Science.gov

Sample records for common carriers

  1. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  2. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  3. 49 CFR 1241.1 - Common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common carriers. 1241.1 Section 1241.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT...-CARRIERS SUBJECT TO PART I OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 1241.1 Common carriers. All common...

  4. 18 CFR 357.1 - Common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Common carriers. 357.1 Section 357.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... SUBJECT TO PART I OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 357.1 Common carriers. All common carriers by...

  5. 76 FR 63561 - Common Carriers; Editorial Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...] [Pages 63561-63563] [FR Doc No: 2011-26515] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 [DA 11-1649... Disabilities; Truth-in-Billing Requirements for Common Carriers, Order (Order), document DA 11-1649, adopted September 30, 2011, and released September 30, 2011. The full text of document DA 11-1649 and copies of...

  6. 18 CFR 357.1 - Common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Common carriers. 357.1 Section 357.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT ANNUAL SPECIAL OR PERIODIC REPORTS:...

  7. 47 CFR 69.105 - Carrier common line for non-price cap local exchange carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier common line for non-price cap local...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.105 Carrier common line... shall be assessed upon all interexchange carriers that use local exchange common line facilities for...

  8. 47 CFR 11.42 - Participation by communications common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participation by communications common carriers... SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.42 Participation by communications common carriers. (a) During activation of the National level EAS, communications common carriers which have facilities available in...

  9. 49 CFR 1150.22 - Exemptions and common carrier status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemptions and common carrier status. 1150.22... common carrier status. The acquisition by a State of a fully abandoned line is not subject to the... the line itself, it will be considered a common carrier. However, when a State acquires a rail...

  10. Specialized common carriers: Long distance alternatives for military installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingler, S. L.

    1984-03-01

    Specialized Common Carriers, communications carriers which came into existence offering private line microwave service, are now significant competitors in the long distance telecommunications industry. This thesis provides military installation telecommunications managers with a basic knowledge of how Specialized Common Carriers entered the telecommunications market, what services Specialized Common Carriers offer, and how to obtain these services for a military installation. It includes a case study evaluation of the potential use of long distance services of two of these competing common carriers at Naval Air Station Moffett Field, California. A computer program used to calculate the costs of using these two alternative long distance carriers is included as part of the case study.

  11. 47 CFR 69.154 - Per-minute carrier common line charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Per-minute carrier common line charge. 69.154 Section 69.154 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... carrier common line charge. (a) Local exchange carriers may recover a per-minute carrier common...

  12. 21 CFR 203.30 - Sample distribution by mail or common carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sample distribution by mail or common carrier. 203... mail or common carrier. (a) Requirements for drug sample distribution by mail or common carrier. A... pharmacy of a hospital or other health care entity, by mail or common carrier, provided that: (1)...

  13. 21 CFR 203.30 - Sample distribution by mail or common carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sample distribution by mail or common carrier. 203... mail or common carrier. (a) Requirements for drug sample distribution by mail or common carrier. A... pharmacy of a hospital or other health care entity, by mail or common carrier, provided that: (1)...

  14. 21 CFR 203.30 - Sample distribution by mail or common carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sample distribution by mail or common carrier. 203... mail or common carrier. (a) Requirements for drug sample distribution by mail or common carrier. A... pharmacy of a hospital or other health care entity, by mail or common carrier, provided that: (1)...

  15. 46 CFR 520.11 - Non-vessel-operating common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.11 Non-vessel-operating common carriers. (a) Financial responsibility. An ocean transportation intermediary that operates as a non-vessel-operating common carrier shall state in... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-vessel-operating common carriers. 520.11 Section...

  16. 16 CFR 1608.5 - Salvage operations of common carriers and others.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salvage operations of common carriers and... operations of common carriers and others. For the purposes of this act the ordinary course of business of common carriers, contract carriers or freight forwarders, as referred to in section 11 of the act,...

  17. 47 CFR 69.607 - Disbursement of Carrier Common Line residue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disbursement of Carrier Common Line residue. 69.607 Section 69.607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Exchange Carrier Association § 69.607 Disbursement of Carrier...

  18. 47 CFR 69.608 - Carrier Common Line hypothetical net balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carrier Common Line hypothetical net balance. 69.608 Section 69.608 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... net balance. The hypothetical net balance shall be equal to a Carrier Common Line revenue...

  19. 47 CFR 69.608 - Carrier Common Line hypothetical net balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier Common Line hypothetical net balance. 69.608 Section 69.608 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... net balance. The hypothetical net balance shall be equal to a Carrier Common Line revenue...

  20. 47 CFR 69.608 - Carrier Common Line hypothetical net balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carrier Common Line hypothetical net balance. 69.608 Section 69.608 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... net balance. The hypothetical net balance shall be equal to a Carrier Common Line revenue...

  1. 47 CFR 69.608 - Carrier Common Line hypothetical net balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carrier Common Line hypothetical net balance. 69.608 Section 69.608 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... net balance. The hypothetical net balance shall be equal to a Carrier Common Line revenue...

  2. 47 CFR 69.608 - Carrier Common Line hypothetical net balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carrier Common Line hypothetical net balance. 69.608 Section 69.608 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... net balance. The hypothetical net balance shall be equal to a Carrier Common Line revenue...

  3. 47 CFR 63.01 - Authority for all domestic common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority for all domestic common carriers. 63.01 Section 63.01 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... SERVICE BY COMMON CARRIERS; AND GRANTS OF RECOGNIZED PRIVATE OPERATING AGENCY STATUS Extensions...

  4. A pseudodeficiency allele common in non-Jewish Tay-Sachs carriers: Implications for carrier screening

    SciTech Connect

    Triggs-Raine, B.L.; Akerman, B.R.; Gravel, R.A. ); Mules, E.H.; Thomas, G.H.; Dowling, C.E. ); Kaback, M.M.; Lim-Steele, J.S.T. ); Natowicz, M.R. ); Grebner, E.E. ); Navon, R.R. ); Welch, J.P. ); Greenberg, C.R. )

    1992-10-01

    Deficiency of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) activity typically results in Tay-Sachs disease. However, healthy subjects found to be deficient in Hex A activity (i.e., pseudodeficient) by means of in vitro biochemical tests have been described. The authors analyzed the HEXA gene of one pseudodeficient subject and identified both a C[sub 739]-to-T substitution that changes Arg[sub 247][yields]Trp on one allele and a previously identified Tay-Sachs disease mutation of the second allele. Six additional pseudodeficient subjects were found to have the C[sub 739]-to-T but for none of 36 Jewish enzyme-defined carries who did not have one of three known mutations common to this group. The C[sub 739]-to-T allele, together with a [open quotes]true[close quotes] Tay-Sachs disease allele, causes Hex A pseudodeficiency. Given both the large proportion of non-Jewish carriers with this allele and that standard biochemical screening cannot differentiate between heterozygotes for the C[sub 739]-to-T mutations and Tay-Sachs disease carriers, DNA testing for this mutation in at-risk couples is essential. This could prevent unnecessary or incorrect prenatal diagnoses. 40 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. 48 CFR 52.232-6 - Payment Under Communication Service Contracts With Common Carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Communication Service Contracts With Common Carriers. 52.232-6 Section 52.232-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.232-6 Payment Under Communication Service Contracts With Common... regulated communication services by common carriers: Payment Under Communication Service Contracts...

  6. 27 CFR 478.31 - Delivery by common or contract carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delivery by common or... Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.31 Delivery by common or contract carrier. (a) No person shall knowingly deliver or cause to be delivered to any common or contract carrier for transportation or...

  7. 14 CFR 119.21 - Commercial operators engaged in intrastate common carriage and direct air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... common carriage and direct air carriers. 119.21 Section 119.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... operators engaged in intrastate common carriage and direct air carriers. (a) Each person who conducts airplane operations as a commercial operator engaged in intrastate common carriage of persons or...

  8. 78 FR 13011 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Publication Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... authority, is to exempt non-vessel-operating common carriers (NVOCCs) from the tariff rate publication and... 46 CFR Parts 515, 520, and 532 RIN 3072-AC51 Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Publication Exemption AGENCY: Federal Maritime Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

  9. 76 FR 80866 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carriers Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Filing Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... 46 CFR Part 532 Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carriers Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Filing... Commission is issuing this Notice of Inquiry seeking comments on ways to make the tariff filing exemption provided to licensed non-vessel-operating common carriers in its regulations more useful, including...

  10. 76 FR 19706 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... 46 CFR Parts 520 and 532 RIN 3072-AC38 Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier Negotiated Rate... on March 2, 2011, exempting licensed non-vessel-operating common carriers that enter into negotiated rate arrangements from the tariff rate publication requirements of the Shipping Act of 1984....

  11. 26 CFR 49.4253-6 - Exemption for common carriers and communications companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption for common carriers and communications companies. 49.4253-6 Section 49.4253-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Communications § 49.4253-6 Exemption for common carriers and communications companies. (a) In general. (1)...

  12. 26 CFR 49.4253-6 - Exemption for common carriers and communications companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption for common carriers and communications companies. 49.4253-6 Section 49.4253-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Communications § 49.4253-6 Exemption for common carriers and communications companies. (a) In general. (1)...

  13. 26 CFR 49.4253-6 - Exemption for common carriers and communications companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption for common carriers and communications companies. 49.4253-6 Section 49.4253-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Communications § 49.4253-6 Exemption for common carriers and communications companies. (a) In general. (1)...

  14. 47 CFR 0.493 - Non-radio common carrier applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-radio common carrier applications. 0.493 Section 0.493 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General....493 Non-radio common carrier applications. All such applications shall be filed at the...

  15. 47 CFR 0.493 - Non-radio common carrier applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-radio common carrier applications. 0.493 Section 0.493 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General....493 Non-radio common carrier applications. All such applications shall be filed at the...

  16. 47 CFR 0.493 - Non-radio common carrier applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-radio common carrier applications. 0.493 Section 0.493 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General....493 Non-radio common carrier applications. All such applications shall be filed at the...

  17. 47 CFR 0.493 - Non-radio common carrier applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-radio common carrier applications. 0.493 Section 0.493 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General....493 Non-radio common carrier applications. All such applications shall be filed at the...

  18. 47 CFR 0.493 - Non-radio common carrier applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-radio common carrier applications. 0.493 Section 0.493 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General....493 Non-radio common carrier applications. All such applications shall be filed at the...

  19. 47 CFR 63.18 - Contents of applications for international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents of applications for international common carriers. 63.18 Section 63.18 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Extensions and Supplements § 63.18 Contents of applications for international common carriers. Except...

  20. 47 CFR 63.18 - Contents of applications for international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of applications for international common carriers. 63.18 Section 63.18 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Extensions and Supplements § 63.18 Contents of applications for international common carriers. Except...

  1. 47 CFR 76.1004 - Applicability of program access rules to common carriers and affiliates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Cable Programming § 76.1004 Applicability of program access rules to common carriers and affiliates. (a... common carrier or its affiliate that provides video programming by any means directly to subscribers. Any such provision that applies to a satellite cable programming vendor in which a cable operator has...

  2. 47 CFR 76.1004 - Applicability of program access rules to common carriers and affiliates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Cable Programming § 76.1004 Applicability of program access rules to common carriers and affiliates. (a... common carrier or its affiliate that provides video programming by any means directly to subscribers. Any such provision that applies to a satellite cable programming vendor in which a cable operator has...

  3. 47 CFR 76.1004 - Applicability of program access rules to common carriers and affiliates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Cable Programming § 76.1004 Applicability of program access rules to common carriers and affiliates. (a... common carrier or its affiliate that provides video programming by any means directly to subscribers. Any such provision that applies to a satellite cable programming vendor in which a cable operator has...

  4. 47 CFR 76.1004 - Applicability of program access rules to common carriers and affiliates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Cable Programming § 76.1004 Applicability of program access rules to common carriers and affiliates. (a... common carrier or its affiliate that provides video programming by any means directly to subscribers. Any such provision that applies to a satellite cable programming vendor in which a cable operator has...

  5. 47 CFR 76.1004 - Applicability of program access rules to common carriers and affiliates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Cable Programming § 76.1004 Applicability of program access rules to common carriers and affiliates. (a... common carrier or its affiliate that provides video programming by any means directly to subscribers. Any such provision that applies to a satellite cable programming vendor in which a cable operator has...

  6. 77 FR 50628 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Commission uses for assessing foreign ownership of the controlling U.S.-organized parents of common carrier...), greater than 25 percent foreign ownership in the controlling U.S.-organized parent of a common carrier... agencies the opportunity to review proposed foreign ownership in the controlling U.S.-organized parents...

  7. 78 FR 44028 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio... carrier, aeronautical en route and aeronautical fixed radio station licensees. DATES: Effective on August..., July 10, 2013, the following corrections are made: Subpart F--Wireless Radio Services Applications...

  8. Temperature Dependence of Viscosities of Common Carrier Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Trent S.; Nahir, Tal M.

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental evidence for the dependence of viscosities of the real gases on temperature is described, suggesting that this dependence is greater than that predicted by the kinetic theory of gases. The experimental results were obtained using common modern instrumentation and could be reproduced by students in analytical or…

  9. 77 FR 15187 - Released Rates of Motor Common Carriers of Household Goods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Released Rates of Motor Common Carriers of Household Goods AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of changes to rules protecting consumers during interstate...

  10. 76 FR 5431 - Released Rates of Motor Common Carriers of Household Goods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Released Rates of Motor Common Carriers of Household Goods AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice, request for comments. SUMMARY: The Surface Transportation Board...

  11. Mitochondrial carriers in the cytoplasmic state have a common substrate binding site

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Alan J.; Kunji, Edmund R. S.

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondrial carriers link biochemical pathways in the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix by transporting substrates across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Substrate recognition is specific for each carrier, but sequence similarities suggest the carriers have similar structures and mechanisms of substrate translocation. By considering conservation of amino acids, distance and chemical constraints, and by modeling family members on the known structure of the ADP/ATP translocase, we have identified a common substrate binding site. It explains substrate selectivity and proton coupling and provides a mechanistic link to carrier opening by substrate-induced perturbation of the salt bridges that seal the pathway to and from the mitochondrial matrix. It enables the substrate specificity of uncharacterized mitochondrial carriers to be predicted. PMID:16469842

  12. 47 CFR 69.152 - End user common line for price cap local exchange carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section for Basic Rate Interface integrated services digital network (ISDN) service. (2) Local exchange... User Common Line charges within a study area, the price cap local exchange carrier must have state... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false End user common line for price cap...

  13. 77 FR 33971 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carriers Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Filing Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... 46 CFR Part 532 RIN 3072-AC38 Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carriers Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Filing Exemption AGENCY: Federal Maritime Commission. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for...., Washington, DC 20573-0001, or email non-confidential comments to: Secretary@fmc.gov (email comments...

  14. 21 CFR 203.30 - Sample distribution by mail or common carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pharmacy of a hospital or other health care entity, by mail or common carrier, provided that: (1) The... to the pharmacy of a hospital or other health care entity is required to contain, in addition to all of the information in paragraph (b)(l) of this section, the name and address of the pharmacy of...

  15. 21 CFR 203.30 - Sample distribution by mail or common carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pharmacy of a hospital or other health care entity, by mail or common carrier, provided that: (1) The... to the pharmacy of a hospital or other health care entity is required to contain, in addition to all of the information in paragraph (b)(l) of this section, the name and address of the pharmacy of...

  16. 47 CFR 63.18 - Contents of applications for international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) EXTENSION OF LINES, NEW LINES, AND DISCONTINUANCE, REDUCTION, OUTAGE... Act of 1934, as amended, to construct a new line, or acquire or operate any line, or engage in... information the Commission shall have specified previously in an order, public notice or other official...

  17. 47 CFR 69.104 - End user common line for non-price cap incumbent local exchange carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to deaverage End User Common Line charges within a study area, the non-price cap local exchange... incumbent local exchange carriers. 69.104 Section 69.104 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... common line for non-price cap incumbent local exchange carriers. (a) This section is applicable only...

  18. Therapeutic plasmid DNA versus siRNA delivery: common and different tasks for synthetic carriers.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Claudia; Wagner, Ernst

    2012-07-20

    Gene therapy offers great opportunities for the treatment of severe diseases including cancer. In recent years the design of synthetic carriers for nucleic acid delivery has become a research field of increasing interest. Studies on the delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA) have brought up a variety of gene delivery vehicles. The more recently emerged gene silencing strategy by the intracellular delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) takes benefit from existing expertise in pDNA transfer. Despite common properties however, delivery of siRNA also faces distinct challenges due to apparent differences in size, stability of the formed nucleic acid complexes, the location and mechanism of action. This review emphasizes the common aspects and main differences between pDNA and siRNA delivery, taking into consideration a wide spectrum of polymer-based, lipidic and peptide carriers. Challenges and opportunities which result from these differences as well as the recent progress made in the optimization of carrier design are presented.

  19. Carrier fringes in the two-aperture common-path interferometer.

    PubMed

    Meneses-Fabian, Cruz; Rodriguez-Zurita, Gustavo

    2011-03-01

    We present a method to introduce a linear phase into an interference pattern. This phase is introduced when a grating is placed outside of the Fourier plane of a two-aperture common-path interferometer, which is built using a 4f optical imaging system. Based on an analysis of near-field diffraction, the introduction of the carrier fringes is mathematically justified. It is important to note that no tilt between the two beams is requested to produce this effect, and it turns out to be simpler, easier, and more versatile than other existing methods. The main attributes and advantages of the setup will be discussed and illustrated in detail with experimental fringe patterns.

  20. Why common carrier and network neutrality principles apply to the Nationwide Health Information Network (NWHIN).

    PubMed

    Gaynor, Mark; Lenert, Leslie; Wilson, Kristin D; Bradner, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Office of the National Coordinator will be defining the architecture of the Nationwide Health Information Network (NWHIN) together with the proposed HealtheWay public/private partnership as a development and funding strategy. There are a number of open questions--for example, what is the best way to realize the benefits of health information exchange? How valuable are regional health information organizations in comparison with a more direct approach? What is the role of the carriers in delivering this service? The NWHIN is to exist for the public good, and thus shares many traits of the common law notion of 'common carriage' or 'public calling,' the modern term for which is network neutrality. Recent policy debates in Congress and resulting potential regulation have implications for key stakeholders within healthcare that use or provide services, and for those who exchange information. To date, there has been little policy debate or discussion about the implications of a neutral NWHIN. This paper frames the discussion for future policy debate in healthcare by providing a brief education and summary of the modern version of common carriage, of the key stakeholder positions in healthcare, and of the potential implications of the network neutrality debate within healthcare.

  1. Why common carrier and network neutrality principles apply to the Nationwide Health Information Network (NWHIN)

    PubMed Central

    Gaynor, Mark; Lenert, Leslie; Wilson, Kristin D; Bradner, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Office of the National Coordinator will be defining the architecture of the Nationwide Health Information Network (NWHIN) together with the proposed HealtheWay public/private partnership as a development and funding strategy. There are a number of open questions—for example, what is the best way to realize the benefits of health information exchange? How valuable are regional health information organizations in comparison with a more direct approach? What is the role of the carriers in delivering this service? The NWHIN is to exist for the public good, and thus shares many traits of the common law notion of ‘common carriage’ or ‘public calling,’ the modern term for which is network neutrality. Recent policy debates in Congress and resulting potential regulation have implications for key stakeholders within healthcare that use or provide services, and for those who exchange information. To date, there has been little policy debate or discussion about the implications of a neutral NWHIN. This paper frames the discussion for future policy debate in healthcare by providing a brief education and summary of the modern version of common carriage, of the key stakeholder positions in healthcare, and of the potential implications of the network neutrality debate within healthcare. PMID:23837992

  2. 47 CFR 63.22 - Facilities-based international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...://www.fcc.gov/ib. (c) Specific authority under § 63.18(e)(3) is required for the carrier to provide... concerning rates, accounting rates, division of tolls, the allocation of return traffic, or the basis of...-10, RM 11322, FCC 12-145 (rel. November 29, 2012). (g) A carrier or other party may...

  3. 19 CFR 141.11 - Evidence of right to make entry for importations by common carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... entry form, or, in appropriate cases, by means of a rubber-stamped or typewritten combined carrier's... § 141.111(d): Date ______ The undersigned carrier, to whom or upon whose order the articles described... document is the owner or consignee of such articles within the purview of section 484(h), Tariff Act...

  4. 41 CFR 301-75.103 - What are our responsibilities when we authorize an interviewee to use common carrier...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are our responsibilities when we authorize an interviewee to use common carrier transportation to perform pre-employment interview travel? 301-75.103 Section 301-75.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY...

  5. 41 CFR 301-75.103 - What are our responsibilities when we authorize an interviewee to use common carrier...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are our responsibilities when we authorize an interviewee to use common carrier transportation to perform pre-employment interview travel? 301-75.103 Section 301-75.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY...

  6. 41 CFR 301-75.103 - What are our responsibilities when we authorize an interviewee to use common carrier...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are our responsibilities when we authorize an interviewee to use common carrier transportation to perform pre-employment interview travel? 301-75.103 Section 301-75.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY...

  7. 41 CFR 301-75.103 - What are our responsibilities when we authorize an interviewee to use common carrier...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What are our responsibilities when we authorize an interviewee to use common carrier transportation to perform pre-employment interview travel? 301-75.103 Section 301-75.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY)...

  8. 41 CFR 301-75.103 - What are our responsibilities when we authorize an interviewee to use common carrier...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are our responsibilities when we authorize an interviewee to use common carrier transportation to perform pre-employment interview travel? 301-75.103 Section 301-75.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY...

  9. Incorporating mesh-insensitive structural stress into the fatigue assessment procedure of common structural rules for bulk carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Myung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a fatigue assessment procedure using mesh-insensitive structural stress method based on the Common Structural Rules for Bulk Carriers by considering important factors, such as mean stress and thickness effects. The fatigue assessment result of mesh-insensitive structural stress method have been compared with CSR procedure based on equivalent notch stress at major hot spot points in the area near the ballast hold for a 180 K bulk carrier. The possibility of implementing mesh-insensitive structural stress method in the fatigue assessment procedure for ship structures is discussed.

  10. 47 CFR 63.23 - Resale-based international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) EXTENSION OF LINES, NEW LINES, AND DISCONTINUANCE, REDUCTION, OUTAGE AND IMPAIRMENT OF...'s World Wide Web site at http://www.fcc.gov/ib. (e) The authority granted under this part is subject... public notice or order that serves as the carrier's Section 214 certificate. See §§ 63.12, 63.21 of...

  11. 47 CFR 63.23 - Resale-based international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) EXTENSION OF LINES, NEW LINES, AND DISCONTINUANCE, REDUCTION, OUTAGE AND IMPAIRMENT OF...'s World Wide Web site at http://www.fcc.gov/ib. (e) The authority granted under this part is subject... public notice or order that serves as the carrier's Section 214 certificate. See §§ 63.12, 63.21 of...

  12. 47 CFR 63.23 - Resale-based international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) EXTENSION OF LINES, NEW LINES, AND DISCONTINUANCE, REDUCTION, OUTAGE AND IMPAIRMENT OF...'s World Wide Web site at http://www.fcc.gov/ib. (e) The authority granted under this part is subject... public notice or order that serves as the carrier's Section 214 certificate. See §§ 63.12, 63.21 of...

  13. 47 CFR 63.17 - Special provisions for U.S. international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... settlements policy (i.e., the “hub” country), and then forwarded to the third country only by taking at... international settlements policy (i.e., the “hub” country) as part of the IMTS traffic flow from a third country...'s World Wide Web site at http://www.fcc.gov/ib. (3) Authorized carriers filing tariffs pursuant...

  14. 26 CFR 49.4253-6 - Exemption for common carriers and communications companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... line or channel which extends from a station to a switchboard located in the same local service area... carrier, telephone or telegraph company, or television or radio broadcasting station or network in the... company, or television or radio broadcasting station or network in the conduct of its business as such,...

  15. 47 CFR 63.22 - Facilities-based international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... exclusion list. Carriers may not use U.S. earth stations to access non-U.S.-licensed satellite systems... this chapter. Interested parties will have 10 days from the date of issuance of a public notice of the petition to file comments or oppositions to such petitions and subsequently 7 days for replies. In...

  16. A common cognitive, psychiatric, and dysmorphic phenotype in carriers of NRXN1 deletion.

    PubMed

    Viñas-Jornet, Marina; Esteba-Castillo, Susanna; Gabau, Elisabeth; Ribas-Vidal, Núria; Baena, Neus; San, Joan; Ruiz, Anna; Coll, Maria Dolors; Novell, Ramon; Guitart, Miriam

    2014-11-01

    Deletions in the 2p16.3 region that includes the neurexin (NRXN1) gene are associated with intellectual disability and various psychiatric disorders, in particular, autism and schizophrenia. We present three unrelated patients, two adults and one child, in whom we identified an intragenic 2p16.3 deletion within the NRXN1 gene using an oligonucleotide comparative genomic hybridization array. The three patients presented dual diagnosis that consisted of mild intellectual disability and autism and bipolar disorder. Also, they all shared a dysmorphic phenotype characterized by a long face, deep set eyes, and prominent premaxilla. Genetic analysis of family members showed two inherited deletions. A comprehensive neuropsychological examination of the 2p16.3 deletion carriers revealed the same phenotype, characterized by anxiety disorder, borderline intelligence, and dysexecutive syndrome. The cognitive pattern of dysexecutive syndrome with poor working memory and reduced attention switching, mental flexibility, and verbal fluency was the same than those of the adult probands. We suggest that in addition to intellectual disability and psychiatric disease, NRXN1 deletion is a risk factor for a characteristic cognitive and dysmorphic profile. The new cognitive phenotype found in the 2p16.3 deletion carriers suggests that 2p16.3 deletions might have a wide variable expressivity instead of incomplete penetrance.

  17. Lysine and arginine biosyntheses mediated by a common carrier protein in Sulfolobus.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Takuya; Tomita, Takeo; Horie, Akira; Yoshida, Ayako; Takahashi, Kento; Nishida, Hiromi; Lassak, Kerstin; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Kosono, Saori; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Masui, Ryoji; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    LysW has been identified as a carrier protein in the lysine biosynthetic pathway that is active through the conversion of α-aminoadipate (AAA) to lysine. In this study, we found that the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, not only biosynthesizes lysine through LysW-mediated protection of AAA but also uses LysW to protect the amino group of glutamate in arginine biosynthesis. In this archaeon, after LysW modification, AAA and glutamate are converted to lysine and ornithine, respectively, by a single set of enzymes with dual functions. The crystal structure of ArgX, the enzyme responsible for modification and protection of the amino moiety of glutamate with LysW, was determined in complex with LysW. Structural comparison and enzymatic characterization using Sulfolobus LysX, Sulfolobus ArgX and Thermus LysX identify the amino acid motif responsible for substrate discrimination between AAA and glutamate. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that gene duplication events at different stages of evolution led to ArgX and LysX.

  18. 41 CFR 301-10.308 - What will I be reimbursed if I park my POV at a common carrier terminal while I am away from my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What will I be reimbursed if I park my POV at a common carrier terminal while I am away from my official station? 301-10.308... Vehicle (POV) § 301-10.308 What will I be reimbursed if I park my POV at a common carrier terminal while...

  19. 41 CFR 301-10.308 - What will I be reimbursed if I park my POV at a common carrier terminal while I am away from my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What will I be reimbursed if I park my POV at a common carrier terminal while I am away from my official station? 301-10.308... Vehicle (POV) § 301-10.308 What will I be reimbursed if I park my POV at a common carrier terminal while...

  20. Carriers of a common variant in the dopamine transporter gene have greater dementia risk, cognitive decline, and faster ventricular expansion

    PubMed Central

    Roussotte, Florence F.; Gutman, Boris A.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Narr, Katherine L.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic variants in DAT1, the gene encoding the dopamine transporter protein (DAT), have been implicated in many brain disorders. In a recent case-control study of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a regulatory polymorphism in DAT1 showed a significant association with the clinical stages of dementia. Methods We tested whether this variant was associated with increased AD risk, and with measures of cognitive decline and longitudinal ventricular expansion, in a large sample of elderly participants with genetic, neurocognitive, and neuroimaging data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Results The minor allele – previously linked with increased DAT expression in vitro – was More common in AD patients than in both individuals with mild cognitive impairment and Healthy elderly controls. The same allele was also associated with poorer cognitive performance and faster ventricular expansion, independently of diagnosis. Conclusion These results may be due to reduced dopaminergic transmission in carriers of the DAT1 mutation. PMID:25496873

  1. 47 CFR 1.1154 - Schedule of annual regulatory charges and filing locations for common carrier services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... facilities Fee amount Address 1. Microwave (Domestic Public Fixed) (Electronic Filing) (FCC Form 601 & 159) $25.00 FCC, P.O. Box 979097, St. Louis, MO 63197-9000 Carriers 1. Interstate Telephone Service Providers (per interstate and international end-user revenues (see FCC Form 499-A) .00349 FCC, Carriers,...

  2. 41 CFR 301-10.113 - What must I do if I change or do not use a common carrier reservation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Use of Contract City-Pair Fares... agency. Also, you must report all changes of your reservation according to your agency's procedures in...

  3. Common HEXB polymorphisms reduce serum HexA and HexB enzymatic activities, potentially masking Tay-Sachs disease carrier identification.

    PubMed

    Vallance, Hilary; Morris, Tara J; Coulter-Mackie, Marion; Lim-Steele, Joyce; Kaback, Michael

    2006-02-01

    A DNA-proven Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier and his brother were found to have serum percent Hexosaminidase A (%HexA) enzymatic activities in the non-carrier range, while the leukocyte %HexA profiles clearly identified them as TSD heterozygotes. Both their serum HexA and HexB enzymatic activities were below reference range, suggesting inheritance of mutations in both the HEXA (alpha-subunit) and HEXB (beta-subunit) genes. DNA sequencing revealed that both individuals, carried the common HEXA 1277_1278insTATC mutation, and two common HEXB polymorphisms: [619A>G (+) delTG]. To determine if these HEXB polymorphisms reduce HexA and HexB enzymatic activities, 69 DNA samples from subjects previously screened enzymatically in both serum and leukocytes for TSD carrier status were selected for either high, mid-range or low serum Total Hex (defined as the sum of HexA and HexB) activities and were tested for the HEXB mutations. Further, three additional TSD carriers ascertained by the atypical pattern of normal serum %HexA but carrier leukocyte %HexA, were found to have the [delTG (+) 619A>G] genotype. In addition, the frequency of the [delTG (+) 619A>G] genotype was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in subjects with low serum HexB enzymatic activities. Given the high frequency of the [delTG (+) 619A>G] haplotype in the Ashkenazi Jewish population (approximately 10%), up to 10% of TSD carriers may have normal serum %HexA values with low total Hex. Accordingly, serum %HexA should not be the sole criterion used for carrier status determination. Where total Hex activity is reduced, further testing with leukocyte Hex profiles is indicated.

  4. Common genetic variation at BARD1 is not associated with Breast cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Spurdle, Amanda B.; Marquart, Louise; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga; Wan, Fei; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Singer, Christian F; Dressler, Anne-Catharine; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Blum, Joanne L.; Tung, Nadine; Weitzel, Jeff; Lynch, Henry; Garber, Judy; Easton, Douglas F.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T.; Frost, Debra; Conroy, Don; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Chu, Carol; Eccles, Diana; Selkirk, Christina G.; Daly, Mary; Isaacs, Claudine; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Buecher, Bruno; Belotti, Muriel; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Lasset, Christine; Dreyfus, Hélène; Pujol, Pascal; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Rookus, Matti A.; Verhoef, Senno; Kriege, Mieke; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; van Os, Theo A.; Wijnen, Juul; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; Blok, Marinus J.; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Nevanlinna, Heli; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Durocher, Francine; Couch, Fergus J.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Wang, Xianshu; Thomassen, Mads; Domchek, Susan; Nathanson, Kate; Caligo, MA; Jernström, Helena; Liljegren, Annelie; Ehrencrona, Hans; Karlsson, Per; Ganz, Patricia A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Tomlinson, Gail; Neuhausen, Susan; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Inherited BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations confer elevated breast cancer risk. Knowledge of factors that can improve breast cancer risk assessment in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers may improve personalized cancer prevention strategies. Methods A cohort of 5,546 BRCA1 and 2,865 BRCA2 mutation carriers was used to evaluate risk of breast cancer associated with BARD1 Cys557Ser. In a second non-independent cohort of 1,537 of BRCA1 and 839 BRCA2 mutation carriers, BARD1 haplotypes were also evaluated. Results The BARD1 Cys557Ser variant was not significantly associated with risk of breast cancer from single SNP analysis, with a pooled effect estimate of 0.90 (95%CI: 0.71-1.15) in BRCA1 carriers and 0.87 (95%CI: 0.59-1.29) in BRCA2 carriers. Further analysis of haplotypes at BARD1 also revealed no evidence that additional common genetic variation not captured by Cys557Ser was associated with breast cancer risk. Conclusion Evidence to date does not support a role for BARD1 variation, including the Cy557Ser variant, as a modifier of risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Impact Interactors of BRCA1/2 have been implicated as modifiers of BRCA1/2-associated cancer risk. Our finding that BARD1 does not contribute to this risk modification may focus research on other genes that do modify BRCA1/2-associated cancer risk. PMID:21393566

  5. Commonality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E., Jr.

    Commonality analysis is an attempt to understand the relative predictive power of the regressor variables, both individually and in combination. The squared multiple correlation is broken up into elements assigned to each individual regressor and to each possible combination of regressors. The elements have the property that the appropriate sums…

  6. 47 CFR 69.104 - End user common line for non-price cap incumbent local exchange carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-line rate or charge shall be computed by dividing one-twelfth of the projected annual revenue... annual revenue requirement for the End User Common Line element divided by the projected average number...) One-twelfth of the projected annual revenue requirement for the End User Common Line element...

  7. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Cox, David G; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel; Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Ouimet, Manon; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Szabo, Csilla; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Andrulis, Irene L; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Caligo, Maria A; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch, Shani S; Borg, Åke; Karlsson, Per; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Bustinza, Gisela Barbany; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti A; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Aalfs, Cora M; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter; Gille, Hans J J P; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Paterson, Joan; Eason, Jacqueline; Godwin, Andrew K; Remon, Marie-Alice; Moncoutier, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lasset, Christine; Giraud, Sophie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Sobol, Hagay; Eisinger, François; Bressac de Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Delnatte, Capucine; Goldgar, David; Miron, Alex; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Buys, Saundra; Southey, Melissa C; Terry, Mary Beth; Singer, Christian F; Dressler, Anne-Catharina; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Hansen, Thomas V O; Johannsson, Oskar; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Basil, Jack B; Blank, Stephanie; Toland, Amanda E; Montagna, Marco; Isaacs, Claudine; Blanco, Ignacio; Gayther, Simon A; Moysich, Kirsten B; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Fiebig, Britta; Caldes, Trinidad; Laframboise, Rachel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan C; Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Sinilnikova, Olga M

    2011-12-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA1 gene would modify the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. A total of 9874 BRCA1 mutation carriers were available in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) for haplotype analyses of BRCA1. Women carrying the rare allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs16942 on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 were at decreased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.77-0.95, P = 0.003). Promoter in vitro assays of the major BRCA1 haplotypes showed that common polymorphisms in the regulatory region alter its activity and that this effect may be attributed to the differential binding affinity of nuclear proteins. In conclusion, variants on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 modify risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA1 mutations, possibly by altering the efficiency of BRCA1 transcription.

  8. On the correlation between the structure of lyotropic carriers and the delivery profiles of two common NSAIDs.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Avrahami, Marganit; Shames, Alexander I; Ottaviani, M Francesca; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2014-10-01

    Two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), sodium diclofenac (Na-DFC) and celecoxib (CLXB) were solubilized within cubic and lamellar mesophases as carriers for transdermal drug delivery. SD-NMR, SAXS, ATR-FTIR, and EPR measurements were performed to examine the systems' characteristics and the interactions between the drugs and their hosting mesophases. The amphiphilic drug Na-DFC was found to incorporate at the interfaces of the cubic and lamellar mesophases and thus to act as a cosurfactant and a "structure stabilizer". It increased the order degree and the interactions between the GMO molecules and led the systems toward denser packing. CLXB exhibits an opposite effect on the mesophases. Its solubilization within both systems is accompanied with significant channel swelling and decrease in the order degree. The hydrophobic, rigid and bulky CLXB behaves as a "structure breaker", incorporated between the GMO tails, disturbing the mesophase packing and enhancing the repulsion at the tails region, limiting their close binding. Release experiments from Franz cells revealed that Na-DFC release is dependent on the quantity of water within the hosting mesophase as the water-rich formulation exhibits 1.5-fold enhancement in the release of the drug, compared to the lamellar phase. In contrast, CLXB release was not influenced by the water quantity, hinting that the release mechanisms of the drugs are different while Na-DFC diffuses from the water channels to the external phase, CLXB diffusion occurs through the continuous lipophilic region. The difference in the solubilization sites and interactions of each drug with the mesophases affect their release profiles and determine the preferred formulations for each drug's delivery vehicle.

  9. Common Polymorphisms in the Solute Carrier SLC30A10 are Associated With Blood Manganese and Neurological Function

    PubMed Central

    Kippler, Maria; Alhamdow, Ayman; Rahman, Syed Moshfiqur; Smith, Donald R.; Vahter, Marie; Lucchini, Roberto G.; Broberg, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient in humans, but excessive exposure to Mn may cause neurotoxicity. Despite homeostatic regulation, Mn concentrations in blood vary considerably among individuals. We evaluated if common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SLC30A10, which likely encodes an Mn transporter, influence blood Mn concentrations and neurological function. We measured blood Mn concentrations by ICP-MS or atomic absorption spectroscopy and genotyped 2 SLC30A10 non-coding SNPs (rs2275707 and rs12064812) by TaqMan PCR in cohorts from Bangladesh (N = 406), the Argentinean Andes (N = 198), and Italy (N = 238). We also measured SLC30A10 expression in whole blood by TaqMan PCR in a sub-group (N = 101) from the Andean cohort, and neurological parameters (sway velocity and finger-tapping speed) in the Italian cohort. The rs2275707 variant allele was associated with increased Mn concentrations in the Andes (8%, P = .027) and Italy (10.6%, P = .012), but not as clear in Bangladesh (3.4%, P = .21; linear regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and plasma ferritin). This allele was also associated with increased sway velocity (15%, P = .033; adjusted for age and sex) and reduced SLC30A10 expression (−24.6%, P = .029). In contrast, the rs12064812 variant homozygous genotype was associated with reduced Mn concentrations, particularly in the Italian cohort (−18.4%, P = .04), and increased finger-tapping speed (8.7%, P = .025). We show that common SNPs in SLC30A10 are associated with blood Mn concentrations in 3 unrelated cohorts and that their influence may be mediated by altered SLC30A10 expression. Moreover, the SNPs appeared to influence neurological functions independent of blood Mn concentrations, suggesting that SLC30A10 could regulate brain Mn levels. PMID:26628504

  10. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles and the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: implications for risk prediction.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Beesley, Jonathan; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Healey, Sue; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan Chun; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Lynch, Henry T; Isaacs, Claudine; Ganz, Patricia A; Tomlinson, Gail; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane M; Pankratz, Vernon S; Radice, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Allavena, Anna; Dall'Olio, Valentina; Peterlongo, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I; Zikan, Michal; Claes, Kathleen; Poppe, Bruce; Foretova, Lenka; Mai, Phuong L; Greene, Mark H; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Andrulis, Irene L; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Sunde, Lone; Cruger, Dorthe; Birk Jensen, Uffe; Caligo, Maria; Friedman, Eitan; Kaufman, Bella; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Dubrovsky, Maya; Cohen, Shimrit; Borg, Ake; Jernström, Helena; Lindblom, Annika; Rantala, Johanna; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Kate; Domchek, Susan; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Osorio, Ana; Lasa, Adriana; Durán, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Godino, Javier; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Kriege, Mieke; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, E J; Blok, Marinus J; Aalfs, Cora M; Hogervorst, Frans; Rookus, Matti; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Conroy, Don; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Pichert, Gabriella; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J; Porteous, Mary E; Walker, Lisa; Kennedy, M John; Dorkins, Huw; Peock, Susan; Godwin, Andrew K; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; de Pauw, Antoine; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bonadona, Valérie; Lasset, Christine; Dreyfus, Hélène; Leroux, Dominique; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Sobol, Hagay; Rouleau, Etienne; Nogues, Catherine; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Hopper, John L; Daly, Mary B; Terry, Mary B; John, Esther M; Buys, Saundra S; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alexander; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Dressler, Anne Catharina; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Hansen, Thomas V O; Jønson, Lars; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Devlin, Vincent; Dutra-Clarke, Ana; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F; Basil, Jack; Schwartz, Peter E; Blank, Stephanie V; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Tihomirova, Laima; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Ramus, Susan J; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y; Gross, Jenny; Schmutzler, Rita; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Lochmann, Magdalena; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Schönbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B; Holland, Helene; Chen, Xiaoqing; Platte, Radka; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F

    2010-12-01

    The known breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, and 2q35 confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11, and rs10941679 at 5p12, and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.18, P = 0.006 and HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.19, P = 0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 carriers, and rs6504950 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the 9 polymorphisms investigated, 7 were associated with breast cancer for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, P = 7 × 10(-11) - 0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (P = 0.0049, 0.03, respectively). All risk-associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the 7 risk-associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e., between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing breast cancer by age 80, compared with 42% to 50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences might be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers.

  11. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles and the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: implications for risk prediction

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Beesley, Jonathan; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Lynch, Henry T.; Isaacs, Claudine; Ganz, Patricia A.; Tomlinson, Gail; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane M.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Radice, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Allavena, Anna; Dall’Olio, Valentina; Peterlongo, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I.; Zikan, Michal; Claes, Kathleen; Poppe, Bruce; Foretova, Lenka; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Sunde, Lone; Cruger, Dorthe; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria; Friedman, Eitan; Kaufman, Bella; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Dubrovsky, Maya; Cohen, Shimrit; Borg, Ake; Jernström, Helena; Lindblom, Annika; Rantala, Johanna; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Kate; Domchek, Susan; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Osorio, Ana; Lasa, Adriana; Durán, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Godino, Javier; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Kriege, Mieke; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, E.J.; Blok, Marinus J; Aalfs, Cora M.; Hogervorst, Frans; Rookus, Matti; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Conroy, Don; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Pichert, Gabriella; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary E.; Walker, Lisa; Kennedy, M. John; Dorkins, Huw; Peock, Susan; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; de Pauw, Antoine; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bonadona, Valérie; Lasset, Christine; Dreyfus, Hélène; Leroux, Dominique; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Sobol, Hagay; Rouleau, Etienne; Nogues, Catherine; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Hopper, John L.; Daly, Mary B.; Terry, Mary B.; John, Esther M.; Buys, Saundra S.; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alex; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; Dressler, Anne Catharina; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Jønson, Lars; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Devlin, Vincent; Dutra-Clarke, Ana; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F.; Basil, Jack; Schwartz, Peter E.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Tihomirova, Laima; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Ramus, Susan J.; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Schmutzler, Rita; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Lochmann, Magdalena; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Schönbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Holland, Helene; Chen, Xiaoqing; Platte, Radka; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    The known breast cancer (BC) susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1,LSP1 and 2q35 confer increased risks of BC for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of three additional SNPs, rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11 and rs10941679 at 5p12 and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased BC risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.10, 95%CI:1.03-1.18, p=0.006 and HR=1.09, 95%CI:1.01-1.19, p=0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers and rs6504950 was not associated with BC for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the nine polymorphisms investigated, seven were associated with BC for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, p-values:7×10−11-0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (p=0.0049, 0.03 respectively). All risk associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on BC risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the seven risk associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e. between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing BC by age 80, compared with 42-50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences may be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers. PMID:21118973

  12. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are associated with tumour subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers defined by estrogen (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) status of the tumour. Methods We used genotype data on up to 11,421 BRCA1 and 7,080 BRCA2 carriers, of whom 4,310 had been affected with breast cancer and had information on either ER or PR status of the tumour, to assess the associations of 12 loci with breast cancer tumour characteristics. Associations were evaluated using a retrospective cohort approach. Results The results suggested stronger associations with ER-positive breast cancer than ER-negative for 11 loci in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Among BRCA1 carriers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2981582 (FGFR2) exhibited the biggest difference based on ER status (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) for ER-positive = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.56 vs HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.85 to 0.98 for ER-negative, P-heterogeneity = 6.5 × 10-6). In contrast, SNP rs2046210 at 6q25.1 near ESR1 was primarily associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. In BRCA2 carriers, SNPs in FGFR2, TOX3, LSP1, SLC4A7/NEK10, 5p12, 2q35, and 1p11.2 were significantly associated with ER-positive but not ER-negative disease. Similar results were observed when differentiating breast cancer cases by PR status. Conclusions The associations of the 12 SNPs with risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers differ by ER-positive or ER-negative breast cancer status. The apparent differences in SNP associations between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, and non-carriers, may be explicable by differences in the prevalence of tumour subtypes. As more risk modifying variants are identified, incorporating these associations into breast cancer subtype-specific risk models

  13. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Soucy, Penny; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Cattaneo, Elisa; Barile, Monica; Pensotti, Valeria; Pasini, Barbara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Giannini, Giuseppe; Laura Putignano, Anna; Varesco, Liliana; Radice, Paolo; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Birk Jensen, Uffe; Crüger, Dorthe G.; Caligo, Maria A.; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Friedman, Eitan; Loman, Niklas; Harbst, Katja; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Ehrencrona, Hans; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Gorski, Bohdan; Osorio, Ana; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Fostira, Florentia; Andrés, Raquel; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Rookus, Matti A.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Nelen, Marcel R.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; van Os, Theo A.M.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Leyland, Jean; Gareth Evans, D.; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Ong, Kai-ren; Cook, Jackie; Douglas, Fiona; Paterson, Joan; John Kennedy, M.; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Godwin, Andrew; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno; Belotti, Muriel; Tirapo, Carole; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Lasset, Christine; Leroux, Dominique; Faivre, Laurence; Bronner, Myriam; Prieur, Fabienne; Nogues, Catherine; Rouleau, Etienne; Pujol, Pascal; Coupier, Isabelle; Frénay, Marc; Hopper, John L.; Daly, Mary B.; Terry, Mary B.; John, Esther M.; Buys, Saundra S.; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alexander; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Catharina Dressler, Anne; Hansen, Thomas v.O.; Jønson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Bjork Barkardottir, Rosa; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Small, Laurie; Boggess, John; Blank, Stephanie; Basil, Jack; Azodi, Masoud; Ewart Toland, Amanda; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine S.; Olah, Edith; Bozsik, Aniko; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Seldon, Joyce L.; Beattie, Mary S.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Sluiter, Michelle D.; Diez, Orland; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Kast, Karin; Deissler, Helmut; Niederacher, Dieter; Arnold, Norbert; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Schönbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Dumont, Martine; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Tischkowitz, Marc; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Chun Ding, Yuan; Fredericksen, Zachary; Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Couch, Fergus; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants: rs11249433 at 1p11.2 and rs999737 in RAD51L1 at 14q24.1. Although previously identified breast cancer susceptibility variants have been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, the involvement of these SNPs to breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers is currently unknown. To address this, we genotyped these SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from 42 studies from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. In the analysis of 14 123 BRCA1 and 8053 BRCA2 mutation carriers of European ancestry, the 6q25.1 SNPs (r2 = 0.14) were independently associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.23, P-trend = 4.5 × 10−9 for rs2046210; HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18–1.40, P-trend = 1.3 × 10−8 for rs9397435], but only rs9397435 was associated with the risk for BRCA2 carriers (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01–1.28, P-trend = 0.031). SNP rs11249433 (1p11.2) was associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02–1.17, P-trend = 0.015), but was not associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.92–1.02, P-trend = 0.20). SNP rs999737 (RAD51L1) was not associated with breast cancer risk for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers (P-trend = 0.27 and 0.30, respectively). The identification of SNPs at 6q25.1 associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers will lead to a better understanding of the biology of tumour development in these women. PMID:21593217

  14. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Soucy, Penny; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Cattaneo, Elisa; Barile, Monica; Pensotti, Valeria; Pasini, Barbara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Giannini, Giuseppe; Putignano, Anna Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Radice, Paolo; Mai, Phuong L; Greene, Mark H; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A; Birk Jensen, Uffe; Crüger, Dorthe G; Caligo, Maria A; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Friedman, Eitan; Loman, Niklas; Harbst, Katja; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Ehrencrona, Hans; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Gorski, Bohdan; Osorio, Ana; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Fostira, Florentia; Andrés, Raquel; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B; Rookus, Matti A; Hooning, Maartje J; Nelen, Marcel R; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Os, Theo A M; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Leyland, Jean; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Ong, Kai-ren; Cook, Jackie; Douglas, Fiona; Paterson, Joan; Kennedy, M John; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Godwin, Andrew; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno; Belotti, Muriel; Tirapo, Carole; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Lasset, Christine; Leroux, Dominique; Faivre, Laurence; Bronner, Myriam; Prieur, Fabienne; Nogues, Catherine; Rouleau, Etienne; Pujol, Pascal; Coupier, Isabelle; Frénay, Marc; Hopper, John L; Daly, Mary B; Terry, Mary B; John, Esther M; Buys, Saundra S; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alexander; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Dressler, Anne Catharina; Hansen, Thomas v O; Jønson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Barkardottir, Rosa Bjork; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Small, Laurie; Boggess, John; Blank, Stephanie; Basil, Jack; Azodi, Masoud; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Pharoah, Paul D P; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y; Walsh, Christine S; Olah, Edith; Bozsik, Aniko; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Seldon, Joyce L; Beattie, Mary S; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Sluiter, Michelle D; Diez, Orland; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Kast, Karin; Deissler, Helmut; Niederacher, Dieter; Arnold, Norbert; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Schönbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Dumont, Martine; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Tischkowitz, Marc; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B; Neuhausen, Susan L; Chun Ding, Yuan; Fredericksen, Zachary; Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, Vernon S; Couch, Fergus; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2011-08-15

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants: rs11249433 at 1p11.2 and rs999737 in RAD51L1 at 14q24.1. Although previously identified breast cancer susceptibility variants have been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, the involvement of these SNPs to breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers is currently unknown. To address this, we genotyped these SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from 42 studies from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. In the analysis of 14 123 BRCA1 and 8053 BRCA2 mutation carriers of European ancestry, the 6q25.1 SNPs (r(2) = 0.14) were independently associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.23, P-trend = 4.5 × 10(-9) for rs2046210; HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18-1.40, P-trend = 1.3 × 10(-8) for rs9397435], but only rs9397435 was associated with the risk for BRCA2 carriers (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.28, P-trend = 0.031). SNP rs11249433 (1p11.2) was associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17, P-trend = 0.015), but was not associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.92-1.02, P-trend = 0.20). SNP rs999737 (RAD51L1) was not associated with breast cancer risk for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers (P-trend = 0.27 and 0.30, respectively). The identification of SNPs at 6q25.1 associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers will lead to a better understanding of the biology of tumour development in these women.

  15. Common variants associated with breast cancer in genome-wide association studies are modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, V Shane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Tarrell, Robert; Karaus, Mary; McGuffog, Lesley; Pharaoh, Paul D P; Ponder, Bruce A J; Dunning, Alison M; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Houdayer, Claude; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Hooning, Maartje J; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J; Spurdle, Amanda; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Singer, Christian F; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Dressler, Catherina; Fink, Anneliese; Szabo, Csilla I; Zikan, Michal; Foretova, Lenka; Claes, Kathleen; Thomas, Gilles; Hoover, Robert N; Hunter, David J; Chanock, Stephen J; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C; Couch, Fergus J

    2010-07-15

    Recent studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Since these risk modifiers were originally identified as genetic risk factors for breast cancer in genome-wide association studies (GWASs), additional risk modifiers for BRCA1 and BRCA2 may be identified from promising signals discovered in breast cancer GWAS. A total of 350 SNPs identified as candidate breast cancer risk factors (P < 1 x 10(-3)) in two breast cancer GWAS studies were genotyped in 3451 BRCA1 and 2006 BRCA2 mutation carriers from nine centers. Associations with breast cancer risk were assessed using Cox models weighted for penetrance. Eight SNPs in BRCA1 carriers and 12 SNPs in BRCA2 carriers, representing an enrichment over the number expected, were significantly associated with breast cancer risk (P(trend) < 0.01). The minor alleles of rs6138178 in SNRPB and rs6602595 in CAMK1D displayed the strongest associations in BRCA1 carriers (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.69-0.90, P(trend) = 3.6 x 10(-4) and HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.10-1.41, P(trend) = 4.2 x 10(-4)), whereas rs9393597 in LOC134997 and rs12652447 in FBXL7 showed the strongest associations in BRCA2 carriers (HR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.25-1.92, P(trend) = 6 x 10(-5) and HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.16-1.62, P(trend) = 1.7 x 10(-4)). The magnitude and direction of the associations were consistent with the original GWAS. In subsequent risk assessment studies, the loci appeared to interact multiplicatively for breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Promising candidate SNPs from GWAS were identified as modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Upon further validation, these SNPs together with other genetic and environmental factors may improve breast cancer risk assessment in these populations.

  16. Common variants in LSP1, 2q35 and 8q24 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Sinilnikova, Olga M; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan C; Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Viel, Alessandra; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I; Foretova, Lenka; Zikan, Michal; Claes, Kathleen; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Glendon, Gord; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Sunde, Lone; Caligo, Maria A; Laitman, Yael; Kontorovich, Tair; Cohen, Shimrit; Kaufman, Bella; Dagan, Efrat; Baruch, Ruth Gershoni; Friedman, Eitan; Harbst, Katja; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Karlsson, Per; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Osorio, Ana; Blanco, Ignacio; Lasa, Adriana; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Rookus, Matti A; Collee, J Margriet; Devilee, Peter; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J; van der Luijt, Rob B; Aalfs, Cora M; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wijnen, Juul; van Roozendaal, Cornelis E P; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Frost, Debra; Oliver, Clare; Platte, Radka; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Rosalind; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Chu, Carol; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Hodgson, Shirley; Godwin, Andrew K; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno; Léoné, Mélanie; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert M; Sevenet, Nicolas; Longy, Michel; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Prieur, Fabienne; Goldgar, David; Miron, Alexander; John, Esther M; Buys, Saundra S; Daly, Mary B; Hopper, John L; Terry, Mary Beth; Yassin, Yosuf; Singer, Christian; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Staudigl, Christine; Hansen, Thomas v O; Barkardottir, Rosa Bjork; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Pal, Prodipto; Kosarin, Kristi; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F; Basil, Jack; Schwartz, Peter E; Blank, Stephanie V; Toland, Amanda E; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Allavena, Anna; Schmutzler, Rita K; Versmold, Beatrix; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Deissler, Helmut; Fiebig, Britta; Suttner, Christian; Schönbuchner, Ines; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Pooley, Karen A; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2009-11-15

    Genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with increased breast cancer risks in the general population. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the minor alleles at three of these SNPs, in FGFR2, TNRC9 and MAP3K1, also confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Three additional SNPs rs3817198 at LSP1, rs13387042 at 2q35 and rs13281615 at 8q24 have since been reported to be associated with breast cancer in the general population, and in this study we evaluated their association with breast cancer risk in 9442 BRCA1 and 5665 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 33 study centres. The minor allele of rs3817198 was associated with increased breast cancer risk only for BRCA2 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07-1.25, P-trend = 2.8 x 10(-4)]. The best fit for the association of SNP rs13387042 at 2q35 with breast cancer risk was a dominant model for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (BRCA1: HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04-1.25, P = 0.0047; BRCA2: HR = 1.18 95% CI: 1.04-1.33, P = 0.0079). SNP rs13281615 at 8q24 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, but the estimated association for BRCA2 mutation carriers (per-allele HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.98-1.14) was consistent with odds ratio estimates derived from population-based case-control studies. The LSP1 and 2q35 SNPs appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers. There was no evidence that the associations vary by mutation type depending on whether the mutated protein is predicted to be stable or not.

  17. Carrier Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Women with Hemophilia Inheritance of Hemophilia Definitions & Terminology Bleeding Symptoms Carrier Diagnosis When to Test for ... and Women with Hemophilia Inheritance of Hemophilia Definitions & Terminology Bleeding Symptoms Carrier Diagnosis When to Test for ...

  18. Common variants at 12p11, 12q24, 9p21, 9q31.2 and in ZNF365 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Several common alleles have been shown to be associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Recent genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified eight additional breast cancer susceptibility loci: rs1011970 (9p21, CDKN2A/B), rs10995190 (ZNF365), rs704010 (ZMIZ1), rs2380205 (10p15), rs614367 (11q13), rs1292011 (12q24), rs10771399 (12p11 near PTHLH) and rs865686 (9q31.2). Methods To evaluate whether these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, we genotyped these SNPs in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 mutation carriers and analysed the associations with breast cancer risk within a retrospective likelihood framework. Results Only SNP rs10771399 near PTHLH was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.81 to 0.94, P-trend = 3 × 10-4). The association was restricted to mutations proven or predicted to lead to absence of protein expression (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90, P-trend = 3.1 × 10-5, P-difference = 0.03). Four SNPs were associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs10995190, P-trend = 0.015; rs1011970, P-trend = 0.048; rs865686, 2df-P = 0.007; rs1292011 2df-P = 0.03. rs10771399 (PTHLH) was predominantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90, P-trend = 4 × 10-5) and there was marginal evidence of association with ER-negative breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.00, P-trend = 0.049). Conclusions The present findings, in combination with previously identified modifiers of risk, will ultimately lead to more accurate risk prediction and an improved understanding of the disease etiology in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:22348646

  19. Differential Impact of Plasma Proteins on the Adhesion Efficiency of Vascular-Targeted Carriers (VTCs) in Blood of Common Laboratory Animals.

    PubMed

    Namdee, Katawut; Sobczynski, Daniel J; Onyskiw, Peter J; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2015-12-16

    Vascular-targeted carrier (VTC) interaction with human plasma is known to reduce targeted adhesion efficiency in vitro. However, the role of plasma proteins on the adhesion efficiency of VTCs in laboratory animals remains unknown. Here, in vitro blood flow assays are used to explore the effects of plasma from mouse, rabbit, and porcine on VTC adhesion. Porcine blood exhibited a strong negative plasma effect on VTC adhesion while no significant plasma effect was found with rabbit and mouse blood. A brush density poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on VTCs was effective at improving adhesion of microsized, but not nanosized, VTCs in porcine blood. Overall, the results suggest that porcine models, as opposed to mouse, can serve as better models in preclinical research for predicting the in vivo functionality of VTCs for use in humans. These considerations hold great importance for the design of various pharmaceutical products and development of reliable drug delivery systems.

  20. Differential impact of plasma proteins on the adhesion efficiency of vascular-targeted carriers (VTCs) in blood of common laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Namdee, Katawut; Sobczynski, Daniel J.; Onyskiw, Peter J.; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2016-01-01

    Vascular-targeted carrier (VTC) interaction with human plasma is known to reduce targeted adhesion efficiency in vitro. However, the role of plasma proteins on the adhesion efficiency of VTCs in laboratory animals remains unknown. Here, in vitro blood flow assays are used to explore the effects of plasma from mouse, rabbit and porcine on VTC adhesion. Porcine blood exhibited a strong negative plasma effect on VTC adhesion while no significant plasma effect was found with rabbit and mouse blood. A brush density poly(ethylene)-glycol (PEG) on VTCs was effective at improving adhesion of micro-sized, but not nano-sized, VTCs in porcine blood. Overall, the results suggest that porcine models, as opposed to mouse, can serve as a better model in preclinical research for predicting the in vivo functionality of VTCs for use in humans. These considerations hold great importance for the design of various pharmaceutical products and development of reliable drug delivery systems. PMID:26505780

  1. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier. 35.4 Section 35.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common or private carrier, including, but...

  2. 47 CFR 54.904 - Carrier certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier certification. 54.904 Section 54.904 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Interstate Common Line Support Mechanism for Rate-of-Return Carriers § 54.904...

  3. Carrier frequency of a nonsense mutation in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene implies a high incidence of ADA-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in Somalia and a single, common haplotype indicates common ancestry.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Juan J; Monaghan, Gemma; Børsting, Claus; Norbury, Gail; Morling, Niels; Gaspar, H Bobby

    2007-05-01

    Inherited adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is a rare metabolic disorder that causes immunodeficiency, varying from severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in the majority of cases to a less severe form in a small minority of patients. Five patients of Somali origin from four unrelated families, with severe ADA-SCID, were registered in the Greater London area. Patients and their parents were investigated for the nonsense mutation Q3X (ADA c7C>T), two missense mutations K80R (ADA c239A>G) and R142Q (ADA c425G>A), and a TAAA repeat located at the 3' end of an Alu element (AluVpA) positioned 1.1 kb upstream of the ADA transcription start site. All patients were homozygous for the haplotype ADA-7T/ADA-239G/ADA-425G/AluVpA7. Among 207 Somali immigrants to Denmark, the frequency of ADA c7C>T and the maximum likelihood estimate of the frequency of the haplotype ADA-7T/ADA-239G/ADA-425G/AluVpA7 were both 0.012 (carrier frequency 2.4%). Based on the analysis of AluVpA alleles, the ADA c7C/T mutation was estimated to be approximately 7,100 years old. Approximately 1 out of 5 - 10000 Somali children will be born with ADA deficiency due to an ADA c7C/T mutation, although within certain clans the frequency may be significantly higher. ADA-SCID may be a frequent immunodeficiency disorder in Somalia, but will be underdiagnosed due to the prevailing socioeconomic and nutritional deprivation.

  4. A study of common Mendelian disease carriers across ageing British cohorts: meta-analyses reveal heterozygosity for alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency increases respiratory capacity and height

    PubMed Central

    North, Teri-Louise; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Cooper, Cyrus; Deary, Ian J; Gallacher, John; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Martin, Richard M; Pattie, Alison; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Starr, John M; Wong, Andrew; Kuh, Diana; Rodriguez, Santiago; Day, Ian N M

    2016-01-01

    Background Several recessive Mendelian disorders are common in Europeans, including cystic fibrosis (CFTR), medium-chain-acyl-Co-A-dehydrogenase deficiency (ACADM), phenylketonuria (PAH) and alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (SERPINA1). Methods In a multicohort study of >19 000 older individuals, we investigated the relevant phenotypes in heterozygotes for these genes: lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC)) for CFTR and SERPINA1; cognitive measures for ACADM and PAH; and physical capability for ACADM, PAH and SERPINA1. Results Findings were mostly negative but lung function in SERPINA1 (protease inhibitor (PI) Z allele, rs28929474) showed enhanced FEV1 and FVC (0.13 z-score increase in FEV1 (p=1.7×10−5) and 0.16 z-score increase in FVC (p=5.2×10−8)) in PI-MZ individuals. Height adjustment (a known, strong correlate of FEV1 and FVC) revealed strong positive height associations of the Z allele (1.50 cm increase in height (p=3.6×10−10)). Conclusions The PI-MZ rare (2%) SNP effect is nearly four times greater than the ‘top’ common height SNP in HMGA2. However, height only partially attenuates the SERPINA1-FEV1 or FVC association (around 50%) and vice versa. Height SNP variants have recently been shown to be positively selected collectively in North versus South Europeans, while the Z allele high frequency is localised to North Europe. Although PI-ZZ is clinically disadvantageous to lung function, PI-MZ increases both height and respiratory function; potentially a balanced polymorphism. Partial blockade of PI could conceivably form part of a future poly-therapeutic approach in very short children. The notion that elastase inhibition should benefit patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may also merit re-evaluation. PI is already a therapeutic target: our findings invite a reconsideration of the optimum level in respiratory care and novel pathway potential for development of agents for the

  5. 7 CFR 33.4 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier. 33.4 Section 33.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common...

  6. Hydrogen carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Teng; Pachfule, Pradip; Wu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen has the potential to be a major energy vector in a renewable and sustainable future energy mix. The efficient production, storage and delivery of hydrogen are key technical issues that require improvement before its potential can be realized. In this Review, we focus on recent advances in materials development for on-board hydrogen storage. We highlight the strategic design and optimization of hydrides of light-weight elements (for example, boron, nitrogen and carbon) and physisorbents (for example, metal-organic and covalent organic frameworks). Furthermore, hydrogen carriers (for example, NH3, CH3OH-H2O and cycloalkanes) for large-scale distribution and for on-site hydrogen generation are discussed with an emphasis on dehydrogenation catalysts.

  7. 46 CFR 565.3 - Classification as controlled carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification as controlled carrier. 565.3 Section 565... MARITIME PRACTICES CONTROLLED CARRIERS § 565.3 Classification as controlled carrier. (a) Notification. The... States and will notify any ocean common carrier of any change in its classification as a...

  8. 46 CFR 565.3 - Classification as controlled carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Classification as controlled carrier. 565.3 Section 565... MARITIME PRACTICES CONTROLLED CARRIERS § 565.3 Classification as controlled carrier. (a) Notification. The... States and will notify any ocean common carrier of any change in its classification as a...

  9. Common variants at the 19p13.1 and ZNF365 loci are associated with ER subtypes of breast cancer and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Fergus J.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Ramus, Susan J.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xianshu; Kirchhoff, Tomas; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Kruse, Torben A.; Caligo, Maria A.; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Loman, Niklas; Soller, Maria; Ehrencrona, Hans; Karlsson, Per; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Domchek, Susan M.; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Cybulski, Cezary; Górski, Bohdan; Osorio, Ana; Durán, Mercedes; Tejada, María Isabel; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B.L.; van Os, Theo A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; Wijnen, Juul; Blok, Marinus J.; Kets, Marleen; Hooning, Maartje J.; Oldenburg, Rogier A.; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana M.; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Brewer, Carole; Douglas, Fiona; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Walker, Lisa; Porteous, Mary E.; Kennedy, M. John; Side, Lucy E.; Bove, Betsy; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Fassy-Colcombet, Marion; Castera, Laurent; Cornelis, François; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Pujol, Pascal; Coupier, Isabelle; Delnatte, Capucine; Akloul, Linda; Lynch, Henry T.; Snyder, Carrie L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Terry, MaryBeth; Chung, Wendy K.; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; Goldgar, David E.; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Tea, Muy-Kheng M.; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Nielsen, Finn C.; Arason, Aðalgeir; Vijai, Joseph; Shah, Sohela; Sarrel, Kara; Robson, Mark E.; Piedmonte, Marion; Phillips, Kelly; Basil, Jack; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Boggess, John; Wakeley, Katie; Ewart-Toland, Amanda; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Brunet, Joan; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul PD; Odunsi, Kunle O.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine S.; Olah, Edith; Teo, Soo Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Dorfling, Cecelia M.; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Heinritz, Wolfram; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Muranen, Taru A.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Tischkowitz, Marc D.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Lindor, Noralane M.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Barile, Monica; Bernard, Loris; Viel, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Varesco, Liliana; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Offit, Kenneth; Simard, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified variants at 19p13.1 and ZNF365 (10q21.2) as risk factors for breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. We explored associations with ovarian cancer and with breast cancer by tumor histopathology for these variants in mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Methods Genotyping data for 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 40 studies were combined. Results We confirmed associations between rs8170 at 19p13.1 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (hazard ratio (HR)=1.17; 95%CI 1.07–1.27; p=7.42×10−4) and between rs16917302 at ZNF365 (HR=0.84; 95%CI 0.73–0.97; p=0.017) but not rs311499 at 20q13.3 (HR=1.11; 95%CI 0.94–1.31; p=0.22) and breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Analyses based on tumor histopathology showed that 19p13 variants were predominantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, whereas rs16917302 at ZNF365 was mainly associated with ER-positive breast cancer for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We also found for the first time that rs67397200 at 19p13.1 was associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer for BRCA1 (HR=1.16; 95%CI 1.05–1.29; p=3.8×10−4) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR=1.30; 95%CI 1.10–1.52; p=1.8×10−3). Conclusions 19p13.1 and ZNF365 are susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer and ER subtypes of breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact These findings can lead to an improved understanding of tumor development and may prove useful for breast and ovarian cancer risk prediction for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:22351618

  10. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening

    PubMed Central

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-01-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  11. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening.

    PubMed

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-06-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines.

  12. 19 CFR 18.1 - Carriers; application to bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to bond. (a)(1) Merchandise to be transported from one port to another in the United States in bond... a common carrier, contract carrier, or freight forwarder may be transported with the use of...” means a common carrier of merchandise owning or operating a railroad, steamship, pipeline, or...

  13. 19 CFR 18.1 - Carriers; application to bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to bond. (a)(1) Merchandise to be transported from one port to another in the United States in bond... a common carrier, contract carrier, or freight forwarder may be transported with the use of...” means a common carrier of merchandise owning or operating a railroad, steamship, pipeline, or...

  14. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... terms of title II of the Railway Labor Act, which was approved April 10, 1936, all of title I, except section 3, which relates to the National Railroad Adjustment Board, was extended to cover every common carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  15. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... terms of title II of the Railway Labor Act, which was approved April 10, 1936, all of title I, except section 3, which relates to the National Railroad Adjustment Board, was extended to cover every common carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  16. 49 CFR 356.11 - Elimination of gateways-regular and irregular route carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... route carriers. 356.11 Section 356.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... irregular route carriers. A motor common carrier of property holding separate grants of authority...

  17. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to...

  18. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to...

  19. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to...

  20. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  1. Reduced CD300LG mRNA tissue expression, increased intramyocellular lipid content and impaired glucose metabolism in healthy male carriers of Arg82Cys in CD300LG: a novel genometabolic cross-link between CD300LG and common metabolic phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Støy, Julie; Kampmann, Ulla; Mengel, Annette; Magnusson, Nils E; Jessen, Niels; Grarup, Niels; Rungby, Jørgen; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Brandslund, Ivan; Christensen, Cramer; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Møller, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Background CD300LG rs72836561 (c.313C>T, p.Arg82Cys) has in genetic-epidemiological studies been associated with the lipoprotein abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. CD300LG belongs to the CD300-family of membrane-bound molecules which have the ability to recognize and interact with extracellular lipids. We tested whether this specific polymorphism results in abnormal lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and liver and other indices of metabolic dysfunction. Methods 40 healthy men with a mean age of 55 years were characterized metabolically including assessment of insulin sensitivity by the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, intrahepatic lipid content (IHLC) and intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL) by MR spectroscopy, and β-cell function by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Changes in insulin signaling and CD300LG mRNA expression were determined by western blotting and quantitative PCR in muscle and adipose tissue. Results Compared with the 20 controls (CC carriers), the 20 CT carriers (polymorphism carriers) had higher IMCL (p=0.045), a reduced fasting forearm glucose uptake (p=0.011), a trend toward lower M-values during the clamp; 6.0 mg/kg/min vs 7.1 (p=0.10), and higher IHLC (p=0.10). CT carriers had lower CD300LG mRNA expression and CD300LG expression in muscle correlated with IMCL (β=−0.35, p=0.046), forearm glucose uptake (β=0.37, p=0.03), and tended to correlate with the M-value (β=0.33, p=0.06), independently of CD300LG genotype. β-cell function was unaffected. Conclusions The CD300LG polymorphism was associated with decreased CD300LG mRNA expression in muscle and adipose tissue, increased IMCL, and abnormalities of glucose metabolism. CD300LG mRNA levels correlated with IMCL and forearm glucose uptake. These findings link a specific CD300LG polymorphism with features of the metabolic syndrome suggesting a role for CD300LG in the regulation of common metabolic traits. Trial registration number NCT01571609. PMID:26336608

  2. 19 CFR 112.11 - Carriers which may be authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carriers which may be authorized. 112.11 Section 112.11 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT.... Canadian and Mexican motor vehicle common carriers may be authorized to transport merchandise under...

  3. 19 CFR 112.11 - Carriers which may be authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carriers which may be authorized. 112.11 Section 112.11 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT.... Canadian and Mexican motor vehicle common carriers may be authorized to transport merchandise under...

  4. Carrier account utilization at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, W. E.; Langmead, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    The system in use at Goddard Space Flight Center for the utilization of the Common Use Service Carrier Account and the R&D Inventory Carrier Account technique for budgeting, accounting, financial control, and management reporting, both for the individual functional area and on a Center-wide basis, is documented.

  5. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  6. Automatic carrier acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunce, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic carrier acquisition system for a phase locked loop (PLL) receiver is disclosed. It includes a local oscillator, which sweeps the receiver to tune across the carrier frequency uncertainty range until the carrier crosses the receiver IF reference. Such crossing is detected by an automatic acquisition detector. It receives the IF signal from the receiver as well as the IF reference. It includes a pair of multipliers which multiply the IF signal with the IF reference in phase and in quadrature. The outputs of the multipliers are filtered through bandpass filters and power detected. The output of the power detector has a signal dc component which is optimized with respect to the noise dc level by the selection of the time constants of the filters as a function of the sweep rate of the local oscillator.

  7. Specialized Common Carriers: Long Distance Alternatives for Military Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    2000) -NNZ (2000) ,COST 42000f, FLAG C C THE FCLLOWING ISO STATEMENTS ADD .0001 TO COST TO ACCOUNT FOR C MACHINE ROUNDING ERROR AND CALCULATE AN...C***********TO ALASKA OR HAWAII NON-NETWORKCIES*********** C C3.33= 13333 *0333 C SuN O1 COSTS CALCULATED IN DO 10 C C3=C3 +C3 134C 3 2 -C333 �

  8. The carrier-generating analysis of MEMS gyroscope interface circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, GuangMin; Yuan, Weizheng; Zhu, Xiaobo; Chang, HongLong

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the main factors which influence the noise ratio of gyroscope output signal were analysed, according to the MEMS gyro interface circuit technology. A working principle of a carrier in the gyroscope circuit was discussed, the process formula of the carrier amplitude and frequency in the interface circuit of modulation and demodulation was deduced, and the error components lead-in from carrier to gyroscope circuit was distinguished. Several commonly used carrier-generating circuit schemes were analysed and compared, and a carrier-generating program in the interface circuits of the micro-gyroscope was designed, which was applied in a MEMS gyro developed by our laboratory. The measurement results show that the amplitude stability and frequency stability is 1.3 ppm and 12 ppm, respectively, meeting the performance requirements of carrier generating in the MEMS gyro circuit.

  9. Preconception Carrier Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can the results of a carrier screening test tell me? A genetic counselor or your health care provider will use the results to calculate the ... the publisher. Related FAQs Genetic Disorders (FAQ094) Screening Tests for Birth Defects ... Education & Events Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG ...

  10. Synthetic carriers of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Dellacherie, E; Labrude, P; Vigneron, C; Riess, J G

    1987-01-01

    During the last decade, construction of artificial carriers of oxygen for transfusion purposes has evolved in three main directions, which can be reviewed as follows. The first approach consists of modifying hemoglobin (Hb), the natural oxygen carrier, in order to lower its oxygen affinity and increase its intravascular persistence. To achieve this aim, two basic procedures have been used: molecular and environmental modification. In the first case, Hb is modified with chemical reagents; the second requires encapsulation of Hb to obtain artificial erythrocytes. The second approach is based on the use of synthetic oxygen-carrying chelates that mimic the oxygenation function of Hb. The main products in this class are metalloporphyrins, whose chemical environment is designed to render them efficient as reversible carriers of oxygen in vivo. Finally, the third approach deals with the perfluorochemicals used in emulsified form. Perfluorochemical liquids are excellent gas solvents, but some problems remain unsolved with regard to their development as oxygen carriers in vivo: low O2 dissolving capacity, toxicity, and excretion.

  11. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  12. Sealed substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava [Fremont, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are held, and conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body. A conductive bus bar is embedded into a top side of the carrier body and is conductively coupled to the conductive lines. A thermoplastic overmold covers a portion of the bus bar, and there is a plastic-to-plastic bond between the thermoplastic overmold and the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  13. Laboratory Studies of DIB Carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    Spectroscopic studies of the following potential diffuse interstellar band (DIB) carriers are reviewed: unspecified organics, carbon chains, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fullerenes and derivatives, as well as porphyrins and related material. An assessment of each is given, along with suggestions for further experimental studies needed to fully test each candidate. Of the experimental techniques in common use matrix isolation spectroscopy with neon matrices is the most appropriate for the DIBs. The low vapor pressure and high reactivity of these materials preclude gas phase studies on many of these species. At this point, given the type and quality of published data available, carbon chains and PARs are the most promising candidates for a number of the DIBs.

  14. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  15. Yarn carrier with clutch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyne, Richard A. (Inventor); Benson, Rio H. (Inventor); El-Shiekh, Aly (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A yarn carrier apparatus particularly suited for use in braiding machinery or the like due to its capability of continuous yarn feeding and retraction of long lengths of yarn. The yarn carrier apparatus comprises a yarn supply spool which is rotatably mounted within the housing, a spring motor also mounted within the housing and operatively connected to the yarn supply spool through a mechanical transmission assembly which is adapted to multiply rotational movement between the first element of the gear assembly operatively connected to the spring motor and the final element of the gear assembly operatively connected to the yarn supply spool. The spring motor is adapted to tension the yarn during both feeding and retraction thereof, and it is further adapted to periodically rotatably slip within the housing and partially unwind so as to allow for continuous withdrawal of a long length of yarn without the spring motor becoming fully wound and preventing further yarn retraction.

  16. 47 CFR 69.305 - Carrier cable and wire facilities (C&WF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier cable and wire facilities (C&WF). 69.305 Section 69.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.305 Carrier cable and...

  17. 47 CFR 69.305 - Carrier cable and wire facilities (C&WF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carrier cable and wire facilities (C&WF). 69.305 Section 69.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.305 Carrier cable and...

  18. 47 CFR 69.305 - Carrier cable and wire facilities (C&WF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carrier cable and wire facilities (C&WF). 69.305 Section 69.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.305 Carrier cable and...

  19. 47 CFR 69.305 - Carrier cable and wire facilities (C&WF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carrier cable and wire facilities (C&WF). 69.305 Section 69.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.305 Carrier cable and...

  20. 47 CFR 69.305 - Carrier cable and wire facilities (C&WF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carrier cable and wire facilities (C&WF). 69.305 Section 69.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.305 Carrier cable and...

  1. 47 CFR 54.517 - Services provided by non-telecommunications carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services provided by non-telecommunications carriers. 54.517 Section 54.517 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON....517 Services provided by non-telecommunications carriers. (a) Non-telecommunications carriers shall...

  2. 47 CFR 54.307 - Support to a competitive eligible telecommunications carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... eligible telecommunications carrier serving loops in the service area of a rural incumbent local exchange... service area of a non-rural incumbent local exchange carrier shall receive support for each line it serves...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas §...

  3. 47 CFR 54.307 - Support to a competitive eligible telecommunications carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... eligible telecommunications carrier serving loops in the service area of a rural incumbent local exchange... service area of a non-rural incumbent local exchange carrier shall receive support for each line it serves...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas §...

  4. 47 CFR 54.307 - Support to a competitive eligible telecommunications carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... eligible telecommunications carrier serving loops in the service area of a rural incumbent local exchange... service area of a non-rural incumbent local exchange carrier shall receive support for each line it serves...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas §...

  5. 47 CFR 54.209 - Annual reporting requirements for designated eligible telecommunications carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Carriers Eligible for Universal... detailing its progress towards meeting its plan targets, an explanation of how much universal service... carrier's annual report must include information detailing: (A) The date and time of onset of the...

  6. QCI Common

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  7. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chen-An; Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor; Ma, Diana Xiaobing

    2016-08-02

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  8. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chen-An [Milpitas, CA; Abas, Emmanuel Chua [Laguna, PH; Divino, Edmundo Anida [Cavite, PH; Ermita, Jake Randal G [Laguna, PH; Capulong, Jose Francisco S [Laguna, PH; Castillo, Arnold Villamor [Batangas, PH; Ma,; Xiaobing, Diana [Saratoga, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  9. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  10. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Bseiso, Eman Ahmed; Nasr, Maha; Sammour, Omaima; Abd El Gawad, Nabaweya A

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles.

  11. Telemetry carrier ring and support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A telemetry carrier ring for use in a gas turbine engine includes an annular support ring connected to the engine and an annular carrier ring coupled to the support ring, each ring exhibiting different growth characteristics in response to thermal and mechanical loading. The carrier ring is coupled to the support ring by a plurality of circumferentially spaced web members which are relatively thin in an engine radial direction to provide a predetermined degree of radial flexibility. the web members have a circumferential width and straight axial line of action selected to transfer torque and thrust between the support ring and the carrier ring without substantial deflection. The use of the web members with radial flexibility provides compensation between the support ring and the carrier ring since the carrier ring grows at a different rate than the supporting ring.

  12. Personnel emergency carrier vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lester J. (Inventor); Fedor, Otto H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A personnel emergency carrier vehicle is disclosed which includes a vehicle frame supported on steerable front wheels and driven rear wheels. A supply of breathing air is connected to quick connect face mask coupling and umbilical cord couplings for supplying breathing air to an injured worker or attendant either with or without a self-contained atmospheric protection suit for protection against hazardous gases at an accident site. A non-sparking hydraulic motion is utilized to drive the vehicle and suitable direction and throttling controls are provided for controlling the delivery of a hydraulic driving fluid from a pressurized hydraulic fluid accumulator. A steering axis is steerable through a handle to steer the front wheels through a linkage assembly.

  13. 47 CFR 54.903 - Obligations of rate-of-return carriers and the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obligations of rate-of-return carriers and the Administrator. 54.903 Section 54.903 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Interstate Common Line Support Mechanism for...

  14. Infrared hot carrier diode mixer.

    PubMed

    Aukerman, L W; Erler, J W

    1977-11-01

    Detection of a 54.3-GHz beatnote at 10.6 microm has been observed with a hot carrier diode mixer. The diode consists of a "cat whisker" antenna, which forms an ohmic point contact to n-InAs. The mechanism of this room-temperature detector is described as the "thermoelectric effect" of hot carriers.

  15. Bacterial Magnetosome: A Novel Biogenetic Magnetic Targeted Drug Carrier with Potential Multifunctions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianbo; Li, Ying; Liang, Xing-Jie; Wang, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial magnetosomes (BMs) synthesized by magnetotactic bacteria have recently drawn great interest due to their unique features. BMs are used experimentally as carriers for antibodies, enzymes, ligands, nucleic acids, and chemotherapeutic drugs. In addition to the common attractive properties of magnetic carriers, BMs also show superiority as targeting nanoscale drug carriers, which is hardly matched by artificial magnetic particles. We are presenting the potential applications of BMs as drug carriers by introducing the drug-loading methods and strategies and the recent research progress of BMs which has contributed to the application of BMs as drug carriers. PMID:22448162

  16. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  17. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  18. Optically induced free carrier light modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, C. L.; Richards, W. E.

    1969-01-01

    Signal carrier laser beam is optically modulated by a second laser beam of different frequency acting on a free carrier source to which the signal carrier laser is directed. The second laser beam affects the transmission characteristics of the free carrier source to light from the signal carrier laser, thus modulating it.

  19. Reasons for Declining Preconception Expanded Carrier Screening Using Genome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Marian J; Schneider, Jennifer; Davis, James V; Kauffman, Tia L; Leo, Michael C; Bergen, Kellene; Reiss, Jacob A; Himes, Patricia; Morris, Elissa; Young, Carol; McMullen, Carmit; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Goddard, Katrina A B

    2017-03-17

    Genomic carrier screening can identify more disease-associated variants than existing carrier screening methodologies, but its utility from patients' perspective is not yet established. A randomized controlled trial for preconception genomic carrier screening provided an opportunity to understand patients' decisions about whether to accept or decline testing. We administered a survey to potential genomic carrier screening recipients who declined participation (N = 240) to evaluate their reasons for doing so. Two thirds of women declined participation. We identified major themes describing reasons these individuals declined to participate; the most common were time limitation, lack of interest, not wanting to know the information, and potential cause of worry or anxiety. Most women eligible for genomic carrier screening indicated that their reasons for opting out were due to logistical issues rather than opposing the rationale for testing. As expanded carrier screening and genomic sequencing become a more routine part of clinical care, it is anticipated there will be variable uptake from individuals for this testing. Thus, the advancement of clinical carrier screening from single genes, to expanded screening panels, to an exome- or genome-wide platform, will require approaches that respect individual choice to receive genetic testing for reproductive risk assessment.

  20. Stable wafer-carrier system

    DOEpatents

    Rozenzon, Yan; Trujillo, Robert T; Beese, Steven C

    2013-10-22

    One embodiment of the present invention provides a wafer-carrier system used in a deposition chamber for carrying wafers. The wafer-carrier system includes a base susceptor and a top susceptor nested inside the base susceptor with its wafer-mounting side facing the base susceptor's wafer-mounting side, thereby forming a substantially enclosed narrow channel. The base susceptor provides an upward support to the top susceptor.

  1. 47 CFR 69.153 - Presubscribed interexchange carrier charge (PICC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (PICC). 69.153 Section 69.153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... § 69.153 Presubscribed interexchange carrier charge (PICC). (a) A charge expressed in dollars and cents... maximum of $4.31 per line per month. In the event the ceilings on the PICC prevent the PICC...

  2. 47 CFR 69.601 - Exchange carrier association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....601 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED... companies that do not file separate tariffs or concur in a joint access tariff of another telephone company... consistent with the rules of the Federal Communications Commission. Date: Name: Title: (Persons...

  3. Cystic fibrosis carrier population screening in the primary care setting.

    PubMed Central

    Loader, S.; Caldwell, P.; Kozyra, A.; Levenkron, J. C.; Boehm, C. D.; Kazazian, H. H.; Rowley, P. T.

    1996-01-01

    To determine the receptivity of prenatal care providers and their patients to carrier testing for cystic fibrosis (CF), we offered free carrier screening, followed by genetic counseling of carriers, to all prenatal care providers in Rochester, NY, for all their female patients of reproductive age, pregnant or not. Of 124 prenatal care providers, only 37 elected to participate, but many of these offered screening only to pregnant women. The acceptance rate among pregnant women was approximately 57%. The most common reasons for accepting screening were to obtain reassurance (50.7%) and to avoid having a child with CF (27.8 %). The most common reasons for declining screening were not intending to terminate a pregnancy for CF (32.4%) and believing that the chance of having a CF child was very low (32.2%). Compared with decliners, acceptors were more likely to have no children, regarded having a child with CF as more serious, believed themselves more susceptible to having such a child, knew more about CF, would be more likely to terminate a pregnancy if the fetus were shown to have CF, and more strongly supported offering CF screening to women of reproductive age. Of 4,879 women on whom results were obtained, 124 were found to be carriers. Of these 124 carriers, the partners of 106 were tested. Of the five at-risk couples, four requested prenatal diagnosis and one requested neonatal diagnosis. No woman found to be a carrier whose partner tested negative requested prenatal diagnosis. Except for the imperfect knowledge of those testing negative, none of the adverse outcomes predicted for CF carrier testing in the general population were observed in this study. Images p236-a p236-b p236-c PMID:8659530

  4. Circulating microparticles in carriers of prothrombin G20210A mutation.

    PubMed

    Campello, E; Spiezia, L; Radu, C M; Gavasso, S; Zerbinati, P; Woodhams, B; Simioni, P

    2014-09-02

    Factor V Leiden (FVL) and prothrombin gene mutation G20210A (PTM) are the two most common genetic polymorphisms known to predispose carriers to venous thromboembolism (VTE). A recent study in FVL carriers showed that circulating levels of microparticles (MP) may contribute to their thrombogenic profile. To further elucidate the prothrombotic state linked to genetic thrombophilia, we extended this study to carriers of PTM. The plasma level of annexin V-MP, endothelial-MP (EMP), platelet-MP (PMP), tissue factor-bearing MP (TF+) and the MP procoagulant activity (PPL) was measured in 124 carriers of PTM (105 heterozygous and 19 homozygous) and in 120 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals. Heterozygous and homozygous carriers of PTM showed significantly increased levels of annexin V-MP (2930 [1440-4646] MP/µl and 3064 [2412-4906] MP/µl, respectively) and significantly shorter PPL clotting time (54 [46-67] sec and 55 [46-64] sec) compared to controls (1728 [782-2122] MP/µl and 71 [61-75] sec, respectively; p<0.01). Similarly, heterozygous and homozygous subjects presented with significantly higher levels of EMP, PMP and TF+ than controls (p<0.05). PTM carriers with a VTE history had significantly higher MP numbers and activity than controls. No significant difference was seen between carriers with and without a VTE history. We conclude that the higher levels of circulating MP found in PTM carriers may play a role in the development of VTE possibly by increasing thrombin generation. Further studies are needed to better define the role of MP as triggering factors for the thrombotic complications characterizing mild genetic thrombophilic defects.

  5. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce...

  6. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce...

  7. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce...

  8. 29 CFR 1201.1 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carrier. 1201.1 Section 1201.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD DEFINITIONS § 1201.1 Carrier. The term carrier includes any express company, sleeping car company, carrier by railroad, subject to the Interstate Commerce...

  9. 47 CFR 54.802 - Obligations of local exchange carriers and the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obligations of local exchange carriers and the Administrator. 54.802 Section 54.802 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Interstate Access Universal Service Support Mechanism §...

  10. 49 CFR 1004.1 - Gifts, donations, and hospitality by carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gifts, donations, and hospitality by carriers. 1004.1 Section 1004.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... REGULATIONS § 1004.1 Gifts, donations, and hospitality by carriers. It is unlawful for any common...

  11. 47 CFR 51.915 - Recovery mechanism for price cap carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recovery mechanism for price cap carriers. 51.915 Section 51.915 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Transitional Access Service Pricing § 51.915 Recovery mechanism...

  12. Hydrogen as an energy carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, C.J.; Nitsch, J

    1988-01-01

    The book deals with the possibilities of an energetic utilization of hydrogen. This energy carrier can be produced from the unlimited energy sources solar energy, wind energy and hydropower, and from nuclear energy. It is also in a position to one day supplement or supersede the fossil energy carriers oil, coal and gas. Contents: Significance and Use of Hydrogen: Energy Supply Structures and the Importance of Gaseous Energy Carriers. Technologies for the Energetic Use of Hydrogen. Hydrogen as Raw Material. Safety Aspects of Hydrogen Energy. Production of Hydrogen from Nonfossil Primary Energy: Photovoltaic Electricity Generation. Thermo-mechanical Electricity Generation. Water Splitting Methods. Selected Hydrogen Production Systems. Storage, Transport and Distribution of Hydrogen. Design of a Future Hydrogen Energy Economy: Potential and Chances of Hydrogen. Hydrogen in a Future Energy Economy. Concepts for the Introduction of Nonfossil Hydrogen. Energy-economic Conditions and the Cooperation with Hydrogen Producing Countries. Index.

  13. Charge carrier transport in polyvinylcarbazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyutnev, Andrey P.; Saenko, Vladimir S.; Pozhidaev, Evgenii D.; Kolesnikov, Vladislav A.

    2006-07-01

    A critical analysis of the existing time-of-flight (TOF) data in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) proves that these are highly controversial with claims and counterclaims about charge carrier transport (dispersive versus Gaussian). It is felt that the TOF method taken alone is incapable of resolving the standing dilemma. As a final means to resolve it, we propose a combination of two varieties of the TOF technique using both sheet-like and uniform carrier generation modes in conjunction with radiation-induced conductivity measurements. All three techniques are realized using the ELA-50 electron gun facility. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach we report experimental data for PVK, which show that carrier transport in this polymer is indeed dispersive. Evidence is presented substantiating the gross interference the surface traps could exert on the shape of a TOF transient. As a result, a preflight part of the TOF signal should not be used for parameter evaluation.

  14. Carrier sense data highway system

    DOEpatents

    Frankel, Robert

    1984-02-14

    A data transmission system includes a transmission medium which has a certain propagation delay time over its length. A number of data stations are successively coupled to the transmission medium for communicating with one another. Each of the data stations includes a transmitter for originating signals, each signal beginning with a carrier of a duration which is at least the propagation delay time of the transmission medium. Each data station also includes a receiver which receives other signals from other data stations and inhibits operation of the transmitter at the same data station when a carrier of another signal is received.

  15. Carrier-Mediated Antiviral Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    encapsulat- ed nbavirin (3 mg per mouse) on days 0 and 2. " %.. - V % % CARRIER- MEDIATED ANTIVIRAL THERAPY 245 Table 2. Effect or MTP-PE Treatment on the...illustrates the effect of IV MTP-PE on the survival of mice injected int’a- .. - ,.,.,.. nasally with HSV- 1 . A small but significant enhancement of...dosage of interferon was marginally effective when given in %%’. CARRIER- MEDIATED ANTIVIRAL THERAPY 251 only two or three injections (on days I and 6 or

  16. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passing off of carrier identity by... Relating to Enforcement § 399.82 Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (a... points served by both carriers should preserve the identity of the individual carriers; (5) Where...

  17. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passing off of carrier identity by... Relating to Enforcement § 399.82 Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (a... points served by both carriers should preserve the identity of the individual carriers; (5) Where...

  18. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passing off of carrier identity by... Relating to Enforcement § 399.82 Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (a... points served by both carriers should preserve the identity of the individual carriers; (5) Where...

  19. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passing off of carrier identity by... Relating to Enforcement § 399.82 Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (a... points served by both carriers should preserve the identity of the individual carriers; (5) Where...

  20. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Agency's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...

  1. 76 FR 12214 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice: Announcement of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  2. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  3. 75 FR 29384 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  4. Carrier lifetimes in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, Saurav

    Carrier lifetimes are one of the most crucial parameters that govern the performance of high voltage/high power devices. The lack of understanding of the factors that determine the carrier lifetimes in silicon carbide is currently a major impediment in the development of high voltage/high power technology based on this material. The objective of this dissertation was to identify and subsequently, characterize various recombination channels present in silicon carbide. Of special importance was identification of lifetime limiting defects in the high quality epitaxial layers grown by state-of-the-art chemical vapor deposition technique for high voltage application. The effect of growth conditions (C/Si ratio, growth temperature, seed polarity, epilayer thickness, and background doping) on the concentrations of various defects were investigated with the aim of manipulating carrier lifetimes by controlling different growth parameters. Based on the qualitative correlations between various point defects and carrier lifetimes in more than thirty epitaxial layers, three defects (Z-defect, EH6/7 center, and P1 center) were identified as potential lifetime limiting defects. The P1 center was shown to act as efficient recombination channel whenever present in concentrations greater than 1013 cm-3. Such concentrations were observed in layers grown on the C-face and at low C/Si ratio (less than 1.5). The measurement of recombination rates of electrons and holes via the Z-defect and the EH6/7 center (as a function of temperature) were performed by analyzing the carrier dynamics in specially designed p-n diodes. At 300 K, the capture cross section of the two states of the Z-defect were sigman1˜6x10-15 cm2 (electron capture at the donor state), sigmap1˜2x1014 cm2 (hole capture at the donor state), sigman2˜1x10 16 cm2 (electron capture at the acceptor state), and sigma p2˜1e-13 cm2 (hole capture at the acceptor state). The electron capture cross section for the EH6/7 centers was

  5. Intrinsic carrier multiplication efficiency in bulk Si crystals evaluated by optical-pump/terahertz-probe spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, G.; Nagai, M. E-mail: ashida@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ashida, M. E-mail: ashida@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Matsubara, E.; Kanemitsu, Y.

    2014-12-08

    We estimated the carrier multiplication efficiency in the most common solar-cell material, Si, by using optical-pump/terahertz-probe spectroscopy. Through close analysis of time-resolved data, we extracted the exact number of photoexcited carriers from the sheet carrier density 10 ps after photoexcitation, excluding the influences of spatial diffusion and surface recombination in the time domain. For incident photon energies greater than 4.0 eV, we observed enhanced internal quantum efficiency due to carrier multiplication. The evaluated value of internal quantum efficiency agrees well with the results of photocurrent measurements. This optical method allows us to estimate the carrier multiplication and surface recombination of carriers quantitatively, which are crucial for the design of the solar cells.

  6. ISS qualified thermal carrier equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Jennings, Wm. M.

    2000-01-01

    Biotechnology is undergoing a period of rapid and sustained growth, a trend which is expected to continue as the general population ages and as new medical treatments and products are conceived. As pharmaceutical and biomedical companies continue to search for improved methods of production and, for answers to basic research questions, they will seek out new avenues of research. Space processing on the International Space Station (ISS) offers such an opportunity! Space is rapidly becoming an industrial laboratory for biotechnology research and processing. Space bioprocessing offers exciting possibilities for developing new pharmaceuticals and medical treatments, which can be used to benefit mankind on Earth. It also represents a new economic frontier for the private sector. For over eight years, the thermal carrier development team at SHOT has been working with government and commercial sector scientists who are conducting microgravity experiments that require thermal control. SHOT realized several years ago that the hardware currently being used for microgravity thermal control was becoming obsolete. It is likely that the government, academic, and industrial bioscience community members could utilize SHOT's hardware as a replacement to their current microgravity thermal carrier equipment. Moreover, SHOT is aware of several international scientists interested in utilizing our space qualified thermal carrier. SHOT's economic financing concept could be extremely beneficial to the international participant, while providing a source of geographic return for their particular region. Beginning in 2000, flight qualified thermal carriers are expected to be available to both the private and government sectors. .

  7. Whey drying on porous carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Mitura, E.; Kaminski, W.

    1996-05-01

    Whey is treated very often as a waste which pollutes the natural environment. Whey which is a valuable source of protein, lacrose, vitamins and mineral salts should be utilized completely. The present paper is a proposal of whey drying on porous carriers. It is proved experimentally that the proposed drying method guarantees good product quality.

  8. Active Targeted Drug Delivery for Microbes Using Nano-Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yung-Sheng; Lee, Ming-Yuan; Yang, Chih-Hui; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Although vaccines and antibiotics could kill or inhibit microbes, many infectious diseases remain difficult to treat because of acquired resistance and adverse side effects. Nano-carriers-based technology has made significant progress for a long time and is introducing a new paradigm in drug delivery. However, it still has some challenges like lack of specificity toward targeting the infectious site. Nano-carriers utilized targeting ligands on their surface called ‘active target’ provide the promising way to solve the problems like accelerating drug delivery to infectious areas and preventing toxicity or side-effects. In this mini review, we demonstrate the recent studies using the active targeted strategy to kill or inhibit microbes. The four common nano-carriers (e.g. liposomes, nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes) delivering encapsulated drugs are introduced. PMID:25877093

  9. Lipid and polymeric carrier-mediated nucleic acid delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lin; Mahato, Ram I

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Nucleic acids such as plasmid DNA, antisense oligonucleotide, and RNA interference (RNAi) molecules, have a great potential to be used as therapeutics for the treatment of various genetic and acquired diseases. To design a successful nucleic acid delivery system, the pharmacological effect of nucleic acids, the physiological condition of the subjects or sites, and the physicochemical properties of nucleic acid and carriers have to be thoroughly examined. Areas covered in this review The commonly used lipids, polymers and corresponding delivery systems are reviewed in terms of their characteristics, applications, advantages and limitations. What the reader will gain This article aims to provide an overview of biological barriers and strategies to overcome these barriers by properly designing effective synthetic carriers for nucleic acid delivery. Take home message A thorough understanding of biological barriers and the structure–activity relationship of lipid and polymeric carriers is the key for effective nucleic acid therapy. PMID:20836625

  10. APOE4 carriers and non-carriers with the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s dementia and minimal amyloid plaques

    PubMed Central

    Monsell, Sarah E.; Kukull, Walter A.; Roher, Alex E.; Maarouf, Chera L.; Serrano, Geidy; Beach, Thomas G.; Caselli, Richard J.; Montine, Thomas J.; Reiman, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    More than a third of APOE4 non-carriers with the primary clinical diagnosis of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s dementia had minimal Alzheimer’s disease plaque accumulation in cerebral cortex and, thus may show limited or no benefit from an otherwise effective anti-Aβ treatment. Almost half of participants with a primary clinical diagnosis of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s dementia and minimal plaque accumulation had an extensive topographical distribution of neurofibrillary degeneration. Additional studies are needed to better understand and treat patients with this unexpectedly common clinico-neuropathological condition. PMID:26302353

  11. Carriers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Research Publications Support & Care For Newly Diagnosed Care Packages Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At School At Home Adults With SMA Play Travel Grief & Loss Community & ...

  12. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  13. 49 CFR 1139.21 - Study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and/or charges. (b) To corroborate the selection of the above study carriers, and to provide a data base for a continuing evaluation of the validity and usefulness of those carriers as a study group... A, Class I Participating Carriers' Revenue Data....

  14. 5 CFR 890.1308 - Carrier participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carrier participation. 890.1308 Section 890.1308 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Program Demonstration Project § 890.1308 Carrier participation. (a) All carriers who participate in...

  15. 5 CFR 890.1308 - Carrier participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier participation. 890.1308 Section 890.1308 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Program Demonstration Project § 890.1308 Carrier participation. (a) All carriers who participate in...

  16. 5 CFR 890.1308 - Carrier participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carrier participation. 890.1308 Section 890.1308 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Program Demonstration Project § 890.1308 Carrier participation. (a) All carriers who participate in...

  17. 5 CFR 890.1308 - Carrier participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carrier participation. 890.1308 Section 890.1308 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Program Demonstration Project § 890.1308 Carrier participation. (a) All carriers who participate in...

  18. 5 CFR 890.1308 - Carrier participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carrier participation. 890.1308 Section 890.1308 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Program Demonstration Project § 890.1308 Carrier participation. (a) All carriers who participate in...

  19. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  20. Obtaining insurance after DNA diagnostics: a survey among hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Christiaans, Imke; Kok, Tjitske M; van Langen, Irene M; Birnie, Erwin; Bonsel, Gouke J; Wilde, Arthur A M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2010-02-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common hereditary heart disease associated with increased mortality. Disclosure of DNA test results may have social implications such as low access to insurance. In The Netherlands, insurance companies are restricted in the use of genetic information of their clients by the Medical Examination Act. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess the frequency and type of problems encountered by HCM mutation carriers applying for insurance, and associations with carriers' characteristics. The response rate was 86% (228/264). A total of 66 carriers (29%) applied for insurance of whom 39 reported problems (59%) during an average follow-up of 3 years since the DNA test result. More problems were encountered by carriers with manifest disease (P<0.001) and carriers with symptoms of HCM (P=0.049). Carriers identified after predictive DNA testing less frequently experienced problems (P=0.002). Three carriers without manifest HCM reported problems (5% of applicants). Frequently reported problems were higher premium (72%), grant access to medical records (62%), and complete rejection (33%). In conclusion, HCM mutation carriers frequently encounter problems when applying for insurances, often in the case of manifest disease, but the risk assessment of insurance companies is largely justified. Still, 5% of carriers encounter potentially unjustified problems, indicating the necessity to monitor the application of the existing laws and regulations by insurance companies and to educate counselees on the implications of these laws and regulations.

  1. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  2. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  3. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  4. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  5. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passing off of carrier identity by... Relating to Enforcement § 399.82 Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers. (a... other carriers to pass off by means of activities which are inconsistent with the minimum safeguards...

  6. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  7. Fibromyalgia in fragile X mental retardation 1 gene premutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Legg, Wendi; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi

    2011-01-01

    Objective. FM is a disorder of altered pain regulation and is characterized by pain, fatigue, poor sleep and psychological impairments; thus, it is classified as a central sensitivity syndrome. Female carriers of a premutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene frequently have widespread musculoskeletal pain and sometimes have been diagnosed with FM, especially if they have the motor signs of fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Studies suggest that FM occurs in persons with a genetic predisposition. We describe the clinical features of female FMR1 premutation carriers with symptoms of FM. Methods. A sample of patients was selected that participated in studies at two tertiary referral academic centres on the phenotype and therapy of FXTAS. Results. This selected sample of patients, five female premutation carriers, has FM symptoms or diagnoses and other central sensitivity syndromes. Conclusion. Since FM affects 2–4% of the world's population and about 1 in 250 females are FMR1 carriers, a study screening females with FM for the presence of the FMR1 premutation is worthwhile. A finding of increased prevalence of FMR1 carriers among females with FM would impact the standard evaluation of FM. Presently, guidelines for FMR1 genetic testing includes early menopause, congenital intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, tremor or ataxia, and a family history of FXTAS or fragile X syndrome. The latter is a common cause of autism and developmental delay. Such testing is important because female carriers are at risk of having a child with fragile X syndrome. PMID:21926154

  8. Tunnel and field effect carrier ballistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Bell, L. Douglas (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for interacting carriers with a structure of matter employ an electrode for emitting said carriers at a distance from a surface of that structure, and cause such carriers to travel along ballistic trajectories inside that structure by providing along the mentioned distance a gap for performance of a process selected from the group of carrier tunneling and field emission and injecting carriers emitted by the mentioned electrode and that process ballistically into the structure through the gap and the mentioned surface. The carriers are collected or analyzed after their travel along ballistic trajectories in the structure of matter. Pertinent information on the inside of the structure is obtained by conducting inside that structure what conventionally would have been considered external ballistics, while performing the carrier-propelling internal ballistics conversely outside that structure.

  9. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-An; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava

    2012-11-27

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  10. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOEpatents

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-an; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor

    2015-12-29

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  11. At What Cost a Carrier?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    expense of unmanned missiles and aircra". If the $eet were designed today , with the technolo- gies now available and the threats now emerging, it likely...brushed At What Cost a Carrier?M A R C H 2 0 1 3 4 | with interest, consequently pushing to convert the coal supply ship Jupiter into an American aircra...mission is to inform and prepare the national security leaders of today and tomorrow. CNAS is located in Washington, and was established in February

  12. External tank aft cargo carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, T. B.

    1984-01-01

    The External Tank (ET) Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) is a low cost, low risk augmentation of the Space Transportation System (STS). It almost doubles the cargo volume of the STS while minimally impacting other STS elements (orbiter, ET and solid rocket boosters SRBs, launch facilities and STS operations. In addition to increasing the potential volume of cargo carried on a Shuttle launch, the ACC provides the following additional benefits: (1) Increased STS competitiveness for payloads; (2) Increased cargo manifest flexibility; (3) Increased spacecraft design options; (4) Alternate manifesting for special payloads; and (5) Future space platform/station design options.

  13. Biocheese: A Food Probiotic Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Castro, J. M.; Tornadijo, M. E.; Fresno, J. M.; Sandoval, H.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes some aspects related to the technological barriers encountered in the development and stability of probiotic cheeses. Aspects concerning the viability of probiotic cultures in this matrix are discussed and the potential of cheese as a biofunctional food carrier is analyzed, outlying some points related to health and safety. In general, the manufacture of probiotic cheese should have little change when compared with the elaboration of cheese in the traditional way. The physicochemical and technological parameters influencing the quality of these products have also to be measured so as to obtain a process optimization. PMID:25802862

  14. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Announcement of advisory... Committee that provides the Agency with advice and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs...

  15. Psychometric properties and norms for the Personality Assessment Inventory in egg donors and gestational carriers.

    PubMed

    Sims, Jessica A; Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Chen, Serena H; Pascale, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Although psychological evaluations are an integral element of screening for third-party reproduction and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is commonly used for these evaluations, little is known about the psychometric properties or normative scores on the PAI among egg donors and carriers. We evaluated the PAI among 1,044 egg donors and gestational carriers from various fertility clinics across the United States. PAI scales were generally internally consistent in this population, although range restriction appeared to attenuate reliability on several scales. The PAI profiles of egg donors and carriers had elevated positive impression management and suppressed clinical scale scores relative to the community standardization sample, as would be expected given the contingencies of this assessment context. Scores were similar across egg donors and carriers and were similar whether the carrier or donor was known or not known to the prospective parents. Sample-specific norms are provided for the use of the PAI in this setting.

  16. Tuning superconductivity by carrier injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Paul

    2011-03-01

    All high-Tc cuprates are stacking sequences of Cu O2 layers and charge reservoir layers consisting of metal oxides. Upon doping the Cu O2 layers, antiferromagnetic order is destroyed and metallic conductivity is established. Usually doping is achieved by a non-stoichiometric composition of the charge reservoir layer. However, we already have shown that we can change the carrier concentration of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O8 + δ single crystals by current injection along the c- axis. Critical temperature, c-axis resistivity and critical current of intrinsic Josephson junctions can be tuned in a large range from underdoping to extreme overdoping. This effect is persistent up to annealing temperatures of approximately 270 K. Using current injection at higher bias, we were able to reduce the carrier concentration again. We investigated in detail the superconducting properties by performing macroscopic quantum tunneling experiments of intrinsic Josephson junctions. The experiments have been carried out repeatedly on samples, whose properties were changed only by current injection. An exponential increase of the critical current density with hole concentration was observed. At the same time, the capacitance of intrinsic Josephson junctions increased significantly. Finally, only by current injection, we were able to convert into the superconducting state a nonsuperconducting, oxygen depleted sample. This work was done in collaboration with Y. Koval, X.Y. Jin, S. Probst, Y. Simsek, C. Steiner (Universität Erlangen), H. B. Wang (NIMS, Tsukuba), and G. Behr, B. Büchner (IFW Dresden).

  17. Carrier detection in xeroderma pigmentosum

    SciTech Connect

    Parshad, R.; Sanford, K.K.; Kraemer, K.H.; Jones, G.M.; Tarone, R.E. )

    1990-01-01

    We were able to detect clinically normal carriers of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) genes with coded samples of either peripheral blood lymphocytes or skin fibroblasts, using a cytogenetic assay shown previously to detect individuals with cancer-prone genetic disorders. Metaphase cells of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated T-lymphocytes from eight individuals who are obligate heterozygotes for XP were compared with those from nine normal controls at 1.3, 2.3, and 3.3 h after x-irradiation (58 R) during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Lymphocytes from the XP heterozygotes had twofold higher frequencies of chromatid breaks or chromatid gaps than normal (P less than 10(-5)) when fixed at 2.3 or 3.3 h after irradiation. Lymphocytes from six XP homozygotes had frequencies of breaks and gaps threefold higher than normal. Skin fibroblasts from an additional obligate XP heterozygote, when fixed approximately 2 h after x-irradiation (68 R), had a twofold higher frequency of chromatid breaks and a fourfold higher frequency of gaps than fibroblasts from a normal control. This frequency of aberrations in cells from the XP heterozygote was approximately half that observed in the XP homozygote. The elevated frequencies of chromatid breaks and gaps after G2 phase x-irradiation may provide the basis of a test for identifying carriers of the XP gene(s) within known XP families.

  18. Carrier localization in gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, C.; Walukiewicz, W.; Haller, E.E.

    1996-09-01

    In wide bandgap GaN, a large number of interesting and important scientific questions remain to be answered. For example, the large free electron concentration reaching 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup - 3} in nominally undoped material are ascribed to intrinsic defects because no chemical impurity has been found at such high concentrations. According to theoretical models, a nitrogen vacancy acts as a donor but its formation energy is very large in n-type materials, making this suggestion controversial. We have investigated the nature of this yet unidentified donor at large hydrostatic pressure. Results from infrared reflection and Raman scattering indicate strong evidence for localization of free carriers by large pressures. The carrier density is drastically decreased by two orders of magnitude between 20 and 30 GPa. Several techniques provide independent evidence for results in earlier reports and present the first quantitative analysis. A possible interpretation of this effect in terms of the resonant donor level is presented.

  19. Identification of complex vertebral malformation carriers in Chinese Holstein.

    PubMed

    Chu, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yuan

    2008-03-01

    Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) is a monogenic autosomal recessive hereditary defect of Holstein dairy cattle. It is caused by a point mutation from G to T at the nucleotide position 559 in bovine solute carrier family 35, member 3 gene (SLC35A3), which changes the amino acid sequence of uridine 5'-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine transporter protein from a valine to a phenylalanine in position 180. The elite U.S. Holstein sire Penstate Ivanhoe Star was identified as the common ancestor of the current CVM carriers. Because his offspring, mainly those of Carlin-M Ivanhoe Bell, were used in many countries, CVM has potentially spread into China. In the present study, using the polymerase chain reaction-single-stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique, 10 CVM carriers were found among 68 at-risk Chinese Holstein bulls, and 282 carriers were found among 602 at-risk cows. The results of this study indicate that the CVM gene exists in the Chinese Holstein population.

  20. Silicon ball grid array chip carrier

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, David W.; Gassman, Richard A.; Chu, Dahwey

    2000-01-01

    A ball-grid-array integrated circuit (IC) chip carrier formed from a silicon substrate is disclosed. The silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier is of particular use with ICs having peripheral bond pads which can be reconfigured to a ball-grid-array. The use of a semiconductor substrate such as silicon for forming the ball-grid-array chip carrier allows the chip carrier to be fabricated on an IC process line with, at least in part, standard IC processes. Additionally, the silicon chip carrier can include components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and sensors to form a "smart" chip carrier which can provide added functionality and testability to one or more ICs mounted on the chip carrier. Types of functionality that can be provided on the "smart" chip carrier include boundary-scan cells, built-in test structures, signal conditioning circuitry, power conditioning circuitry, and a reconfiguration capability. The "smart" chip carrier can also be used to form specialized or application-specific ICs (ASICs) from conventional ICs. Types of sensors that can be included on the silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier include temperature sensors, pressure sensors, stress sensors, inertia or acceleration sensors, and/or chemical sensors. These sensors can be fabricated by IC processes and can include microelectromechanical (MEM) devices.

  1. Common NICU Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... care unit (NICU) > Common NICU equipment Common NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... understand how they can help your baby. What equipment is commonly used in the NICU? Providers use ...

  2. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  3. Neuropsychological profile of parkin mutation carriers with and without Parkinson disease: the CORE-PD study

    PubMed Central

    Caccappolo, Elise; Alcalay, Roy N.; Mejia-Santana, Helen; Tang, Ming-X.; Rakitin, Brian; Rosado, Llency; Louis, Elan D.; Comella, Cynthia L.; Colcher, Amy; Jennings, Danna; Nance, Martha A.; Bressman, Susan; Scott, William K.; Tanner, Caroline M.; Mickel, Susan F.; Andrews, Howard F.; Waters, Cheryl; Fahn, Stanley; Cote, Lucien J.; Frucht, Steven; Ford, Blair; Rezak, Michael; Novak, Kevin; Friedman, Joseph H.; Pfeiffer, Ronald F.; Marsh, Laura; Hiner, Brad; Siderowf, Andrew D.; Ross, Barbara M.; Verbitsky, Miguel; Kisselev, Sergey; Ottman, Ruth; Clark, Lorraine N.; Marder, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The cognitive profile of early onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD) has not been clearly defined. Mutations in the parkin gene are the most common genetic risk factor for EOPD and may offer information about the neuropsychological pattern of performance in both symptomatic and asymptomatic mutation carriers. Methods EOPD probands and their first-degree relatives who did not have Parkinson’s disease (PD) were genotyped for mutations in the parkin gene and administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Performance was compared between EOPD probands with (N=43) and without (N=52) parkin mutations. The same neuropsychological battery was administered to 217 first-degree relatives to assess neuropsychological function in individuals who carry parkin mutations but do not have PD. Results No significant differences in neuropsychological test performance were found between parkin carrier and non-carrier probands. Performance also did not differ between EOPD non-carriers and carrier subgroups (i.e. heterozygotes, compound heterozygotes/homozygotes). Similarly, no differences were found among unaffected family members across genotypes. Mean neuropsychological test performance was within normal range in all probands and relatives. Conclusions Carriers of parkin mutations, whether or not they have PD, do not perform differently on neuropsychological measures as compared to non-carriers. The cognitive functioning of parkin carriers over time warrants further study. PMID:21092386

  4. Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Vartak, Abhishek; Sucheck, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    The lower immunogenicity of synthetic subunit antigens, compared to live attenuated vaccines, is being addressed with improved vaccine carriers. Recent reports indicate that the physio-chemical properties of these carriers can be altered to achieve optimal antigen presentation, endosomal escape, particle bio-distribution, and cellular trafficking. The carriers can be modified with various antigens and ligands for dendritic cells targeting. They can also be modified with adjuvants, either covalently or entrapped in the matrix, to improve cellular and humoral immune responses against the antigen. As a result, these multi-functional carrier systems are being explored for use in active immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. Advancing technology, improved analytical methods, and use of computational methodology have also contributed to the development of subunit vaccine carriers. This review details recent breakthroughs in the design of nano-particulate vaccine carriers, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:27104575

  5. Carriers of the astronomical 2175 ? extinction feature

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J; Dai, Z; Ernie, R; Browning, N; Graham, G; Weber, P; Smith, J; Hutcheon, I; Ishii, H; Bajt, S; Floss, C; Stadermann, F

    2004-07-20

    The 2175 {angstrom} extinction feature is by far the strongest spectral signature of interstellar dust observed by astronomers. Forty years after its discovery the origin of the feature and the nature of the carrier remain controversial. The feature is enigmatic because although its central wavelength is almost invariant its bandwidth varies strongly from one sightline to another, suggesting multiple carriers or a single carrier with variable properties. Using a monochromated transmission electron microscope and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy we have detected a 5.7 eV (2175 {angstrom}) feature in submicrometer-sized interstellar grains within interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere. The carriers are organic carbon and amorphous silicates that are abundant and closely associated with one another both in IDPs and in the interstellar medium. Multiple carriers rather than a single carrier may explain the invariant central wavelength and variable bandwidth of the astronomical 2175 {angstrom} feature.

  6. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  7. CARRIER/CASK HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-23

    The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives casks on railcars and legal-weight trucks (LWTs) (transporters) that transport loaded casks and empty overpacks to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) from the Carrier/Cask Transport System. Casks that come to the MGR on heavy-haul trucks (HHTs) are transferred onto railcars before being brought into the Carrier/Cask Handling System. The system is the interfacing system between the railcars and LWTs and the Assembly Transfer System (ATS) and Canister Transfer System (CTS). The Carrier/Cask Handling System removes loaded casks from the cask transporters and transfers the casks to a transfer cart for either the ATS or CTS, as appropriate, based on cask contents. The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives the returned empty casks from the ATS and CTS and mounts the casks back onto the transporters for reshipment. If necessary, the Carrier/Cask Handling System can also mount loaded casks back onto the transporters and remove empty casks from the transporters. The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives overpacks from the ATS loaded with canisters that have been cut open and emptied and mounts the overpacks back onto the transporters for disposal. If necessary, the Carrier/Cask Handling System can also mount empty overpacks back onto the transporters and remove loaded overpacks from them. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is located within the Carrier Bay of the Waste Handling Building System. The system consists of cranes, hoists, manipulators, and supporting equipment. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is designed with the tooling and fixtures necessary for handling a variety of casks. The Carrier/Cask Handling System performance and reliability are sufficient to support the shipping and emplacement schedules for the MGR. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Carrier/Cask Transport System, ATS, and CTS as noted above. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for building

  8. Charge carrier thermalization in organic diodes

    PubMed Central

    van der Kaap, N. J.; Koster, L. J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Charge carrier mobilities of organic semiconductors are often characterized using steady-state measurements of space charge limited diodes. These measurements assume that charge carriers are in a steady-state equilibrium. In reality, however, energetically hot carriers are introduces by photo-excitation and injection into highly energetic sites from the electrodes. These carriers perturb the equilibrium density of occupied states, and therefore change the overall charge transport properties. In this paper, we look into the effect of energetically hot carriers on the charge transport in organic semiconductors using steady state kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. For injected hot carriers in a typical organic semiconductor, rapid energetic relaxation occurs in the order of tens of nanoseconds, which is much faster than the typical transit time of a charge carrier throught the device. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of photo-generated carriers on the steady-state mobility. For a typical organic voltaic material, an increase in mobility of a factor of 1.1 is found. Therefore, we conclude that the impact of energetically hot carriers on normal device operation is limited. PMID:26791095

  9. Thalassaemia screening and confirmation of carriers in parents.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Angela N; Saminathan, Ramasamy; Choolani, Mahesh

    2017-02-01

    Haemoglobinopathies are among the most common inherited monogenic disorders worldwide. Thalassaemia screening for carrier status is recommended for adults of reproductive age if suspected of being at risk. Conventional laboratory methods for screening include the assessment of haematological indices, and high-performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis or isoelectric focusing to measure the levels of HbA2 and HbF, and to identify haemoglobin variants. Each screening method has its advantages and disadvantages, the main disadvantage being that none can fully resolve all variants. The complex nature of the genetics of haemoglobinopathies necessitates expertise in the interpretation of screening results to evaluate the most likely genotypes, which must then be confirmed using the DNA diagnosis. This review highlights the limits and pitfalls of each screening technique, and outlines a rational combination of different methods to overcome issues in thalassaemia carrier detection.

  10. Vesicular carriers for dermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sinico, Chiara; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2009-08-01

    The skin can offer several advantages as a route of drug administration although its barrier nature makes it difficult for most drugs to penetrate into and permeate through it. During the past decades there has been a lot of interest in lipid vesicles as a tool to improve drug topical delivery. Vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, ethosomes and elastic, deformable vesicles provide an alternative for improved skin drug delivery. The function of vesicles as topical delivery systems is controversial with variable effects being reported in relation to the type of vesicles and their composition. In fact, vesicles can act as drug carriers controlling active release; they can provide a localized depot in the skin for dermally active compounds and enhance transdermal drug delivery. A wide variety of lipids and surfactants can be used to prepare vesicles, which are commonly composed of phospholipids (liposomes) or non-ionic surfactants (niosomes). Vesicle composition and preparation method influence their physicochemical properties (size, charge, lamellarity, thermodynamic state, deformability) and therefore their efficacy as drug delivery systems. A review of vesicle value in localizing drugs within the skin at the site of action will be provided with emphasis on their potential mechanism of action.

  11. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Single Crystal Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    The proposed research aims to achieve quantitative, molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped crystalline organic semiconductors via in situ linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, in conjunction with transport measurements and molecular/crystal engineering. Organic semiconductors are emerging as viable materials for low-cost electronics and optoelectronics, such as organic photovoltaics (OPV), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Despite extensive studies spanning many decades, a clear understanding of the nature of charge carriers in organic semiconductors is still lacking. It is generally appreciated that polaron formation and charge carrier trapping are two hallmarks associated with electrical transport in organic semiconductors; the former results from the low dielectric constants and weak intermolecular electronic overlap while the latter can be attributed to the prevalence of structural disorder. These properties have lead to the common observation of low charge carrier mobilities, e.g., in the range of 10-5 - 10-3 cm2/Vs, particularly at low carrier concentrations. However, there is also growing evidence that charge carrier mobility approaching those of inorganic semiconductors and metals can exist in some crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene, tetracene and rubrene. A particularly striking example is single crystal rubrene (Figure 1), in which hole mobilities well above 10 cm2/Vs have been observed in OFETs operating at room temperature. Temperature dependent transport and spectroscopic measurements both revealed evidence of free carriers in rubrene. Outstanding questions are: what are the structural features and physical properties that make rubrene so unique? How do we establish fundamental design principles for the development of other organic semiconductors of high mobility? These questions are critically important but not comprehensive, as the nature of

  12. 14 CFR 271.5 - Carrier revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier revenues. 271.5 Section 271.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.5...

  13. 14 CFR 271.4 - Carrier costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier costs. 271.4 Section 271.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.4...

  14. 49 CFR 1139.21 - Study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Study carriers. 1139.21 Section 1139.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES IN MOTOR CARRIER REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity...

  15. 49 CFR 1139.21 - Study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Study carriers. 1139.21 Section 1139.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES IN MOTOR CARRIER REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity...

  16. 49 CFR 1139.21 - Study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Study carriers. 1139.21 Section 1139.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES IN MOTOR CARRIER REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity...

  17. 49 CFR 1139.21 - Study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Study carriers. 1139.21 Section 1139.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES IN MOTOR CARRIER REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity...

  18. Data-aided carrier tracking loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Simon, M. K.

    1973-01-01

    Power in composite signal sidebands is used to enhance signal-to-noise ratio in carrier tracking loop, thereby reducing radio loss and decreasing probability of receiver error. By adding quadrature channel to phase-lock-loop detector circuit of receiver, dc component can be fed back into carrier tracking loop.

  19. Doping with artificial oxygen carriers: an update.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Ashenden, Michael

    2004-01-01

    There is a long history of science seeking to develop artificial substitutes for body parts damaged by disease or trauma. While defective teeth and limbs are commonly replaced by imitations without major loss of functionality, the development of a substitute for red blood cells has proved elusive. There is a permanent shortage of donor blood in western societies. Nevertheless, despite whole blood transfusions carrying measurable risks due to immunogenicity and the transmission of blood-borne infectious diseases, red blood cells are still relatively inexpensive, well tolerated and widely available. Researchers seeking to develop products that are able to meet and perhaps exceed these criteria have responded to this difficult challenge by adopting many different approaches. Work has focussed on two classes of substances: modified haemoglobin solutions and perfluorocarbon emulsions. Other approaches include the creation of artificial red cells, where haemoglobin and supporting enzyme systems are encapsulated into liposomes. Haemoglobin is ideally suited to oxygen transport when encased by the red cell membrane; however, once removed, it rapidly dissociates into dimers and is cleared by the kidney. Therefore, it must be stabilised before it can be safely re-infused into humans. Modifications concomitantly alter the vascular half-life, oxygen affinity and hypertensive characteristics of raw haemoglobin, which can be sourced from outdated blood stores, genetically-engineered Escherichia coli or even bovine herds. In contrast, perfluorocarbons are entirely synthetic molecules that are capable of dissolving oxygen but biologically inert. Since they dissolve rather than bind oxygen, their capacity to serve as a blood substitute is determined principally by the oxygen pressure gradients in the lung and at the target tissue. Blood substitutes have important potential areas of clinical application including red cell replacement during surgery, emergency resuscitation of

  20. Common Tests for Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Tests for Arrhythmia Updated:Dec 21,2016 Several tests can help ... View an animation of arrhythmia . Common Tests for Arrhythmia Holter monitor (continuous ambulatory electrocardiographic monitor) Suspected arrhythmias ...

  1. Finding Common Ground with the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisan, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the Common Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The process raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…

  2. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  3. Hydrogen: the future energy carrier.

    PubMed

    Züttel, Andreas; Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas; Friedrichs, Oliver

    2010-07-28

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century the limitations of the fossil age with regard to the continuing growth of energy demand, the peaking mining rate of oil, the growing impact of CO2 emissions on the environment and the dependency of the economy in the industrialized world on the availability of fossil fuels became very obvious. A major change in the energy economy from fossil energy carriers to renewable energy fluxes is necessary. The main challenge is to efficiently convert renewable energy into electricity and the storage of electricity or the production of a synthetic fuel. Hydrogen is produced from water by electricity through an electrolyser. The storage of hydrogen in its molecular or atomic form is a materials challenge. Some hydrides are known to exhibit a hydrogen density comparable to oil; however, these hydrides require a sophisticated storage system. The system energy density is significantly smaller than the energy density of fossil fuels. An interesting alternative to the direct storage of hydrogen are synthetic hydrocarbons produced from hydrogen and CO2 extracted from the atmosphere. They are CO2 neutral and stored like fossil fuels. Conventional combustion engines and turbines can be used in order to convert the stored energy into work and heat.

  4. Canonical Commonality Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, K. Dawn

    Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor…

  5. Knowledge representation for commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1990-01-01

    Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.

  6. 77 FR 46555 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier... major motor carrier safety provisions of the recently enacted Moving Ahead for Progress in the...

  7. Prevalence and risk of migraine headaches in adult fragile X premutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Au, J; Akins, R S; Berkowitz-Sutherland, L; Tang, H-T; Chen, Y; Boyd, A; Tassone, F; Nguyen, D V; Hagerman, R

    2013-12-01

    FMR1 premutation carriers are common in the general population (1/130-260 females and 1/250-810 males) and can be affected by fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome, fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency, anxiety, depression, hypertension, sleep apnea, fibromyalgia, and hypothyroidism. Here we report the results of a pilot study to assess the prevalence and risk of migraine in FMR1 premutation carriers. Three hundred fifteen carriers (203 females; 112 males) and 154 controls (83 females; 71 males) were seen sequentially as part of a family study. A standardized medical history, physical examination and confirmation of diagnosis of migraine headaches were performed by a physician. The prevalence of migraine was 54.2% in female carriers (mean age/SD: 49.60/13.73) and 26.79% in male carriers (mean age/SD: 59.94/14.27). This prevalence was higher compared to female (25.3%; mean age/SD: 47.60/15.21; p =  0.0001) and male controls (15.5%; mean age/SD; 53.88/13.31; p =  0.0406) who underwent the same protocol and were confirmed to be negative for the FMR1 mutation by DNA testing. We hypothesize that the increased prevalence of migraine headaches in FMR1 premutation carriers is likely related to the mitochondrial abnormalities that have recently been reported. Screening for migraine should be considered when evaluating FMR1 premutation carriers in the future.

  8. The impact of voltage independent carriers on implied voltage measurements on silicon devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhl, M. K.; Trupke, T.

    2016-10-01

    The electrical performance a solar cell is determined from direct measurements of the current voltage relationship, while the so-called implied current-voltage measurements are often performed to estimate the performance of partially processed samples. Implied current voltage measurements are commonly obtained from quasi steady state photoconductance and quasi steady state photoluminescence measurements, where the implied voltage is inferred from the average excess carrier density. As will be shown here, this approach can be problematic due to the presence of excess carriers that do not contribute to the terminal voltage. These carriers are referred to as voltage independent carriers, a concept that is not widely known or generally accepted. This paper provides the theoretical background for the distinction of voltage dependent and voltage independent carriers. It is shown that the relative impact of voltage independent carriers on implied voltage data depends strongly on device parameters and on the illumination wavelength. Practical limits are provided for these parameters for which the voltage independent carriers can be neglected and for which an implied voltage thus accurately reflects the junction voltage.

  9. Applications of Admittance Spectroscopy in Photovoltaic Devices Beyond Majority Carrier Trapping Defects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J. V.; Crandall, R. S.; Repins, I. L.; Nardes, A. M.; Levi, D. H.; Sulima, O.

    2011-07-01

    Admittance spectroscopy is commonly used to characterize majority-carrier trapping defects. In today's practical photovoltaic devices, however, a number of other physical mechanisms may contribute to the admittance measurement and interfere with the data interpretation. Such challenges arise due to the violation of basic assumptions of conventional admittance spectroscopy such as single-junction, ohmic contact, highly conductive absorbers, and measurement in reverse bias. We exploit such violations to devise admittance spectroscopy-based methods for studying the respective origins of 'interference': majority-carrier mobility, non-ohmic contact potential barrier, minority-carrier inversion at hetero-interface, and minority-carrier lifetime in a device environment. These methods are applied to a variety of photovoltaic technologies: CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, Si HIT cells, and organic photovoltaic materials.

  10. Research on calibration error of carrier phase against antenna arraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke; Hou, Xiaomin

    2016-11-01

    It is the technical difficulty of uplink antenna arraying that signals from various quarters can not be automatically aligned at the target in deep space. The size of the far-field power combining gain is directly determined by the accuracy of carrier phase calibration. It is necessary to analyze the entire arraying system in order to improve the accuracy of the phase calibration. This paper analyzes the factors affecting the calibration error of carrier phase of uplink antenna arraying system including the error of phase measurement and equipment, the error of the uplink channel phase shift, the position error of ground antenna, calibration receiver and target spacecraft, the error of the atmospheric turbulence disturbance. Discuss the spatial and temporal autocorrelation model of atmospheric disturbances. Each antenna of the uplink antenna arraying is no common reference signal for continuous calibration. So it must be a system of the periodic calibration. Calibration is refered to communication of one or more spacecrafts in a certain period. Because the deep space targets are not automatically aligned to multiplexing received signal. Therefore the aligned signal should be done in advance on the ground. Data is shown that the error can be controlled within the range of demand by the use of existing technology to meet the accuracy of carrier phase calibration. The total error can be controlled within a reasonable range.

  11. Altered erythropoiesis and iron metabolism in carriers of thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Jacqueline S.; Cominal, Juçara G.; Silva-Pinto, Ana Cristina; Olbina, Gordana; Ginzburg, Yelena Z.; Nandi, Vijay; Westerman, Mark; Rivella, Stefano; de Souza, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    The thalassemia syndromes (α- and β-thalassemia) are the most common and frequent disorders associated with ineffective erythropoiesis. Imbalance of α- or β-globin chain production results in impaired red blood cell synthesis, anemia and more erythroid progenitors in the blood stream. While patients affected by these disorders show definitive altered parameters related to erythropoiesis, the relationship between the degree of anemia, altered erythropoiesis and dysfunctional iron metabolism have not been investigated in both α-thalassemia carriers (ATC) and β-thalassemia carriers (BTC). Here we demonstrate that ATC have a significantly reduced hepcidin and increased soluble transferrin receptor levels but relatively normal hematological findings. In contrast, BTC have several hematological parameters significantly different from controls, including increased soluble transferrin receptor and erythropoietin levels. These changings in both groups suggest an altered balance between erythropoiesis and iron metabolism. The index sTfR/log ferrin and (hepcidin/ferritin)/sTfR are respectively increased and reduced relative to controls, proportional to the severity of each thalassemia group. In conclusion, we showed in this study, for the first time in the literature, that thalassemia carriers have altered iron metabolism and erythropoiesis. PMID:25307880

  12. Particles from preformed polymers as carriers for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Miladi, K.; Ibraheem, D.; Iqbal, M.; Sfar, S.; Fessi, H.; Elaissari, A.

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable and biocompatible polymers are widely used for the encapsulation of drug molecules. Various particulate carriers with different sizes and characteristics have been prepared by miscellaneous techniques. In this review, we reported the commonly used preformed polymer based techniques for the preparation of micro and nano-structured materials intended for drug encapsulation. A description of polymer-solvent interaction was provided. The most widely used polymers were reported and described and their related research studies were mentioned. Moreover, principles of each technique and its crucial operating conditions were described and discussed. Recent applications of all the reported techniques in drug delivery were also reviewed. PMID:26417241

  13. Hot carrier relaxation dynamics in zinc selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehendale, Manjusha

    The ultrafast relaxation dynamics of hot carriers are monitored in a high-quality ZnSe epilayer grown on GaAs substrate by employing a novel femtosecond pump-probe differential reflectivity technique which exploits the intrinsic interferometric asymmetric Fabry-Perot sample structure. The ultrashort femtosecond pulses used in these timeresolved pump-probe experiments are derived from a hard-apertured Kerr-lens modelocked Ti:sapphire laser. The effect of pump-laser-induced thermal lensing on the stability and operational characteristics of such solid-state Femtosecond lasers is discussed. A theoretical model, which assumes the exponential cooling of electrons and holes towards the band edge and a simple two parabolic band structure, is used to estimate the hot carrier cooling times for various photoexcited carrier densities. This model shows the results to be consistent with the expected characteristic electronic LO-phonon emission time of 35-40 fs and provide evidence for the influence of a non-equilibrium LO-phonon population, known as ``hot phonon effect'', on the electron cooling dynamics for carrier densities higher than 3 × 1017 cm-3. Another model, which is based on a balance equation approach, is used to analyze the experimental data more accurately, by including the effects of various processes such as screened carrier-phonon, carrier-carrier scattering and hot phonon effects on the relaxation dynamics. Comparison of the experimental data with this latter theoretical model indicates that the observed reduction in the electron cooling rate with increasing carrier density is due to both screening of the Fröhlich interaction and hot phonon effect. Finally, a comparison of hot carrier relaxation processes at various lattice temperatures is presented. This study provides an evidence of a more pronounced hot phonon effect at a lattice temperature of 80K than at 300K, which is complicated by temperature-dependent changes in optical and physical properties of the

  14. Issues of Commonality. Volume I. Executive Summary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    guaranteed low-interest/ no -interest loans or subsidy to carriers for purchase of the aircraft. o Development of a system with significant competitive...LOCKHEED- GEORGIA COMPANY A C4VfSE@N4 OF .OCI(D’i9O COMPOOfArfON MARIETA , GEORGIA 30063 LGD4163798 6 February 1981 Subject: Contract F33615-78-C-O1 15...34’Issues of Commonal ity Study" USAF Project No . A274, Transmittal of Final Technical Report To: Aeronautical Systems Division Wright-Patterson AFB, ON

  15. Biogenesis of endosome-derived transport carriers.

    PubMed

    Chi, Richard J; Harrison, Megan S; Burd, Christopher G

    2015-09-01

    Sorting of macromolecules within the endosomal system is vital for physiological control of nutrient homeostasis, cell motility, and proteostasis. Trafficking routes that export macromolecules from the endosome via vesicle and tubule transport carriers constitute plasma membrane recycling and retrograde endosome-to-Golgi pathways. Proteins of the sorting nexin family have been discovered to function at nearly every step of endosomal transport carrier biogenesis and it is becoming increasingly clear that they form the core machineries of cargo-specific transport pathways that are closely integrated with cellular physiology. Here, we summarize recent progress in elucidating the pathways that mediate the biogenesis of endosome-derived transport carriers.

  16. Tunable Carrier Multiplication and Cooling in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannsen, Jens Christian; Ulstrup, Søren; Crepaldi, Alberto; Cilento, Federico; Zacchigna, Michele; Miwa, Jill A.; Cacho, Cephise; Chapman, Richard T.; Springate, Emma; Fromm, Felix; Raidel, Christian; Seyller, Thomas; King, Phil D. C.; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Grioni, Marco; Hofmann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Time- and angle-resolved photoemission measurements on two doped graphene samples displaying different doping levels reveal remarkable differences in the ultrafast dynamics of the hot carriers in the Dirac cone. In the more strongly ($n$-)doped graphene, we observe larger carrier multiplication factors ($>$ 3) and a significantly faster phonon-mediated cooling of the carriers back to equilibrium compared to in the less ($p$-)doped graphene. These results suggest that a careful tuning of the doping level allows for an effective manipulation of graphene's dynamical response to a photoexcitation.

  17. Personality traits in Huntington's disease: An exploratory study of gene expansion carriers and non-carriers.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Vogel, Asmus

    2016-12-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric symptoms may be associated with personality traits. This exploratory study, aimed to investigate personality traits in a large cohort of HD carriers and at risk gene-expansion negative individuals (HD non-carriers), exploring whether carrying the HD gene or growing up in an HD family influences personality traits. Forty-seven HD carriers, Thirty-nine HD non-carriers, and 121 healthy controls answered the Danish version of the revised NEO personality inventory. Comparisons between HD carriers and HD non-carriers were mostly non-significant but the combined group of HD carriers and non-carriers showed significantly higher scores on the facets: "hostility," "assertiveness," and "activity" and on the trait "Conscientiousness" relative to controls, "Conscientiousness" have been associated with resilience to psychiatric symptoms. Twelve HD carriers and non-carriers were classified as depressed and showed significantly lower scores on "Extraversion" and "Conscientiousness" and significantly higher scores on "Neuroticism," which are associated with vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms. Our findings suggest that, there is no direct effect of the HD gene on personality traits, but that personality assessment may be relevant to use when identifying individuals from HD families who are vulnerable to develop psychiatric symptoms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Immune-mediated disorders among women carriers of fragile X premutation alleles.

    PubMed

    Winarni, Tri Indah; Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Sumekar, Tanjung Ayu; Ashwood, Paul; Morales, Guadalupe Mendoza; Tassone, Flora; Nguyen, Danh V; Faradz, Sultana M H; Van de Water, Judy; Cook, Kylee; Hamlin, Alyssa; Mu, Yi; Hagerman, Paul J; Hagerman, Randi J

    2012-10-01

    The relative risk of immune-mediated disorders (IMDs) among women carriers of premutation alleles is estimated by a survey for IMDs among 344 carrier women (age 19-81 years; mean 46.35 and SD 12.60) and 72 controls (age 18-87 years; mean 52.40 and SD 15.40). One hundred fifty four (44.77%) women carrier had at least one IMD, as did 20 controls (27.78%). Among women carriers, autoimmune thyroid disorder was the most common (24.4%), then fibromyalgia (10.2%), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS; 9.9%), Raynaud's phenomenon (7.6%), rheumatoid arthritis (RA; 3.8%), Sjögren syndrome (2.6%), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; 2.03%), multiple sclerosis (1.74%). Of 55 carriers age 40 or older with FXTAS, 72.73% had at least one IMD, compared to 46.54% of those without FXTAS (n = 159), and 31.58% of controls (n = 57). The estimated odds ratio (OR) for IMD is 2.6 (95% CI 1.2-5.6, P = 0.015) for women with FXTAS relative to those without FXTAS; the likelihood of IMD in carriers without or with FXTAS was also significantly higher than for controls (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.2, P = 0.034; OR 5.5, 95% CI 2.4-12.5, P < 0.001, respectively). Similarly, the odds of having an IMD among carriers with FXPOI is about 2.4 times higher when compared to carriers without FXPOI (95% CI 1.1-5.0; P = 0.021). The likelihood of IMD in carriers with or without FXPOI is greater (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.0; P = 0.021) compared to that of controls.

  19. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.713 Common line... pricing flexibility with respect to the following services: (1) Common line services, as described in... described in §§ 69.111(a)(2)(i) and (ii). (b) Phase I triggers. (1) To obtain Phase I pricing...

  20. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.713 Common line... pricing flexibility with respect to the following services: (1) Common line services, as described in... described in §§ 69.111(a)(2)(i) and (ii). (b) Phase I triggers. (1) To obtain Phase I pricing...

  1. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.713 Common line... pricing flexibility with respect to the following services: (1) Common line services, as described in... described in §§ 69.111(a)(2)(i) and (ii). (b) Phase I triggers. (1) To obtain Phase I pricing...

  2. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.713 Common line... pricing flexibility with respect to the following services: (1) Common line services, as described in... described in §§ 69.111(a)(2)(i) and (ii). (b) Phase I triggers. (1) To obtain Phase I pricing...

  3. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.713 Common line... pricing flexibility with respect to the following services: (1) Common line services, as described in... described in §§ 69.111(a)(2)(i) and (ii). (b) Phase I triggers. (1) To obtain Phase I pricing...

  4. 47 CFR 54.901 - Calculation of Interstate Common Line Support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of Interstate Common Line Support. 54.901 Section 54.901 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Interstate Common Line Support Mechanism for Rate-of-Return...

  5. 47 CFR 54.902 - Calculation of Interstate Common Line Support for transferred exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of Interstate Common Line Support for transferred exchanges. 54.902 Section 54.902 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Interstate Common Line Support...

  6. 47 CFR 51.617 - Assessment of end user common line charge on resellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment of end user common line charge on resellers. 51.617 Section 51.617 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale § 51.617 Assessment of end user common line charge...

  7. 47 CFR 54.809 - Carrier certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE Interstate Access Universal Service Support Mechanism § 54.809 Carrier certification. (a... mechanism, on or before the filing deadlines set forth in paragraph (c) of this section. All of...

  8. Carrier cooling in colloidal quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Pelton, Matthew; Ithurria, Sandrine; Schaller, Richard D; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2012-12-12

    It has recently become possible to chemically synthesize atomically flat semiconductor nanoplatelets with monolayer-precision control over the platelet thickness. It has been suggested that these platelets are quantum wells; that is, carriers in these platelets are confined in one dimension but are free to move in the other two dimensions. Here, we report time-resolved photoluminescence and transient-absorption measurements of carrier relaxation that confirm the quantum-well nature of these nanomaterials. Excitation of the nanoplatelets by an intense laser pulse results in the formation of a high-temperature carrier population that cools back down to ambient temperature on the time scale of several picoseconds. The rapid carrier cooling indicates that the platelets are well-suited for optoelectronic applications such as lasers and modulators.

  9. Intraoral radiation carrier for edentulous patients

    SciTech Connect

    Sela, M.; Taicher, S.

    1983-12-01

    The principles of fabricating an intraoral radioactive carrier have been described to treat malignant diseases of the oral cavity. The prosthesis provides consistent direction and fixation of the radioactive source into the same location.

  10. NASA's Original Shuttle Carrier Departs Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Space Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) No. 905, departed NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Oct. 24, 2012 for the final time, ending a 38-year association with the NASA field center at Ed...

  11. Precise frequency calibration using television video carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Edward E.

    1990-01-01

    The availability of inexpensive and quick precise frequency calibration methods is limited. VLF and GPS do offer precise calibration. However, antenna placement, cost of equipment, and calibration time place many restrictions on the user. The USNO maintained line-10 television Time of Coincidence (TOC) of station WTTG, channel 5, Washington, DC requires a frequency stable video carrier. This video carrier, 77.24 MHz is controlled by the same cesium beam standard controlling the TOC of line-10. Excellent frequency comparisons against this video carrier have been accomplished at 95 miles (153 km). With stable propagation and a three foot wire antenna, a part in 10(exp 9) can be determined in a few minutes. Inexpensive field equipment with a synthesized 1 kHz offset from the video carrier offers parts in 10(exp 11) calibrations in a few minutes using an oscilloscope as a phase comparator.

  12. What It Means to be a Carrier

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toolkits Advocacy National Fragile X Foundation Advocacy Day STAR Local Advocacy Agenda and Accomplishments Community Community Support ... premutation carriers were an increased rate of twin births and of premature ovarian failure (POI). .. We now ...

  13. Optical carrier wave shocking: detection and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Kinsler, P; Radnor, S B P; Tyrrell, J C A; New, G H C

    2007-06-01

    Carrier wave shocking is studied using the pseudospectral spatial-domain (PSSD) technique. We describe the shock detection diagnostics necessary for this numerical study and verify them against theoretical shocking predictions for the dispersionless case. These predictions show a carrier envelope phase and pulse bandwidth sensitivity in the single-cycle regime. The flexible dispersion management offered by the PSSD enables us to independently control the linear and nonlinear dispersion. Customized dispersion profiles allow us to analyze the development of both carrier self-steepening and shocks. The results exhibit a marked asymmetry between normal and anomalous dispersion, both in the limits of the shocking regime and in the (near) shocked pulse wave forms. Combining these insights, we offer some suggestions on how carrier shocking (or at least extreme self-steepening) might be realized experimentally.

  14. Experimental investigation on the performance of closely spaced multi-carrier PDM-QPSK with digital coherent detection.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, S; Liu, Xiang

    2009-11-23

    We experimentally investigate the performance of a spectrally efficient multi-carrier channel consisting of two or more optical carriers spaced around the baud rate, with each carrier modulated with polarization division multiplexed (PDM) quadrature phase shift keyed (QPSK) format. We first study the performance of a 100-Gb/s 2-carrier PDM-QPSK channel with each carrier modulated at 12.5 Gbaud as a function of various design parameters such as the time alignment between the modulated carriers, the frequency separation between the carriers, the oversampling factor at the receiver, and the bandwidth of the digital pre-filter used for carrier separation. While the measurements confirm the previously reported observations, they also reveal some interesting additional features. The coherent crosstalk between the modulated carriers is found to be minimized when these carriers are symbol aligned. Spacing the carriers at the baud rate, corresponding to the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) condition, leads to a local maximum in performance only for some specific cases where large oversampling (>2 x ) is applied. It is found that 4 x oversampling, together with a constant modulus algorithm (CMA) based digital equalizer having multiple quarter-symbol (T/4) spaced taps, gives much better overall performance than 2 x oversampling with a CMA-based equalizer having T/2 spaced taps. In addition, using a T/4-delay-and-add filter (DAF) as a pre-filter for assist carrier separation is found to give better performance than the commonly used T/2-DAF. In addition, it is possible to set the carrier spacing to be as small as 80% of the baud rate while incurring negligible penalty at BER approximately 10(-3). 3-carrier and 5-carrier PDM-QPSK channels at 12.5-Gbaud with frequency-locked carriers spaced at 12.5 GHz and 4 x oversampling are also studied, and shown to perform reasonably well with small relative penalties. Finally, increasing the baud rate of the 2-carrier PDM

  15. Hemoglobin-Based Nanoarchitectonic Assemblies as Oxygen Carriers.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yi; Duan, Li; Li, Junbai

    2016-02-10

    Safe and effective artificial oxygen carriers are the subject of great interest due to the problems of traditional blood transfusion and enormous demand in clinical use. In view of its unique oxygen-transport ability and normal metabolic pathways, hemoglobin is regarded as an ideal oxygen-carrying unit. With advances in nano-biotechnology, hemoglobin assemblies as artificial oxygen carriers achieve great development. Here, recent progress on hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers is highlighted in view of two aspects: acellular hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers and cellular hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. These novel oxygen carriers exhibit advantages over traditional carriers and will greatly promote research on reliable and feasible oxygen carriers.

  16. Minority carrier lifetime in indium phosphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Weinberg, Irving; Kneisel, Keith

    1991-01-01

    Transient photoluminescence is used to measure the minority carrier lifetime on n-type and p-type InP wafers. The measurements show that unprocessed InP wafers have very high minority carrier lifetimes. Lifetimes of 200 ns and 700 ns were observed for lightly-doped p- and n-type material respectively. Lifetimes over 5 ns were found in heavily doped n-type material.

  17. Hot-Carrier Seebeck Effect: Diffusion and Remote Detection of Hot Carriers in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Juan F.; Neumann, Ingmar; Costache, Marius V.; Valenzuela, Sergio O.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate hot carrier propagation across graphene using an electrical nonlocal injection/detection method. The device consists of a monolayer graphene flake contacted by multiple metal leads. Using two remote leads for electrical heating, we generate a carrier temperature gradient that results in a measurable thermoelectric voltage VNL across the remaining (detector) leads. Due to the nonlocal character of the measurement, VNL is exclusively due to the Seebeck effect. Remarkably, a departure from the ordinary relationship between Joule power P and VNL, VNL ~ P, becomes readily apparent at low temperatures, representing a fingerprint of hot-carrier dominated thermoelectricity. By studying VNL as a function of bias, we directly determine the carrier temperature and the characteristic cooling length for hot-carrier propagation, which are key parameters for a variety of new applications that rely on hot-carrier transport.

  18. Hot-Carrier Seebeck Effect: Diffusion and Remote Detection of Hot Carriers in Graphene.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Juan F; Neumann, Ingmar; Costache, Marius V; Valenzuela, Sergio O

    2015-06-10

    We investigate hot carrier propagation across graphene using an electrical nonlocal injection/detection method. The device consists of a monolayer graphene flake contacted by multiple metal leads. Using two remote leads for electrical heating, we generate a carrier temperature gradient that results in a measurable thermoelectric voltage V(NL) across the remaining (detector) leads. Due to the nonlocal character of the measurement, V(NL) is exclusively due to the Seebeck effect. Remarkably, a departure from the ordinary relationship between Joule power P and V(NL), V(NL) ∼ P, becomes readily apparent at low temperatures, representing a fingerprint of hot-carrier dominated thermoelectricity. By studying V(NL) as a function of bias, we directly determine the carrier temperature and the characteristic cooling length for hot-carrier propagation, which are key parameters for a variety of new applications that rely on hot-carrier transport.

  19. Presymptomatic signs in healthy CJD mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Gigi, Ariela; Vakil, Eli; Kahana, Ester; Hadar, Uri

    2005-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) is a rapidly progressing dementia with neurological, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. We focused our study on the familial CJD form among Libyan Jews (the E200K mutation), trying to identify preclinical neuropsychological signs in mutation carriers to facilitate early diagnosis of the disease. A wide range of neuropsychological tests was administered to 27 healthy volunteers, all first-degree relatives of genetic CJD patients. Thirteen of our participants were gene mutation carriers (E200K) and 14 controls. The healthy mutation carriers reported significantly lower Trait and higher State anxiety scores. Repeated Measure analysis showed statistical significance. The Anxiety Index (State-Trait Anxiety Score) progressed with age in the carriers' group but not in the controls. Since this was more pronounced in the older subjects, we suggest that abnormal stress mechanisms precede the clinical onset of CJD. Cognitive differences have also been found between carriers and controls, especially in visual recognition of pictured objects. Both kinds of differences (anxiety levels and cognitive deficits) were most pronounced in elderly subjects. This study is the first to show any dysfunction in healthy CJD mutation carriers.

  20. Radio science measurements with suppressed carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmar, S.; Divsalar, D.; Oudrhiri, K.; Hamkins, J.

    Radio Science started when it became apparent with early deep space missions that occultations by planetary atmospheres would affect the quality of radio communications. Since then the atmospheric properties and other aspects of planetary science, solar science, and fundamental physics were studied by scientists. Radio Science data was always extracted from a received pure residual carrier (without data modulation). For some missions, it is very desirable to obtain Radio Science data from a suppressed carrier modulation. In this paper we propose a method to extract Radio Science data when a coded suppressed carrier modulation is used in deep space communications. The type of modulation can be BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, MPSK or even GMSK. However we concentrate mostly on BPSK modulation. The proposed method for suppressed carrier simply tries to wipe out data that acts as an interference for Radio Science measurements. In order to measure the estimation errors in amplitude and phase of the Radio Science data we use the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). The CRB for suppressed carrier modulation with non-ideal data wiping is then compared with residual carrier modulation under the same noise condition. The method of derivation of the CRB for non-ideal data wiping is an innovative method that is presented here. Some numerical results are provided for a coded system.

  1. Radio Science Measurements with Suppressed Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami; Divsalar, Dariush; Oudrhiri, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Radio Science started when it became apparent with early Solar missions that occultations by planetary atmospheres would affect the quality of radio communications. Since then the atmospheric properties and other aspects of planetary science, solar science, and fundamental physics were studied by scientists. Radio Science data was always extracted from a received pure residual carrier (without data modulation). For some missions, it is very desirable to obtain Radio Science data from a suppressed carrier modulation. In this paper we propose a method to extract Radio Science data when a coded suppressed carrier modulation is used in deep space communications. Type of modulation can be BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, MPSK or even GMSK. However we concentrate mostly on BPSK modulation. The proposed method for suppressed carrier simply tries to wipe out data that acts as an interference for Radio Science measurements. In order to measure the estimation errors in amplitude and phase of the Radio Science data we use Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). The CRB for the suppressed carrier modulation with non-ideal data wiping is then compared with residual carrier modulation under the same noise condition. The method of derivation of CRB for non-ideal data wiping is an innovative method that presented here. Some numerical results are provided for coded system.

  2. Campus Common Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Gordon Morris

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

  3. Conceptualizing an Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology-management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service-delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment. (Author)

  4. Common Eye Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye,” is the most common cause of vision impairment in children. Amblyopia is the medical term used ... the most common cause of permanent one-eye vision impairment among children and young and middle-aged adults. ...

  5. Communication and common interest.

    PubMed

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Martínez, Manolo

    2013-01-01

    Explaining the maintenance of communicative behavior in the face of incentives to deceive, conceal information, or exaggerate is an important problem in behavioral biology. When the interests of agents diverge, some form of signal cost is often seen as essential to maintaining honesty. Here, novel computational methods are used to investigate the role of common interest between the sender and receiver of messages in maintaining cost-free informative signaling in a signaling game. Two measures of common interest are defined. These quantify the divergence between sender and receiver in their preference orderings over acts the receiver might perform in each state of the world. Sampling from a large space of signaling games finds that informative signaling is possible at equilibrium with zero common interest in both senses. Games of this kind are rare, however, and the proportion of games that include at least one equilibrium in which informative signals are used increases monotonically with common interest. Common interest as a predictor of informative signaling also interacts with the extent to which agents' preferences vary with the state of the world. Our findings provide a quantitative description of the relation between common interest and informative signaling, employing exact measures of common interest, information use, and contingency of payoff under environmental variation that may be applied to a wide range of models and empirical systems.

  6. Intrinsic carrier mobility extraction based on a new quasi-analytical model for graphene field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaoqing; Jin, Zhi; Muhammad, Asif; Peng, Songang; Huang, Xinnan; Zhang, Dayong; Shi, Jingyuan

    2016-10-01

    The most common method of mobility extraction for graphene field-effect transistors is proposed by Kim. Kim’s method assumes a constant mobility independent of carrier density and gets the mobility by fitting the transfer curves. However, carrier mobility changes with the carrier density, leading to the inaccuracy of Kim’s method. In our paper, a new and more accurate method is proposed to extract mobility by fitting the output curves at a constant gate voltage. The output curves are fitted using several kinds of current-voltage models. Besides the models in the literature, we present a modified model, which takes into account not only the quantum capacitance, contact resistance, but also a modified drift velocity-field relationship. Comparing with the other models, this new model can fit better with our experimental data. The dependence of carrier intrinsic mobility on carrier density is obtained based on this model.

  7. 78 FR 39435 - Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... from any point or points behind any Member State of the European Union via any point or points in any... authorized by any additional route rights made available to European Union carriers in the future. Barbara J... United States and any point or points in any member of the European Common Aviation Area; (c)...

  8. 47 CFR 54.501 - Eligibility for services provided by telecommunications carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... schools meeting the statutory definition of “elementary school” or “secondary school” as defined in § 54... are completely separate from any schools (including, but not limited to, elementary and secondary...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and...

  9. 47 CFR 54.501 - Eligibility for services provided by telecommunications carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries...) Libraries. (1) Only libraries eligible for assistance from a State library administrative agency under the Library Services and Technology Act (Pub. L. 104-208) and not excluded under paragraphs (b)(2) or (3)...

  10. 46 CFR 520.11 - Non-vessel-operating common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... designated under part 515 of this chapter as its legal agent for service of process, including subpoenas. The... agent for service of process. (c) Co-Loading. (1) NVOCCs shall address the following situations in their... tendering NVOCC shall describe its co-loading practices and specify its responsibility to pay any...

  11. 78 FR 42886 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Publication Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... States or which makes a significant contribution to the U.S. economy through payment of taxes or use of... group or association of ocean transportation intermediaries which provide financial coverage for the... ocean transportation intermediary's, or group's, address published in its tariff, a copy of...

  12. 78 FR 41314 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Radio Licensees AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission) modifies the policies and procedures that apply...

  13. 76 FR 65472 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... reasonable accommodations (accessible format documents, sign language interpreters, CART, etc.) by e-mail to... Ownership Guidelines), pet. for recon. pending. 29. That is, in calculating foreign equity interests in...

  14. 77 FR 23202 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier Service Arrangements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    .... Capitol Street NW., Washington, DC 20573- 0001, Phone: (202) 523-5725, Fax: (202) 523-0014, Email... shipments of household goods belonging to military personnel from U.S. military bases in the Philippines to.... Gregory, at the telephone number or email provided above. By the Commission. Karen V. Gregory,...

  15. 47 CFR 63.18 - Contents of applications for international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... more of the following statements, as pertinent: (1) Global facilities-based authority. If applying for... this part. (2) Global Resale Authority. If applying for authority to resell the international services... market alliance) affecting the provision or marketing of international basic telecommunications...

  16. 47 CFR 63.22 - Facilities-based international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) EXTENSION OF LINES, NEW LINES, AND DISCONTINUANCE, REDUCTION, OUTAGE AND IMPAIRMENT OF... exclusion list. The exclusion list is available from the International Bureau's World Wide Web site at http... and any country on the exclusion list, or to construct, acquire, or operate lines in any new...

  17. 47 CFR 63.23 - Resale-based international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) EXTENSION OF LINES, NEW LINES, AND DISCONTINUANCE, REDUCTION, OUTAGE AND IMPAIRMENT OF...'s World Wide Web site at http://www.fcc.gov/ib. (e) Any party certified to provide international... regulations and any conditions or limitations stated in the Commission's public notice or order that serves...

  18. 47 CFR 63.22 - Facilities-based international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) EXTENSION OF LINES, NEW LINES, AND DISCONTINUANCE, REDUCTION, OUTAGE AND IMPAIRMENT OF... exclusion list. The exclusion list is available from the International Bureau's World Wide Web site at http... and any country on the exclusion list, or to construct, acquire, or operate lines in any new...

  19. 47 CFR 63.22 - Facilities-based international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) EXTENSION OF LINES, NEW LINES, AND DISCONTINUANCE, REDUCTION, OUTAGE AND IMPAIRMENT OF... exclusion list. The exclusion list is available from the International Bureau's World Wide Web site at http... and any country on the exclusion list, or to construct, acquire, or operate lines in any new...

  20. 75 FR 48409 - Establishment of the Toxic by Inhalation Hazard Common Carrier Transportation Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... outline what is a railroad's reasonable response to a shipper's request that it transport TIH cargo. The... amount of insurance that the railroad carries for TIH transport or (2) $500 million for Class I railroads... occurrences while not reducing a railroad's incentive to prudently and safely handle and transport TIH....

  1. 76 FR 61279 - Communications Common Carriers, Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements, Telephone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Requirements, Telephone, Telecommunications, Uniform System of Accounts AGENCY: Federal Communications..., reporting and Recordkeeping requirements, Telephone, Telecommunications, Uniform system of accounts....

  2. 76 FR 70448 - Publication of Inaccurate or Inactive Ocean Common Carrier Tariffs; Order to Show Cause

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ...\\ Journal of Commerce (JOC) Sailings, PIERS, Sea-Web, and SERVCON. The Commission previously has found that... Limited, 20th Floor, World-Wide 021100 House, No. 19 Des Voeux Road Central, Hong Kong, China... Shipping Co., Ltd., 2nd Floor, Donsung Building, 020957 17-7, 4-KA, Namdaemun-Ro, Chung-Ku, Seoul,...

  3. 76 FR 11351 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier Negotiated Rate Arrangements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... negotiated rates with shipping customers and memorialized in writing. Petition No. P1-08, Petition of the... regulatory costs to NVOCCs, a savings that could be passed on to their customers. A number of commenters... efficient for NVOCCs to quote rates and to devote their resources to serving their customers. The...

  4. 47 CFR 63.18 - Contents of applications for international common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., including safeguards such as: (A) Existence of cost-allocation rules in the foreign country to prevent cross... chapter and the IBFS homepage at http://www.fcc.gov/ibfs. See also §§ 63.20 and 63.53. Effective Date...

  5. 47 CFR 69.152 - End user common line for price cap local exchange carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section for Basic Rate Interface integrated services digital network (ISDN) service. (2) Local exchange... multiplied by corresponding base period lines, divided by the number of base period lines in that study area... area, divided by the number of total base period lines in the study area cannot exceed Average...

  6. 47 CFR 69.152 - End user common line for price cap local exchange carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... July 1, 2002, $6.00. (D) On July 1, 2003, $6.50. (2) In the event that GDP-PI exceeds 6.5% or is less... this chapter. (2) In the event that GDP-PI is greater than 6.5% or is less than 0%, the maximum monthly... eliminated. (2) In the event that GDP-PI is greater than 6.5% or is less than 0%, the maximum monthly...

  7. 47 CFR 69.152 - End user common line for price cap local exchange carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... July 1, 2002, $6.00. (D) On July 1, 2003, $6.50. (2) In the event that GDP-PI exceeds 6.5% or is less... this chapter. (2) In the event that GDP-PI is greater than 6.5% or is less than 0%, the maximum monthly... eliminated. (2) In the event that GDP-PI is greater than 6.5% or is less than 0%, the maximum monthly...

  8. 47 CFR 69.152 - End user common line for price cap local exchange carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... July 1, 2002, $6.00. (D) On July 1, 2003, $6.50. (2) In the event that GDP-PI exceeds 6.5% or is less... this chapter. (2) In the event that GDP-PI is greater than 6.5% or is less than 0%, the maximum monthly... eliminated. (2) In the event that GDP-PI is greater than 6.5% or is less than 0%, the maximum monthly...

  9. Carrier screening for inherited haemoglobin disorders among secondary school students and young adults in Latium, Italy.

    PubMed

    Amato, Antonio; Cappabianca, Maria Pia; Lerone, Maria; Colosimo, Alessia; Grisanti, Paola; Ponzini, Donatella; Di Biagio, Paola; Perri, Maria; Gianni, Debora; Rinaldi, Silvana; Piscitelli, Roberta

    2014-07-01

    To reduce the incidence of β-thalassaemia major and other severe haemoglobin-related disorders by the early identification of healthy carriers, the Centro Studi Microcitemie Roma has been organising since 1975 a prevention programme in Latium, an Italian central region. This programme entails two different types of carrier screening on a voluntary basis: a universal screening offered to secondary school students and a screening offered to young adults. In 36 years of scholastic screening (from 1975 until 2011), 1,466,100 students have been examined and 26,786 (1.8 %) carriers of non-α thalassaemia have been identified. In the extra-scholastic screening, 388,690 adult subjects (including the carriers' relatives) have been examined and a total of 38,457 (9.9 %) carriers of non-α thalassaemia have been detected. These results demonstrate that the precocious identification of healthy carriers allowed the identification of at-risk couples and reduced to zero the birth of affected babies in the Latium native population. This programme does not involve huge resources and is relatively inexpensive and, as such, it is essential to be offered to the total Latium scholastic and extra-scholastic population, which is epidemiologically changing due to migratory fluxes from countries in which haemoglobin disorders are common.

  10. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schønning, Kristian; Fredholm, Merete; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming. PMID:27509169

  11. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  12. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  13. How Common Is PTSD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... Public, Family, & Friends How Common Is PTSD? Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur after you have been ...

  14. Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

  15. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  16. Common Causes of Stillbirth

    MedlinePlus

    ... one of the most common placental problems. The placenta separates (partially or completely) from the uterine wall ... or abnormal placement of the cord into the placenta. This can deprive the baby of oxygen. Infectious ...

  17. Commonly Consumed Food Commodities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.

  18. Common Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  19. Common peroneal nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - common peroneal nerve; Peroneal nerve injury; Peroneal nerve palsy ... type of peripheral neuropathy (damage to nerves outside the brain ... nerve injuries. Damage to the nerve disrupts the myelin sheath ...

  20. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  1. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  2. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  3. Reproductive outcome of male carriers of chromosomal abnormalities: multidisciplinary approach for genetic counseling and its implications.

    PubMed

    Guo, K M; Wu, B; Wang, H B; Tian, R H

    2016-12-02

    Chromosomal abnormality is the most common genetic cause of infertility. Infertility, as a psychological problem, has received an increasing amount of attention. Psychological interventions have been shown to have beneficial effects on infertile patients with chromosomal abnormalities. The present study explored reproductive outcome of male carriers of chromosomal abnormalities, who accepted genetic counseling and psychological support. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes and G-banding. The detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities was 10.3% in pre-pregnancy counseled males, with polymorphisms being most common, followed by 47,XXY and balanced translocation. Follow-up of 170 carriers with normozoospermia, after 3 years, showed that 94.7% of the cases resulted in live births. In the carriers of polymorphisms, balanced translocation, inv(9), Robertsonian translocation, inversion, and 47,XYY, live birth rates were 96.8, 85.7, 100, 83.3, 75, and 100%, respectively. Follow-up of 54 carriers with oligozoospermia or azoospermia, after 3 years, showed that 14.8% of the cases resulted in live births. In the carriers of 47,XXY with severe oligozoospermia or azoospermia, 80 or 5.9% of the cases resulted in live births, respectively. Therefore, timely psychological support would be beneficial and multidisciplinary approach should be preferentially considered for the management of individuals with chromosomal abnormalities.

  4. 47 CFR 73.1540 - Carrier frequency measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 73.1540 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES... measurements. (a) The carrier frequency of each AM and FM station and the visual carrier frequency and the difference between the visual carrier and the aural carrier or center frequency of each TV and Class A...

  5. 14 CFR 389.24 - Foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign air carriers. 389.24 Section 389.24...) ORGANIZATION FEES AND CHARGES FOR SPECIAL SERVICES Filing and Processing License Fees § 389.24 Foreign air carriers. A foreign air carrier, or such carriers, if from the same country, acting jointly, may apply...

  6. 76 FR 32390 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory... MCSAC will complete action on Task 11-01, regarding Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor...

  7. Theileria annulata: carrier state and immunity.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, T; Williamson, S; Kirvar, E; Shiels, B; Brown, C G

    1998-06-29

    Recovery from primary infection of Theileria annulata results in the development of a persistent carrier state in the vertebrate host. The carrier state is of great importance in the maintenance of the life cycle by alternate tick/cattle challenge and both contributes to and may be necessary for maintenance of immunity. Therefore, an accurate determination of carrier animals could be useful in determining immune status and may allow the necessary control measures to be implemented. Detailed information on the carrier state of animals following immunization with attenuated cell lines is lacking. In this study, relationship between immune response, persistence of the parasite, and the antibody response has been investigated. Calves were infected with T. annulata sporozoites, low passage (non-attenuated) or high passage (attenuated, vaccine) cell lines and later challenged with a lethal dose of heterologous sporozoites. The presence and persistence of the parasite were monitored by PCR using primers derived from genes coding for ssrRNA and a 30 kDa major merozoite surface protein, by Giemsa stained blood smears to detect the presence of piroplasms and also by attempting to establish infected mononuclear cell cultures from venous blood. Antibody responses were measured by indirect ELISA using a merozoite recombinant antigen and IFAT using piroplasm and macroschizont antigens. Results showed that there was an evident relationship between the persistence of carrier status, antibody response in ELISA and immune response to challenge.

  8. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  9. A rigorous approach for selection of optimal variant sets for carrier screening with demonstration of clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Perreault-Micale, Cynthia; Davie, Jocelyn; Breton, Benjamin; Hallam, Stephanie; Greger, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Carrier screening for certain diseases is recommended by major medical and Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) societies. Most carrier screening panels test only for common, ethnic-specific variants. However, with formerly isolated ethnic groups becoming increasingly intermixed, this approach is becoming inadequate. Our objective was to develop a rigorous process to curate all variants, for relevant genes, into a database and then apply stringent clinical validity classification criteria to each in order to retain only those with clear evidence for pathogenicity. The resulting variant set, in conjunction with next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS), then affords the capability for an ethnically diverse, comprehensive, highly specific carrier-screening assay. The clinical utility of our approach was demonstrated by screening a pan-ethnic population of 22,864 individuals for Bloom syndrome carrier status using a BLM variant panel comprised of 50 pathogenic variants. In addition to carriers of the common AJ founder variant, we identified 57 carriers of other pathogenic BLM variants. All variants reported had previously been curated and their clinical validity documented, or were of a type that met our stringent, preassigned validity criteria. Thus, it was possible to confidently report an increased number of Bloom’s syndrome carriers compared to traditional, ethnicity-based screening, while not reducing the specificity of the screening due to reporting variants of unknown clinical significance. PMID:26247052

  10. Improving accuracy of Tay Sachs carrier screening of the non-Jewish population: analysis of 34 carriers and six late-onset patients with HEXA enzyme and DNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Noh Jin; Morgan, Craig; Sharma, Rajesh; Li, Yuanyin; Lobo, Raynah M; Redman, Joy B; Salazar, Denise; Sun, Weimin; Neidich, Julie A; Strom, Charles M

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combining different testing modalities namely beta-hexosaminidase A (HEXA) enzyme analysis, HEXA DNA common mutation assay, and HEXA gene sequencing could improve the sensitivity for carrier detection in non-Ashkenazi (AJ) individuals. We performed a HEXA gene sequencing assay, a HEXA DNA common mutation assay, and a HEXA enzyme assay on 34 self-reported Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carriers, six late-onset patients with TSD, and one pseudodeficiency allele carrier. Sensitivity of TSD carrier detection was 91% for gene sequencing compared with 91% for the enzyme assay and 52% for the DNA mutation assay. Gene sequencing combined with enzyme testing had the highest sensitivity (100%) for carrier detection. Gene sequencing detected four novel mutations, three of which are predicted to be disease causing [118.delT, 965A-->T (D322V), and 775A-->G (T259A)]. Gene sequencing is useful in identifying rare mutations in patients with TSD and their families, in evaluating spouses of known carriers for TSD who have indeterminate enzyme analysis and negative for common mutation analysis, and in resolving ambiguous enzyme testing results.

  11. Carrier lifetimes in thin-film photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Dohyun

    2015-09-01

    The carrier lifetimes in thin-film solar cells are reviewed and discussed. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination is dominant at low carrier density, Auger recombination is dominant under a high injection condition and high carrier density, and surface recombination is dominant under any conditions. Because the surface photovoltage technique is insensitive to the surface condition, it is useful for bulk lifetime measurements. The photoconductance decay technique measures the effective recombination lifetime. The time-resolved photoluminescence technique is very useful for measuring thin-film semiconductor or solar-cell materials lifetime, because the sample is thin, other techniques are not suitable for measuring the lifetime. Many papers have provided time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) lifetimes for copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and CdTe thin-film solar cell. The TRPL lifetime strongly depends on open-circuit voltage and conversion efficiency; however, the TRPL life time is insensitive to the short-circuit current.

  12. Inorganic Nanomaterials as Carriers for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shizhu; Hao, Xiaohong; Liang, Xingjie; Zhang, Qun; Zhang, Cuimiao; Zhou, Guoqiang; Shen, Shigang; Jia, Guang; Zhang, Jinchao

    2016-01-01

    For safe and effective therapy, drugs must be delivered efficiently and with minimal systemic side effects. Nanostructured drug carriers enable the delivery of small-molecule drugs as well as nucleic acids and proteins. Inorganic nanomaterials are ideal for drug delivery platforms due to their unique physicochemical properties, such as facile preparation, good storage stability and biocompatibility. Many inorganic nanostructure-based drug delivery platforms have been prepared. Although there are still many obstacles to overcome, significant advances have been made in recent years. This review focuses on the status and development of inorganic nanostructures, including silica, quantum dots, gold, carbon-based and magnetic iron oxide-based nanostructures, as carriers for chemical and biological drugs. We specifically highlight the extensive use of these inorganic drug carriers for cancer therapy. Finally, we discuss the most important areas in the field that urgently require further study.

  13. Nanogel Carrier Design for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Eckmann, D. M.; Composto, R. J.; Tsourkas, A.; Muzykantov, V. R.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer-based nanogel formulations offer features attractive for drug delivery, including ease of synthesis, controllable swelling and viscoelasticity as well as drug loading and release characteristics, passive and active targeting, and the ability to formulate nanogel carriers that can respond to biological stimuli. These unique features and low toxicity make the nanogels a favorable option for vascular drug targeting. In this review, we address key chemical and biological aspects of nanogel drug carrier design. In particular, we highlight published studies of nanogel design, descriptions of nanogel functional characteristics and their behavior in biological models. These studies form a compendium of information that supports the scientific and clinical rationale for development of this carrier for targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:25485112

  14. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  15. BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PROCESS FOR Pu RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Finzel, T.G.

    1959-02-01

    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process for recovering plutonium is described. It has been found that a more granular and more easily filterable carrier precipitiite is formed if the addition of the bismuth and phosphate ions is effected by first adding 9/10 of the bismuth ions necessary, then slowly adding all of the source of the phosphate ions to be incorporated in the precipitate, while digesting at 75 C and afterwards incorporating the remainder of the total bismuth ions necessary

  16. Spacelab Hitchhiker, a quick reaction carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, E. F.; Moye, J. E.; Lohman, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that NASA is developing a new way to get payloads into orbit in a short time and at a low cost. The 'Spacelab Hitchhiker' is the carrier program which will accomplish this objective. The Spacelab Hitchhiker carrier is a Shuttle payload. The primary application of the considered program will be related to science and technology payloads. Attention is given to the Hitchhiker concept, details regarding the Hitchhiker-G and Hitchhiker-M, aspects of integration and operations, Orbiter resources and STS interfaces, the conduction of Hitchhiker flights as 'flights of opportunity', questions of payload selection, and organizational interfaces.

  17. Carrier molecules for use in veterinary vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gerdts, Volker; Mutwiri, George; Richards, James; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Potter, Andrew A

    2013-01-11

    The practice of immunization of animals and humans has been carried out for centuries and is generally accepted as the most cost effective and sustainable method of infectious disease control. Over the past 20 years there have been significant changes in our ability to produce antigens by conventional extraction and purification, recombinant DNA and synthesis. However, many of these products need to be combined with carrier molecules to generate optimal immune responses. This review covers selected topics in the development of carrier technologies for use in the veterinary vaccine field, including glycoconjugate and peptide vaccines, microparticle and nanoparticle formulations, and finally virus-like particles.

  18. CONCENTRATION OF Pu USING OXALATE TYPE CARRIER

    DOEpatents

    Ritter, D.M.; Black, R.P.S.

    1960-04-19

    A method is given for dissolving and reprecipitating an oxalate carrier precipitate in a carrier precipitation process for separating and recovering plutonium from an aqueous solution. Uranous oxalate, together with plutonium being carried thereby, is dissolved in an aqueous alkaline solution. Suitable alkaline reagents are the carbonates and oxulates of the alkali metals and ammonium. An oxidizing agent selected from hydroxylamine and hydrogen peroxide is then added to the alkaline solution, thereby oxidizing uranium to the hexavalent state. The resulting solution is then acidified and a source of uranous ions provided in the acidified solution, thereby forming a second plutoniumcarrying uranous oxalate precipitate.

  19. Transient carrier transfer in tunnel injection structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talalaev, V. G.; Tomm, J. W.; Zakharov, N. D.; Werner, P.; Gösele, U.; Novikov, B. V.; Sokolov, A. S.; Samsonenko, Y. B.; Egorov, V. A.; Cirlin, G. E.

    2008-07-01

    InGaAs tunnel injection nanostructures consisting of a single quantum well as injector and a quantum dot layer as emitter are studied by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The quantum dot photoluminescence undergoes substantial changes when proceeding from direct quantum dot excitation to quantum well excitation, which causes an indirect population of the dot ground states. This results in a lowered effective carrier temperature within the dots. Results on the carrier transfer versus barrier thickness are discussed within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. Deviations for barrier thicknesses <5nm are assigned to the formation of nanobridges that are actually detected by transmission electron microscopy.

  20. Viruses - from pathogens to vaccine carriers.

    PubMed

    Small, Juliana C; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2011-10-01

    Vaccination is mankind's greatest public health success story. By now vaccines to many of the viruses that once caused fatal childhood diseases are routinely used throughout the world. Traditional methods of vaccine development through inactivation or attenuation of viruses have failed for some of the most deadly human pathogens, necessitating new approaches. Genetic modification of viruses not only allows for their attenuation but also for incorporation of sequences from other viruses, turning one pathogen into a vaccine carrier for another. Recombinant viruses have pros and cons as vaccine carriers, as discussed below using vectors based on adenovirus, herpesvirus, flavivirus, and rhabdovirus as examples.

  1. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-17

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  2. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  3. Breach and safety analysis of spills over water from large liquefied natural gas carriers.

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, Marion Michael; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Attaway, Stephen W.

    2008-05-01

    In 2004, at the request of the Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) prepared a report, ''Guidance on the Risk and Safety Analysis of Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spills Over Water''. That report provided framework for assessing hazards and identifying approaches to minimize the consequences to people and property from an LNG spill over water. The report also presented the general scale of possible hazards from a spill from 125,000 m3 o 150,000 m3 class LNG carriers, at the time the most common LNG carrier capacity.

  4. Common vs. Rare Allele Hypotheses for Complex Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schork, Nicholas J.; Murray, Sarah S.; Frazer, Kelly A.; Topol, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    There has been growing debate over the nature of the genetic contribution to individual susceptibility to common complex diseases such as diabetes, osteoporosis, and cancer. The ‘Common Disease, Common Variant (CDCV)’ hypothesis argues that genetic variations with appreciable frequency in the population at large, but relatively low ‘penetrance’ (or the probability that a carrier of the relevant variants will express the disease), are the major contributors to genetic susceptibility to common diseases. The ‘Common Disease, Rare Variant (CDRV)’ hypothesis, on the other hand, argues that multiple rare DNA sequence variations, each with relatively high penetrance, are the major contributors to genetic susceptibility to common diseases. Both hypotheses have their place in current research efforts. PMID:19481926

  5. Increased risk of idiopathic chronic pancreatitis in cystic fibrosis carriers.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Jonathan A; Neoptolemos, John P; Feng, Jinong; Yan, Jin; Jiang, Zefei; Greenhalf, William; McFaul, Christopher; Mountford, Roger; Sommer, Steve S

    2005-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive disease caused by mutations of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The risk of idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (ICP) is increased in individuals who have CFTR genotypes containing a CF-causing mutation plus a second pathogenic allele. It is unknown whether the risk of ICP is increased in CF carriers who have one CF-causing mutation plus one normal allele. In this study, 52 sporadic cases of ICP were ascertained through the European Registry of Hereditary Pancreatitis and Familial Pancreatic Cancer. Individuals with pathogenic cationic trypsinogen mutations were excluded. DNA was comprehensively tested for CFTR mutations using a robotically enhanced, multiplexed, and highly redundant form of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis followed by DNA sequencing. Fifteen subjects had a total of 18 pathogenic CFTR alleles. Eight subjects had common CF-causing mutations. This group included seven CF carriers in whom the second CFTR allele was normal (4.3 times the expected frequency, P=0.0002). Three subjects had compound heterozygotes genotypes containing two pathogenic alleles (31 times the expected frequency, P<0.0001). A variant allele of uncertain significance (p.R75Q) was detected in eight of the 52 ICP subjects and at a similar frequency (13/96) in random donors. ICP differs from other established CFTR-related conditions in that ICP risk is increased in CF carriers who have one documented normal CFTR allele. Having two CFTR mutations imparts a higher relative risk, while having only one mutation imparts a higher attributable risk.

  6. Finding the Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dawn

    1980-01-01

    Describes an attempt to combine secondary English instruction emphasizing United States literature with science and history by finding "common ground" between these disciplines in (1) the separation of truth from falsehood and (2) logical thinking. Biographies combined history and literature, and science fiction combined science and English;…

  7. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  8. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  9. Information Commons to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Marc Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

  10. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  11. Commonalities across Effective Collaboratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jill F.; Flynn, Richard B.

    2000-01-01

    Examined effective collaborations involving schools and colleges of education and other organizations, identifying commonly voiced reasons for collaboration and factors perceived as important in collaboration. Data come from research, case descriptions, survey responses, and input from collaborators. Willingness to listen, mutual respect,…

  12. The Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the conflicting principles revealed respectively by those who argue for the common school and by those who seek to promote a system of schools that, though maintained by the state, might reflect the different religious beliefs within the community. The philosopher, John Dewey, is appealed to in defence of the common…

  13. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  14. Pleasure: the common currency.

    PubMed

    Cabanac, M

    1992-03-21

    At present as physiologists studying various homeostatic behaviors, such as thermoregulatory behavior and food and fluid intake, we have no common currency that allows us to equate the strength of the motivational drive that accompanies each regulatory need, in terms of how an animal or a person will choose to satisfy his needs when there is a conflict between two or more of them. Yet the behaving organism must rank his priorities and needs a common currency to achieve the ranking (McFarland & Sibly, 1975, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 270 Biol 265-293). A theory is proposed here according to which pleasure is this common currency. The perception of pleasure, as measured operationally and quantitatively by choice behavior (in the case of animals), or by the rating of the intensity of pleasure or displeasure (in the case of humans) can serve as such a common currency. The tradeoffs between various motivations would thus be accomplished by simple maximization of pleasure. In what follows, the scientific work arising recently on this subject, with be reviewed briefly and our recent experimental findings will be presented. This will serve as the support for the theoretical position formulated in this essay.

  15. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  16. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  17. Human Commonalities and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

  18. Does Common Enrollment Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Clayton, Grant

    2016-01-01

    In this article, researchers Dick M. Carpenter II and Grant Clayton explore common enrollment systems (CESs)--how they work and what school leaders can learn from districts that have implemented CESs. Denver, New Orleans, and Newark (New Jersey) have rolled out this centralized enrollment process for all district-run and charter schools in their…

  19. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  20. Common File Formats.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  1. Math, Literacy, & Common Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

  2. Genetic Variation at 9p22.2 and Ovarian Cancer Risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Kartsonaki, Christiana; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Roversi, Gaia; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Allavena, Anna; Ottini, Laura; Papi, Laura; Gismondi, Viviana; Capra, Fabio; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Cruger, Dorthe; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Karlsson, Per; Stenmark Askmalm, Marie; Borg, Ake; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Górski, Bohdan; Cybulski, Cezary; Dębniak, Tadeusz; Osorio, Ana; Durán, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti A.; Verhoef, Senno; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine A.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.; Bodmer, Danielle; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; van Os, Theo A.; Asperen, Christi J.; Blok, Marinus J.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Dunning, Alison M.; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Pichert, Gabriella; Cole, Trevor; Hodgson, Shirley; Brewer, Carole; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary; Kennedy, M. John; Rogers, Mark T.; Side, Lucy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Gregory, Helen; Godwin, Andrew; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Moncoutier, Virginie; Castera, Laurent; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Bonadona, Valérie; Leroux, Dominique; Faivre, Laurence; Lidereau, Rosette; Nogues, Catherine; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Prieur, Fabienne; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Fert-Ferrer, Sandra; Miron, Alex; Buys, Saundra S.; Hopper, John L.; Daly, Mary B.; John, Esther M.; Terry, Mary Beth; Goldgar, David; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Jønson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Vijai, Joseph; Dutra-Clarke, Ana V. C.; Przybylo, Jennifer A.; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Blanco, Ignacio; Lázaro, Conxi; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Beattie, Mary S.; Schmutzler, Rita; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Fiebig, Britta; Sutter, Christian; Arnold, Norbert; Deissler, Helmut; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Kast, Karin; Niederacher, Dieter; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Holland, Helene; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancers. Although several common variants have been associated with breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers, none have been associated with ovarian cancer susceptibility. A genome-wide association study recently identified an association between the rare allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3814113 (ie, the C allele) at 9p22.2 and decreased risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated the association of this SNP with ovarian cancer risk among BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers by use of data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. Methods We genotyped rs3814113 in 10 029 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 5837 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Associations with ovarian and breast cancer were assessed with a retrospective likelihood approach. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The minor allele of rs3814113 was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio of ovarian cancer = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.72 to 0.85; P = 4.8 × 10-9) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (hazard ratio of ovarian cancer = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.67 to 0.90; P = 5.5 × 10-4). This SNP was not associated with breast cancer risk among either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. BRCA1 mutation carriers with the TT genotype at SNP rs3814113 were predicted to have an ovarian cancer risk to age 80 years of 48%, and those with the CC genotype were predicted to have a risk of 33%. Conclusion Common genetic variation at the 9p22.2 locus was associated with decreased risk of ovarian cancer for carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. PMID:21169536

  3. 42 CFR 421.200 - Carrier functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier functions. 421.200 Section 421.200 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... a channel of communication to and from CMS of information, instructions, and other material...

  4. 14 CFR 221.2 - Carrier's duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier's duty. 221.2 Section 221.2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC..., and provide and keep open to public inspection, tariffs showing all fares, and charges for foreign...

  5. 14 CFR 223.6 - Carrier's rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION General Provisions § 223.6 Carrier's rules. (a) Each air... interchange of free and reduced-rate transportation passes or a statement describing those practices. (b)...

  6. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carrier. 35.4 Section 35.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  7. Carrier recovery techniques on satellite mobile channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vucetic, B.; Du, J.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical method and a stored channel model were used to evaluate error performance of uncoded quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) and M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) trellis coded modulation (TCM) over shadowed satellite mobile channels in the presence of phase jitter for various carrier recovery techniques.

  8. OCP: Opportunistic Carrier Prediction for Wireless Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    Many protocols have been proposed for medium access control in wireless networks. MACA [13], MACAW [3], and FAMA [8] are the earlier proposals for...world performance of carrier sense. In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM E-WIND Workshop, 2005. [13] P. Karn. MACA : A new channel access method for packet radio

  9. Nuclear Submarines and Aircraft Carriers | Radiation ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-02-23

    Nuclear submarines and aircraft carriers are powered by onboard nuclear reactors. Heat from the nuclear reaction makes the steam needed to power the submarine. When a nuclear vessel is taken out of service, its radioactive parts are disposed of and monitored.

  10. Suppressed Carrier Synchronizers for ISI Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, Sami M.; Simon, Marvin K.

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate a class of suppressed carrier synchronization loops that are motivated by MAP estimation theory and in the presence of ISI outperform the conventional I-Q loop which is designed on the basis of zero ISI (wideband assumption). The measure of comparison used is the so-called.

  11. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carrier. 35.4 Section 35.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  12. 7 CFR 35.4 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carrier. 35.4 Section 35.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  13. 48 CFR 1602.170-1 - Carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Carrier. 1602.170-1 Section 1602.170-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP...

  14. URANOUS IODATE AS A CARRIER FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.R.; Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.

    1959-12-15

    A process is described for precipitating plutonium on a uranous iodate carrier from an aqueous acid solution conA plutonium solution more concentrated than the original solution can then be obtained by oxidizing the uranium to the hexavalent state and dissolving the precipitate, after separating the latter from the original solution, by means of warm nitric acid.

  15. Terahertz carrier dynamics and dielectric properties of GaN epilayers with different carrier concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H. C.; Zhang, X. H.; Liu, W.; Yong, A. M.; Tang, S. H.

    2009-09-01

    Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, we measured the complex conductivity and dielectric function of n-type GaN with various carrier concentrations on sapphire substrate. The measured complex conductivity, which is due to the free carriers, is well fitted by simple Drude model. The contribution from the lattice vibration to the complex dielectric function increases with the decrease in free carrier concentration. A better fitting of the frequency-dependent complex dielectric response was obtained by considering both of the Drude and the classical damped oscillator model.

  16. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for drug delivery and targeting.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chia-Lang; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Fang, Jia-You

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are drug-delivery systems composed of both solid and liquid lipids as a core matrix. It was shown that NLCs reveal some advantages for drug therapy over conventional carriers, including increased solubility, the ability to enhance storage stability, improved permeability and bioavailability, reduced adverse effect, prolonged half-life, and tissue-targeted delivery. NLCs have attracted increasing attention in recent years. This review describes recent developments in drug delivery using NLCs strategies. The structures, preparation techniques, and physicochemical characterization of NLCs are systematically elucidated in this review. The potential of NLCs to be used for different administration routes is highlighted. Special attention is paid to parenteral injection and topical delivery since these are the most common routes for investigating NLCs. Relevant issues for the introduction of NLCs to market, including pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications, are discussed. The related patents of NLCs for drug delivery are also reviewed. Finally, the future development and current obstacles needing to be resolved are elucidated.

  17. Development of nanostructured lipid carrier for dacarbazine delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almousallam, Musallam; Moia, Claudia; Zhu, Huijun

    2015-09-01

    Dacarbazine (Dac) is one of the most commonly used chemotherapy drugs for treating various cancers. However, its poor water solubility, short half-life in blood circulation, low response rate and high side effect limit its application. This study aimed to improve the drug solubility and prolong drug release by developing nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for Dac delivery. The NLC and Dac-encapsulated NLC were synthesized with precirol ATO 5 and isopropyl myristate as lipids, tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate, soybean lecithin and Kolliphor P 188 as co-surfactants. The NLCs with controlled size were achieved using high shear dispersion following solidification of oil-in-water emulsion. For Dac encapsulation, the smallest NLC with 155 ± 10 nm in size, 0.2 ± 0.01 polydispersion index and -43.4 ± 2 mV zeta potential was selected. The resultant DLC-Dac possessed size, polydispersion index and zeta potential of 190 ± 10, 0.2 ± 0.01, and -43.5 ± 1.2, respectively. The drug encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were 98.5 % and 14 %, respectively. In vitro drug release study showed a biphasic pattern, with 50 % released in the first 2 h, and the remaining released sustainably for up to 30 h. This is the first report on the development of NLC for Dac delivery, implying that NLC could be a new potential candidate as drug carrier to improve the therapeutic profile of Dac.

  18. Dynamics of charge carriers on hexagonal nanoribbons with vacancy defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira da Cunha, Wiliam; de Oliveira Neto, Pedro Henrique; Terai, Akira; Magela e Silva, Geraldo

    2016-07-01

    We develop a general model to investigate the dynamics of charge carriers in vacancy endowed honeycomb two-dimensional nanolattices. As a fundamental application, results concerning the influence of vacancies placed on different sites of semiconducting armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNR) over the transport of polarons are presented. It is observed that the positioning of vacancies plays a major role over the scattering of the charge carriers, in the sense that their overall mobility is determined by where the defect is allocated. By considering different structural configurations of the system, the arising polaron can either move freely or be reflected. Therefore, our work provides a phenomenological understanding of the underlying mechanism responsible for the change of conductivity experienced by systems in which structural defects are present, a fact that has been reported for different nanostructures of the same symmetry. Because vacancies are one of the most common kinds of defects and are, in practice, unavoidable, the kind of description proposed in the present paper is crucial to correctly address transport and electronic properties in more realistic electronic devices based on two-dimensional nanolattices.

  19. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    DOEpatents

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  20. Modeling of nanoscale devices with carriers obeying a three-dimensional density of states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusi, Gino; Iannaccone, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    While aggressively nanoscale field-effect transistors commonly used in CMOS technology exhibit strong quantum confinement of charge carriers in one or two dimensions, few devices have been recently proposed whose operation reminds that of vacuum tube triodes and bipolar transistors, since charge carriers are ballistically injected into a three-dimensional k-space. In this work we derive, under the parabolic band approximation, the analytical expressions of the first three directed ballistic moments of the Boltzmann transport equation (current density, carrier density, and average kinetic energy), suitable to describe ballistic and quasi-ballistic transport in such devices. The proposed equations are applied, as an example, to describe the ballistic transport in graphene-based variable-barrier transistors.

  1. Sustained delivery of biomolecules from gelatin carriers for applications in bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiankang; Leeuwenburgh, Sander Cg

    2014-08-01

    Local delivery of therapeutic biomolecules to stimulate bone regeneration has matured considerably during the past decades, but control over the release of these biomolecules still remains a major challenge. To this end, suitable carriers that allow for tunable spatial and temporal delivery of biomolecules need to be developed. Gelatin is one of the most widely used natural polymers for the controlled and sustained delivery of biomolecules because of its biodegradability, biocompatibility, biosafety and cost-effectiveness. The current study reviews the applications of gelatin as carriers in form of bulk hydrogels, microspheres, nanospheres, colloidal gels and composites for the programmed delivery of commonly used biomolecules for applications in bone regeneration with a specific focus on the relationship between carrier properties and delivery characteristics.

  2. Statement of The American Society of Human Genetics on cystic fibrosis carrier screening

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The identification in 1989 of the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene and its most common mutation immediately raised the possibility of CF carrier detection by DNA analysis. The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) issued a statement recommending that CF carrier testing should be made available to individuals with a family history of CF. It was also stated that screening of individuals or couples in the general population should not be offered until the rate of CF carrier detection improves. An additional prerequisite emphasized the need for the establishment of effective educational and counseling programs consistent with previous widely accepted principles. An NIH workshop reached similar conclusions. ASHG recommendations are that screening be limited to individuals with a family history of CF, testing should be accompanied by education and counseling, screening should be voluntary and confidential with appropriate laboratory quality controls, and efforts should be expanded to educate health care providers and the public.

  3. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  4. Common medical pains

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Pain in infancy and childhood is extremely common. Sources of pain include illness, injury, and medical and dental procedures. Over the past two decades, tremendous progress has been made in the assessment, prevention and treatment of pain. It is important for the paediatric health care provider to be aware of the implications and consequences of pain in childhood. A multitude of interventions are available to reduce or alleviate pain in children of all ages, including neonates. These include behavioural and psychological methods, as well as a host of pharmacological preparations, which are safe and effective when used as indicated. Many complementary and alternative treatments appear to be promising in treating and relieving pain, although further research is required. The present article reviews the most common sources of pain in childhood and infancy, as well as current treatment strategies and options. PMID:19030348

  5. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  6. Common Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincent C.

    1992-01-01

    Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9 PMID:21221380

  7. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  8. Common neuropathic itch syndromes.

    PubMed

    Oaklander, Anne Louise

    2012-03-01

    Patients with chronic itch are diagnosed and treated by dermatologists. However, itch is a neural sensation and some forms of chronic itch are the presenting symptoms of neurological diseases. Dermatologists need some familiarity with the most common neuropathic itch syndromes to initiate diagnostic testing and to know when to refer to a neurologist. This review summarizes current knowledge, admittedly incomplete, on neuropathic itch caused by diseases of the brain, spinal cord, cranial or spinal nerve-roots, and peripheral nerves.

  9. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  10. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  11. Common Geometry Module

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  12. Radiative recombination of hot carriers in narrow-gap semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, N. V.; Zegrya, G. G.

    2012-01-15

    The mechanism of the radiative recombination of hot carriers in narrow-gap semiconductors is analyzed using the example of indium antimonide. It is shown that the CHCC Auger recombination process may lead to pronounced carrier heating at high excitation levels. The distribution functions and concentrations of hot carriers are determined. The radiative recombination rate of hot carriers and the radiation gain coefficient are calculated in terms of the Kane model. It is demonstrated that the radiative recombination of hot carriers will make a substantial contribution to the total radiative recombination rate at high carrier concentrations.

  13. The effect of carrier surface and bulk properties on drug particle detachment from crystalline lactose carrier particles during inhalation, as function of carrier payload and mixing time.

    PubMed

    Dickhoff, B H J; de Boer, A H; Lambregts, D; Frijlink, H W

    2003-09-01

    The effect of carrier payload and mixing time on the redispersion of drug particles from adhesive mixtures during inhalation for two different drugs (budesonide and disodium cromoglycate) has been investigated. A special test inhaler which retains carrier crystals during inhalation was used at 30 and 60 l/min. The special inhaler enabled the analysis of residual drug on the carrier yielding so called carrier residue (CR) values. Mixtures with carrier size fractions of 32-45; 150-200 and 250-355 microm, derived from marketed lactose brands, with increasing carrier payload (0.4-6.0% w/w of drug) were prepared. It was found that with increasing carrier payload, the CR increases for the coarse carrier fraction, decreases for the fine fraction and remains roughly constant for the intermediate fraction at 30 l/min. At 60 l/min, the CR decreased for all carrier fractions with increasing payload. The effect of powder bulk properties on the adhesive forces between drug and carrier (during mixing) as well as changes in the balance between adhesion and separation forces (during inhalation) explain the results found. An improved understanding of the different effects is obtained through the recently introduced force distribution concept. The ratio of (mean) separation force to (mean) adhesion force increases with the flow rate. The adhesive forces (during mixing) increase with increasing carrier diameter (higher press-on and kneading forces) and longer mixing time.

  14. Design of Nanoparticle-Based Carriers for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Muqing; Duval, Kayla; Guo, Xing; Chen, Zi

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles have shown promise as both drug delivery vehicles and direct antitumor systems, but they must be properly designed in order to maximize efficacy. Computational modeling is often used both to design new nanoparticles and to better understand existing ones. Modeled processes include the release of drugs at the tumor site and the physical interaction between the nanoparticle and cancer cells. In this article, we provide an overview of three different targeted drug delivery methods (passive targeting, active targeting and physical targeting), compare methods of action, advantages, limitations, and the current stage of research. For the most commonly used nanoparticle carriers, fabrication methods are also reviewed. This is followed by a review of computational simulations and models on nanoparticle-based drug delivery. PMID:27398083

  15. Modeling Minority-Carrier Lifetime Techniques That Use Transient Excess-Carrier Decay: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S. W.; Berman, G. M.; Ahrenkiel, R. K.

    2008-05-01

    Lifetime spectroscopy is a valuable tool for the characterization of PV materials. This paper combines modeling and experimental results to illustrate the injection-level dependent response of three transient excess-carrier decay techniques.

  16. Study of LO-phonon decay in semiconductors for hot carrier solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levard, Hugo; Vidal, Julien; Laribi, Sana; Guillemoles, Jean-François

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge of phonon decay is of crucial importance when studying basic properties of semiconductors, since they are closely related to Raman linewidth and non-equilibrium-hot-carriers cooling. The latter indeed cools down to the bottom of the conduction band within a picosecond range because of electron-phonon interaction. The eventual emitted hot phonons then decay in few picoseconds. The hot carriers cooling can be slowed down by considering the decay rate dependence of phonon on conservation rules, whose tuning may reduce the allowed two-phonon final states density. This is of direct interest for the third generation photovoltaic devices that are Hot Carrier Solar Cells (HCSC), in which the photoexcited carriers are extracted at an energy higher than thermal equilibrium. One of the HCSC main challenges then is to find an absorber material in which the hot phonons has a relaxation time longer than the carriers cooling time, so that we can expect the electron to ``reabsorb'' a phonon, slowing down the electronic cooling. HCSC yield is ultimately limited by LO phonon decay, though. In this work, we present theoretical results obtained from ab initio calculations of phonon lifetime in III-V and IV-IV semiconductors through a three-phonon process. Common approximations in the literature are questioned. In particular, we show that the usual ``zone-center approximation'' is not valid in some specific semiconductors. The analysis allows to correctly investigate phonon decay mechanisms in bulk and nanostructured materials.

  17. Designing Passivating, Carrier-Selective Contacts for Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Boccard, Matthieu; Koswatta, Priyaranga; Holman, Zachary

    2015-04-06

    ), where “high” is relative to the splitting dictated by bulk recombination. Finally, we define a carrier-selective contact as one that enables a high “external” voltage measured across the contacts, where “high” is relative to the internal voltage. With these definitions, passivating contacts are those that allow only electrons, only holes, or neither electrons or holes to transport from the absorber to any position in the contact that has recombination-active defects. An excellent example of this is a SiNx layer on a Si wafer: the layer removes dangling bonds at the wafer surface (where there are both electrons and holes) and does not allow either carrier type to travel to its outermost surface, where there are undoubtedly defects. Carrier-selective contacts are then passivating contacts that also allow for low-impedance flow of either electrons or holes (but not both) to the recombination-active, extracting interface. The most common example is a heavily doped layer that establishes an electric field at the absorber surface, which then “filters” the carriers that may pass to the contact according to the sign of their charge.

  18. Carrier dynamics in III-nitride semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai

    In the past decade, III-nitride semiconductors had a considerable impact in solid state lighting and high speed high power electronics. As technology develops, high Al content III-nitride semiconductors lead the edge of research. It opens the door to many applications especially portable ones: from homeland security, bio-analytical, medical diagnostic, air and water disinfection, sterilization, chemical sensing systems, non-line-of-sight (NLOS) communications, to high-density optical data storage. In this thesis, we first study GaN epilayers, as well as more complicate high Al content AlGaN/AlGaN MQW structures used as active media for deep UV LEDs. We theoretically study the photoluminescence (PL) dynamics in high quality GaN epilayers by establishing a new decay model. In our model, surface recombination, diffusion, and re-absorption are taken into account. Our model is in excellent agreement with experimental data obtained by time-resolved PL. Our results show that the carrier diffusion and surface recombination play key roles in the PL decay. For high Al content AlGaN/AlGaN MQW structures, we first present the investigation of built-in electric fields in AlxGa1-xN/Al yGa1-yN MQWs embedded into p-i-n structure by using photoluminescence experiments. By comparison of the Stark shifts induced by the p-i-n structure and by photo-excited free carrier screening, we evaluate the intrinsic electric field induced by piezoelectric and spontaneous polarizations. Furthermore we investigate carrier dynamics in sets of identically grown Al0.35Ga0.65N/Al 0.49Ga0.51N MQW structures with well widths varying from 1.65 to 5.0 nm by TR-PL and LITG techniques. We observed screening of the built-in electric field by free non-equilibrium carriers and localization governed PL kinetics at different decay stages. A decrease of carrier lifetime with increasing well width is observed and attributed to the carrier localization occurring due to well width fluctuations of the quantum well

  19. LWS/SET Technology Experiment Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Barry; Giffin, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the approach taken to building a low-cost, modular spacecraft bus that can be used to support a variety of technology experiments in different space environments. It describes the techniques used and design drivers considered to ensure experiment independence from as yet selected host spacecraft. It describes the technology experiment carriers that will support NASA's Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed space missions. NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop a better scientific understanding to address the aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A principal goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. The Space Environment Testbed (SET) Project is one element of LWS. The Project will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The SET Project is highly budget constrained and must seek to take advantage of as yet undetermined partnering opportunities for access to space. SET will conduct technology validation experiments hosted on available flight opportunities. The SET Testbeds will be developed in a manner that minimizes the requirements for accommodation, and will be flown as flight opportunities become available. To access the widest range of flight opportunities, two key development requirements are to maintain flexibility with respect to accommodation constraints and to have the capability to respond quickly to flight opportunities. Experiments, already developed to the technology readiness level of needing flight validation in the variable Sun-Earth environment, will be selected on the basis of the need for the subject technology, readiness for flight, need for flight resources and particular orbit. Experiments will be

  20. Carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yu; Sha, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool used in a cylindrical borehole environment during oil-based mud drilling processes. The new tool is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access-based contactless multi-measurand detection tool. The tool can measure formation resistivity in different azimuthal angles and elevational depths. It can measure many more measurands simultaneously in a specified bandwidth than the legacy frequency division multiplexing multi-measurand tool without a channel-select filter while avoiding inter-carrier interference. The paper also shows that formation resistivity is not sensitive to frequency in certain frequency bands. The average resistivity collected from N subcarriers can increase the measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by N times given no amplitude clipping in the current-injection electrode. If the clipping limit is taken into account, with the phase rotation of each single carrier, the amplitude peak-to-average ratio can be reduced by 3 times, and the SNR can achieve a 9/N times gain over the single-carrier system. The carrier-interleaving technique is also introduced to counter the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effect, where the CFO will cause inter-pad interference. A qualitative analysis and simulations demonstrate that block-interleaving performs better than tone-interleaving when coping with a large CFO. The theoretical analysis also suggests that increasing the subcarrier number can increase the measurement speed or enhance elevational resolution without sacrificing receiver performance. The complex orthogonal multi-pad multi-carrier resistivity logging tool, in which all subcarriers are complex signals, can provide a larger available subcarrier pool than other types of transceivers.

  1. Benchmark and gap analysis of current mask carriers vs future requirements: example of the carrier contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, H.; Davenet, M.; Cheung, D.; Hoellein, I.; Richsteiger, P.; Dejaune, P.; Torsy, A.

    2007-02-01

    In the frame of the European Medea+ 2T302 MUSCLE project, an extensive mask carriers benchmark was carried out in order to evaluate whether some containers answer to the 65nm technology needs. Ten different containers, currently used or expected in the future all along the mask supply chain (blank, maskhouse and fab carriers) were selected at different steps of their life cycle (new, aged, aged & cleaned). The most critical parameters identified for analysis versus future technologies were: automation, particle contamination, chemical contamination (organic outgassing, ionic contamination), cleanability, ESD, airtightness and purgeability. Furthermore, experimental protocols corresponding to suitable methods were then developed and implemented to test each criterion. The benchmark results are presented giving a "state of the art" of mask carriers currently available and allowing a gap analysis for the tested parameters related to future needs. This approach is detailed through the particular case of carrier contamination measurements. Finally, this benchmark / gap analysis leads to propose advisable mask carrier specifications (and the test protocols associated) on various key parameters which can also be taken as guidelines for a standardization perspective for the 65nm technology. This also indicates that none of tested carriers fulfills all the specifications proposed.

  2. Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Biman; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency of young adolescents and adults which also affects the children. The disease remains largely under-diagnosed in India and Southeast Asian countries. Although in majority of cases it is sporadic, disease may be inherited in a autosomal recessive pattern and rarely, in autosomal dominant pattern. Patients, in addition to frequent sino-pulmonary infections, are also susceptible to various autoimmune diseases and malignancy, predominantly lymphoma and leukemia. Other characteristic lesions include lymphocytic and granulomatous interstitial lung disease, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gut. Diagnosis requires reduced levels of at least two immunoglobulin isotypes: IgG with IgA and/or IgM and impaired specific antibody response to vaccines. A number of gene mutations have been described in CVID; however, these genetic alterations account for less than 20% of cases of CVID. Flow cytometry aptly demonstrates a disturbed B cell homeostasis with reduced or absent memory B cells and increased CD21(low) B cells and transitional B cell populations. Approximately one-third of patients with CVID also display T cell functional defects. Immunoglobulin therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Immunologists and other clinicians in India and other South East Asian countries need to be aware of CVID so that early diagnosis can be made, as currently, majority of these patients still go undiagnosed.

  3. 50 CFR 14.171 - Consignment to carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... this country with its original United States certificate of veterinary inspection within 60 days of departure may be accepted by a carrier without a new veterinary examination. (b) No carrier shall accept...

  4. 45 CFR 34.9 - Claims involving carriers or insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Carriers. (1) If property is damaged, lost or destroyed while being shipped pursuant to authorized travel... carrier for the item that was damaged or lost. The exact amount of the reimbursement must be reported....

  5. 49 CFR 1312.15 - Change of carrier or agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER IN... more of the participating carriers issues a power of attorney to the new agent, and revokes...

  6. 42 CFR 405.821 - Request for carrier hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Program § 405.821 Request for carrier hearing. (a) A request for a carrier hearing is any clear expression in writing by a claimant asking for a hearing to adjudicate a claim when not acted upon...

  7. 42 CFR 405.821 - Request for carrier hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Program § 405.821 Request for carrier hearing. (a) A request for a carrier hearing is any clear expression in writing by a claimant asking for a hearing to adjudicate a claim when not acted upon...

  8. 47 CFR 54.405 - Carrier obligation to offer Lifeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.405 Carrier obligation... demonstrate continued eligibility within the 60-day time period. A carrier providing Lifeline service in...

  9. 49 CFR 1312.15 - Change of carrier or agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER IN... more of the participating carriers issues a power of attorney to the new agent, and revokes...

  10. Insights into the roles of carrier microstructure in adhesive/carrier-based dry powder inhalation mixtures: Carrier porosity and fine particle content.

    PubMed

    Shalash, Ahmed O; Molokhia, Abdulla M; Elsayed, Mustafa M A

    2015-10-01

    To gain insights into complex interactions in carrier-based dry powder inhalation mixtures, we studied the relationships between the carrier microstructural characteristics and performance. We used mercury intrusion porosimetry to measure the microstructural characteristics and to also derive the air permeability of eight carriers. We evaluated the performances of inhalation mixtures of each of these carriers and fluticasone propionate after aerosolization from an Aerolizer®. We did not observe a simple relationship between the carrier total porosity and the performance. Classification of the porosity according to pore size, however, provided interesting insights. The carrier nanoporosity, which refers to pores smaller than micronized drug particles, has a positive influence on the performance. Nanopores reduce the carrier effective contact area and the magnitude of interparticulate adhesion forces in inhalation mixtures. The carrier microporosity, which refers to pores similar in size to drug particles, also has a positive influence on the performance. During mixing, micropores increase the effectiveness of frictional and press-on forces, which are responsible for breaking up of cohesive drug agglomerates and for distribution of drug particles over the carrier surface. On the other hand, the carrier macroporosity, which refers to pores larger than drug particles, apparently has a negative influence on the performance. This influence is likely mediated via the effects of macropores on the powder bed tensile strength and fluidization behavior. The air permeability better represents these effects. The inhalation mixture performance improved as the carrier air permeability decreased. Interestingly, as the carrier fine particle content increased, the carrier microporosity increased and the carrier air permeability decreased. This proposes a new mechanism for the positive effect of fine excipient materials on the performance of carrier-based inhalation mixtures. Fine

  11. Carrier Modulation Via Waveform Probability Density Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    2006-01-01

    Beyond the classic modes of carrier modulation by varying amplitude (AM), phase (PM), or frequency (FM), we extend the modulation domain of an analog carrier signal to include a class of general modulations which are distinguished by their probability density function histogram. Separate waveform states are easily created by varying the pdf of the transmitted waveform. Individual waveform states are assignable as proxies for digital one's or zero's. At the receiver, these states are easily detected by accumulating sampled waveform statistics and performing periodic pattern matching, correlation, or statistical filtering. No fundamental physical laws are broken in the detection process. We show how a typical modulation scheme would work in the digital domain and suggest how to build an analog version. We propose that clever variations of the modulating waveform (and thus the histogram) can provide simple steganographic encoding.

  12. Aluminum-based hot carrier plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Tao; Munday, Jeremy N.

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum has recently arisen as an excellent alternative plasmonic material due to its tunability, low optical loss, and CMOS compatibility. However, its use in optoelectronic applications has been limited due to Al oxidation. Herein, we report a semiconductor-free aluminum hot carrier device that exploits the self-terminating oxidation to create an interface barrier for high performance metal-insulator-transparent conducting oxide devices. We find a 300% enhancement of the responsivity compared to similarly reported Au-based devices, resulting in a responsivity up to ˜240 nA/W, and a clear dependence of the open-circuit voltage on incident photon energy. We show that further improvement can be obtained by coupling to plasmonic modes of a metal-insulator-metal structure composed of a nanowire array adjacent to a thin aluminum film, increasing light absorption by a factor of three and enabling tunability of the hot carrier response for improved device performance.

  13. Ethical issues in preconception genetic carrier screening

    PubMed Central

    Kihlbom, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Population-based preconception genetic carrier screening programmes (PCS) with expanded panels are currently being developed in the Netherlands. This form of genetic screening for recessive traits differs from other forms of genetic testing and screening in that it is offered to persons not known to have an increased risk of being carriers of genetic traits for severe recessive diseases and in that they include tests for a large number of traits, potentially several hundred. This raises several ethical issues around justice, consequences, and autonomy. It will be argued that most of these ethical problems call for cautious reflection when setting up PCS and similar programmes within preconception care. It is moreover argued that it is ethically problematic to have an official aim and failing to mention possibly legitimate public aims that actually drive the development of PCS. PMID:27388477

  14. Carrier heating and negative photoconductivity in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Heyman, J. N.; Stein, J. D.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Banman, A. R.; Massari, A. M.; Robinson, J. T.

    2015-01-07

    We investigated negative photoconductivity in graphene using ultrafast terahertz techniques. Infrared transmission was used to determine the Fermi energy, carrier density, and mobility of p-type chemical vapor deposition graphene samples. Time-resolved terahertz photoconductivity measurements using a tunable mid-infrared pump probed these samples at photon energies between 0.35 eV and 1.55 eV, approximately one-half to three times the Fermi energy of the samples. Although interband optical transitions in graphene are blocked for pump photon energies less than twice the Fermi energy, we observe negative photoconductivity at all pump photon energies investigated, indicating that interband excitation is not required to observe this effect. Our results are consistent with a thermalized free-carrier population that cools by electron-phonon scattering, but are inconsistent with models of negative photoconductivity based on population inversion.

  15. Nanostructured lipid carriers: versatile oral delivery vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Poonia, Neelam; Kharb, Rajeev; Lather, Viney; Pandita, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Oral delivery is the most accepted and economical route for drug administration and leads to substantial reduction in dosing frequency. However, this route still remains a challenge for the pharmaceutical industry due to poorly soluble and permeable drugs leading to poor oral bioavailability. Incorporating bioactives into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) has helped in boosting their therapeutic functionality and prolonged release from these carrier systems thus providing improved pharmacokinetic parameters. The present review provides an overview of noteworthy studies reporting impending benefits of NLCs in oral delivery and highlights recent advancements for developing engineered NLCs either by conjugating polymers over their surface or modifying their charge to overcome the mucosal barrier of GI tract for active transport across intestinal membrane. PMID:28031979

  16. Carrier Modulation Via Waveform Probability Density Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    2004-01-01

    Beyond the classic modes of carrier modulation by varying amplitude (AM), phase (PM), or frequency (FM), we extend the modulation domain of an analog carrier signal to include a class of general modulations which are distinguished by their probability density function histogram. Separate waveform states are easily created by varying the pdf of the transmitted waveform. Individual waveform states are assignable as proxies for digital ONEs or ZEROs. At the receiver, these states are easily detected by accumulating sampled waveform statistics and performing periodic pattern matching, correlation, or statistical filtering. No fundamental natural laws are broken in the detection process. We show how a typical modulation scheme would work in the digital domain and suggest how to build an analog version. We propose that clever variations of the modulating waveform (and thus the histogram) can provide simple steganographic encoding.

  17. Carrier heating and negative photoconductivity in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyman, J. N.; Stein, J. D.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Banman, A. R.; Massari, A. M.; Robinson, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated negative photoconductivity in graphene using ultrafast terahertz techniques. Infrared transmission was used to determine the Fermi energy, carrier density, and mobility of p-type chemical vapor deposition graphene samples. Time-resolved terahertz photoconductivity measurements using a tunable mid-infrared pump probed these samples at photon energies between 0.35 eV and 1.55 eV, approximately one-half to three times the Fermi energy of the samples. Although interband optical transitions in graphene are blocked for pump photon energies less than twice the Fermi energy, we observe negative photoconductivity at all pump photon energies investigated, indicating that interband excitation is not required to observe this effect. Our results are consistent with a thermalized free-carrier population that cools by electron-phonon scattering, but are inconsistent with models of negative photoconductivity based on population inversion.

  18. Management of the asymptomatic BRCA mutation carrier

    PubMed Central

    Teller, Paige; Kramer, Rita K

    2010-01-01

    Current management of an asymptomatic BRCA mutation carrier includes early initiation and intensive cancer screening in combination with risk reduction strategies. The primary objectives of these interventions are earlier detection and cancer prevention to increase quality of life and prolonged survival. Existing recommendations are often based on the consensus of experts as there are few, supportive, randomized control trials. Management strategies for unaffected patients with BRCA mutations are continually redefined and customized as more evidence-based knowledge is acquired with regard to current intervention efficacy, mutation-related histology, and new treatment modalities. This review provides an outline of current, supported management principles, and interventions in the care of the asymptomatic BRCA mutation carrier. Topics covered include surveillance modalities and risk reduction achieved through behavioral modification, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery. PMID:23776357

  19. Straddle Carrier Interface and Dispatching System

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-13

    SCIDS is the Data Dispatching and Transfer Point (DDTP) component of a straddle carrier-based radiation detection system developed for the DOE Megaports Initiative for scanning shipping containers in transshipment ports. Its purpose is to communicate with a Radiation Detection Straddle Carrier (RDSC) developed by Detector Networks International, sending commands to the RDSC and receiving sensor data from the RDSC. Incoming sensor and status data from the RDSC is forwarded to a back-end data storage and display system that is external to SCIDS. SCIDS provides a graphical user interface for port operations personnel that displays location and status of the RDSC and status of each container in the port, and accepts commands from the operator directing the scanning operations of the RDSC.

  20. Controlling carrier dynamics at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cánovas, Enrique; Bonn, Mischa

    2016-10-01

    This Special issue is motivated by the occasion of the International Conference on Charge Carrier Dynamics at the Nanoscale (CCDNano), held in Santiago de Compostela (Spain) in September 2015. As chairs for the CCDNano meeting, we aimed at bringing together experts from different scientific fields in order to trigger interdisciplinary discussions and collaborations; the ultimate goal of the conference was to serve as a platform to advance and help unifying methodologies and theories from different research sub-fields. We also aimed at a deeper understanding of charge dynamics to contribute to the development of improved or novel nanostructured devices. This special issue keeps that spirit, and intends to provide an overview of ongoing research efforts regarding charge carrier dynamics at the nanoscale.

  1. LNG carrier using membrane tank system delivered

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-06

    The world's first LNG carrier that incorporates the Technigaz Mark 3 membrane tank system was delivered in October to its owner, Asia LNG Transport Sdn. Bhd., a joint venture between Nippon Yusen K.K. and Perbadanan Nasional Shipping Line Berhad of Malaysia. NKK built the 18,800 cu m, fully double-hull carrier Aman Bintulu at its Tsu works. Construction was completed in September with more than 2 months of sea trials and gas tests using [minus]190 C. Liquid nitrogen and final gas trails with LNG. The orthogonally corrugated stainless membrane primary barrier and the triplex (aluminum foil/fiber glass cloth) composite-material secondary barrier prevent LNG from leaking in the event of an accident.

  2. Chemical Looping Technology: Oxygen Carrier Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Luo, Siwei; Zeng, Liang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2015-01-01

    Chemical looping processes are characterized as promising carbonaceous fuel conversion technologies with the advantages of manageable CO2 capture and high energy conversion efficiency. Depending on the chemical looping reaction products generated, chemical looping technologies generally can be grouped into two types: chemical looping full oxidation (CLFO) and chemical looping partial oxidation (CLPO). In CLFO, carbonaceous fuels are fully oxidized to CO2 and H2O, as typically represented by chemical looping combustion with electricity as the primary product. In CLPO, however, carbonaceous fuels are partially oxidized, as typically represented by chemical looping gasification with syngas or hydrogen as the primary product. Both CLFO and CLPO share similar operational features; however, the optimum process configurations and the specific oxygen carriers used between them can vary significantly. Progress in both CLFO and CLPO is reviewed and analyzed with specific focus on oxygen carrier developments that characterize these technologies.

  3. Radionuclide carriers for targeting of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sofou, Stavroula

    2008-01-01

    This review describes strategies for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides to tumor sites. Therapeutic approaches are summarized in terms of tumor location in the body, and tumor morphology. These determine the radionuclides of choice for suggested targeting ligands, and the type of delivery carriers. This review is not exhaustive in examples of radionuclide carriers for targeted cancer therapy. Our purpose is two-fold: to give an integrated picture of the general strategies and molecular constructs currently explored for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides, and to identify challenges that need to be addressed. Internal radiotherapies for targeting of cancer are at a very exciting and creative stage. It is expected that the current emphasis on multidisciplinary approaches for exploring such therapeutic directions should enable internal radiotherapy to reach its full potential. PMID:18686778

  4. Collinear scattering of photoexcited carriers in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushin, Maxim

    2016-11-01

    We propose an explicitly solvable model for collinear scattering of photoexcited carriers in intrinsic graphene irradiated by monochromatic light. We find that the collinear scattering rate is directly proportional to the photocarrier energy and derive an analytic expression for the corresponding relaxation time. The result agrees with the recent numerical prediction [Nat. Commun. 7, 11617 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms11617] and is able to describe the photocarrier evolution at low energies, where scattering on optical phonons is strongly suppressed.

  5. PLUTONIUM CARRIER METATHESIS WITH ORGANIC REAGENT

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, S.G.

    1958-07-01

    A method is described for converting a plutonium containing bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate Into a compositton more readily soluble in acid. The method consists of dissolving the bismuth phosphate precipitate in an aqueous solution of alkali metal hydroxide, and adding one of a certaia group of organic compounds, e.g., polyhydric alcohols or a-hydrorycarboxylic acids. The mixture is then heated causiing formation of a bismuth hydroxide precipitate containing plutonium which may be readily dissolved in nitric acid for further processing.

  6. Cyclic spectrum based carrier recovery for OQPSK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hua; Li, Jing

    2011-10-01

    A union carrier synchronization scheme of feed-forward frequency offset estimation and PLL for OQPSK signals is discussed in this paper. A feed-forward frequency offset estimator is developed based on the cyclic spectrum of the received signal. In order to suppress channel noise, an improved strategy is proposed. Simulations show that the presented scheme can achieve steady state much more quickly than conventional Costas loop. At the same time, the steady error of the union scheme is also smaller.

  7. Recombinant Hemoglobins as Artificial Oxygen Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Fronticelli, Clara; Koehler, Raymond C.; Brinigar, William S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the approaches we have taken to construct a) mutant hemoglobins with different oxygen affinities, and b) mutant hemoglobins and myoglobins that polymerize to high molecular weight aggregates in an effort to prevent extravasation and the associated vasoactivity. In vivo testing indicates that exchange transfusion of polymeric hemoglobins in mice does not result in vasoactivity and that polymeric hemoglobins are effective oxygen carriers to ischemic tissues irrespective of their oxygen affinity and cooperativity. PMID:17364470

  8. Progress in Carrier Phase Time Transfer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Progress in Carrier Phase Time Transfer Jim Ray U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, DC 20392-5420 USA Felicitas Arias, Gérard Petit Bureau...Centre for Time Metrology, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK Jan Johansson Swedish National Testing & Research Institute, Borås, Sweden...Published in GPS Solutions, Volume 4, number 4 (2001), pages 47-54. ABSTRACT The progress of the joint Pilot Project for time transfer, formed by the

  9. Commercial Air Carrier Vulnerabilities to Information Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    GMO /ENS/02E-11 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio...AFIT/ GMO /ENS/02E-11 COMMERCIAL AIR CARRIER VULNERABILITIES TO INFORMATION OPERATIONS...networks that without them, “there is no water coming out of your tap; there is no electricity lighting your room; there is no food being transported to

  10. PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION PROCESS EMPLOYING THORIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CARRIER

    DOEpatents

    King, E.L.

    1959-04-28

    The separation and purification of plutonium from the radioactive elements of lower atomic weight is described. The process of this invention comprises forming a 0.5 to 2 M aqueous acidffc solution containing plutonium fons in the tetravalent state and elements with which it is normally contaminated in neutron irradiated uranium, treating the solution with a double thorium compound and a soluble pyrophosphate compound (Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/) whereby a carrier precipitate of thorium A method is presented of reducing neptunium and - trite is advantageous since it destroys any hydrazine f so that they can be removed from solutions in which they are contained is described. In the carrier precipitation process for the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products including zirconium and columbium, the precipitated blsmuth phosphate carries some zirconium, columbium, and uranium impurities. According to the invention such impurities can be complexed and removed by dissolving the contaminated carrier precipitate in 10M nitric acid, followed by addition of fluosilicic acid to about 1M, diluting the solution to about 1M in nitric acid, and then adding phosphoric acid to re-precipitate bismuth phosphate carrying plutonium.

  11. Harnessing Solute Carrier Transporters for Precision Oncology.

    PubMed

    Nyquist, Michael D; Prasad, Bhagwat; Mostaghel, Elahe A

    2017-03-28

    Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters are a large superfamily of transmembrane carriers involved in the regulated transport of metabolites, nutrients, ions and drugs across cellular membranes. A subset of these solute carriers play a significant role in the cellular uptake of many cancer therapeutics, ranging from chemotherapeutics such as antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, platinum-based drugs and taxanes to targeted therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. SLC transporters are co-expressed in groups and patterns across normal tissues, suggesting they may comprise a coordinated regulatory circuit serving to mediate normal tissue functions. In cancer however, there are dramatic changes in expression patterns of SLC transporters. This frequently serves to feed the increased metabolic demands of the tumor cell for amino acids, nucleotides and other metabolites, but also presents a therapeutic opportunity, as increased transporter expression may serve to increase intracellular concentrations of substrate drugs. In this review, we examine the regulation of drug transporters in cancer and how this impacts therapy response, and discuss novel approaches to targeting therapies to specific cancers via tumor-specific aberrations in transporter expression. We propose that among the oncogenic changes in SLC transporter expression there exist emergent vulnerabilities that can be exploited therapeutically, extending the application of precision medicine from tumor-specific drug targets to tumor-specific determinants of drug uptake.

  12. The Super Lightweight Interchangeable Carrier (SLIC) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Super Lightweight Interchangeable Carrier (SLIC) Grant consists of two separate but related phases. The first phase of this grant was conducted under a separate Institute for Scientific Research, Inc. (ISR) subcontract to FMW Composite Systems, Inc., of Bridgeport, West Virginia. FMW conducted early design and engineering associated with the future development of a stronger and lighter Space Shuttle carrier pallet. This improved pallet is intended to support the next and last planned Shuttle servicing mission for the on-orbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The salient characteristics of this carrier are increased performance, together with significantly reduced mass. As the next servicing mission is the last planned upgrade mission for the HST, this lighter and stronger pallet will enable greater payload delivery to the HST, potentially increasing the servicing mission effectiveness and science lifetime of the telescope. The second phase of this grant, conducted by ISR, consisted of a data systems study to exploit further the potential of the HST servicing pallet for other space missions, specifically for application of semi-permanent placement of science payloads on the International Space Station (ISS). As in the case of the HST, a lightweight and more rigid pallet could be employed to increase science return for the ISS. A data systems study intended to complement the current ISS s Institutional data system holds the potential of increasing the science return for data efficiency, just as the lightweight pallet serves to increase payload mass efficiency.

  13. Common hair loss disorders.

    PubMed

    Springer, Karyn; Brown, Matthew; Stulberg, Daniel L

    2003-07-01

    Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, dose attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a specific pattern of temporal-frontal loss in men and central thinning in women. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved topical minoxidil to treat men and women, with the addition of finasteride for men. Telogen effluvium is characterized by the loss of "handfuls" of hair, often following emotional or physical stressors. Alopecia areata, trichotillomania, traction alopecia, and tinea capitis have unique features on examination that aid in diagnosis. Treatment for these disorders and telogen effluvium focuses on resolution of the underlying cause.

  14. [Common anemias in neonatology].

    PubMed

    Humbert, J; Wacker, P

    1999-01-28

    We describe the four most common groups of neonatal anemia and their treatments, with particular emphasis on erythropoietin therapy. The hemolytic anemias include the ABO incompatibility (much more frequent, nowadays, than the Rh incompatibility, which has nearly disappeared following the use of anti-D immunoglobulin in postpartum Rh-negative mothers), hereditary spherocytosis and G-6-PD deficiency. Among hypoplastic anemias, that caused by Parvovirus B19 predominates, by far, over Diamond-Blackfan anemia, alpha-thalassemia and the rare sideroblastic anemias. "Hemorrhagic" anemias occur during twin-to-twin transfusions, or during feto-maternal transfusions. Finally, the multifactorial anemia of prematurity develops principally as a result of the rapid expansion of the blood volume in this group of patients. Erythropoietin therapy, often at doses much higher than those used in the adult, should be seriously considered in most cases of non-hypoplastic neonatal anemias, to minimise maximally the use of transfusions.

  15. TMT common software update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Kim; Brighton, Allan; Buur, Hanne

    2016-08-01

    TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their functional roles in the software system. TMT CSW has recently passed its preliminary design review. The unique features of CSW include its use of multiple, open-source products as the basis for services, and an approach that works to reduce the amount of CSW-provided infrastructure code. Considerable prototyping was completed during this phase to mitigate risk with results that demonstrate the validity of this design approach and the selected service implementation products. This paper describes the latest design of TMT CSW, key features, and results from the prototyping effort.

  16. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  17. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flights....

  18. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flights....

  19. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  20. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  1. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  2. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  3. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  4. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flights....

  5. 47 CFR 73.1540 - Carrier frequency measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carrier frequency measurements. 73.1540 Section... measurements. (a) The carrier frequency of each AM and FM station and the visual carrier frequency and the... departure limits. (c) The primary standard of frequency for radio frequency measurements is the...

  6. 47 CFR 73.1540 - Carrier frequency measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carrier frequency measurements. 73.1540 Section... measurements. (a) The carrier frequency of each AM and FM station and the visual carrier frequency and the... departure limits. (c) The primary standard of frequency for radio frequency measurements is the...

  7. 49 CFR 397.67 - Motor carrier responsibility for routing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with NRHM routing designations of a State or Indian tribe pursuant to this subpart. (b) A motor carrier... streets, or alleys, except where the motor carrier determines that: (1) There is no practicable... with paragraph (b) of this section. (d) Before a motor carrier requires or permits a motor...

  8. 49 CFR 397.67 - Motor carrier responsibility for routing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with NRHM routing designations of a State or Indian tribe pursuant to this subpart. (b) A motor carrier..., narrow streets, or alleys, except where the motor carrier determines that: (1) There is no practicable... with paragraph (b) of this section. (d) Before a motor carrier requires or permits a motor...

  9. 49 CFR 1139.22 - Revenue data for study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revenue data for study carriers. 1139.22 Section 1139.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION... Intercity Bus Industry § 1139.22 Revenue data for study carriers. The study carriers, as identified...

  10. 49 CFR 1139.22 - Revenue data for study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Revenue data for study carriers. 1139.22 Section 1139.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION... Intercity Bus Industry § 1139.22 Revenue data for study carriers. The study carriers, as identified...

  11. 49 CFR 1139.22 - Revenue data for study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Revenue data for study carriers. 1139.22 Section 1139.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION... Intercity Bus Industry § 1139.22 Revenue data for study carriers. The study carriers, as identified...

  12. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  13. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  14. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power line carrier systems. 15.113 Section 15.113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.113 Power line carrier systems. Power line carrier systems, as defined in § 15.3(t),...

  15. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power line carrier systems. 15.113 Section 15.113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.113 Power line carrier systems. Power line carrier systems, as defined in § 15.3(t),...

  16. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power line carrier systems. 15.113 Section 15.113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.113 Power line carrier systems. Power line carrier systems, as defined in § 15.3(t),...

  17. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power line carrier systems. 15.113 Section 15.113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.113 Power line carrier systems. Power line carrier systems, as defined in § 15.3(t),...

  18. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power line carrier systems. 15.113 Section 15.113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.113 Power line carrier systems. Power line carrier systems, as defined in § 15.3(t),...

  19. 49 CFR 1139.22 - Revenue data for study carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Revenue data for study carriers. 1139.22 Section 1139.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION... Intercity Bus Industry § 1139.22 Revenue data for study carriers. The study carriers, as identified...

  20. 47 CFR 73.1545 - Carrier frequency departure tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carrier frequency departure tolerances. 73.1545... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1545 Carrier frequency departure tolerances. (a) AM stations. The departure of the carrier frequency for monophonic...

  1. 76 FR 6688 - Land Border Carrier Initiative Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection 19 CFR Parts 123, 142 and 178 RIN 1651-AA68 Land Border Carrier... to the Land Border Carrier Initiative Program (LBCIP). The LBCIP was established as a voluntary industry partnership program under which participating land and rail commercial carriers would agree...

  2. 49 CFR 397.67 - Motor carrier responsibility for routing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motor carrier responsibility for routing. 397.67 Section 397.67 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  3. 49 CFR 397.67 - Motor carrier responsibility for routing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier responsibility for routing. 397.67 Section 397.67 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  4. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RECEIPTS...

  5. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RECEIPTS...

  6. Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread-spectrum signals

    DOEpatents

    Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A

    2014-05-20

    A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

  7. Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread-spectrum signals

    DOEpatents

    Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A

    2014-10-14

    A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

  8. Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread spectrum signals

    DOEpatents

    Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A.

    2016-06-14

    A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

  9. Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread spectrum signals

    DOEpatents

    Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A

    2017-01-31

    A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

  10. Transmission line model for strained quantum well lasers including carrier transport and carrier heating effects.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mingjun; Ghafouri-Shiraz, H

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports a new model for strained quantum well lasers, which are based on the quantum well transmission line modeling method where effects of both carrier transport and carrier heating have been included. We have applied this new model and studied the effect of carrier transport on the output waveform of a strained quantum well laser both in time and frequency domains. It has been found that the carrier transport increases the turn-on, turn-off delay times and damping of the quantum well laser transient response. Also, analysis in the frequency domain indicates that the carrier transport causes the output spectrum of the quantum well laser in steady state to exhibit a redshift which has a narrower bandwidth and lower magnitude. The simulation results of turning-on transients obtained by the proposed model are compared with those obtained by the rate equation laser model. The new model has also been used to study the effects of pump current spikes on the laser output waveforms properties, and it was found that the presence of current spikes causes (i) wavelength blueshift, (ii) larger bandwidth, and (iii) reduces the magnitude and decreases the side-lobe suppression ratio of the laser output spectrum. Analysis in both frequency and time domains confirms that the new proposed model can accurately predict the temporal and spectral behaviors of strained quantum well lasers.

  11. 14 CFR 399.83 - Unfair or deceptive practice of air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent in orally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive practice of air carrier... Enforcement § 399.83 Unfair or deceptive practice of air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent in... confirmed reserved space, to be an unfair or deceptive practice and an unfair method of competition in...

  12. 14 CFR 399.83 - Unfair or deceptive practice of air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent in orally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive practice of air carrier... Enforcement § 399.83 Unfair or deceptive practice of air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent in... confirmed reserved space, to be an unfair or deceptive practice and an unfair method of competition in...

  13. 14 CFR 399.83 - Unfair or deceptive practice of air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent in orally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive practice of air carrier... Enforcement § 399.83 Unfair or deceptive practice of air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent in... confirmed reserved space, to be an unfair or deceptive practice and an unfair method of competition in...

  14. 14 CFR 399.83 - Unfair or deceptive practice of air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent in orally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive practice of air carrier... Enforcement § 399.83 Unfair or deceptive practice of air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent in... confirmed reserved space, to be an unfair or deceptive practice and an unfair method of competition in...

  15. Carrier statistics in graphene at high electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, D. K.

    2017-02-01

    The saturated velocity of a semiconductor is an important measure of performance. Graphene has been of interest for many applications due to its apparently high value of the saturated velocity. Recent experiments have suggested that this value is very density dependent and can even exceed the band limiting Fermi velocity. On the other hand, recent calculations have shown that the saturated velocity is largely independent of the carrier density. Here, we show that the carrier heating, due to high electric fields, can change the carrier statistics. This, and the fact that minority carriers can significantly impact the conductance may lead to erroneous conclusions about the actual total carrier density in the experimental situation.

  16. X inactivation phenotype in carriers of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease: skewed in carriers of a duplication and random in carriers of point mutations.

    PubMed

    Woodward, K; Kirtland, K; Dlouhy, S; Raskind, W; Bird, T; Malcolm, S; Abeliovich, D

    2000-06-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is an X-linked recessive disease caused by coding sequence mutations in the PLP gene, sub-microscopic duplications of variable sizes including the PLP gene or very rarely deletions of the PLP gene. We analysed the X inactivation pattern in blood of PMD female carriers with duplications and with point mutations. In the majority of duplication carriers (7/11), the X chromosome bearing the duplication was preferentially inactivated, whereas a random pattern of X inactivation was detected in point mutation carriers (3/3), a deletion carrier (1/1), affected females (4/4) who did not have a recognised mutation and normal control females. However 2/5 non-carrier female relatives of patients with a duplication, had skewed X inactivation. The skewed pattern of inactivation observed in most duplication carriers and not in mutation carriers suggests a) that there is selection against those cells in which the duplicated X chromosome is active and b) other expressed sequences within the duplicated region rather than mutant PLP may be responsible. Since the skewed X inactivation did not segregate with the disease in two families and the pattern of X inactivation was variable among the duplication carriers, the pattern X inactivation is an unsuitable diagnostic tool for female carriers of PMD.

  17. Carrier quenching in InGaP/GaAs double heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Nathan P. Driskell, Travis U.; Hudson, Andrew I.; LaLumondiere, Stephen D.; Lotshaw, William T.; Forbes, David V.; Hubbard, Seth M.

    2015-08-14

    Photoluminescence measurements on a series of GaAs double heterostructures demonstrate a rapid quenching of carriers in the GaAs layer at irradiance levels below 0.1 W/cm{sup 2} in samples with a GaAs-on-InGaP interface. These results indicate the existence of non-radiative defect centers at or near the GaAs-on-InGaP interface, consistent with previous reports showing the intermixing of In and P when free As impinges on the InGaP surface during growth. At low irradiance, these defect centers can lead to sub-ns carrier lifetimes. The defect centers involved in the rapid carrier quenching can be saturated at higher irradiance levels and allow carrier lifetimes to reach hundreds of nanoseconds. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a nearly three orders of magnitude decrease in carrier lifetime at low irradiance in a simple double heterostructure. Carrier quenching occurs at irradiance levels near the integrated Air Mass Zero (AM0) and Air Mass 1.5 (AM1.5) solar irradiance. Additionally, a lower energy photoluminescence band is observed both at room and cryogenic temperatures. The temperature and time dependence of the lower energy luminescence is consistent with the presence of an unintentional InGaAs or InGaAsP quantum well that forms due to compositional mixing at the GaAs-on-InGaP interface. Our results are of general interest to the photovoltaic community as InGaP is commonly used as a window layer in GaAs based solar cells.

  18. Effect of Ionic and Nonionic Carriers in Electrical Field-Flow Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Ornthai, Mathuros; Siripinyanond, Atitaya; Gale, Bruce K

    2016-02-02

    A major limitation of electrical field-flow fractionation (ElFFF) is the polarization of the electrodes that occurs when using an ionic carrier liquid. As there is great interest in using ElFFF with biological materials and biological materials typically have high ionic strengths and high osmotic concentrations, we explore the effect of concentration for phosphate buffered saline (PBS), a typical ionic medium for biological samples, and for two nonionic materials common in bioparticle analysis: isopropanol (IPA) and sucrose. Their effect on retention and separations in ElFFF for increasing concentrations was observed. The results suggest that modifying the carrier solution with PBS, sucrose, and/or IPA would enable characterization and separation of biological samples in ElFFF. Specifically, changes of elution time and electrical parameters such as current, conductivity, and bulk channel resistance were observed as functions of carrier ionic and osmotic strength for the different carrier additives. PBS can be used in the micromolar range, equivalent to about 0.1% 1× PBS (150 μM). These concentrations are far from the isotonic condition of PBS (∼ 150 mM) that is normally used with biological samples. However, the nonionic additive carriers IPA and sucrose show quality retention even when added in high concentrations. The results show that IPA could be used in ratios up to 60% and that sucrose can be used in concentrations up to 0.3 M. Concentrations of 2% IPA (0.26 M) and 0.30 M sucrose are biologically isotonic conditions (275-299 mOsm/kg), and retention was readily obtained in these conditions using both DC ElFFF and cyclical ElFFF (CyE1FFF). Carriers of this type may make it possible to use ElFFF with biological samples.

  19. Newborn, carrier, and early childhood screening recommendations for fragile X.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Liane; Cronister, Amy; Brown, William T; Tassone, Flora; Sherman, Stephanie L; Finucane, Brenda; McConkie-Rosell, Allyn; Hagerman, Randi; Kaufmann, Walter E; Picker, Jonathan; Coffey, Sarah; Skinner, Debra; Johnson, Vanessa; Miller, Robert; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth

    2012-12-01

    Fragile X syndrome, diagnosed by Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) DNA testing, is the most common single-gene cause of inherited intellectual disability. The expanded CGG mutation in the FMR1 gene, once thought to have clinical significance limited to fragile X syndrome, is now well established as the cause for other fragile X-associated disorders including fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency and fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome in individuals with the premutation (carriers). The importance of early diagnostic and management issues, in conjunction with the identification of family members at risk for or affected by FMR1 mutations, has led to intense discussion about the appropriate timing for early identification of FMR1 mutations. This review includes an overview of the fragile X-associated disorders and screening efforts to date, and discussion of the advantages and barriers to FMR1 screening in newborns, during childhood, and in women of reproductive age. Comparison with screening programs for other common genetic conditions is discussed to arrive at action steps to increase the identification of families affected by FMR1 mutations.

  20. Carrier-Based Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Acne

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Amber; Kumar Sonker, Avinesh

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 95% of the population suffers at some point in their lifetime from acne vulgaris. Acne is a multifactorial disease of the pilosebaceous unit. This inflammatory skin disorder is most common in adolescents but also affects neonates, prepubescent children, and adults. Topical conventional systems are associated with various side effects. Novel drug delivery systems have been used to reduce the side effect of drugs commonly used in the topical treatment of acne. Topical treatment of acne with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) makes direct contact with the target site before entering the systemic circulation which reduces the systemic side effect of the parenteral or oral administration of drug. The objective of the present review is to discuss the conventional delivery systems available for acne, their drawbacks, and limitations. The advantages, disadvantages, and outcome of using various carrier-based delivery systems like liposomes, niosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and so forth, are explained. This paper emphasizes approaches to overcome the drawbacks and limitations associated with the conventional system and the advances and application that are poised to further enhance the efficacy of topical acne formulations, offering the possibility of simplified dosing regimen that may improve treatment outcomes using novel delivery system. PMID:24688376

  1. Femtosecond Carrier Dynamics in Aluminum Gallium Arsenide.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulman, Morrison

    The femtosecond dynamics of electrons and holes in AlGaAs are studied by combining femtosecond laser spectroscopy and ensemble Monte Carlo simulation. A femtosecond pulsed laser system is used to investigate ultrafast dynamics in the semiconductor via pump-probe spectroscopy. An ultrashort optical pulse focussed on the sample excites a transient carrier distribution. The evolution of this distribution is determined from transmission measurements of a probe pulse which is delayed for some time after the exciting ("pump") pulse. The delay between the pump and probe pulses is varied in sub-femtosecond steps so the measurement time resolution is limited only by the laser pulse duration which is 40 femtoseconds. The nonlinear optical response of the material is caused by the dynamics of electrons and holes. They are characterized by an energy distribution function. In thermal equilibrium the distribution function is the Fermi function multiplied by the density of states. After optical excitation, however, the distribution is non-thermal. In fact its shape reflects the spectrum of the exciting optical pulse and the allowed optical transitions in the system. The non-equilibrium distribution thermalizes in approximately 100 fs and cools to the lattice temperature in about 1000 fs. Pump-probe data are measurements of pump pulse induced changes in the transmission of the probe pulse through the sample. These data do not directly reveal the underlying carrier distributions, however. Accurate modelling is complicated by the need to take into account several optical transitions and many carrier relaxation mechanisms. In collaboration with theorists at the University of Florida we are able to establish correspondence between our experimental results and predicted carrier distributions through the use of ensemble Monte Carlo simulations. The theory fits the data well and and may be used to predict behavior in future experiments and possibly AlGaAs optoelectronic devices. (Copies

  2. Recent advancements in the cardiovascular drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljeet; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the disease that affects the cardiovascular system, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney, and peripheral arterial disease. Despite of all advances in pharmacological and clinical treatment, heart failure is a leading cause of morbidness and mortality worldwide. Many new therapeutic advance strategies, including cell transplantation, gene delivery or therapy, and cytokines or other small molecules, have been research to treat heart failure. The main aim of this review article is to focus on nano carriers advancement and addressing the problems associated with old and modern therapeutics such as nonspecific effects and poor stability.

  3. Efficient demultiplexing algorithm for noncontiguous carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thanawala, A. A.; Kwatra, S. C.; Jamali, M. M.; Budinger, J.

    1992-01-01

    A channel separation algorithm for the frequency division multiple access/time division multiplexing (FDMA/TDM) scheme is presented. It is shown that implementation using this algorithm can be more effective than the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm when only a small number of carriers need to be selected from many, such as satellite Earth terminals. The algorithm is based on polyphase filtering followed by application of a generalized Walsh-Hadamard transform (GWHT). Comparison of the transform technique used in this algorithm with discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and FFT is given. Estimates of the computational rates and power requirements to implement this system are also given.

  4. 78 FR 5243 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC). SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that...

  5. 76 FR 62496 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Series of Public Subcommittee Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Series of Public Subcommittee Meetings AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The FMCSA's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC) will hold working group...

  6. 76 FR 5424 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Request for Nominations to the Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC). SUMMARY: The FMCSA solicits nominations...

  7. 77 FR 60507 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Meeting of Compliance, Safety, Accountability (CSA) Subcommittee of Motor Carrier Safety...

  8. The interaction between carrier rugosity and carrier payload, and its effect on drug particle redispersion from adhesive mixtures during inhalation.

    PubMed

    Dickhoff, B H J; de Boer, A H; Lambregts, D; Frijlink, H W

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness of press-on forces (defined as the adhesive forces between drug and carrier particles) in relation to carrier payload as the result of collisions between carrier particles during the mixing process of an adhesive mixture, has been investigated. Three different carriers of the same size fraction (250-355 microm), but with completely different surface rugosity were studied. It could be shown that this effectiveness depends on the carrier rugosity. The fraction of drug detached from the carrier particles during inhalation appeared to decrease faster with increasing carrier payload for crystalline carriers than for granular carriers. Apparently, increasing the volume of the carrier surface cavities increases the drug mass that can find shelter from the press-on forces during mixing. By measuring the size distribution in the aerosol, it could also be shown that the press-on forces may increase the size of the particles that are detached. This seems to be the result of drug particle re-agglomeration on the carrier surface during mixing. On the other hand, when press-on forces are highly ineffective, an increase in the size of detached particles may also be the result of incomplete break-up of natural drug agglomerates. Finally, it could be shown that when the press-on forces are highly effective, the effect of mixing time is small.

  9. Residual and suppressed-carrier arraying techniques for deep-space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shihabi, M.; Shah, B.; Hinedi, S.; Million, S.

    1995-01-01

    Three techniques that use carrier information from multiple antennas to enhance carrier acquisition and tracking are presented. These techniques in combination with baseband combining are analyzed and simulated for residual and suppressed-carrier modulation. It is shown that the carrier arraying using a single carrier loop technique can acquire and track the carrier even when any single antenna in the array cannot do so by itself. The carrier aiding and carrier arraying using multiple carrier loop techniques, on the other hand, are shown to lock on the carrier only when one of the array elements has sufficient margin to acquire the carrier on its own.

  10. 47 CFR 54.422 - Annual reporting for eligible telecommunications carriers that receive low-income support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service... designation) as well as relevant universal service identifiers for each such entity by Study Area Code. For... report must include information detailing: (A) The date and time of onset of the outage; (B) A...

  11. 47 CFR 54.422 - Annual reporting for eligible telecommunications carriers that receive low-income support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service... designation) as well as relevant universal service identifiers for each such entity by Study Area Code. For... report must include information detailing: (A) The date and time of onset of the outage; (B) A...

  12. 77 FR 70400 - Reform of Rules and Policies on Foreign Carrier Entry Into the U.S. Telecommunications Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ...: Sec. 63.18 Contents of applications for international common carriers. * * * * * (k) * * * (3) The... international telecommunications services and facilities under section 214 of Communications Act of 1934, as... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jodi Cooper or James Ball, Policy Division, International Bureau, FCC, (202) 418-1460...

  13. Collinear interferometer with variable delay for carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowska, Monika; Ozimek, Filip; Fita, Piotr; Radzewicz, Czeslaw

    2009-08-15

    We demonstrate a novel scheme for measuring the carrier-envelope offset frequency in a femtosecond optical frequency comb. Our method is based on a common-path interferometer with a calcite Babinet-Soleil compensator employed to control the delay between the two interfering beams of pulses. The large delay range (up to 8 ps) of our device is sufficient for systems that rely on spectral broadening in microstructured fibers. We show an experimental proof that the stability of a common-path arrangement is superior to that of the standard interferometers.

  14. Hot Charge Carrier Transmission from Plasmonic Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Phillip; Moskovits, Martin

    2017-03-16

    Surface plasmons have recently been harnessed to carry out processes such as photovoltaic current generation, redox photochemistry, photocatalysis, and photodetection, all of which are enabled by separating energetic (hot) electrons and holes-processes that, previously, were the domain of semiconductor junctions. Currently, the power conversion efficiencies of systems using plasmon excitation are low. However, the very large electron/hole per photon quantum efficiencies observed for plasmonic devices fan the hope of future improvements through a deeper understanding of the processes involved and through better device engineering, especially of critical interfaces such as those between metallic and semiconducting nanophases (or adsorbed molecules). In this review, we focus on the physics and dynamics governing plasmon-derived hot charge carrier transfer across, and the electronic structure at, metal-semiconductor (molecule) interfaces, where we feel the barriers contributing to low efficiencies reside. We suggest some areas of opportunity that deserve early attention in the still-evolving field of hot carrier transmission from plasmonic nanostructures to neighboring phases. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physical Chemistry Volume 68 is April 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  15. Localized charge carriers in graphene nanodevices

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, D. Varlet, A.; Simonet, P.; Eich, M.; Overweg, H. C.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.

    2015-09-15

    Graphene—two-dimensional carbon—is a material with unique mechanical, optical, chemical, and electronic properties. Its use in a wide range of applications was therefore suggested. From an electronic point of view, nanostructured graphene is of great interest due to the potential opening of a band gap, applications in quantum devices, and investigations of physical phenomena. Narrow graphene stripes called “nanoribbons” show clearly different electronical transport properties than micron-sized graphene devices. The conductivity is generally reduced and around the charge neutrality point, the conductance is nearly completely suppressed. While various mechanisms can lead to this observed suppression of conductance, disordered edges resulting in localized charge carriers are likely the main cause in a large number of experiments. Localized charge carriers manifest themselves in transport experiments by the appearance of Coulomb blockade diamonds. This review focuses on the mechanisms responsible for this charge localization, on interpreting the transport details, and on discussing the consequences for physics and applications. Effects such as multiple coupled sites of localized charge, cotunneling processes, and excited states are discussed. Also, different geometries of quantum devices are compared. Finally, an outlook is provided, where open questions are addressed.

  16. Pathways to hydrogen as an energy carrier.

    PubMed

    Sigfusson, Thorsteinn I

    2007-04-15

    When hydrogen is used as an alternative energy carrier, it is very important to understand the pathway from the primary energy source to the final use of the carrier. This involves, for example, the understanding of greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of hydrogen and throughout the lifecycle of a given utilization pathway as well as various energy or exergy efficiencies and aspects involved. This paper which is based on a talk given at the Royal Society in London assesses and reviews the various production pathways for hydrogen with emphasis on emissions, energy use and energy efficiency. The paper also views some aspects of the breaking of the water molecule and examines some new emerging physical evidence which could pave the way to a new and more feasible pathway. A special attention will be given to the use of the renewable energy pathway. As an example of a hydrogen society that could be based on renewable primary energy, the paper describes the hydrogen society experiments in Iceland as well as unconventional hydrogen obtained from geothermal gases. In the light of our experience, attempts will be made to shed light upon drivers as well as obstacles in the development of a hydrogen society.

  17. Extreme overbalance stimulations using TCP proppant carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, P.M.; Oriold, F.D.

    1996-11-01

    The tubing-conveyed perforating (TCP) system with proppant carrier releases proppant and other particulates at the moment of detonation and allows materials to be injected into the producing interval while overbalance pressure levels and injection rates are maximized. Materials released at detonation are designed to enhance near-wellbore conductivity by scouring and propping the formation. This article briefly describes the mechanics of the TCP/proppant carrier system, and then discusses field applications to date. Topics encompassed will be treatment designs in fluid--sensitive formations, stimulations near water, productivity comparisons to other techniques and recommended permeability ranges where the system has been successful. Finally, the article addresses efforts to optimize and improve the technology, including use of fast gauge data, tracer logs and a combination perforating gun/propellant sleeve system. The combination system is currently being field tested by Marathon and a group of service companies as a joint development project, and has potential to be the next major improvement in extreme overbalance stimulation technology.

  18. Molecular Advances Leading to Treatment Implications for Fragile X Premutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Polussa, Jonathan; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common single gene cause of intellectual disability and it is characterized by a CGG expansion of more than 200 repeats in the FMR1 gene, leading to methylation of the promoter and gene silencing. The fragile X premutation, characterized by a 55 to 200 CGG repeat expansion, causes health problems and developmental difficulties in some, but not all, carriers. The premutation causes primary ovarian insufficiency in approximately 20% of females, psychiatric problems (including depression and/or anxiety) in approximately 50% of carriers and a neurodegenerative disorder, the fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), in approximately 40% of males and 16% of females later in life. Recent clinical studies in premutation carriers have expanded the health problems that may be seen. Advances in the molecular pathogenesis of the premutation have shown significant mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in neurons which may be amenable to treatment. Here we review the clinical problems of carriers and treatment recommendations. PMID:25436181

  19. Targeted endothelial nanomedicine for common acute pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Brenner, Jacob S; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2015-12-10

    Endothelium, a thin monolayer of specialized cells lining the lumen of blood vessels is the key regulatory interface between blood and tissues. Endothelial abnormalities are implicated in many diseases, including common acute conditions with high morbidity and mortality lacking therapy, in part because drugs and drug carriers have no natural endothelial affinity. Precise endothelial drug delivery may improve management of these conditions. Using ligands of molecules exposed to the bloodstream on the endothelial surface enables design of diverse targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents. Target molecules and binding epitopes must be accessible to drug carriers, carriers must be free of harmful effects, and targeting should provide desirable sub-cellular addressing of the drug cargo. The roster of current candidate target molecules for endothelial nanomedicine includes peptidases and other enzymes, cell adhesion molecules and integrins, localized in different domains of the endothelial plasmalemma and differentially distributed throughout the vasculature. Endowing carriers with an affinity to specific endothelial epitopes enables an unprecedented level of precision of control of drug delivery: binding to selected endothelial cell phenotypes, cellular addressing and duration of therapeutic effects. Features of nanocarrier design such as choice of epitope and ligand control delivery and effect of targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents. Pathological factors modulate endothelial targeting and uptake of nanocarriers. Selection of optimal binding sites and design features of nanocarriers are key controllable factors that can be iteratively engineered based on their performance from in vitro to pre-clinical in vivo experimental models. Targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents provide antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other therapeutic effects unattainable by non-targeted counterparts in animal models of common acute severe human disease conditions. The results of animal

  20. Attitudes toward carrier screening and prenatal diagnosis for recessive hereditary deafness among the educated population in urban China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoli; Cai, Yi; Hu, Yechen; Liu, Jisheng; Yang, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 80% of hereditary deafness is recessive, in which case most mutation carriers were unaware of their carrier status. Though parental attitudes toward genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis are overall positive in those with deaf children, there is little information about that in the general population. To this end, we designed a self-completed questionnaire and distributed it in two colleges in Shanghai, China. A total of 975 completed surveys were returned in print or online forms. Our results showed that 98.7% of the respondents without family history of early onset deafness did not know or underestimated their likelihood to carry a recessive mutation in common deafness genes. After brief written information was given using GJB2, the most common recessive deafness gene as the example, 67.7% of the respondents expressed interest in knowing if they are carriers of GJB2 mutations through genetic testing. In hypothetical circumstance of carrying a recessive GJB2 mutation, 86.9% would suggest their partners to also take the test. In case that both were carriers, 88.7% would consider prenatal diagnosis and 80.7% would consider terminating an affected pregnancy. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that despite the poor awareness to the risk of recessive hereditary deafness, the majority of the educated population in urban China likely hold a positive view toward carrier screening and prenatal diagnosis of recessive deafness genes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.