ice studies but they seem to accurately separate level ice within the ice pack. The data were segmented and classified using eCognition Developer software. Level ice were classified based on texture features defined by Haralick (Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix homogeneity, GLCM contrast, GLCM entropy and GLCM correlation). The long-term changes of the Baltic Sea ice conditions have been already studied. They include date of freezing, date of break-up, sea ice extent and some of work also ice thickness. There is a little knowledge about the relationship of

  19. The history of sturgeon in the Baltic Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popovic, Danijela; Panagiotopoulou, Hanna; Baca, Mateusz; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Mackiewicz, Pawel; Makowiecki, Daniel; King, Tim L.; Gruchota, Jakub; Weglenski, Piotr; Stankovic, Anna

    2014-01-01

    For the past 2000 years at least, A. o. oxyrinchus has been the dominant sturgeon in the Baltic Sea, indicating a much earlier origin than previously suggested. The most similar extant sturgeon populations to the extinct Baltic stock are those from the St John and St Lawrence rivers in Canada. These populations should be considered the best source of breeding material for the ongoing sturgeon restitution programmes in Poland and Germany.

  20. Changes in the extreme wave heights over the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtseva, Nadia; Soomere, Tarmo

    2017-04-01

    Storms over the Baltic Sea and northwestern Europe have a large impact on the population, offshore industry, and shipping. The understanding of extreme events in sea wave heights and their change due to the climate change and variability is critical for assessment of flooding risks and coastal protection. The BACCII Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin showed that the extreme events analysis of wind waves is currently not very well addressed, as well as satellite observations of the wave heights. Here we discuss the analysis of all existing satellite altimetry data over the Baltic Sea Basin regarding extremes in the wave heights. In this talk for the first time, we present an analysis of 100-yr return periods, fitted generalized Pareto and Weibull distributions, number, and frequency of extreme events in wave heights in the Baltic Sea measured by the multi-mission satellite altimetry. The data span more than 23 years and provide an excellent spatial coverage over the Baltic Sea, allowing to study in details spatial variations and changes in extreme wave heights. The analysis is based on an application of the Initial Distribution Method, Annual Maxima method and Peak-Over-Threshold approach to satellite altimetry data, all validated in comparison with in-situ wave height measurements. Here we show that the 100-yr return periods of wave heights show significant spatial changes over the Baltic Sea indicating a decrease in the southern part of the Baltic Sea and an increase in adjacent areas, which can significantly affect coast vulnerability. Here we compare the observed shift with storm track database data and discuss a spatial correlation and possible connection between the changes in the storm tracks over the Baltic Sea and the change in the extreme wave heights.

  1. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  2. Deterring Russia’s Revanchist Ambitions in the Baltic Republics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-16

    approval-rating-at- record-levels 22 Robert M. Gates, Duty: Memoirs of a Secretary at War (NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2014), 272. 23 TASS (Russian News...breedlove-explains-implications-of- information-in-hybrid-warfare- 48 Katya Adler , “Baltics states shiver as Russia flexes its muscles”, BBC article...Unconventional Warfare, Ukraine 2013-2014”, (Fort Bragg, NC), 39. Articles Adler , Katya. “Baltics states shiver as Russia flexes its muscles”, BBC article, 06

  3. Heavy metal concentrations in sediment cores from the northern Baltic Sea: declines over the last two decades.

    PubMed

    Vallius, Henry

    2014-02-15

    The Baltic Sea has received considerable loads of pollutants due to industrialization in Eastern Europe. Concern for the Baltic's ecological health eventually led to legislation and voluntary measures to limit pollution during the last decades of the 20th century. Heavy metal concentrations in open sea surface sediments reflected these steps to limit contaminant loads almost immediately, suggesting the possibility that the trend would continue in the ensuing years. Recent seafloor samples reveal that the declines have persisted over the past two decades. Currently, almost all heavy metal species have declined in surface sediments to levels approaching the safe limits for humans and the environment. Cadmium and mercury however remain at relatively high concentrations in many areas. Arsenic concentrations, which occur at safe levels within the Gulf of Finland persist at unacceptably high levels in surface sediments of the Bothnian Bay, and thus pose a potential threat to marine life in the area.

  4. Population genetic structure of mussels from the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulnheim, H.-P.; Gosling, E.

    1988-03-01

    In a macrogeographic survey, the population genetic structure of mussels from various regions of the Baltic Sea, a large semi-enclosed brackish-water basin, was examined with reference to Mytilus edulis and M. galloprovincialis samples from the North Sea, Irish coast and southern Portugal. Electrophoretically detectable variation was analysed at 6 polymorphic enzyme loci ( Ap, Est-D, Lap-2, Odh, Pgi and Pgm). Evidence was provided of a remarkably large amount of biochemical genetic differentiation among ecologically and morphologically divergent mussel populations in the Baltic. Patterns of allele frequencies in low-salinity populations from the area of the Baltic Proper were demonstrated to be widely homogeneous but contrast strongly with those of the western Baltic, the latter resembling populations from marine habitats of the North Sea. Associated with a pronounced salinity gradient, the spatial heterogeneity in gene-pool structure is indicated by steep clines of allele frequency changes in the area of the eastern Danish isles. The adaptive significance of the observed allozymic variation is suggested. From genetic distance estimates, the subdivision of population structure is discussed in relation to the significant amount of differentiation detected within Mytilus populations to date and to the evolutionary time required for the divergence of Baltic mussel populations. The allozymic data provide evidence for the genetic distinctiveness of mussels from the low-salinity areas of the Baltic. Their position at the specific or subspecific level of classification requires further consideration.

  5. Screening level fish community risk assessment of chemical warfare agents in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Sørensen, Peter B

    2008-06-15

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) have been disposed of in various fashions over the past decades. Significant amounts (approximately 11,000 tonnes) have been dumped in the Baltic Sea east of the island Bornholm following the disarmament of Germany after World War II, causing concerns over potential environmental risks. Absence of risk based on assumptions of extremely low solubility of CWAs cannot alone dismiss these concerns. Existing and modelled fate and effects data were used in the analysis to assess the fish community risk level. The most realistic and also conservative assessment result is the scenario describing 70 m water depth for the most realistic dump-site area with a focus on chronic toxicity, at 0-20 cm above the sediment, yielding a total mixture toxic unit (TU) of 0.62. Triphenylarsine is the CWA with the highest realistic risk profile at 0.2 TU for the fish community followed by Adamsite (0.17), Clark I (0.086) and Yperite (0.083) TU. Adamsite is more persistent and constitutes a potential risk for a longer period than triphenylarsine. The seawater volume potentially at risk is <4 m above sediment and <58 km down current of dump sites. Further risk assessment of dumped CWAs in the Baltic Sea is warranted.

  6. Late Quaternary records of Najas spp. (Najadaceae) from the southwestern Baltic region.

    PubMed

    Bennike, O; Jensen, J B.; Lemke, W

    2001-04-01

    Seeds of the submerged vascular plants Najas marina, Najas minor and Najas flexilis are reported from submarine Holocene deposits from the southwestern part of the Baltic Sea, and we also report on a find of Najas minor from an Eemian deposit in Jutland, which is the first record of this species from the Eemian of Denmark. The common and widespread occurrence of especially the southern extralimital N. minor is indicative of higher than present summer temperatures during the period from 10300 to 8000cal.yearsBP.

  7. Iron cycling microbial communities in sediments of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Carolina; Delwig, Olaf; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz; Dähnke, Kirstin; Böttcher, Michael E.; Friedrich, Michael W.

    2014-05-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of iron is a key early diagenetic process. However, limited information exists about the diversity and metabolic pathways of microorganisms linked to iron cycling in marine sediments. The goal of this study was to determine the bacterial community diversity in sediments showing ongoing dissimilatory iron reduction using 454-pyrosequencing as a first step in characterizing microorganisms potentially involved in iron reduction. For this purpose, two 35 cm cores were sampled from ferruginous sediments in the Skagerrak (SK) and the Bothnian Bay (BB) from the North-Sea Baltic Sea and the northern Baltic Sea respectively. Pore water profiles showed Fe2+ and Mn2+ levels of ~140-150 µM throughout the core below a 6 cm thick oxidized surface layer in SK sediments and ~300 µM below a 2 cm thick surface layer in BB sediments. Dissolved sulphide levels were below detection in both sediments. No significant depletion of SO42- occurred at both sites, further supported by stable S and O isotope analyses of dissolved sulfate at SK site. Only very minor net sulfate reduction is suggested here from the trend in sulphur isotope signatures, in agreement with previously reported gross microbial sulphate rate measurements (Canfield et al., 1993;GCA). Based on these biogeochemical constraints, Fe reduction in the studied sediments is therefore dominated by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction, while cryptic Fe-S-cycling can be largely excluded. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate Proteobacteria as the dominating microbial group in these sediments. Potential iron and manganese reducing bacteria included Geobacteraceae, Pelobacteraceae, Shewanellaceae, and Oceanospirillales. Additionally, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were present. Also, Fe-oxidizers were present and their occurrence correlated in depth with a Fe-oxide-rich layer, most likely a former buried Fe-oxidation front. Gene sequences point to the presence of Mariprofundus in SK sediments and

  8. Texaco scores a first in the Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    Wells on the first of 2 small concrete platforms designed specifically for the fragile but harsh environment of the Baltic Sea will produce the first oil from that offshore area by late 1984. The consortium of Deutsche Texaco AG and Wintershall AG awarded contracts late last year for the platforms and drilling equipment needed to develop the Schwedeneck-See field in Kiel Bay, off the northern coast of West Germany. Severe winter weather in the area dictated the use of concrete platforms rather than conventional 6-pile steel structures. Ice forces, generated by high winds and moderate waves, demanded heavy-duty structures in spite of the shallow water. A complicating factor in the field development plan is the presence of a German Navy submarine practice area which influenced location of one of the platforms. This means that all wells will be directionally drilled, and the reach will be greater than under more favorable conditions.

  9. Changing seasonality of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahru, Mati; Elmgren, Ragnar; Savchuk, Oleg P.

    2016-02-01

    Changes in the phenology of physical and ecological variables associated with climate change are likely to have significant effect on many aspects of the Baltic ecosystem. We apply a set of phenological indicators to multiple environmental variables measured by satellite sensors for 17-36 years to detect possible changes in the seasonality in the Baltic Sea environment. We detect significant temporal changes, such as earlier start of the summer season and prolongation of the productive season, in several variables ranging from basic physical drivers to ecological status indicators. While increasing trends in the absolute values of variables like sea-surface temperature (SST), diffuse attenuation of light (Ked490) and satellite-detected chlorophyll concentration (CHL) are detectable, the corresponding changes in their seasonal cycles are more dramatic. For example, the cumulative sum of 30 000 W m-2 of surface incoming shortwave irradiance (SIS) was reached 23 days earlier in 2014 compared to the beginning of the time series in 1983. The period of the year with SST of at least 17 °C has almost doubled (from 29 days in 1982 to 56 days in 2014), and the period with Ked490 over 0.4 m-1 has increased from about 60 days in 1998 to 240 days in 2013 - i.e., quadrupled. The period with satellite-estimated CHL of at least 3 mg m-3 has doubled from approximately 110 days in 1998 to 220 days in 2013. While the timing of both the phytoplankton spring and summer blooms have advanced, the annual CHL maximum that in the 1980s corresponded to the spring diatom bloom in May has now shifted to the summer cyanobacteria bloom in July.

  10. Resuspension patterns in the Baltic proper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, Å.; Jönsson, A.; Rahm, L.

    2007-05-01

    Waves induce resuspension of surface sediments and contribute to the long-term mobilisation of particulate matter from erosion to accumulation bottoms. This has a major impact on the nutrient cycle in shallow seas by enhancing degradation, microbial production and recycling. The Baltic Sea represents such an area. The aim of this work is to analyse the spatial and temporal resuspension patterns in the Baltic Sea. To estimate the bottom friction velocity, modelled wave data are used in combination with data on grain size. This new data set is compared to a resuspension threshold of friction velocity to estimate the events of resuspension. The variation in bottom friction velocity, resuspension frequency and duration are related to wind climate, fetch, water depth and sediment type. Substantial resuspension can be found down to 40-60 m, with durations from one day to as much as two weeks. The highest winds in the area are highly anisotropic with a dominance of S-SW-W winds and the highest resuspension frequencies are found along the shallow eastern coasts. A seasonal pattern is observed with relatively high friction velocities and high resuspension frequencies during winter. There is also a variation depending on grain size, where sediments with fine and medium sand have a considerably higher percentage of resuspension events than bottoms with other dominant grain sizes. Five sub-areas are identified, characterised by different sediment types, resuspension and wind characteristics. If, in the future, wind speed increases as predicted, resuspension of sediments will also increase with effects on the nutrient cycle.

  11. Future Climate Change in the Baltic Sea Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bøssing Christensen, Ole; Kjellström, Erik; Zorita, Eduardo; Sonnenborg, Torben; Meier, Markus; Grinsted, Aslak

    2015-04-01

    Regional climate models have been used extensively since the first assessment of climate change in the Baltic Sea region published in 2008, not the least for studies of Europe (and including the Baltic Sea catchment area). Therefore, conclusions regarding climate model results have a better foundation than was the case for the first BACC report of 2008. This presentation will report model results regarding future climate. What is the state of understanding about future human-driven climate change? We will cover regional models, statistical downscaling, hydrological modelling, ocean modelling and sea-level change as it is projected for the Baltic Sea region. Collections of regional model simulations from the ENSEMBLES project for example, financed through the European 5th Framework Programme and the World Climate Research Programme Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment, have made it possible to obtain an increasingly robust estimation of model uncertainty. While the first Baltic Sea assessment mainly used four simulations from the European 5th Framework Programme PRUDENCE project, an ensemble of 13 transient regional simulations with twice the horizontal resolution reaching the end of the 21st century has been available from the ENSEMBLES project; therefore it has been possible to obtain more quantitative assessments of model uncertainty. The literature about future climate change in the Baltic Sea region is largely built upon the ENSEMBLES project. Also within statistical downscaling, a considerable number of papers have been published, encompassing now the application of non-linear statistical models, projected changes in extremes and correction of climate model biases. The uncertainty of hydrological change has received increasing attention since the previous Baltic Sea assessment. Several studies on the propagation of uncertainties originating in GCMs, RCMs, and emission scenarios are presented. The number of studies on uncertainties related to

  12. Genesis, distribution, and dynamics of lagoon marl extrusions along the Curonian Spit, southeast Baltic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Alexander; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Ryabchuk, Daria; Buynevich, Ilya; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhov, Dmitry; Bitinas, Albertas; Pupienis, Donatas

    2016-04-01

    The unique geological process of extrusion of lagoon marl from beneath the massive migrating sand dunes is characteristic for large segments of the Curonian Spit - a ~100-km-long sandy barrier that separates the Curonian Lagoon from the Baltic Sea. The exposures of a composite set of Holocene organic sediments such as gyttja, clayey gyttja, and gyttja clay, commonly referred to as "lagoon marl", are common along the northern half of the lagoon coast of the spit. These outcrops of lagoon marl rise up to 3-4 m above the lagoon level and were formed by extrusion from their 7-8 m in situ depth beneath the present regional water table. New detailed investigations of the Baltic Sea bottom along the southern half of the Curonian Spit using side-scan sonar, multibeam echosounder, seismic imaging, sediment sampling, and video observations allowed identification and mapping of a unique underwater landscape formed by extensive outcrops of laminated and folded lagoon marl at water depths of 5-15 m. The combined onshore-offshore database indicates that the relict lagoon marl was deformed, compacted, and dehydrated by a massive dune-covered coastal barrier migrating landward (retrograding) over these sediments during the Litorina Sea transgression in a processes termed "dune tectonics". Spatial analysis of structures of the relict sediments traced in offshore geophysical data help constrain the rates of the southeastly migration of the dune massif. A conceptual dynamic model is presented to explain the present occurrence of marl exposures above the regional water table, as well as the occurrence of relict lagoon marl extrusions (diapirs) on the underwater marine slope of the Curonian Spit. This research was funded by a RFBR project 13-05-90711 and RSF project 14-37-00047 «Geoenvironmental conditions of marine management of natural recourses of the Russian sector of South-Eastern Baltic».

  13. New Data on Ordovician Eocrinoids and Paracrinoids of the Baltic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhnov, S.

    2009-04-01

    Eocrinoids are widespread in the Ordovician beds of the Baltic Region, often dominating in benthic communities of the Middle Ordovician. They are represented by 12 genera. New records allow the improvement of their morphology, stratigraphic and geographical distribution. Rhipidocystis was one of the first to appear in the Baltic basin (Upper Billingen of the eastern Baltic Basin); it reached its acme in the Volkhov and became scarce rare in subsequent strata, although survived up to the Uhaku. In the Azeri or Lasnamyagi, it gave rise to the close related genus Neorhipidocystis, which rarely occurs in the Lasnamyagi, Uhaku and Kukruze Regional Stages. New data on the arrangement of pores, morphology variability in the brachiols strongly suggest that Rhipidocystis is close to Volkhovian Paracryptocrinites and Cryptocrinites, which evolved from the last genus in the Azeri. Bockia, which occurs in the Azeri, Lasnamyagi, Uhaku and Kukruze, is closely related to Cryptocrinites and differs from it in the considerably larger size, greater number of plates, extended apertural part, and branching brachiolas. These five genera belong to the same lineage of closely related Ordovician eocrinoids, which is named the cryptocrinid-rhipidocystid lineage. In North America, a similar eocrinoid lineage developed in parallel. The two lineages probably evolved from a common ancestor, which inhabited eastern Gondwana in the Early Ordovician. Plates of Rhopalocystidae are abundant in the Volkhovian Regional stage; they show distinctive sutural pores, which are characteristic of the other branch of Ordovician eocrinoids, widespread in the northern marginal area of Gondwana. The thecal fragments, which are scarce in the Baltic Region, allow the reconstruction of only the distal part; however, it is evident that the Baltic genus differs sharply in shape from Gondwanian rhopalocystids. A unique eocrinoid specimen, with a spherical theca composed of many plates and a column similar in

  14. Seismic LAB or LID? The Baltic Shield Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Tiira, Timo; Olsson, Sverker; Komminaho, Kari

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the asthenosphere for old Precambrian cratons, including East European Craton and its part - the Baltic Shield, is still discussed. To study the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Baltic Shield we used records of 9 local events with magnitudes in the range 2.7-5.9. The relatively big number of seismic stations in the Baltic Shield with a station spacing of 30-100 km permits for relatively dense recordings, and is sufficient in lithospheric scale. For modelling of the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere, the original data were corrected for topography and the Moho depth for each event and each station location, using a reference model with a 46 km thick crust. Observed P and S arrivals are significantly earlier than those predicted by the iasp91 model, which clearly indicates that lithospheric P and S velocities beneath the Baltic Shield are higher than in the global iasp91 model. For two northern events at Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya we observe a low velocity layer, 60-70 km thick asthenosphere, and the LAB beneath Barents Sea was found at depth of about 200 km. Sections for other events show continous first arrivals of P waves with no evidence for "shadow zone" in the whole range of registration, which could be interpreted as absence of asthenosphere beneath the central part of the Baltic Shield, or that LAB in this area occurs deeper (>200 km). The relatively thin low velocity layer found beneath southern Sweden, 15 km below the Moho, could be interpreted as small scale lithospheric inhomogeneities, rather than asthenosphere. Differentiation of the lid velocity beneath the Baltic Shield could be interpreted as regional inhomogeneity. It could also be interpreted as anisotropy of the Baltic Shield lithosphere, with fast velocity close to the east-west direction, and slow velocity close to the south-north direction.

  15. Seismic LAB or LID? The Baltic Shield case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, M.; Tiira, T.; Olsson, S.; Komminaho, K.

    2013-05-01

    The problem of the asthenosphere for old Precambrian cratons, including East European Craton and its part - the Baltic Shield, is still discussed. To study the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Baltic Shield we used records of 9 local events with magnitudes in the range 2.7-5.9. The relatively big number of seismic stations in the Baltic Shield with a station spacing of 30-100 km permits for relatively dense recordings, and is sufficient in lithospheric scale. For modelling of the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere, the original data were corrected for topography and the Moho depth for each event and each station location, using a reference model with a 46 km thick crust. Observed P and S arrivals are significantly earlier than those predicted by the iasp91 model, which clearly indicates that lithospheric P and S velocities beneath the Baltic Shield are higher than in the global iasp91 model. For two northern events at Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya we observe a low velocity layer, 60-70 km thick asthenosphere, and the LAB beneath Barents Sea was found at depth of about 200 km. Sections for other events show continous first arrivals of P waves with no evidence for "shadow zone" in the whole range of registration, which could be interpreted as absence of asthenosphere beneath the central part of the Baltic Shield, or that LAB in this area occurs deeper (>200 km). The relatively thin low velocity layer found beneath southern Sweden, 15 km below the Moho, could be interpreted as small scale lithospheric inhomogeneities, rather than asthenosphere. Differentiation of the lid velocity beneath the Baltic Shield could be interpreted as regional inhomogeneity. It could also be interpreted as anisotropy of the Baltic Shield lithosphere, with fast velocity close to the east-west direction, and slow velocity close to the south-north direction.

  16. Baltic Consortium on Promoting Gender Equality in Marine Research Organisations (Baltic Gender)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kısakürek Ibsen, Başak; Braun, Sarah; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Kutser, Tiit; Stadmark, Johanna; Vaitkevičienė, Viktorija; Waniek, Joanna; Werner, Iris; Matthes, Katja

    2017-04-01

    Marine Science and Technology has been traditionally a male-dominated research field, with a significant lack of women in leadership positions. However, the whole intellectual capacity of men and women alike are needed to create innovative solutions for the sustainable use of marine resources in the face of major global challenges for the development of the marine environment. The EU-funded project, Baltic Gender (GA No. 710363), responds to this need for creating policies and implementing measures at the institutional level with the aim of harvesting the full human capital for the needs of marine research. The main goal of Baltic Gender is to help reduce gender segregation and gender inequalities in Marine Science and Technology. To this end, eight partner institutions from five countries in the Baltic Sea region (Estonia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania and Sweden) came together for the exchange of institutional practices as well as for the transfer of knowledge from institutions/countries leading in gender equality to those following. Baltic Gender will sow the seeds for long-lasting institutional practices by initiating schemes and strategies that promote gender equality in the partner institutions. These include, for instance: the founding of grass-root networks that support the career advancement of women; creating strategies for better reconciliation of work and family life of women and men; the review and improvement of institutional policies and practices with regard to gender balance, fairness and transparency; development of a method protocol for incorporating gender analysis into research projects or programmes of Marine Science and Technology; initiating gender focused training and mentoring in or across all partner institutions. The project will support the implementation of Gender Equality Plans (GEPs), which consist of a set of actions an institution commits to in order to identify any existing gender bias and to implement strategies to advance gender

  17. A comparison of marine radionuclide dispersion models for the Baltic Sea in the frame of IAEA MODARIA program.

    PubMed

    Periáñez, R; Bezhenar, R; Iosjpe, M; Maderich, V; Nies, H; Osvath, I; Outola, I; de With, G

    2015-01-01

    Four radionuclide dispersion models have been applied to simulate the transport and distribution of (137)Cs fallout from Chernobyl accident in the Baltic Sea. Models correspond to two categories: box models and hydrodynamic models which solve water circulation and then an advection/diffusion equation. In all cases, interactions of dissolved radionuclides with suspended matter and bed sediments are included. Model results have been compared with extensive field data obtained from HELCOM database. Inventories in the water column and seabed, as well as (137)Cs concentrations along 5 years in water and sediments of several sub-basins of the Baltic, have been used for model comparisons. Values predicted by the models for the target magnitudes are very similar and close to experimental values. Results suggest that some processes are not very relevant for radionuclide transport within the Baltic Sea, for instance the roles of the ice cover and, surprisingly, water stratification. Also, results confirm previous findings concerning multi-model applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Baltic Sea Virome: Diversity and Transcriptional Activity of DNA and RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    McCrow, John P.; Ininbergs, Karolina; Dupont, Christopher L.; Badger, Jonathan H.; Hoffman, Jeffery M.; Ekman, Martin; Allen, Andrew E.; Bergman, Birgitta; Venter, J. Craig

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data were generated from size-fractionated samples from 11 sites within the Baltic Sea and adjacent marine waters of Kattegat and freshwater Lake Torneträsk in order to investigate the diversity, distribution, and transcriptional activity of virioplankton. Such a transect, spanning a salinity gradient from freshwater to the open sea, facilitated a broad genome-enabled investigation of natural as well as impacted aspects of Baltic Sea viral communities. Taxonomic signatures representative of phages within the widely distributed order Caudovirales were identified with enrichments in lesser-known families such as Podoviridae and Siphoviridae. The distribution of phage reported to infect diverse and ubiquitous heterotrophic bacteria (SAR11 clades) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus sp.) displayed population-level shifts in diversity. Samples from higher-salinity conditions (>14 practical salinity units [PSU]) had increased abundances of viruses for picoeukaryotes, i.e., Ostreococcus. These data, combined with host diversity estimates, suggest viral modulation of diversity on the whole-community scale, as well as in specific prokaryotic and eukaryotic lineages. RNA libraries revealed single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and RNA viral populations throughout the Baltic Sea, with ssDNA phage highly represented in Lake Torneträsk. Further, our data suggest relatively high transcriptional activity of fish viruses within diverse families known to have broad host ranges, such as Nodoviridae (RNA), Iridoviridae (DNA), and predicted zoonotic viruses that can cause ecological and economic damage as well as impact human health. IMPORTANCE Inferred virus-host relationships, community structures of ubiquitous ecologically relevant groups, and identification of transcriptionally active populations have been achieved with our Baltic Sea study. Further, these data, highlighting the transcriptional activity of viruses, represent one of the more

  19. The Baltic Sea Virome: Diversity and Transcriptional Activity of DNA and RNA Viruses.

    PubMed

    Zeigler Allen, Lisa; McCrow, John P; Ininbergs, Karolina; Dupont, Christopher L; Badger, Jonathan H; Hoffman, Jeffery M; Ekman, Martin; Allen, Andrew E; Bergman, Birgitta; Venter, J Craig

    2017-01-01

    Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data were generated from size-fractionated samples from 11 sites within the Baltic Sea and adjacent marine waters of Kattegat and freshwater Lake Torneträsk in order to investigate the diversity, distribution, and transcriptional activity of virioplankton. Such a transect, spanning a salinity gradient from freshwater to the open sea, facilitated a broad genome-enabled investigation of natural as well as impacted aspects of Baltic Sea viral communities. Taxonomic signatures representative of phages within the widely distributed order Caudovirales were identified with enrichments in lesser-known families such as Podoviridae and Siphoviridae. The distribution of phage reported to infect diverse and ubiquitous heterotrophic bacteria (SAR11 clades) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus sp.) displayed population-level shifts in diversity. Samples from higher-salinity conditions (>14 practical salinity units [PSU]) had increased abundances of viruses for picoeukaryotes, i.e., Ostreococcus. These data, combined with host diversity estimates, suggest viral modulation of diversity on the whole-community scale, as well as in specific prokaryotic and eukaryotic lineages. RNA libraries revealed single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and RNA viral populations throughout the Baltic Sea, with ssDNA phage highly represented in Lake Torneträsk. Further, our data suggest relatively high transcriptional activity of fish viruses within diverse families known to have broad host ranges, such as Nodoviridae (RNA), Iridoviridae (DNA), and predicted zoonotic viruses that can cause ecological and economic damage as well as impact human health. IMPORTANCE Inferred virus-host relationships, community structures of ubiquitous ecologically relevant groups, and identification of transcriptionally active populations have been achieved with our Baltic Sea study. Further, these data, highlighting the transcriptional activity of viruses, represent one of the more powerful uses of

  20. The regional geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Haselton, T.M. ); Brangulis, A.P.; Margulis, L.S. ); Kanev, S. )

    1991-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is roughly equivalent in size to the North Sea. Like the North Sea, is has an excellent oil prone source rock present over most of the area. In the entire Baltic Sea about 40 wells have been drilled. During the 1980s, exploration was carried out in the Soviet, Polish, and East German sectors of the Baltic Sea by Petrobaltic. Twenty-eight wells were drilled, 14 of which tested hydrocarbons. Two wells have been drilled in Danish waters and 11 in Swedish waters - all dry holes. Most of the Baltic Sea is included in the Baltic syneclise. In the deepest part of the basin a full Paleozoic and Mesozoic section is present. Major structural features are associated with reactivation of old basement faults. Most hydrocarbon discoveries are associated with structural arches. Exploration targets are Cambrian sandstones and Ordovician and Silurian reefs. The major discoveries are the B3 field in Poland and the D6 field offshore Lithuania and Kaliningrad, both of which have in-place reserves of around 100 million bbl. The Teisseyre-Tornquist line to the southwest represents the plate boundary between the East European platform and Europe. Repeated strike slip movements along this zone result in a complex pattern of extensional and compressional features in the Danish and German sectors. Primary exploration targets include Permian carbonates and sandstones as well as older zones. Gas has been tested in the German sector onshore.

  1. Aerosol carbon isotope composition over Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbaras, Andrius; Pabedinskas, Algirdas; Masalaite, Agne; Petelski, Tomasz; Gorokhova, Elena; Sapolaite, Justina; Ezerinskis, Zilvinas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2017-04-01

    Particulate carbonaceous matter is significant contributor to ambient particulate matter originating from intervening sources which contribution is difficult to quantify due to source diversity, chemical complexity and processes during atmospheric transport. Carbon isotope analysis can be extremely useful in source apportionment of organic matter due to the unique isotopic signatures associated with anthropocentric (fossil fuel), continental (terrestrial plants) and marine sources, and is particularly effective when these sources are mixed (Ceburnis et al., 2011;Ceburnis et al., 2016). We will present the isotope ratio measurement results of aerosol collected during the cruise in the Baltic Sea. Sampling campaign of PM10 and size segregated aerosol particles was performed on the R/V "Oceania" in October 2015. Air mass back trajectories were prevailing both from the continental and marine areas during the sampling period. The total carbon concentration varied from 1 µg/m3 to 8 µg/m3. Two end members (δ13C = -25‰ and δ13C = -28 ‰ ) were established from the total stable carbon isotope analysis in PM10 fraction. δ13C analysis in size segregated aerosol particles revealed δ13C values being highest in the 1 - 2.5 µm range (δ13C = -24.9 ‰ ) during continental transport, while lowest TC δ13C values (δ13C ≈ -27 ‰ ) were detected in the size range D50 <1 µm during stormy weather when air mass trajectory prevailed from the western direction. These measurements revealed that simplified isotope mixing model can not be applied for the aerosol source apportionment (Masalaite et al., 2015) in the perturbed marine environment. Additionally, concentration of bacteria and fungi were measured in size segregated and PM10 aerosol fraction. We were able to relate aerosol source δ13C end members with the abundance of bacteria and fungi over Baltic Sea combining air mass trajectories, stable isotope data, fungi and bacteria concentrations. Ceburnis, D., Garbaras, A

  2. Response of the Baltic and North Seas to river runoff from the Baltic watershed - Physical and biological changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänninen, Jari; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Rajasilta, Marjut; Reid, Philip C.

    2015-11-01

    Selected Baltic Sea watershed River Runoff (BSRR) events during 1970-2000 were used as predictor in Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLIMMIX) for evidence of simultaneous changes/chain of events (including possible time lags) in some chemical, physical and biological variables in the Baltic and North Sea ecosystems. Our aim was to explore for climatic-based explanation for ecological regime shifts that were documented semi-simultaneously in both ecosystems. Certain similarities were identified in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea salinity, oxygen concentration, temperature and phyto- and zooplankton parameters. These findings suggest that BSRR events which originate in the Baltic Sea catchment area modify and contribute to large scale ecosystem changes not only in the Baltic Sea, but also in the adjacent parts of the North Sea. However, the Baltic Sea inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities of physical and biological parameters are driven by direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a relatively short lag. In contrast, such changes in the North Sea are influenced by both local and direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a longer lag than in the Baltic, and a more regional, indirect forcing from changes in the North Atlantic. We suggest that this interactive system partially is behind large scale ecosystem regime shifts found in both Seas. During our study period two such shifts have been identified independently from us in a study earlier in the Southern and Central Baltic in 1980s and 1990s and a later one in 2001/2002 in the North Sea. As a post hoc test we compared the 0+ year class strength of the North Sea herring with BSRR intensity, and found evidence for higher herring production in high BSRR periods, which further corroborates the idea of a remote effect from the large watershed area of the Baltic. Regime shifts as well as their semi-synchronous appearance in two neighbouring sea areas could be identified. GLIMMIX models provide opportunities for

  3. Importance of coastal primary production in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ask, Jenny; Rowe, Owen; Brugel, Sonia; Strömgren, Mårten; Byström, Pär; Andersson, Agneta

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we measured depth-dependent benthic microalgal primary production in a Bothnian Bay estuary to estimate the benthic contribution to total primary production. In addition, we compiled data on benthic microalgal primary production in the entire Baltic Sea. In the estuary, the benthic habitat contributed 17 % to the total annual primary production, and when upscaling our data to the entire Bothnian Bay, the corresponding value was 31 %. This estimated benthic share (31 %) is three times higher compared to past estimates of 10 %. The main reason for this discrepancy is the lack of data regarding benthic primary production in the northern Baltic Sea, but also that past studies overestimated the importance of pelagic primary production by not correcting for system-specific bathymetric variation. Our study thus highlights the importance of benthic communities for the northern Baltic Sea ecosystem in general and for future management strategies and ecosystem studies in particular.

  4. Projected habitat loss for Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Hufnagl, Marc; Peck, Myron A

    2016-02-01

    Projected, climate-driven changes in rainfall patterns are expected to alter the salinity (S) of estuaries and larger brackish water bodies, such as the Baltic Sea. Some marine fish larvae are potentially more sensitive to low salinity than older stages, hence we compared the low salinity tolerance of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae at the individual and population levels including four populations in the North and Baltic Seas. Acute low salinity tolerance was similar (S = 1.9-2.7) across populations and increased with increasing body size. Based on this physiological threshold and a regionally down-scaled climate model, spawning habitats in the northern and eastern Baltic Sea are projected to be largely unsuitable for herring by 2100. Although adaptive mechanisms may attenuate the effect in some species, the limited physiological tolerance of fish larvae will remain an important bottleneck for the persistence of marine fish populations in brackish waters undergoing climate-driven freshening.

  5. Assessing impacts of invasive phytoplankton: the Baltic Sea case.

    PubMed

    Olenina, Irina; Wasmund, Norbert; Hajdu, Susanna; Jurgensone, Iveta; Gromisz, Sławomira; Kownacka, Janina; Toming, Kaire; Vaiciūte, Diana; Olenin, Sergej

    2010-10-01

    There is an increasing understanding and requirement to take into account the effects of invasive alien species (IAS) in environmental quality assessments. While IAS are listed amongst the most important factors threatening marine biodiversity, information on their impacts remains unquantified, especially for phytoplankton species. This study attempts to assess the impacts of invasive alien phytoplankton in the Baltic Sea during 1980-2008. A bioinvasion impact assessment method (BPL - biopollution level index) was applied to phytoplankton monitoring data collected from eleven sub-regions of the Baltic Sea. BPL takes into account abundance and distribution range of an alien species and the magnitude of the impact on native communities, habitats and ecosystem functioning. Of the 12 alien/cryptogenic phytoplankton species recorded in the Baltic Sea only one (the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum) was categorized as an IAS, causing a recognizable environmental effect.

  6. Paleozoic oil and gas complexes of the Baltic syneclise

    SciTech Connect

    Geodekyan, A.A.; Dubovskoy, I.T.; Kleshchev, K.A.; Mazur, V.B.; Ostrovskiy, M.I.; Sakalavskas, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    Principal directions for exploration of new commercial accumulations of oil and gas in the main Paleozoic prospective complexes in the Baltic syneclise, including its sea portion, have been based on an analysis of the lithologic-facies composition, structural features, attitude of the rocks, and the distribution of the reservoir horizons and possible different types of traps. The promise of the deep parts of the southeastern Baltic Sea region, where a large number of local uplifts have been identified, and traps of nonanticlinal and combined types have been recorded, is emphasized where the principal focus for the generation of oil hydrocarbons inthe Baltic syneclise is located. As compared with the land area, it is suggested that there is an increase in the supply stock and the capacity parameters of the traps and an improvement in the conditions of preservation of petroleum accumulations here.

  7. History and scenarios of future development of Baltic Sea eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Maren; Dippner, Joachim W.; Humborg, Christoph; Hürdler, Jens; Korth, Frederike; Neumann, T.; Schernewski, Gerald; Venohr, Markus

    2011-05-01

    Nutrient loads from watersheds, atmospheric deposition, and cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation have led to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Here we give the historical evolution of this, detail some of the specific eutrophication features of the Baltic Sea, and examine future scenarios from climate related changes in the Baltic Sea region. We distinguish northern and southern regions of the Baltic Sea. The northern watersheds have sub-polar climate, are covered by boreal forest and wetlands, are sparsely populated, and the rivers drain into the Gulf of Bothnia. The southern watersheds have a marine influenced temperate climate, are more densely populated and are industrially highly developed. The southern areas are drained by several large rivers, including the representative Oder River. We compare these regions to better understand the present, and future changes in Baltic Sea eutrophication. Comparing the future projections for the two regions, we suggest that in addition to changes in nutrient inputs, increased temperature and precipitation are likely to become important forcings. Rising temperature may increase release of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils and may alter the vegetation cover which may in turn lead to changed nutrient and organic matter input to the Baltic Sea. For the southern Oder River catchment a model study of nutrient input is evaluated, MONERIS (Modelling Nutrient Emissions in River Systems). The strong correlation between precipitation, flow and nutrient discharge indicates a likely increase in nutrient concentrations from diffuse sources in future. The nutrients from the Oder River are modified in a lagoon, where removal processes change the stoichiometry, but have only minor effects on the productivity. We suggest that the lagoon and other nearshore areas fulfil important ecological services, especially the removal of large quantities of riverine nitrogen but at the same time are threatened systems due to increasing coastal

  8. Regime shifts in North Sea and Baltic Sea: A comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dippner, Joachim W.; Möller, Caroline; Hänninen, Jari

    2012-12-01

    The ICES subdivisions in the North Sea (SD IIIa, SD IVa, and SD IVb) and the subdivisions in the Baltic Sea (SD 29, SD 27/28-2, and SD 25/26) are selected to compare the response in long term monitoring data (1970-2000) with respect to climate regime shifts. A modified AMOEBA model is applied to the data sets to identify the status and development of the North Sea and Baltic Sea system during two recent regime shifts. Biological regime shifts can be identified 1989/1990 in SD IIIa in the North Sea and in SD 25/26 in the Baltic Sea. A synchronous appearance of regime shifts could only be identified in the central and southern Baltic Sea for both regime shifts 1975/76 and 1989/90 where the AMOEBA model indicated a high similarity in ecosystem response. A clear difference was identified in the response of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Inter-annual and inter-decadal variability as well as regime shifts are driven in the Baltic Sea by direct atmospheric forcing only. In contrast, the changes in the North Sea are influenced by both the direct atmospheric forcing and the indirect forcing from the changes in North Atlantic. The fact that regime shifts as well as their synchronous appearance can be identified with the AMOEBA model might be of major interest for the management of sustainable use of ecosystem goods and services, the development of ecosystem approach to management and the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) of the European Union (EU).

  9. Echoes from the past: a healthy Baltic Sea requires more effort.

    PubMed

    Kotilainen, Aarno T; Arppe, Laura; Dobosz, Slawomir; Jansen, Eystein; Kabel, Karoline; Karhu, Juha; Kotilainen, Mia M; Kuijpers, Antoon; Lougheed, Bryan C; Meier, H E Markus; Moros, Matthias; Neumann, Thomas; Porsche, Christian; Poulsen, Niels; Rasmussen, Peter; Ribeiro, Sofia; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Ryabchuk, Daria; Schimanke, Semjon; Snowball, Ian; Spiridonov, Mikhail; Virtasalo, Joonas J; Weckström, Kaarina; Witkowski, Andrzej; Zhamoida, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    Integrated sediment multiproxy studies and modeling were used to reconstruct past changes in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Results of natural changes over the past 6000 years in the Baltic Sea ecosystem suggest that forecasted climate warming might enhance environmental problems of the Baltic Sea. Integrated modeling and sediment proxy studies reveal increased sea surface temperatures and expanded seafloor anoxia (in deep basins) during earlier natural warm climate phases, such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Under future IPCC scenarios of global warming, there is likely no improvement of bottom water conditions in the Baltic Sea. Thus, the measures already designed to produce a healthier Baltic Sea are insufficient in the long term. The interactions between climate change and anthropogenic impacts on the Baltic Sea should be considered in management, implementation of policy strategies in the Baltic Sea environmental issues, and adaptation to future climate change.

  10. Analysing water level trends and extremes in the Baltic Sea for the period 1950-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräwe, Ulf; Klingbeil, Knut

    2016-04-01

    The General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) was applied to create a state estimate of the Baltic Sea for the period 1950-2015 with a horizontal resolution of 1 nautical mile . In the vertical 60 terrain-following layers were used, which during runtime automatically adapt to the highly variable stratification. This is associated with sporadicly inflowing bottom gravity currents of saline North Sea water, the seasonal thermocline and internal wave motions at the permanent halocline. These challenges need to be tackled by a model to correctly reproduce the mixing and entrainment of water masses in the Baltic Sea. The atmospheric forcing was taken from a regional reanalysis with a spatial resolution of less than 20 km and hourly values. The analysis of the sea surface height (SSH) revealed a non-uniform absolute mean sea level (MSL) rise in the Baltic Sea. Lowest values are found in the western part with 1.4mm/year and highest values in the Gulf of Finland with values of 2.2 mm/year. This spatial heterogeneity is partially explained by an increase in the mean zonal winds but also by changes in air pressure. The warming trend of the sea surface temperature adds to the regional increase in SSH. Analysing water level extremes, the simulations indicate a much faster rise in annual maximum SSH compared to MSL rise. This is well correlated with an increase in the annual maximum wind speed. The linear trends in annual maximum SSH are 2 mm/year in the western Baltic Sea and reach peak values of 6 mm/year in the Gulf of Finland. For the trends in annual minimum SSH we do not see any trend different from MSL rise. As a further measure to quantify changes in extreme water levels, we computed the duration and intensity (duration times excess water height over 99 percentile). Whereas the mean duration does not change significantly, the model results indicate a significant increase in intensity. To estimate the robustness of the results, their sensitivity to the atmospheric forcing

  11. Advancing Data assimilation for Baltic Monitoring and Forecasting Center: implementation and evaluation of HBP-PDAF system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korabel, Vasily; She, Jun; Huess, Vibeke; Woge Nielsen, Jacob; Murawsky, Jens; Nerger, Lars

    2017-04-01

    The potential of an efficient data assimilation (DA) scheme to improve model forecast skill was successfully demonstrated by many operational centres around the world. The Baltic-North Sea region is one of the most heavily monitored seas. Ferryboxes, buoys, ADCP moorings, shallow water Argo floats, and research vessels are providing more and more near-real time observations. Coastal altimetry has now providing increasing amount of high resolution sea level observations, which will be significantly expanded by the launch of SWOT satellite in next years. This will turn operational DA into a valuable tool for improving forecast quality in the region. This motivated us to focus on advancing DA for the Baltic Monitoring and Forecasting Centre (BAL MFC) in order to create a common framework for operational data assimilation in the Baltic Sea. We have implemented HBM-PDAF system based on the Parallel Data Assimilation Framework (PDAF), a highly versatile and optimised parallel suit with a choice of sequential schemes originally developed at AWI, and a hydrodynamic HIROMB-BOOS Model (HBM). At initial phase, only the satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Level 3 data has been assimilated. Several related aspects are discussed, including improvements of the forecast quality for both surface and subsurface fields, the estimation of ensemble-based forecast error covariance, as well as possibilities of assimilating new types of observations, such as in-situ salinity and temperature profiles, coastal altimetry, and ice concentration.

  12. Causes of different impact of Major Baltic Inflows on cod reproduction in the Gotland Basin of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaseva, E. M.; Zezera, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    The impact of the Major Baltic Inflows (MBIs) of 1976, 1993, and 2003 on cod reproduction in the Gotland Basin of the Baltic Sea is considered based on calculations of the eastern Baltic cod egg abundance and offspring survival indices. The reproductive success (1976-1977) was defined by the elevation of the 11 psu isohaline and deepening of the 2 mL/L isooxygene surface, which provided the formation of a water layer suitable for cod spawning at a depth of 90-130 m. Prerequisites of the appearance of the reproductive layer in 1976-1977 were a previously high salinity level and penetrating two successive MBIs in one year. The cause of the weak MBI impact in 1993 was the previous salinity minimum; in 2003 it was rapid oxygen depletion due to an increase in temperature. As a result of their weaker influence, small and fragmented cod spawning biotopes appeared in the Gotland Basin.

  13. Emergence of the Zoonotic Biliary Trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum in Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Anders; Bignert, Anders; Höglund, Johan; Lundström, Karl; Strömberg, Annika; Bäcklin, Britt-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The biliary trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum parasitizes a wide range of fish-eating mammals, including humans. Here we report the emergence of this parasite in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the Baltic Sea. One hundred eighty-three of 1 554 grey seals (11.9%) examined from 2002–2013 had detectable hepatobiliary trematode infection. Parasite identification was confirmed as P. truncatum by sequencing the ITS2 region of a pool of five to 10 trematodes from each of ten seals collected off the coast of seven different Swedish counties. The proportion of seals parasitized by P. truncatum increased significantly over time and with increasing age of seals. Males were 3.1 times more likely to be parasitized than females and animals killed in fishery interactions were less likely to be parasitized than animals found dead or hunted. There was no significant difference in parasitism of seals examined from the Gulf of Bothnia versus those examined from the Baltic Proper. Although the majority of infections were mild, P. truncatum can cause severe hepatobiliary disease and resulted in liver failure in at least one seal. Because cyprinid fish are the second intermediate host for opisthorchiid trematodes, diets of grey seals from the Baltic Sea were analysed regarding presence of cyprinids. The proportion of gastrointestinal tracts containing cyprinid remains was ten times higher in seals examined from 2008 to 2013 (12.2%) than those examined from 2002 to 2007 (1.2%) and coincided with a general increase of trematode parasitism in the host population. The emergence and relatively common occurrence of P. truncatum in grey seals signals the presence of this parasite in the Baltic Sea ecosystem and demonstrates how aquatic mammals can serve as excellent sentinels of marine ecosystem change. Investigation of drivers behind P. truncatum emergence and infection risk for other mammals, including humans, is highly warranted. PMID:27755567

  14. Emergence of the Zoonotic Biliary Trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum in Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Neimanis, Aleksija S; Moraeus, Charlotta; Bergman, Anders; Bignert, Anders; Höglund, Johan; Lundström, Karl; Strömberg, Annika; Bäcklin, Britt-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The biliary trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum parasitizes a wide range of fish-eating mammals, including humans. Here we report the emergence of this parasite in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the Baltic Sea. One hundred eighty-three of 1 554 grey seals (11.9%) examined from 2002-2013 had detectable hepatobiliary trematode infection. Parasite identification was confirmed as P. truncatum by sequencing the ITS2 region of a pool of five to 10 trematodes from each of ten seals collected off the coast of seven different Swedish counties. The proportion of seals parasitized by P. truncatum increased significantly over time and with increasing age of seals. Males were 3.1 times more likely to be parasitized than females and animals killed in fishery interactions were less likely to be parasitized than animals found dead or hunted. There was no significant difference in parasitism of seals examined from the Gulf of Bothnia versus those examined from the Baltic Proper. Although the majority of infections were mild, P. truncatum can cause severe hepatobiliary disease and resulted in liver failure in at least one seal. Because cyprinid fish are the second intermediate host for opisthorchiid trematodes, diets of grey seals from the Baltic Sea were analysed regarding presence of cyprinids. The proportion of gastrointestinal tracts containing cyprinid remains was ten times higher in seals examined from 2008 to 2013 (12.2%) than those examined from 2002 to 2007 (1.2%) and coincided with a general increase of trematode parasitism in the host population. The emergence and relatively common occurrence of P. truncatum in grey seals signals the presence of this parasite in the Baltic Sea ecosystem and demonstrates how aquatic mammals can serve as excellent sentinels of marine ecosystem change. Investigation of drivers behind P. truncatum emergence and infection risk for other mammals, including humans, is highly warranted.

  15. Effects of the 2014 Major Baltic Inflow on methane dynamics in the water column of the Central Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Jilbert, Tom; Jakobs, Gunnar; Rehder, Gregor; Hietanen, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a brackish water body which exhibits strong salinity stratification between its almost fresh surface and the comparatively high salinity deep waters. Due to this stratification, the sub-halocline deep waters are insulated from the surface and are typically anoxic and contain large amounts of methane. Deep water renewal occurs predominantly by irregular inflow phenomena, during which specific meteorological conditions cause large amounts of oxic and highly saline North Sea water to enter the Baltic via the Danish straits. In late 2014, the third largest inflow ever recorded entered the Baltic Sea and caused considerable changes in the southern and central Baltic water column oxygen conditions and consequently also in the deep-water methane pool. We studied these changes during 2015 on six cruises spanning between March and December. Following the inflow, methane that had previously accumulated in the stagnant deep waters was largely removed over a period of several months. Based on methane oxidation rate measurements, stable isotope data and comparisons to changes in corresponding phosphate inventories, we show strong evidence that most of the methane removal observed was due microbial oxidation. The intruding water masses interacted with the old stagnant water masses, creating complex redox environments, which seemed ideal for microbial oxidation of methane. However, a considerable amount of methane was also removed by physical displacement to other parts of the Baltic Sea, the relative importance of these two process changing over time. By the end of 2015, the deep waters were turning anoxic again and methane started accumulating, indicating that the ability of the inflow to ventilate the Baltic Sea was relatively short-lived.

  16. Animal diversity in Baltic rocky shore macroalgae: can Cladophora glomerata compensate for lost Fucus vesiculosus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraufvelin, Patrik; Salovius, Sonja

    2004-10-01

    The substitution of canopy-forming perennial algae by annual filamentous algae is a common phenomenon on eutrophicated rocky shores with potential consequences for marine biodiversity. In the upper littoral of the northern Baltic Sea, this process is exemplified by decreased occurrence of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus and increased amounts of filamentous algae (e.g. Cladophora glomerata and Pilayella littoralis). In this study, macrofauna communities of F. vesiculosus and C. glomerata during summer have been compared and the effects on littoral macroinvertebrates of a total or partial replacement of F. vesiculosus by C. glomerata have been estimated. The animal abundance and biomass were higher in C. glomerata than in corresponding amounts of F. vesiculosus (g dwt). Similar results were also obtained when animal abundance and biomass were extrapolated to algal cover per m 2 rocky substrate in the study area. Margalef's species richness was, on the other hand, higher in F. vesiculosus, whereas the Shannon-Wiener diversity was the same. The results indicate that C. glomerata maintains a high diversity of macroinvertebrates in the upper littoral zone of the northern Baltic Sea during summer. A possible substitution of F. vesiculosus by C. glomerata does not immediately affect macroinvertebrate diversity negatively in the littoral zone, although, it is difficult to assess the full consequences due to lack of comparable algal data at wider temporal and spatial scales.

  17. Application of Empirical Wave Run-Up Formulas to the Polish Baltic Sea Coast

    PubMed Central

    Paprotny, Dominik; Andrzejewski, Paweł; Terefenko, Paweł; Furmańczyk, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    Advanced, multidimensional models are typically applied when researching processes occurring in the nearshore. Relatively simple, empirical equations are commonly used in coastal engineering practice in order to estimate extreme wave run-up on beaches and coastal structures. However, they were mostly calibrated to the characteristics of oceanic coasts, which have different wave regime than a semi-enclosed basin like the Baltic Sea. In this paper we apply the formulas to the Polish Baltic Sea coast. The equations were adjusted to match local conditions in two test sites in Międzyzdroje and Dziwnówek, where beaches are under continuous video surveillance. Data from WAM wave model and coastal gauge stations were used, as well as precise measurements of the beaches' cross-sections. More than 600 run-up events spanning from June to December 2013 were analysed, including surges causing dune erosion. Extreme wave run-up R2% was calculated and presented as a percentage value indicating what part of the beach was inundated. The method had a root-mean-square error of 6.1 and 6.5 percentage points depending on the test site. We consider it is a fast and computationally undemanding alternative to morphodynamic models. It will constitute a part of the SatBałtyk Operating System-Shores, delivering forecasts of wave run-up on the beaches for the entire Polish coastline. PMID:25137155

  18. Application of empirical wave run-up formulas to the Polish Baltic Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Paprotny, Dominik; Andrzejewski, Paweł; Terefenko, Paweł; Furmańczyk, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    Advanced, multidimensional models are typically applied when researching processes occurring in the nearshore. Relatively simple, empirical equations are commonly used in coastal engineering practice in order to estimate extreme wave run-up on beaches and coastal structures. However, they were mostly calibrated to the characteristics of oceanic coasts, which have different wave regime than a semi-enclosed basin like the Baltic Sea. In this paper we apply the formulas to the Polish Baltic Sea coast. The equations were adjusted to match local conditions in two test sites in Międzyzdroje and Dziwnówek, where beaches are under continuous video surveillance. Data from WAM wave model and coastal gauge stations were used, as well as precise measurements of the beaches' cross-sections. More than 600 run-up events spanning from June to December 2013 were analysed, including surges causing dune erosion. Extreme wave run-up R2% was calculated and presented as a percentage value indicating what part of the beach was inundated. The method had a root-mean-square error of 6.1 and 6.5 percentage points depending on the test site. We consider it is a fast and computationally undemanding alternative to morphodynamic models. It will constitute a part of the SatBałtyk Operating System-Shores, delivering forecasts of wave run-up on the beaches for the entire Polish coastline.

  19. Arsenic concentrations in Baltic Sea sediments close to chemical munitions dumpsites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bełdowski, Jacek; Szubska, Marta; Emelyanov, Emelyan; Garnaga, Galina; Drzewińska, Anna; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Vanninen, Paula; Östin, Anders; Fabisiak, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    In addition to natural sources and land-originated pollution, the Baltic Sea has another anthropogenic source of arsenic in bottom sediments-arsenic-based Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA). To examine the potential usage of arsenic contents results for monitoring the leakage from chemical weapons, sediment samples were collected from officially reported and potential chemical weapon dumpsites located in the Baltic Sea, and total and inorganic arsenic concentrations were analyzed. Results showed an elevated arsenic content in dumpsite areas compared to reference areas. Correlations of arsenic with other metals and organic matter were studied to elucidate any unusual behavior of arsenic in the dumpsites. In the area of the Bornholm Deep, such behavior was observed for inorganic arsenic. It appears that in close vicinity of dumped munitions, the inorganic arsenic concentration of sediments is not correlated with either organic matter content or authigenic minerals formation, as is commonly observed elsewhere. Investigations on CWA concentrations, performed within the CHEMSEA (Chemical Munition Search and Assesment) project, allowed us to compare the results of arsenic concentrations with the occurrence of arsenic-containing CWA.

  20. A Less Saline Baltic Sea Promotes Cyanobacterial Growth, Hampers Intracellular Microcystin Production, and Leads to Strain-Specific Differences in Allelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Brutemark, Andreas; Vandelannoote, Angélique; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Suikkanen, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the main factors that explain the distribution of species in the Baltic Sea. Increased precipitation and consequent increase in freshwater inflow is predicted to decrease salinity in some areas of the Baltic Sea. Clearly such changes may have profound effects on the organisms living there. Here we investigate the response of the commonly occurring cyanobacterium Dolichospermum spp. to three salinities, 0, 3 and 6. For the three strains tested we recorded growth, intracellular toxicity (microcystin) and allelopathic properties. We show that Dolichospermum can grow in all the three salinities tested with highest growth rates in the lowest salinity. All strains showed allelopathic potential and it differed significantly between strains and salinities, but was highest in the intermediate salinity and lowest in freshwater. Intracellular toxin concentration was highest in salinity 6. In addition, based on monitoring data from the northern Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland, we show that salinity has decreased, while Dolichospermum spp. biomass has increased between 1979 and 2013. Thus, based on our experimental findings it is evident that salinity plays a large role in Dolichospermum growth, allelopathic properties and toxicity. In combination with our long-term data analyses, we conclude that decreasing salinity is likely to result in a more favourable environment for Dolichospermum spp. in some areas of the Baltic Sea. PMID:26042598

  1. A less saline Baltic Sea promotes cyanobacterial growth, hampers intracellular microcystin production, and leads to strain-specific differences in allelopathy.

    PubMed

    Brutemark, Andreas; Vandelannoote, Angélique; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Suikkanen, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the main factors that explain the distribution of species in the Baltic Sea. Increased precipitation and consequent increase in freshwater inflow is predicted to decrease salinity in some areas of the Baltic Sea. Clearly such changes may have profound effects on the organisms living there. Here we investigate the response of the commonly occurring cyanobacterium Dolichospermum spp. to three salinities, 0, 3 and 6. For the three strains tested we recorded growth, intracellular toxicity (microcystin) and allelopathic properties. We show that Dolichospermum can grow in all the three salinities tested with highest growth rates in the lowest salinity. All strains showed allelopathic potential and it differed significantly between strains and salinities, but was highest in the intermediate salinity and lowest in freshwater. Intracellular toxin concentration was highest in salinity 6. In addition, based on monitoring data from the northern Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland, we show that salinity has decreased, while Dolichospermum spp. biomass has increased between 1979 and 2013. Thus, based on our experimental findings it is evident that salinity plays a large role in Dolichospermum growth, allelopathic properties and toxicity. In combination with our long-term data analyses, we conclude that decreasing salinity is likely to result in a more favourable environment for Dolichospermum spp. in some areas of the Baltic Sea.

  2. Anisakids of seals found on the southern coast of Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak, Michał; Rokicki, Jerzy; Pawliczka, Iwona; Najda, Katarzyna; Dzido, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    In the present study 5 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), 3 common seals (Phoca vitulina) and 1 ringed seal (Pusa hispida) bycaught or stranded on the Polish Baltic Sea coast in years 2000-2006 were investigated for the infestation of parasitic anisakid nematodes. 749 of anisakids were found. The most common were: Contracaecum osculatum (59.3%) and Pseudoterranova decipiens (31.0%). There were also small numbers of Anisakis simplex (0.8%). After performing RFLP three sibling species were found. C. osculatum was identified as C. osculatum C, P decipiens was identified as P. decipiens sensu stricto and A. simplex - A. simplex sensu stricto. Nematodes found in seals were mostly in L4 and adult life stage - both of them were equal with some minor variations among the specimens. Sex ratio was also equal, but there was slight excess of males in some cases. There was a minority of L3 larvae belonging to A. simplex species (0.8%).

  3. The Professionalisation of Adult Educators in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jogi, Larissa; Gross, Marin

    2009-01-01

    Adult education and lifelong learning together form one of the priorities for development in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The important historical and social context in which the professional development of adult educators has been taking place in the Baltic States since they regained their independence in the 1990s is the changes that occurred…

  4. Clustering in Engineering Education in the Baltic Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Andreas; Zascerinska, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The contemporary situation in the Baltic region, namely, the lack of working places due to the structural problems, a high unemployment rate, the migration of highly qualified people and the low rate of self-employees, demands on innovation as an engine of the economic development with a strong impact on sustainable development in the European…

  5. Attribution of storm surge events in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klehmet, Katharina; Burkhardt, Rockel

    2016-04-01

    In November 1995 and 2006 severe storm surges occurred along the German Baltic Sea coast. Water level heights of 1.8 m above sea level were observed at tide gauges in German coastal cities as e.g. Wismar and Flensburg. Within the attribution science an interesting aspect to consider is whether individual extreme events of e.g. heat waves, droughts or storm surges can be related to human-induced climate change or natural climate variability. The question arises whether these individual storm surges of 1995 and 2006 in the Baltic Sea have changed due to human influence on climate or whether the knowledge is still too vague to obtain robust information of attribution. We explore this question using two 15-member ensembles of Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 3-A (HadGEM3-A) as atmospheric forcing data for the regional ocean model TRIM-NP to downscale with 12.8 km spatial resolution and to calculate water level in the Baltic Sea. The ensemble of HadGEM3-A consists of two multi-decadal experiments from 1960-2013 - one with and one without anthropogenic forcings representing the actual and the natural climate respectively. This study, which is part of the EUCLEIA project (EUropean CLimate and weather Events: Interpretation and Attribution), will describe assessments of the human influence on the probability of occurrence of storm surge events in the German Baltic Sea.

  6. Hot and Cold Ethnicities in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehala, Martin; Zabrodskaja, Anastassia

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the temperatures of the main ethnic groups in the Baltic states: Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, and their three Russian-speaking communities, and the Latgalian and Polish minority groups in Latvia and Lithuania, respectively. The study uses a triangulated methodology that includes a survey questionnaire for quantitative…

  7. Organic carbon burial rates in the Baltic Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winogradow, A.; Pempkowiak, J.

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies indicate the important role of the marine environment in the circulation of CO2. This is due to the occurrence of the so called "biological pump" mechanism. A special role in this process is played by the shelf seas. The paper presents estimates of organic carbon burial rates in the Baltic Sea sediments. Quantification of the burial rate required the determination of organic carbon accumulation rate to the Baltic sediments and the carbon return flux from sediments to the water column. Results of both sediment and mass accumulation rates as well as profiles of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were used. Sediment accumulation rates were based on 210Pb method validated by 137Cs measurements and ranged from 66 g m-2 yr-1 to 744 g m-2 yr-1 as regards mass accumulation rates and from 0.07 cm yr-1 to 0.25 cm yr-1 as regards linear accumulation rates. Carbon deposition to the Baltic sediments amounts to 1.955 ± 0.585 Tg m-2 yr-1, while 0.759 ± 0.020 g m-2 yr-1 of carbon returns from sediments to the water column. Thus the organic carbon burial rate in the Baltic Sea sediments is equal to 1.197 ± 0.584 Tg C m-2 yr-1.

  8. Hot and Cold Ethnicities in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehala, Martin; Zabrodskaja, Anastassia

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the temperatures of the main ethnic groups in the Baltic states: Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, and their three Russian-speaking communities, and the Latgalian and Polish minority groups in Latvia and Lithuania, respectively. The study uses a triangulated methodology that includes a survey questionnaire for quantitative…

  9. Early life migration patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius.

    PubMed

    Rohtla, M; Vetemaa, M; Urtson, K; Soesoo, A

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the movement patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius in Matsalu Bay, Estonia, using otolith microchemistry. Migration patterns of E. lucius were remarkably diverse, but distinct groups were evident. Of the E. lucius analysed (n = 28), 82% hatched in fresh water and 74% of them left this biotope during the first growth season.

  10. Organic compounds in the water column of the eastern Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Nesterova, M.P.; Pustel'nikov, O.S.

    1987-11-01

    This article describes the transport, distribution, concentration, chemistry, environmental consequences, and chemical control strategies of organic wastes--including waste hydrocarbons, industrial effluents and oil spills--in the Baltic Sea and in the regions along its shorelines. Data on seasonal and compositional variations in organic waste content are provided.

  11. Breaker zone aerosol dynamics in the southern Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, T.; Zielinski, A.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the results of lidar based investigations of aerosol concentrations and their size distributions over the breaker zones. The measurements were carried out under various weather conditions over breaker zones of the Gulf of Gdansk (1992) and from a station on the open Baltic Sea (International Experiment BAEX in 1993).

  12. Diversity of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (Cyanobacterium) Populations along a Baltic Sea Salinity Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Laamanen, Maria J.; Forsström, Laura; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2002-01-01

    Colony-forming cyanobacteria of the genus Aphanizomenon form massive blooms in the brackish water of the Baltic Sea during the warmest summer months. There have been recent suggestions claiming that the Baltic Sea Aphanizomenon species may be different from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae found in lakes. In this study, we examined variability in the morphology and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of A. flos-aquae populations along a salinity gradient from a string of lakes to a fjord-like extension of the Baltic Sea to the open Baltic Sea. Morphological differences among the populations were negligible. We found that the Baltic Sea was dominated (25 out of 27 sequences) by one ITS1-S (shorter band of ITS 1 [ITS1]) genotype, which also was found in the lakes. The lake populations of A. flos-aquae tended to be genetically more diverse than the Baltic Sea populations. Since the lake ITS1-S genotypes of A. flos-aquae are continuously introduced to the Baltic Sea via inflowing waters, it seems that only one ITS1 genotype is able to persist in the Baltic Sea populations. The results suggest that one of the ITS1-S genotypes found in the lakes is better adapted to the conditions of the Baltic Sea and that natural selection removes most of the lake genotypes from the Baltic Sea A. flos-aquae populations. PMID:12406717

  13. Diversity of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (cyanobacterium) populations along a Baltic Sea salinity gradient.

    PubMed

    Laamanen, Maria J; Forsström, Laura; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2002-11-01

    Colony-forming cyanobacteria of the genus Aphanizomenon form massive blooms in the brackish water of the Baltic Sea during the warmest summer months. There have been recent suggestions claiming that the Baltic Sea Aphanizomenon species may be different from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae found in lakes. In this study, we examined variability in the morphology and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of A. flos-aquae populations along a salinity gradient from a string of lakes to a fjord-like extension of the Baltic Sea to the open Baltic Sea. Morphological differences among the populations were negligible. We found that the Baltic Sea was dominated (25 out of 27 sequences) by one ITS1-S (shorter band of ITS 1 [ITS1]) genotype, which also was found in the lakes. The lake populations of A. flos-aquae tended to be genetically more diverse than the Baltic Sea populations. Since the lake ITS1-S genotypes of A. flos-aquae are continuously introduced to the Baltic Sea via inflowing waters, it seems that only one ITS1 genotype is able to persist in the Baltic Sea populations. The results suggest that one of the ITS1-S genotypes found in the lakes is better adapted to the conditions of the Baltic Sea and that natural selection removes most of the lake genotypes from the Baltic Sea A. flos-aquae populations.

  14. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jørgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; IODP expedition 347 scientific party, the

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial-interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north. The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During the Weichselian, progressing glaciers reshaped the submarine landscape and displaced sedimentary deposits from earlier Quaternary time. As the glaciers retreated they left a complex pattern of till, sand, and lacustrine clay, which in the basins has since been covered by a thick deposit of Holocene, organic-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly impacted by terrestrial runoff and nutrient fluxes. The Holocene deposits are recorded today to be up to 50 m deep and geochemically affected by diagenetic alterations driven by organic matter degradation. Many of the cored sequences were highly supersaturated with respect to methane, which caused strong degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to

  15. Postglacial paleoceanographic environments in the Barents and Baltic seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, E. V.; Murdmaa, I. O.; Emelyanov, E. M.; Seitkalieva, E. A.; Radionova, E. P.; Alekhina, G. N.; Sloistov, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents reconstructions of ice sheet boundaries, lacustrine and marine paleobasins, as well as the connections of the Barents and Baltic seas with the North Atlantic from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene. The reconstructions are based on original and published data obtained from the northern and western parts of the Barents Sea and Baltic depressions with account for the available regional schematic maps of deglaciation. The early deglaciation of the Scandinavian-Barents ice sheet culminated with the Bølling-Allerød interstadial (14.5-12.9 cal ka BP), which was characterized by a more vigorous Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and a corresponding increase in surface Atlantic water inflow into the Barents Sea through deep troughs. The Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) remained a dammed-up isolated basin during deglaciation from 16.0 to 11.7 cal ka BP. In the Younger Dryas (YD), the lake drained into the North Sea and was replaced by a brackish Yoldia Sea (YS) at the beginning of the Holocene (Preboreal, 11.7-10.7 cal ka BP), due to a limited connection between two basins through the Närke Strait. In the Barents Sea, the next increase in the Atlantic water influx into the deep basins corresponded to terminal YD and Preboreal events with a culmination in the Early Holocene. The Yoldia Sea became a lake again during the next stage, the Ancylus (~10.7-8.8 cal ka BP). Atlantic water inflow both into the Barents and Baltic seas varied during the Holocene, with a maximum contribution in the Early Holocene, when the Littorina Sea (LS, 8-4 cal ka BP) connection with the North Sea via the Danish Straits was formed to replace the Ancylus Lake. The recent, post-Littorina stage (PS, the last 4 cal ka) of the Baltic Sea evolution began in the Late Holocene.

  16. An international scope of the regional journal Baltic Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartasiute, Stanislava

    2015-08-01

    The internationalization of publishing has been progressing in most fields of science, including astronomy and physics in particular. Along with high quality journals having a completely international readership, national and regional journals represent a significant part in number, whereas their average impact is very diverse and not always competitive. Based mainly on the Web of Science data, we will give a comparative analysis of astronomy journals published in/for countries with relatively small astronomical communities, such as Baltic and some Eastern European. Bibliometric statistics will be presented of one of such journals, Baltic Astronomy, established in 1992 as a result of cooperation between astronomers of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. Since the first years of publishing this journal has been evolving from regional to the more internationalized status. The list of countries of contributing authors has expanded to 54, while only 19% of the articles are from the three Baltic countries, mainly from Lithuania (14%) and, to a much lesser extent, from Estonia (3%) and Latvia (2%). Recognizing the inadequacies of national and regional bases for dissemination and exchange of scientific information, the Baltic astronomical communities themselves move, however, towards internationalization: in international journals Latvia publishes twice and Estonia nearly ten times more articles than they do in Baltic Astronomy. Meanwhile Lithuanian astronomers publish nearly the same number of articles both outside and inside the region. In the light of progress being made toward consolidation of scholarly publications, a choice between a national/regional and international basis for publishing is becoming more decisive for the future of national and regional astronomy journals.

  17. Sea ice in the Baltic Sea - revisiting BASIS ice, a~historical data set covering the period 1960/1961-1978/1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löptien, U.; Dietze, H.

    2014-06-01

    The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered, marginal sea, situated in central northern Europe. It is an essential waterway connecting highly industrialised countries. Because ship traffic is intermittently hindered by sea ice, the local weather services have been monitoring sea ice conditions for decades. In the present study we revisit a historical monitoring data set, covering the winters 1960/1961. This data set, dubbed Data Bank for Baltic Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperatures (BASIS) ice, is based on hand-drawn maps that were collected and then digitised 1981 in a joint project of the Finnish Institute of Marine Research (today Finish Meteorological Institute (FMI)) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). BASIS ice was designed for storage on punch cards and all ice information is encoded by five digits. This makes the data hard to access. Here we present a post-processed product based on the original five-digit code. Specifically, we convert to standard ice quantities (including information on ice types), which we distribute in the current and free Network Common Data Format (NetCDF). Our post-processed data set will help to assess numerical ice models and provide easy-to-access unique historical reference material for sea ice in the Baltic Sea. In addition we provide statistics showcasing the data quality. The website baltic-ocean.org"target="_blank">www.baltic-ocean.org hosts the post-prossed data and the conversion code. The data are also archived at the Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science PANGEA (doi:10.1594/PANGEA.832353).

  18. Spectral quantification of Southern Baltic seabed roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szefler, K.; Tegowski, J.; Nowak, J.

    2012-12-01

    The work presents the fast and efficient tool for seafloor classification, where scales and shapes of geomorphological forms were taken into account. The precise bathymetry and seafloor texture was developed with multibeam echosounder at six different areas of size up to 10 by 20 km. This areas demonstrate typical geomorphological seafloor features of bottom relief at the southern Baltic Sea coastal waters. The acoustical measurements were accompanied by geological sampling and video inspection. High resolution mosaic maps were obtained as a result of multi-survey measurements with maximal spatial resolution of 0.05m. Such accuracy of the measurements allows to observe small geomorphologic forms as ripplemarks or pebbles. The most investigated polygons have bottom relief of polygenetic origin with relicts of periglacial forms together with contemporary forms of marine origin. In the studied areas different forms of sand accumulation were found, beginning with small ripplemarks ending at big sandy waves. In the seabed erosion zones the bottom surface is rough and varied with clearly formed embankments, abrasive platforms, inselbergs and stony gravely abrasive pavements on the bottom surface. Such geomorphic diversity of the bottom surface has allowed for development of consistent geomorphological classification system based mainly on spectral properties of seafloor roughness. Each analysed area was divided into squares (200 by 200 m) with an overlap between adjacent subareas of 75% a square size. Next, subdivided areas were spectrally transformed using a two dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT). The spectral parameters as maximal value of spectral density function, spectral exponent and strength, spectral moments, mean frequency, spectral width and skewness for each characteristic type of bottom surface were determined relaying on the calculated 2D spectra. Moreover, other features characterised the corrugated surface as fractal dimension, radius of

  19. First measurements with Argo flots in the Southern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczowski, Waldemar; Goszczko, Ilona; Wieczorek, Piotr; Merchel, Malgorzata; Rak, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The Argo programme is one of the most important elements of the ocean observing system. Currently almost 4000 Argo floats profile global oceans and deliver real time data. Originally Argo floats were developed for open ocean observations. Therefore a standard float can dive up to 2000 m and deep Argo floats are under development. However in the last years the shallow shelf seas become also interesting for Argo users. Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences (IOPAN) participates in the Euro-Argo research infrastructure, the European contribution to Argo system. A legal and governance framework (Euro-Argo ERIC) was set up in May 2014. For a few years IOPAN has deployed floats mostly in the Nordic Seas and the European Arctic region. In the end of 2016 the first Polish Argo float was deployed in the Southern Baltic Sea. Building on the successful experience with Argo floats deployed by the Finnish oceanographers in the Bothnian Sea and Gotland Basin, the IOPAN float was launched in the Bornholm Deep during the fall cruise of IOPAN research vessel Oceania. The standard APEX float equipped with 2-way Iridium communication was used and different modes of operation, required for the specific conditions in the shallow and low saline Baltic Sea, were tested. Settings for the Baltic float are different than for the oceanic mode and were frequently changed during the mission to find the optimum solution. Changing the float parking depth during the mission allows for the limited control of the float drift direction. Results of a high resolution numerical forecast model for the Baltic Sea proved to be a valuable tool for determining the parking depth of the float in the different flow regimes. Trajectory and drift velocity of the Argo float deployed in the Southern Baltic depended strongly on the atmospheric forcing (in particular wind speed and direction), what was clearly manifested during the 'Axel' storm passing over the deployment area in January 2017. The first

  20. Population structure of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Baltic Sea: differences among demersal and pelagic spawners.

    PubMed

    Florin, A-B; Höglund, J

    2008-07-01

    We found significant population structure and isolation by distance among samples of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Baltic, Kattegat and Skagerrak seas using microsatellite genetic markers. This pattern was almost entirely due to a difference between flounder that have demersal spawning in the northern Baltic, as compared to pelagic spawners in the southern Baltic and on the west coast of Sweden. Among demersal spawners we found neither genetic differentiation nor any isolation by distance among sampling sites. We speculate that demersal flounder are descendants of a population that colonized the Baltic previous to pelagic spawners. The demersal flounder may thus have had longer time to adapt to the low salinity in the Baltic, and accordingly display egg characteristics that make it possible to reproduce at the low salinity levels in the northern Baltic. Among pelagic spawners significant isolation by distance was detected. Pelagic spawners have previously been shown to display clinal variation in egg size, which allows them to float also at the moderate salinity levels up to the region north of the island Bornholm. Management units for harvesting should ideally be based on true biological populations, and for the commercially important flounder up to 15 different management stocks in the Baltic have been suggested. We could not find a population genetic foundation for such a high number of management units, and our data suggest three management units: the northern Baltic (demersal populations), southern Baltic with the Oresund straits and the most northwestern sampling sites (Skagerrak, Kattegat and North Sea).

  1. Fishing cod in the Baltic Sea - Gambling with the ecosystem services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björkman, Sven; Nordlöf, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The population of cod in the Baltic sea has over the last decades decreased due to overfishing. To make the students aware of this problem and also to find a solution they are introduced to a game. The purpose of the game is to let the students know how to use renewable natural resources in these aspects; 1 Fishing cod without using it up 2 That solidarity is needed if you are sharing a resource 3 That cooperation is the key to keeping a natural resource healthy. The students are fishermen in group of four and are equipped with a boat. The playing board is a map over the Baltic sea. The rules of the game include the carrying capacity of the sea, how much fish one fishing boat is allowed to pick up, how much it costs to have a boat, and possibilities to buy a bigger boat. The game has two rounds: In round one the students in the group are competing against each other, they are not allowed to talk to each other and they are supposed to get as much fish as they can. As a consequence after round one the sea will become empty. In round two the groups compete with each other and they are coworking within the group. After this round the result is different from the first round. The catches are bigger than in round one and still there are cod left in the sea, which will generate a good fishing in the future.. The discussions after the game can be about why the two rounds ended so different, general discussion about "tragedy of the commons", sustainable use of ecosystem services and discussions about resources in common.

  2. Mercury in water and sediments of the southern Baltic sea.

    PubMed

    Pempkowiak, J; Cossa, D; Sikora, A; Sanjuan, J

    1998-06-10

    Total mercury concentrations [HgT] were measured in samples of water and sediments collected from the southern Baltic Sea from the period 1993-1995. Picomolar concentrations of HgT were found in offshore surface water. Higher levels were measured in samples from the plum of the Vistula. An exceptionally high concentration of mercury (25 pM HgT, 5 pM methylmercury) was measured in the near bottom, quasi-anoxic water of the Gdañsk Deep and explained by the release of mercury from fine grained sediments covering the bottom. In the sediments, the largest contents of HgT were found in fine grained, organic rich deposits of the Baltic deeps. The increase in mercury contents in the upper layers of sediments deposited within the last 100-150 years was attributed to the anthropogenic load of mercury and its increased scavenging to sediments with organic matter.

  3. Evaluation of Baltic Sea transport properties using particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dargahi, Bijan; Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Particle tracking model (PTM) is an effective tool for quantifying transport properties of large water bodies such as the Baltic Sea. We have applied PTM to our fully calibrated and validated Baltic Sea 3D hydrodynamic model for a 10-years period (2000-9). One hundred particles were released at a constant rate during an initial 10-days period from all the Baltic Sea sub-basins, the major rivers, and the open boundary in the Arkona Basin. In each basin, the particles were released at two different depths corresponding to the deep water and middle water layers. The objectives of the PTM simulations were to analyse the intra-exchange processes between the Baltic Sea basins and to estimate the arrival times and the paths of particles released from the rivers. The novel contribution of this study is determining the paths and arrival times of deeper water masses rather than the surface masses. Advective and diffusive transport processes in the Bornholm and Arkona basins are both driven by the interacting flows of the northern basins of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. Particles released from Arkona basin flows northwards along the Stople Channel. The Gotland basins are the major contributors to the exchange process in the Baltic Sea. We find high values of the advection ratio, indicative of a forced advective transport process. The Bay of Gdansk is probably the most vulnerable region in the Baltic Sea. This is despite the fact that the main exchanging basins are the Bornholm Sea and the Easter Gotland Basin. The main reason is the intensive supply of the particles from the northern basins that normally take about 3000 days to reach the Bay of Gdansk. The process maintains a high level of particle concentration (90%) along its coastlines even after the 10-years period. Comparing the particle paths in the Western and Eastern Gotland basins two interesting features were found. Particles travelled in all four directions in the former basin and the middle layer particles

  4. Plastic pollution on the Baltic beaches of Kaliningrad region, Russia.

    PubMed

    Esiukova, Elena

    2017-01-30

    Contamination of sandy beaches of the Baltic Sea in Kaliningrad region is evaluated on the base of surveys carried out from June 2015 to January 2016. Quantity of macro/meso/microplastic objects in the upper 2cm of the sandy sediments of the wrack zone at 13 sampling sites all along the Russian coast is reported. Occurrence of paraffin and amber pieces at the same sites is pointed out. Special attention is paid to microplastics (range 0.5-5mm): its content ranges between 1.3 and 36.3 items per kg dry sediment. The prevailing found type is foamed plastic. No sound differences in contamination are discovered between beaches with high and low anthropogenic load. Mean level of contamination is of the same order of magnitude as has been reported by other authors for the Baltic Sea beaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The ethno-demographic status of the Baltic States.

    PubMed

    Mezs, I; Bunkse, E; Rasa, K

    1994-05-01

    "The essay examines historic and current ethnodemographic trends in spatial and cultural contexts in the Baltic States. Fifty years of Soviet rule, with deliberate policies to dilute the relative homogeneity of the Balts through ethnocide, in-migration, and political dominance by Moscow, has left tensions between citizens of the Baltic States and illegal immigrants, mostly Russians. Estonians, and Latvians, in particular, fear ethnic and cultural extinction. The process of ethnic dilution and mixing under the Soviets is examined in terms of rural-urban contexts, the workplace, employment, housing, and education. Europe's smallest ethnic group, the Livs of Latvia, is also examined. Current demographic trends are analysed and prospects for ethnic harmony in these multi-ethnic societies are interpreted. A recurrent theme is that Latvia, with 52% of the population Latvian, is facing the most difficulties; Lithuania, with 80% Lithuanians, the least."

  6. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Agneta

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4oC warming and 50-80% decreasing ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30% in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants. Salinity will decrease by about 2 units. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favoured by AOM while phytoplankton may become hampered. More trophic levels in the food web will increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as effects of anthrophogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach and encompass both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g. bacterial) processes.

  7. Reconstructing the development of Baltic sea eutrophication 1850-2006.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Bo G; Schenk, Frederik; Blenckner, Thorsten; Eilola, Kari; Meier, H E Markus; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Neumann, Thomas; Ruoho-Airola, Tuija; Savchuk, Oleg P; Zorita, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    A comprehensive reconstruction of the Baltic Sea state from 1850 to 2006 is presented: driving forces are reconstructed and the evolution of the hydrography and biogeochemical cycles is simulated using the model BALTSEM. Driven by high resolution atmospheric forcing fields (HiResAFF), BALTSEM reproduces dynamics of salinity, temperature, and maximum ice extent. Nutrient loads have been increasing with a noteworthy acceleration from the 1950s until peak values around 1980 followed by a decrease continuing up to present. BALTSEM shows a delayed response to the massive load increase with most eutrophic conditions occurring only at the end of the simulation. This is accompanied by an intensification of the pelagic cycling driven by a shift from spring to summer primary production. The simulation indicates that no improvement in water quality of the Baltic Sea compared to its present state can be expected from the decrease in nutrient loads in recent decades.

  8. Parental vaccine concerns in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael J; Woods, Charles R; Marshall, Gary S

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of parents are questioning the safety and necessity of routine childhood immunizations. Locally produced vaccine risk communication materials may be effective in reassuring these parents. However, little is known about specific vaccine safety concerns in the state of Kentucky. An Internet-based survey focusing on parental vaccine safety concerns and potential vaccine risk communication strategies was sent to all members of the Kentucky Chapter of the Amerian Academy of Pediatrics. There were 121 respondents who routinely administered childhood vaccines. Of these, 85% reported parental concern about the combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Concerns about the influenza and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were also frequent. Of the respondents, 46% noted parental skepticism about all vaccines in general. However, refusal of all vaccines was uncommon in most practices (median 1%, interquartile range 1%-3%). The belief that vaccines cause autism was the most prevalent parental concern, reported by 70% of pediatricians. Physicians also reported that a list of reliable vaccine information Websites and pamphlets addressing common vaccine safety concerns would be the most helpful materials to use during their discussions with concerned parents. These findings suggest that specific information about the MMR, influenza, and HPV vaccines, as well as data refuting the putative link between vaccines and autism would be useful to physicians who administer vaccinations. Respondents were especially interested in reliable vaccine information on the Internet. The Websites listed below offer accurate scientific information about vaccines and the diseases they prevent.

  9. Characterisation of juvenile flatfish habitats in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florin, Ann-Britt; Sundblad, Göran; Bergström, Ulf

    2009-04-01

    Survival and growth of the earliest life-stages is considered a key factor in determining the abundance of many marine fish species. For flatfishes, the availability of high quality nursery areas is essential for successful recruitment. Regarding the Baltic Sea, there are large gaps in knowledge on factors that influence the distribution of flatfishes during this sensitive stage. To identify the characteristics of important nursery areas in the Baltic for flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Psetta maxima), a field survey with push net sampling was conducted in the northern Baltic proper during autumn 2006. The sampling stations were stratified to cover several different habitat types defined by substrate and wave exposure. Apart from density of young-of-the-year (YOY) flatfishes, a number of ecological characteristics of the habitat were recorded. Physical habitat variables included substrate type, salinity, depth, turbidity, vegetation and habitat structure. Variables describing biotic processes, such as prey availability and abundance of competitors, were also sampled. The relationships between the spatial distribution of species and these ecological characteristics were fitted to presence/absence data of juvenile flatfish using generalized additive models (GAM). The best habitat descriptors for flounder in order of contribution were: substrate, habitat structure, salinity, wave exposure and occurrence of filamentous algae. Positive effects of increasing wave exposure, salinity and structure were detected while a high cover of filamentous algae had a negative effect. Sand and gravel were preferred over soft and stony substrates. For turbot the best habitat descriptors in order of contribution were: occurrence of filamentous algae, substrate and turbidity. Turbot showed a preference for areas with a low cover of filamentous algae, high turbidity and sandy substrate. Prey availability and abundance of competitors were not included in the models, indicating

  10. On ecosystem-based regions in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojaveer, Evald; Kalejs, Margers

    2008-11-01

    Maintenance of diversity of life in the sea and supporting sustainable use of marine resources require an ecosystem approach. The principles of differentiation of large geographical units on the ecosystem basis that could be applied in research and for the assessment and management of ecosystems and resources in the Baltic Sea have not been satisfactorily formulated up to now. Long-term data series collected by the authors and literature sources were used to subdivide the Baltic Sea into regional ecosystem units. Ten regions (Kattegat, Belts and the Sound, Arkona, Southwest, Eastern and Northwest of the Baltic Proper, Gulf of Riga, Gulf of Finland, Bothnian Sea, Bothnian Bay) were differentiated, some of them including sub-regions. They were grouped into three macroregions (the Transition Area, Baltic Proper and Large Gulfs). Hydrodynamic and geomorphological characters and the areas of local populations of organisms developed as a result of adaptation of species to their habitats constituted the main basis of the division. Circular cyclonic density-dependent currents in the deeps facilitate levelling of the conditions and integrate ecosystems in the regions. They are also responsible for the establishment of the regional depots of nutrients. The nutrients for the biological production are supplied mainly via the zones of intense vertical mixing (high-energy zones) to the euphotic layer. The regions differ in essential environmental conditions. In the process of adaptation to their habitats fishes (herring Clupea harengus membras, sprat Sprattus sprattus balticus, cod Gadus morhua callarias, flounder Platichthys flesus trachurus etc.) and other organisms have developed infraspecific units. The ecosystems and infraspecific units of exploited species should be assessed and managed separately if their vital parameters significantly differ from one another.

  11. One hundred years of hydrographic measurements in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonselius, Stig; Valderrama, Jorge

    2003-06-01

    The first measurements of salinity of the deep water in the open Baltic Sea were made in the last decades of the 1800s. At a Scandinavian science meeting in Copenhagen in 1892, Professor Otto Pettersson from Sweden suggested that regular measurements of hydrographic parameters should be carried out at some important deep stations in the Baltic Sea. His suggestion was adopted and since that time we have rather complete hydrographical data from the Bornholm Deep, the Gotland Deep, and the Landsort Deep and from some stations in the Gulf of Bothnia. The measurements were interrupted in the Baltic Proper during the two World Wars. At the beginning only salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen were measured and one or two expeditions were carried out annually, mostly in summer. In the 1920s also alkalinity and pH were occasionally measured and total carbonate was calculated. A few nutrient measurements were also carried out. After World War II we find results from four or more expeditions every year and intercalibration of methods was arranged. Results of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen measurements from the Bornholm Deep, the Gotland Deep, the Landsort Deep and salinity measurements from three stations in the Gulf of Bothnia, covering the whole 20th century are presented and discussed. The salinity distribution and the variations between oxygen and hydrogen sulphide periods in the deep water of the Gotland Deep and the Landsort Deep are demonstrated. Series of phosphate and nitrate distribution in the Gotland Deep are shown from the 1950s to the present and the effects of the stagnant conditions are briefly discussed. Two large inflows of highly saline water, the first during the First World War and the second in 1951, are demonstrated. The 20th century minimum salinity of the bottom water in the Baltic Proper in 1992 is discussed.

  12. Towards an improved mechanistic understanding of major saltwater inflows into the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höflich, Katharina; Lehmann, Andreas; Myrberg, Kai

    2017-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed water body connected to the North Sea only via the shallow and narrow Danish Straits. Of special importance to the salinity and oxygen dynamics of the Baltic Sea are major Baltic inflows (or highly saline barotropic inflows), that are the only process to effectively ventilate water masses below the permanent halocline. Their occurrence is typically explained by a sequence of easterly winds over a period of several weeks followed by westerly gales during which the highly saline Kattegat water is pushed over the entrance sills. While this explanation is accurate in a descriptive sense, it does not necessarily serve as sufficient explanation for the occurrence of major Baltic inflows. Recently, attempts were made to understand major Baltic inflows in the context of large barotropic inflows and it was found that a sequence of easterly and westerly circulation types forces not only major Baltic inflows but large barotropic inflows in general. Thus, clarification on the factors that are exclusive to the formation of major Baltic inflows is needed. Based on a realistic numerical ocean model setup of the Baltic Sea system and for the period 1979-2015 we investigate on the important ingredients to the occurrence of major Baltic inflows. The analysis is based on the complete set of large barotropic inflows, and both atmospheric and oceanic factors are covered. We find that both, the salinity in the transition area between the North Sea and Baltic Sea, as well as details in the atmospheric circulation during the event, are of importance to the occurrence of major Baltic inflows. Even though excess river runoff is often held responsible for the occurrence of stagnation periods (i.e. extended periods without the occurrence of major Baltic inflows), attempts to classify its role were not made. Therefore, sensitivity experiments with the strong major Baltic inflow of December 2014 were performed, where river runoff and salinity in the transition

  13. Monthly Ensembles in Algal Bloom Predictions on the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiha, Petra; Westerlund, Antti; Stipa, Tapani

    2010-05-01

    In this work we explore the statistical features of monthly ensembles and their capability to predict biogeochemical conditions in the Baltic Sea. Operational marine environmental modelling has been considered hard, and consequently there are very few operational ecological models. Operational modelling of harmful algal blooms is harder still, since it is difficult to separate the algal species in models, and in general, very little is known of HAB properties. We present results of an ensemble approach to HAB forecasting in the Baltic, and discuss the applicability of the forecasting method to biochemical modelling. It turns out that HABs are indeed possible to forecast with useful accuracy. For modelling the algal blooms in Baltic Sea we used FMI operational 3-dimensional biogeochemical model to produce seasonal ensemble forecasts for different physical, chemical and biological variables. The modelled variables were temperature, salinity, velocity, silicate, phosphate, nitrate, diatoms, flagellates and two species of potentially toxic filamentous cyanobacteria nodularia spumigena and aphanizomenon flos-aquae. In this work we concentrate to the latter two. Ensembles were produced by running the biogeochemical model several times and forcing it on every run with different set of seasonal weather parameters from ECMWF's mathematically perturbed ensemble prediction forecasts. The ensembles were then analysed by statistical methods and the median, quartiles, minimum and maximum values were calculated for estimating the probable amounts of algae. Validation for the forecast method was made by comparing the final results against available and valid in-situ HAB data.

  14. Mass Balance of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in the Baltic Sea. Inputs (from riverine discharge, atmospheric deposition, coastal wastewater discharges, and the North Sea) and outputs (to sediment burial, transformation of the chemical, and the North Sea), as well as the inventory in the Baltic Sea, were estimated from recently published monitoring data. Formation of the chemicals in the water column from precursors was not considered. River inflow and atmospheric deposition were the dominant inputs, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents made a minor contribution (<5%). A mass balance of the Oder River watershed was assembled to explore the sources of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the river inflow. It indicated that WWTP effluents made only a moderate contribution to riverine discharge (21% for PFOA, 6% for PFOS), while atmospheric deposition to the watershed was 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than WWTP discharges. The input to the Baltic Sea exceeded the output for all four PFAAs, suggesting that inputs were higher during 2005–2010 than during the previous 20 years despite efforts to reduce emissions of PFAAs. One possible explanation is the retention and delayed release of PFAAs from atmospheric deposition in the soils and groundwater of the watershed. PMID:23528236

  15. A new radiation model for Baltic Sea ecosystem modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Thomas; Siegel, Herbert; Gerth, Monika

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) is one of the key requirements for primary production in the ocean. The ambient PAR is determined by incoming solar radiation and optical properties of sea water and the optically active water constituents along the radiation pathway. Especially in coastal waters, the optical properties are affected by terrigenous constituents like yellow substances as well as high primary production. Numerical models for marine ecosystems account for the optical attenuation process in different ways and details. For the consideration of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and shading effects of phytoplankton particles, we propose a dynamic parametrization for the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, products from biological turnover processes are implemented. Besides PAR and its attenuation coefficient, the model calculates the Secchi disk depth, a simple measurable parameter describing the transparency of the water column and a water quality parameter in the European Water Framework Directive. The components of the proposed optical model are partly implemented from other publications respectively derived from our own measurements for the area of investigation. The model allows a better representation of PAR with a more realistic spatial and temporal variability compared to former parametrizations. The effect is that regional changes of primary production, especially in the northern part of the Baltic Sea, show reduced productivity due to higher CDOM concentrations. The model estimates for Secchi disk depth are much more realistic now. In the northern Baltic Sea, simulated oxygen concentrations in deep water have improved considerably.

  16. Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in fish from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Bignert, Anders; McLachlan, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that the cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) will persist in the aquatic environment and bioaccumulate in fish. Here these cVMS were measured in herring collected in the Swedish waters of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea and in grey seals from the Baltic Proper. D4, D5, and D6 were present in herring muscle at concentrations around 10, 200, and 40ngg(-1) lipid weight, respectively. The ratio of these concentrations was similar to the relative magnitude of estimated emissions to water, suggesting that the efficiency of overall transfer through the environment and food web was similar (within a factor 2-3) for the three chemicals. The concentrations of D5 and D6 were similar in herring caught in the highly populated Baltic Proper and in the less populated Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. The D4 concentrations were lower at the most remote northern station, suggesting that D4 is less persistent than D5 and D6. Herring from the North Sea had lower levels of all three chemicals. The concentrations of D4, D5 and D6 in grey seal blubber were lower than the lipid normalized concentrations in herring, indicating that they do not biomagnify in grey seals.

  17. Seabed geodiversity in a glaciated shelf area, the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskela, Anu Marii; Kotilainen, Aarno Tapio

    2017-10-01

    Geodiversity describes the heterogeneity of the physical terrain. We have performed basin-wide geodiversity analysis on a glaciated epicontinental seabed to assess geodiversity measures and patterns, locate areas with high geodiversity, and draw conclusions on contributing processes. Geodiversity quantification is a rather new topic and is mainly practiced in land areas. We applied geodiversity methods developed for terrestrial studies to a seabed environment. Three geodiversity parameters, including the richness, patchiness, and geodiversity index, of the Baltic Sea were assessed in a GIS environment based on broad-scale datasets on seabed substrates, structures, and bedrock. A set of environmental and geological variables, which were considered to reflect geological processes under seabed conditions, were compared with the geodiversity to identify some of its drivers. We observed differences in the geodiversity levels of the Baltic subbasins, which are mainly due to basement type/bedrock, roughness, shore density, and glacier-derived processes. The geodiversity of the Baltic Sea generally increases from South to North and from open-sea to high-shore density areas (archipelagos). Crystalline bedrock areas provide more diverse seabed environments than sedimentary rock areas. The analysis helps to inform scientists, marine spatial planners, and managers about abiotic conservation values, the dynamics of the seabed environment, and potential areas with elevated biodiversity.

  18. Regional Ocean Colour Remote Sensing Algorithm for the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieronymi, Martin; Muller, Dagmar; Krasemann, Hajo; Schonfeld, Wolfgang; Rottgers, Rudiger; Doerffer, Roland

    2015-12-01

    The Baltic Sea is a challenging study site from an optically point of view. Its partly highly absorbing waters are mainly associated with the presence of coloured dissolved organic matter and often accompanied by non-algae absorbing particles. In addition, the Baltic Sea area is characterised by massive annual surface blooms of cyanobacteria. In Europe, the Baltic Sea is a very specific and important case study with intense user interest. In the framework of different research projects as the “Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative”, the “SEOM OC Extreme Case 2 Waters”, and partly “MyOcean”, we aim to develop an optimised, error-characterised, regional ocean colour processor applicable to several satellite sensors, like MODIS, MERIS, VIIRS, and OLCI. The procedure, which is used to determine inherent optical properties and different water constituents’ concentrations from remote sensing reflectance, is an artificial Neural Network (NN). We provide first results of comparisons of in-situ data with different ocean colour products.

  19. Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper H.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Conley, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. The recent expansion of hypoxia in coastal ecosystems has been primarily attributed to global warming and enhanced nutrient input from land and atmosphere. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in the world is the Baltic Sea, where the relative importance of physical forcing versus eutrophication is still debated. We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. We report a 10-fold increase of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and show that this is primarily linked to increased inputs of nutrients from land, although increased respiration from higher temperatures during the last two decades has contributed to worsening oxygen conditions. Although shifts in climate and physical circulation are important factors modulating the extent of hypoxia, further nutrient reductions in the Baltic Sea will be necessary to reduce the ecosystems impacts of deoxygenation. PMID:24706804

  20. Genetic structure of whitefish (Coregonus maraena) in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Jens; Florin, Ann-Britt; Mo, Kerstin; Aho, Teija; Ryman, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Stocks of whitefish ( Coregonus maraena) in the northern part of the Baltic Sea have in many areas declined drastically during recent years. Causes for the decline are yet not fully understood, but knowledge on the genetic population structure of the species is pivotal for future conservation measures. In this study we analyse the genetic variation at seven microsatellite loci for whitefish from 18 different sites along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea. We found a strong dependence of isolation by distance ( R = 0.73), and a week but rather fine scaled genetic structure. In addition, there were differences between more northern and southern sites in the population genetic structure, where the degree of differentiation appears to be stronger in the north compared to the south. The results suggest that whitefish is a species suitable for local management with a regional context of the management strategy. In addition, the findings corroborate what is previously known for other coastal fish species in the Baltic Sea, such as perch and pike, suggesting that the majority of gene flow occurs between adjacent areas. Finally, our results highlight the potential for genetic subdivision even when the dependence of isolation by distance is strong.

  1. Use of electroconvulsive therapy in the Baltic states.

    PubMed

    Lõokene, Margus; Kisuro, Aigars; Mačiulis, Valentinas; Banaitis, Valdas; Ungvari, Gabor S; Gazdag, Gábor

    2014-07-01

    While the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been investigated worldwide, nothing is known about its use in the Baltic states. The purpose of this study was thus to explore ECT practice in the three Baltic countries. A 21-item, semi-structured questionnaire was sent out to all psychiatric inpatient settings that provided ECT in 2010. In Lithuania, four services provided ECT in 2010. Only modified ECT with anaesthesia and muscle relaxation is performed in the country. In 2010, approximately 120 patients received ECT, i.e., 0.375 patients/10,000 population. Only two centres offer ECT in Latvia. The first centre treated only three patients with ECT in 2010, while the second centre six patients. In both centres outdated Soviet machines are used. The main indication for ECT was severe, malignant catatonia. ECT is practiced in five psychiatric facilities in Estonia. In 2010, it was used in the treatment of 362 patients (17% women) nationwide, i.e., 2.78 patients/10,000 population. Only a senior psychiatrist may indicate ECT in Estonia and pregnancy is no contraindication. In 2010, the main indication for ECT was schizophrenia (47.8%). This 2010 survey revealed significant differences in the use and availability of ECT between the Baltic countries.

  2. Mass balance of perfluoroalkyl acids in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Marko; Berger, Urs; McLachlan, Michael S

    2013-05-07

    A mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in the Baltic Sea. Inputs (from riverine discharge, atmospheric deposition, coastal wastewater discharges, and the North Sea) and outputs (to sediment burial, transformation of the chemical, and the North Sea), as well as the inventory in the Baltic Sea, were estimated from recently published monitoring data. Formation of the chemicals in the water column from precursors was not considered. River inflow and atmospheric deposition were the dominant inputs, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents made a minor contribution (<5%). A mass balance of the Oder River watershed was assembled to explore the sources of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the river inflow. It indicated that WWTP effluents made only a moderate contribution to riverine discharge (21% for PFOA, 6% for PFOS), while atmospheric deposition to the watershed was 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than WWTP discharges. The input to the Baltic Sea exceeded the output for all four PFAAs, suggesting that inputs were higher during 2005-2010 than during the previous 20 years despite efforts to reduce emissions of PFAAs. One possible explanation is the retention and delayed release of PFAAs from atmospheric deposition in the soils and groundwater of the watershed.

  3. Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper H; Gustafsson, Bo G; Conley, Daniel J

    2014-04-15

    Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. The recent expansion of hypoxia in coastal ecosystems has been primarily attributed to global warming and enhanced nutrient input from land and atmosphere. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in the world is the Baltic Sea, where the relative importance of physical forcing versus eutrophication is still debated. We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. We report a 10-fold increase of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and show that this is primarily linked to increased inputs of nutrients from land, although increased respiration from higher temperatures during the last two decades has contributed to worsening oxygen conditions. Although shifts in climate and physical circulation are important factors modulating the extent of hypoxia, further nutrient reductions in the Baltic Sea will be necessary to reduce the ecosystems impacts of deoxygenation.

  4. Environmental Sensitivity Index: Estonian shoreline geology classification (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aps, Robert; Kopti, Madli; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Suursaar, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    At International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee's 53rd session in July 2005, the Baltic Sea was designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA). At the same time the oil transportation is growing significantly in the Baltic Sea area and especially in the Gulf of Finland exceeding 250 million tons a year by 2015. Despite of improving navigation measures there is a growing risk for incidental oil spills and associated oil pollution. Oil spill accident history and simulations show that once the oil spill at sea has occurred, it is almost impossible to prevent it from reaching ashore. Advice on sensitive shoreline likely to be impacted by the oil washing ashore is of critical importance in order to support decisions whether or not a response is necessary or what kind and extent of response is appropriate. Furthermore, choices made in cleanup strategies and the decisionmaking process in the aftermath of a spill are significantly affecting the cleanup costs. This paper introduces the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) shoreline geology classification adapted and modified according to the environmental conditions of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) and ranked according to substrate type and grain size related natural persistence of oil and ease of cleanup. Relative exposure to wave (hydrodynamic energy level) and the shoreline slope are characterized and taken into account. The length of the shoreline is over 700 km. The most common shore types are till shores (40%) and sandy shores (25%). Long stretches of cliff shores (11% in total) and gravel-pebble shores (10%) on the close neighborhood of the cliffs are the most characteristic features of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland. Silty shores and artificial shores make up to 7% and 6% respectively of the total shoreline length here. Over 2/3 of the shores here are with very high ESI values. Till shores are often covered by coarse gravel, pebble

  5. Detrital Zircon Geochronology: New Evidence for an Old Model for Accretion of the Southwest Baltic Shield.

    PubMed

    de Haas GJ; Andersen; Vestin

    1999-09-01

    Disruption of the original crustal architecture as a result of tectonic events often complicates studies of the crustal evolution of Precambrian cratons. Ion-probe U-Pb dating of detrital zircons is one way to circumvent this problem. It yields a "fingerprint" of the source of the metasedimentary host that can be used to tie the host to a counterpart elsewhere. In this study, ion-probe U-Pb dating of detrital zircons from segments of the late Mesoproterozoic Southwest Scandinavian Domain (SSD) of the Baltic Shield provides new evidence for an old model of crustal evolution and tectonic development. Zircon ages for both the pebble and matrix fraction of the Seljord conglomerate, Telemark sector, Norway, show a 1.9-1.7-Ga frequency maximum, as was previously recognized for metasediments from the adjacent Bamble sector. However, the Telemark metasediments lack evidence for significant input of 1.4-1.6-Ga-old crustal material, characteristic of some of the Bamble metasediments. A maximum depositional age of ca. 1450 Ma is inferred for the Seljord conglomerate and a quartzite from the Bamble sector. Definite evidence for significant amounts of pre-1.6-Ga crust in the SSD is absent. Instead, provenance from the early Mesoproterozoic Svecofennian Domain for the 1.9-1.7-Ga crust is proposed, supported by the omnipresence of small amounts of Archean zircons and the distribution of Nd model ages of these and other SSD metasediments. It is proposed that the SSD originally formed a single, continuous belt, fringing the Baltic Shield, with the northernmost segments transported to their current position west of the Oslo rift along north-south-trending shear zones, i.e., at odds with the commonly held view of progressive westward growth of the Baltic Shield. The detrital zircon ages from the Faurefjell quartzite, Rogaland-Vest Agder sector, cluster around 1.65 Ga and reveal a maximum depositional age of 1244+/-40 Ma. Its deviating depositional setting indicates that the Rogaland

  6. Host size-dependent anisakid infection in Baltic cod Gadus morhua associated with differential food preferences.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shaozhi; Huwer, Bastian; Bahlool, Qusay; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Daugbjerg Christensen, Nanna; Korbut, Rozalia; Kania, Per; Buchmann, Kurt

    2016-06-15

    A significant increase in the infection level of Baltic cod Gadus morhua with the anisakid nematode larvae Contracaecum osculatum and Pseudoterranova decipiens has been recorded during recent years due to the expanding local population of grey seals Halichoerus grypus, which act as final hosts for these parasites. Here, we report from an investigation of 368 cod (total length [TL] 6-49 cm; caught in ICES Subdivision 25) that the infection level of juvenile cod (TL 6-30 cm) with larvae of C. osculatum and P. decipiens is absent or very low, whereas it increases drastically in larger cod (TL 31-48 cm). A third nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum was rarely found. The study indicates that the prey animals for large cod act as transport hosts for the parasite larvae. Analyses of stomach contents of cod caught in the same area (2007-2014) showed that small benthic organisms (including polychaetes Harmothoë sarsi) are preferred food items by small cod, the isopod Saduria entomon is taken by all size classes, and sprat Sprattus sprattus are common prey items for cod larger than 30 cm. Parasitological investigations (microscopic and molecular analyses) of H. sarsi (100 specimens) and S. entomon (40 specimens) did not reveal infection in these invertebrates, but 11.6% of sprat (265 specimens examined) was shown to be infected with 1-8 C. osculatum third stage larvae per fish. Analyses of sprat stomach contents confirmed that copepods and cladocerans are the main food items of sprat. These observations suggest that the C. osculatum life cycle in the Baltic Sea includes grey seals as final hosts, sprat as the first transport host and cod as second transport host. It may be speculated that sprat obtain infection by feeding on copepods and/or cladocerans, which could serve as the first intermediate hosts. One cannot exclude the possibility that the size-dependent C. osculatum infection of cod may contribute (indirectly or directly) to the differential mortality of larger cod

  7. [Mild hypoglycaemia is common in type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin analogues in the Czech Republic and the patients are concerned about it: results of a GAPP2TM survey (Global Attitudes of Physicians and Patient)].

    PubMed

    Prázný, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Mild hypoglycaemia affects diabetes management, productivity and quality of life of patients. Data are scarce about the incidence of mild hypoglycaemia in daily life of type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin analogues. The aim was to focus on the incidence of mild hypoglycaemia and its consequences in the international GAPP2 survey (Global Attitudes of Patient and Physicians) conducted also in the Czech Republic. The GAPP2 project - Global Attitudes of Patients and Physicians is an international cross-sectional study conducted online via Internet in a questionnaire form dedicated to type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin analogues and physicians who treat these patients. The survey was realized in two steps including 17 countries. The first step was completed by six countries in 2012. The second step was terminated by additional eleven countries including the Czech Republic in 2014. The survey was designed to obtain data on some aspects of insulin therapy and persistent issues in daily practice from the views of patients and physicians. One part of survey was dedicated to mild hypoglycaemia occurring in treatment with insulin analogues. The incidence of mild hypoglycaemia and the reaction of patients and physicians on hypoglycaemia (including modification of therapy, self-monitoring) were investigated. Moreover, there was investigated the impact of mild hypoglycaemia on quality of life from the view of patients and physicians. The results of the survey have shown that mild hypoglycaemia is common in patients with insulin analogues in the Czech Republic. In addition, patients in the Czech Republic are more afraid from hypoglycaemia and feel more limited in daily life in comparison to other countries in GAPP2 survey. Patients try to avoid nocturnal hypoglycaemia through reduction or omission of prescribed dose of insulin. Furthermore, research has observed that physicians are poorly informed by patients about incidence and severity of hypoglycaemia. The

  8. Local level sustainability policies in the Baltic Sea area: Local Agenda 21 within the Union of the Baltic Cities network.

    PubMed

    Joas, M; Grönholm, B

    2001-08-01

    Local Agenda 21 (LA21) processes have 2 central goals. i) On the basis of some of the empirical evidence in this study, the primary goal is to improve democratic (environmental) policy-making processes in such a manner that a larger share of the population will be able to participate in planning and decision making and will also be able to understand the consequences of these decisions. ii) The LA21 processes seek to improve (at least indirectly) the broadly defined environmental situation locally in a manner that takes into account both the local and the global contexts. The first part of this article discusses the concept and methods of LA21 and sheds light on the different action areas that are central to the Baltic LA21 processes. In addition, the study will describe and display the LA21 situation within one network of cities, the Union of the Baltic Cities (UBC). Networking, including transfer of information, models and ideas, has been among the main tools for the diffusion of LA21 ideas especially into newly democratized societies. Finally, the article will conclude with an overall assessment of the LA21 situation on the Baltic rim.

  9. Effects of boating activities on aquatic vegetation in the Stockholm archipelago, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, B. K.; Sandström, A.; Isæus, M.; Schreiber, H.; Karås, P.

    2004-10-01

    The aquatic vegetation in 44 similar shallow and sheltered inlets exposed to different kinds of disturbances by boating was studied in a rocky archipelago in the Baltic Sea. The results indicate that both recreational boating activities and traffic by medium sized ferryboats may cause significant changes in community composition and have significant negative effects on species richness and the development of the macrophytic vegetation at greater depth. Changes in inlet morphology by dredging and increases in resuspension and turbidity by wave-action from boats were most probably the major factors contributing to the demonstrated differences in the vegetation between inlets. In inlets used as harbours for private boats (marinas) or adjacent to ferryboat routes, vegetation cover and species richness declined significantly more with depth than in reference inlets not exposed to disturbance by boating activities. In marinas, turbidity was significantly higher than in reference inlets. Accordingly, a canonical correspondence analysis showed that the abundance of species sensitive to poor light conditions, such as Chara spp. and Ruppia spp. were negatively correlated with marinas while Myriophyllum spicatum and Ceratophyllum demersum that are common in nutrient rich turbid habitats were positively correlated with marinas. Mechanical disturbance by propellers may also have contributed to the results, disfavouring Potamogeton pectinatus compared to similar caulescent species in marinas. Chara tomentosa and Najas marina that are exposure sensitive mud thriving species were negatively correlated with inlets adjacent to ferryboat routes, while the macroalga Fucus vesiculosus that is dependent on clean substrate for successful recruitment was positively correlated with inlets adjacent to ferryboat routes. It is important to explore further the effects of boating activities in these habitat types, since the studied inlets sustain a high diversity of both plants and

  10. Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria Support Copepod Reproduction and Development in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hogfors, Hedvig; Motwani, Nisha H.; Hajdu, Susanna; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Holmborn, Towe; Vehmaa, Anu; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Brutemark, Andreas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that cyanobacteria may in fact support zooplankton production during summer. To highlight this side of zooplankton-cyanobacteria interactions, we conducted: (1) a field survey investigating linkages between cyanobacteria, reproduction and growth indices in the copepod Acartia tonsa; (2) an experiment testing relationships between ingestion of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (measured by molecular diet analysis) and organismal responses (oxidative balance, reproduction and development) in the copepod A. bifilosa; and (3) an analysis of long term (1999–2009) data testing relationships between cyanobacteria and growth indices in nauplii of the copepods, Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper. In the field survey, N. spumigena had positive effects on copepod egg production and egg viability, effectively increasing their viable egg production. By contrast, Aphanizomenon sp. showed a negative relationship with egg viability yet no significant effect on the viable egg production. In the experiment, ingestion of N. spumigena mixed with green algae Brachiomonas submarina had significant positive effects on copepod oxidative balance, egg viability and development of early nauplial stages, whereas egg production was negatively affected. Finally, the long term data analysis identified cyanobacteria as a significant positive predictor for the nauplial growth in Acartia spp. and E. affinis. Taken together, these results suggest that bloom forming diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute to feeding and reproduction of zooplankton during summer and create a favorable growth

  11. Bloom-forming cyanobacteria support copepod reproduction and development in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hogfors, Hedvig; Motwani, Nisha H; Hajdu, Susanna; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Holmborn, Towe; Vehmaa, Anu; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Brutemark, Andreas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that cyanobacteria may in fact support zooplankton production during summer. To highlight this side of zooplankton-cyanobacteria interactions, we conducted: (1) a field survey investigating linkages between cyanobacteria, reproduction and growth indices in the copepod Acartia tonsa; (2) an experiment testing relationships between ingestion of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (measured by molecular diet analysis) and organismal responses (oxidative balance, reproduction and development) in the copepod A. bifilosa; and (3) an analysis of long term (1999-2009) data testing relationships between cyanobacteria and growth indices in nauplii of the copepods, Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper. In the field survey, N. spumigena had positive effects on copepod egg production and egg viability, effectively increasing their viable egg production. By contrast, Aphanizomenon sp. showed a negative relationship with egg viability yet no significant effect on the viable egg production. In the experiment, ingestion of N. spumigena mixed with green algae Brachiomonas submarina had significant positive effects on copepod oxidative balance, egg viability and development of early nauplial stages, whereas egg production was negatively affected. Finally, the long term data analysis identified cyanobacteria as a significant positive predictor for the nauplial growth in Acartia spp. and E. affinis. Taken together, these results suggest that bloom forming diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute to feeding and reproduction of zooplankton during summer and create a favorable growth

  12. Histopathological, histomorphometrical, and immunohistochemical biomarkers in flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, Henryka; Ostaszewska, Teresa; Kamaszewski, Maciej; Antoniak, Agnieszka; Napora-Rutkowski, Lukasz; Kopko, Orest; Lang, Thomas; Fricke, Nicolai F; Lehtonen, Kari K

    2012-04-01

    Flounder (Platichthys flesus), collected in late fall of 2009 from four coastal sites in the southern Baltic Sea including the Gulf of Gdańsk (GoG), were investigated for a suite of biomarkers of contaminant effects. The biomarkers included liver histopathologies, which were diagnosed and assessed using commonly applied lesion categories, the size and density of melano-macrophage aggregates (MMAs), expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) in liver as well as the size and density of MMAs and density of Perls'-positive cells in the spleen. The prevalence of liver lesions differed among the sites. Most frequently occurring were non-specific and early toxicopathic non-neoplastic lesions. Mean MMA size was in the range of 264-519 μm(2) and 717-2137 μm(2) in liver and spleen, respectively, and density was in the range of 6-13 and 15-26 MMAmm(-2), respectively. Mean density of PCNA-positive hepatocytes was in the range of 300-1281 cellsmm(-2). These histomorphometrical biomarkers correlated positively with the muscle Hg, Σ(7)PCB, and ΣDDT residues and negatively with the indices of general liver condition. They showed significant differences between the sites, which were in line with the spatial prevalence of liver lesions and CYP1A induction. Overall, the biomarker responses were more pronounced in the GoG sites in comparison to those outside the Gulf, which confirms some earlier results and broadens the knowledge of contaminant effects in the Polish coastal zone of the Baltic Sea.

  13. Passandra septentrionaria sp. nov.: the first described species of Passandridae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) from Eocene Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Bukejs, Andris; Alekseev, Vitalii I; Mckellar, Ryan C

    2016-07-26

    Based on two relatively well-preserved specimens from Eocene Baltic amber, Passandra septentrionaria sp. nov. is described and illustrated. It is the first formally described species of Passandridae from Baltic amber, and the first known European representative of the family. The global distribution of extant Passandra Dalman is mapped, and the historical distribution of the group is briefly discussed.

  14. Improving GRACE Mass Estimates for the Baltic Sea and Validation Using in Situ Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, J.; Mäkinen, J.; Bilker-Koivula, M.; Nordman, M.; Virtanen, H.; Shum, C.; Guo, J.; Wang, L.; Kangas, A.; Johansson, M.; Thomas, M.

    2008-12-01

    The variation in the sea level of the semi-closed Baltic Sea has been monitored in several complimentary ways. Now GRACE provides a method to directly measure the total mass variability in the Baltic. Using in situ and modelled Baltic data, we show that GRACE is able to recover the variation in the total water mass. We derive sea level surfaces from tide gauge data and estimate steric effects using hydrodynamic models as well as in situ salinity and temperature measurements for their verification. With its areal extent (~400 km x 1000 km) as well as fast temporal variations (hourly to monthly), the Baltic Sea provides a challenging test field for the temporal and spatial resolution of GRACE. We use both the standard monthly GRACE gravity field solutions and regional solutions and compare their capability to recover Baltic water mass variations. Due to spatial averaging, the GRACE mass estimates over the elongated area are contaminated by signals outside the region. The contribution of continental hydrology can be removed using water storage models to estimate mass variations on surrounding land areas. We discuss the processing steps required for the different GRACE solutions to improve the GRACE mass estimates for the Baltic, including mitigation of signal leakage as a result of spatial filtering. The capability of GRACE to recover internal mass redistributions in the Baltic is also investigated. Finally, we discuss the reduction of the Baltic contribution for studying land-uplift signal due to post-glacial rebound.

  15. Spatial impact of the Oder river plume on water quality along the south-western Baltic coast.

    PubMed

    Schernewski, G; Neumann, T; Podsetchine, V; Siegel, H

    2001-11-01

    The Oder (Odra) river is the most important nutrient source and pollutant for the south-western Baltic Sea. Adjacent German-Polish coastal waters, the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon and the Oder (Pomeranian) Bight therefore suffer from severe eutrophication and water quality problems. At the same time, summer (bathing) tourism is the most important economical factor in this coastal zone, especially on the islands of Usedom and Wolin. On the basis of model simulations and remote sensing data we analysed the spatial extent and variability of the Oder river plume in the lagoon and the Balic Sea in common summer situations and during the extreme Oder flood in August 1997. Water quality shows pronounced gradients between coastal waters and open Baltic Sea. In the lagoon, it usually takes more than 6 weeks until Oder water enters the large western bay, the Kleines Haff. During transport, degradation, transformation and sedimentation processes alter the water quality and prevent the inner coast of Usedom from direct impact of polluted Oder water. Ongoing nutrient supply promotes intensive algal proliferation in all parts of the lagoon and contributes to the low water transparency. Oder water passing the lagoon and entering the Baltic Sea is transported over long distances in narrow bands along the shore. Under easterly winds the water quality near well-known spas on Usedom is reduced due to Oder river plume impact. Upwelling effects can have negative impact on water quality, too. Intensive blooms of potentially toxic blue-green algae species, are the rule in the lagoon and frequent in the Oder Bight in summer. They are a hazard and limit the acceptance of swimming beaches at the inner coast of Usedom. Practical consequences of variable water quality gradients e.g. on hygienic water sampling are discussed.

  16. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species to variations in sea salt emissions in the North and Baltic Sea regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, D.; Matthias, V.; Bieser, J.; Aulinger, A.; Quante, M.

    2015-10-01

    Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the oceans' surfaces by wave breaking and bubble bursting processes. These particles impact atmospheric chemistry by affecting condensation of gas-phase species and nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with high air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North and Baltic Sea regions, Northwestern Europe, using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and evaluated against European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurement data. As model extension, sea salt emissions are scaled by water salinity because of low salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea and in certain river estuaries. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is separately considered. Additionally, the impact of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate, ammonium and sulfate concentrations is evaluated. The comparisons show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated when going inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. Dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to a minor increase of NH4+ and NO3- and a minor decrease of SO42- concentrations. However, the overall effect is very low and lower than the deviation from measurements. Size resolved measurements of Na+, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42- are needed for a more detailed analysis on the impact of sea salt particles.

  17. Building capacity of the Baltic States to meet the EU Water Framework Directive through watershed demonstration projects.

    PubMed

    Vicory, A; Staniskis, J; Heath, J; Davenport, T

    2003-01-01

    The Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO), in cooperation with the United States EPA, is completing it role in assisting the Baltic Countries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia with watershed management capacity building demonstration projects under the Great Lakes/Baltic Sea Partnership Program. The Countries of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania view the skills gained through this program as important to their objective of complying with the European Union's Water Framework Directive and thus facilitating accession into the European Union. The program also addressed Kaliningrad's desire to work cooperatively with their neighboring countries concerning shared waters. Three watershed demonstration projects were designed and implemented, two of which involved joint country efforts: Parnu River (Estonia) modeling for nutrients and bacteria survey; river basin assessment and management planning for the Lielupe Basin (Latvia and Lithuania); and data base development and cooperative water quality survey and analysis for the Sesupe River (Lithuania and Kaliningrad). The benefits of the projects include enhancing the country's technical skills and the forging of relationships, without which achieving effective watershed management will be difficult to achieve.

  18. Biogeochemical control of the coupled CO2-O 2 system of the Baltic Sea: a review of the results of Baltic-C.

    PubMed

    Omstedt, Anders; Humborg, Christoph; Pempkowiak, Janusz; Perttilä, Matti; Rutgersson, Anna; Schneider, Bernd; Smith, Benjamin

    2014-02-01

    Past, present, and possible future changes in the Baltic Sea acid-base and oxygen balances were studied using different numerical experiments and a catchment-sea model system in several scenarios including business as usual, medium scenario, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan. New CO2 partial pressure data provided guidance for improving the marine biogeochemical model. Continuous CO2 and nutrient measurements with high temporal resolution helped disentangle the biogeochemical processes. These data and modeling indicate that traditional understandings of the nutrient availability-organic matter production relationship do not necessarily apply to the Baltic Sea. Modeling indicates that increased nutrient loads will not inhibit future Baltic Sea acidification; instead, increased mineralization and biological production will amplify the seasonal surface pH cycle. The direction and magnitude of future pH changes are mainly controlled by atmospheric CO2 concentration. Apart from decreasing pH, we project a decreasing calcium carbonate saturation state and increasing hypoxic area.

  19. Scientific support by the BONUS+ projects for the sustainability of the Baltic Sea Region: the case of the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan.

    PubMed

    Kononen, Kaisa; Andrusaitis, Andris; Sirola, Maija

    2014-02-01

    The synthesis of the BONUS+ research is introduced. The HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan is examined as a case to illustrate the potentials and challenges in building the science-policy making interface on a macro regional level. The projects address environmental challenges in the Baltic Sea as defined by the Baltic Sea Action Plan, or consider the environmental governance and decision making within the Baltic Sea context in general. Eutrophication, biodiversity, hazardous substances, maritime activities, and the environment governance are addressed, as are cross cutting issues, such as the impact of climate change, maritime spatial planning and impacts of future development on ecosystem services. The projects contributed to relevant policy developments: 37 consultations carried out at EU level, 49 modifications to policy documents and action plans, 153 suggestions for the efficacy of pertinent public policies and governance, and in 570 occasions, scientists working in BONUS+ projects served as members or observers in scientific and stakeholder committees.

  20. The new data on the seasonal distribution of diatoms in the Southern Baltic coastal lakes as a basis for diatom-based transfer functions to reconstruct past environmental changes in the Baltic coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Szpikowska, Grażyna; Woszczyk, Michał; Suchińska, Anita; Burchardt, Lubomira; Messyasz, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Lakes ecosystems are very sensitive to climate and environment changes. In lake sediments there are preserved remains of plant and animals that lived in the lake and its surroundings in the past. The species composition of past assemblages is a basis for quantitative and qualitative reconstruction of the past environmental changes (climate changes). One of the most commonly used bio-proxy for the reconstruction of lake development are subfossil diatoms which are sensitive to lake water pH, nutrient status, salinity and temperature. In this poster we present the new data from the coastal lakes on the Southern Baltic coast. The main goal of this research was to quantify the relationships between modern diatom assemblages and present-day environmental conditions. These relationships will be used to develop diatom-based transfer functions that will be applied to future studies of environmental change on the Polish Baltic coast. Water samples for diatom and chemical analyses were collected a few times per year between 2012 and 2014 from 12 coastal lakes located along the Polish Baltic coast as well as from the Baltic Sea. We analysed the whole phytoplankton composition. However the special focus was put on diatoms. At each site, a suite of important water quality parameters was collected, including chemical (e.g., chlorides, phosphorous and sulphur) and physical (e.g., Secchi depth) variables. Diatom assemblages from each site were counted and identified to the most specific taxonomic level possible. Diatom data were compiled for comparison to corresponding environmental data and development of indicator models. The results of the analysis show seasonal changes in diatom distribution as well as the chemical and physical water propertieswhich are mainly related to saltwater ingressions to the lakes. Lake Koprowo, Lake Resko Przymorskie, Lake Bukowo and Lake Łebsko are under the constant of seawater influence, which makes them similar to lagoons. In Lake Gardno seawater

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    MedlinePlus

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  2. Development of a remote sensing algorithm for cyanobacterial phycocyanin pigment in the Baltic Sea using neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riha, Stefan; Krawczyk, Harald

    2011-11-01

    Water quality monitoring in the Baltic Sea is of high ecological importance for all its neighbouring countries. They are highly interested in a regular monitoring of water quality parameters of their regional zones. A special attention is paid to the occurrence and dissemination of algae blooms. Among the appearing blooms the possibly toxicological or harmful cyanobacteria cultures are a special case of investigation, due to their specific optical properties and due to the negative influence on the ecological state of the aquatic system. Satellite remote sensing, with its high temporal and spatial resolution opportunities, allows the frequent observations of large areas of the Baltic Sea with special focus on its two seasonal algae blooms. For a better monitoring of the cyanobacteria dominated summer blooms, adapted algorithms are needed which take into account the special optical properties of blue-green algae. Chlorophyll-a standard algorithms typically fail in a correct recognition of these occurrences. To significantly improve the opportunities of observation and propagation of the cyanobacteria blooms, the Marine Remote Sensing group of DLR has started the development of a model based inversion algorithm that includes a four component bio-optical water model for Case2 waters, which extends the commonly calculated parameter set chlorophyll, Suspended Matter and CDOM with an additional parameter for the estimation of phycocyanin absorption. It was necessary to carry out detailed optical laboratory measurements with different cyanobacteria cultures, occurring in the Baltic Sea, for the generation of a specific bio-optical model. The inversion of satellite remote sensing data is based on an artificial Neural Network technique. This is a model based multivariate non-linear inversion approach. The specifically designed Neural Network is trained with a comprehensive dataset of simulated reflectance values taking into account the laboratory obtained specific optical

  3. Acid-base properties of Baltic Sea dissolved organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Karoline; Schneider, Bernd; Kuliński, Karol; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.

    2017-09-01

    Calculations related to the marine CO2 system that are based on alkalinity data may be strongly biased if the contributions of organic compounds are ignored. In coastal seas, concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are frequently high and alkalinity from inorganic compounds is low. In this study, based on measurements of total alkalinity, total CO2, and pH, we determined the organic alkalinity, Aorg, in water from the central Baltic Sea. The maximum Aorg measured in the surface mixed layer during the spring bloom was > 50 μmol/kg-SW but the Aorg decreased with depth and approached zero below the permanent halocline. This behavior could be attributed to the decreased pH of deeper water layers. The data were used to calculate the bulk dissociation constant, KDOM, for marine DOM and the fraction f of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that acts as a carrier for acid-base functional groups. The p KDOM (7.27) agreed well with the value (7.34) previously estimated in a preliminary study of organic alkalinity in the Baltic Sea. The fraction of carbon atoms carrying acid-base groups was 17% and was somewhat higher than previously reported (12%). Spike experiments performed using artificial seawater and three different humic/fulvic substances tested whether the acid-base properties of these substances explain the results of our field study. Specifically, Aorg was determined at different concentrations (DOC) of the added humic/fulvic substances. The relationship between Aorg and the DOC concentrations indicated that humic/fulvic substances are more acidic (p KDOM < 6.5) than the bulk DOC natural occurring in the Baltic Sea.

  4. Drought identification in the eastern Baltic region using NDVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimkus, Egidijus; Stonevicius, Edvinas; Kilpys, Justinas; Maciulyte, Viktorija; Valiukas, Donatas

    2017-07-01

    Droughts are phenomena that affect large areas. Remote sensing data covering large territories can be used to assess the impact and extent of droughts. Drought effect on vegetation was determined using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) in the eastern Baltic Sea region located between 53-60° N and 20-30° E. The effect of precipitation deficit on vegetation in arable land and broadleaved and coniferous forest was analysed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) calculated for 1- to 9-month timescales. Vegetation has strong seasonality in the analysed area. The beginning and the end of the vegetation season depends on the distance from the Baltic Sea, which affects temperature and precipitation patterns. The vegetation season in the southeastern part of the region is 5-6 weeks longer than in the northwestern part. The early spring air temperature, snowmelt water storage in the soil and precipitation have the largest influence on the NDVI values in the first half of the active growing season. Precipitation deficit in the first part of the vegetation season only has a significant impact on the vegetation on arable land. The vegetation in the forests is less sensitive to the moisture deficit. Correlation between VCI and the same month SPI1 is usually negative in the study area. It means that wetter conditions lead to lower VCI values, while the correlation is usually positive between the VCI and the SPI of the previous month. With a longer SPI scale the correlation gradually shifts towards the positive coefficients. The positive correlation between 3- and 6-month SPI and VCI was observed on the arable land and in both types of forests in the second half of vegetation season. The precipitation deficit is only one of the vegetation condition drivers and NDVI cannot be used universally to identify droughts, but it may be applied to better assess the effect of droughts on vegetation in the eastern Baltic Sea

  5. Sea Salt Source Function over the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Markuszewski, Piotr; Jankowski, Andrzej; Zieliński, Tymon

    2013-04-01

    Studies of production and transport of aerosol over the sea are very important for many areas of knowledge. Marine aerosol emitted from the sea surface helps to clean the boundary layer from other aerosol particles. The emitted droplets do not dry out in the highly humid surface layer air and because of their sizes most of them are deposited quickly at the sea surface. Therefore, marine aerosol has many features of rain i.e. the deposition in the marine boundary layer in high wind events is controlled not only by the "dry" processes but also by the "wet" scavenging. While many cruises conducted on board S/Y Oceania, we collected many data which were used to calculate sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. Our cruises held between 2009 and 2012. Measurements were carried out using gradient method. For this method we used Laser Particle Counter (PMS model CSASP-100_HV) placed on one oft the mast of S/Y Oceania. Measurements were performed on five different levels around sea level: 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20 meters. Based on the averaged vertical concentration, profiles were calculated, using Monin-Obuchow theory, vertical sea spray fluxes in the near water layer. Based on fluxes calculated from vertical concentration profiles was calculated sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. This function gives emission for different particle size, depending on environmental parameters. Emission of sea spray depends of the size of energy lost by the wind waves in process of collapse. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBałtyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

  6. Lead mobilization during tectonic reactivation of the western Baltic Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Romer, R.L. Luleaa Univ. ); Wright, J.E. )

    1993-06-01

    Lead isotope data from sulfide deposits of the western part of the Baltic Shield define mixing lines in the [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb-[sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb diagram. Lead from two types of sulfide deposits have been investigated: (1) Exhalative and volcanogenic deposits that are syngenetic with their host rocks; and (2) vein deposits. The syngenetic deposits locally show a very wide range of lead isotopic compositions that reflect a variable addition of highly radiogenic lead, while the vein deposits, although they have radiogenic lead isotopic compositions, exhibit only limited isotopic variations. In different provinces of the shield, both types of deposits fall on the same lead mixing array. The slope of the lead mixing lines varies as a function of the age of basement rocks and the age of the tectonic event which produced the lead mobilization and therefore relates the source rock age with the age of lead mobilization. Calculated mixing ages fall into several short time periods that correspond either to orogenic events or to major phases of continental rifting. The orogenic events are the ca 360--430 Ma Caledonian, ca 900--1100 Ma Sveconorwegian, and the ca 1800--1900 Ma Svecofennian orogenic cycles. The rifting events correspond to the formation of the ca 280 Ma Oslo rift and the Ordovician (ca 450 Ma) graben system in the area of the present Gulf of Bothnia. Each mixing age indicates that lead was mobilized, probably as a consequence of mild thermal disturbances, and that the crust was permeable to lead migration. The data show that the geographic distribution of sulfide deposits with highly radiogenic lead isotopic compositions coincides with old graben systems, orogenic belts, and orogenic forelands on the Baltic Shield. The ages of vein deposits and their geographic distribution demonstrate multiple tectonic reactivation of the interior of the Baltic Shield in response to orogenic events at its margin. 68 refs., 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Sea ice in the Baltic Sea - revisiting BASIS ice, a historical data set covering the period 1960/1961-1978/1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löptien, U.; Dietze, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered, marginal sea in central northern Europe. It is an essential waterway connecting highly industrialised countries. Because ship traffic is intermittently hindered by sea ice, the local weather services have been monitoring sea ice conditions for decades. In the present study we revisit a historical monitoring data set, covering the winters 1960/1961 to 1978/1979. This data set, dubbed Data Bank for Baltic Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperatures (BASIS) ice, is based on hand-drawn maps that were collected and then digitised in 1981 in a joint project of the Finnish Institute of Marine Research (today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI)) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). BASIS ice was designed for storage on punch cards and all ice information is encoded by five digits. This makes the data hard to access. Here we present a post-processed product based on the original five-digit code. Specifically, we convert to standard ice quantities (including information on ice types), which we distribute in the current and free Network Common Data Format (NetCDF). Our post-processed data set will help to assess numerical ice models and provide easy-to-access unique historical reference material for sea ice in the Baltic Sea. In addition we provide statistics showcasing the data quality. The website http://www.baltic-ocean.org hosts the post-processed data and the conversion code. The data are also archived at the Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science, PANGAEA (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.832353).

  8. North Carolina Today: Contrasting Conditions and Common Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Craig

    This report provides a statistical profile for thinking about education and development decisions in North Carolina. It profiles the state primarily in terms of population patterns, economy, labor force, education, and environment; secondarily in terms of health and social services, infrastructure and aspects of government performance. State and…

  9. PSD Question Concerning Common Control, Alliant Energy and Climax Molybdenum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  10. Ice-ocean-ecosystem operational model of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecki, M.; Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Jakacki, J.; Nowicki, A.

    2012-04-01

    3D-CEMBS is a fully coupled model adopted for the Baltic Sea and have been developed within the grant, wchich is supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Reasearch. The model is based on CESM1.0 (Community Earth System Model), in our configuration it consists of two active components (ocean and ice) driven by central coupler (CPL7). Ocean (POP version 2.1) and ice models (CICE model, version 4.0) are forced by atmospheric and land data models. Atmospheric data sets are provided by ICM-UM model from University of Warsaw. Additionally land model provides runoff of the Baltic Sea (currently 78 rivers). Ecosystem model is based on an intermediate complexity marine ecosystem model for the global domain (J.K. Moore et. al., 2002) and consists of 11 main components: zooplankton, small phytoplankton, diatoms, cyanobacteria, two detrital classes, dissolved oxygen and the nutrients nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. The model is configured at two horizontal resolutions, approximately 9km and 2km (1/12° and 1/48° respectively). The model bathymetry is represented as 21 vertical levels and the thickness of the first four layers were chosen to be five metres. 3D-CEMBS model grid is based on stereographic coordinates, but equator of these coordinates is in the centre of the Baltic Sea (rotated stereographic coordinates) and we can assume that shape of the cells are square and they are identical. Currently model works in a operational state. The model creates 48-hour forecasts every 6 hours (or when new atmospheric dataset is available). Prognostic variables such as temperature, salinity, ice cover, currents, sea surface height and phytoplankton concentration are presented online on a the website and are available for registered users. Also time series for any location are accessible. This work was carried out in support of grant No NN305 111636 and No NN306 353239 - the Polish state Committee of Scientific Research. The partial support for this study was

  11. An ant-associated mesostigmatid mite in Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Kontschán, Jenő; Walter, David E.; Perrichot, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Acari: Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) are extremely rare, and specimens from only nine families, including four named species, have been described so far. A new record of Myrmozercon sp. described here from Eocene (ca 44–49 Myr) Baltic amber represents the first—and so far only—fossil example of the derived, extant family Laelapidae. Significantly, modern species of this genus are habitually myrmecophilous and the fossil mite described here is preserved attached to the head of the dolichoderine ant Ctenobethylus goepperti (Mayr, 1868). It thus offers the oldest unequivocal evidence for an ecological association between mesostigmatid mites and social insects in the order Hymenoptera. PMID:25209198

  12. Early Holocene lake ecosystem development in the southern Baltic lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowiński, Michał; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Zawiska, Izabela; Dräger, Nadine; Theuerkauf, Martin; Hass, Christoph; Obremska, Milena; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kordowski, Jarosław; Tjallingii, Rik; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Schwab, Markus; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The first millennia of the Holocene are characterized by gradual and rapid environmental changes following the warming at the beginning of the Holocene superimposed by short-term climatic instability. Landscape evolution during this period occurred at different time scales due to specific response times of landscape compartments like vegetation succession, soil formation and permafrost thawing. As a consequence, a spatiotemporally heterogeneous pattern of changes occurred particularly in regions close to the margins of the continental ice sheets like the Baltic region. Regional atmospheric circulation patterns were affected by cold catabatic winds from the remains of the Fennoscandian ice sheet. The ongoing deglaciation further influenced the regional climate through meltwater release and related changes in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Both effects declined with the progressive ice sheet melt down. Additionally, the land-sea distribution in the North Sea changed drastically during the final melting phase of the glacial ice sheets. The Baltic Sea development is even more complex due to the strong glacio-isostatic adjustments effects that resulted in open and closed water stages affecting the entire Baltic realm. Consequently, the early Holocene interval of sediment records from the southern Baltic lowlands are not considered as straightforward palaeoclimate archives but need to be interpreted in a broader context. We present five partly varved lake records from northern Poland all including an intriguing highly organic-rich interval interrupting biochemical calcite precipitation at about the same time between 10.5 and 10.2 cal kyr BP. These sediment records have been correlated by independent age models based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, biostratigraphy and tephrochronology. We present multi-proxy records of early Holocene sediments and our preliminary interpretation suggests hydrological processes as the main reason for the intriguing shifts

  13. PREFACE: 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezinskis, G.; Bragina, L.; Colombo, P.; Frischat, G. H.; Grabis, J.; Greil, P.; Deja, J.; Kaminskas, R.; Kliava, J.; Medvids, A.; Nowak, I.; Siauciunas, R.; Valancius, Z.; Zalite, I.

    2011-12-01

    Logo This Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of the contributions to the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials (BaltSilica2011) held at Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia from 23-25 May 2011. The conference was organized by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). The series of Baltic conferences on silicate materials was started since 2004: the first conference was held in Riga, Latvia, 2004; the second conference was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2005; the third was held again in Riga, Latvia, 2007, and the fourth was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2009. BaltSilica 2011 was attended by around 50 participants from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Ukraine and Russia. In comparison with previous silicate materials conferences, the broadening of participating countries is an indication of the interest of scientists, engineers and students to exchange research ideas, latest results, and to find new research topics for cooperation in the fields of silicate, high temperature materials, and inorganic nanomaterials. The scientific programme included 8 invited plenary lectures 23 oral presentations and 25 posters [1]. Scientific themes covered in the conference and in this special issue: Natural and Artificial Stone Materials; Traditional and New Ceramic and Glass-Like Materials; Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials. This volume consists of 23 selected proceeding papers. The Editor of this special issue is grateful to all the contributors to BaltSilica 2011. I am also very grateful to the scientific committee, the local organizing committee, the session chairs, the referees who refereed the submitted articles to this issue, and to students from the Department of Silicate, High Temperature and Inorganic Nanomaterials Technology of the Riga Technical University who ensured the smooth running of the conference. Particular thanks goes to eight plenary

  14. Food Concerns. Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent vegetarianism is most frequent among females, and involves meat avoidance, concern for the environment and animal welfare, gender equality, weight loss behaviors, and a concern with body appearance. It can be a precursor to eating disorders. Training and ongoing follow-up are necessary to instill proper food handling procedures in…

  15. Food Concerns. Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent vegetarianism is most frequent among females, and involves meat avoidance, concern for the environment and animal welfare, gender equality, weight loss behaviors, and a concern with body appearance. It can be a precursor to eating disorders. Training and ongoing follow-up are necessary to instill proper food handling procedures in…

  16. Art as Social Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her eleventh- and twelfth-grade portfolio class used art as a social concern through a sketchbook and a linoleum print. Students thumbed through copies of the "New York Times" to find an article that described a modern-day social concern. Students were assigned to choose an article, summarize it, and come…

  17. Grazing preferences of marine isopods and amphipods on three prominent algal species of the Baltic Sea [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goecker, Margene E.; Kåll, Sara E.

    2003-12-01

    Preference tests were performed over a two-week period in September 2001 in which isopods ( Idotea baltica) and amphipods ( Gammarus oceanicus) were offered choices of three common species of algae from the Baltic Sea: Enteromorpha intestinalis, Cladophora spp., and Fucus vesiculosus. After a 48-hour starvation period, 20 individuals of each grazer species were placed in aquaria containing approximately 1.0 g of each algal species. Fifteen trials for each grazer species were run for 20 hours. We found that G. oceanicus ate significantly more Cladophora spp. and E. intestinalis than F. vesiculosus (p<0.001), with a preference order of: Cladophora spp.> E. intestinalis> F. vesiculosus. Similarly, I. baltica ate significantly more of both the filamentous green algae than F. vesiculosus (p<0.001), with a preference order of: E. intestinalis> Cladophora spp.> F. vesiculosus. Given the preference of isopods and amphipods for filamentous green algae, we might expect these algae to be maintained at low biomass levels. However, this is clearly not the case in the Baltic Sea. Nutrient enrichment (bottom-up effects) is the accepted dominant reason for the non-controlling impact of algal grazers, but other reasons may include cascading trophic effects resulting from the removal of large piscivorous fish (top-down effects).

  18. Food sources of wintering piscivorous waterbirds in coastal waters: A triple stable isotope approach for the southeastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morkūnė, Rasa; Lesutienė, Jūratė; Barisevičiūtė, Rūta; Morkūnas, Julius; Gasiūnaitė, Zita R.

    2016-03-01

    This study uses a triple isotope approach (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S) to quantify the main food sources for wintering piscivorous waterbirds in the coastal zone of the southeastern Baltic Sea. Significant differences of δ15N and δ34S values among pelagic fishes, benthic fishes, and benthopelagic European smelt (Osmerus eperlanus) were detected, while δ13C was similar among these sources. Using different combinations of δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S values in mixing models, we found that common guillemot (Uria aalge) and red-throated diver (Gavia stellata) mostly foraged on pelagic prey (50-70% and 51-56%, respectively), whereas great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus) consumed benthic prey (48-53%). European smelt comprised a substantial proportion of the diet of studied birds (19-36%). A stable isotope approach can be recommended as a non-lethal method to study avian diets in the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea.

  19. Community Interactions Modify the Effects of Pharmaceutical Exposure: A Microcosm Study on Responses to Propranolol in Baltic Sea Coastal Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Oskarsson, Hanna; Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin; Thorsén, Gunnar; Danielsson, Gabriela; Kumblad, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the uptake and effects of a common human pharmaceutical, propranolol, on the structure and function of a coastal Baltic Sea model community consisting of macroalga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mussels (Mytilus edulis trossulus), amphipods (Gammarus spp.), water and sediment. The most sensitive species, the mussel, was affected to the same extent as in previous single species studies, while the effects on the amphipod and alga were smaller or even positive compared to experiments performed in less complex test systems. The observed cascade of beneficial effects was a result of inter-specific species interactions that buffered for more severe effects. The poor condition of the mussel led to a feeding shift from alga to mussel by the amphipods. The better food quality, due to the dietary shift, counteracted the effects of the exposure. Less amphipod grazing, together with increased levels of nutrients in the water was favourable for the alga, despite the negative effects of propranolol. This microcosm study showed effects on organisms on different organizational levels as well as interactions among the different components resulting in indirect exposure effects of both functional and structural nature. The combination of both direct and indirect effects would not have been detected using simpler single- or even two-species study designs. The observed structural changes would in the natural environment have a long-term influence on ecosystem function, especially in a low-biodiversity ecosystem like the Baltic Sea. PMID:24713620

  20. Community structure and spatial variation of benthic invertebrates associated with Zostera marina (L.) beds in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boström, Christoffer; Bonsdorff, Erik

    1997-05-01

    The distribution and bed structure of eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.), and its importance for associated faunal communities in the coastal areas of the northern Baltic Sea are poorly known. The spatial distribution of the fauna associated with Zostera was studied at five localities in SW Finland in 1993-1994. Zostera was common on all localities, but the beds varied in terms of area (1-5 m diameter), density (50-500 shoots/m 2) and blade length (20-110 cm). A total of about 40 species or taxa were recorded. The zoobenthic infauna showed significant spatial differences, and total abundance and species diversity were significantly higher in the Zostera beds than in adjacent bare sand. The total abundance in Zostera ranged from 25 000 to 50 000 ind/m 2 and in sand from 2500 to 15 000 ind/m 2 The mean number of species in Zostera ranged from 5.9 to 8.8 spp ( H' = 1.76-2.54) and in sand from 2.2 to 5.5 spp ( H' = 1.67-2.31). The epifauna in Zostera was numerically dominated by grazing gastropods (Hydrobiidae) and copepods. The epifauna is an important community component, which contributes to the total diversity of the Zostera assemblage. These systems are among the most species-rich components of the shallow soft-bottom ecosystems in the northern Baltic Sea. The mechanisms structuring both the Zostera and the ambient sand-bottom habitats are presented.

  1. Identification of cyanobacteria and microalgae in aerosols of various sizes in the air over the Southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Anita Urszula; Śliwińska-Wilczewska, Sylwia; Woźniczka, Dominika

    2017-08-16

    Bioaerosols were collected between April and November 2015 on land (Gdynia) and at sea (Southwestern Baltic), using six-step microbiological pollutant sampler. It was determined that picoplanktonic cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus, Synechocystis, Aphanocapsa, Aphanothece, Microcystis, Merismopedia, Woronichinia and Cyanodictyon were the most commonly found in aerosols both over land and at sea. Chlorophyta were also numerous (Chlorella vulgaris, Stichococcus bacillaris), as were Bacillariophyta and Ochrophyta (Phaeodactylum sp., Navicula cf. perminuta and Nannochloropsis cf. gaditana). As primary production and phytoplankton concentration in sea water grew, so did the diversity of the microorganisms identified in bioaerosols. Over the sea cyanobacteria and microalgae occurred more often in large aerosols (>3.3μm). Over land they were mainly the components of smaller particles. In respirable particles species both capable of producing harmful secondary metabolites and potentially toxic ones were identified. We assume that bioaerosols pose the actual threat to human health in Baltic Sea region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aquaculture changes the profile of antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic element associated genes in Baltic Sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Muziasari, Windi I; Pärnänen, Katariina; Johnson, Timothy A; Lyra, Christina; Karkman, Antti; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Tamminen, Manu; Tiedje, James M; Virta, Marko

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are commonly used in aquaculture and they can change the environmental resistome by increasing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Sediment samples were collected from two fish farms located in the Northern Baltic Sea, Finland, and from a site outside the farms (control). The sediment resistome was assessed by using a highly parallel qPCR array containing 295 primer sets to detect ARGs, mobile genetic elements and the 16S rRNA gene. The fish farm resistomes were enriched in transposon and integron associated genes and in ARGs encoding resistance to antibiotics which had been used to treat fish at the farms. Aminoglycoside resistance genes were also enriched in the farm sediments despite the farms not having used aminoglycosides. In contrast, the total relative abundance values of ARGs were higher in the control sediment resistome and they were mainly genes encoding efflux pumps followed by beta-lactam resistance genes, which are found intrinsically in many bacteria. This suggests that there is a natural Baltic sediment resistome. The resistome associated with fish farms can be from native ARGs enriched by antibiotic use at the farms and/or from ARGs and mobile elements that have been introduced by fish farming.

  3. Risk of environmental genotoxicity in the Baltic Sea over the period of 2009-2011 assessed by micronuclei frequencies in blood erythrocytes of flounder (Platichthys flesus), herring (Clupea harengus) and eelpout (Zoarces viviparus).

    PubMed

    Baršienė, Janina; Rybakovas, Aleksandras; Lang, Thomas; Grygiel, Wlodzimierz; Andreikėnaitė, Laura; Michailovas, Aleksandras

    2012-06-01

    Environmental genotoxicity was investigated at 82 locations encompassing different regions of the Baltic Sea. Micronuclei (MN) analysis was performed in erythrocytes of 1892 specimens of flounder Platichthys flesus, herring Clupea harengus and eelpout Zoarces viviparus, three of the most common native fish species of the Baltic Sea collected in 2009-2011. MN background levels in fish were determined using data obtained in 2001-2011 from 107 Baltic sites. Extremely high genotoxicity risk zones were found for flounder at 11 stations out of 16 in 2009 and 33 stations of 41 in 2010-2011, for herring, at 5 of 18 stations in 2009 and 20 of 43 stations in 2010-2011, in eelpout only at one out of 29 stations. The sampling stations were restricted mainly to the southern and eastern Baltic Sea offshore zones and in most of them, MN frequencies in flounder and herring significantly exceeded the reference and background levels of micronuclei. This is a first attempt to evaluate the background MN responses, as well as low, high and extremely high genotoxicity risk levels for native fish species.

  4. Trauma research in the Baltic countries: from political oppression to recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskas, Evaldas; Zelviene, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of traumatic stress studies from the three Baltic countries—Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia—and reveal how specific social context contributes to the topics relevant in traumatic stress field in the region. Traumatic stress studies in the Baltic countries are closely related to the complicated history of the region. It was only since the restoration of independence of the Baltic States in the 1990s when traumatic stress studies could emerge. The start of the psychotraumatology in the Baltic States was inspired by the interest of the psychological effects of political violence. Four major topics in traumatic stress literature from the Baltic countries were identified in this article: political violence studies, epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), disaster studies, and developmental aspects of trauma. Traumatic events prevalence was reported between 70 and 75%, and PTSD prevalence range 2–7% in the Baltic countries. The interest in psychotraumatology in the Baltic countries is rising. PMID:26996532

  5. Fresh oxygen for the Baltic Sea — An exceptional saline inflow after a decade of stagnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrholz, V.; Naumann, M.; Nausch, G.; Krüger, S.; Gräwe, U.

    2015-08-01

    The ecological state of the Baltic Sea depends crucially on sufficiently frequent, strong deep water renewal on the periodic deep water renewal events by inflow of oxygen rich saline water from the North Sea. Due to the strong density stratification these inflows are the only source for deep water ventilation. Since the early eighties of the last century the frequency of inflow events has dropped drastically from 5 to 7 major inflows per decade to only one inflow per decade. Wide spread anoxic conditions became the usual state in the central Baltic. The rare major Baltic inflow (MBI) events in 1993 and 2003 could interrupt the anoxic bottom conditions only temporarily. After more than 10 years without a major Baltic inflow events, in December 2014 a strong MBI brought large amounts of saline and well oxygenated water into the Baltic Sea. Based on observations and numerical modeling, the inflow was classified as one of the rare very strong events. The inflow volume and the amount of salt transported into the Baltic were estimated to be with 198 km3 and 4 Gt, respectively. The strength of the MBI exceeded considerably the previous 2003 event. In the list of the MBIs since 1880, the 2014 inflow is the third strongest event together with the MBI in 1913. This inflow event will most probably turn the entire Baltic deep water from anoxic to oxic conditions, with substantial spread consequences for marine life and biogeochemical cycles.

  6. Understanding and dealing with parental vaccine concerns.

    PubMed

    Diggle, Linda

    Parents often worry more about vaccines than the diseases they prevent. This article highlights the issues that commonly concern parents and suggests appropriate information that nurses can give to reassure them and promote vaccination.

  7. An adenovirus associated with intestinal impaction and mortality of male eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J. Christian; Kilpi, Mikael; Docherty, Douglas E.; Myllys, V.

    2003-01-01

    We examined 10 common eider (Somateria mollissima) males found dead in 1998 during a die-off in the northern Baltic Sea off the southwestern coast of Finland. We diagnosed impaction of the posterior small intestine with mucosal necrosis as the cause of death in all 10 and isolated adenoviruses from cloacal samples of six birds. The adenovirus isolates were not neutralized by reference antisera to group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses. Cloacal swabs from 22 apparently healthy eider females nesting at the mortality area were negative for viruses. An adenovirus isolated from one of the eiders caused clinical signs of illness and gastrointestinal pathology in experimentally infected mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings. These findings suggest that the adenovirus contributed to the mortality of common eider males in the Finnish archipelago.

  8. Renal lesions in Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica).

    PubMed

    Bergman, A; Bergstrand, A; Bignert, A

    2001-11-01

    A severe reduction in the populations of grey and ringed seals in the Baltic occurred during the 1960s and 1970s. Adult animals showed (and still show) a series of lesions inter alia in the female reproductive organs, intestines, integument, kidneys, adrenals, and skulls (the Baltic seal disease complex). The morphology and prevalence of light microscopic changes in the kidneys of 76 grey seals and 29 ringed seals collected in the Baltic proper and the Gulf of Bothnia during 1977-1996 are presented in this report. Specific changes in the glomeruli were diffuse thickening of the capillary walls and the presence of large, rounded, hyaline bodies in the capillary or capsular walls. Specific changes in the distal convoluted tubules and the collecting ducts included focal replacement of the normal epithelium by multilayered cell proliferations. The prevalence and extent of the changes were age-related and thus correlated with the time of exposure to environmental toxicants. The lesions were more conspicuous in Baltic grey seals than in Baltic ringed seals. Similar findings were recorded in 5 grey seals from Swedish zoological gardens. These animals had been fed Baltic fish for most of their lives. Electron microscopy was performed on 5 of the Baltic grey seals and on one of the grey seals from zoological gardens. Electron microscopy results mainly based on findings in one of the Baltic grey seals, included mesangial inter-position in the glomerular capillary walls and the characteristics of intercalated cells in cell proliferations in the distal parts of the nephrons. Eleven grey seals from the Scottish coast and 23 ringed seals from Svalbard served as reference material. None of the reference seals showed the specific lesions described above. The authors propose that organochlorine pollution of the Baltic environment is a factor in the cause of these kidney changes.

  9. Hypoxia sustains cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic sea.

    PubMed

    Funkey, Carolina P; Conley, Daniel J; Reuss, Nina S; Humborg, Christoph; Jilbert, Tom; Slomp, Caroline P

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment is one of the classic triggering mechanisms for the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic ecosystems. In the Baltic Sea, cyanobacteria regularly occur in the late summer months and form nuisance accumulations in surface waters and their abundance has intensified significantly in the past 50 years attributed to human-induced eutrophication. However, the natural occurrence of cyanobacteria during the Holocene is debated. In this study, we present records of cyanobacteria pigments, water column redox proxies, and nitrogen isotopic signatures for the past ca. 8000 years from Baltic Sea sediment cores. Our results demonstrate that cyanobacteria abundance and nitrogen fixation are correlated with hypoxia occurring during three main intervals: (1) ca. 7000-4000 B.P. during the Littorina transgression, (2) ca. 1400-700 B.P. during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, and (3) from ca. 1950 A.D. to the present. Issues of preservation were investigated, and we show that organic matter and pigment profiles are not simply an artifact of preservation. These results suggest that cyanobacteria abundance is sustained during periods of hypoxia, most likely because of enhanced recycling of phosphorus in low oxygen conditions.

  10. Could Seals Prevent Cod Recovery in the Baltic Sea?

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Brian R.; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

    2011-01-01

    Fish populations are increasingly affected by multiple human and natural impacts including exploitation, eutrophication, habitat alteration and climate change. As a result many collapsed populations may have to recover in ecosystems whose structure and functioning differ from those in which they were formerly productive and supported sustainable fisheries. Here we investigate how a cod (Gadus morhua) population in the Baltic Sea whose biomass was reduced due to a combination of high exploitation and deteriorating environmental conditions might recover and develop in the 21st century in an ecosystem that likely will change due to both the already started recovery of a cod predator, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, and projected climate impacts. Simulation modelling, assuming increased seal predation, fishing levels consistent with management plan targets and stable salinity, shows that the cod population could reach high levels well above the long-term average. Scenarios with similar seal and fishing levels but with 15% lower salinity suggest that the Baltic will still be able to support a cod population which can sustain a fishery, but biomass and yields will be lower. At present knowledge of cod and seal interactions, seal predation was found to have much lower impact on cod recovery, compared to the effects of exploitation and salinity. These results suggest that dual management objectives (recovery of both seal and cod populations) are realistic but success in achieving these goals will also depend on how climate change affects cod recruitment. PMID:21573062

  11. Could seals prevent cod recovery in the Baltic Sea?

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Brian R; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

    2011-05-09

    Fish populations are increasingly affected by multiple human and natural impacts including exploitation, eutrophication, habitat alteration and climate change. As a result many collapsed populations may have to recover in ecosystems whose structure and functioning differ from those in which they were formerly productive and supported sustainable fisheries. Here we investigate how a cod (Gadus morhua) population in the Baltic Sea whose biomass was reduced due to a combination of high exploitation and deteriorating environmental conditions might recover and develop in the 21st century in an ecosystem that likely will change due to both the already started recovery of a cod predator, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, and projected climate impacts. Simulation modelling, assuming increased seal predation, fishing levels consistent with management plan targets and stable salinity, shows that the cod population could reach high levels well above the long-term average. Scenarios with similar seal and fishing levels but with 15% lower salinity suggest that the Baltic will still be able to support a cod population which can sustain a fishery, but biomass and yields will be lower. At present knowledge of cod and seal interactions, seal predation was found to have much lower impact on cod recovery, compared to the effects of exploitation and salinity. These results suggest that dual management objectives (recovery of both seal and cod populations) are realistic but success in achieving these goals will also depend on how climate change affects cod recruitment.

  12. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Agneta; Meier, H E Markus; Ripszam, Matyas; Rowe, Owen; Wikner, Johan; Haglund, Peter; Eilola, Kari; Legrand, Catherine; Figueroa, Daniela; Paczkowska, Joanna; Lindehoff, Elin; Tysklind, Mats; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 °C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  13. Optimization of phytoplankton monitoring in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaanus, Andres; Kuprijanov, Ivan; Kaljurand, Kaire; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Enke, Annely

    2017-07-01

    Since water quality monitoring can be rather costly, it is important to properly design the monitoring network so that maximum information can be received with moderate effort. One component of monitoring is measuring the phytoplankton community composition and detecting whether that has changed. From April to October 2012, by using ships-of-opportunity (SOOP), we collected simultaneous samples from 15 stations in the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Proper to study the spatial variability in the phytoplankton species composition and biomass throughout the growing season. The analysis was performed with 10 dominant taxa constituting 83-97% of the total phytoplankton biomass. We set the criterion of the statistically significant (p < 0.05) Bray-Curtis similarity for the station pairs to be mutually representative according to the species composition and biomass. Our results indicated that in areas of similar hydrological conditions, it is sufficient to have sampling stations in 50-65 km distance between one another, but in the areas with varying hydrographical conditions, i.e. coastal areas, higher spatial coverage may be needed. Whenever possible, it is recommended to combine monitoring efforts between the Baltic Sea countries in the offshore areas, including SOOP. The need for further harmonization of phytoplankton analysis between countries is addressed in order to have comparable data sets by different countries.

  14. Hypoxia Sustains Cyanobacteria Blooms in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment is one of the classic triggering mechanisms for the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic ecosystems. In the Baltic Sea, cyanobacteria regularly occur in the late summer months and form nuisance accumulations in surface waters and their abundance has intensified significantly in the past 50 years attributed to human-induced eutrophication. However, the natural occurrence of cyanobacteria during the Holocene is debated. In this study, we present records of cyanobacteria pigments, water column redox proxies, and nitrogen isotopic signatures for the past ca. 8000 years from Baltic Sea sediment cores. Our results demonstrate that cyanobacteria abundance and nitrogen fixation are correlated with hypoxia occurring during three main intervals: (1) ca. 7000–4000 B.P. during the Littorina transgression, (2) ca. 1400–700 B.P. during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, and (3) from ca. 1950 A.D. to the present. Issues of preservation were investigated, and we show that organic matter and pigment profiles are not simply an artifact of preservation. These results suggest that cyanobacteria abundance is sustained during periods of hypoxia, most likely because of enhanced recycling of phosphorus in low oxygen conditions. PMID:24512281

  15. Microplastic concentrations in beach sediments along the German Baltic coast.

    PubMed

    Stolte, Andrea; Forster, Stefan; Gerdts, Gunnar; Schubert, Hendrik

    2015-10-15

    The contamination with microplastic particles and fibres was evaluated on beaches along the German Baltic coast. Sediments were sampled near the Warnow and Oder/Peene estuaries, on Rügen island and along the Rostock coast to derive possible entry pathways. Seasonal variations were monitored along the Rostock coast from March to July 2014. After density separation in saline solution, floating particles were found to be dominated by sand grains. Water surface tension is shown to be sufficient to explain floatation of grains with sizes less than 1.5mm. Selecting intensely coloured particles and fibres, we find lower limits of the microplastic concentrations of 0-7 particles/kg and 2-11 fibres/kg dry sediment. The largest microplastic contaminations are measured at the Peene outlet into the Baltic Sea and in the North Sea Jade Bay. City discharges, industrial production sites, fishing activity and tourism are the most likely sources for the highest microplastic concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural evolution and petroleum productivity of the Baltic basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmishek, G.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The Baltic basin is an oval depression located in the western part of the Russian craton; it occupies the eastern Baltic Sea and adjacent onshore areas. The basin contains more than 5,000 m of sedimentary rocks ranging from latest Proterozoic to Tertiary in age. These rocks consist of four tectonostratigraphic sequences deposited during major tectonic episodes of basin evolution. Principal unconformities separate the sequences. The basin is underlain by a rift probably filled with Upper Proterozoic rocks. Vendian and Lower Cambrian rocks (Baikalian sequence) form two northeast-trending depressions. The principal stage of the basin development was during deposition of a thick Middle Cambrian-Lower Devonian (Caledonian) sequence. This stage was terminated by the most intense deformations in the basin history. The Middle Devonian-Carboniferous (Hercynian) and Permian-Tertiary (Kimmerian-Alpine) tectonic and depositional cycles only slightly modified the basin geometry and left intact the main structural framework of underlying rocks. The petroleum productivity of the basin is related to the Caledonian tectonostratigraphic sequence that contains both source rocks and reservoirs. However, maturation of source rocks, migration of oil, and formation of fields took place mostly during deposition of the Hercynian sequence.

  17. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  18. Geodiversity and biodiversity assessment of the Słupsk Bank, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najwer, Alicja; Zelewska, Izabela; Zwoliński, Zbigniew

    2017-04-01

    Recognizing the most diversified parts of the territory turns out to be very crucial for management and planning of natural protected areas. There is an increasing number of studies concerning assessing geodiversity and biodiversity of the land areas. However, there is noticeable lack of such publications for submerged zones. The study area consists of 100km2 Słupsk sandy shoal sporadically covered with boulder layers, located in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. It is characterised by landscapes of a significant nature value protected by Natura 2000 and is as well designated as an open sea by Helsinki Commission Baltic Sea Protected Area (HELCOM BSPA). The main aim of the presentation is an attempt to integrate geodiversity and biodiversity assessments of the submerged area using GIS platform. The basis for the diversity assessment is the proper selection of features of the marine environment, its reclassification and integration by the map algebra analysis. The map of geodiversity is based on three factor maps: a relief energy map (classification based on bathymetric model, a landform fragmentation/geomorphological map (expert classification using BPI - Bathymetric Position Index), and a lithological map (classification of the average size of grain fraction). The map of biodiversity is based on the following factor maps: a map of biomass distribution of Ceraminum Diaphanum, a map of biomass distribution of Coccotylus Truncatus, a map of biomass distribution of Polysiphonia Fucoides, a map of biomass distribution of Mytilus Edulis Trossulus, a map of distribution of macroalgae, and finally a map of distribution of macrozoobenthos. It was decided to use four classes of diversity (from low through medium and high, up to very high). The designation of the lowest class was abandoned because it characterizes areas with high anthropopressure. Maps of geodiversity and biodiversity may prove to be helpful in determining the directions for management of the most

  19. Metal sources to the Baltic clam Macoma balthica (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the southern Baltic Sea (the Gulf of Gdansk).

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Adam; Wolowicz, Maciej; Hummel, Herman

    2007-04-01

    Metal concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in an infaunal facultative deposit-feeding bivalve, the Baltic clam Macoma balthica, in the Gulf of Gdansk (southern Baltic Sea) were assessed and compared to selected concentrations of metals in the environment. Between October 1996 and September 1997, dissolved and easy extractable (by 1M HCl) metal fractions of total suspended particulate matter (TPM) in the overlying water and of surficial sediments (<63 microm) were measured monthly at five sublittoral sites in the Gulf of Gdansk, and accumulated tissue metal concentrations in M. balthica were determined simultaneously. The study highlights the importance of sediment geochemistry as a factor modifying ambient trace metal bioavailabilities. Surficial sediments appeared to contribute most to the accumulation of Cu and Pb in M. balthica, reflecting the high metal availability in the Gulf. Assimilation of Cu from sediments is controlled by Mn components possibly through an inhibitory effect of Mn oxyhydroxides, while Pb accumulation from sediments depends on the organic content of the sediment. A dual metal uptake pathway, with a suspended particulate-bound fraction and surficial sediments, was apparent for Mn and Zn. Partitioning of Mn in sediments was related to the concentration of labile Fe, with increased levels of Fe tending to inhibit the accumulation of Mn by the clam. Tissue accumulated Zn might have been altered by the clam's internal regulation, making Zn tissue concentrations, to some degree, independent of its environmental level. The principal source of Ni accumulated by the clams exists in the soluble phase.

  20. Ensemble-based evaluation of extreme water levels for the eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eelsalu, Maris; Soomere, Tarmo

    2016-04-01

    The risks and damages associated with coastal flooding that are naturally associated with an increase in the magnitude of extreme storm surges are one of the largest concerns of countries with extensive low-lying nearshore areas. The relevant risks are even more contrast for semi-enclosed water bodies such as the Baltic Sea where subtidal (weekly-scale) variations in the water volume of the sea substantially contribute to the water level and lead to large spreading of projections of future extreme water levels. We explore the options for using large ensembles of projections to more reliably evaluate return periods of extreme water levels. Single projections of the ensemble are constructed by means of fitting several sets of block maxima with various extreme value distributions. The ensemble is based on two simulated data sets produced in the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. A hindcast by the Rossby Centre Ocean model is sampled with a resolution of 6 h and a similar hindcast by the circulation model NEMO with a resolution of 1 h. As the annual maxima of water levels in the Baltic Sea are not always uncorrelated, we employ maxima for calendar years and for stormy seasons. As the shape parameter of the Generalised Extreme Value distribution changes its sign and substantially varies in magnitude along the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, the use of a single distribution for the entire coast is inappropriate. The ensemble involves projections based on the Generalised Extreme Value, Gumbel and Weibull distributions. The parameters of these distributions are evaluated using three different ways: maximum likelihood method and method of moments based on both biased and unbiased estimates. The total number of projections in the ensemble is 40. As some of the resulting estimates contain limited additional information, the members of pairs of projections that are highly correlated are assigned weights 0.6. A comparison of the ensemble-based projection of

  1. [Experience of international cooperation among Baltic countries in occupational health and security].

    PubMed

    Miloutka, E V; Andronova, E R; Dedkova, L E

    2013-01-01

    The article covers longstanding experience of international cooperation in occupational health and security with Baltic countries. The authors describe history of information network creation, its structure, objectives, importance for occupational health services and safety in the region.

  2. Two new fossil species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic and Dominican Amber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two new species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from fossil resin: Cryptocephalus groehni sp. nov (Baltic amber) and Cryptocephalus kheelorum sp. nov. (Dominican amber). These are the first described species of Cryptocephalinae from fossil resin. ...

  3. Influence of Sea Level Rise on the Dynamics of Salt Inflows in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hordoir, R.; Axell, L.; Löptien, U.; Dietze, H.; Kuznetsov, I.

    2016-02-01

    The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea, located in a highly industrialized region in Central Northern Europe.Salt water inflows from the North Sea and associated ventilation of the deep exert crucial control on the entire Baltic Sea ecosystem.This study explores the impact of anticipated sea level changes on the dynamics of those inflows. We usea numerical oceanic general circulation model covering both the Baltic andthe North Sea. The model sucessfully retraces the essential ventilation dynamicsthroughout the period 1961 to 2007. A suite of idealized experiments suggests thatrising sea level is associated with intensified ventilation as salt water inflowsbecome stronger, longer and more frequent. Expressed quantitatively as a salinityincrease in the deep central Baltic Sea we find that a sea level rise of 1 m triggers asaltening of more than 1 PSU. This substantial increase in ventilation is theconsequence of the increasing cross section in the Danish Straits amplified bya reduction of vertical mixing.

  4. Intrusion of radioactive industrially polluted water from North Sea into central Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Vakulovskiy, S.M.; Nikitin, A.I.

    1985-02-01

    The problem of penetration of radioactive industrially polluted water into the central Baltic Sea was studied. The content of Cs-134 as determined in water near the bottom of deep water trenches along the path traveled by North Sea water entering the Baltic. Samples were taken at 5 locations, with Cs-134 concentrated from samples of several thousands of liters. It was found that radioactive pollution caused by the entry of water from the North Sea extends through the system of deep water depressions into the Baltic as far as the Gotland trench. The greatest degree of contamination is found in the Arkona depression adjacent to the straits. The concentration of Cs-134 in the Gdansk trench is one-half as great and in the Gotland trench one-third as great as in the Arkona depression. Radioactive contamination in the Baltic is attributed to discharge of radioactive wastes by plants at Windscale.

  5. Radioactive pollution of the waters of the baltic sea during 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Gavrilov, V.M.; Gritchenko, Z.G.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.E.; Tishkova, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from an investigation of radioactive pollution of the waters of the Baltic Sea during 1986. Inhomogeneities in the pollution of this area of water, due to varying density of atmospheric radioactive fallout, are detected. It is found that among the radionuclides entering the surface of the Baltic Sea in 1986 as a result of atmospheric transport, the main one in terms of radiation dose is cesium-137. Comparisons are made of the level of cesium-137 content in the waters of the Baltic Sea in 1986 and in preceding years. It is noted that even in the most polluted regions of the sea the cesium-137 content was 500 times less than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) in the USSR for drinking water. The first results of the determination of plutonium-239 and 240 in the Baltic Sea are presented.

  6. Fairness and nanotechnology concern.

    PubMed

    McComas, Katherine A; Besley, John C

    2011-11-01

    Research suggests that fairness perceptions matter to people who are asked to evaluate the acceptability of risks or risk management. Two separate national random surveys (n = 305 and n = 529) addressed Americans' concerns about and acceptance of nanotechnology risk management in the context of the degree to which they view scientists and risk managers as fair. The first survey investigated general views about scientists across four proposed dimensions of fairness (distributional, procedural, interpersonal, and informational). The results show that respondents who believe that the outcomes of scientific research tend to result in unequal benefits (distributional fairness) and that the procedures meant to protect the public from scientific research are biased (procedural fairness) were more concerned about nanotechnology. Believing scientists would treat them with respect (interpersonal fairness) and ensure access to information (informational fairness) were not significant predictors of concern. The second study also looked at these four dimensions of fairness but focused on perceptions of risk managers working for government, universities, and major companies. In addition to concern, it also examined acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Study 2 results were similar to those of study 1 for concern; however, only perceived informational fairness consistently predicted acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Overall, the study points to the value of considering fairness perceptions in the study of public perceptions of nanotechnology. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. The Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the conflicting principles revealed respectively by those who argue for the common school and by those who seek to promote a system of schools that, though maintained by the state, might reflect the different religious beliefs within the community. The philosopher, John Dewey, is appealed to in defence of the common…

  8. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  9. Lilioceris groehni sp. n.: the first authentic species of Criocerinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Bukejs, Andris; Schmitt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Based on a single well-preserved specimen from Eocene Baltic amber, Lilioceris groehnisp. n. is described and illustrated using phase-contrast X-ray microtomography. It is the first described species of Criocerinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic amber. A check-list of fossil Criocerinae is provided. Placement of Crioceris pristiana (Germar, 1813) is discussed, this species is removed from Criocerinae and placed in Coleoptera incertae sedis.

  10. Case Study: The Withdrawal of Russian Military Forces from the Baltic States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Llthuama, Latvia and Estoma regained the independence they had lost at the start of the Second World War The opportumty for these new states to...Russia was perceived as pursuing a pohcy of mtlmldatlon toward Latvia, Lithuania and Estoma As the Russia-Baltic dialogue began to deteriorate m 1993... Estoma Finally, Moscow needed good relations \\~th Vllnrus to ensure easy access to Kalmmgrad, the exclave on the Baltic Sea that was physically

  11. A gilled mushroom, Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. (Basidiomycota: Agaricales), in Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George

    2016-09-01

    A densely scaled small mushroom in Baltic amber is described as Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. and is characterized by a convex pileus 1.0 mm in diameter, distant to subdistant lamellae with smooth margins and a centrally inserted cylindrical, solid stipe. Its taxonomic placement is uncertain. This is the first mushroom described from Baltic amber. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The radiological exposure of man from radioactivity in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, S P; Bengtson, P; Bojanowsky, R; Hagel, P; Herrmann, J; Ilus, E; Jakobson, E; Motiejunas, S; Panteleev, Y; Skujina, A; Suplinska, M

    1999-09-30

    A radiological assessment has been carried out considering discharges of radioactivity to the Baltic Sea marine environment since 1950. The sources of radioactivity that have been evaluated are atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and La Hague transported into the Baltic Sea, and discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations located in the Baltic Sea area. Dose rates from man-made radioactivity to individual members of the public (critical groups) have been calculated based on annual intake of seafood and beach occupancy time. The dose rates to individuals from the regions of the Bothnian Sea and Gulf of Finland are predicted to be larger than from any other area in the Baltic Sea due to the pattern of Chernobyl fallout. The dose rates are predicted to have peaked in 1986 at a value of 0.2 mSv year-1. Collective committed doses to members of the public have been calculated based on fishery statistics and predicted concentrations of radionuclides in biota and coastal sediments. The total collective dose from man-made radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is estimated at 2600 manSv, of which approximately two-thirds originate from Chernobyl fallout, approximately one-quarter from atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, approximately 8% from European reprocessing facilities, and approximately 0.04% from nuclear installations bordering the Baltic Sea area. An assessment of small-scale dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s by Sweden and the Soviet Union has showed that doses to man from these activities are negligible. Dose rates and doses from natural radioactivity dominate except for the year 1986 where dose rates to individuals from Chernobyl fallout in some regions of the Baltic Sea approached those from natural radioactivity.

  13. Deterring Russian Aggression in the Baltic States: What it Takes to Win

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    Testimony Deterring Russian Aggression in the Baltic States What it Takes to Win David A. Shlapak CT-467 Testimony presented before the House...information on reprint and linking permissions, please visit www.rand.org/pubs/permissions.html. www.rand.org 1 Deterring Russian Aggression in...Organization (NATO) confront three related challenges in deterring Russian aggression in the Baltics (and, more generally, wherever NATO territory

  14. Lilioceris groehni sp. n.: the first authentic species of Criocerinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) from Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Bukejs, Andris; Schmitt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on a single well-preserved specimen from Eocene Baltic amber, Lilioceris groehni sp. n. is described and illustrated using phase-contrast X-ray microtomography. It is the first described species of Criocerinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic amber. A check-list of fossil Criocerinae is provided. Placement of Crioceris pristiana (Germar, 1813) is discussed, this species is removed from Criocerinae and placed in Coleoptera incertae sedis. PMID:27853400

  15. Twenty-First Century Europe: Emergence of Baltic States into European Alliances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    sources of power supply. Estonia is the only country in the world where oil shale is the primary source of energy, supplying over 75 percent of its total...Unclassified The contributions of Estonia , Latvia, and Lithuania ("the Baltic States") to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the European...23 vi TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY EUROPE: EMERGENCE OF THE BALTIC STATES INTO EUROPEAN ALLIANCES BACKGROUND Estonia , Latvia, and Lithuania are often

  16. Transcriptome analysis of gill tissue of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Małachowicz, Magdalena; Kijewska, Agnieszka; Wenne, Roman

    2015-10-01

    The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) is one of the most ecologically and economically important marine fish species in the North Atlantic Ocean. Using Roche GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencing technique 962,516 reads, representing 379Mbp of the Baltic cod transcriptome, were obtained. Data was assembled into 14,029 contigs of which 100% displayed homology to the Atlantic cod transcriptome. Despite a high similarity between transcripts, evidence for significant differences between Baltic and Atlantic cod was found.

  17. Tritium volume activity in the Baltic Sea in 1987-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Styro, D.B.; Korotkov, V.P.

    1994-11-01

    Tritium volume activities measured in the Baltic Sea are summarized in this paper. Activity levels were determined by the liquid scintillation method with a LS-1000 counter. The field investigations showed that the tritium volume activity in the Baltic Sea can change substantially in absolute magnitude. Therefore, average volume activity is used as an indicator of natural content. Correlations between calculated (averaged) tritium activity levels and the Chernobyl accident are very briefly discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Variational data assimilation problem for the Baltic Sea thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Natalia; Agoshkov, Valery; Parmuzin, Eugene

    2015-04-01

    The most versatile and promising technology for solving problems of monitoring and analysis of the natural environment is a four-dimensional variational data assimilation of observation data. In such problems not only the development and justification of algorithms for numerical solution of variational data assimilation problems but the properties of the optimal solution play an important role. In this work the variational data assimilation problems in the Baltic Sea water area were formulated and studied. Numerical experiments on restoring the ocean heat flux and obtaining solution of the system (temperature, salinity, velocity, and sea surface height) in the Baltic Sea primitive equation hydrodynamics model with assimilation procedure were carried out. In the calculations we used daily sea surface temperature observation from Danish meteorological Institute, prepared on the basis of measurements of the radiometer (AVHRR, AATSR and AMSRE) and spectroradiometer (SEVIRI and MODIS). The spatial resolution of the model grid with respect to the horizontal variables amounted to 0.0625x0.03125 degree. The results of the numerical experiments are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 13-01-00753, project 14-01-31195) and project 14-11-00609 by the Russian Science Foundation. References: 1 E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 69-94 2 Zakharova N.B., Agoshkov V.I., Parmuzin E.I., The new method of ARGO buoys system observation data interpolation. Russian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling. Vol. 28, Issue 1, 2013. 3 Zalesny V.B., Gusev A.V., Chernobay S.Yu., Aps R., Tamsalu R., Kujala P., Rytkönen J. The Bal-tic Sea circulation modelling and assessment of marine pollution, Russ. J. Numer. Analysis and Math. Modelling, 2014, V 29

  19. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per O. J.

    2013-04-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic-anoxic interface. Anammox was never detected whereas denitrification was found in all incubations from anoxic depths and occurred immediately below the oxic-anoxic interface. Sulfide (H2S + HS- + S2-) was in most cases the only electron donor for denitrification but, in contrast to previous findings, denitrification was in some situations driven by organic matter alone. Nitrous oxide (N2O) became an increasingly important product of denitrification with increasing sulfide concentration and was >80% of the total N gas formation at 10 μM sulfide. The potential rates of denitrification measured in incubations at elevated NO3- or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of NO3- and sulfide and the actual measured relations between NO3- and sulfide concentrations and denitrification rates. In situ denitrification ranged from 0.24 to 15.9 nM N2 h-1. Assuming that these rates were valid throughout the anoxic NO3- containing zone, depth integrated in situ denitrification rates of 0.06-2.11 mmol N m-2 d-1 were estimated. The thickness of this zone was generally 3-6 m, which is probably what can be maintained through regular turbulent mixing induced by internal waves at the oxic-anoxic interface. However, layers of up to 55 m thickness with low O2 water (<10 μM) were observed which was probably the result of larger scale mixing. In such a layer nitrification may produce NO3- and once the O2 has been depleted denitrification will follow resulting in enormous rates per unit area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3-6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in

  20. The Baltic Sea - from environmental monitoring data to paleoenvironmental reconstructions in a marine/brackish system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arz, Helge W.; Dellwig, Olaf; Häusler, Katharina; Kaiser, Jérôme; Leipe, Thomas; Moros, Matthias; Pollehne, Falk

    2017-04-01

    Instrumental observations in the Baltic Sea are reaching back into the 19th century, but a comprehensive ecosystem monitoring by means of coastal stations, research vessels, moorings, permanent stations, and satellites was developed stepwise after WWII and significantly intensified after founding of the HELCOM (Helsinki Commission) in 1975 for protecting the Baltic marine environment against anthropogenic influences. Such influences are well recorded in surface sediments of the different Baltic Sea sub-basins, where i.a. heavy metal and organic pollutants accumulated in the course of the last century with characteristic rates. However, despite of the vast amount of instrumental data, calibration of paleoenvironmental proxies is often complicated due to weakly constraint chronologies of these young sediments. In many cases sedimentation is not continuous and sediments are subject to erosion, re-suspension, lateral transport, and focusing due to intense wind driven waves and current activity. Therefore, a direct link of sedimentary proxies with instrumental water column observations is not always straightforward and generally not well established. Recently developed event stratigraphic and radionuclide based chronologies in some restricted Baltic Sea areas like the central Baltic deeps form now a solid base for the in depth proxy development and validation with instrumental time series. Promising results come from e.g. the solid-phase Mn and trace element signatures and organic biomarkers in recent/sub-recent sediments from the central Baltic Sea enhancing the potential of reconstructing the Littorina-Stage environmental development.

  1. Metazoan parasites from herring (Clupea harengus L.) as biological indicators in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Unger, Patrick; Klimpel, Sven; Lang, Thomas; Palm, Harry Wilhelm

    2014-09-01

    Zoographical distribution of metazoan fish parasites in herring, Clupea harengus, from the Baltic Sea was analysed in order to use them as potential biological indicators. A total of 210 herring from six different sampling sites were investigated, harbouring 12 different parasite species [five digeneans (D), one cestode (C), three nematodes (N) and three acanthocephalans (A)]. The distribution of the parasite species differed according to region, with a distinct gradient of decreasing species richness towards the east of the Baltic Sea. The western localities at Kiel Bay, Rügen and Poland had the highest parasite diversity, including the marine parasite species Anisakis simplex (s.s.) (N), Brachyphallus crenatus and Hemiurus luehei (both D). The eastern localities had low parasite species richness, predominated by the freshwater digenean Diplostomum spathaceum. We could identify three different Baltic herring stocks, the spring-spawning herring of the western Baltic reaching from the Kattegat to the German and Polish coast, the stock of the central Baltic proper and the northern stock of C. harengus var. membras of the Gulf of Finland. The limited distribution of the herring parasites within the Baltic Sea enables their use as biological indicators for migration patterns and stock separation. The acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis that has already been used as an accumulation bioindicator for heavy metals was only recorded for the western herring stocks. However, the presence of mainly generalistic parasites and their uneven distribution patterns make their use as indicators for regional environmental and global change more difficult.

  2. Commons Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, William E.; Tyler, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    Explains how a commons area can serve both the school and community by becoming a cost-effective, space-saving asset to the school building. Examines the commons area as a place for interaction; discusses subdividing it into smaller functional units, locating it, and related lighting and heating issues. (GR)

  3. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  4. Methane anomalies in the oxygenated upper waters of the central Baltic Sea associated with zooplankton abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmale, Oliver; Wäge, Janine; Morholz, Volker; Rehder, Gregor; Wasmund, Norbert; Gräwe, Ulf; Labrenz, Matthias; Loick-Wilde, Natalie

    2017-04-01

    Apart from the sediment as the dominant source of methane in the aquatic realm the process of methane production in well-oxygenated waters has received considerable attention during the last years. The paradox of methane accumulation in these relatively shallow waters, commonly termed as "oceanic methane paradox", has been sporadically observed in lakes as well as in marine ecosystems like the Gulf of Mexico, the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea, Arctic waters or above the continental shelf off the coast of Spain and Africa. Even if this phenomenon has been described in the literature over the last decades, the potential sources of shallow methane accumulation are still controversially discussed. We report on methane enrichments that were observed during summer in the upper water column of the Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea. In the eastern part of the basin methane concentrations just below the thermocline (in about 30 m water depth) varied between 15 and 77 nM, in contrast to the western part of the basin where no methane enrichments could be detected. Stable carbon isotope ratios of methane (delta 13C-CH4 of -67.6‰) clearly indicated its in situ biogenic origin. This is supported by clonal sequences from the depth with high methane concentrations in the eastern Gotland Basin, which cluster with the clade Methanomicrobiacea, a family of methanogenic Archaea. Hydroacoustic observation in combination with plankton net tows displayed a seston enrichment (size >100 micro meter) in a layer between 30-50 m depth. The dominant species in the phytoplankton, Dinophysis norvegica, was concentrated at 10-20 m depth, and showed higher concentrations in the eastern Gotland Basin in comparison with the western part of the basin. In contrast to the western Gotland Basin, the zooplankton community in the eastern part was dominated by the copepod species Temora longicornis. Laboratory incubations of a T. longicornis dominated seston fraction (>100 micro meter) sampled in the depth

  5. Multidecadal time series of satellite-detected accumulations of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahru, M.; Elmgren, R.

    2014-07-01

    Cyanobacteria, primarily of the species Nodularia spumigena, form extensive surface accumulations in the Baltic Sea in July and August, ranging from diffuse flakes to dense surface scums. The area of these accumulations can reach ~ 200 000 km2. We describe the compilation of a 35-year-long time series (1979-2013) of cyanobacteria surface accumulations in the Baltic Sea using multiple satellite sensors. This appears to be one of the longest satellite-based time series in biological oceanography. The satellite algorithm is based on remote sensing reflectance of the water in the red band, a measure of turbidity. Validation of the satellite algorithm using horizontal transects from a ship of opportunity showed the strongest relationship with phycocyanin fluorescence (an indicator of cyanobacteria), followed by turbidity and then by chlorophyll a fluorescence. The areal fraction with cyanobacteria accumulations (FCA) and the total accumulated area affected (TA) were used to characterize the intensity and extent of the accumulations. The fraction with cyanobacteria accumulations was calculated as the ratio of the number of detected accumulations to the number of cloud-free sea-surface views per pixel during the season (July-August). The total accumulated area affected was calculated by adding the area of pixels where accumulations were detected at least once during the season. The fraction with cyanobacteria accumulations and TA were correlated (R2 = 0.55) and both showed large interannual and decadal-scale variations. The average FCA was significantly higher for the second half of the time series (13.8%, 1997-2013) than for the first half (8.6%, 1979-1996). However, that does not seem to represent a long-term trend but decadal-scale oscillations. Cyanobacteria accumulations were common in the 1970s and early 1980s (FCA between 11-17%), but rare (FCA below 4%) during 1985-1990; they increased again starting in 1991 and particularly in 1999, reaching maxima in FCA (~ 25

  6. Satellite detection of multi-decadal time series of cyanobacteria accumulations in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahru, M.; Elmgren, R.

    2014-02-01

    Cyanobacteria, primarily of the species Nodularia spumigena, form extensive surface accumulations in the Baltic Sea in July and August, ranging from diffuse flakes to dense surface scum. We describe the compilation of a 35 year (1979-2013) long time series of cyanobacteria surface accumulations in the Baltic Sea using multiple satellite sensors. This appears to be one of the longest satellite-based time series in biological oceanography. The satellite algorithm is based on increased remote sensing reflectance of the water in the red band, a measure of turbidity. Validation of the satellite algorithm using horizontal transects from a ship of opportunity showed the strongest relationship with phycocyanin fluorescence (an indicator of cyanobacteria), followed by turbidity and then by chlorophyll a fluorescence. The areal fraction with cyanobacteria accumulations (FCA) and the total accumulated area affected (TA) were used to characterize the intensity and extent of the accumulations. FCA was calculated as the ratio of the number of detected accumulations to the number of cloud free sea-surface views per pixel during the season (July-August). TA was calculated by adding the area of pixels where accumulations were detected at least once during the season. FCA and TA were correlated (R2 = 0.55) and both showed large interannual and decadal-scale variations. The average FCA was significantly higher for the 2nd half of the time series (13.8%, 1997-2013) than for the first half (8.6%, 1979-1996). However, that does not seem to represent a long-term trend but decadal-scale oscillations. Cyanobacteria accumulations were common in the 1970s and early 1980s (FCA between 11-17%), but rare (FCA below 4%) from 1985 to 1990; they increased again from 1991 and particularly from 1999, reaching maxima in FCA (~ 25%) and TA (~ 210 000 km2) in 2005 and 2008. After 2008 FCA declined to more moderate levels (6-17%). The timing of the accumulations has become earlier in the season, at a

  7. GIS analysis of effects of future Baltic sea level rise on the island of Gotland, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Karin; Ekstedt, Karin; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2016-07-01

    Future sea level rise as a consequence of global warming will affect the world's coastal regions. Even though the pace of sea level rise is not clear, the consequences will be severe and global. Commonly the effects of future sea level rise are investigated for relatively vulnerable development countries; however, a whole range of varying regions needs to be considered in order to improve the understanding of global consequences. In this paper we investigate consequences of future sea level rise along the coast of the Baltic Sea island of Gotland, Sweden, with the aim to fill knowledge gaps regarding comparatively well-suited areas in developed countries. We study both the quantity of the loss of features of infrastructure, cultural, and natural value in the case of a 2 m sea level rise of the Baltic Sea and the effects of climate change on seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers, which indirectly cause saltwater intrusion in wells. We conduct a multi-criteria risk analysis by using lidar data on land elevation and GIS-vulnerability mapping, which gives the application of distance and elevation parameters formerly unimaginable precision. We find that in case of a 2 m sea level rise, 3 % of the land area of Gotland, corresponding to 99 km2, will be inundated. The features most strongly affected are items of touristic or nature value, including camping places, shore meadows, sea stack areas, and endangered plants and species habitats. In total, 231 out of 7354 wells will be directly inundated, and the number of wells in the high-risk zone for saltwater intrusion in wells will increase considerably. Some valuable features will be irreversibly lost due to, for example, inundation of sea stacks and the passing of tipping points for seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers; others might simply be moved further inland, but this requires considerable economic means and prioritization. With nature tourism being one of the main income sources of Gotland, monitoring and

  8. Allelopathic activity of the Baltic cyanobacteria against microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żak, Adam; Musiewicz, Krzysztof; Kosakowska, Alicja

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate the influence of Baltic cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis and Nodularia spumigena cells and cell-free filtrates on the growth of green algae Chlorella vulgaris. We have demonstrated that Anabaena variabilis and Nodularia spumigena caused allelopathic effects against microalgae. The cyanobacterial and microalgal cultures were provided on liquid medium, in 22 °C at continuous light. Cell-free filtrates were obtained by centrifugation and filtering aliquots of cyanobacterial cultures (including cultures in exponential and stationary phase of growth). Growth response of free cells (batch culture technique) and immobilized cultures (in alginate beads) of the unicellular green algae to cyanobacteria allelochemicals were tested and compared. In this experiment Anabaena variabilis supressed the growth of microalgae compared to control samples. Nodularia spumigena stimulated the growth of Chlorella vulgaris in most cases, however both positive and negative effects were observed.

  9. Ecological forecasting under climate change: the case of Baltic cod.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian; Nielsen, Anders; Brander, Keith; MacKenzie, Brian R; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2010-07-22

    Good decision making for fisheries and marine ecosystems requires a capacity to anticipate the consequences of management under different scenarios of climate change. The necessary ecological forecasting calls for ecosystem-based models capable of integrating multiple drivers across trophic levels and properly including uncertainty. The methodology presented here assesses the combined impacts of climate and fishing on marine food-web dynamics and provides estimates of the confidence envelope of the forecasts. It is applied to cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea, which is vulnerable to climate-related decline in salinity owing to both direct and indirect effects (i.e. through species interactions) on early-life survival. A stochastic food web-model driven by regional climate scenarios is used to produce quantitative forecasts of cod dynamics in the twenty-first century. The forecasts show how exploitation would have to be adjusted in order to achieve sustainable management under different climate scenarios.

  10. Microplastics in Baltic bottom sediments: Quantification procedures and first results.

    PubMed

    Zobkov, M; Esiukova, E

    2017-01-30

    Microplastics in the marine environment are known as a global ecological problem but there are still no standardized analysis procedures for their quantification. The first breakthrough in this direction was the NOAA Laboratory Methods for quantifying synthetic particles in water and sediments, but fibers numbers have been found to be underestimated with this approach. We propose modifications for these methods that will allow us to analyze microplastics in bottom sediments, including small fibers. Addition of an internal standard to sediment samples and occasional empty runs are advised for analysis quality control. The microplastics extraction efficiency using the proposed modifications is 92±7%. Distribution of microplastics in bottom sediments of the Russian part of the Baltic Sea is presented. Microplastic particles were found in all of the samples with an average concentration of 34±10 items/kg DW and have the same order of magnitude as neighbor studies reported.

  11. Paleogeographic sedimentation settings in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimonis, E. S.; Emelyanov, E. M.; Vaikutene, G.

    2008-10-01

    The grain-size and chemical composition of the bottom sediments and their diatom assemblages from the northern Baltic Sea is discussed. Characteristic layers are distinguished based on the lithostratgraphy and sediment core correlation, which reflect the transition from the lacustrine to marine sedimentation settings during the initial Holocene. Sediment cores demonstrate lateral variations in the sedimentation patterns during the marine (Yoldia Sea), the lacustrine (Ancylus Lake), and the subsequent marine (Littorina Sea) stages: first two stages were characterized by the clay deposition, while the latter one featured accumulation of silty-clayey and clayey muds in bottom depressions. Sea-level fluctuations and corresponding environmental changes are recorded in microlaminated sequences, in particular, sapropelic muds.

  12. The groundwater exchange rate of the southern Baltic coastal lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burzyński, K.; Sadurski, A.

    1990-11-01

    The groundwater of the southern Baltic lowlands usually occurs in particular hydrogeological conditions. The lowland is mostly covered by peats several metres in thickness. Peatbog water is isolated from deeper aquifers and has different chemical composition. Salty, relic groundwater of marine origin from the Atlantic period of the Holocene (Littorina transgression) may have survived in the deeper coastal aquifers in places of sluggish flow. The results of mathematical modelling of groundwater circulation show that the flow rate and local directions of groundwater change during the year, depending on the rate of groundwater recharge by precipitation. We present here an unsteady flow model, which makes it possible to predict the water table fluctuations during a year at any point of the area studied. The calculation of the groundwater exchange rate did not confirm the presence of any places of very sluggish groundwater flow, where salty, young relic water might have survived.

  13. [Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae].

    PubMed

    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paal'me, L P; Kukk, Kh A

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Käsmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf.

  14. Effects of pulp mill chlorate on Baltic Sea algae.

    PubMed

    Rosemarin, A; Lehtinen, K J; Notini, M; Mattson, J

    1994-01-01

    The long-term effects of pulp mill chlorate on different algal species of the Baltic Sea were studied in land-based model ecosystems simulating the littoral zone. Brown algae (Phaeophyta) exhibited an extraordinarily high sensitivity to chlorate and pulp mill effluents containing chlorate. All brown algal species ceased growth or showed major signs of toxicity at all concentrations tested, down to microgram per litre levels. EC50 levels for growth of Fucus vesiculosus were about 80-100 microg ClO3- litre(-1). Blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) were not deleteriously affected nor were green algae (Chlorophyta). The perennial and annual species of red algae (Rhodophyta) were also unaffected by the effluents. Diatoms did not show any sensitivity and phytoplankton (fresh- and brackish water) were particularly insensitive. A phanerogam, Zostera marina was also unaffected by the treatments.

  15. Has eutrophication promoted forage fish production in the Baltic Sea?

    PubMed

    Eero, Margit; Andersson, Helén C; Almroth-Rosell, Elin; MacKenzie, Brian R

    2016-10-01

    Reducing anthropogenic nutrient inputs is a major policy goal for restoring good environmental status of coastal marine ecosystems. However, it is unclear to what extent reducing nutrients would also lower fish production and fisheries yields. Empirical examples of changes in nutrient loads and concurrent fish production can provide useful insights to this question. In this paper, we investigate to what extent a multi-fold increase in nutrient loads from the 1950s to 1980s enhanced forage fish production in the Baltic Sea. We use monitoring data on fish stock dynamics covering the period of the nutrient increase, combined with nutrient concentrations from a 3-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model. The results suggest that nutrient enrichment enhanced the biomass level of forage fish by up to 50 % in some years and areas due to increased body weight of fish. However, the trends in fish biomasses were generally decoupled from changes in nutrient concentrations.

  16. Microbial responses to mustard gas dumped in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Medvedeva, Nadezda; Polyak, Yulia; Kankaanpää, Harri; Zaytseva, Tatyana

    2009-08-01

    Microbiological studies were carried out on chemical weapon dump sites in the Baltic Sea. The effect of mustard gas hydrolysis products (MGHPs) on marine microbiota and the ability of microorganisms to degrade MGHPs were studied. Many stations at the dump sites demonstrated reduced microbial diversity, and increased growth of species able to use mustard gas hydrolysis products as sole source of carbon. Significant amounts of MGHP-degrading bacteria were revealed in the near-bottom water. The MGHP-degrading microorganisms identified as Achromobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Arthrobacter sp. were isolated. These microorganisms were capable of utilizing the major product of hydrolysis, thiodiglycol, as the sole source of carbon and energy. The bacteria were capable of metabolizing MGHPs at a low temperature. The metabolic pathway for thiodiglycol degradation was proposed. The results suggest the potential for MGHPs biodegradation by naturally occurring populations of near-bottom-water and sediment microorganisms.

  17. Fish stocks in the Baltic Sea: finite or infinite resource?

    PubMed

    Ojaveer, E; Lehtonen, H

    2001-08-01

    Human-induced environmental changes, especially eutrophication, and fluctuations of natural environmental conditions under the changes in climate and solar activity affect the reproduction and growth of various fish species and communities in the Baltic Sea. The importance of human impacts has increased considerably during the last decades, overshadowing in many cases natural factors. High exploitation rates have depressed some valuable fish species and affected the species dominance hierarchy. Oxygen depletion in deeper layers progressively deteriorates the living conditions of certain marine species. Mass immigration of nonindigenous species with ballast waters can seriously affect ecosystems and fish stocks. The summary effect of these variables upon marine, relict and freshwater species can yield unexpected results. Fish resources should be properly assessed and managed by their natural units (populations). Based on cyclic fluctuations of global climatic processes, composition of long-term forecasts on changes in the structure and abundance of fish fauna should be started.

  18. Bacterial methanogenesis in holocene sediments in the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lein, A.Y.; Namsaraev, B.B.; Trotsyuk, V.Y.; Ivanov, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    Soviet biologists have found evidence of viable methanogenic microorganisms in mud samples collected in 1978 from the Baltic Sea by the research ship Academician Kurchatov. Experiments with radioactive carbon and direct measurements of the samples' methane concentrations led to several conclusions: (1) the process of bacterial methanogenesis occurs mainly via carbon dioxide reduction, (2) the methanogenic intensity depends on the depth of the deposited sediment and its distance from land; shallow-water sediments found in gulfs produced more methane than deepwater ones taken from low spots, (3) organic-matter consumption during bacterial methane reduction makes up 0.14-7.9 mg of carbon/kg of wet mud per year; this is over 20 times less than during bacterial sulfate reduction, (4) The bulk of the methane generated migrates from the muds into the water and (5) marine sediments are undersaturated with methane, suggesting that the methane migrates via filtration of pore waters, not by diffusion.

  19. Expression of Concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, Damien

    2016-08-01

    This is a note of a temporary expression of concern related to the publication titled, "Sapphirine and fluid inclusions in Tel Thanoun mantle xenoliths, Syria" by Ahmad Bilal, which appeared in Journal of African Earth Sciences, 116 (2016) 105-113.

  20. The Concerned Observer Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiger, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom experiment--the "concerned observer" experiment--for production students that dramatizes basic film language by relating it to several levels of human observation. Details the experiment's three levels, and concludes that film language mimics wide-ranging states of human emotion and ideological persuasion. (PRA)

  1. Quebec's Toxic Pollution Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    The best solution to the problems of increased pollution of Quebec lakes and rivers with toxic wastes and increased incidence of pollution related diseases is to educate children, to make them aware of the environment and man's interrelationship with it. Attitudes of concern, based on knowledge, must be developed so that as adults, they will take…

  2. The Concerned Observer Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiger, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom experiment--the "concerned observer" experiment--for production students that dramatizes basic film language by relating it to several levels of human observation. Details the experiment's three levels, and concludes that film language mimics wide-ranging states of human emotion and ideological persuasion. (PRA)

  3. Quebec's Toxic Pollution Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    The best solution to the problems of increased pollution of Quebec lakes and rivers with toxic wastes and increased incidence of pollution related diseases is to educate children, to make them aware of the environment and man's interrelationship with it. Attitudes of concern, based on knowledge, must be developed so that as adults, they will take…

  4. Food allergy: current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    This commentary focuses on the author's concerns with various aspects of food allergy. Strict criteria should be applied to the definition of food allergy and its diagnostic techniques. Industrial inhalational exposures, food contaminations and cross-sensitization all are important influences which demand studious attention.

  5. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  6. Antisocial Conduct: Whose Concern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Sula

    1987-01-01

    Outlines differing perspectives of practitioners in child psychiatry and general psychiatry concerning antisocial behavior. Discusses changes in attitudes toward deviancy in the United Kingdom since 1967. Urges strengthening of links in training, research, and practice between subspecialties of psychiatry and renewal of psychiatric interest in the…

  7. Expression of concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-02-01

    This is an expression of concern related to the following publications: Nanostructures formed by cyclodextrin covered procainamide through supramolecular self assembly - Spectral and molecular modeling study (2015) Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 136 (PB), pp. 875-883, by Rajendiran, N., Mohandoss, T., Sankaranarayanan, R.K.

  8. Committee Handbook for Common Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Sharon; And Others

    This manual on general education and common learning was prepared by and for the Dallas County Community College District's (DCCCD's) Committees for Common Learning (CCL's), which have been charged with reviewing the DCCCD's general education curriculum and degree requirements and making recommendations concerning common learning requirements and…

  9. PUMa - modelling the groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvane, G.; Marnica, A.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    In 2009-2012 at University of Latvia and Latvia University of Agriculture project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" is implemented financed by the European Social Fund. The aim of the project is to develop groundwater research in Latvia by establishing interdisciplinary research group and modelling system covering groundwater flow in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin. Researchers from fields like geology, chemistry, mathematical modelling, physics and environmental engineering are involved in the project. The modelling system is used as a platform for addressing scientific problems such as: (1) large-scale groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin and impact of human activities on it; (2) the evolution of groundwater flow since the last glaciation and subglacial groundwater recharge; (3) the effects of climate changes on shallow groundwater and interaction of hydrographical network and groundwater; (4) new programming approaches for groundwater modelling. Within the frame of the project most accessible geological information such as description of geological wells, geological maps and results of seismic profiling in Latvia as well as Estonia and Lithuania are collected and integrated into modelling system. For example data form more then 40 thousands wells are directly used to automatically generate the geological structure of the model. Additionally a groundwater sampling campaign is undertaken. Contents of CFC, stabile isotopes of O and H and radiocarbon are the most significant parameters of groundwater that are established in unprecedented scale for Latvia. The most important modelling results will be published in web as a data set. Project number: 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Project web-site: www.puma.lu.lv

  10. Radiational tides at the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, A. B.; Medvedev, I. P.

    2015-05-01

    The tides in the Baltic Sea are weak but unmistakably recognizable in sea-level spectra. Multiyear hourly tide gauge series enable us to examine specific tidal properties in detail and to identify some unexpected effects. Two nearby stations on the southeastern coast of the sea, namely Baltiysk, located in the strait connecting the Vistula Lagoon to the Baltic Sea, and Otkrytoe, on the coast of the Curonian Lagoon, are found to have very different character of tidal motions. Based on 13 years of simultaneous observations at these stations we constructed high-resolution spectra of sea level fluctuations that demonstrated that the tidal spectrum at Baltiysk is "classical" with sharp peaks corresponding to the major tidal constituents: M2, S2, N2, K1, O1, and P1. Unlike at Baltiysk, the main tidal peak at Otkrytoe is at the S1 frequency; the K1, P1, and S2 tidal harmonics also have significant peaks, while the other harmonics (including M2 and O1) are undistinguishable. Further analysis indicated that the tides at Baltiysk are generated by ordinary gravitational tidal forces, while at Otkrytoe they are induced by solar radiation, specifically by the breeze winds creating wind setups and setdowns in the Curonian Lagoon. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that the observed K1 and P1 peaks at Otkrytoe are related not to gravitational forces but to the seasonal modulation of the S1 radiational tidal constituent. The separate analysis of the "summer" and "winter" sea level spectra at Otkrytoe reveals prominent radiational tidal peaks (S1 and S2) in summer and the absence of these peaks in winter. The results of the analysis support the assumption that these motions are generated by the breeze winds associated with the sea/land temperature contrasts, which are substantial during the warm (ice-free) season but vague during the cold season when ice cover diminishes these contrasts.

  11. Alzheimer's Patients' Use of Painkilling Patches Cause for Concern

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162442.html Alzheimer's Patients' Use of Painkilling Patches Cause for Concern Researchers ... opioid painkillers may be common among Alzheimer's disease patients and could be a cause for concern, researchers ...

  12. Foraminiferal stable isotope constraints on salinity changes in the deglacial and early Holocene Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana Krupinski, Nadine; Filipsson, Helena; Bokhari-Friberg, Yasmin; Knudsen, Karen-Luise; Mackensen, Andreas; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Austin, William

    2015-04-01

    The northern European Baltic Sea shows evidence of strong coupling with North Atlantic climate over recent glacial-interglacial cycles, but existing climate proxy evidence from regional sediment records suggest that the coupling may occur through non-linear processes. High-resolution regional climate records in Europe and from the Baltic Sea are critical for evaluating this coupling and the regional sensitivity to North Atlantic and global climate signals. However, evaluating the drivers and mechanisms of proposed links between the North Atlantic and Baltic Sea climate has often been hampered by a lack of long, continuous, high-resolution climate records from this area. New high-resolution sediment cores collected by IODP/ECORD Expedition 347 (Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment) allow such records to be generated, including foraminiferal geochemistry records of Baltic Sea hydrographic conditions during the most recent deglaciation and early Holocene (~19-7 cal. ka). The dramatic changes in salinity, sea level, circulation, temperature, and oxygenation during this period, e.g. through massive meltwater release from proglacial lakes and the early Holocene inundation of the Baltic by seawater highlight these non-linear links between the Baltic and North Atlantic. This work uses benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records (δ18O and δ13C) from sites in the western Baltic (M0059, Lillebælt, early Holocene marine stage (Littorina Sea)) and Kattegat (M0060, Anholt, deglaciation) to constrain salinity changes during these intervals. Because of the dramatic changes in salinity this region experiences today and during the study periods, oxygen isotope records (δ18O) here primarily reflect a signal of changing salinity, with a reduced temperature effect. Early δ18O results from the western Baltic (M0059) show a trend of declining δ18O/salinity during the first several kyr of the Littorina Sea stage, in agreement with previous work indicating declining salinity due to gradual

  13. QCI Common

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  14. Importance of geographic origin for invasion success: A case study of the North and Baltic Seas versus the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River region.

    PubMed

    Casties, Isabel; Seebens, Hanno; Briski, Elizabeta

    2016-11-01

    Recently, several studies indicated that species from the Ponto-Caspian region may be evolutionarily predisposed to become nonindigenous species (NIS); however, origin of NIS established in different regions has rarely been compared to confirm these statements. More importantly, if species from certain area/s are proven to be better colonizers, management strategies to control transport vectors coming from those areas must be more stringent, as prevention of new introductions is a cheaper and more effective strategy than eradication or control of established NIS populations. To determine whether species evolved in certain areas have inherent advantages over other species in colonizing new habitats, we explored NIS established in the North and Baltic Seas and Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River regions-two areas intensively studied in concern to NIS, highly invaded by Ponto-Caspian species and with different salinity patterns (marine vs. freshwater). We compared observed numbers of NIS in these two regions to expected numbers of NIS from major donor regions. The expected numbers were calculated based on the available species pool from donor regions, frequency of shipping transit, and an environmental match between donor and recipient regions. A total of 281 NIS established in the North and Baltic Seas and 188 in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River. Ponto-Caspian taxa colonized both types of habitats, saltwater areas of the North and Baltic Seas and freshwater of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River, in much higher numbers than expected. Propagule pressure (i.e., number of introduced individuals or introduction effort) is of great importance for establishment success of NIS; however in our study, either shipping vector or environmental match between regions did not clarify the high numbers of Ponto-Caspian taxa in our study areas. Although we cannot exclude the influence of other transport vectors, our findings suggest that the origin of the species plays an important role

  15. Mutagenic effect of extracts from particulate matter collected with sediment traps in the archipelago of Stockholm and the open northern Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Broman, D.; Naef, C.; Rannug, U. )

    1994-11-01

    The load of various hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) on the Baltic Sea aquatic environment is considerable. This investigation samples the water area around Stockholm, of special concern since it is one of the most densely populated urban areas in the Baltic region. Stockholm also houses several power plants, municipal waste incinerators, waste water treatment plants, ports and oil terminals. The runoff from a large lake also passes through the estuarine-like archipelago of Stockholm. Due to the high particulate-water partition coefficients (K[sub p]) of most ecotoxicologically relevant HOCs, particulate matter (PM) becomes very important for occurrence and distribution in the aquatic environment. This PM is the basic food source for important organisms in the benthic, pelagic and littoral parts of the aquatic ecosystem. The load of various HOCs such as petrogenic hydrocarbons (PHCs), various polynuclear aromatic compounds (PACs), and chlorinated hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in association with PM in the aquatic environment of the Stockholm area is well documented. However, the ecotoxicological relevance of organic extracts of PM, including the above identified compounds and various unidentified HOCs, is not fully evaluated. To evaluate the genotoxic potential of extracts of PM, collected with sediment traps in the Stockholm water area and in the open northern Baltic, we used the Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100, with and without a metabolizing system. After extraction and before the mutagenicity tests all PM samples were fractionated on an HPLC-system into three fractions containing aliphatic/monoaromatic-, diaromatic, (containing, e.g., PCDD/Fs and PCBs) and polyaromatic compounds (containing various PACs). The relative mutagenic potential of these fractions at the different sediment trap sampling stations are discussed and evaluated. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  16. An algorithm based on sea level pressure fluctuations to identify major Baltic inflow events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimanke, Semjon; Dieterich, Christian; Markus Meier, H. E.

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of world largest brackish water areas with an estuarine like circulation. It is connected to the world ocean through the narrow Danish straits limiting the exchange of water masses. The deep water of the Baltic Sea is mainly renewed by so called major Baltic inflows which are an important feature to sustain the sensitive steady state of the Baltic Sea. We introduce an algorithm to identify atmospheric variability favourable for major Baltic inflows. The algorithm is based on sea level pressure fields as the only parameter. Characteristic sea level pressure pattern fluctuations include a precursory phase of 30 days and 10 days of inflow period. The algorithm identifies successfully the majority of observed major Baltic inflows between 1961--2010. In addition, the algorithm finds some occurrences which cannot be related to observed inflows. In these cases with favourable atmospheric conditions inflows were precluded by contemporaneously existing saline water masses or strong freshwater supply. No event is registered during the stagnation period 1983-1993 indicating that the lack of inflows is a consequence of missing favourable atmospheric variability. The only striking inflow which is not identified by the algorithm is the event in January 2003. We demonstrate that this is due to the special evolution of sea level pressure fields which are not comparable with any other event. Finally, the algorithm is applied to an ensemble of scenario simulations. The result indicates that the number of atmospheric events favourable for major Baltic inflows increases slightly in all scenarios. Possible explanations as for instance more frequent atmospheric blockings or changes in the NAO will be discussed.

  17. Long-term temporal and spatial trends in eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jesper H; Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J; Dromph, Karsten; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Gustafsson, Bo G; Josefson, Alf B; Norkko, Alf; Villnäs, Anna; Murray, Ciarán

    2017-02-01

    Much of the Baltic Sea is currently classified as 'affected by eutrophication'. The causes for this are twofold. First, current levels of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) from human activities exceed the natural processing capacity with an accumulation of nutrients in the Baltic Sea over the last 50-100 years. Secondly, the Baltic Sea is naturally susceptible to nutrient enrichment due to a combination of long retention times and stratification restricting ventilation of deep waters. Here, based on a unique data set collated from research activities and long-term monitoring programs, we report on the temporal and spatial trends of eutrophication status for the open Baltic Sea over a 112-year period using the HELCOM Eutrophication Assessment Tool (HEAT 3.0). Further, we analyse variation in the confidence of the eutrophication status assessment based on a systematic quantitative approach using coefficients of variation in the observations. The classifications in our assessment indicate that the first signs of eutrophication emerged in the mid-1950s and the central parts of the Baltic Sea changed from being unaffected by eutrophication to being affected. We document improvements in eutrophication status that are direct consequences of long-term efforts to reduce the inputs of nutrients. The reductions in both nitrogen and phosphorus loads have led to large-scale alleviation of eutrophication and to a healthier Baltic Sea. Reduced confidence in our assessment is seen more recently due to reductions in the scope of monitoring programs. Our study sets a baseline for implementation of the ecosystem-based management strategies and policies currently in place including the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directives and the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan.

  18. Modelling the influence of climate change on the chemical concentrations in the Baltic Sea region with the POPCYCLING-Baltic model.

    PubMed

    Kong, Deguo; MacLeod, Matthew; Cousins, Ian T

    2014-09-01

    The effect of projected future changes in temperature, wind speed, precipitation and particulate organic carbon on concentrations of persistent organic chemicals in the Baltic Sea regional environment is evaluated using the POPCYCLING-Baltic multimedia chemical fate model. Steady-state concentrations of hypothetical perfectly persistent chemicals with property combinations that encompass the entire plausible range for non-ionizing organic substances are modelled under two alternative climate change scenarios (IPCC A2 and B2) and compared to a baseline climate scenario. The contributions of individual climate parameters are deduced in model experiments in which only one of the four parameters is changed from the baseline scenario. Of the four selected climate parameters, temperature is the most influential, and wind speed is least. Chemical concentrations in the Baltic region are projected to change by factors of up to 3.0 compared to the baseline climate scenario. For chemicals with property combinations similar to legacy persistent organic pollutants listed by the Stockholm Convention, modelled concentration ratios between two climate change scenarios and the baseline scenario range from factors of 0.5 to 2.0. This study is a first step toward quantitatively assessing climate change-induced changes in the environmental concentrations of persistent organic chemicals in the Baltic Sea region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Contaminants of Emerging Concerns

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-ug/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  20. Contaminants of Emerging Concerns

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-ug/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  1. New Options, Old Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, John

    1996-01-01

    Will greater school choice result in more responsive, higher quality schools and happier parents? Or will proliferating options further sort students and families by race, social class, and special interest? Increasingly, education is viewed as a private good. If parents become autonomous, self-interested consumers, erosion of common purposes and…

  2. Geoengineering: A humanitarian concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Pablo; van Aalst, Maarten K.

    2017-02-01

    The humanitarian sector is active at the global frontline of climate impacts, and has a track record in influencing the climate change policy agenda. Geoengineering is a humanitarian concern: the potential for deliberate large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system has major implications in terms of impacts on the most vulnerable. Yet, so far the humanitarian community has largely been absent from geoengineering deliberations. Geoengineering may be perceived as too theoretical, too complex, and not imminent enough to merit attention. However, early engagement by the sector is imperative to ensure that humanitarian considerations are integrated into policy decisions. Those who can suffer the worst outcomes need to be involved; especially given the plausibility of "predatory geoengineering" where recklessly self-concerned actions may result in harmful consequences to others. This paper explores the humanitarian dimensions of geoengineering, specifically relating to solar radiation management (SRM). Drawing from the engagement of the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre in SRM discussions, we discuss how to improve linkages between science, policy and humanitarian practice. We further propose the creation of a geoengineering risk management framework to ensure that the interests of the most vulnerable are considered and addressed - including the voices of all stakeholders.

  3. Variability of Atmospheric Circulation Patterns associated with Major Baltic Inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Piia; Lehmann, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Due to the narrow and shallow Danish Straits the water exchange between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea is greatly restrained. As a consequence the salt flux into the Baltic Sea is reduced, so that during stagnation periods where no strong inflows occur the permanent halocline weakens, and even disappears in some basins. Only Major Baltic inflows (MBIs), when large volumes of highly saline and oxygenated water invade over the sills, are capable to flow as dense bottom currents into the central deeps and replace the stagnant water there, simultaneously improving living conditions to biota. MBIs are typically forced by a sequence of easterly winds lasting for about 20 days followed by strong to very strong westerly winds of similar duration. Since the mid-1970s, the frequency and intensity of major inflows have decreased, and they were completely absent between February 1983 and January 1993. As the major inflows are mainly forced by the atmosphere, the reason for this kind of change is assumed to be connected to variations in the atmospheric circulation. There have been several studies where the changes in regional atmospheric circulation have been described through local wind climatology or modes of large scale low-frequency circulation variability, defined by means of principal component analysis. Another way to describe atmospheric circulation patterns is by classifying them into different atmospheric circulation types. The latter are well suited for describing sequences of circulation patterns in appropriate temporal (in hours) and spatial (regional to local) scales. Circulation types reflect real circulation patterns, which are easy to interpret, unlike the modes of variability, that cannot be considered as typical patterns of airflow, but just as building bricks for describing variability of the atmospheric circulation. Hence, our aim was to characterize the variability of sequences of atmospheric circulation patterns at the time of MBIs, to use this

  4. Geological Storage od CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, Richard; O'Neill, Nick; Pasquali, Riccardo; Niemi, Auli

    2014-05-01

    Geological Storage of CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea Region The BASTOR project identifies and characterises the potential CO2 storage sites in the southern Baltic Sea. A regional theoretical storage capacity of 16Gt of CO2 in the Middle Cambrian sandstone beneath 900 metres of cap rock was estimated. 1.9Gt of this storage potential is estimated in the Dalders Monocline with some 743Mt CO2 in individual hydrocarbon and saline aquifer structures located mainly offshore Latvia and 128Mt in the Dalders Structure. Although the study has established a relatively large theoretical storage capacity, there is no effective capacity proven within these totals. Dynamic modelling undertaken in the Southern Swedish sector suggests that the relatively poor permeability and porosity characteristics would limit the injection rate to 0.5Mt per well per annum and restrict the reservoir pressure increase to 50% above the hydrostatic pressure for an injection period of 50 years. The dynamic modelling for this area suggests that an injection strategy for this sector would be limited to 5 injection wells giving a total injection capacity of 2.5 Mt per annum. Based on these results, the potential of the Southern Swedish offshore sector to sustain injection rates of CO2 required for regional industrial capture, even when using horizontal wells, brine extraction and hydraulic fracturing, would appear to be very low. Areas to the north east of the Monocline, such as offshore Latvia have been identified as having better reservoir quality despite limited data being available. These areas could sustain higher rates of injection and prove suitable areas for commercial storage. Furthermore, the regional storage capacity assessment demonstrated that there are sweet spots in the Cambrian reservoir such as onshore Latvia, where there is commercial gas storage, and both onshore and offshore Kaliningrad, where there is ongoing hydrocarbon production. The potential for seal failure was investigated as

  5. Modelling the influence of Major Baltic Inflows on near-bottom conditions at the entrance of the Gulf of Finland.

    PubMed

    Lessin, Gennadi; Raudsepp, Urmas; Stips, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    A coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model was implemented in order to estimate the effects of Major Baltic Inflows on the near-bottom hydrophysical and biogeochemical conditions in the northern Baltic Proper and the western Gulf of Finland during the period 1991-2009. We compared results of a realistic reference run to the results of an experimental run where Major Baltic Inflows were suppressed. Further to the expected overall decrease in bottom salinity, this modelling experiment confirms that in the absence of strong saltwater inflows the deep areas of the Baltic Proper would become more anoxic, while in the shallower areas (western Gulf of Finland) near-bottom average conditions improve. Our experiment revealed that typical estuarine circulation results in the sporadic emergence of short-lasting events of near-bottom anoxia in the western Gulf of Finland due to transport of water masses from the Baltic Proper. Extrapolating our results beyond the modelled period, we speculate that the further deepening of the halocline in the Baltic Proper is likely to prevent inflows of anoxic water to the Gulf of Finland and in the longer term would lead to improvement in near-bottom conditions in the Baltic Proper. Our results reaffirm the importance of accurate representation of salinity dynamics in coupled Baltic Sea models serving as a basis for credible hindcast and future projection simulations of biogeochemical conditions.

  6. Russian Dreams and Prussian Ghosts: Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University and Debates over Historical Memory and Identity in Kaliningrad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University and the Kaliningrad State Technical University have come to exert considerable influence over debates surrounding historical memory and identity in the Kaliningrad region. Under the direct control of the Russian Federation, the Baltic exclave of Kaliningrad is surrounded by…

  7. Russian Dreams and Prussian Ghosts: Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University and Debates over Historical Memory and Identity in Kaliningrad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University and the Kaliningrad State Technical University have come to exert considerable influence over debates surrounding historical memory and identity in the Kaliningrad region. Under the direct control of the Russian Federation, the Baltic exclave of Kaliningrad is surrounded by…

  8. Patterns of conodont extinction selectivity during Ireviken event (Lower Silurian), example from Eastern Baltic basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, A.; Brazauskas, A.

    2012-04-01

    Ireviken event (Early Silurian) is one of the most prominent early paleozoic species turnovers identified by now. Earlier investigations showed that during considered biotic crisis large number of conodont species became extinct. Just twelwe out of sixty globally known species survived (Calner, 2008). A lot of attention concerning Irreviken event have been addressed toward description of timing of species extinctions and environmental factors that probably caused them. Here we suggest another point of view. We analized how conodont species level aggregate and emmergent traits (sensu Jablonski, 2008) influenced their extinction risk. Our analysis was confound to conodont spiecies from South Eastern part of Silurian Baltic Basin (Lithuania). Extinction probability influecing factors were evaluated using generalized linear modeling (GLM) methodology. The species were categorized into two types: those who lived before event and eventualy went extinct reaching it and those (and/or their conjectured descendants) who originated before event and survived it. Analysis of extinction risk revealed some unexpected results. Best predictor of conodont species survivorship during Ireviken event was level of variation of local abundances of individuals of given species (irrespective how we measure it - as standard deviation or coefficient of variation). Second important factor which determined extinction risk was geographic ranges of genuses to which analized species belonged. Higher variace of population size and larger geographical areas occupied by genera to which species belonged - the higher probability of survival during extinction event. Factors such as mean local population size and mean conodont species richness in samples from stratigraphic ranges of analized species are statistically insignificant as descriptors of extinction risk.

  9. Regional genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, J.; Lind, E. E.; Corell, H.; Grahn, M.; Smolarz, K.; Lönn, M.

    2017-08-01

    Connectivity plays an important role in shaping the genetic structure and in evolution of local adaptation. In the marine environment barriers to gene flow are in most cases caused by gradients in environmental factors, ocean circulation and/or larval behavior. Despite the long pelagic larval stages, with high potential for dispersal many marine organisms have been shown to have a fine scale genetic structuring. In this study, by using a combination of high-resolution genetic markers, species hybridization data and biophysical modeling we can present a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary landscape for a keystone species in the Baltic Sea, the blue mussel. We identified distinct genetic differentiation between the West Coast, Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea regions, with lower gene diversity in the Bothnian Sea. Oceanographic connectivity together with salinity and to some extent species identity provides explanations for the genetic differentiation between the West Coast and the Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea). The genetic differentiation between the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea cannot be directly explained by oceanographic connectivity, species identity or salinity, while the lower connectivity to the Bothnian Sea may explain the lower gene diversity.

  10. Levels and congener profiles of PBDEs in edible Baltic, freshwater, and farmed fish in Finland.

    PubMed

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Hallikainen, Anja; Rantakokko, Panu; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Vuorinen, Pekka J; Mannio, Jaakko; Kiviranta, Hannu

    2015-03-17

    Fish is the major source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) for Finnish consumers. To estimate the PBDE contamination in fish that Finns regularly consume as food, a large-scale sampling was undertaken in 2009-2010. Altogether 207 samples of 17 edible fish species were collected from commercially and recreationally important fishing areas in the Baltic Sea, freshwater lakes, and farming facilities. The analysis of 15 PBDE congeners was performed in an accredited testing laboratory with high-resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry. In all of the samples, the Σ15PBDE varied between 0.029 and 73 ng/g fw. The most abundant congeners were BDE-47 (average proportion 42%), -99 (8.4%), -100 (11%), -154 (5.6%), and -209 (27%). High levels of BDE-209 were observed in the Baltic Sea, off the coast of Pori, in Baltic herring, perch, pike, and pike-perch. Overall, the PBDE levels in Baltic and freshwater fish were low. The levels in farmed whitefish were slightly higher than in wild whitefish. The reasons for the high BDE-209 levels in Baltic herring in Pori and the elevated levels of PBDEs in farmed whitefish should be investigated more thoroughly.

  11. Estimating the effective nitrogen import: An example for the North Sea-Baltic Sea boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radtke, H.; Maar, M.

    2016-10-01

    Semienclosed water bodies such as the Baltic Sea are prone to eutrophication problems. If local nutrient abatement measures are taken to tackle these problems, their success may be limited if a strong nutrient exchange with the adjacent waters exists. The quantification of this exchange is therefore essential to estimate its impact on the ecosystem status. At the example of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, we illustrate that neither gross transports nor net transports of nutrients have a strong informative value in this context. Instead, we define an "effective import" as the import of nutrients which have not been inside the Baltic Sea before and estimate it in an ecological model with a nutrient-tagging technique. This effective import of bioreactive nitrogen from the Skagerrak to the Kattegat amounts to 103 kt/yr; from Kattegat to Belt Sea it is 54 kt/yr. The nitrogen exchange is therefore 30% stronger than other estimates, e.g., based on import in the deep water, suggest. An isolated view on the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in terms of eutrophication, as it is practiced in management today, is therefore questionable. Nitrogen imported from the North Sea typically spreads eastward up to the Bornholm Basin but can be transported into the deep waters of the Gotland Basin during Major Baltic Inflows in a significant amount.

  12. Chemical physiological and morphological studies of feral baltic salmon (Salmo salar) suffering from abnormal fry mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Norrgren, L. . Dept. of Pathology Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm ); Andersson, T. . Dept. of Zoophysiology); Bergqvist, P.A. . Inst. of Environmental Chemistry); Bjoerklund, I. )

    1993-11-01

    In 1974, abnormally high mortality was recorded among yolk-sac fry of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) originating from feral females manually stripped and fertilized with milt from feral males. The cause of this mortality, designated M74, is unknown. The hypothesis is that xenobiotic compounds responsible for reproduction failure in higher vertebrates in the Baltic Sea also interfere with reproduction in Baltic salmon. The significance of M74 should not be underestimated, because the syndrome has caused up to 75% yearly mortality of developing Baltic salmon yolk-sac larvae in a fish hatchery dedicated to production of smolt during the last two decades. The author cannot exclude the possibility that only a relatively low number of naturally spawned eggs develop normally because of M74. No individual pollutant has been shown to be responsible for the development of M74 syndrome. However, a higher total body burden of organochlorine substances may be responsible for the M74 syndrome. The presence of induced hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes in both yolk-sac fry suffering from M74 and adult feral females producing offspring affected by M74 supports this hypothesis. In addition, the P450 enzyme activity in offspring from feral fish is higher than the activity in yolk-sac fry from hatchery-raised fish, suggesting that feral Baltic salmon are influenced by organic xenobiotics.

  13. Oceanographic connectivity and environmental correlates of genetic structuring in Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Teacher, Amber GF; André, Carl; Jonsson, Per R; Merilä, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Marine fish often show little genetic structuring in neutral marker genes, and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea are no exception; historically, very low levels of population differentiation (FST ≍ 0.002) have been found, despite a high degree of interpopulation environmental heterogeneity in salinity and temperature. Recent exome sequencing and SNP studies have however shown that many loci are under selection in this system. Here, we combined population genetic analyses of a large number of transcriptome-derived microsatellite markers with oceanographic modelling to investigate genetic differentiation and connectivity in Atlantic herring at a relatively fine scale within the Baltic Sea. We found evidence for weak but robust and significant genetic structuring (FST = 0.008) explainable by oceanographic connectivity. Genetic differentiation was also associated with site differences in temperature and salinity, with the result driven by the locus Her14 which appears to be under directional selection (FST = 0.08). The results show that Baltic herring are genetically structured within the Baltic Sea, and highlight the role of oceanography and environmental factors in explaining this structuring. The results also have implications for the management of herring fisheries, the most economically important fishery in the Baltic Sea, suggesting that the current fisheries management units may be in need of revision. PMID:23745145

  14. Sea level trends for all sections of the Baltic Sea coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Høyer, Jacob L.; Suursaar, Ülo; Knudsen, Per; She, Jun

    2016-04-01

    To better understand influence of sea level rise on societal vulnerability and coastal erosion processes, it is important to know the sea level trend. The coastline of the Baltic Sea is not uniformly exposed, and therefore we will determine the sea level trend of the last 10, 50 and 100 years for all sections of the coastline. The observational record of sea level in the Baltic Sea is quite unique with several records of more than 100 years of data. However, the information is confined to the tide gauge locations. Here, we utilize a statistical method based on least squares regression and originally developed for short term sea level variability (Madsen et al. 2015, JGR, doi:10.1002/2015JC011070) to spread out the sea level information from selected tide gauges to all sections of the Baltic Sea coast. Monthly mean tide gauge observations are retrieved from PSMSL and supplemented with Estonian observations. The spatial distribution of the sea level is obtained from model reanalysis from the Copernicus Marine Service and satellite altimetry observations and land rise information is taken into account. Results are validated against independent tide gauges, providing a consistent record of 20th century sea level trends and variability, including uncertainties, for the entire Baltic Sea coastline. This work is sponsored by the EMODnet project Baltic Checkpoint.

  15. Eutrophication Increases Phytoplankton Methylmercury Concentrations in a Coastal Sea-A Baltic Sea Case Study.

    PubMed

    Soerensen, Anne L; Schartup, Amina T; Gustafsson, Erik; Gustafsson, Bo G; Undeman, Emma; Björn, Erik

    2016-11-01

    Eutrophication is expanding worldwide, but its implication for production and bioaccumulation of neurotoxic monomethylmercury (MeHg) is unknown. We developed a mercury (Hg) biogeochemical model for the Baltic Sea and used it to investigate the impact of eutrophication on phytoplankton MeHg concentrations. For model evaluation, we measured total methylated Hg (MeHgT) in the Baltic Sea and found low concentrations (39 ± 16 fM) above the halocline and high concentrations in anoxic waters (1249 ± 369 fM). To close the Baltic Sea MeHgT budget, we inferred an average normoxic water column Hg(II) methylation rate constant of 2 × 10(-4) d(-1). We used the model to compare Baltic Sea's present-day (2005-2014) eutrophic state to an oligo/mesotrophic scenario. Eutrophication increases primary production and export of organic matter and associated Hg to the sediment effectively removing Hg from the active biogeochemical cycle; this results in a 27% lower present-day water column Hg reservoir. However, increase in organic matter production and remineralization stimulates microbial Hg methylation resulting in a seasonal increase in both water and phytoplankton MeHg reservoirs above the halocline. Previous studies of systems dominated by external MeHg sources or benthic production found eutrophication to decrease MeHg levels in plankton. This Baltic Sea study shows that in systems with MeHg production in the normoxic water column eutrophication can increase phytoplankton MeHg content.

  16. Modelling of the groundwater flow in Baltic Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virbulis, J.; Sennikovs, J.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB) is a multi-layered complex hydrogeological system underlying about 480'000 km2 in the territory of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Russia, Belarus and the Baltic Sea. The model of the geological structure contains 42 layers including aquifers and aquitards from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. The finite element method was employed for the calculation of the steady state three-dimensional groundwater flow with free surface. The horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities of geological materials were assumed constant in each of the layers. The Precambrian basement forms the impermeable bottom of the model. The zero water exchange is assumed through the side boundaries of BAB. Simple hydrological model is applied on the surface. The level of the lakes, rivers and the sea is fixed as constant hydraulic head in corresponding mesh points. The infiltration is set as a flux boundary condition elsewhere. Instead of extensive coupling with hydrology model, a constant mean value of 70 mm/year was assumed as an infiltration flux for the whole BAB area and this value was adjusted during the automatic calibration process. Averaged long-term water extraction was applied at the water supply wells with large debits. In total 49 wells in Lithuania (total abstraction 45000 m3/day), 161 in Latvia (184000 m3/day) and 172 in Estonia (24000 m3/day) are considered. The model was calibrated on the statistically weighted (using both spatial and temporal weighting function) borehole water level measurements applying automatic parameter optimization method L-BFGS-B for hydraulic conductivities of each layer. The steady-stade calculations were performed for the situations corresponding to undisturbed situation (1950-ies), intensive groundwater use (1980-ies) and present state situation (after 2000). The distribution of piezometric heads and principal flows inside BAB was analyzed based on the model results. The results demonstrate that generally the

  17. Regional flow in the Baltic Shield during Holocene coastal regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Clifford I.; Andersson, Johan

    1993-01-01

    The occurrence of saline waters in the Baltic Shield in Sweden is consistent with ongoing but incomplete Holocene flushing and depends on the geometry and connectivity of conductive structures at both regional and local scales, and on the surface topography. Numerical simulation of regional variable-density fluid flow during Holocene land-rise and coastal regression shows that the existence of any old saline water, whether derived from submarine recharge in regions below Sweden's highest postglacial coastline or geochemical processes in the crystalline rock, is an indication either of slow fluid movements through the bedrock over long times, or of long travel distances through fracture systems before arriving at measurement points. During the land-rise period, regional flow is not affected by the variable density of fluids in the upper few kilometers of the shield, and the topography of the water table is the only driving force. The spatial distribution of meteoric flushing water and pre-Holocene waters may be complex, with the possibility of relatively fresh water in fracture zones below salty units even at depths of a few kilometers. The domination of the topographic driving force implies that deep saline water is not necessarily stagnant, and significant flow may be expected to occur in well-connected horizons even at depth. Local topography variation and fracture zone location combine to create a complex flow field in which local topographic driving forces extend to considerable depth in some areas, whereas regional topographic forces predominate in others. Thus, a pattern may be difficult to discern in measurements of the regional salinity distribution, although it is clear that the coastal region is the major zone of discharge for deeper pre-Holocene fluids. During the land-rise period, the regional flow field equilibrates with changing climatic conditions and coastal positions, while the distribution of flushing water and older water lags and will

  18. Crustal structure of the northern Baltic Sea palaeorift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korja, A.; Heikkinen, P.; Aaro, S.

    2001-02-01

    Integrated analysis of the gravity data measured in the northern Baltic Sea in 1997 and the near-vertical BABEL data shot in 1989 provides important constraints for the Subjotnian (1600-1500) rift-related evolution of the Svecofennian orogenic crust. The Subjotnian is characterised by voluminous bimodal rapakivi granite magmatism that is manifested as large granite batholiths associated with ovoid crustal thickness minima and large Bouguer gravity minima (-20 to -40 mgal). In the seismic sections, the batholiths are transparent whereas the lower crust beneath is highly reflective and bears signs of intra- and underplating. The Bouguer anomaly map together with the seismic results imply that the crust of the Southern Gulf of Bothnia is mostly composed of Subjotnian intrusions with a large rheologically stronger, mafic Svecofennian block in the middle. The largest batholiths Åland, Bothnian and Rödön are mostly covered by water, but even the minor plutons at Strömsbro, Reposaari and Siipyy are interpreted to be small satellites to larger marine batholiths. A 3-4 km deep Jotnian sandstone basin, the Strömmingsbodan basin, was developed on top of the Bothnian rapakivi granite. We suggest that it was initiated by cauldron subsidence. In the Postjotnian, the granites and sandstones were intruded by diabase sills, the contacts of which are imaged by high-amplitude reflections. The rapakivi granites are separated by a large transparent and dense body in the lower to middle crust. It is interpreted as an older Svecofennian mafic intrusion. The northern Baltic Sea has many characteristic features of paleorifts: topographic low (now under water), thin crust with large crustal thickness gradients and the products of voluminous bimodal magmatism. The Gulf of Bothnia aborted rift is a part of a honeycomb-like wide rift area that extends from Lake Ladoga to the Caledonides (800 km×800 km). It has seeds of many localised narrow rifts (100 km×100 km) not connected at the

  19. Importance of plasticity and local adaptation for coping with changing salinity in coastal areas: a test case with barnacles in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salinity plays an important role in shaping coastal marine communities. Near-future climate predictions indicate that salinity will decrease in many shallow coastal areas due to increased precipitation; however, few studies have addressed this issue. The ability of ecosystems to cope with future changes will depend on species’ capacities to acclimatise or adapt to new environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the effects of a strong salinity gradient (the Baltic Sea system – Baltic, Kattegat, Skagerrak) on plasticity and adaptations in the euryhaline barnacle Balanus improvisus. We used a common-garden approach, where multiple batches of newly settled barnacles from each of three different geographical areas along the Skagerrak-Baltic salinity gradient were exposed to corresponding native salinities (6, 15 and 30 PSU), and phenotypic traits including mortality, growth, shell strength, condition index and reproductive maturity were recorded. Results We found that B. improvisus was highly euryhaline, but had highest growth and reproductive maturity at intermediate salinities. We also found that low salinity had negative effects on other fitness-related traits including initial growth and shell strength, although mortality was also lowest in low salinity. Overall, differences between populations in most measured traits were weak, indicating little local adaptation to salinity. Nonetheless, we observed some population-specific responses – notably that populations from high salinity grew stronger shells in their native salinity compared to the other populations, possibly indicating adaptation to differences in local predation pressure. Conclusions Our study shows that B. improvisus is an example of a true brackish-water species, and that plastic responses are more likely than evolutionary tracking in coping with future changes in coastal salinity. PMID:25038588

  20. A wind proxy based on migrating dunes at the Baltic coast: statistical analysis of the link between wind conditions and sand movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierstedt, Svenja E.; Hünicke, Birgit; Zorita, Eduardo; Ludwig, Juliane

    2017-07-01

    We statistically analyse the relationship between the structure of migrating dunes in the southern Baltic and the driving wind conditions over the past 26 years, with the long-term aim of using migrating dunes as a proxy for past wind conditions at an interannual resolution. The present analysis is based on the dune record derived from geo-radar measurements by Ludwig et al. (2017). The dune system is located at the Baltic Sea coast of Poland and is migrating from west to east along the coast. The dunes present layers with different thicknesses that can be assigned to absolute dates at interannual timescales and put in relation to seasonal wind conditions. To statistically analyse this record and calibrate it as a wind proxy, we used a gridded regional meteorological reanalysis data set (coastDat2) covering recent decades. The identified link between the dune annual layers and wind conditions was additionally supported by the co-variability between dune layers and observed sea level variations in the southern Baltic Sea. We include precipitation and temperature into our analysis, in addition to wind, to learn more about the dependency between these three atmospheric factors and their common influence on the dune system. We set up a statistical linear model based on the correlation between the frequency of days with specific wind conditions in a given season and dune migration velocities derived for that season. To some extent, the dune records can be seen as analogous to tree-ring width records, and hence we use a proxy validation method usually applied in dendrochronology, cross-validation with the leave-one-out method, when the observational record is short. The revealed correlations between the wind record from the reanalysis and the wind record derived from the dune structure is in the range between 0.28 and 0.63, yielding similar statistical validation skill as dendroclimatological records.

  1. DNA damage, EROD activity, condition indices, and their linkages with contaminants in female flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, Henryka; Kopko, Orest; Góra, Agnieszka; Waszak, Ilona; Walkusz-Miotk, Jolanta

    2014-10-15

    The Baltic Sea is considered as one of the marine areas most exposed to human impacts. A variety of chemical contaminants pose a threat to the habitants. Female flounder (Platichthys flesus) collected from three locations in the southern Baltic Sea in February 2010 were examined for biomarkers of exposure to genotoxic agents (DNA damage), AhR-active contaminants (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, EROD activity), and somatic condition indexes. Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites were also measured in individual flounder to evaluate the biological responses in the context of contaminant burden. The genotoxicity, mildly exceeding a background level, revealed a significant relationship with mono-ortho substituted PCB (m-oPCB). Hepatic EROD activity was highly induced, yet showed no association with any of the contaminants measured other than biliary 1-OH pyrene normalized to pigment absorbance. Significant negative relationships were observed for lipid-based OCs and the gonado-somatic index (GSI) as well as for Ʃm-oPCB concentrations and the condition factor (CF). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed an overall connection between somatic condition indexes, biomarkers, and chemical variables. Of the three locations, flounder inhabiting the Gulf of Gdańsk had the greatest contaminant burden and appeared to be the most affected. Of great concern is the reduced GSI in this location which can be attributed to the effects of contaminants and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Unpublished documents concerning Dupuytren].

    PubMed

    Boulinier, G

    1996-01-01

    In the present paper is proposed a first incursion in various archives - mainly notarial ones - concerning Dupuytren and his close relatives, investigated by the author. They will be more thoroughly dealt with in a forthcoming book. These documents give us a better knowledge of various events of Dupuytren's public and private life. They namely disclose the great challenge shown by the surgeon-in-chief of the Hôtel-Dieu in marrying his daughter Adeline in the midst of the Paris cholera epidemic in 1832. They show moreover in this unusual character the essential role continually played by some preoccupations such as nobility, power, religion and wealth, amidst a family of which he is the only member to have shown the ambition to become famous in the medical field.

  3. Ethics of environmental concern

    SciTech Connect

    Attfield, R.

    1983-01-01

    The history of ideas and a philosophical investigation into normative ethics and some of its applications focus in this book on environmental concerns. Part one explores moral traditions, which may appear deficient because traditions have been misrepresented. Attitudes and ideas toward ecological problems have a basis in Jewish and Christian stewardship traditions. Part two re-examines moral principles in light of scientific discoveries that have generated and revealed new side effects of human actions on the complex systems of nature. If all worthwhile life is of intrinsic value, it is necessary to reassess and broaden the human obligation to ecology. The author disagrees with the movement to focus environmental ethics on the biosphere as an organic whole rather than on fellow creatures, although his principles embody constraints in the interests of future creaters. The book concludes with an assessment of principles on pollution, resources, population, and preservation. 302 references.

  4. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  5. Inactivated phosphorus by added aluminum in Baltic Sea sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydin, Emil

    2014-12-01

    Decreased phosphorus (P) retention in aquatic sediments during hypoxic periods results in increased P recycling to the water column. To revert to less productive conditions in the enclosed bays of the Baltic Sea archipelago, increased sediment P burial capacity is needed. Aluminum (Al) addition is considered to be a cost-effective lake restoration method, as it improves sediment P burial capacity. However, little is known about its ability to permanently bind P in brackish systems. In summer 2000, Al sulfate granules were added to a hypoxic bottom area in the Östhammar bay, Sweden. Sediment core samples from the area were collected 10 years later. A peak in Al and P was detected at 20 cm sediment depth, reflecting the added Al and P trapped to it. Only part of the added Al was recovered, but the recovered Al (8 g Al/m2) trapped P at a ratio of 5:1 (molar). Chemical fractionation showed that P extracted as 'Al-P' constituted 55% of the trapped P, indicating that Al added also trapped P extracted as other P forms.

  6. Caledonian and Proterozoic terrane accretion in the southwest Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, R.; Krawczyk, C. H.

    1999-12-01

    A marine seismic reflection survey was carried out in 1996 by DEKORP, Potsdam, and BGR, Hannover in the SW Baltic Sea. Several tectonic lineaments were crossed nearly perpendicularly, for example, the Caledonian Deformation Front which is assumed to mark the northern boundary of the terrane Avalonia which accreted to Baltica ca. 400 Ma. Here, a bivergent collision is clearly observed, confirming early ideas from the BABEL survey. The NE-dipping reflections in the uppermost mantle are interpreted as signs of the subducted Tornquist Ocean. A similar tectonic style of compression and indentation is observed in the Proterozoic crust northeast of Bornholm, where in addition a remarkable crustal thickening and a strong increase of reflection power is observed. The three DEKORP lines in this area provide a certain three-dimensional control and allows extension of similar observations from the BABEL line A southward. This Proterozoic terrane accretion seems to be connected to major tectonic lineaments in southern Sweden, either to the Gothian Thrust or the Sveconorwegian Front.

  7. Dynamics of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the Baltic proper pelagial

    SciTech Connect

    Axelman, J.; Broman, D.; Naef, C.; Pettersen, H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants occur in different forms in natural water. Apart from being truly dissolved in water they partition into dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particles of different sizes including pelagic bacteria, phytoplankton and zooplankton. The distribution between the different forms is dependent on carbon turnover rates in and transport between the different compartments and on the physical and chemical properties of the compound in focus. The water phase, the DOC-phase and two particle size fractions, 0.2--2pm and 2--20 pm representing the base of the pelagic food web, were analyzed for their content of PCBs and PAHs during summer and winter conditions in the open sea in the Baltic proper. New methods for separating truly dissolved from DOC-bound compounds have been developed using a high capacity perfusion adsorbent and large scale gas sparging. The small particle size fraction was sampled using high volume tangential flow filtration. The possibility to separate between these four different compartments has given a more detailed picture of the short term dynamics of hydrophobic organic compounds in the important base of the pelagial food web.

  8. [On differentiation of cod (Gadus morhua L.) groups in Baltic Sea].

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    Using the AGP*, PGI-1*, PGI-2*, LDH*, IDH*, and PGM* allozyme markers, the differentiation of cod groups during the spawning period in Baltic Sea was evaluated. It was shown that cod samples from the eastern and western parts of Baltic Sea (being statistically significantly different from the cod samples from the Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea, and the Skagerrak Strait) demonstrated a high degree of identity (I = 0.99-1.0), which could be associated with the observed from the beginning of the present millennium increased migration of cod from eastern Baltic regions to the waters of Bornholm basin, and the distribution of the part of migrants from Bornholm basin to Arkona basin.

  9. MPC&A training needs of the NIS/Baltics States.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin; Stoy-McLeod, Carol L.

    2006-07-01

    This report serves to document contract deliverables considered to be of continuing interest associated with two workshops conducted as part of an initial assessment of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) training needs of the Newly Independent and Baltic States (NIS/Baltics). These workshops were held in Kiev, Ukraine, ca. 2003-2004, with the assistance of personnel from the George Kuzmycz Training Center (GKTC) of the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR). Because of the dominant role Ukraine plays in the region in terms of the nuclear industry, one workshop focused exclusively on Ukrainian training needs, with participants attending from twelve Ukrainian organizations (plus U.S. DOE/NNSA representatives). The second workshop included participation by a further ten countries from the NIS/Baltics region. In addition, the training needs data developed during the workshop were supplemented by the outcomes of surveys and studies conducted by the GKTC.

  10. Uranium and thorium in muscle tissue of fish taken from the southern Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szefer, Piotr; Szefer, Krystyna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    1990-03-01

    The determination of U and Th was carried out on pooled samples of muscle tissue of cod ( Gadus morhua), herring ( Clupea harengus), sprat ( Sprattus sprattus) and some other species of fish caught in 1981 in the southern Baltic. The levels of U obtained in the present study are generally within the ranges presented by other authors for fish from different aquatic regions of the world. The concentrations of U are similar to those found for Th in Baltic fish analysed. The concentration factors CFU(Th), discrimination factors DFU/Th and Th/U ratios (by weight) were calculated and discussed. These coefficients were also compared with values determined in other Baltic organisms. Transfer of U and Th along a food chain from potential prey (diet) to fish as predator (consumer) was quantified with a transfer factor.

  11. The nutrient load from food waste generated onboard ships in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Wilewska-Bien, Magda; Granhag, Lena; Andersson, Karin

    2016-04-15

    The combination of the sensitive characteristics of the Baltic Sea and the intense maritime traffic makes the marine environment vulnerable to anthropogenic influences. The theoretical scenario calculated in this study shows that the annually generated food waste onboard ships in traffic in the Baltic Sea contains about 182tonnes of nitrogen and 34tonnes of phosphorus. Today, all food waste generated onboard can be legally discharged into the marine environment at a distance of 12NM from the nearest land. The annual load of nitrogen contained in the food waste corresponds to 52% of load of nitrogen from the ship-generated sewage. Future regulations for sewage discharge in the Baltic Sea will require significant reduction of total nitrogen and phosphorus released. The contribution of nutrients from food waste compared to sewage will therefore be relatively larger in the future, if food waste still can be legally discharged. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extremes of temperature, oxygen and blooms in the Baltic sea in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Thomas; Eilola, Kari; Gustafsson, Bo; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Kuznetsov, Ivan; Meier, H E Markus; Savchuk, Oleg P

    2012-09-01

    In the future, the Baltic Sea ecosystem will be impacted both by climate change and by riverine and atmospheric nutrient inputs. Multi-model ensemble simulations comprising one IPCC scenario (A1B), two global climate models, two regional climate models, and three Baltic Sea ecosystem models were performed to elucidate the combined effect of climate change and changes in nutrient inputs. This study focuses on the occurrence of extreme events in the projected future climate. Results suggest that the number of days favoring cyanobacteria blooms could increase, anoxic events may become more frequent and last longer, and salinity may tend to decrease. Nutrient load reductions following the Baltic Sea Action Plan can reduce the deterioration of oxygen conditions.

  13. Personal Finance. Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document provides the common curriculum goals for the state of Oregon in personal finance, an area of study that relates basic economic concepts and practices to the financial concerns of consumers. These goals were designed to define what should be taught in all public school settings. The common curriculum goals in personal finance are…

  14. [Pharmaceutical advice concerning different pharmaceutical dosage forms].

    PubMed

    Szakonyi, Gergely; Zelkó, Romána

    2010-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the commonly applied types of drug uptake and the pharmacists' advice concerning a certain dosage form. The manuscript also deals with the modified release dosage forms and their abbreviations in the name of the marketing authorized products.

  15. Assessment and Intervention for Young Children with Nonphysiological Feeding Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    Among families who have young children, feeding concerns are quite common (Brazelton, 1992). Feeding concerns can include, but are not limited to, inappropriate mealtime behaviors, lack of self-feeding, food selectivity, and food refusal (Kerwin, 1999). Given the complex nature of assessment of and intervention for feeding concerns in young…

  16. Assessment and Intervention for Young Children with Nonphysiological Feeding Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    Among families who have young children, feeding concerns are quite common (Brazelton, 1992). Feeding concerns can include, but are not limited to, inappropriate mealtime behaviors, lack of self-feeding, food selectivity, and food refusal (Kerwin, 1999). Given the complex nature of assessment of and intervention for feeding concerns in young…

  17. Comparison of nematode communities in Baltic and North Sea sublittoral, permeable sands Diversity and environmental control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban-Malinga, Barbara; Hedtkamp, Stefanie I. C.; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.; Wiktor, Józef; Węsławski, Jan Marcin

    2006-10-01

    The structure of free-living nematode communities was investigated seasonally at two sandy locations representing typical shallow sublittoral, permeable environments of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. At the Baltic study site the chlorophyll and organic carbon concentrations in the sediment were, on average, four times lower than at the North Sea. Highest nematode densities (1674-4100 ind. 10 cm -2) and a higher number of free-living nematode genera (66) were recorded in the North Sea (Baltic: 206-1227 ind. 10 cm -2, 30 genera). Despite lower salinity and lower food availability the less dense and less diverse Baltic nematode community was similar in generic composition to the North Sea community. At the North Sea site, all trophic groups according to Wieser's classification were present with omnivores/predators, dominated by Viscosia, prevailing and followed by epistrate-feeders. In the food-limited Baltic community, non-selective deposit feeders (mainly Ascolaimus, Axonolaimus and Daptonema) and omnivores/predators dominated by Enoplolaimus were the most abundant trophic groups while selective deposit feeders were absent or their contribution was negligible. An analysis of the vertical generic distribution revealed highest diversity of the Baltic community in deeper sediment layers, below the sediment surface affected by ripple migration and near the interface of oxic and anoxic conditions. The diversity pattern in the North Sea sediment was more variable but generally showed high diversity in the upper centimetre of the sediment. These observations suggest that food supply and sediment oxygenation are the most important factors influencing the vertical pattern of nematode generic diversity in sublittoral, permeable sands.

  18. Impacts of Low Salinity on Growth and Calcification in Baltic Sea Mytilus edulis x trossulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, T.; Melzner, F.

    2016-02-01

    The Baltic Sea is characterized by a steep salinity gradient (25 psu - <5 psu) which is predicted to increase in the future due to increased precipitation. This provides an excellent biological system to study the effects of salinity and inorganic carbon supply on animal physiology. Mytilus edulis x trossulus is adapted to the low saline Baltic Sea, at the cost of slow body growth and reduced shell thickness. The explanation for the small size of Baltic mytilids has been attributed to tradeoffs in energy partitioning due to high energetic costs associated with osmoregulation. However, salinity may effect calcification mechanisms and reduce calcification and thus, body size and growth. To understand the mechanistic effects salinity has on calcification, energy budgets were quantified in larvae, juveniles and adults from 3 populations of Baltic Sea Mytilus spp. at different salinities (6, 11 and 16 psu). Net CaCO3 production at varying salinities and bicarbonate concentrations was also measured. Larvae from low salinity adapted populations (6 psu) had a 3-fold higher respiration rate compared to higher salinity populations. This was also accompanied by a delay of 48 hours in early shell formation. Reductions in growth and increases in metabolism were largest between 11 psu and 6 psu indicating that the predicted desalination of the Baltic will go along with huge energetic costs for mussel populations, potentially leading to loss of reefs in the Eastern Baltic. To investigate the mechanisms behind increased metabolic cost and decreased allocation to growth, energy budgets are presently being constrained in our three populations using modulations in food supply and temperature.

  19. Caesium-137 distribution, inventories and accumulation history in the Baltic Sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Zaborska, Agata; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Pempkowiak, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is susceptible to pollution by hazardous substances due to limited water exchange, shallowness, and the large catchment area. Radionuclides, particularly (137)Cs, are one of the most hazardous anthropogenic substances present in the Baltic environment. This study was conducted to present (137)Cs present contamination that should further be a subject of reliable monitoring when the new Nuclear Power Plant is put into operation in the northern Poland. The sea-wide, up to date distribution of (137)Cs activities and inventories in the Baltic Sea bottom sediments are presented. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were measured in 30 cm long sediment cores collected at 22 sampling stations. Sediment accumulation rates were quantified by (210)Pb geochronology to follow the history of (137)Cs accumulation. The (137)Cs inventories and fluxes were calculated. Most of the Baltic Sea sediments accumulated (137)Cs in the range from 750 to 2675 Bq m(-2). The Bothnian Bay is severely contaminated by (137)Cs with inventories up to 95,191 Bq m(-2). This region is moreover characterized by extremely large patchiness of (137)Cs inventories. The (137)Cs annual fluxes are highest at the two stations located at the Bothnian Bay (342 Bq m(-2) and 527 Bq m(-2)) due to large Chernobyl (137)Cs contamination of that region and high sediment accumulation rates. When these stations are excluded, the recent, annual mean value of (137)Cs load to the Baltic Sea deposits is 38 ± 22 Bq m(-2). The distribution of radio-caesium inventories over the Baltic Sea nowadays reflects the pattern of Chernobyl contamination. The radio-caesium deposited in surface sediments is not permanently buried, but may be resuspended and redeposited by currents, bioturbation or anthropogenic activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Attributing causes of regional climate change in the Baltic Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhend, Jonas; Gaillard-Lemdahl, Marie-José; Hansson, Hans-Christen

    2015-04-01

    Here we assess to what extent the effect of forcing mechanisms on the observed climate change in the Baltic Sea area can be detected. In particular, we assess the effect of factors causing large-scale warming (mainly anthropogenic greenhouse gases) and the regional effect of atmospheric aerosols and land-cover and land-use changes. Unfortunately, only very few targeted analyses for the Baltic catchment area are available at the moment, but findings at the regional scale are generally qualitatively consistent with global or hemispheric analyses. The observed warming in summer cannot be explained without human influence (in particular the warming effect of increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations). In other seasons and for other aspects of regional warming, findings are mixed or not significant as of yet. In addition, large-scale circulation and rainfall changes in the northern hemisphere and the Arctic have been detected to exceed natural internal variability. Other aspects of regional climate change including changes in storminess, snow properties, runoff and the changing physical properties of the Baltic Sea have not been formally attributed to human influence yet. Scientific understanding of the effect of aerosols on regional climate is still accumulating. It is likely that the major emission changes in Europe have had an effect on the climate in the Baltic region, the magnitude of which, however, is still unknown. Development of the modelling capability and targeted analyses are urgently needed to reduce the uncertainties related to the effect of aerosol changes on regional observed climate change. Historic deforestation and recent reforestation are the major anthropogenic land-cover changes affecting the Baltic Sea area. From all studies at hand it can be concluded that there is no evidence that anthropogenic land-cover change would be one of the forcings behind the recent warming in the Baltic region. However, past anthropogenic land-cover change

  1. Historic changes in length distributions of three Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks: Evidence of growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Svedäng, Henrik; Hornborg, Sara

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how combinations of fishing effort and selectivity affect productivity is central to fisheries research. We investigate the roles of fishing regulation in comparison with ecosystem status for Baltic Sea cod stock productivity, growth performance, and population stability. This case study is interesting because three cod populations with different exploitation patterns and stock status are located in three adjacent but partially, ecologically different areas. In assessing stock status, growth, and productivity, we use survey information and rather basic stock parameters without relying on age readings. Because there is an urgent interest of better understanding of the current development of the Eastern Baltic cod stock, we argue that our approach represents partly a novel way of interpreting monitoring information together with catch data in a simplified yet more informative way. Our study reports how the Eastern and Western Baltic cod have gone toward more truncated size structures between 1991 and 2016, in particular for the Eastern Baltic cod, whereas the Öresund cod show no trend. We suggest that selective fishing may disrupt fish population dynamic stability and that lower natural productivity might amplify the effects of selective fishing. In support of earlier findings on a density-dependent growth of Eastern Baltic cod, management is advised to acknowledge that sustainable exploitation levels for Eastern Baltic cod are much more limited than perceived in regular assessments. Of more general importance, our results emphasize the need to embrace a more realistic view on what ecosystems can produce regarding tractable fish biomass to facilitate a more ecosystem-based fisheries management.

  2. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities

    PubMed Central

    Lindh, Markus V.; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, increasing loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundances than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating a replacement effect. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating an adjustment effect. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, a priming effect resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial ecosystem process rates. PMID

  3. Sources of sedimentary biomarkers and proxies with potential paleoenvironmental significance for the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Jérôme; Arz, Helge W.

    2016-07-01

    The Baltic Sea is a shallow, semi-enclosed and intra-continental shelf sea characterized by anoxic bottom waters in the deepest basins, allowing for the preservation of sedimentary organic matter. In the present study, the most abundant, naturally-occurring lipids in surface sediments from the entire Baltic Sea and the Skagerrak area were identified and their potential sources were assigned. Together with long-chain n-alkanes derived from land plant leaf waxes, diploptene and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are of allochthonous origin, while isoprenoid GDGTs, hydroxylated isoprenoid GDGTs (OH-GDGTs), n-C25:1, n-C27:1 and n-C29:1 alkenes are autochthonous lipids. The isoprenoid and OH-GDGTs are probably derived from Thaumarchaeota and the long-chain n-alkenes from phototrophic organisms. Significant correlations were found between indexes based on isoprenoid and OH-GDGTs and Baltic Sea surface and bottom temperatures. The calibrations obtained for surface temperature have statistically similar slopes, but different intercepts than calibrations established for the Nordic Seas. The branched and isoprenoid tetraether index can be used to estimate the percentage of soil (terrestrial) organic matter in the sediments of the Baltic Sea. High values of the Paq' ratio (defined here as the ratio of odd numbered n-C23 and n-C25 over n-C23 to n-C29 alkanes) in the northern Baltic Sea originate from the presence of both Sphagnum mosses in the drainage basin and submerged macrophytes, such as Potamogeton sp. and Myriophyllum sp., in the freshwater to brackish water of the coastal areas. The Paq' ratio may thus reflect fluctuations in the regional expansion of freshwater to brackish coastal environments in the Baltic Sea.

  4. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species and nitrogen deposition to variations in sea salt emissions in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Daniel; Matthias, Volker; Bieser, Johannes; Aulinger, Armin; Quante, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the ocean surface by wave-breaking and bubble-bursting processes. These particles impact the atmospheric chemistry by affecting the condensation of gas-phase species and, thus, indirectly the nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with significant air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions in northwestern Europe using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and are compared to European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurement data. The sea salt emission module is extended by a salinity-dependent scaling of the sea salt emissions because the salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea is very low, which leads to considerably lower sea salt mass emissions compared to other oceanic regions. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is considered separately. Additionally, the impacts of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate and ammonium concentrations and on nitrogen deposition are evaluated. The comparisons with observational data show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated farther inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves the predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. The dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to minor increases in NH3 + NH4+ and HNO3 + NO3- and a decrease in NO3- concentrations. However, the overall effect on NH3 + NH4+ and HNO3 + NO3- concentrations is smaller than the deviation from the measurements. Nitrogen wet deposition is underestimated by the model at most

  5. TWENTY YEARS OF HUMAN RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEES IN THE BALTIC STATES

    PubMed Central

    DRANSEIKA, VILIUS; GEFENAS, EUGENIJUS; CEKANAUSKAITE, ASTA; HUG, KRISTINA; MEZINSKA, SIGNE; PEICIUS, EIMANTAS; SILIS, VENTS; SOOSAAR, ANDRES; STROSBERG, MARTIN

    2011-01-01

    Two decades have passed since the first attempts were made to establish systematic ethical review of human research in the Baltic States. Legally and institutionally much has changed. In this paper we provide an historical and structural overview of ethical review of human research and identify some problems related to the role of ethical review in establishing quality research environment in these countries. Problems connected to (a) public availability of information, (b) management of conflicts of interest, (c) REC composition and motivation of REC members, and (d) differing levels of stringency of ethical review for different types of studies, are identified. Recommendations are made to strengthen cooperation among the Baltic RECs. PMID:21134108

  6. Combined Effects of Nutrient Load Reduction and Climate Scenarios for the Baltic Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Chantal; Strömqvist, Johan; Dahné, Joel; Arheimer, Berit

    2010-05-01

    A Baltic Sea Action Plan was approved in 2007 by the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea to improve the ecological status of this sea. An important part of this plan is reduction of nutrient inflows from the Baltic Sea basin into the sea. Required nutrient reductions have been apportioned to the countries within the basin and these countries are now planning the remedial measures required to meet the plan's requirements. An important factor that remains to be considered, however, is how well the planned nutrient reductions improve nutrient inflows into the Baltic Sea in a changed future climate. A high resolution, process based hydrological and nutrient flux model was set up for the entire Baltic Sea catchment area using the HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model. The HYPE model introduces the ability to model detailed hydrological processes at high resolution simultaneously and homogenously across many river basins. When using a modelling tool to assess water resources and their quality for a basin entailing several political entities, it is an advantage that the methods and data used are homogenous across such political boundaries. Readily available, regional and global databases were used to set up the model inputs including topography, precipitation, temperature, land use, soil-type, and nutrients from atmospheric, agricultural, industrial and urban wastewaster sources, over the entire model domain. Daily river runoff data from the Baltex and GRDC databases was used to calibrate and validate the parameters describing runoff processes, while monthly and seasonal data from the European Environment Agency's WISE database were used to calibrate and validate the water quality parameters in the model. The model application is able to reproduce measured daily flow variations and magnitude in both large and small waterways across the model domain, and measured seasonal variation and overall magnitude of nutrient fluxes to the Baltic Sea. Total

  7. Ctenophore population recruits entirely through larval reproduction in the central Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Bolte, Sören; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Thygesen, Uffe H; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-10-23

    The comb jelly Mertensia ovum, widely distributed in Arctic regions, has recently been discovered in the northern Baltic Sea. We show that M. ovum also exists in the central Baltic but that the population consists solely of small-sized larvae (less than 1.6 mm). Despite the absence of adults, eggs were abundant. Experiments revealed that the larvae were reproductively active. Egg production and anticipated mortality rates suggest a self-sustaining population. This is the first account of a ctenophore population entirely recruiting through larval reproduction (paedogenesis). We hypothesize that early reproduction is favoured over growth to compensate for high predation pressure.

  8. Microfabric analysis of Mn-carbonate laminae deposition and Mn-sulfide formation in the Gotland Deep, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Ian T.; Kemp, Alan E. S.

    2002-05-01

    The manganese carbonate deposits of the anoxic Littorina sediments of the Gotland Deep have been commonly related to the periodic renewal of deep water by inflowing saline water from the North Sea. The use of scanning electron microscopy-based techniques allows identification of small-scale sedimentary and geochemical features associated with Mn-carbonate laminae, which has significant implications for models of Mn-carbonate formation. Varves occurring in the Littorina sequence contain up to four laminae that may be placed in a seasonal cycle, and kutnahorite laminae occur within varves only as a winter-early spring deposit. This kutnahorite laminae seasonality is in agreement with the seasonal distribution of major Baltic inflow events recorded in historical records, and a direct causal link between inflows and kutnahorite deposition is implied. Benthic foraminifera tests are found to be heavily encrusted in kutnahorite, implying that benthic recolonization during oxidation events occurs concurrently with kutnahorite formation. The relatively common occurrence of small (50 to 100 μm) hexagonal γ-Mn-sulfide pseudomorphs, associated with 13% of kutnahorite laminae studied, is reported in Gotland Deep sediments for the first time. Although Mn-sulfide crystals are not usually preserved in the sediment, the discovery of Mn-sulfide pseudomorphs suggests that initial formation of Mn-sulfide in the Gotland Deep may occur much more commonly during the process of kutnahorite formation than previous reports of Mn-sulfide occurrence have implied.

  9. Dihydrocodeine: safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Leppert, Wojciech; Woroń, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Dihydrocodeine (DHC) is a semi-synthetic analogue of codeine, which was formed by the hydrogenation of the double tie in the main chain of the codeine molecule - instead of a double bond between carbons 7 and 8 DHC possesses a single bond. DHC is used as an analgesic and antitussive agent and for the management of dyspnea and opioid addiction. Limited data is available on the potency of DHC to other opioids. The analgesic effect of DHC is similar to codeine and approximately twice as potent as tramadol for an oral route. In contrast to codeine and tramadol, DHC analgesia seem to be irrespective of CYP2D6 activity due to parent compound analgesic effects, multiple metabolic pathways and limited role of dihydromorphine in DHC analgesia. As the drug is commonly available appropriate titration and dosing and knowledge of its metabolism and possible adverse effects are important for safe prescription of DHC.

  10. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    PubMed

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  11. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. Images FIGURE 2. PMID:8354166

  12. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  13. Evaluation of MERIS products from Baltic Sea coastal waters rich in CDOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán-Abaunza, J. M.; Kratzer, S.; Brockmann, C.

    2013-11-01

    In this study, retrievals of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) reflectances and water quality products using 4 different coastal processing algorithms freely available are assessed by comparison against sea-truthing data. The study is based on a pair-wise comparison using processor-dependent quality flags for the retrieval of valid common macro-pixels. This assessment is required in order to ensure the reliability of monitoring systems based on MERIS data, such as the Swedish coastal and lake monitoring system (http.vattenkvalitet.se). The results show that the pre-processing with the Improved Contrast between Ocean and Land (ICOL) processor, correcting for adjacency effects, improve the retrieval of spectral reflectance for all processors, Therefore, it is recommended that the ICOL processor should be applied when Baltic coastal waters are investigated. Chlorophyll was retrieved best using the FUB (Free University of Berlin) processing algorithm, although overestimations in the range 18-26.5%, dependent on the compared pairs, were obtained. At low chlorophyll concentrations (< 2.5 mg m-3), random errors dominated in the retrievals with the MEGS (MERIS ground segment processor) processor. The lowest bias and random errors were obtained with MEGS for suspended particulate matter, for which overestimations in te range of 8-16% were found. Only the FUB retrieved CDOM (Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter) correlate with in situ values. However, a large systematic underestimation appears in the estimates that nevertheless may be corrected for by using a~local correction factor. The MEGS has the potential to be used as an operational processing algorithm for the Himmerfjärden bay and adjacent areas, but it requires further improvement of the atmospheric correction for the blue bands and better definition at relatively low chlorophyll concentrations in presence of high CDOM attenuation.

  14. Evaluation of MERIS products from Baltic Sea coastal waters rich in CDOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán-Abaunza, J. M.; Kratzer, S.; Brockmann, C.

    2014-05-01

    In this study, retrievals of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) reflectances and water quality products using four different coastal processing algorithms freely available are assessed by comparison against sea-truthing data. The study is based on a pair-wise comparison using processor-dependent quality flags for the retrieval of valid common macro-pixels. This assessment is required in order to ensure the reliability of monitoring systems based on MERIS data, such as the Swedish coastal and lake monitoring system (http://vattenkvalitet.se). The results show that the pre-processing with the Improved Contrast between Ocean and Land (ICOL) processor, correcting for adjacency effects, improves the retrieval of spectral reflectance for all processors. Therefore, it is recommended that the ICOL processor should be applied when Baltic coastal waters are investigated. Chlorophyll was retrieved best using the FUB (Free University of Berlin) processing algorithm, although overestimations in the range 18-26.5%, dependent on the compared pairs, were obtained. At low chlorophyll concentrations (< 2.5 mg m-3), data dispersion dominated in the retrievals with the MEGS (MERIS ground segment processor) processor. The lowest bias and data dispersion were obtained with MEGS for suspended particulate matter, for which overestimations in the range of 8-16% were found. Only the FUB retrieved CDOM (coloured dissolved organic matter) correlate with in situ values. However, a large systematic underestimation appears in the estimates that nevertheless may be corrected for by using a local correction factor. The MEGS has the potential to be used as an operational processing algorithm for the Himmerfjärden bay and adjacent areas, but it requires further improvement of the atmospheric correction for the blue bands and better definition at relatively low chlorophyll concentrations in the presence of high CDOM attenuation.

  15. Species differences in total mercury concentration in gulls from the Gulf of Gdansk (Southern Baltic).

    PubMed

    Szumiło-Pilarska, Emilia; Grajewska, Agnieszka; Falkowska, Lucyna; Hajdrych, Julia; Meissner, Włodzimierz; Frączek, Tomasz; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Bzoma, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic birds occupy a high position in the trophic pyramid of the Baltic Sea. This means that they accumulate the greatest amount of harmful substances, including mercury, in their bodies. This element penetrates into their systems mainly via the alimentary canal. The amount of mercury absorbed from food depends on how badly the environment is polluted with this metal. The aim of this study was to discover the concentrations of total mercury (HgT) in the contour feathers, muscles, brain, lungs, liver, kidneys, heart and blood of four gull species Herring Gull (Larus argentatus), Common Gull (Larus canus), Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) and organic mercury (Hgorg) in the liver and brain of Herring Gull. The most important characteristic of the results obtained for the studied gulls was the statistically significant differences between the four species, probably resulting from their different diets-confirmed by stable-isotopes analysis (δ(15)N and δ(13)C). A logarithmic dependence was found between HgT in the blood and HgT in the brain of the Herring Gull. The authors suggest that among gulls burdened with the greatest mercury load, it is possible that the brain is protected by higher Hg accumulation in the muscles. The percentage share of Hgorg in the brain and liver of the Herring Gull depended on the concentration of HgT in these tissues and was always higher in the brain. In none of the cases, did the mercury levels assayed in the internal gulls' tissues exceed values associated with adverse health effects.

  16. Diet overlap between juvenile flatfish and the invasive round goby in the central Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustups, D.; Bergström, U.; Florin, A. B.; Kruze, E.; Zilniece, D.; Elferts, D.; Knospina, E.; Uzars, D.

    2016-01-01

    The present study offers a comprehensive analysis of changes in the abundance and diet composition of juvenile flounder (Platichthys flesus) and turbot (Psetta maxima), along with other dominant coastal fish species, before and after the establishment of the alien round goby off an exposed stretch of coast in the eastern Baltic Sea. In the study area, the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) was recorded for the first time in 2009. After a few years of low abundance, a sharp increase in the population occurred. After the round goby invasion, flatfish juveniles exhibited an increased diet overlap with other species and had a lower feeding success, reflecting an increase in resource competition. For juvenile turbot, the increase was mainly caused by the round goby, while for flounder it was due to both the round goby and the lesser sandeel (Ammodytes tobianus). Juvenile turbot, whose dominant food item before the round goby establishment had been mysids, shifted their diet towards Crangon crangon, reflecting a decrease in mysid abundance by three orders of magnitude and a concurrent doubling in C. crangon abundance in the habitat. At the same time a significant decrease in turbot recruitment was observed. Juvenile flounder had the widest food spectrum of the studied species. When the availability of the primary food item, Bathyporeia pilosa, decreased, flounder juveniles adapted by increasing the share of zooplankton in their diets. No changes in flounder feeding success and recruitment were observed. However, the recruitment estimates of flounder and turbot show an increasing co-variation after the round goby invasion, suggesting that recruitment of the species may currently be regulated by processes in the common nursery habitat.

  17. Virus production and lysate recycling in different sub-basins of the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Titelman, Josefin; Riemann, Lasse

    2010-10-01

    In the Gulf of Bothnia, northern Baltic Sea, a large freshwater inflow creates north-southerly gradients in physico-chemical and biological factors across the two sub-basins, the Bothnian Bay (BB) and the Bothnian Sea. In particular, the sub-basins differ in nutrient limitation (nitrogen vs. phosphorus; P). Since viruses are rich in P, and virus production is commonly connected with bacterial abundance and growth, we hypothesized that the role of viral lysis differs between the sub-basins. Thus, we examined virus production and the potential importance of lysate recycling in surface waters along a transect in the Gulf of Bothnia. Surprisingly, virus production and total P were negatively correlated. In the BB, virus production rates were double those elsewhere in the system, although bacterial abundance and production were the lowest. In the BB, virus-mediated cell lysates could account for 70-180% and 100-250% of the bacterial carbon and P demand, respectively, while only 4-15% and 8-21% at the other stations. Low concentrations of dissolved DNA (D-DNA) with a high proportion of encapsulated DNA (viruses) in the BB suggested rapid turnover and high uptake of free DNA. The correlation of D-DNA and total P indicates that D-DNA is a particularly important nutrient source in the P-limited BB. Our study demonstrates large and counterintuitive differences in virus-mediated recycling of carbon and nutrients in two basins of the Gulf of Bothnia, which differ in microbial community composition and nutrient limitation.

  18. Mineral composition and preferred orientation of minerals in shales from Palaeozoic Baltic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gąsiński, Arkadiusz

    2017-04-01

    Ordovician and Silurian rocks from the Palaeozoic Baltic Basin in northern Poland, often described simply as "shale", embrace a wide range of siliceos and argillaceous rocks. The little knowledge that is available about their detailed mineralogical is mainly limited to qualitative data, so the main aim of this work was to obtain their quantitative mineral composition, based on analysis of thin sections with SEM, FIB and EDS techniques supported by XRD data. The mineral composition of shales dictates their chemical properties and is also a major factor determining their physical properties, especially relating to their stability during drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and hydrocarbon production. Knowledge of the mineral composition of different shales plays a very important role in identifying optimal proppants, fracture fluids and pumping schedules. The mineralogy of the shale is an important influence on total gas capacity. Carbonate-rich shales indicate adjacent carbonate platform and embayment succession origins, and commonly have a lower organic carbon content and porosity, and a corresponding lower gas capacity, than shales with lower carbonate content. All samples show a rather complex mineralogical composition with illite, micas, quartz, calcite, dolomite and chlorites as major minerals. It was possible to point out the microzones that contain higher amount of brittle minerals and therefore should be especially prone to cracking. Anisotropy in clay-rich sedimentary rocks is receiving increasing attention. This feature is very important for the prospecting for hydrocarbon deposits and for hydraulic fracturing. Anisotropy of diffusion has become relevant for environmental contaminants, including nuclear waste. In both cases, the orientation of component minerals is a critical ingredient. In this study I also show the orientation of different mineral components in shales with image analysis methods that allow me to characterize the shape of grains and its

  19. Functional traits of testate amoebae and multi-proxy data unveil exceptional Baltic bog ecohydrology, autogenic succession and climate change during the last 2000 years in CE Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Gałka, Mariusz; Tobolski, Kazimierz; Lamentowicz, Łukasz; Ersek, Vasile; Jassey, Vincent E. J.; van der Knaap, Willem O.

    2017-04-01

    We studied two peat cores from the Baltic raised bog (Mechacz Wielki in NE Poland). We aimed to separate signal of extrinsic and intrinsic forcing of the raised bog development using multi-proxy high-resolution approach. Using testate amoebae transfer function, we found that the bog revealed exceptionally stable hydrological conditions during the last 2k with a relatively high water table and lack of local fire events that allowed for rapid peat accumulation (2.75 mm/year) in the bog. Furthermore, the strong correlation between pH and community-weighted mean of testate amoeba traits suggests that other variables than water-table depth play a role in driving microbial properties under stable hydrological conditions. There is a difference in hydrological dynamics in bogs between NW and NE Poland until ca CE 1500, after which the water table reconstructions possess more similarities. Our data suggest a common regional climatic forcing in Mechacz Wielki, Gązwa and Kontolanrahka. Though it may still be too early to attempt a regional summary of wetness change in the southern Baltic region, this study is a next step to better understand the long-term peatland palaeohydrology in NE Europe. We suggest that extrinsic factors (climate) played an important role as a driver in mire development during the bog stage (AD 500-2012). Our results also show how various functional traits relate to different environmental variables in a range of trophic and hydrological scenarios on long time scales.

  20. Scholte-wave Inversion for shallow 2D shear-wave velocity models at different locations in North- and Baltic sea using a hybrid particle swarm optimization scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilken, Dennis; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    In the years 2006 to 2008 we performed Airgun profiles to excite Scholte-waves at different locations in the North and Baltic sea. Scholte-wave energy was recorded using a specially developed Ocean-Bottom-Seismometer. The system is able to sample signals up to 11kHz and can thus be localised at seafloor with an accuracy of a few meters using traveltimes of high frequent seismic signals that are excited in the watercolumn. Scholte-wave recordings are added to common-receiver-gathers which are then inverted for shear-wave velocity structure by fitting modelled phase-slowness frequency dispersion spectra to spectra of the wavefield. By extracting local wavefields from the profile-gathers, multiple 1D Inversions of these fields at different offset-points lead to a 2D shear-wave velocity model of the profile. A new spectral misfit calculation was developed, working without the requirement of identification of the Scholte-wave dispersed modes in the spectra. For minimization of the misfit we implemented a new hybrid method using a combination of particle swarm optimization and a local downhill-simplex resulting in a resolution of global misfit minimum of about 7%. The method was used for shear-wave velocity inversion at four different locations in North and Baltic sea. Resulting models show very good coherence along each Profile and especially a very good correlation to high resolution reflection seismic sections of the same profiles.

  1. Physiological plasticity is key to the presence of the isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas) in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Hannah L.; Nylund, Göran; Eriksson, Susanne P.

    2014-01-01

    The low salinity of the Baltic Sea presents a physiological challenge to marine species. The marine isopod Idotea baltica is notably dominant among the shallow sublittoral of the Baltic Sea in association with Fucus vesiculosus, with permanent populations documented in salinities as low as 3 psu. To investigate the role of physiological plasticity in the successful colonisation of the Baltic by I. baltica three populations from the Swedish coast were here studied, one from the Kattegat (Malmö) and two from the Baltic Sea (Kalmar and Öregrund). These three sites cover the geographic range of this species within the Baltic Sea on the Swedish coast, and also the salinity range of this species within the Baltic Sea (10-5 psu). Individuals from these populations were exposed in the laboratory to a fully crossed experiment with the factors salinity and food source, to test for differences in the physiology of these populations under different conditions that may indicate local adaptation, or no differences that indicate physiological plasticity to differing salinity and food source. Metabolic rate, growth and thermal tolerance responses did not differ between the three populations across salinity treatments after a 12 week exposure. The results of this study indicate that the physiology of adult I. baltica is highly plastic with regard to salinity; this plasticity is likely to have facilitated their colonisation of the Baltic Sea.

  2. Combining hydrodynamic modelling with genetics: Can passive larval drift shape the genetic structure of Baltic Mytilus populations?

    PubMed

    Stuckas, Heiko; Knöbel, Loreen; Schade, Hanna; Breusing, Corinna; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Bartel, Manuela; Langguth, Klaudia; Melzner, Frank

    2017-02-26

    While secondary contact between Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus in North America results in mosaic hybrid zone formation, both species form a hybrid swarm in the Baltic. Despite pervasive gene flow, Baltic Mytilus species maintain substantial genetic and phenotypic differentiation. Exploring mechanisms underlying the contrasting genetic composition in Baltic Mytilus species will allow insights into processes such as speciation or adaptation to extremely low salinity. Previous studies in the Baltic indicated that only weak interspecific reproductive barriers exist and discussed the putative role of adaptation to environmental conditions. Using a combination of hydrodynamic modelling and multilocus genotyping we investigate how oceanographic conditions influence passive larval dispersal and hybrid swarm formation in the Baltic. By combining our analyses with previous knowledge we show a genetic transition of Baltic Mytilus species along longitude 12°-13°E, i.e. a virtual line between Malmö (Sweden) and Stralsund (Germany). Although larval transport only occurs over short distances (10-30 km), limited larval dispersal could not explain the position of this genetic transition zone. Instead, the genetic transition zone is located at the area of maximum salinity change (15 to 10 psu). Thus, we argue that selection results in weak reproductive barriers and local adaptation. This scenario could maintain genetic and phenotypic differences between Baltic Mytilus species despite pervasive introgressive hybridization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Calibration of the hydrogeological model of the Baltic Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virbulis, J.; Klints, I.; Timuhins, A.; Sennikovs, J.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    Let us consider the calibration issue for the Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB) which is a complex hydrogeological system in the southeastern Baltic with surface area close to 0.5 million square kilometers. The model of the geological structure contains 42 layers including aquifers and aquitards. The age of sediments varies from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. The finite element method model was developed for the calculation of the steady state three-dimensional groundwater flow with free surface. No-flow boundary conditions were applied on the rock bottom and the side boundaries of BAB, while simple hydrological model is applied on the surface. The level of the lakes, rivers and the sea is fixed as constant hydraulic head. Constant mean value of 70 mm/year was assumed as an infiltration flux elsewhere and adjusted during the automatic calibration process. Averaged long-term water extraction was applied at the water supply wells. The calibration of the hydrogeological model is one of the most important steps during the model development. The knowledge about the parameters of the modeled system is often insufficient, especially for the large regional models, and a lack of geometric and hydraulic conductivity data is typical. The quasi-Newton optimization method L-BFGS-B is used for the calibration of the BAB model. Model is calibrated on the available water level measurements in monitoring wells and level measurements in boreholes during their installation. As the available data is not uniformly distributed over the covered area, weight coefficient is assigned to each borehole in order not to overestimate the clusters of boreholes. The year 2000 is chosen as the reference year for the present time scenario and the data from surrounding years are also taken into account but with smaller weighting coefficients. The objective function to be minimized by the calibration process is the weighted sum of squared differences between observed and modeled piezometric heads

  4. Allelopathic Effects of Cyanobacterial Filtrates on Baltic Diatom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śliwińska, Sylwia; Latała, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Allelopathy may be one of the factors affecting the formation of massive and harmful algal blooms in aquatic environments. Recent studies indicate that blooms of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea has grown significantly in last decades, so it is important to determine the allelopathic interactions between the dominant species of cyanobacteria and microalgae. In this work we investigated the influence of allelopathic compounds on the growth of Skeletonema marinoi by addition of cell-free filtrate of the Baltic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena cultures grown under different temperature (15-25°C). Additionally the effects of filtrates of both an exponential and a stationary growing culture of N. spumigena were tested on diatom. These studies indicate that high temperature affected the donor species by increasing its production of allelochemicals. The highest drop of growth of analyzed diatom were observed after the addition of cell-free filtrate obtained from N. spumigena grown at 25°C and constituted 70% of their control. N. spumigena was only allelopathic in exponential growth phase, whereas the cyanobacteria filtrate from stationary phase have any effect on S. marinoi. These findings suggest that N. spumigena may reveal allelopathic activity and that the production of allelopathic substances is influenced by the temperature and growth phase of cyanobacteria. Allelopatia może być kluczowym czynnikiem wpływającym na tworzenie się masowych zakwitów sinic w wielu wodnych ekosystemach. Badania pokazują, że zakwity sinic w Morzu Bałtyckim w ostatnich dekadach znacznie się nasiliły, dlatego tak ważne jest określenie stopnia oddziaływania allelopatycznego dominujących w tym akwenie gatunków fitoplanktonu. W przeprowadzonych badaniach określono wpływ związków allelopatycznych produkowanych przez bałtycką sinicę Nodularia spumigena hodowaną w różnych temperaturach (15-25°C) na wzrost okrzemki Skeletonema marinoi. Dodatkowo w niniejszej pracy por

  5. Blue carbon stocks in Baltic Sea eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhr, Maria Emilia; Boström, Christoffer; Canal-Vergés, Paula; Holmer, Marianne

    2016-11-01

    Although seagrasses cover only a minor fraction of the ocean seafloor, their carbon sink capacity accounts for nearly one-fifth of the total oceanic carbon burial and thus play a critical structural and functional role in many coastal ecosystems. We sampled 10 eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in Finland and 10 in Denmark to explore seagrass carbon stocks (Corg stock) and carbon accumulation rates (Corg accumulation) in the Baltic Sea area. The study sites represent a gradient from sheltered to exposed locations in both regions to reflect expected minimum and maximum stocks and accumulation. The Corg stock integrated over the top 25 cm of the sediment averaged 627 g C m-2 in Finland, while in Denmark the average Corg stock was over 6 times higher (4324 g C m-2). A conservative estimate of the total organic carbon pool in the regions ranged between 6.98 and 44.9 t C ha-1. Our results suggest that the Finnish eelgrass meadows are minor carbon sinks compared to the Danish meadows, and that majority of the Corg produced in the Finnish meadows is exported. Our analysis further showed that > 40 % of the variation in the Corg stocks was explained by sediment characteristics, i.e. dry density, porosity and silt content. In addition, our analysis show that the root : shoot ratio of Z. marina explained > 12 % and the contribution of Z. marina detritus to the sediment surface Corg pool explained > 10 % of the variation in the Corg stocks. The mean monetary value for the present carbon storage and carbon sink capacity of eelgrass meadows in Finland and Denmark, were 281 and 1809 EUR ha-1, respectively. For a more comprehensive picture of seagrass carbon storage capacity, we conclude that future blue carbon studies should, in a more integrative way, investigate the interactions between sediment biogeochemistry, seascape structure, plant species architecture and the hydrodynamic regime.

  6. Seabird Guano Fertilizes Baltic Sea Littoral Food Webs

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Karine; Rothäusler, Eva; Syrjänen, Anneli; Yli-Renko, Maria; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment in coastal marine systems can have profound impacts on trophic networks. In the Baltic Sea, the population of Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) has increased nearly exponentially since the mid-1990s, and colonies of these seabirds can be important sources of nitrogen enrichment for nearby benthic communities due to guano runoff. In this study we used stable isotope analyses and diet mixing models to determine the extent of nitrogen enrichment from cormorant colonies, as well as to examine any possible changes in herbivore diet preferences due to enrichment. We found significantly higher levels of δ15N in samples from colony islands than control islands for producers (the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus, filamentous algae, and periphyton) and herbivores, as well as a positive correlation between enrichment and nest density in colony sites. We also found that enrichment increased over the breeding season of the cormorants, with higher enrichment in late summer than early summer. While the amount of total nitrogen did not differ between colony and control sites, the amount of guano-based nitrogen in algae was >50% in most sites, indicating high nitrogen enrichment from colonies. Herbivores (the isopod Idotea balthica and the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis) preferred feeding upon the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus rather than on filamentous algae or periphyton in both control and colony, and there was a significant increase in periphyton consumption near colony sites. Overall, guano from cormorant colonies seems to have effects on both producers and herbivores, as well as the potential to modify algae-herbivore interactions. PMID:23593452

  7. Egg production of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissling, Anders; Florin, Ann-Britt; Thorsen, Anders; Bergström, Ulf

    2013-11-01

    In the brackish water Baltic Sea turbot spawn at ~ 6-9 psu along the coast and on offshore banks in ICES SD 24-29, with salinity influencing the reproductive success. The potential fecundity (the stock of vitellogenic oocytes in the pre-spawning ovary), egg size (diameter and dry weight of artificially fertilized 1-day-old eggs) and gonad dry weight were assessed for fish sampled in SD 25 and SD 28. Multiple regression analysis identified somatic weight, or total length in combination with Fulton's condition factor, as main predictors of fecundity and gonad dry weight with stage of maturity (oocyte packing density or leading cohort) as an additional predictor. For egg size, somatic weight was identified as main predictor while otolith weight (proxy for age) was an additional predictor. Univariate analysis using GLM revealed significantly higher fecundity and gonad dry weight for turbot from SD 28 (3378-3474 oocytes/g somatic weight) compared to those from SD 25 (2343 oocytes/g somatic weight), with no difference in egg size (1.05 ± 0.03 mm diameter and 46.8 ± 6.5 μg dry weight; mean ± sd). The difference in egg production matched egg survival probabilities in relation to salinity conditions suggesting selection for higher fecundity as a consequence of poorer reproductive success at lower salinities. This supports the hypothesis of higher size-specific fecundity towards the limit of the distribution of a species as an adaptation to harsher environmental conditions and lower offspring survival probabilities. Within SD 28 comparisons were made between two major fishing areas targeting spawning aggregations and a marine protected area without fishing. The outcome was inconclusive and is discussed with respect to potential fishery induced effects, effects of the salinity gradient, effects of specific year-classes, and effects of maturation status of sampled fish.

  8. High-Frequency Wave Measurements in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorkqvist, J. V.; Kahma, K. K.; Pettersson, H.; Drennan, W. M.

    2016-02-01

    The high-frequency part of the wave field is essential for the understanding of air-sea exchange related processes and the turbulent energy dissipation of breaking waves. The quantification of the dimensionless spectra will aid wave model development and contribute to a better understanding of the fundamental laws governing the evolution of wind driven waves. However, typical wave observation devices, such as wave buoys, are limited to observing frequencies under e.g. 0.6 Hz. Dedicated experiments with devices suitable for high-frequency measurements are, in comparison, rare.We have made high-frequency wave measurements with capacitive wave staffs from RV Aranda. Air turbulence and wind speed measurements are also available and a full motion correction was applied to all measurements. A frequency rage up to 2-3 Hz is enough to study the tail of the wave spectra even during its early development. The unusually high sampling frequency of 200 Hz guarantees that spurious spectral shapes that could be the joint effect of noise and the anti-aliasing filter can be excluded. Directional measurements were made using four wave staffs located 15 or 50 cm apart in the grid.The mobility of the research vessel has enabled measurements in a wide variety of conditions from the Baltic Proper to the irregular Finnish coastal archipelagos. The aim is to determine the conditions and frequency ranges when the shape of the dimensionless spectra is wind dependent. Especially, it's still not clear whether the use of the wind speed or the friction velocity as the scaling parameter produces better results, or where the transition to the Phillips spectra takes place. The directional measurements can shed light on theories that use the directional spread of the two-dimensional spectrum to explain the shape of the one-dimensional spectrum.

  9. Seabird guano fertilizes Baltic Sea littoral food webs.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Karine; Rothäusler, Eva; Syrjänen, Anneli; Yli-Renko, Maria; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment in coastal marine systems can have profound impacts on trophic networks. In the Baltic Sea, the population of Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) has increased nearly exponentially since the mid-1990 s, and colonies of these seabirds can be important sources of nitrogen enrichment for nearby benthic communities due to guano runoff. In this study we used stable isotope analyses and diet mixing models to determine the extent of nitrogen enrichment from cormorant colonies, as well as to examine any possible changes in herbivore diet preferences due to enrichment. We found significantly higher levels of δ(15)N in samples from colony islands than control islands for producers (the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus, filamentous algae, and periphyton) and herbivores, as well as a positive correlation between enrichment and nest density in colony sites. We also found that enrichment increased over the breeding season of the cormorants, with higher enrichment in late summer than early summer. While the amount of total nitrogen did not differ between colony and control sites, the amount of guano-based nitrogen in algae was >50% in most sites, indicating high nitrogen enrichment from colonies. Herbivores (the isopod Idotea balthica and the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis) preferred feeding upon the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus rather than on filamentous algae or periphyton in both control and colony, and there was a significant increase in periphyton consumption near colony sites. Overall, guano from cormorant colonies seems to have effects on both producers and herbivores, as well as the potential to modify algae-herbivore interactions.

  10. Cross-Cultural Counseling Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahia, Chikezie Emmanuel

    1984-01-01

    Examines problems and concerns of cross cultural counseling and psychotherapy. Raises specific questions concerning research designs and approaches, differences in cosmology, epistemology, differences in nosology, and problems of evaluation or testing. (JAC)

  11. Cross-Cultural Counseling Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahia, Chikezie Emmanuel

    1984-01-01

    Examines problems and concerns of cross cultural counseling and psychotherapy. Raises specific questions concerning research designs and approaches, differences in cosmology, epistemology, differences in nosology, and problems of evaluation or testing. (JAC)

  12. Seasonal Dynamics of Sublittoral Meiobenthos in Relation to Phytoplankton Sedimentation in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ólafsson, E.; Elmgren, R.

    1997-08-01

    Meiobenthic metazoans (40-500) μm were sampled monthly at a 37 m deep station in the north-western Baltic Sea proper. Nematodes dominated the meiofauna, ranging from 67% of total abundance in February to 91% in September. Harpacticoid copepods were the second most common group, ranging from 2% in September to 15% in February. Total meiofauna shell-free dry weight biomass was lowest in winter (0·9 mg 10 cm -2in January), and increased rapidly following the spring bloom, to high values in May-July (peak 1·7 mg 10 cm -2in July). As an annual average, ostracods contributed most to biomass, 38%, while nematodes and harpacticoids made up 24 and 15%, respectively. Only nematodes were common below 2 cm depth in the sediment, and few nematodes penetrated below 4 cm. Of Wieser's morphologically based nematode feeding groups, epistrate feeders dominated the surface sediment, and non-selective deposit feeders dominated the deeper layer in May. Total nematode abundance was significantly different among dates, with lowest numbers in winter and spring (October-April), and almost doubled within about 2 months after the spring phytoplankton bloom in March. There was a significant increase in selective deposit feeders and epistrate feeders after the spring bloom. Harpacticoid copepods were almost all of two species, Pseudobradyasp. and Microarthridion littorale, both of which differed significantly in abundance among months, and displayed continuous reproduction throughout the year, with a peak in pairs in precopula in winter for Pseudobradyasp. and in ovigerous females in M. littoraleafter the spring bloom. Pseudobradyawas significantly more numerous in winter than in other seasons. Microarthridion littoralehad its highest abundance from July to October. Three species of ostracods were common throughout the year and all differed significantly in numbers among months. Turbellaria, Kinorhyncha were found in lowest numbers during winter and peaked in summer. The peak of newly

  13. Presence of Potential Toxin-Producing Cyanobacteria in an Oligo-Mesotrophic Lake in Baltic Lake District, Germany: An Ecological, Genetic and Toxicological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dadheech, Pawan K.; Selmeczy, Géza B.; Vasas, Gábor; Padisák, Judit; Arp, Wolfgang; Tapolczai, Kálmán; Casper, Peter; Krienitz, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    Massive developments of potentially toxic cyanobacteria in Lake Stechlin, an oligo-mesotrophic lake in the Baltic Lake District of Germany raised concerns about toxic contamination of these important ecosystems. Field samples in the phase of mass developments of cyanobacteria were used for genetic and toxicological analyses. Microcystins and microcystin genes were detected in field samples of the lake for the first time. However, the toxins were not produced by the dominant taxa (Dolichospermum circinale and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) but by taxa, which were present only in low biomass in the samples (Microcystis cf. aeruginosa and Planktothrix rubescens). The phytoplankton successions during the study period revealed an increase of cyanobacterial populations. The findings contribute to the changes that have been investigated in Lake Stechlin since the mid-1990s. The possible reasons behind these developments may be climate change, special weather conditions and an increased nutrient pool. PMID:25268981

  14. Presence of potential toxin-producing cyanobacteria in an oligo-mesotrophic lake in Baltic Lake District, Germany: an ecological, genetic and toxicological survey.

    PubMed

    Dadheech, Pawan K; Selmeczy, Géza B; Vasas, Gábor; Padisák, Judit; Arp, Wolfgang; Tapolczai, Kálmán; Casper, Peter; Krienitz, Lothar

    2014-09-29

    Massive developments of potentially toxic cyanobacteria in Lake Stechlin, an oligo-mesotrophic lake in the Baltic Lake District of Germany raised concerns about toxic contamination of these important ecosystems. Field samples in the phase of mass developments of cyanobacteria were used for genetic and toxicological analyses. Microcystins and microcystin genes were detected in field samples of the lake for the first time. However, the toxins were not produced by the dominant taxa (Dolichospermum circinale and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) but by taxa, which were present only in low biomass in the samples (Microcystis cf. aeruginosa and Planktothrix rubescens). The phytoplankton successions during the study period revealed an increase of cyanobacterial populations. The findings contribute to the changes that have been investigated in Lake Stechlin since the mid-1990s. The possible reasons behind these developments may be climate change, special weather conditions and an increased nutrient pool.

  15. Reconstruction of groundwater formation in the Baltic Artesian basin through water stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babre, A.; Delina, A.; Retike, I.

    2012-04-01

    Subsurface hydrology of the Baltic Artesian basin has changed rapidly during the Quaternary period. Glacial and several interglacial phases as well as the change in the sea level led to complicated subsurface hydrology and a large difference in groundwater chemical as much as isotopic content. Baltic artesian basin fully covers territory of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia; also parts of Poland, Russia, and Belarus are included. This work aims to give better overview of the complexity of the groundwater recharge and discharge dynamics beyond country borders, taking into account only shared geological framework, common climate conditions and development during the Quaternary period. To maintain better understanding of the processes that took part in the formation of groundwater that can be observed nowadays several methods were applied placing major emphasis on the new oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratio results. Additionally large scale modeling as well as hydrochemistry and trace element concentrations was used. Paleowaters usually are isotopically lighter, that facilitate to detect their presence. Earlier investigations in the northern part of the basin indicated glacial melt water intrusion in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer corrected radiocarbon age suggests that this meltwater intrusion took place during the late Weichelian. Several radiocarbon and stable isotope studies in groundwater have been done at the southern part of the basin as well reporting extensive groundwater recharge during the Late Pleistocene in the Devonian aquifers; authors suggest that recharge took place under different recharge mechanisms compared with the northern part. So far no similar studies were accomplished in the central part of the basin, thus to make clearer picture and possibility to find the mixing line between groundwater bodies of different origin, the new groundwater samples were collected from more than 200 wells mainly in the territory of Latvia. New stable isotope samples

  16. Simulated distributions of Baltic Sea-ice in warming climate and consequences for the winter habitat of the Baltic ringed seal.

    PubMed

    Meier, H E Markus; Döscher, Ralf; Halkka, Antti

    2004-06-01

    Sea-ice in the Baltic Sea in present and future climates is investigated. The Rossby Centre Regional Atmosphere-Ocean model was used to perform a set of 30-year-long time slice experiments. For each of the two driving global models HadAM3H and ECHAM4/OPYC3, one control run (1961-1990) and two scenario runs (2071-2100) based upon the SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios were conducted. The future sea-ice volume in the Baltic Sea is reduced by 83% on average. The Bothnian Sea, large areas of the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, and the outer parts of the southwestern archipelago of Finland will become ice-free in the mean. The presented scenarios are used to study the impact of climate change on the Baltic ringed seal (Phoca hispida botnica). Climate change seems to be a major threat to all southern populations. The only fairly good winter sea-ice habitat is found to be confined to the Bay of Bothnia.

  17. Myths Concerning Alpine Skiing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Robert J.; Ettlinger, Carl F.; Shealy, Jasper E.

    2009-01-01

    There are many commonly discussed myths about ski safety that are propagated by industry, physicians, and skiers. Through a review of the literature concerning 12 such topics, this article demonstrates that the following are untrue: (1) Broken legs have been traded for blown-out knees. (2) If you know your DIN (a slang term for release indicator value), you can adjust your own bindings. (3) Toe and heel piece settings must be the same to function properly. (4) Formal ski instruction will make you safer. (5) Very short skis do not need release bindings. (6) Spending a lot of money on children’s equipment is not worth the cost. (7) Children need plenty of room in ski boots for their growing feet. (8) If you think you are going to fall, just relax. (9) Exercise can prevent skiing injuries. (10) Lower release settings can reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. (11) Buying new ski equipment is safer than renting. (12) Skiing is among the most dangerous of activities. It is important for the skiing public, physicians, and all those interested in improving skiing safety to verify the measures they advocate. The statements analyzed here are simply untrue and have the potential to cause harm if taken as fact by those exposed to these unsupported opinions. PMID:23015911

  18. Myths concerning alpine skiing injuries.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert J; Ettlinger, Carl F; Shealy, Jasper E

    2009-11-01

    There are many commonly discussed myths about ski safety that are propagated by industry, physicians, and skiers. Through a review of the literature concerning 12 such topics, this article demonstrates that the following are untrue: (1) Broken legs have been traded for blown-out knees. (2) If you know your DIN (a slang term for release indicator value), you can adjust your own bindings. (3) Toe and heel piece settings must be the same to function properly. (4) Formal ski instruction will make you safer. (5) Very short skis do not need release bindings. (6) Spending a lot of money on children's equipment is not worth the cost. (7) Children need plenty of room in ski boots for their growing feet. (8) If you think you are going to fall, just relax. (9) Exercise can prevent skiing injuries. (10) Lower release settings can reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. (11) Buying new ski equipment is safer than renting. (12) Skiing is among the most dangerous of activities. It is important for the skiing public, physicians, and all those interested in improving skiing safety to verify the measures they advocate. The statements analyzed here are simply untrue and have the potential to cause harm if taken as fact by those exposed to these unsupported opinions.

  19. Diversity of Pico- to Mesoplankton along the 2000 km Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue O O; Karlson, Bengt; Charvet, Sophie; Andersson, Anders F

    2016-01-01

    Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 10(5) sequences/sample) of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea.

  20. Diversity of Pico- to Mesoplankton along the 2000 km Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue O. O.; Karlson, Bengt; Charvet, Sophie; Andersson, Anders F.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 105 sequences/sample) of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea. PMID:27242706

  1. Baltic Security, NATO Enlargement and Defense Reform: The Challenges of Overcommitments and Overlaps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    February 1999, 109-110. Meyer, Kent R ., “US Support for Baltic Membership in NATO: What Ends, What Risks?,” Parameter, Winter 2000-2001, 67-82. Mickiewicz...Helsinki, 12 October 2000, available online from http://www.urm.lt/data/ef31014107_1012usac.htm. Thesis: Falkenberg , Thomas, Civl-Military Relations and

  2. Assessment of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources of the Baltic Depression Province, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 282 million barrels of conventional oil, 576 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 1.3 billion barrels of continuous oil, and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Baltic Depression Province.

  3. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of the Baltic States in a New Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickien, Ineta; Kaledaite, Violeta

    2005-01-01

    Language questions are increasingly on the agenda in Europe. This paper addresses some problematic aspects of language teaching and learning that have come to the fore in the Baltic states after the European Union enlargement of 2004. First, the paper aims at providing relevant information about language policies in the former USSR and the…

  4. Meta-omic analyses of Baltic Sea cyanobacteria: diversity, community structure and salt acclimation.

    PubMed

    Celepli, Narin; Sundh, John; Ekman, Martin; Dupont, Chris L; Yooseph, Shibu; Bergman, Birgitta; Ininbergs, Karolina

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are important phytoplankton in the Baltic Sea, an estuarine-like environment with pronounced north to south gradients in salinity and nutrient concentrations. Here, we present a metagenomic and -transcriptomic survey, with subsequent analyses targeting the genetic identity, phylogenetic diversity, and spatial distribution of Baltic Sea cyanobacteria. The cyanobacterial community constituted close to 12% of the microbial population sampled during a pre-bloom period (June-July 2009). The community was dominated by unicellular picocyanobacteria, specifically a few highly abundant taxa (Synechococcus and Cyanobium) with a long tail of low abundance representatives, and local peaks of bloom-forming heterocystous taxa. Cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea differed genetically from those in adjacent limnic and marine waters as well as from cultivated and sequenced picocyanobacterial strains. Diversity peaked at brackish salinities 3.5-16 psu, with low N:P ratios. A shift in community composition from brackish to marine strains was accompanied by a change in the repertoire and expression of genes involved in salt acclimation. Overall, the pre-bloom cyanobacterial population was more genetically diverse, widespread and abundant than previously documented, with unicellular picocyanobacteria being the most abundant clade along the entire Baltic Sea salinity gradient. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Anatomizing one of the largest saltwater inflows into the Baltic Sea in December 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräwe, Ulf; Naumann, Michael; Mohrholz, Volker; Burchard, Hans

    2015-11-01

    In December 2014, an exceptional inflow event into the Baltic Sea was observed, a so-called Major Baltic Inflow (MBI). Such inflow events are important for the deep water ventilation in the Baltic Sea and typically occur every 3-10 years. Based on first observational data sets, this inflow had been ranked as the third largest since 100 years. With the help of a multinested modeling system, reaching from the North Atlantic (8 km resolution) to the Western Baltic Sea (600 m resolution, which is baroclinic eddy resolving), this event is reproduced in detail. The model gave a slightly lower salt transport of 3.8 Gt, compared to the observational estimate of four Gt. Moreover, by using passive tracers to mark the different inflowing water masses, including an age tracer, the inflowing water masses could be tracked and their paths and timing through the different basins could be reproduced and investigated. The analysis is supported by the recently developed Total Exchange Flow (TEF) to quantify the volume transport in different salinity classes. To account for uncertainties in the modeled velocity and tracer fields, a Monte Carlo Analysis (MCA) is applied to correct possible biases and errors. With the help of the MCA, 95% confidence intervals are computed for the transport estimates. Based on the MCA, the "best guess" of the volume transport is 291.0 ± 13.65 km3 and 3.89 ± 0.18 Gt for the total salt transport.

  6. Driving forces for the formation of environmental policy in the Baltic countries.

    PubMed

    Kratovits, A; Punning, J M

    2001-11-01

    The article elaborates on the role of international environmental regimes and multilateral environmental agreements in the process of development of environmental policy in the 3 Baltic countries; Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Comparison of emission trends and changes in the state of the environment with reference to international environmental regimes allow one to conclude that there is no clear link between the official accession to environmental conventions and changes in environmental fields. The Baltic countries first joined international environmental regimes dealing with global or regional environmental security, while acceptance of the agreements and accession to regimes seen as more important from the point of view of solving their own environmental problems, took place later. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Baltic countries have seen the international legal instruments in their environmental policies as preventive, rather than curative instruments. Active participation in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) has, on the other hand, substantially contributed to the readiness of the Baltic countries to take the next step in their environmental policy--taking over the environmental policies (Acquis Communautaire) of the European Union.

  7. Diverse early dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium), ecological keystones of the Eocene Baltic amber biota.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Wilson, Carol A; Calvin, Clyde L; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2017-05-01

    Extant dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium M. Bieb., Viscaceae) are hemiparasites with complex roles in nature. They are one of the most severe pests in northern hemisphere conifer forests, but they also enhance the structural complexity and species diversity of the forests. Here, we describe the first pre-Miocene macrofossils of dwarf mistletoes. The fossils from Eocene Baltic amber provide new insights into the morphological evolution of the Arceuthobium lineage and its paleobiogeography. The amber inclusions were investigated with light microscopy and compared with extant Viscaceae and to historic descriptions of lost Baltic amber fossils with affinities to Viscaceae. Six fossil species of the Arceuthobium lineage, A. johnianum comb. nov., A. mengeanum comb. nov., A. conwentzii sp. nov., A. groehnii sp. nov., A. viscoides comb. nov. and A. obovatum sp. nov., occurred in source forests of Baltic amber, representing the oldest macrofossil evidence of dwarf mistletoes. They share morphological features of their bracts, internodes, fruits, and stomata with extant Arceuthobium. Differences from extant dwarf mistletoes, such as the perianth merosity, the nonfusion of squamate bracts and presence of oblanceolate expanded leaves, indicate their affiliation to an ancient lineage of the genus. The occurrence of six species of dwarf mistletoes in a single amber deposit suggests Arceuthobium was a keystone taxon of the Baltic amber source area. As in extant conifer forests, they probably influenced the structural complexity of the forest, not only leading to more open woodlands but also increasing species diversity, at least at a microhabitat scale. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  8. PHOTOCHEMICAL MINERALIZATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC NITROGEN TO AMMONIUM IN THE BALTIC SEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar radiation-induced photochemistry can be considered as a new source of nutrients when photochemical reactions release bioavailable nitrogen from biologically non-reactive dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). Pretreatments of Baltic Sea waters in the dark indicated that >72% of ...

  9. A swarm of whiteflies—the first record of gregarious behavior from Eocene Baltic amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwedo, Jacek; Drohojowska, Jowita

    2016-04-01

    A new whitefly Snotra christelae gen. et sp. n. is characterized, illustrated, and described from the Baltic amber. It represents the first record of gregarious behavior of Aleyrodinae (Aleyrodidae) whiteflies in fossil state. Implications of this finding on interpretation of whiteflies and their host-plant relationships and evolutionary traits of the group are discussed.

  10. Rapid speciation in a newly opened postglacial marine environment, the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Pereyra, Ricardo T; Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Johannesson, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Background Theory predicts that speciation can be quite rapid. Previous examples comprise a wide range of organisms such as sockeye salmon, polyploid hybrid plants, fruit flies and cichlid fishes. However, few studies have shown natural examples of rapid evolution giving rise to new species in marine environments. Results Using microsatellite markers, we show the evolution of a new species of brown macroalga (Fucus radicans) in the Baltic Sea in the last 400 years, well after the formation of this brackish water body ~8–10 thousand years ago. Sympatric individuals of F. radicans and F. vesiculosus (bladder wrack) show significant reproductive isolation. Fucus radicans, which is endemic to the Baltic, is most closely related to Baltic Sea F. vesiculosus among north Atlantic populations, supporting the hypothesis of a recent divergence. Fucus radicans exhibits considerable clonal reproduction, probably induced by the extreme conditions of the Baltic. This reproductive mode is likely to have facilitated the rapid foundation of the new taxon. Conclusion This study represents an unparalleled example of rapid speciation in a species-poor open marine ecosystem and highlights the importance of increasing our understanding on the role of these habitats in species formation. This observation also challenges presumptions that rapid speciation takes place only in hybrid plants or in relatively confined geographical places such as postglacial or crater lakes, oceanic islands or rivers. PMID:19335884

  11. Rapid speciation in a newly opened postglacial marine environment, the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Ricardo T; Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Johannesson, Kerstin

    2009-03-31

    Theory predicts that speciation can be quite rapid. Previous examples comprise a wide range of organisms such as sockeye salmon, polyploid hybrid plants, fruit flies and cichlid fishes. However, few studies have shown natural examples of rapid evolution giving rise to new species in marine environments. Using microsatellite markers, we show the evolution of a new species of brown macroalga (Fucus radicans) in the Baltic Sea in the last 400 years, well after the formation of this brackish water body ~8-10 thousand years ago. Sympatric individuals of F. radicans and F. vesiculosus (bladder wrack) show significant reproductive isolation. Fucus radicans, which is endemic to the Baltic, is most closely related to Baltic Sea F. vesiculosus among north Atlantic populations, supporting the hypothesis of a recent divergence. Fucus radicans exhibits considerable clonal reproduction, probably induced by the extreme conditions of the Baltic. This reproductive mode is likely to have facilitated the rapid foundation of the new taxon. This study represents an unparalleled example of rapid speciation in a species-poor open marine ecosystem and highlights the importance of increasing our understanding on the role of these habitats in species formation. This observation also challenges presumptions that rapid speciation takes place only in hybrid plants or in relatively confined geographical places such as postglacial or crater lakes, oceanic islands or rivers.

  12. Language-in-Education across the Baltic: Policies, Practices and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    Since their political reorientation that started in the late 1980s, the Baltic states have experienced profound social reforms to rebuild their democratizing societies. Education has featured as a key vehicle to this transformation process of overcoming the limitations of the Soviet past. National legislative frameworks were therefore soon…

  13. Language and Education Orientations in Lithuania: A Cross-Baltic Perspective Post-EU Accession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulajeva, Tatjana; Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date overview of language policies and practices in Lithuania, paying particular attention to the latest developments that have taken place in national educational contexts. Against the background of recent sociodemographic changes in the three Baltic republics, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, it analyzes issues…

  14. Climate change can cause complex responses in Baltic Sea macroalgae: A systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takolander, Antti; Cabeza, Mar; Leskinen, Elina

    2017-05-01

    Estuarine macroalgae are important primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, and often foundation species providing structurally complex habitat. Climate change alters many abiotic factors that affect their long-term persistence and distribution. Here, we review the existing scientific literature on the tolerance of key macroalgal species in the Baltic Sea, the world's largest brackish water body. Elevated temperature is expected to intensify coastal eutrophication, further promoting growth of opportunistic, filamentous species, especially green algae, which are often species associated with intensive filamentous algal blooms. Declining salinities will push the distributions of marine species towards south, which may alter the Baltic Sea community compositions towards a more limnic state. Together with increasing eutrophication trends this may cause losses in marine-originating foundation species such as Fucus, causing severe biodiversity impacts. Experimental results on ocean acidification effects on macroalgae are mixed, with only few studies conducted in the Baltic Sea. We conclude that climate change can alter the structure and functioning of macroalgal ecosystems especially in the northern Baltic coastal areas, and can potentially act synergistically with eutrophication. We briefly discuss potential adaptation measures.

  15. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of the Baltic States in a New Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickien, Ineta; Kaledaite, Violeta

    2005-01-01

    Language questions are increasingly on the agenda in Europe. This paper addresses some problematic aspects of language teaching and learning that have come to the fore in the Baltic states after the European Union enlargement of 2004. First, the paper aims at providing relevant information about language policies in the former USSR and the…

  16. Marine landscapes and population genetic structure of herring (Clupea harengus L.) in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Hanne B H; Hansen, Michael M; Bekkevold, Dorte; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Loeschcke, Volker

    2005-09-01

    Numerically small but statistically significant genetic differentiation has been found in many marine fish species despite very large census population sizes and absence of obvious barriers to migrating individuals. Analyses of morphological traits have previously identified local spawning groups of herring (Clupea harengus L.) in the environmentally heterogeneous Baltic Sea, whereas allozyme markers have not revealed differentiation. We analysed variation at nine microsatellite loci in 24 samples of spring-spawning herring collected at 11 spawning locations throughout the Baltic Sea. Significant temporal differentiation was observed at two locations, which we ascribe to sympatrically spawning but genetically divergent 'spawning waves'. Significant differentiation was also present on a geographical scale, though pairwise F(ST) values were generally low, not exceeding 0.027. Partial Mantel tests showed no isolation by geographical distance, but significant associations were observed between genetic differentiation and environmental parameters (salinity and surface temperature) (0.001 < P < or = 0.099), though these outcomes were driven mainly by populations in the southwestern Baltic Sea, which also exhibits the steepest environmental gradients. Application of a novel method for detecting barriers to gene flow by combining geographical coordinates and genetic differentiation allowed us to identify two zones of lowered gene flow. These zones were concordant with the separation of the Baltic Sea into major basins, with environmental gradients and with differences in migration behaviour. We suggest that similar use of landscape genetics approaches may increase the understanding of the biological significance of genetic differentiation in other marine fishes.

  17. Screening of hydrophobic DNA adducts in flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Malmström, C; Konn, M; Bogovski, S; Lang, T; Lönnström, L-G; Bylund, G

    2009-12-01

    Neoplasia and other histopathological lesions in flounder (Platichthys flesus) liver have been investigated in several European sea areas, including the Baltic Sea. Several studies have been able to link neoplasm epizootics in fish with the exposure to genotoxins such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The level of hydrophobic DNA adducts in tissue DNA reflects the exposure of the organism to PAHs. Using hydrophobic DNA adduct levels as biomarkers, possible PAH exposure was assessed in flounder from 10 different sites in the Baltic Sea, collected during the years 1995-1997. The results show that the overall levels of hepatic DNA adducts were low and, in general, the chromatograms appeared clean. The highest levels of DNA adducts were found at two sites in the southern Baltic Sea. There were no statistically significant differences in adduct levels between the sites. Our results indicate that flounder from studied off shore sites of the Baltic Sea had not been exposed to a greater extent to large polycyclic hydrophobic hydrocarbons in their environment.

  18. Language Policy and the Internationalization of Higher Education in the Baltic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaša, Rita; Mhamed, Ali Ait Si

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the internationalization and globalization of higher education and competition for international students, the paper examines how language policy in higher education shapes the provision of study programs in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. It concludes that study programs in the Baltic states mostly follow the convention of a…

  19. Language and Education Orientations in Lithuania: A Cross-Baltic Perspective Post-EU Accession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulajeva, Tatjana; Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date overview of language policies and practices in Lithuania, paying particular attention to the latest developments that have taken place in national educational contexts. Against the background of recent sociodemographic changes in the three Baltic republics, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, it analyzes issues…

  20. Lithostratigraphy and geochemistry of Upper Vendian‒Lower Cambrian deposits in the northeastern Baltic monocline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podkovyrov, V. N.; Maslov, A. V.; Kuznetsov, A. B.; Ershova, V. B.

    2017-01-01

    The results of investigations of Upper Vendian‒Lower Cambrian deposits in the northeastern part of the Baltic monocline specify views on the evolution of depositional environments of sedimentary successions constituting the basal part of the sedimentary cover in inner areas of the northwestern East European Platform. It is shown that the Late Vendian and initial Cambrian were characterized by the consecutive influx of relatively mature terrigenous detrital material that originated from both the weathering crust of the Baltic Shield and new sources. Its deposition was interrupted by notable, although likely asynchronous, hiatuses, which are registered at the base of the Upper Vendian Vasileostrovskaya and Voronkovo formations and Lower Cambrian Lomonosov Formation. In the Late Vendian, sedimentary material was transported from the Baltic Shield, while beginning from the initial Early Cambrian the additional contribution to the formation of the sedimentary cover of the Baltic monocline was provided by coarse-grained sedimentary material from the Timan margin of the Baltica as follows from U‒Pb isotopic ages obtained for detrital zircons. At the same time, lithogeochemical parameters of fine-grained rocks experienced no substantial changes.

  1. The Baltic Republics and Language Ideological Debates Surrounding European Union Accession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of European Union accession negotiations on language ideological debates regarding minority (language) and citizenship rights in the Baltic Republics. It explores issues pertaining to the transferability of standards developed for established democracies in the West to the situation of democratising countries in…

  2. The Baltic Republics and Language Ideological Debates Surrounding European Union Accession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of European Union accession negotiations on language ideological debates regarding minority (language) and citizenship rights in the Baltic Republics. It explores issues pertaining to the transferability of standards developed for established democracies in the West to the situation of democratising countries in…

  3. Language Policy and the Internationalization of Higher Education in the Baltic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaša, Rita; Mhamed, Ali Ait Si

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the internationalization and globalization of higher education and competition for international students, the paper examines how language policy in higher education shapes the provision of study programs in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. It concludes that study programs in the Baltic states mostly follow the convention of a…

  4. PHOTOCHEMICAL MINERALIZATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC NITROGEN TO AMMONIUM IN THE BALTIC SEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar radiation-induced photochemistry can be considered as a new source of nutrients when photochemical reactions release bioavailable nitrogen from biologically non-reactive dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). Pretreatments of Baltic Sea waters in the dark indicated that >72% of ...

  5. Impact of climate change on the Baltic Sea ecosystem over the past 1,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabel, Karoline; Moros, Matthias; Porsche, Christian; Neumann, Thomas; Adolphi, Florian; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Siegel, Herbert; Gerth, Monika; Leipe, Thomas; Jansen, Eystein; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change has a strong impact on ecosystem health, particularly in marginal seas such as the Baltic, for example causing the spreading of anoxic areas (oxygen-free areas, the so-called dead zones) through strong feedbacks. Marked ecosystem changes in the Baltic Sea have been recorded in the sedimentary archive, but the reasons are not fully understood. Here we report an integrated study of high-resolution sediment records (past 1,000 years) in combination with an ecosystem modelling approach, providing new insights into the functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem under natural and human-influenced climatic changes. Between the Little Ice Age and the Modern Warm Period the surface water temperatures reconstructed using TEX86 palaeothermometry increased by ~2°C. Simultaneously, the anoxic areas in the Baltic Sea began to expand significantly as evident from the accumulation of laminated sediments. Ecosystem model simulations support our findings of widespread oxic areas during the Little Ice Age. Backed up by the modelling results that take into account anthropogenic-influenced nutrient load scenarios, our results provide evidence that surface temperature changes strongly influence deepwater oxygenation. This highlights the risk of a continued spreading of anoxic areas during scenarios of continued climate warming in the future.

  6. Persistent organic pollutants in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)-an aspect of gender.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Sophia; Keddig, Nadia; Gerwinski, Wolfgang; Neukirchen, Jan; Kammann, Ulrike; Haarich, Michael; Hanel, Reinhold; Theobald, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are monitored regularly in water, sediment, and biota in the Baltic Sea. Lipophilic substances are measured in remarkable concentrations especially in the fatty parts of fish, such as herring (Clupea harengus). However, less lipophilic POPs, e.g. perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), can also be detected. For the first time to our knowledge, this study provides a broad range of contaminant concentrations simultaneously measured in filet, liver, and gonads of both sexes of Baltic herring. We analysed organochlorines, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and PFCs in mature autumn-spawning individuals and found distinct organ pollutant pattern for all POPs in both sexes. POP concentrations found in the gonads of both sexes indicate that not only females but also males tend to reduce contaminants via reproduction. However, sex-dependent differences could be identified for hexachlorobenzene, PBDEs, and were most remarkable for PFCs. This transfer of contaminants to the gonads in both male and female herring is being underestimated, as it may directly affect the general reproduction success as well as the healthy development of the next generation. Hence, the accumulation of contaminants in the gonads should be considered one possible threat to a healthy wildlife as its achievement is stated by the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Inclusion of a periodic monitoring of POP concentrations in gonads of fish may be an important bioeffect measure to assess the environmental status of biota in the Baltic Sea.

  7. 36 year trends in dissolved organic carbon export from Finnish rivers to the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Räike, Antti; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Mattsson, Tuija; Thomas, David N

    2012-10-01

    Increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in lakes, rivers and streams in northern mid latitudes have been widely reported during the last two decades, but relatively few studies have dealt with trends in DOC export. We studied the export of DOC from Finnish rivers to the Baltic Sea between 1975 and 2010, and estimated trends in DOC fluxes (both flow normalised and non-normalised). The study encompassed the whole Finnish Baltic Sea catchment area (301,000 km(2)) covering major land use patterns in the boreal zone. Finnish rivers exported annually over 900,000 t DOC to the Baltic Sea, and the mean area specific export was 3.5 t km(-2). The highest export (7.3t km(-2)) was measured in peat dominated catchments, whereas catchments rich in lakes had the lowest export (2.2 t km(-2)). Inter-annual variation in DOC export was high and controlled mainly by hydrology. There was no overall trend in the annual water flow, although winter flow increased in northern Finland over 36 years. Despite the numerous studies showing increases in DOC concentrations in streams and rivers in the northern hemisphere, we could not find any evidence of increases in DOC export to the northern Baltic Sea from Finnish catchments since 1975.

  8. Long-term trends of hypoxia in the coastal zone, north-western Baltic proper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrén, Thomas; Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena; Andrén, Elinor

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea coastal zone contains over 20 % of all identified hypoxic sites worldwide and shows an increasing trend since 1950 (Conley et al. 2011). In the open Baltic Sea, hypoxia events are recorded during three time periods: about 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr. BP, and from AD 1800 up to present, but in the coastal zone data on long-term trends are lacking (Zillén et al. 2008). Different views have been proposed of what caused the oscillation in the oxygen content at sea bottoms in the open Baltic Sea e.g. changes in agricultural practice, fluctuations in human population density and climate change. The role of humans and climate in driving the eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea needs to be understood and there is an urgent need for increased knowledge of the historical extent of hypoxia and the driving forces for formation in the coastal zone. This project aims to disentangle the role of human induced and natural climate-driven processes that have resulted in times of eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea during the last 2000 years. Research focus is put on the coastal zone and carefully selected estuaries along the Swedish east coast, where responses to changed human land-use can be expected to be first recorded. Eight sites, from the Stockholm archipelago to Bråviken, have been cored and sediments lithologically described and dated by radiocarbon using preferably terrestrial macrofossils. Preliminary results of age models, sedimentation rates, and lithologies will be presented. Lithological descriptions using laminated sediments as a proxy for hypoxic bottom water conditions will significantly increase the knowledge on the distribution of hypoxia and the extension of areas of laminated sediments in time and space in the coastal area. References: Conley, D.J., Carstensen, J., Aigars, J., Axe, P., Bonsdorff, E., Eremina, T., Haahti, B.-M., Humborg, C., Jonsson, P., Kotta, J., Lännegren, C., Larsson, U., Maximov, A., Rodriguez Medina, M

  9. Composition and transformation of dissolved organic matter in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Michael; Manecki, Marcus; Herlemann, Daniel P. R.; Deutsch, Barbara; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Jürgens, Klaus; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2017-05-01

    The processing of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) in coastal shelf seas is an important part of the global carbon cycle, yet, it is still not well understood. One of the largest brackish shelf seas, the Baltic Sea in northern Europe, is characterized by high freshwater input from sub-arctic rivers and limited water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean via the North Sea. We studied the molecular and isotopic composition and turnover of solid-phase extractable (SPE) DOM and its transformation along the salinity and redox continuum of the Baltic Sea during spring and autumn. We applied ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry and other geochemical and biological approaches. Our data demonstrate a large influx of terrestrial riverine DOM, especially into the northern part of the Baltic Sea. The DOM composition in the central Baltic Sea changed seasonally and was mainly related to autochthonous production by phytoplankton in spring. Especially in the northern, river-dominated basins, a major fraction of riverine DOM was removed, likely by bio- and photo-degradation. We estimate that the removal rate of terrestrial DOM in the Baltic Sea (Bothnian Bay to the Danish Straits/Kattegat area) is 1.6 - 1.9 Tg C per year which is 43 to 51% of the total riverine input. The export of terrestrial DOM from the Danish Straits/Kattegat area towards the North Sea is 1.8 - 2.1 Tg C per year. Due to the long residence time of terrestrial DOM in the Baltic Sea (total of ca. 12 years), seasonal variations caused by bio- and photo-transformations and riverine discharge are dampened, resulting in a relatively invariant DOM molecular and isotopic signature exported to the North Sea. In the deep stagnant basins of the Baltic Sea, the DOM composition and dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations changed seasonally, likely because of vertical particle transport and subsequent degradation releasing DOM. DOM in the deep anoxic basins was also enriched in sulfur-containing organic molecules

  10. Stickleback increase in the Baltic Sea - A thorny issue for coastal predatory fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, Ulf; Olsson, Jens; Casini, Michele; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Fredriksson, Ronny; Wennhage, Håkan; Appelberg, Magnus

    2015-09-01

    In the Baltic Sea, the mesopredator three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) spends a large part of its life cycle in the open sea, but reproduces in shallow coastal habitats. In coastal waters, it may occur in high abundances, is a potent predator on eggs and larvae of fish, and has been shown to induce trophic cascades with resulting eutrophication symptoms through regulation of invertebrate grazers. Despite its potential significance for the coastal food web, little is known about its life history and population ecology. This paper provides a description of life history traits, migration patterns and spatiotemporal development of the species in the Baltic Sea during the past decades, and tests the hypothesis that stickleback may have a negative impact on populations of coastal predatory fish. Offshore and coastal data during the last 30 years show that stickleback has increased fourfold in the Bothnian Sea, 45-fold in the Central Baltic Sea and sevenfold in the Southern Baltic Sea. The abundances are similar in the two northern basins, and two orders of magnitude lower in the Southern Baltic Sea. The coastward spawning migration of sticklebacks from offshore areas peaks in early May, with most spawners being two years of age at a mean length of 65 mm. The early juvenile stage is spent at the coast, whereafter sticklebacks perform a seaward feeding migration in early autumn at a size of around 35 mm. A negative spatial relation between the abundance of stickleback and early life stages of perch and pike at coastal spawning areas was observed in spatial survey data, indicating strong interactions between the species. A negative temporal relationship was observed also between adult perch and stickleback in coastal fish monitoring programmes supporting the hypothesis that stickleback may have negative population level effects on coastal fish predators. The recent increase in stickleback populations in different basins of the Baltic Sea in combination with

  11. Mass variations of the Baltic Sea compared to superconducting gravimeter and GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, H.; Virtanen, J.; Nordman, M.; Bilker-Koivula, M.; Mäkinen, J.

    2009-04-01

    We study the gravity effect of Baltic Sea mass variations observed using different methods and time resolutions. We compare data from tide gauges, from superconductive gravimeter (SG) at Metsähovi, Finland and from the GRACE gravity satellite. The mass variation in the semi-enclosed Baltic Sea is due to both internal redistribution of the water mass and due to changes in the so-called fill level caused by water exchange with the North Sea. The monthly variation in the water mass is about 60 Gt over an area of 390000 km-2. Due to a dense network of tide gauges, the Baltic Sea is one of best monitored mass variations in this size in the world. For modeling the observed water mass, we have used both monthly PSMSL tide gauge records and hourly values from several sources. In addition, we have hydrodynamic models for comparisons. To calculate gravity effect, we have used Green's function formalism for modeled sea surface. We have previously used temporal gravity field data from GRACE satellite to show that GRACE can recover the total mass variation in the Baltic Sea on monthly scales. In addition to monthly GRACE solutions with different filters, we now also use 10-day mascon block solutions from Goddard Space Flight Center. As the GRACE solutions are already corrected for gravity changes due to oceans, we have restored the contribution due to the Baltic Sea. We have also corrected for an effect due to leakage of continental water storage using the GLDAS hydrology model. The fundamental station Metsähovi is located 10 km from the nearest bay of the Baltic Sea and 15 km from the open sea. Using a single tide gauge at the distance of 30 km from SG at Metsähovi, very clear correlation is found between gravity and sea level. Superconducting gravity data has been corrected by tides and polar motion, atmospheric mass redistribution, local groundwater and drift. Hourly mass variations of sea are clearly separable. Theoretically one-meter even-layer water cause 30 nms-2

  12. Organic carbon sequestration in coastal sediments across the Baltic Sea over the last 150 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryves, David; Lewis, Jonathan; Rasmussen, Peter; Weckström, Kaarina; Andrén, Elinor; Clarke, Annemarie; Andersen, Thorbjørn; Yang, Handong; Hietanen, Susanah; Jilbert, Tom; Aigars, Juris; Anderson, N. John

    2017-04-01

    Coastal areas are extremely vulnerable to impacts from changing marine conditions, which are increasingly being driven by human activity (e.g. nutrient cycling, salinity, hydrography, sea level, climate change). Recent research into the complex and dynamic cycling of carbon in many increasingly nutrient-enriched coastal systems has suggested that they have switched from being net C sources to net C sinks over the last 150 years. This study seeks to explore carbon sequestration rates over the last 150 years from several key regions across the coastal Baltic Sea by synthesising organic carbon (OC) inventories from multiple well-dated sedimentary records from Baltic coasts. Such data will provide insight into long-term coastal change and how terrestrial human impact is influencing the ecology and biogeochemistry of the Baltic Sea. To examine past and present rates of carbon burial in key coastal areas of the Baltic Sea, a synthesis of 30-40 sediment cores from across the Baltic Sea is presented here from Baltic Denmark, Germany, Latvia, western Sweden and southern Finland, and are primarily from near-shore and shallow fjord/estuarine sites. The majority of sites span the last 100-150 years and the majority (>75%) are independently dated using 210Pb. Unsupported 210Pb inventories also allow raw sedimentation rates to be corrected for sediment focussing, permitting regionally reliable estimates of OC accumulation rates to be calculated and provide a plausible basis for upscaling OC accumulation rates within these key regions of the Baltic. Preliminary data analyses suggest a major step-change in system behaviour during the 20th century following low, stable ( 10 g OC m-2 yr-1 focussing corrected, OCFC) rates pre-1900. The initial rise in burial rates occurs early in the 1900s though is punctuated by a slight fall during the 1930s/1940s. After 1950, burial rates dramatically rise (consistently up to 45 g OCFC m-2 yr-1; 4 x pre-1900 rates), a pattern which is repeated

  13. Long-term variability of extreme waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, Victor; Dobroliubov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    In order to study extreme storm waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Sea we used the spectral wave model SWAN. Significant wave height, swell and sea height, direction of propagation, their length and period were calculated with the NCEP/NCAR (1,9°x1,9°, 4-daily) reanalysis wind forcing from 1948 to 2010 in the Caspian, Black and Baltic Seas and with the NCEP/CFSR (0,3°x0,3°, 1 hour) for the period from 1979 to 2010 in the Azov Sea. The calculations were performed on supercomputers of Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU). The spatial resolution of the numerical grid was of order 5 km for the Caspian, Baltic and Black Seas, 2 km for the Azov Sea. These model wave hindcasts were used to calculate interannual and seasonal variability of the storm frequency, location and duration. The Initial Distribution Method and Annual Maxima Series Methods were used to study probable waves of a century reoccurrence. The long-term variability of extreme waves revealed different trends in the investigated seas. The Caspian and Azov seas decreased the storm activity, while in the Baltic Sea the number of storm cases increased and the Black Sea showed no significant trend. The of more than 12 m were observed in two centers in the middle part of the Caspian Sea and in the center of the Baltic Sea. In the Black Sea the extreme waves of the same probability of more than 14 m were found in the region to the south of the Crimean peninsula. In the Azov Sea the highest waves of a century reoccurrence do not exceed 5 m. The work was done in Natural Risk Assessment Laboratory, MSU under contract G.34.31.0007.

  14. The general circulation of the Baltic Sea in the context of climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzlaff, K.; Lehmann, A.

    2012-04-01

    A detailed assessment of climate variability of the Baltic Sea area for the period 1958-2009 revealed that the recent changes in the warming trend since the mid-1980s are associated with changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic. The analysis of winter sea level pressure (SLP) data highlighted considerable changes in the number and pathways of deep cyclones (<980 hPa) in parallel with the eastward shift of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) centres of action. Additionally, a seasonal shift of strong wind events from autumn to winter and early spring exists for the Baltic area. Earlier studies showed that different atmospheric climate regimes force different circulation regimes in the Baltic Sea. The analysis of the winter (DJFM) circulation patterns for the period 1970-2008 reveals changes in the general circulation of the Baltic Sea. While it is difficult to clearly link individual winter circulation patterns to one of the four dominant atmospheric climate regimes for the North Atlantic domain, the comparison of mean winter circulation patterns for 20-year periods (1970-1989 and 1990-2009) highlights that for the later 20-year period an intensified cyclonic circulation exists in the central Baltic Sea. This intensified circulation results from stronger westerly and north-westerly winds and is most likely connected to changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation. As climate, to a large extent, controls patterns of water circulation and biophysical aspects relevant for biological production, such as the vertical distribution of temperature, salinity and oxygen, alterations in climate may severely impact the trophic structure and functioning of marine food webs.

  15. Managing dredged material in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Staniszewska, Marta; Boniecka, Helena

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the legal and practical recommendations for the management of dredged material in the riparian countries of the Baltic Sea. The recommendations are contained in three conventions: LC, 2000. London Convention (1972), Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea area (Helsinki Convention) (1992), the OSPAR Convention (1972). Different approaches to evaluating the contamination level of dredge spoils, used by the Baltic Sea riparian countries, have been characterized. The differences in those approaches manifest themselves by various concentration limits for contaminants, which form a basis for the classification of dredged material as either contaminated or non-contaminated, and thus determine how the spoils will be processed further. Based on the collected information about the concentration limits for contaminants of surface sediments in the coastal ports, it was pointed out that it is necessary to conduct routine monitoring of heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, tributyltin, and petroleum hydrocarbons in dredged sediments in all the Baltic Sea states. On the other hand, the monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, organochlorine, and organophosphoric pesticides is only needed in locations that are suspected of historical or being the local contamination sources. Due to significant economic limitations of chemical determinations, it is important to consider a simple screening test of sediment that would say whether sediment may be "contaminated" and qualifies for more detailed and costly chemical research. It may be typical basic physical-chemical analysis of sediments or ecotoxicological classification of sediments.Despite environmentally friendly tendencies, the practical application of dredged material within the Baltic Sea area is very limited. Dredged material is most frequently stored at the specifically designated sites. From among the practical uses of

  16. Improvement of Baltic proper water quality using large-scale ecological engineering.

    PubMed

    Stigebrandt, Anders; Gustafsson, Bo G

    2007-04-01

    Eutrophication of the Baltic proper has led to impaired water quality, demonstrated by, e.g., extensive blooming of cyanobacteria during the premium summer holiday season and severe oxygen deficit in the deepwater. Sustainable improvements in water quality by the reduction of phosphorus (P) supplies will take several decades before giving full effects because of large P storages both in soils in the watershed and in the water column and bottom sediments of the Baltic proper. In this article it is shown that drastically improved water quality may be obtained within a few years using large-scale ecological engineering methods. Natural variations in the Baltic proper during the last decades have demonstrated how rapid improvements may be achieved. The present article describes the basic dynamics of P, organic matter, and oxygen in the Baltic proper. It also briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different classes of methods of ecological engineering aimed at restoring the Baltic proper from eutrophication effects. Preliminary computations show that the P content might be halved within a few years if about 100 kg O2 s(-1) are supplied to the upper deepwater. This would require 100 pump stations, each transporting about 100 m3 s(-1) of oxygen-rich so-called winter water from about 50 to 125 m depth where the water is released as a buoyant jet. Each pump station needs a power supply of 0.6 MW. Offshore wind power technology seems mature enough to provide the power needed by the pump stations. The cost to install 100 wind-powered pump stations, each with 0.6 MW power, at about 125-m depth is about 200 million Euros.

  17. Significance of archaeal nitrification in hypoxic waters of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, C.; Vandieken, V.; Thamdrup, B.; Jürgens, K.

    2012-04-01

    Marine oxygen deficient areas are sites of important microbially mediated transformations within the nitrogen cycle. In the Baltic Sea, suboxic waters (oxygen below 5 μmol L-1) are considered to be a major nitrification zone within the water column. Recent evidence indicates that Archaea and not Bacteria are here the major ammonium oxidizers. In a Baltic Sea pelagic redoxcline, the crenarchaeotal subcluster GD2 which is related to the first cultivated ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus occurs in high abundance. However, little is known about its function and importance for the nitrogen and carbon cycles in oxygen minimum zones of the Baltic Sea. To approach this question, we sampled pelagic redoxclines in the Baltic Sea and determined the rates of nitrification and light-independent, inorganic carbon fixation via 15N and 14C isotope incubations, and quantified the abundance of putative ammonia-oxidizing Crenarchaeota by catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). Nitrification was detectable throughout the suboxic zone with maxima of 122-131 nmol L-1 d-1 in layers with 1.8-7.1 μmol oxygen L-1 and ammonium below 0.2 μmol L-1. However, a nitrification potential was detected even in the upper anoxic, sulfidic zone. Crenarchaeotal abundance correlated strongly with nitrification rates and accounted for up to 24% of total prokaryotic cells. In contrast, the CO2 fixation in the suboxic zone was with 1.6-19.6 nmol L-1 d-1 rather low when compared to the subjacent anoxic, sulfidic waters. Our study indicates that ammonia oxidation in the suboxic zone of the Baltic Sea is mainly driven by Crenarchaeota. Their occurrence also in the anoxic, sulfidic water masses and the maintained nitrification potential point to special adaptations in this habitat with a potentially reduced sensitivity against hydrogen sulfide.

  18. Sensitivity of the Baltic Sea level prediction to spatial model resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, Marek; Kowalewska-Kalkowska, Halina

    2017-09-01

    The three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Baltic Sea (M3D) and its new parallel version (PM3D), developed at the Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk in Poland, was tested to establish a grid resolution adequate for the Baltic Sea level prediction. Four outputs of the M3D/PM3D, calculated with spatial resolution varying from 3 NM to 0.5 NM, were validated by comparing the results with hourly sea level readings collected at 9 Baltic gauges in 2010-2015. The spatial resolution of 1 NM applied to the Baltic Sea resulted in a distinct improvement of agreement between the calculated and observed distributions of data. An increase in the resolution to 0.5 NM in the southern Baltic Sea improved the model quality further, as indicated by the lowest variability, the highest correlation and the highest percentage of water level simulations within the range of ± 0.15 m difference relative to readings. The increase in horizontal resolution allowed to improve the fit between the observed water levels and those calculated by the PM3D in the cases of rapid sea level fluctuations, such as those registered in January 2012. The model performed slightly worse for stations with larger ranges of water level oscillations. As parallel calculations were used in the PM3D, the time necessary for computing the simulations was significantly reduced, which allowed to apply the high-resolution grid also to the operational version of the model.

  19. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    PubMed Central

    Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  20. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  1. Simulated halocline variability in the Baltic Sea and its impact on hypoxia during 1961-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väli, Germo; Meier, H. E. Markus; Elken, Jüri

    2013-12-01

    Salinity and halocline depth variations in the Baltic Sea during 1961-2007 are studied using a three-dimensional ocean circulation model. Significant interannual and interdecadal variations in the halocline depth are found, together with distinct periods characterized either by shallow (1970-1975) or deep halocline (1990-1995). The model simulation indicates that the mean top layer salinity in the Baltic Sea is mainly controlled by the accumulated river runoff, while the mean below halocline salinity in the Baltic proper (which comprises Bornholm and Gotland basins) is more dependent on the low-pass filtered zonal wind stress, with cutoff period of 4 years, henceforth called the mean zonal wind stress. The halocline depth and stratification strength in the Baltic Sea are significantly affected by the mean zonal wind stress, while the impact of runoff is smaller. The ventilation of the halocline from bottom layers is stronger during the shallow and from surface layers during the deep halocline period. Due to changes in ventilation variations in halocline depth systematically affect bottom oxygen concentrations on seasonal and decadal, but not on interannual time scales. For instance, a deeper halocline reduces hypoxic (oxygen concentration in bottom water below 2 mL/L) and anoxic (anoxic conditions in bottom water) areas and increases the bottom oxygen concentrations in the Gulf of Finland but decreases them in the deeper parts of the Baltic proper. Model results suggest that due to undersampling during 1961-2007 mean hypoxic and anoxic areas calculated from observed profiles are underestimated by 41% and 43%, respectively.

  2. Azimuthal and Radial Seismic Anisotropy Beneath the Baltic Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, H. A.; Bruneton, M.; Maupin, V.

    2005-12-01

    The SVEKALAPKO passive seismic array in Finland provides us with an exceptional opportunity to study seismic anisotropy in and below the lithosphere in a shield. The array was composed of almost 150 sensors - out of which 46 were broadband - in a regular 2D grid which facilitated high-quality array analysis. We analyse phase velocities of both Love and Rayleigh waves to constrain radial and azimuthal anisotropy. We invert for the anisotropic parameters ξ and Gc on the one hand, and for the percentage of aligned olivine on the other. This latter parametrization of the inverse problem makes it straightforward to quantitatively compare the radial and the azimuthal anisotropies, under the assumption that aligned olivine dominates the anisotropy. The radial anisotropy, for which we have resolution in the lithosphere only, is strong, and can be explained by 40%-60% of the rock being olivine with the a-axis in the horizontal plane, equivalent to values of ξ between 1.09 and 1.14. This radial anisotropy is stronger than observed in shield areas in global models (e.g. Beghein and Trampert, 2004). The azimuthal anisotropy is on the contrary very small in the lithosphere. This indicates that the orientation of the olivine minerals is random within the horizontal plane or that the overall effect across the area is negligible due to different orientations in different domains. Results from body-waves (Plomerová et al., 2005, Vecsey et al., in prep.) would support the latter interpretation. The azimuthal anisotropy as estimated by Rayleigh wave analysis is on the contrary significant below 200-250km depth, and corresponds to approximately 15%-20% of the rock being olivine with the a-axis aligned in direction N20. Xenolith analysis in the area shows that the rheologic lithosphere is at most 250km thick, so we suggest that this observed anisotropy is sub-lithospheric. Interestingly, the fast direction is significantly different from the absolute plate motion of the Baltic

  3. Dumped Munitions in the Baltic Sea - Evaluation of the Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldowski, J.; Jakacki, J.; Vanninen, P.; Lang, T.

    2016-12-01

    Dumped Chemical Weapons pose an actual environmental and security hazard in the Baltic Sea Region. Their actual position is unknown, and pollution originating from corroded munitions is only roughly estimated. Several research projects were devoted to evaluate the magnitude of the problem. During three international projects, roughly 2000 km2 were surveyed, and more than 200 ROV missions were performed to investigate found objects. . Results suggest that munitions containing CWAs are more scattered on the seafloor than suspected, and previously undocumented dumpsite was discovered in Gdansk Deep. Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA) degradation products were found in the sediments in immediate vicinity of the objects, and sediment pollution was observed even at 40m distance. Analysis of CWA degradation products in the sediments showed widespread contamination in Bornholm Deep area, and more variable pattern of local hotspots in the Gotland and Gdansk Deeps. The latter seem to contain several contaminated areas, which identifies it rather as an unofficial dumping ground than only containing munitions originating from en-route dumping. Bottom currents observed in the dumpsites were strong enough for sediment re-suspension, and contributed to the transport of polluted sediments. Spreading of CWA was modelled using POP3 hydrodynamic model augmented with sediment erosion and benthic boundary layer modules. It follows from the models, that depending on wind conditions, resuspended contaminated sediemnts may remain in the water column for several days up to few weeks, and be transported over the distances up to 15 km. Biomarkers of environmental stress were measured in fish from the dumpsites and caged mussels, and indicated environmental stress in organisms from dumpsites as compared to control. Toxicity of found CWA degradation products was examined in laboratory studies. . Nonetheless, both species showed significantly elevated molecular and cellular level responses at

  4. Chicken pox in pregnancy : an obstetric concern.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2010-10-01

    Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

  5. Deviation of Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea level from the global mean during the 20th century: analysis of the main factors involved and a high-end projection to the end of 21st century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to investigate which are the main factors determining interannual sea level variability of Baltic, Adriatic and Black seas, and to which extent the sea level of these three basins can deviate from the global mean. The three basins selected are semi-enclosed marginal seas connected with the adjacent seas by narrow straits. 13 sea level timeseries in Baltic Sea, 7 in Adriatic Sea and 5 in Black Sea provided by PSMSL, allowed us to compute a single seamless sea level timeseries representative for each basin from 1900 and for the entire 20th century, using statistical tools (PCA and Least Square method). Comparison with satellite data in the period 1993-2009, confirms that timeseries so computed are good representations of the observed sea level, with correlation values of 0.97, 0.87 and 0.72 for Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. At basin scale the sea level has been decomposed in various contributions that have been separately analyzed: local effect of pressure, steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation, boundary forcing, wind effect and river discharge. The annual cycles and their variability, show that the largest contribution is due to the wind for the Adriatic Sea and for the Baltic Sea. In these two basins the inverse Barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric factor is almost negligible. The wind seems to play a negligible role on Black Sea, where the Danube river discharge plays an important role. A linear regression model, built considering large scale sea level pressure distribution as predictor, is capable to explain a further percentage of sea level variability variability (about 20%) left after subtracting all the factors considered above. Sea level of the Baltic and Black Sea show a significant positive correlation (0.3 about) revealing the likely influence of an external common forcing. Past sea level variability shows no strong evidences of large deviation from the global mean sea level

  6. Content of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in a number of regions of the Baltic Sea in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Flegontov, V.M.; Gedenov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.B.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1985-07-01

    The authors present the data gathered from the samples of water and bed deposits taken at various sites in the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Riga, and the Gulf of Finland. By means of the radiochemical method using ferrocyanide-carbonate concentration, they determine strotium-90 and cesium-137 content. The authors conclude by noting an increase in the cesium-137 content in the deep waters of the Baltic Sea and in bed deposits, and by cautioning that this development commands close attention.

  7. Reconstructing Holocene palaeo-environmental conditions in the Baltic: A multi-proxy comparison from the Little Belt (IODP Expedition 347, Site M0059)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthoff, Ulrich; Andrén, Elinor; Andrén, Thomas; Ash, Jeanine; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Fanget, Anne-Sophie; Granoszewski, Wojciech; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Krupinski, Nadine; Peyron, Odile; Slomp, Caroline; Stepanova, Anna; Warnock, Jonathan; van Helmond, Niels; Expedition 347 Science Party

    2016-04-01

    Some of the largest marine environmental impacts from ongoing global climate change are occurring in continental shelf seas and enclosed basins, including severe oxygen depletion, intensifying stratification, and increasing temperatures. In order to predict future changes in water mass conditions, it is essential to reconstruct how these conditions have changed in the past against the background of climate changes. The brackish Baltic Sea is one of the largest semi-enclosed basins worldwide, and its sediment records provide a unique opportunity to analyse palaeo-environmental and climate change in central and northern Europe. IODP Expedition 347 recovered an exceptional set of sediment cores from the Baltic Sea which allow high-resolution reconstructions in unprecedented quality. We present a comparison of commonly-used proxies to reconstruct palaeoecosystems, -temperatures, and -salinity from IODP Site M0059 in the Little Belt over the past ˜8000 years. Our aim is to reconstruct the development of the terrestrial and marine ecosystems in the research area and the related environmental conditions, and to identify potential limitations of individual proxies. The age model for Site M0059 is based on 14Cdating, biostratigraphic correlation with neighbouring terrestrial pollen records, and sediment stratigraphy. Sedimentary organic carbon content and the bulk elemental composition have been measured, and can be used to determine the depositional environment and degree of oxygen depletion (e.g., Mo, Corg/Ptot). Pollen is used as proxy for vegetation development in the hinterland of the southern Baltic Sea and as a land/air-temperature proxy. Comparison with dinoflagellate cysts, insect remains, and green algae remains from the same samples provides a direct land-sea comparison. The application of the modern analogues technique to pollen assemblages has previously yielded precise results for late Pleistocene and Holocene datasets, including specific information on

  8. Recent trends and variations in Baltic Sea temperature, salinity, stratification and circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elken, Jüri; Lehmann, Andreas; Myrberg, Kai

    2015-04-01

    The presentation highlights the results of physical oceanography from BACC II (Second BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea basin) book based on the review of recent literature published until 2013. We include also information from some more recent publications. A recent warming trend in sea surface waters has been clearly demonstrated by all available methods: in-situ measurements, remote sensing data and modelling tools. In particular, remote sensing data for the period 1990-2008 indicate that the annual mean SST has increased even by 1°C per decade, with the greatest increase in the northern Bothnian Bay and also with large increases in the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, and the northern Baltic Proper. Although the increase in the northern areas is affected by the recent decline in the extent and duration of sea ice, and corresponding changes in surface albedo, warming is still evident during all seasons and with the greatest increase occurring in summer. The least warming of surface waters (0.3-0.5°C per decade) occurred northeast of Bornholm Island up to and along the Swedish coast, probably owing to an increase in the frequency of coastal upwelling forced by the westerly wind events. Comparing observations with the results of centennial-scale modelling, recent changes in sea water temperature appear to be within the range of the variability observed during the past 500 years. Overall salinity pattern and stratification conditions are controlled by river runoff, wind conditions, and salt water inflows through the Danish straits. The mean top-layer salinity is mainly influenced by the accumulated river runoff, with higher salinity during dry periods and lower salinity during wet periods. Observations reveal a low-salinity period above the halocline starting in the 1980s. The strength of stratification and deep salinity are reduced when the mean zonal wind stress increases, as it occurred since 1987. Major Baltic Inflows of highly saline

  9. Symmetry Concerns as a Symptom of Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Hart, Ashley S; Phillips, Katharine A

    2013-07-01

    Symmetry obsessions are a common symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and have several demographic and clinical correlates. Appearance-related symmetry concerns appear common in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); however, no published studies have examined this topic. This study examined the clinical features, prevalence, and correlates of symmetry concerns involving physical appearance in two BDD samples (N=160 and N=115). More than 25% of participants in each sample reported symmetry concerns for a body part with which they were preoccupied (total of 18 body parts in sample 1 and 18 in sample 2). In sample 1, BDD participants with appearance-related symmetry concerns were older than those without appearance-related symmetry concerns. In sample 2, those with appearance-related symmetry concerns reported poorer mental health-related quality of life, were more likely to have experienced lifetime suicidal ideation, had better BDD-related insight, and were less likely to have a lifetime eating disorder. In both samples, participants with appearance-related symmetry concerns were more likely to have lifetime OCD but not OCD-related symmetry obsessions. Thus, symmetry is a common appearance concern in BDD that is associated with comorbid OCD but not with OCD symmetry concerns specifically, suggesting that symmetry concerns may have a different mechanism/pathophysiology in BDD versus OCD.

  10. Symmetry Concerns as a Symptom of Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Ashley S.; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2013-01-01

    Symmetry obsessions are a common symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and have several demographic and clinical correlates. Appearance-related symmetry concerns appear common in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); however, no published studies have examined this topic. This study examined the clinical features, prevalence, and correlates of symmetry concerns involving physical appearance in two BDD samples (N=160 and N=115). More than 25% of participants in each sample reported symmetry concerns for a body part with which they were preoccupied (total of 18 body parts in sample 1 and 18 in sample 2). In sample 1, BDD participants with appearance-related symmetry concerns were older than those without appearance-related symmetry concerns. In sample 2, those with appearance-related symmetry concerns reported poorer mental health-related quality of life, were more likely to have experienced lifetime suicidal ideation, had better BDD-related insight, and were less likely to have a lifetime eating disorder. In both samples, participants with appearance-related symmetry concerns were more likely to have lifetime OCD but not OCD-related symmetry obsessions. Thus, symmetry is a common appearance concern in BDD that is associated with comorbid OCD but not with OCD symmetry concerns specifically, suggesting that symmetry concerns may have a different mechanism/pathophysiology in BDD versus OCD. PMID:24058899

  11. Stable Isotope Evidence for Late Medieval (14th–15th C) Origins of the Eastern Baltic Cod (Gadus morhua) Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Orton, David C.; Makowiecki, Daniel; de Roo, Tessa; Johnstone, Cluny; Harland, Jennifer; Jonsson, Leif; Heinrich, Dirk; Enghoff, Inge Bødker; Lõugas, Lembi; Van Neer, Wim; Ervynck, Anton; Hufthammer, Anne Karin; Amundsen, Colin; Jones, Andrew K. G.; Locker, Alison; Hamilton-Dyer, Sheila; Pope, Peter; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Richards, Michael; O'Connell, Tamsin C.; Barrett, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1) development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2) large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ13C and δ15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n = 249). The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years. PMID:22110675

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxylated analogues in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Svalbard and the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Routti, Heli; Letcher, Robert J; Chu, Shaogang; Van Bavel, Bert; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2009-05-15

    The present study investigated the concentrations and patterns of PBDEs and hydroxylated (OH) PBDE analogues in two ringed seal populations: less contaminated Svalbard and more contaminated Baltic Sea. Mean concentration of hepatic sigma-PBDE, which was dominated by BDE47, was six times higher in the ringed seals from the Baltic Sea compared to the seals from Svalbard. BDE47/sigma-PBDE was higher in the seals from Svalbard compared to that for Baltic seals, while the trend was opposite for BDE153 and 154. The geographical difference in contaminant pattern of PBDEs in ringed seals could be explained by biotransformation via oxidative metabolism and/or by dietary differences. OH-PBDEs were detectable in the majority of plasma samples from both locations, and dominated by bioaccumulation of naturally occurring congeners. Low levels of 3-OH-BDE47 and 4'-OH-BDE49 in the Baltic ringed seals suggested minor oxidative biotransformation of BDE47. In the Baltic seals, BDE153/sigma-PBDEs and BDE154/sigma-PBDEs increased and BDE28/sigma-PBDE decreased with increasing sigma-POP concentration, which suggests BDE153 and 154 are more persistent than BDE28. Contrasting diets of the ringed seals in these two locations may influence the PBDE congener pattern due to selective long-range transport and direct effluent emissions to Svalbard and the Baltic, respectively.

  13. Iceberg ploughmark features on bottom surface of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, Dmitry; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhova, Evgenia; Krechik, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    A detail swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar and acoustic profiling combined with sediment sampling during the 64th cruise of RV "Academic Mstislav Keldysh" (October 2015) allowed to identify new geomorphological features of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea bottom surface. The extended chaotic ploughmarks (furrows) in most cases filled with thin layer of mud were discovered on surface of the Gdansk-Gotland sill glacial deposits. They are observed on the depth of more than 70 m and have depth and width from 1 to 10 m. Most of them are v- or u-shaped stepped depressions. The side-scan records of similar geomorpholoical features are extensively reported from Northern Hemisphere and Antarctica (Goodwin et al., 1985; Dowdeswell et al., 1993). Ploughmarks are attributed to the action of icebergs scouring into the sediment as they touch bottom. We are suggest that furrows discovered in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea are also the result of iceberg scouring during the Baltic Ice Lake stage (more than 11 600 cal yr BP (Bjorck, 2008)). This assumption confirmed by occurrence of fragmental stones and boulders on the sea bottom surface which are good indicators of iceberg rafting (Lisitzin, 2003). Ice ploughmarks at sea bottom surface were not occurred before in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The study was financed by Russian Scientific Fund, grant number 14-37-00047. References Bjorck S. The late Quaternary development of the Baltic Sea Basin. In: The BACC Author Team (eds) Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2008. Dowdeswell J. A., Villinger H., Whittington R. J., Marienfeld P. Iceberg scouring in Scoresby Sund and on the East Greenland continental shelf // Marine Geology. V. 111. N. 1-2. 1993. P. 37-53. Goodwin C. R., Finley J. C., Howard L. M. Ice scour bibliography. Environmental Studies Revolving Funds Report No. 010. Ottawa. 1985. 99 pp. Lisitzin A. P. Sea-Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean: Recent and Past. Springer

  14. The petroleum system of the lower Palaeozoic strata in the central part of the Baltic basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazauskiene, Jurga; Zdanaviciute, Onyte

    2013-04-01

    The Baltic Basin is an intra-cratonic sedimentary basin with conspicuous Early Palaeozoic sections. In terms of hydrocarbon prospectively, the it has been perceived as a classical oil basin with several tens of relatively small oil and gas fields occur there over a wide stratigraphic interval, ranging from the crystalline basement through the entire Lower Palaeozoic succession. Until now conventional oil has been predominantly produced in the basin, i.e. only few conventional gas accumulations have been found in the Polish Baltic Sea offshore. Petroleum potential within the basin also is associated with Silurian reefogenic and carbonate build-ups. New organic geochemistry data as well revealed the potential for shale gas/oil in the basin. The analysis of the composition of the organic matter and crude oils from Kaliningrad region (Russia) and Lithuanian revealed genesis and the general trends of the migration of hydrocarbons in the Baltic Basin. The organic matter of the source rocks is of similar composition and represents typical marine type II, showing considerable variations of the maturity thought the basin: ranging from immature in the eastern Lithuania and Kaliningrad region of Russia to oil window to the south-west. In some places the anomalously high maturity of organic matter, indicating the lower part of the wet gas/condensate window have been recorded, most probably being related to the locally increased paleo-temperatures. Oils of the Baltic Basin have low densities (< 31,1 API; 790.5-870.0 kg/m3), and low asphaltene (<2.2%) and sulphur (<0.44%) contents. The saturated hydrocarbon content varies from 35.3 to 77.8%, and the ratio of saturate to aromatic hydrocarbons ranges in 2.1-5.2, indicating long-distance hydrocarbons migration or high thermal maturities. Oils of the Baltic Basin are not biodegraded, despite their early emplacement (e.g. by the Lower Palaeozoic age) and the relatively low present reservoir temperatures. Results of biomarker and

  15. Link or sink: a modelling interpretation of the open Baltic biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vichi, M.; Ruardij, P.; Baretta, J. W.

    2004-08-01

    A 1-D model system, consisting of the 1-D version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) coupled with the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) has been applied to a sub-basin of the Baltic Proper, the Bornholm basin. The model has been forced with 3h meteorological data for the period 1979-1990, producing a 12-year hindcast validated with datasets from the Baltic Environmental Database for the same period. The model results demonstrate the model to hindcast the time-evolution of the physical structure very well, confirming the view of the open Baltic water column as a three layer system of surface, intermediate and bottom waters. Comparative analyses of modelled hydrochemical components with respect to the independent data have shown that the long-term system behaviour of the model is within the observed ranges. Also primary production processes, deduced from oxygen (over)saturation are hindcast correctly over the entire period and the annual net primary production is within the observed range. The largest mismatch with observations is found in simulating the biogeochemistry of the Baltic intermediate waters. Modifications in the structure of the model (addition of fast-sinking detritus and polysaccharide dynamics) have shown that the nutrient dynamics is linked to the quality and dimensions of the organic matter produced in the euphotic zone, highlighting the importance of the residence time of the organic matter within the microbial foodweb in the intermediate waters. Experiments with different scenarios of riverine nutrient loads, assessed in the limits of a 1-D setup, have shown that the external input of organic matter makes the open Baltic model more heterotrophic. The characteristics of the inputs also drive the dynamics of nitrogen in the bottom layers leading either to nitrate accumulation (when the external sources are inorganic), or to coupled nitrification-denitrification (under strong organic inputs). The model indicates the permanent

  16. Link or sink: a modelling interpretation of the open Baltic biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vichi, M.; Ruardij, P.; Baretta, J. W.

    A 1-D model system, consisting of the 1-D version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) coupled with the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) has been applied to a sub-basin of the Baltic Proper, the Bornholm basin. The model has been forced with 3h meteorological data for the period 1979-1990, producing a 12-year hindcast validated with datasets from the Baltic Environmental Database for the same period. The model results demonstrate the model to hindcast the time-evolution of the physical structure very well, confirming the view of the open Baltic water column as a three layer system of surface, intermediate and bottom waters. Comparative analyses of modelled hydrochemical components with respect to the independent data have shown that the long-term system behaviour of the model is within the observed ranges. Also primary production processes, deduced from oxygen (over)saturation are hindcast correctly over the entire period and the annual net primary production is within the observed range. The largest mismatch with observations is found in simulating the biogeochemistry of the Baltic intermediate waters. Modifications in the structure of the model (addition of fast-sinking detritus and polysaccharide dynamics) have shown that the nutrient dynamics are linked to the quality and dimensions of the organic matter produced in the euphotic zone, highlighting the importance of the residence time of the organic matter within the microbial foodweb in the intermediate waters. Experiments with different scenarios of riverine nutrient loads, assessed in the limits of a 1-D setup, have shown that the external input of organic matter makes the open Baltic model more heterotrophic. The characteristics of the inputs also drive the dynamics of nitrogen in the bottom layers leading either to nitrate accumulation (when the external sources are inorganic), or to coupled nitrification-denitrification (under strong organic inputs). The model indicates the permanent

  17. Pathways of deep cyclones associated with large volume changes (LVCs) and major Baltic inflows (MBIs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Höflich, Katharina; Post, Piia; Myrberg, Kai

    2017-03-01

    Large volume changes (LVCs) and major Baltic inflows (MBIs) are essential processes for the water exchange and renewal of the stagnant water in the Baltic Sea deep basins. These strong inflows are known to be forced by persistent westerly wind conditions. In this study, MBIs are considered as subset of LVCs transporting with the large water volume a big amount of highly saline and oxygenated water into the Baltic Sea. Since the early 1980s the frequency of MBIs has dropped drastically from 5 to 7 events to only one inflow per decade, and long lasting periods without MBIs became the usual state. Only in January 1993, 2003 and December 2014 MBIs occurred that were able to interrupt the stagnation periods in the deep basins of the Baltic Sea. However, in spite of the decreasing frequency of MBIs, there is no obvious decrease of LVCs. The Landsort sea level is known to reflect the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea very well, and hence LVCs have been calculated for the period 1887-2015 filtering daily time series of Landsort sea surface elevation anomalies. The cases with local minimum and maximum difference resulting in at least 60 km3 of water volume change excluding the volume change due to runoff have been chosen for a closer study (1948-2013) of characteristic pathways of deep cyclones. The average duration of LVCs is about 40 days. During this time, 5-6 deep cyclones move along characteristic storm tracks. Furthermore, MBIs are characterized by even higher cyclonic activity compared to average LVCs. We obtained four main routes of deep cyclones which were associated with LVCs, but also with the climatology. One is approaching from the west at about 56-60°N, passing the northern North Sea, northern Denmark, Sweden and the Island of Gotland. A second broad corridor of frequent cyclone pathways enters the study area north of Scotland between 60 and 66°N turning north-eastwards along the northern coast of Scandinavia. This branch bifurcates into smaller routes. One

  18. To what extent does the salinity flux influence phytoplankton blooms? - Baltic Sea modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieszyńska, Agata; Stramska, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    This work is focused on numerical modeling of biological-physical interactions and their influence on phytoplankton production and vertical distribution of biomass and its variability in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea. The area of interest is an inland sea with water salinity much smaller than observed in the global ocean (about one fifth of the open ocean value). Vertical distribution of the salinity has a significant influence on water column density stratification, and therefore influences intensity of mixing and the depth of mixed layer. This, in turn, defines environmental conditions for phytoplankton growth. Vertical distribution of water salinity in the basin is controlled by processes such as evaporation/precipitation, freezing/melting of sea ice and runoff of freshwater from land. There are a lot of different phytoplankton species in the area of the Baltic Sea. Every single one has its own characteristics and is sensitive to distinct complex environmental conditions. Biological-physical interactions controlling these microorganisms' life cycles are multiplicitous and because of their complexity difficult to quantify. The best and probably only way to study presented issue is the usage of numerical modeling tool. The results presented here are based on 1D numerical simulations carried out with Princeton Ocean Model (POM, http://www.ccpo.odu.edu/POMWEB/) merged with the Ecological Regional Ecosystem Model (ERGOM, http://ergom.net/) developed for the Baltic Sea research by German scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research in Warnemünde. In model simulations surface salinity flux was determined from the difference between the precipitation and evaporation rate at the air-sea interface. Data for parameterization of atmospheric forcing were defined based on data sets from National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP). We carried out systematic calculations using different values of surface fluxes encompassing the range of

  19. Large spatial variations in coastal 14C reservoir age - a case study from the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lougheed, B. C.; Filipsson, H. L.; Snowball, I.

    2013-05-01

    Coastal locations are highly influenced by input from freshwater river runoff, including sources of terrestrial carbon, which can be expected to modify the 14C reservoir age, or R (t), associated with marine water. In this Baltic Sea case study, pre-bomb museum collection mollusc shells of known calendar age, from 30 locations across a strategic salinity transect of the Baltic Sea, were analysed for 14C, δ13C and δ18O. R (t) was calculated for all 30 locations. Seven locations, of which six are within close proximity of the coast, were found to have relatively higher R (t) values, indicative of hard-water effects. Whenever possible, the Macoma genus of mollusc was selected from the museum collections, in order to exclude species specific reservoir age effects as much as possible. When the Macoma samples are exclusively considered, and samples from hard-water locations excluded, a statistically significant correlation between Macoma R (t) and average salinity is found, indicating a two end-member linear mixing model between 14Cmarine and 14Crunoff. A map of Baltic Sea Macoma aragonite R (t) for the late 19th and early 20th centuries is produced. Such a map can provide an estimate for contemporary Baltic Sea Macoma R (t), although one must exercise caution when applying such estimates back in time or to 14C dates obtained from different sample material. A statistically significant correlation is found between δ18Oaragonite and Macoma R (t), suggesting that δ18Oaragonite can be used to estimate Macoma palaeo-R (t), due to the δ18Oaragonite signal being dominated by the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. A slightly increased correlation can be expected when δ18Oaragonite is corrected for temperature fractionation effects. The results of this Baltic Sea case study, which show that R (t) is affected by hydrographic conditions and local carbon inputs, have important consequences for other coastal and estuarine locations, where R (t) is also likely to significantly

  20. Floating along buoyancy levels: Dispersal and survival of western Baltic fish eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petereit, C.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Franke, A.; Köster, F. W.

    2014-03-01

    Vertical distribution is an important feature of pelagic fish eggs and yolk sac larvae impacting their survival and dispersal, especially in heterogeneous and highly variable estuarine environments like the Baltic Sea. Egg densities determining the vertical distribution pattern were experimentally ascertained for cod (Gadus morhua), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the western Baltic Sea. Plaice eggs floated at lower mean (±standard deviation) density range (1.0136 ± 0.0007 g cm-3) compared to cod (1.0146 ± 0.0009 g cm-3) and flounder eggs (1.0160 ± 0.0015 g cm-3), which floated on the highest density level. In flounder egg diameter was significantly related to egg density and in cod a weak correlation could be found between egg dry weight and density. All other relationships between female size, egg size, egg dry weight and egg density were not significant for any of the species. Available egg density data for Baltic Sea cod, plaice and flounder are summarized considering ICES subdivisions and stock management units. A hydrodynamic drift modeling approach was applied releasing drifters in the Belt Sea continuously from December to May, covering the species’ spawning seasons. The model implemented experimentally derived egg density ranges and included ontogenetic egg density modifications for cod eggs, increasing egg density from a late egg development stage to first hatch. A drifter was removed from the model, i.e. considered dead, when its initially prescribed density value exceeded the density range available at the temporally resolved geographical positions along the drift trajectories. Highest survival occurred during releases in April and May but no cohorts survived if they were drifted east into the central Arkona Basin or the central Baltic Sea, irrespective of whether a major Baltic Inflow (1992/1993) or a stagnation-year (1987/1988) was simulated. The dispersal characteristics of the surviving yolk sac larvae of

  1. Multidecadal oscillations in past Baltic Sea hypoxia: the role of sedimentary iron-phosphorus feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilbert, Tom; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Veldhuijzen, Simon; Reed, Daniel C.; van Helmond, Niels A. G. M.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2017-04-01

    The Baltic Sea currently experiences widespread deep-water hypoxia, a consequence of both anthropogenic nutrient loading and the natural susceptibility of its stratified water column to oxygen depletion. Sediment core records show that hypoxia was also prevalent in the Baltic during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) and Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). Sedimentary iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) dynamics are known to play a key role in determining the intensity of Baltic Sea hypoxia through time. Rapid intensification of hypoxia at the onset of past centennial-scale hypoxic events during the HTM and MCA has been explained by release of P from sedimentary Fe oxides, leading to enhanced primary productivity and deep water oxygen consumption (Jilbert and Slomp, 2013). Similarly, rapid relief from hypoxia at the termination of these events reflects efficient trapping of P by Fe oxides as oxic conditions expand. Here we show that within past hypoxic events in the Baltic Sea, hypoxia intensity also varied continuously on multidecadal timescales. We observe persistent oscillations in new high-resolution records of sediment redox proxies derived from Laser Ablation (LA) ICP-MS analysis. In-phase multidecadal oscillations in molybdenum/aluminium (Mo/Al), bromine/phosphorus (Br/P) and Fe/Al indicate coupling between redox conditions, the flux of carbon to the seafloor, and mobilization of Fe in shelf areas, respectively. Using a simple box model, we show that instabilities in the response of sedimentary P release to changing oxygen concentrations and carbon flux were the likely cause of the observed oscillations. When prescribing a non-linear relationship between P release, oxygen concentration and carbon flux, and forcing the model with external P loadings typical of the HTM and MCA, the simulated time-series of deep-water oxygen show pronounced oscillations similar to those observed in the sediment records. However, when external P loads typical of the modern anthropogenic

  2. Revisiting the biogeochemistry of arsenic in the Baltic Sea: Impact of anthropogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Pohl, Christa; Ren, Jing-Ling; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Cao, Xiu-Hong; Nausch, Günther; Zhang, Jing

    2017-09-16

    With the increase in anthropogenic environmental disruption, the behavior of arsenic in the Baltic Sea has received more scientific attention because of its complex forms and toxicity, and was re-visited to determine if there have been measurable changes recently. A cruise was conducted in 10-19 May 2011 to investigate the species and distribution of total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs: [TDIAs]=[As(V)]+[As(III)]) revealing links between the hydrographic dynamics and biological/chemical reactions in the Baltic Sea. In addition, long-term (2002-2010) time-series investigations of particulate arsenic in the Gotland Basin were also conducted in February every year for monitoring purposes. The behavior of TDIAs was non-conservative due to the removal and regeneration processes occurring in the Baltic Sea. Biological scavenging plays a dominant role as sink for TDIAs, with removal amount of 3.1±1.6nmol/L above the pycnocline of the Baltic Sea. Significant regeneration of TDIAs was observed below the pycnocline of the Baltic Sea, which was closely related to hypoxia. The decomposition of organic arsenic and release from the sediment by desorption of As-bearing Fe and Mn oxides were thought to be two major sources for TDIAs regeneration. The median concentration of TDIAs (8.4nmol/L) was much lower than in most marginal seas and oceans, including the near-bottom water around a chemical weapon dumpsite (13.9nmol/L). The hypoxia in the deep water contributed to the increase in As(III) concentrations based on the relationship between As(III)/TDIAs ratio and apparent oxygen utilization. If the difference of As(III) profiles (1981 and 2011) actually represents a long-term increase in As(III) concentrations and a shoaling of the As(III) chemocline, these factors could enhance the toxic effects and extend the residence time of arsenic and, hence, potentially have negative impacts on fisheries and ecosystem health in the Baltic Sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Trend Analysis of Nitrogen Deposition to Baltic Sea and its sub basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeena, V. S.; Jerzy, Bartnicki

    2009-04-01

    Since the beginning of last century, Baltic Sea has changed from a clear-water sea into a eutrophic marine environment. Eutrophication is the major problem in the Baltic Sea. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus loads coming from land-based sources within and outside the catchment area of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea are the main cause of the eutrophication in the sea. Even though a major part of nitrogen(75%) and phosphorus load(95%) enter the sea via rivers or as water-born discharges, 25% of the nitrogen load comes as atmospheric deposition. Numerical models are the best tools to measure atmospheric deposition into sea waters. We have used the latest version of the Unified EMEP model - which has been developed at the EMEP/MSC-W (Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West of EMEP) for simulating atmospheric transport and deposition of acidifying and eutrophying compounds as well as photo-oxidants in Europe- to study the trends in atmospheric deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea for the period 1995-2006. The model domain covers Europe and the Atlantic Ocean. The model grid (of the size 170×133) has a horizontal resolution of 50 km at 60o N, which is consistent with the resolution of emission data reported to CLRTAP. Approximately 10 of these layers are placed below 2 km to obtain high resolution of the boundary layer which is of special importance to the long range transport of air pollution. EMEP model has been thouroughly validated (Fagerli et.al.[1], Simpson et.al.[2], Simpson et.al.[3] ) The contribution of deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea from each of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea and the deposition trends for the period 1995-2006 has been analysed and the results will be presented. References: [1]. Fagerli H., Simpson D. and Aas W.: Model performance for sulphur and nitrogen compounds for the period 1980 to 2000. [In:] L. Tarraśon, (editor), Transboundary Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone in Europe. EMEP

  4. Climate variability, extremes and trends of total sea level variations of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Herrford, Josefine; Höflich, Katharina; Getzlaff, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    The total sea level change of the Baltic Sea is a combination of wind-driven large volume changes (LVCs), local sea level variations (water level raised by wind and seiche) and wind waves including the sea level change by climatic-driven water density changes and the global sea level rise. The ocean surface velocity is a combination of Ekman surface flow, baroclinic and barotropic flow components and Stokes drift. The first two components can be calculated by standard hydrodynamic 3-dimensional ocean circulation models. But the calculation of the Stokes drift needs an additional approach. The Stokes velocity is a function of the significant wave height and period. It is important for the generation of Langmuir circulation which in turn contributes to the vertical mixing near the ocean surface and to the wind-driven surface transport. We used the Kiel Baltic Sea ice-ocean model (BSIOM) coupled with a simple fully integrated wave model to determine total sea level changes of the entire Baltic Sea for the period 1979-2016. BSIOM has been forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis data (1979-2016). The coupled model system allows the calculation of the total sea level change on a 2.5 km model grid of the entire Baltic Sea as a combination of large volume changes (LVCs), local sea level variations and wind waves including the sea level rise due to climatic-driven water density changes. Thus, combining sea level changes of different time and space scales. Different areas of the Baltic Sea show different trends in significant wave heights over different seasons. During winter, an increase of significant wave height is mainly associated with the retreat of the sea ice cover. There is also an increase of significant wave height of about 5 cm/decade in the eastern Gotland basin during winter. In summer and autumn we found negative trends strongest in the south-western Baltic Sea. Extreme total sea level variations occur if LVCs coincide with local sea level variations and wind waves.

  5. Colonization of the round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Gobiidae) by parasites in the new environment of the Gulf of Gdańsk (Southern Baltic).

    PubMed

    Rokicki, Jerzy; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2002-01-01

    The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) is a non-indigenous species in the Baltic Sea, introduced to its waters (the Gulf of Gdańsk) from the Black, Azov, and Caspian Seas. For this reason, an attempt was made to determine the species' parasitic fauna in its new environment. Within 1994-2000, a total of 201 round goby specimens caught in the Gulf of Gdańsk were examined. The parasites found represented protozoans (Trichodina domerguei domerguei), digeneans (Diplostomum spp. metacercariae), cestodes (Bothriocephalus scorpii, plerocercoids), nematodes (Hysterothylacium aduncum L3, L4, and adults), and acanthocephalans (Echinorhynchus gadi and Pomphorhynchus laevis). The parasitic species found are common in the Gulf of Gdańsk. It should be emphasized that, since the round goby has only recently appeared in the Gulf, the parasitic fauna of this fish is not yet complete.

  6. Mathematical Problems Concerning Rhythmic Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-30

    experimental on forced chains oscillators, motivated by problems concerning the lamprey CPG for undulatory locomotion. Work continued with K. Sivard on...problems concerning the lamprey CPG for undulatory locomotion [1,2]. Work continued with K. Sigvard on interpretation of experiment, and we are preparing

  7. Expressed Concerns of Yemeni Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzubaidi, Abdulgawi; Upton, Graham; Baluch, Bahman

    1998-01-01

    Examines the concerns of adolescents 13 to 17 years old (N=150) in the Republic of Yemen. Results indicate that the major concerns reported were related to vocational and educational future, recreational activities, religious matters, and school curriculum and teaching methods. Also discusses gender differences. (Author/MKA)

  8. Expressed Concerns of Yemeni Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzubaidi, Abdulgawi; Upton, Graham; Baluch, Bahman

    1998-01-01

    Examines the concerns of adolescents 13 to 17 years old (N=150) in the Republic of Yemen. Results indicate that the major concerns reported were related to vocational and educational future, recreational activities, religious matters, and school curriculum and teaching methods. Also discusses gender differences. (Author/MKA)

  9. The importance of gobies (Gobiidae, Teleostei) as hosts and transmitters of parasites in the SW Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, C. D.; Strohbach, U.; Groenewold, S.

    1993-02-01

    The parasite fauna of five goby species (Gobiidae, Teleostei) was investigated in the Baltic Sea during the period 1987 to 1990. 13 parasite species were found in samples from the Lübeck Bight: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Schistocephalus sp. (Cestoda); Cryptocotyle concavum, Cryptocotyle lingua, Podocotyle atomon, Derogenes varicus (Digenea); Hysterothylacium sp. (cf. auctum), Contracaecum sp., Anisakis simplex (Nematoda); Corynosoma sp., Echinorhynchus gadi, Neoechinorhynchus rutili, Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala). The number of parasite species were: 10 in the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, 8 in the black goby Gobius niger, 7 in the two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens, 6 in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and 5 in the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus. Neoechinorhynchus rutili occurred only in P. minutus, and Corynosoma sp. only in G. niger. The extent to which the gobies were parasitized clearly depended on the respective ways of life and, moreover, on the kind of prey ingested by the hosts. Additionally, the age of the hosts might be important. The highest rate of parasitism, more than 60%, was reached by Hysterothylacium sp. in G. niger and by Cryptocotyle concavum in P. microps. Infestation incidence lay mostly below 40% which means a satellite species status (Holmes, 1991). The number of parasite species was highest in summer; the highest intensities of single parasites occurred in spring ( Podocotyle atomon) or autumn ( Crytocotyle concavum). Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium sp. and Podocotyle infested their juvenile hosts very early, but only Hysterothylacium was accumulated by G. niger during its whole life span, whereas Bothriocephalus persisted also in older gobies in low intensities. The cercariae of Cryptocotyle spp. penetrate actively into their hosts; all the other parasites named were transmitted in larval form by prey organisms which consisted mainly of planktonic and benthic crustaceans. The gobies were final hosts

  10. Benthic conditions around a historic shipwreck: Vrouw Maria (1771) in the northern Baltic proper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruuskanen, A. T.; Kraufvelin, P.; Alvik, R.; Díaz, E. R.; Honkonen, J.; Kanerva, J.; Karell, K.; Kekäläinen, P.; Lappalainen, J.; Mikkola, R.; Mustasaari, T.; Nappu, N.; Nieminen, A.; Roininen, J.; Svahnbäck, K.

    2015-04-01

    Since her shipwreck in 1771, the wooden vessel Vrouw Maria has been lying on the seabed at 41 m depth on the border between the Archipelago Sea and the northern Baltic proper, off the southern coast of Finland. The wreck lies in an upward position in a right angle to the dominating bottom current, which is potentially affecting seabed topography, sediment characteristics and zoobenthic communities both upstream (NE) and downstream (SW) of the wreck. This multidisciplinary study attempts to clarify abiotic and biotic patterns and processes in the vicinity of the wreck by combining field investigations with physical simulation studies in the field and in the laboratory. Multibeam echo-sounder techniques were utilised to generate a map of the wreck area and sediment grab samples were taken to characterize the sediment type and its zoobenthic community. A medium-sized field experiment generated data on the accumulation of sediment organic matter in the presence and absence of a current and/or a barrier on the seafloor and a small-scaled laboratory study was conducted to simulate scour forming processes. The results showed that a deeper basin, scour area, with the dimensions 150×300 m, was present downstream of the wreck and there was also a smaller scour area upstream of the wreck. Similar traces on the bottom were simulated in the laboratory. The organic content (recent mud) and the proportion of finer sediment were more pronounced in areas closer to both sides of the wreck. These results were in turn imitated in a field experiment, where the accumulation of organic matter in the sediment increased significantly downstream, when a current was interrupted by a barrier. Regarding zoobenthos in the wreck area, 11 taxa and a mean total abundance of 773 individuals per m2 were registered. The dominant species were Macoma balthica and Marenzelleria sp., which together made up >80% of the total number of individuals. Multivariate data analyses showed significant differences

  11. Some Key Concerns in Leading Parent Education Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, JoAnna; Riordan, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Presents some key concerns that are frequently raised by parents in parent education groups. Discusses several themes that are relevant in laying a common ground that crosses most of these parent issues. Includes examples of parent concerns and suggestions for the group leader. (Author/PVV)

  12. Towards an improved understanding of Baltic Sea hypoxia during the Holocene: preliminary results from IODP Expedition 347

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slomp, Caroline; Dijkstra, Nikki; Egger, Matthias; Gustafsson, Bo; Ash, Jeanine; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Hardisty, Dalton; Martin, Ellen; Riedinger, Natascha; Andren, Thomas; Barker Jorgensen, Bo

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a restricted brackish-marine basin that is highly sensitive to changes in climate and anthropogenic activity. Due to its salinity stratification, the Baltic Sea is particularly vulnerable to hypoxia (oxygen concentrations < 2 ml/L). Besides the modern, human-induced period of hypoxia (since A.D. 1960), there is evidence for two earlier major intervals of hypoxia since the transition of the Baltic Sea from the Ancylus freshwater phase to the Littorina brackish-marine phase. These are the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM), ca. 8-4 ka, and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), ca. 1-0.7 ka (Zillen et al., 2008; Jilbert and Slomp, 2013). While changes in salinity, temperature and the input and recycling of nutrients all may contribute to the development of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea, their relative importance in driving the hypoxia during the MCA and HTM is still incompletely understood. Here, we use porewater and sediment geochemical data obtained during the IODP Expedition 347: Baltic