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Sample records for common cvd process

  1. Dimensionless Numbers Expressed in Terms of Common CVD Process Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    1999-01-01

    A variety of dimensionless numbers related to momentum and heat transfer are useful in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) analysis. These numbers are not traditionally calculated by directly using reactor operating parameters, such as temperature and pressure. In this paper, these numbers have been expressed in a form that explicitly shows their dependence upon the carrier gas, reactor geometry, and reactor operation conditions. These expressions were derived for both monatomic and diatomic gases using estimation techniques for viscosity, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. Values calculated from these expressions compared well to previously published values. These expressions provide a relatively quick method for predicting changes in the flow patterns resulting from changes in the reactor operating conditions.

  2. FTIR monitoring of industrial scale CVD processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopfe, V.; Mosebach, H.; Meyer, M.; Sheel, D.; Grählert, W.; Throl, O.; Dresler, B.

    1998-06-01

    The goal is to improve chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and infiltration (CVI) process control by a multipurpose, knowledge based feedback system. For monitoring the CVD/CVI process in-situ FTIR spectroscopic data has been identified as input information. In the presentation, three commonly used, and distinctly different, types of industrial CVD/CVI processes are taken as test cases: (i) a thermal high capacity CVI batch process for manufacturing carbon fibre reinforced SiC composites for high temperature applications, (ii) a continuously driven CVD thermal process for coating float glass for energy protection, and (iii) a laser stimulated CVD process for continuously coating bundles of thin ceramic fibers. The feasibility of the concept with FTIR in-situ monitoring as a core technology has been demonstrated. FTIR monitoring sensibly reflects process conditions.

  3. CVD diamond deposition processes investigation: Cars diagnostics/modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, S.O.; Roman, W.C.; Colket, M.B. III )

    1990-11-01

    The driving force behind the strong interest in diamond deposition processes is the outstanding combination of unique natural properties of this material. A wide variety of techniques has been employed to generate diamond coatings including hot filament, thermal plasma, CVD, PACVD (rf, dc, and microwave), low energy carbon ion beam, laser beam, oxyacetylene torch, and numerous hybrid dual-beam configurations. Thus, there are many routes available for producing diamond coatings in the form of small individual crystals, amorphous coatings, polycrystalline films or single crystal films under conditions far removed from the thermodynamically stable region nominally associated with diamond growth. CVD of diamond coatings from hydrocarbon containing gases can have an almost infinite number of compositions and structures; each with differing amounts of sp{sup 3} (diamond) and sp{sup 2} (graphite) bonding. This variation has contributed to confusion both in the working definition of diamond coatings and in understanding the controlling processes of forming these films. In fact, the mechanisms involved in the gas phase processes, the nucleation and growth structures, and especially their correlation are poorly understood.

  4. Multistep processing and stress reduction in CVD diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijhawan, Sumit

    A serious impediment in the utility of diamond films is the large internal stresses that develop during growth. These stresses generally have thermal and growth components. The thermal component is determined by the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients of film and substrate while the growth component may arise from several possible mechanisms during CVD growth. These growth stresses tend to be particularly large in diamond. The objective of this work is to understand and reduce the growth stresses in diamond films by tailoring the CVD process. Continuous, polycrystalline diamond films were deposited on Si by microwave plasma-assisted CVD. Very high internal stresses (>2 GPA) consisting of growth and thermal components were observed. The growth component is tensile and increases with growth time. We were able to reduce the evolution of growth stresses considerably by multistep processing of our films. An intermediate annealing step was included between successive growth periods. It is important to note that the annealing step must be conducted at key points during the growth process in order to effectively reduce stress. Maximum reduction in stress is achieved only if the sample is annealed when the diamond grains are partially coalesced (after 2--3 hours of growth). Annealing of continuous films does not produce a significant reduction in stress. The origin of growth stress in our films is attributed to non-equilibrated initial atomic positions during impingement and the successive relaxations to minimize interfacial energies. The film quality was monitored using Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Based on our experimental results and analyses, it is hypothesized that rearrangements of strained boundary structures during the anneal can lower the interfacial energy change during subsequent growth and produce less stress. Multistep processing was also used to enhance diamond nucleation on Ni. An annealing pretreatment step, that consists of saturating

  5. Mechanics-driven patterning of CVD graphene for roll-based manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Jang, Bongkyun; Jo, Kyungmin; Kim, Donghyuk; Lee, Jihye; Kim, Kyung-Shik; Lee, Seung-Mo; Lee, Hak-Joo; Han, Seung Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Graphene is considered as a promising material for flexible and transparent electrodes due to its outstanding electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. Efforts to mass-produce graphene electrodes led to the development of roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene growth and transfer, and the only remaining obstacle to the mass-production of CVD graphene electrodes is a cost-effective patterning technique that is compatible with the roll-to-roll manufacturing. Herein, we propose a mechanics-driven technique for patterning graphene synthesized on copper foil (commonly used in roll-to-roll manufacturing). The copper foil is exposed to high temperature for a prolonged period during the CVD growth of graphene, and thus can result in recrystallization and grain growth of the copper foil and thereby reducing to the yield strength. This softening behavior of the copper was carefully controlled to allow simple stamp patterning of the graphene. The strength of the underlying substrate was controlled for the accuracy of the residual patterns. The proposed stamp patterning technique is mask-less and photoresist-free, and can be performed at room temperature without high-energy sources such as lasers or plasma. To demonstrate the capability of this process to produce a continuous electrode, a transparent in-plane supercapacitor was fabricated using the proposed patterning technique.

  6. Influence of process pressure on β-SiC growth by CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. A.; Sultanov, A. O.; Gusev, A. S.; Kargin, N. I.; Pavlova, E. P.

    2014-10-01

    3C-SiC films grown on Si (100) substrates by CVD method using silane-propane- hydrogen system were analyzed for crystallinity at various process pressures. The deposition experiments were carried out in a shower-head type cold-wall CVD reactor. The influence of growth conditions on a structural modification of experimental samples was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE).

  7. A facile process for soak-and-peel delamination of CVD graphene from substrates using water

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Priti; Dongare, Pratiksha D.; Grover, Sameer; Dubey, Sudipta; Mamgain, Hitesh; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple technique to transfer chemical vapour deposited (CVD) graphene from copper and platinum substrates using a soak-and-peel delamination technique utilizing only hot deionized water. The lack of chemical etchants results in cleaner CVD graphene films minimizing unintentional doping, as confirmed by Raman and electrical measurements. The process allows the reuse of substrates and hence can enable the use of oriented substrates for growth of higher quality graphene, and is an inherently inexpensive and scalable process for large-area production. PMID:24457558

  8. Multiplexed chemical sensing and thin film metrology in programmable CVD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuhong

    Mass spectrometry (mass spec) has proven valuable in understanding and controlling chemical processes used in semiconductor fabrication. Given the complexity of spatial distributions of fluid flow, thermal, and chemical parameters in such processes, multi-point chemical sampling would be beneficial. This dissertation discusses the design and development a multiplexed mass spec gas sampling system for real-time, in situ measurement of gas species concentrations in a spatially programmable chemical vapor deposition (SP-CVD) reactor prototype, where such chemical sensing is essential to achieve the benefits of a new paradigm for reactor design. The spatially programmable reactor, in which across-wafer distributions of reactant are programmable, enables (1) uniformity at any desired process design point, or (2) intentional nonuniformity to accelerate process optimization through combinatorial methods. The application of multiplexed mass spec sensing is well suited to our SP-CVD design, which is unique in effectively segmenting the showerhead gas flows by using exhaust gas pumping through the showerhead for each segment. In turn, mass spec sampling signals for each segment are multiplexed to obtain real-time signatures of reactor spatial behavior. In this dissertation, we have reported the results using inert gases to study the spatial distributions of species, validate SP-CVD reactor models, and lead to an understanding of fundamental phenomena associated with the reactor design. This novel multiplexed mass spec sensing system has been employed to monitor the process among three segments in real time. Deliberate non uniform W SP-CVD was performed using H2 reduction of WF6. A process based metrology, which reflects the relationship between the process recipe and film thickness was established. From the process based metrology, a recipe for uniform film deposition was determined and the re-programmability of the SP-CVD system was proven. Meanwhile, a mass spec sensor

  9. Microstructure fabrication process induced modulations in CVD graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubayashi, Akitomo Zhang, Zhenjun; Lee, Ji Ung; LaBella, Vincent P.

    2014-12-15

    The systematic Raman spectroscopic study of a “mimicked” graphene device fabrication is presented. Upon photoresist baking, compressive stress is induced in the graphene which disappears after it is removed. The indirect irradiation from the electron beam (through the photoresist) does not significantly alter graphene characteristic Raman peaks indicating that graphene quality is preserved upon the exposure. The 2D peak shifts and the intensity ratio of 2D and G band, I(2D)/I(G), decreases upon direct metal deposition (Co and Py) suggesting that the electronic modulation occurs due to sp{sup 2} C-C bond weakening. In contrast, a thin metal oxide film deposited graphene does not show either the significant 2D and G peaks shift or I(2D)/I(G) decrease upon the metal deposition suggesting the oxide protect the graphene quality in the fabrication process.

  10. Optimization of Processing Condition for Deposition of DLC Using FIB-CVD Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Naomichi; Kogo, Yasuo; Yagi, Takahiro; Yasuno, Takuya; Taniguchi, Jun; Miyamoto, Iwao

    The processing conditions for deposition of DLC using the FIB-CVD method were examined in detail. Microstructures and mechanical properties of the DLC specimens were also investigated. The deposition process of the DLC specimen is varied by the probe current of the ion beam. Through these examinations, optimum deposition condition was discussed. HRTEM image and diffraction pattern showed that the DLC specimen had amorphous structures. Young’s modulus and Vickers hardness were in the range of 110-140GPa and 1100-1400HV, respectively. These mechanical properties were obtained similarly even though the processing conditions were changed in our study.

  11. [The interaction between nerve cells and carbon nanotube networks made by CVD process investigation].

    PubMed

    Bobrinetskiĭ, I I; Seleznev, A S; Gaĭduchenko, I A; Fedorov, G E; Domantovskiĭ, A G; Presniakov, M Iu; Podcherniaeva, R Ia; Mikhaĭlova, G R; Suetina, I A

    2013-01-01

    In this research we investigate neuroblastoma cells cultivated on single-walled carbon nanotubes networks made by CVD method on silicon substrates. The complex analysis of grown cells made by atomic force, electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy was carried out and the effect of nanotube growth process on proliferation factor was investigated. It is shown that despite of a weak decrease in proliferation, cell morphology remains unchanged and no physical or chemical interaction between carbon nanotubes and cells is observed. The results of the research can be used to investigate the interaction between conductive nanomaterials and cells for the development of neural replacement implants. Also they can be useful in bio-electronic interface investigation of signal propagation in neurons.

  12. Computing and Composition: Common Skills, Common Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deek, Fadi P.; Friedman, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    Considers how computing and composition combine for a new form of interdisciplinary learning and intramural cooperation. Offers a description of the analogous processes of problem solving and programming in an introductory computer science course and the writing process typically used in introductory English composition courses. (Author/LRW)

  13. Study of the triton-burnup process in different JET scenarios using neutron monitor based on CVD diamond.

    PubMed

    Nemtsev, G; Amosov, V; Meshchaninov, S; Popovichev, S; Rodionov, R

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of analysis of triton burn-up process using the data from diamond detector. Neutron monitor based on CVD diamond was installed in JET torus hall close to the plasma center. We measure the part of 14 MeV neutrons in scenarios where plasma current varies in a range of 1-3 MA. In this experiment diamond neutron monitor was also able to detect strong gamma bursts produced by runaway electrons arising during the disruptions. We can conclude that CVD diamond detector will contribute to the study of fast particles confinement and help predict the disruption events in future tokamaks.

  14. Study of the triton-burnup process in different JET scenarios using neutron monitor based on CVD diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemtsev, G.; Amosov, V.; Meshchaninov, S.; Popovichev, S.; Rodionov, R.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of analysis of triton burn-up process using the data from diamond detector. Neutron monitor based on CVD diamond was installed in JET torus hall close to the plasma center. We measure the part of 14 MeV neutrons in scenarios where plasma current varies in a range of 1-3 MA. In this experiment diamond neutron monitor was also able to detect strong gamma bursts produced by runaway electrons arising during the disruptions. We can conclude that CVD diamond detector will contribute to the study of fast particles confinement and help predict the disruption events in future tokamaks.

  15. Study of the triton-burnup process in different JET scenarios using neutron monitor based on CVD diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Nemtsev, G. Amosov, V.; Meshchaninov, S.; Rodionov, R.; Popovichev, S.; Collaboration: EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB

    2016-11-15

    We present the results of analysis of triton burn-up process using the data from diamond detector. Neutron monitor based on CVD diamond was installed in JET torus hall close to the plasma center. We measure the part of 14 MeV neutrons in scenarios where plasma current varies in a range of 1-3 MA. In this experiment diamond neutron monitor was also able to detect strong gamma bursts produced by runaway electrons arising during the disruptions. We can conclude that CVD diamond detector will contribute to the study of fast particles confinement and help predict the disruption events in future tokamaks.

  16. Modeling and simulation of CVD processes for manufacturing ceramic composites. Final report, 30 September 1994-25 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Adjerid, S.; Flaherty, J.E.; Hudson, J.B.; Shephard, M.S.; Webster, B.E.

    1995-06-29

    A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process used to coat crystal sapphire fibers with B-Al2O3 has been mathematically modelled and numerically simulated using adaptive finite element software. This software system is applicable for solving transient and steady partial differential equations and is capable of automatic mesh generation, mesh-order variation, and/or mesh refinement.

  17. Enhancing quality of carbon nanotubes through a real-time controlled CVD process with application to next-generation nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxminarayana, Karthik; Jalili, Nader

    2004-07-01

    Nanocrystals and nanostructures will be the building blocks for future materials that will exhibit enhanced or entirely new combinations of properties with tremendous opportunity for novel technologies that can have far-reaching impact on our society. It is, however, realized that a major challenge for the near future is the design, synthesis and integration of nanostructures to develop functional nanosystems. In view of this, this exploratory research seeks to facilitate the development of a controlled and deterministic framework for nanomanufacturing of nanotubes as the most suitable choice among nanostructures for a plethora of potential applications in areas such as nanoelectronic devices, biological probes, fuel cell electrodes, supercapacitors and filed emission devices. Specifically, this paper proposes to control and maintain the most common nanotube growth parameters (i.e., reaction temperature and gas flow rate) through both software and hardware modifications. The influence of such growth parameters in a CVD process on some of the most vital and crucial aspects of nanotubes (e.g., length, diameter, yield, growth rate and structure) can be utilized to arrive at some unique and remarkable properties for the nanotubes. The objective here is, therefore, to control the process parameters to pinpoint accuracy, which would enable us to fabricate nanotubes having the desired properties and thereby maximize their ability to function at its fullest potential. To achieve this and in order to provide for experimental validation of the proposed research program, an experimental test-bed using the nanotube processing test chamber and a mechatronics workstation are being constructed.

  18. Comparison Of Model And Experimental Data Of The CVD Diamond Deposition Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colket, Meredith B.; Roman, Ward C.; Hay, Stephen O.

    1990-01-01

    In order to understand the complicated chemical and physical processes that occur during the deposition of hard face coatings such as diamond, experiments that are remote, nonintrusive and sensitive to critical chemical species have been performed. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) has been used to measure temperature and detect species such as methane and acetylene under low pressure, CVD environments. Results of these experiments for both an rf PACVD and heated-filament apparatus are described. In addition, these results and literature studies are interpreted using modeling (kinetic and equilibrium) calculations. Intepretations of the experimental results confirm the importance of high concentrations of hydrogen atoms, suggest that (hydrocarbon) radical species play a negligible role, and support proposals that in the presence of reactive hydrogen atoms virtually any hydrocarbon (or hydrocarbon oxygenate) can lead to diamond growth. The results in other laboratories on diamond deposition in acetylene/oxygen flames strongly support the first of these interpretations. In order to understand the competive process of soot/amorphous carbon formation, the equilibrium analysis of Stein and Fahr has been extended to low pressure, diamond forming conditions. This study indicates that a thermodynamic barrier exists to the growth of polyaromatic hydrocarbons at temperatures above 1300 to 1400K, pressures of 25 torr and hydrogen/acetylene ratios of 200.

  19. Preparation of tantalum-based alloys by a unique CVD process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, W. A.; Meier, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes a sequential pulsing technique for deposition of refractory alloys and evaluates the technique for the deposition of the tantalum-base alloys Ta-10W (Ta-10 st% W) and T-111 (Ta-8 wt% W-2 wt% Hf). The deposition cycle for Ta-10W was chosen as alternate injections of TaCl5 plus hydrogen and WCl6 plus hydrogen. The cycle for T-111 was chosen as injections of TaCl5 plus hydrogen interspersed with injections of WCl6 plus hydrogen. A temperature range of 900-1300 C was chosen for both alloys. The ability of the pulse process to blanket a uniformly heated section of substrate with a mixture of gases, whose composition varies not with position on the substrate but instead with time of residence in the reactor, allows metal of uniform thickness to be deposited. It is shown that Ta and W can be deposited at high temperature with the formation of a dense columnar grain structure, so that the feasibility of preparing uniformly thick deposits of these elements by a 'pulsing' modification of CVD is demonstrated. A similar attempt to deposit T-111 was unsuccessful due to the difficulty in reducing HfCl4.

  20. Elementary Process for CVD Graphene on Cu(110): Size-selective Carbon Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jialin; Wang, Zhunzhun; Niu, Tianchao; Wang, Shengnan; Li, Zhenyu; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Revealing the graphene growth mechanism at the atomic-scale is of great importance for achieving high quality graphene. However, the lack of direct experimental observation and density functional theory (DFT) verification hinders a comprehensive understanding of the structure of the carbon clusters and evolution of the graphene growth on surface. Here, we report an in-situ low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM) study of the elementary process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene growth via thermal decomposition of methane on Cu(110), including the formation of monodispersed carbon clusters at the initial stage, the graphene nucleation and the ripening of graphene islands to form continuous graphene film. STM measurement, supported by DFT calculations, suggests that the carbon clusters on the surface are C2H5. It is found that graphene layers can be joined by different domains, with a relative misorientation of 30°. These graphene layers can be decoupled from Cu(110) through low temperature thermal cycling. PMID:24651211

  1. 2{eta} or not 2{eta}? Insights into the Cu CVD process using a Cu(I) precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Maverick, A.W.; Fronczek, F.R.; Kim, A.J.; Butler, L.G.

    1993-12-31

    One of the first successful Cu(I) CVD precursors is (hfac)Cu{sup I}(COD), and this species continues to served as a model system. In the CVD process, a significant step is dissociation of the COD ligand. The energetics of this process have been estimated previously. However, it now appears that, in the solid state, (hfac)Cu{sup I}(COD) undergoes an exchange process that allows additional insight into the potential energy surface governing the Cu-COD interaction. The solid-state structure of (hfac)Cu{sup I}(COD) has been difficult to establish, but a combination of variable temperature X-ray and solid-state {sup 13}C NMR studies leads to the following picture. Cu{sup I} is three-coordinate, bound to the hfac ligand and bound preferentially to one olefin of the COD ligand. There is a small energy barrier associated with motion of the Cu into position for {eta}{sup 2}-binding to the other olefin; the COD and hfac ligands remain approximately stationary. Thus, there are two sites for Cu, now labeled {eta}{sup 2} and {eta}{sup 2}. This new interpretation of the solid-state structure differs from that of our 300 K data set and a previous report. In addition, the exchange process is intimately connected with the Cu-COD dissociation step in the CVD process.

  2. Advanced Synthesis of Spinnable MWCNT Forests by RF-Induction Heating Enhanced CVD Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhidov, Anvar; Holmes, William; UTD Solarno Team; Solarno UTD Team

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate here an advanced method to effectively grow tall multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) vertically oriented forests which are highly spinnable. Heating of the Fe catalyst is achieved extremely fast by RF induction heating using coils outside the quartz tube. This method and the new apparatus designed and presented in this paper allow separate control over the temperature of the substrate and the temperature of the incoming gases. In addition to temperature control, the fast T-ramping of the substrate preserves the catalyst nanoclusters from Ostwald ripening and other growth quenching effects such as carbon overgrowth of the catalyst. We show that the parametric sweet spot or bell curve of substrate spinnability can be increased significantly with this improved RF-CVD method. The catalyst nanoclusters also show a wide band of density arrangements that very positively effect spinnability and the drawing ratio. Drawing ratios can vary from 2 meters to 12 meters of sheets drawn from only 1cm of forest. RF-CVD method allows to grow fast (in several minuts) higher CNT forests at higher temperature of synthesis up to 800 K, and obtain dry-spinable CNTs, Characterization results of the samples created in the newRF-CVD system will be presented and compared to previous CNT sheet samples by conventional three-zone resistive heating CVD to measure the extent of property improvements of the CNT sheets and forests. Specifics of the experimental system will be addressed in detail and future property improvements and applications explored.

  3. Process in manufacturing high efficiency AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells by MO-CVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Y. C. M.; Chang, K. I.; Tandon, J.

    1984-01-01

    Manufacturing technology for mass producing high efficiency GaAs solar cells is discussed. A progress using a high throughput MO-CVD reactor to produce high efficiency GaAs solar cells is discussed. Thickness and doping concentration uniformity of metal oxide chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD) GaAs and AlGaAs layer growth are discussed. In addition, new tooling designs are given which increase the throughput of solar cell processing. To date, 2cm x 2cm AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells with efficiency up to 16.5% were produced. In order to meet throughput goals for mass producing GaAs solar cells, a large MO-CVD system (Cambridge Instrument Model MR-200) with a susceptor which was initially capable of processing 20 wafers (up to 75 mm diameter) during a single growth run was installed. In the MR-200, the sequencing of the gases and the heating power are controlled by a microprocessor-based programmable control console. Hence, operator errors can be reduced, leading to a more reproducible production sequence.

  4. Plasma Spray-CVD: A New Thermal Spray Process to Produce Thin Films from Liquid or Gaseous Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gindrat, M.; Höhle, H.-M.; von Niessen, K.; Guittienne, Ph.; Grange, D.; Hollenstein, Ch.

    2011-06-01

    New dedicated coating processes which are based on the well-known LPPS™ technology but operating at lower work pressure (100 Pa) are being actively developed. These hybrid technologies contribute to improve the efficiencies in the turbine industry such as aero-engines and land-based gas turbines. They also have a great potential in the domain of new energy concepts in applications like Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, membranes, and photovoltaic with the adoption of new ways of producing coatings by thermal spray. Such processes include Plasma Spray-Thin Film (PS-TF) which gives the possibility to coat thin and dense layers from splats through a classical thermal spray approach but at high velocities (400-800 m/s) and enthalpy (8000-15000 kJ/kg). Plasma Spray-PVD (PS-PVD) which allows producing thick columnar-structured Thermal Barrier Coatings (100-300 μm) from the vapor phase with the employment of the high enthalpy gun and specific powder feedstock material. On the other hand, the Plasma Spray-CVD (PS-CVD) process uses modified conventional thermal spray components operated below 100 Pa which allows producing CVD-like coatings (<1-10 μm) at higher deposition rates using liquid or gaseous precursors as feedstock material. The advantages of such thermal spray-enhanced CVD processes are the high ionization degree and high throughput for the deposition of thin layers. In this article, we present an overview of the possibilities and limitations encountered while producing thin film coatings using liquid and gaseous precursors with this new type of low pressure plasma spray equipment and point out the challenges faced to obtain efficient injection and mixing of the precursors in the plasma jet. In particular, SiO x thin films from Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO or C6H18OSi2) can be deposited on wafers at deposition rates of up to 35 nm/s at an efficiency of about 50%. The process was also used for producing metal oxide coatings (Al2O3, ZnO, and SnO2) by evaporating different

  5. CVD and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes Gracia, Karla; Llanas-Cornejo, Daniel; Husi, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, it is known that oxidative stress plays at least two roles within the cell, the generation of cellular damage and the involvement in several signaling pathways in its balanced normal state. So far, a substantial amount of time and effort has been expended in the search for a clear link between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the effects of oxidative stress. Here, we present an overview of the different sources and types of reactive oxygen species in CVD, highlight the relationship between CVD and oxidative stress and discuss the most prominent molecules that play an important role in CVD pathophysiology. Details are given regarding common pharmacological treatments used for cardiovascular distress and how some of them are acting upon ROS-related pathways and molecules. Novel therapies, recently proposed ROS biomarkers, as well as future challenges in the field are addressed. It is apparent that the search for a better understanding of how ROS are contributing to the pathophysiology of CVD is far from over, and new approaches and more suitable biomarkers are needed for the latter to be accomplished. PMID:28230726

  6. Real-time in-situ chemical sensing, sensor-based film thickness metrology, and process control in W-CVD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yiheng

    2000-10-01

    A real-time in-situ sampling system has been implemented for chemical sensing in tungsten chemical vapor deposition process (W-CVD) using mass spectrometry. Sensor integration was realized to allow synchronous capture of equipment state signals and process signals (chemical information from mass spectrometry). Wafer state metrology from integrated mass spectrometry signals of different gaseous chemical species in the reaction was established with an uncertainty of 2--7% depending on the conversion rate of the process, which is determined by the process chemistry and processing conditions. The mass spectrometry-based wafer state metrology obtained was applied to implement fault detection and W film thickness process control: run-to-run control in H2 reduction W-CVD and real time end point control in SiH4 reduction process. The results demonstrate the benefit of combining real-time mass spectrometry sensor data with equipment state information for process control. The important generic issues regarding real-time in-situ chemical sensing using mass spectrometry in the context of a multi-component chemical reaction system like W-CVD have also been discussed. The accomplishments of this research demonstrate the value of in-situ chemical sensing in complex manufacturing process systems and provide clear pathways toward advanced process control methodology.

  7. Association between total, processed, red and white meat consumption and all-cause, CVD and IHD mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Abete, Itziar; Romaguera, Dora; Vieira, Ana Rita; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Norat, Teresa

    2014-09-14

    An association between processed and red meat consumption and total mortality has been reported by epidemiological studies; however, there are many controversial reports regarding the association between meat consumption and CVD and IHD mortality. The present meta-analysis was carried out to summarise the evidence from prospective cohort studies on the association between consumption of meat (total, red, white and processed) and all-cause, CVD and IHD mortality. Cohort studies were identified by searching the PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Risk estimates for the highest v. the lowest consumption category and dose-response meta-analysis were calculated using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity among the studies was also evaluated. A total of thirteen cohort studies were identified (1 674 272 individuals). Subjects in the highest category of processed meat consumption had 22 and 18 % higher risk of mortality from any cause and CVD, respectively. Red meat consumption was found to be associated with a 16 % higher risk of CVD mortality, while no association was found for total and white meat consumption. In the dose-response meta-analysis, an increase of 50 g/d in processed meat intake was found to be positively associated with all-cause and CVD mortality, while an increase of 100 g/d in red meat intake was found to be positively associated with CVD mortality. No significant associations were observed between consumption of any type of meat and IHD mortality. The results of the present meta-analysis indicate that processed meat consumption could increase the risk of mortality from any cause and CVD, while red meat consumption is positively but weakly associated with CVD mortality. These results should be interpreted with caution due to the high heterogeneity observed in most of the analyses as well as the possibility of residual confounding.

  8. Hand controller commonality evaluation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1990-01-01

    A hand controller evaluation process has been developed to determine the appropriate hand controller configurations for supporting remotely controlled devices. These devices include remote manipulator systems (RMS), dexterous robots, and remotely-piloted free flyers. Standard interfaces were developed to evaluate six different hand controllers in three test facilities including dynamic computer simulations, kinematic computer simulations, and physical simulations. The hand controllers under consideration were six degree-of-freedom (DOF) position and rate minimaster and joystick controllers, and three-DOF rate controllers. Task performance data, subjective comments, and anthropometric data obtained during tests were used for controller configuration recommendations to the SSF Program.

  9. Development Status of a CVD System to Deposit Tungsten onto UO2 Powder via the WCI6 Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mireles, O. R.; Kimberlin, A.; Broadway, J.; Hickman, R.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is under development for deep space exploration. NTP's high specific impulse (> 850 second) enables a large range of destinations, shorter trip durations, and improved reliability. W-60vol%UO2 CERMET fuel development efforts emphasize fabrication, performance testing and process optimization to meet service life requirements. Fuel elements must be able to survive operation in excess of 2850 K, exposure to flowing hydrogen (H2), vibration, acoustic, and radiation conditions. CTE mismatch between W and UO2 result in high thermal stresses and lead to mechanical failure as a result UO2 reduction by hot hydrogen (H2) [1]. Improved powder metallurgy fabrication process control and mitigated fuel loss can be attained by coating UO2 starting powders within a layer of high density tungsten [2]. This paper discusses the advances of a fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system that utilizes the H2-WCl6 reduction process.

  10. Effect of substrate bias on deposition behaviour of charged silicon nanoparticles in ICP-CVD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Seung-Wan; You, Shin-Jae; Kim, Jung-Hyung; Seong, Dae-Jin; Seo, Byong-Hoon; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a substrate bias on the deposition behaviour of crystalline silicon films during inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICP-CVD) was analysed by consideration of non-classical crystallization, in which the building block is a nanoparticle rather than an individual atom or molecule. The coexistence of positively and negatively charged nanoparticles in the plasma and their role in Si film deposition are confirmed by applying bias voltages to the substrate, which is sufficiently small as not to affect the plasma potential. The sizes of positively and negatively charged nanoparticles captured on a carbon membrane and imaged using TEM are, respectively, 2.7-5.5 nm and 6-13 nm. The film deposited by positively charged nanoparticles has a typical columnar structure. In contrast, the film deposited by negatively charged nanoparticles has a structure like a powdery compact with the deposition rate about three times higher than that for positively charged nanoparticles. All the films exhibit crystallinity even though the substrate is at room temperature, which is attributed to the deposition of crystalline nanoparticles formed in the plasma. The film deposited by negatively charged nanoparticles has the highest crystalline fraction of 0.84.

  11. Method and apparatus for removing and preventing window deposition during photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) processes

    DOEpatents

    Tsuo, S.; Langford, A.A.

    1989-03-28

    Unwanted build-up of the film deposited on the transparent light-transmitting window of a photochemical vacuum deposition (photo-CVD) chamber is eliminated by flowing an etchant into the part of the photolysis region in the chamber immediately adjacent the window and remote from the substrate and from the process gas inlet. The respective flows of the etchant and the process gas are balanced to confine the etchant reaction to the part of the photolysis region proximate to the window and remote from the substrate. The etchant is preferably one that etches film deposit on the window, does not etch or affect the window itself, and does not produce reaction by-products that are deleterious to either the desired film deposited on the substrate or to the photolysis reaction adjacent the substrate. 3 figs.

  12. Method and apparatus for removing and preventing window deposition during photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) processes

    DOEpatents

    Tsuo, Simon; Langford, Alison A.

    1989-01-01

    Unwanted build-up of the film deposited on the transparent light-transmitting window of a photochemical vacuum deposition (photo-CVD) chamber is eliminated by flowing an etchant into the part of the photolysis region in the chamber immediately adjacent the window and remote from the substrate and from the process gas inlet. The respective flows of the etchant and the process gas are balanced to confine the etchant reaction to the part of the photolysis region proximate to the window and remote from the substrate. The etchant is preferably one that etches film deposit on the window, does not etch or affect the window itself, and does not produce reaction by-products that are deleterious to either the desired film deposited on the substrate or to the photolysis reaction adjacent the substrate.

  13. A multifaceted quality improvement intervention for CVD risk management in Australian primary healthcare: a protocol for a process evaluation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bindu; Patel, Anushka; Jan, Stephen; Usherwood, Tim; Harris, Mark; Panaretto, Katie; Zwar, Nicholas; Redfern, Julie; Jansen, Jesse; Doust, Jenny; Peiris, David

    2014-12-17

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Despite the widespread availability of evidence-based clinical guidelines and validated risk predication equations for prevention and management of CVD, their translation into routine practice is limited. We developed a multifaceted quality improvement intervention for CVD risk management which incorporates electronic decision support, patient risk communication tools, computerised audit and feedback tools, and monthly, peer-ranked performance feedback via a web portal. The intervention was implemented in a cluster randomised controlled trial in 60 primary healthcare services in Australia. Overall, there were improvements in risk factor recording and in prescribing of recommended treatments among under-treated individuals, but it is unclear how this intervention was used in practice and what factors promoted or hindered its use. This information is necessary to optimise intervention impact and maximally implement it in a post-trial context. In this study protocol, we outline our methods to conduct a theory-based, process evaluation of the intervention. Our aims are to understand how, why, and for whom the intervention produced the observed outcomes and to develop effective strategies for translation and dissemination. We will conduct four discrete but inter-related studies taking a mixed methods approach. Our quantitative studies will examine (1) the longer term effectiveness of the intervention post-trial, (2) patient and health service level correlates with trial outcomes, and (3) the health economic impact of implementing the intervention at scale. The qualitative studies will (1) identify healthcare provider perspectives on implementation barriers and enablers and (2) use video ethnography and patient semi-structured interviews to understand how cardiovascular risk is communicated in the doctor/patient interaction both with and without the use of intervention. We will also

  14. Interdisciplinary Common Ground: Techniques and Attentional Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvidson, P. Sven

    2014-01-01

    Common ground in the interdisciplinary research process is the pivot from disciplinary to interdisciplinary perspective. As thinking moves from disciplinary to interdisciplinary, what is the shape or structure of attention, how does intellectual content transform in the attending process? Four common ground techniques--extension, redefinition,…

  15. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facilities Process Water Handling System

    SciTech Connect

    KESSLER, S.F.

    2000-08-10

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

  16. Effect of CVD Process Temperature on Activation Energy and Structural Growth of MWCNTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukrullah, S.; Mohamed, N. M.; Shaharun, M. S.; Saheed, M. S. M.; Irshad, M. I.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of process temperature and activation energy on chemical vapor deposition growth of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). A vertically fluidized bed reactor was used to grow MWCNTs by catalytic decomposition of ethylene over Fe2O3/Al2O3 at the cost of very low activation energy of 19.516 kJ/mole. FESEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the growth parameters of MWCNTs in the temperature range of 873.15 K to 1273.15 K (600 °C to 1000 °C). SAED patterns were taken to investigate the crystallinity of the grown structures. The experimental results revealed that MWCNTs grown at the optimum process temperature of 1073.15 K (800 °C) exhibited hexagonal crystal structures, narrow diameter distribution and shorter inter-layer spacing. However, the inner and outer walls of most of MWCNTs grown at the temperatures above and below the optimum were non-uniform and defective. The higher process temperatures promoted the agglomeration of the catalyst particles and decomposition of the carbon precursor, which in return increased the tube diameter, surface defects and amorphous carbon content in the product. The intensity ratio plots also predicted low crystallinity in MWCNTs grown at unoptimized process temperatures. The highest I G/ I D ratio of 1.43 was determined at 1073.15 K (800 °C), which reflects high pct yield, purity and crystalline growth of MWCNTs.

  17. CVD apparatus and process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites

    DOEpatents

    Caputo, A.J.; Devore, C.E.; Lowden, R.A.; Moeller, H.H.

    1990-01-23

    An apparatus and process for the chemical vapor deposition of a matrix into a preform having circumferentially wound ceramic fibers, comprises heating one surface of the preform while cooling the other surface thereof. The resulting product may have fibers that are wound on radial planes or at an angle from the radial planes. The fibers can also be precoated with pyrolytic carbon before application of the matrix. The matrix is applied by passing reactant gas through the preform thereof to the other side thereof for the initial deposition of matrix near such other surface of the preform. The matrix fills in the preform from the other side surface thereof to the surface of the side of application thereof until a desired amount of matrix has been deposited. 6 figs.

  18. CVD apparatus and process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites

    DOEpatents

    Caputo, Anthony J.; Devore, Charles E.; Lowden, Richard A.; Moeller, Helen H.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the chemical vapor deposition of a matrix into a preform having circumferentially wound ceramic fibers, comprises heating one surface of the preform while cooling the other surface thereof. The resulting product may have fibers that are wound on radial planes or at an angle from the radial planes. The fibers can also be precoated with pyrolytic carbon before application of the matrix. The matrix is applied by passing reactant gas through the preform thereof to the other side thereof for the initial deposition of matrix near such other surface of the preform. The matrix fills in the preform from the other side surface thereof to the surface of the side of application thereof until a desired amount of matrix has been deposited.

  19. Technical and Creative Writing: Common Process, Common Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothmel, Steven Zachary

    Creative writing and technical communication are distinct yet similar forms of writing that require time, patience, and disciplined creativity to be effective. Other qualities shared by these two writing forms that should be emphasized in technical writing courses are: (1) effective information sharing, a process that depends on audience analysis,…

  20. A simple process for the fabrication of large-area CVD graphene based devices via selective in situ functionalization and patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, Arseny M.; Barnes, Matthew D.; Karthik Nagareddy, V.; Craciun, Monica F.; Wright, C. David

    2017-03-01

    We report a novel approach for the fabrication of micro- and nano-scale graphene devices via the in situ plasma functionalization and in situ lithographic patterning of large-area graphene directly on CVD catalytic metal (Cu) substrates. This enables us to create graphene-based devices in their entirety prior to any transfer processes, simplifying very significantly the device fabrication process and potentially opening up the route to the use of a wider range of target substrates. We demonstrate the capabilities of our technique via the fabrication of a flexible, transparent, graphene/graphene oxide humidity sensor that outperforms a conventional commercial sensor.

  1. Lightning attachment process to common buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, M. M. F.; Paiva, A. R.; Schumann, C.; Ferro, M. A. S.; Naccarato, K. P.; Silva, J. C. O.; Siqueira, F. V. C.; Custódio, D. M.

    2017-05-01

    The physical mechanism of lightning attachment to grounded structures is one of the most important issues in lightning physics research, and it is the basis for the design of the lightning protection systems. Most of what is known about the attachment process comes from leader propagation models that are mostly based on laboratory observations of long electrical discharges or from observations of lightning attachment to tall structures. In this paper we use high-speed videos to analyze the attachment process of downward lightning flashes to an ordinary residential building. For the first time, we present characteristics of the attachment process to common structures that are present in almost every city (in this case, two buildings under 60 m in São Paulo City, Brazil). Parameters like striking distance and connecting leaders speed, largely used in lightning attachment models and in lightning protection standards, are revealed in this work.Plain Language SummarySince the time of Benjamin Franklin, no one has ever recorded high-speed video images of a lightning connection to a <span class="hlt">common</span> building. It is very difficult to do it. Cameras need to be very close to the structure chosen to be observed, and long observation time is required to register one lightning strike to that particular structure. Models and theories used to determine the zone of protection of a lightning rod have been developed, but they all suffer from the lack of field data. The submitted manuscript provides results from high-speed video observations of lightning attachment to low buildings that are <span class="hlt">commonly</span> found in almost every populated area around the world. The proximity of the camera and the high frame rate allowed us to see interesting details that will improve the understanding of the attachment <span class="hlt">process</span> and, consequently, the models and theories used by lightning protection standards. This paper also presents spectacular images and videos of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28484025','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28484025"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> general anesthetic propofol impairs kinesin <span class="hlt">processivity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bensel, Brandon M; Guzik-Lendrum, Stephanie; Masucci, Erin M; Woll, Kellie A; Eckenhoff, Roderic G; Gilbert, Susan P</p> <p>2017-05-23</p> <p>Propofol is the most widely used i.v. general anesthetic to induce and maintain anesthesia. It is now recognized that this small molecule influences ligand-gated channels, including the GABAA receptor and others. Specific propofol binding sites have been mapped using photoaffinity ligands and mutagenesis; however, their precise target interaction profiles fail to provide complete mechanistic underpinnings for the anesthetic state. These results suggest that propofol and other <span class="hlt">common</span> anesthetics, such as etomidate and ketamine, may target additional protein networks of the CNS to contribute to the desired and undesired anesthesia end points. Some evidence for anesthetic interactions with the cytoskeleton exists, but the molecular motors have received no attention as anesthetic targets. We have recently discovered that propofol inhibits conventional kinesin-1 KIF5B and kinesin-2 KIF3AB and KIF3AC, causing a significant reduction in the distances that these <span class="hlt">processive</span> kinesins can travel. These microtubule-based motors are highly expressed in the CNS and the major anterograde transporters of cargos, such as mitochondria, synaptic vesicle precursors, neurotransmitter receptors, cell signaling and adhesion molecules, and ciliary intraflagellar transport particles. The single-molecule results presented show that the kinesin <span class="hlt">processive</span> stepping distance decreases 40-60% with EC50 values <100 nM propofol without an effect on velocity. The lack of a velocity effect suggests that propofol is not binding at the ATP site or allosteric sites that modulate microtubule-activated ATP turnover. Rather, we propose that a transient propofol allosteric site forms when the motor head binds to the microtubule during stepping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28782941','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28782941"><span>Integrating AlN with GdN Thin Films in an in Situ <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">Process</span>: Influence on the Oxidation and Crystallinity of GdN.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cwik, Stefan; Beer, Sebastian M J; Hoffmann, Stefanie; Krasnopolski, Michael; Rogalla, Detlef; Becker, Hans-Werner; Peeters, Daniel; Ney, Andreas; Devi, Anjana</p> <p>2017-08-16</p> <p>The application potential of rare earth nitride (REN) materials has been limited due to their high sensitivity to air and moisture leading to facile oxidation upon exposure to ambient conditions. For the growth of device quality films, physical vapor deposition methods, such as molecular beam epitaxy, have been established in the past. In this regard, aluminum nitride (AlN) has been employed as a capping layer to protect the functional gadolinium nitride (GdN) from interaction with the atmosphere. In addition, an AlN buffer was employed between a silicon substrate and GdN serving as a seeding layer for epitaxial growth. In pursuit to grow high-quality GdN thin films by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>), this successful concept is transferred to an in situ <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span>. Thereby, AlN thin films are included step-wise in the stack starting with Si/GdN/AlN structures to realize long-term stability of the oxophilic GdN layer. As a second strategy, a Si/AlN/GdN/AlN stacked structure was grown, where the additional buffer layer serves as the seeding layer to promote crystalline GdN growth. In addition, chemical interaction between GdN and the Si substrate can be prevented by spatial segregation. The stacked structures grown for the first time with a continuous <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> were subjected to a detailed investigation in terms of structure, morphology, and composition, revealing an improved GdN purity with respect to earlier grown <span class="hlt">CVD</span> thin films. Employing thin AlN buffer layers, the crystallinity of the GdN films on Si(100) could additionally be significantly enhanced. Finally, the magnetic properties of the fabricated stacks were evaluated by performing superconducting quantum interference device measurements, both of the as-deposited films and after exposure to ambient conditions, suggesting superparamagnetism of ferromagnetic GdN grains. The consistency of the magnetic properties precludes oxidation of the REN material due to the amorphous AlN capping layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25665649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25665649"><span>Solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> n-type fullerene field-effect transistors prepared using <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown graphene electrodes: improving performance with thermal annealing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jeong, Yong Jin; Yun, Dong-Jin; Jang, Jaeyoung; Park, Seonuk; An, Tae Kyu; Kim, Lae Ho; Kim, Se Hyun; Park, Chan Eon</p> <p>2015-03-07</p> <p>Solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> organic field effect transistors (OFETs), which are amenable to facile large-area <span class="hlt">processing</span> methods, have generated significant interest as key elements for use in all-organic electronic applications aimed at realizing low-cost, lightweight, and flexible devices. The low performance levels of n-type solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> bottom-contact OFETs unfortunately continue to pose a barrier to their commercialization. In this study, we introduced a combination of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown graphene source/drain (S/D) electrodes and fullerene (C60) in a solution-<span class="hlt">processable</span> n-type semiconductor toward the fabrication of n-type bottom-contact OFETs. The C60 coating in the channel region was achieved by modifying the surface of the oxide gate dielectric layer with a phenyl group-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM). The graphene and phenyl group in the SAMs induced π-π interactions with C60, which facilitated the formation of a C60 coating. We also investigated the effects of thermal annealing on the reorganization properties and field-effect performances of the overlaying solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> C60 semiconductors. We found that thermal annealing of the C60 layer on the graphene surface improved the crystallinity of the face-centered cubic (fcc) phase structure, which improved the OFET performance and yielded mobilities of 0.055 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This approach enables the realization of solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> C60-based FETs using <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown graphene S/D electrodes via inexpensive and solution-<span class="hlt">process</span> techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3633646','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3633646"><span>Family history of cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>), perceived <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk, and health-related behavior: A review of the literature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Imes, Christopher C.; Lewis, Frances Marcus</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Over 82 million Americans have one or more forms of cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>), accounting for 32.8% of all deaths in the United States. Although the evidence for the familial aggregation of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> is strong, the relationship between family history (FH) of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>, perceived risk for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and their relationship to health-related behavior is poorly understood. Objective The objective of this article is to review and summarize the published research on the relationship between a FH of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>, an individual’s perceived risk, and health-related behavior in order to make recommendations for clinical practice and future research. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL Plus, and PsycINFO to identify articles that examined the relationship between a FH of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>, perceived <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk, and health-promoting behaviors. A total of 263 unique articles were reviewed. Two hundred thirty-eight were excluded, resulting in a total of 25 articles included in the paper. Results There was a positive relationship between a reported FH of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and perceived risk. However, the relationship between a FH of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and health-related behavior change and perceived risk and behavior change was inconsistent. Conclusions A person’s awareness of their FH of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> or their own risk for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> is not a sufficient predictor of changes in their health-related behavior. Future studies are needed to better explain the <span class="hlt">processes</span> by which perceived <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk or FH of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> can be used to affect health-related behavior changes. It appears that both FH and perceived personal risk for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> are necessary but not sufficient conditions to change health-related behavior in high-risk populations. Future studies should also test interventions that help individuals with a FH of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> attribute increased personal risk to themselves for developing <span class="hlt">CVD</span>, while providing lifestyle management options to minimize their risk. PMID:23321782</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983PhDT........62K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983PhDT........62K"><span>a Study of Om-<span class="hlt">Cvd</span> <span class="hlt">Processes</span> for GALLIUM(1-X)INDIUM(X)ARSENIDE Growth on Gallium-Arsenide Substrates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Myung Kul</p> <p></p> <p>This work investigates OM-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth <span class="hlt">processes</span> of Ga(,l-x)In(,x)As. The motivation for this work has been the eventual application of this material in two-junction, cascaded solar cells. The growths were made using trimethylgallium, triethylindium and arsine and growths have been done on GaAs substrates. An attempt has been made to understand the growth <span class="hlt">process</span> itself, and a possible mechanism for the growth <span class="hlt">process</span> is proposed to explain the observations made in many aspects of crystal growth by OM-<span class="hlt">CVD</span>. Heterogeneous catalysis of AsH(,3) on GaAs is viewed as providing a key step in understanding the growth mechanism. The growth of GaInAs on GaAs is interpreted in terms of an interfacial interaction between the grown layer and the substrate. The growth of InAs is found to be difficult on GaAs due to the large lattice mismatch. As the InAs composition is decreased, a coherent interface appears to be reached below an InAs composition of around 30-40%, where the growth displays single crystal epitaxy. The growth rate of GaInAs on GaAs is found to be more complicated than that for the lattice-matched situation of AlGaAs growth on the same GaAs substrate. Also, introduction of lattice strain appears to make the growth rate smaller than in the strain-free case. Growth of GaInAs on GaAs substrates of different orientations shows that good epitaxial growth with low defect densities can be obtained by some combinations of (100) and (111) faces. It is argued that the excellent epitaxial growth observed on the (511) surface should be on the "B" face by considering predicted growth behaviors on basic planes combined with the crystal growth mechanism of OM-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> proposed. Background doping concentrations of layers grown by OM-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> are found to be a strong function of source material purity as concluded by other workers. It is also found that incorporation of group II and group VI dopants decreaes with increasing growth temperature in contrast to group IV impurities, namely, C and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001CPL...337...61M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001CPL...337...61M"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes without metal catalysts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, R.; Bando, Y.; Sato, T.</p> <p>2001-03-01</p> <p>An efficient <span class="hlt">CVD</span> synthetic route for bulk quantities of boron nitride nanotubes (BN-NTs) was developed, where a B-N-O precursor generated from melamine diborate (C 3N 6H 6·2H 3BO 3) was employed as the precursor and no metal catalyst was used. The resultant tubes all show remarkable ordering of the concentric atomic layers and exhibit stoichiometric BN composition. It is <span class="hlt">commonly</span> found that the nanotubes have bulbous tips showing B-N-O amorphous clusters encapsulated in BN cages. The amorphous clusters might play the catalytic role in the nanotube `tip-growth' <span class="hlt">process</span> as the metal catalysts do in the metal-catalyzed <span class="hlt">CVD</span> method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LPICo1986.7009T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LPICo1986.7009T"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Workflow Service: Standards Based Solution for Managing Operational <span class="hlt">Processes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tinio, A. W.; Hollins, G. A.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Common</span> Workflow Service is a collaborative and standards-based solution for managing mission operations <span class="hlt">processes</span> using techniques from the Business <span class="hlt">Process</span> Management (BPM) discipline. This presentation describes the CWS and its benefits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19916418','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19916418"><span>Ultra thin <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond film deposition by electrostatic self-assembly seeding <span class="hlt">process</span> with nano-diamond particles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, J H; Lee, S K; Kwon, O M; Lim, D S</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Ultra thin and smooth nano crystalline diamond films were fabricated with electrostatic self-assembly seeding of explosively synthesized nano-diamond particles. Hard aggregates of nano-diamond particles were crushed by high revolution attrition milling at 1000 RPM to regulate the particle size. Through this <span class="hlt">process</span>, cationic nano-diamond particles were coated with anionic PSS (poly sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) electrolytes. Anionic Si(100) substrate was coated with cationic PDDA (poly diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) solution. Si(100)/PDDA/PSS/ND (nano-diamond) layer-by-layer structure was formed as a seeding layer by the simple dipping and rinsing of positively charged substrate into anionic PSS/nano-diamond solution. Throughout the seeding <span class="hlt">process</span>, neither mechanical damage nor chemical attack was observed on the substrate. Every stage of this preparation was carried out at room temperature and pressure. The effect of attrition milling was determined by changing the milling time from 1 hr to 5 hrs. Through the attritional milling and monolayer formation of the nano-diamond, nucleation density was increased up to 3 x 10(11)/cm2. Typical hot filament chemical vapor deposition system was used to coat the diamond film on the ESA (electrostatic self-assembly) seeded Si(100) substrate. Although typical diamond deposition conditions (90 torr/1% CH4 in H2/800 degrees C) were maintained, ultra thin (< 100 nm) and continuous nano crystalline diamond films were deposited. Regardless of metallic or ceramic substrate, ESND (ESA Seeding of nano-diamond) <span class="hlt">process</span> is applicable if the substrate has any charge. This simple nano technology based <span class="hlt">process</span> ensures high thickness uniformity of diamond coating without visible edge effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ApSS...82..516V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ApSS...82..516V"><span>Steric and electronic interactions between source gas and substrate surface during the Al-<span class="hlt">CVD</span>/Al selective epitaxy <span class="hlt">process</span> as investigated by quantum chemical calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vetrivel, R.; Yamauchi, R.; Yamano, H.; Kubo, M.; Miyamoto, A.; Ohta, T.</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>We have performed quantum chemical calculations by semiempirical MNDO and by density functional theory (DFT) to rationalize the selection of an Al source gas for the selective Al-<span class="hlt">CVD</span>/Al <span class="hlt">process</span>. The electronic properties of Al(CH 3) nH 3-n, ( n = 0 to 3) and their adsorption complexes over representative aluminum metal clusters were calculated. Initially, the interaction of Al source gases with a representative Al metal was studied by both MNDO and DFT methods and the results were found to be qualitatively comparable. Further detailed calculations were performed by MNDO to understand the interaction of Al(CH 3) nH 3-n with larger cluster models of Al substrate as well as insulator silica surface. The results of the calculations indicate that the interaction energy between the substrate and the source are controlled by both steric and electronic factors. The steric factor favors the interaction of unsubstituted hydride, namely aluminum trihydride and the electronic factor favors the interaction of maximum substituted aluminum organic, namely trimethyl aluminum with the substrates. However, dimethyl aluminum hydride has the most favorable interaction energy with the Al metal, since it has the right combination of steric and electronic factors. The interaction energy of DMAH with chlorided silica surface is more favorable than the untreated silica surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvB..75w5446W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvB..75w5446W"><span>Simple model of the interrelation between single- and multiwall carbon nanotube growth rates for the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wood, R. F.; Pannala, S.; Wells, J. C.; Puretzky, A. A.; Geohegan, D. B.</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Recent time-resolved measurements of carbon nanotube (CNT) growth on Fe and Fe/Mo catalysts have identified a maximum growth rate and temperature corresponding to the onset of small-diameter, single-wall CNT (SWNT) formation. A simple model described here emphasizes the essential role of the SWNTs in the growth <span class="hlt">process</span> of CNTs. Remarkably, it shows that the growth rate (i.e., the time derivative of the length) of a multiwalled CNT is the same as that of a SWNT at the carbon flux and diffusion coefficient corresponding to a given temperature. Moreover, below ˜700°C , the temperature above which SWNT growth is observed for a 6sccm (cubic centimeter per minute at STP) C2H2 flow rate, the number of walls as a function of temperature is uniquely determined by the interplay of the incident flux of atomic C and diffusion rates consistent with bulk diffusion. Even partial melting of the catalytic particle is unnecessary to explain the experimental results on growth rate and number of walls. Above 700°C , where severe catalyst poisoning ordinarily begins, the growth rate without poisoning is consistent with recent results of Hata and co-workers [Science 306, 1362 (2004); Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 056104 (2005)] for “supergrowth.”</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27797165','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27797165"><span>Memory and <span class="hlt">Common</span> Ground <span class="hlt">Processes</span> in Language Use.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Duff, Melissa C</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>During communication, we form assumptions about what our communication partners know and believe. Information that is mutually known between the discourse partners-their <span class="hlt">common</span> ground-serves as a backdrop for successful communication. Here we present an introduction to the focus of this topic, which is the role of memory in <span class="hlt">common</span> ground and language use. Two types of questions emerge as central to understanding the relationship between memory and <span class="hlt">common</span> ground, specifically questions having to do with the representation of <span class="hlt">common</span> ground in memory, and the use of <span class="hlt">common</span> ground during language <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/230043','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/230043"><span>Applications for precision cutting of sharpening <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond film</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Okuzumi, Fuminori; Yoshikawa, Masanori</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>A thick <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond has been expected to the applications for cutting tools. But it is difficult to sharpen thick <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond films by means of a conventional sharpening method using diamond grinding wheel for forming a large chipping of scores of micrometers at the cutting edge. Accordingly, we have made a thermochemical polishing n apparatus capable of polishing a sharpening for cutting tool and thick <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond films were <span class="hlt">processed</span> by this apparatus. And then the cutting test by aluminum alloy was conducted and the cutting performance of thick <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond films polished by thermochemical polishing method was evaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900043425&hterms=rhenium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Drhenium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900043425&hterms=rhenium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Drhenium"><span>Iridium-coated rhenium thrusters by <span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Harding, J. T.; Kazaroff, J. M.; Appel, M. A.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Operation of spacecraft thrusters at increased temperature reduces propellant requirements. Inasmuch as propellant comprises the bulk of a satellite's mass, even a small percentage reduction makes possible a significant enhancement of the mission in terms of increased payload. Because of its excellent high temperature strength, rhenium is often the structural material of choice. It can be fabricated into free-standing shapes by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) onto an expendable mandrel. What rhenium lacks is oxidation resistance, but this can be provided by a coating of iridium, also by <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. This paper describes the <span class="hlt">process</span> used by Ultramet to fabricate 22-N (5-lbf) and, more recently, 445-N (100-lbf) Ir/Re thrusters; characterizes the <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-deposited materials; and summarizes the materials effects of firing these thrusters. Optimal propellant mixture ratios can be employed because the materials withstand an oxidizing environment up to the melting temperature of iridium, 2400 C (4350 F).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880020490','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880020490"><span>Iridium-coated rhenium thrusters by <span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Harding, John T.; Kazaroff, John M.; Appel, Marshall A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Operation of spacecraft thrusters at increased temperature reduces propellant requirements. Inasmuch as propellant comprises the bulk of a satellite's mass, even a small percentage reduction makes possible a significant enhancement of the mission in terms of increased payload. Because of its excellent high temperature strength, rhenium is often the structural material of choice. It can be fabricated into free-standing shapes by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) onto an expendable mandrel. What rhenium lacks is oxidation resistance, but this can be provided by a coating of iridium, also by <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. This paper describes the <span class="hlt">process</span> used by Ultramet to fabricate 22-N (5-lbf) and, more recently, 445-N (100-lbf) Ir/Re thrusters; characterizes the <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-deposited materials; and summarizes the materials effects of firing these thrusters. Optimal propellant mixture ratios can be employed because the materials withstand an oxidizing environment up to the meltimg temperature of iridium, 2400 C (4350 F).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900043425&hterms=Iridium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DIridium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900043425&hterms=Iridium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DIridium"><span>Iridium-coated rhenium thrusters by <span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Harding, J. T.; Kazaroff, J. M.; Appel, M. A.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Operation of spacecraft thrusters at increased temperature reduces propellant requirements. Inasmuch as propellant comprises the bulk of a satellite's mass, even a small percentage reduction makes possible a significant enhancement of the mission in terms of increased payload. Because of its excellent high temperature strength, rhenium is often the structural material of choice. It can be fabricated into free-standing shapes by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) onto an expendable mandrel. What rhenium lacks is oxidation resistance, but this can be provided by a coating of iridium, also by <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. This paper describes the <span class="hlt">process</span> used by Ultramet to fabricate 22-N (5-lbf) and, more recently, 445-N (100-lbf) Ir/Re thrusters; characterizes the <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-deposited materials; and summarizes the materials effects of firing these thrusters. Optimal propellant mixture ratios can be employed because the materials withstand an oxidizing environment up to the melting temperature of iridium, 2400 C (4350 F).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22210057','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22210057"><span>Facile preparation of carbon coated magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles by a combined reduction/<span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tristao, Juliana C.; Oliveira, Aline A.S.; Ardisson, Jose D.; Dias, Anderson; Lago, Rochel M.</p> <p>2011-05-15</p> <p>Graphical abstract: Magnetic carbon coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles are prepared by a one step combined reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} together with a <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> of using methane. Analyses show that the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is reduced by methane to produce mainly Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles coated with amorphous carbon. These materials can be separated into two fractions by simple dispersion in water and can be used as adsorbents, catalyst supports and rapid coagulation systems. Research highlights: {yields} Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles coated with a very thin layer of amorphous carbon (4 wt%). {yields} Combined reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with a Chemical Vapor Deposition <span class="hlt">process</span> using methane. {yields} Nanoparticles with an average size of 100-200 nm. {yields} Uses as adsorbent, catalyst support and rapid coagulation systems. -- Abstract: In this work, we report a simple method for the preparation of magnetic carbon coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles by a single step combined reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} together with a Chemical Vapor Deposition <span class="hlt">process</span> using methane. The temperature programmed reaction monitored by Moessbauer, X-ray Diffraction and Raman analyses showed that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is directly reduced by methane at temperatures between 600 and 900 {sup o}C to produce mainly Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles coated with up to 4 wt% of amorphous carbon. These magnetic materials can be separated into two fractions by simple dispersion in water, i.e., a settled material composed of large magnetic particles and a suspended material composed of nanoparticles with an average size of 100-200 nm as revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and High-resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Different uses for these materials, e.g., adsorbents, catalyst supports, rapid coagulation systems, are proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22159550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22159550"><span>An ERP study on the <span class="hlt">processing</span> of <span class="hlt">common</span> fractions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Li; Xin, Ziqiang; Li, Fuhong; Wang, Qi; Ding, Cody; Li, Hong</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to examine how adults <span class="hlt">processed</span> <span class="hlt">common</span> fractions with <span class="hlt">common</span> numerators under two distinct conditions. Whereas participants were presented with only <span class="hlt">common</span> fractions in a "simple" condition, a "complex" condition involved the random presentation of <span class="hlt">common</span> fractions as well as decimal fractions. In both conditions, participants were required to assess whether various "target" fractions were larger than or smaller than a "standard" <span class="hlt">common</span> fraction (1/5). Behavioral results indicated that under both conditions, participants mentally <span class="hlt">processed</span> the fractions componentially in terms of their constituent parts rather than holistically in terms of the numerical value of the fraction as a whole. The data provided by the event-related potentials (ERPs) demonstrated electrophysiological correlates of the componential <span class="hlt">processing</span> of <span class="hlt">common</span> fractions in the simple condition, as reflected in the latency and amplitude of P3. However, in contrast to what the behavioral data showed, there was no strong electrophysiological evidence to indicate that <span class="hlt">common</span> fractions were accessed componentially in the complex condition. In addition, the complex condition was linked to longer latency and more negative amplitude of N2 over the frontal scalp than the simple condition, which could be attributed to the fact that the comparison of fractions in the complex condition involved task switching and thus was more taxing on cognitive control than the simple condition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26148914','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26148914"><span>Nuts and <span class="hlt">CVD</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ros, Emilio</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Nuts are nutrient-dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty acids and other bioactive compounds, such as l-arginine, fibre, healthful minerals, vitamin E, phytosterols and polyphenols. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially affect cardiovascular health. Epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of CHD in both sexes and of diabetes in women, but not in men. Feeding trials have clearly demonstrated that consumption of all kinds of nuts has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets. There is increasing evidence that nut consumption has a beneficial effect on oxidative stress, inflammation and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Contrary to expectations, epidemiological studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is not associated with undue weight gain. Recently, the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea randomised clinical trial of long-term nutrition intervention in subjects at high cardiovascular risk provided first-class evidence that regular nut consumption is associated with a 50 % reduction in incident diabetes and, more importantly, a 30 % reduction in <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. Of note, incident stroke was reduced by nearly 50 % in participants allocated to a Mediterranean diet enriched with a daily serving of mixed nuts (15 g walnuts, 7.5 g almonds and 7.5 g hazelnuts). Thus, it is clear that frequent nut consumption has a beneficial effect on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk that is likely to be mediated by salutary effects on intermediate risk factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002TJSAI..17..667T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002TJSAI..17..667T"><span>Unknown Word <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Method for the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Sense Judgement System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsuchiya, Seiji; Kojima, Kazuhide; Watabe, Hirokazu; Kawaoka, Tsukasa</p> <p></p> <p>When we humans receive uncertain information, we interpret it properly, so we can expand the conversation, and take the proper actions. This is possible because we have “<span class="hlt">common</span> sense” concerning the basic word concept, which is built up from long time experience storing knowledge of our language. Of the <span class="hlt">common</span> sense we use in our every day lives we think that there are; <span class="hlt">common</span> sense concerning quantity such as size, weight, speed, time, or place; <span class="hlt">common</span> sense concerning sense or feeling such as hot, beautiful, or loud; and moreover <span class="hlt">common</span> sense concerning emotion such as happy or sad. In order to make computers closer to human beings, we think that the construction of a “<span class="hlt">Common</span> Sense Judgment System” which deals with these kinds of <span class="hlt">common</span> sense is necessary. When aiming to realize this “<span class="hlt">Common</span> Sense Judgment System” and trying to make a computer have the same <span class="hlt">common</span> sense knowledge and judgment ability as human beings, a very important factor is the handling of unknown words. Judgment concerning words which were given to the computer as knowledge before hand, it can refer to that knowledge, and the <span class="hlt">process</span> will have no problem at all. But when an unknown word, which is not registered as knowledge, is inputted, how to <span class="hlt">process</span> that word is a very difficult problem. In this paper, by using a concept base, which is made from several electric dictionaries; the degree of association, which is done based on the concept base; neural network, putting the closeness of meaning in consideration, we propose a method of unknown word <span class="hlt">processing</span>, which connects an inputted unknown word to a representing word that is registered in the judgment knowledge base, and we will verify its effectiveness by experiment applied to the emotional judgment subsystem.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4028968','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4028968"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">Processes</span> in Evidence-Based Adolescent HIV Prevention Programs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ingram, Barbara L.; Flannery, Diane; Elkavich, Amy</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Dissemination of evidence-based HIV prevention programs for adolescents will be increased if community interventionists are able to distinguish core, essential program elements from optional, discretionary ones. We selected five successful adolescent HIV prevention programs, used a qualitative coding method to identify <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> described in the procedural manuals, and then compared the programs. Nineteen <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> were categorized as structural features, group management strategies, competence building, and addressing developmental challenges of adolescence. All programs shared the same structural features (goal-setting and session agendas), used an active engagement style of group management, and built cognitive competence. Programs varied in attention to developmental challenges, emphasis on behavioral and emotional competence, and group management methods. This qualitative analysis demonstrated that successful HIV programs contain <span class="hlt">processes</span> not articulated in their developers’ theoretical models. By moving from the concrete specifics of branded interventions to identification of core, <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span>, we are consistent with the progress of “<span class="hlt">common</span> factors” research in psychotherapy. PMID:18330687</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1344290','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1344290"><span>Toward clean suspended <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yulaev, Alexander; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela R.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Myers, Alline; Leite, Marina S.; Kolmakov, Andrei</p> <p>2016-08-26</p> <p>The application of suspended graphene as electron transparent supporting media in electron microscopy, vacuum electronics, and micromechanical devices requires the least destructive and maximally clean transfer from their original growth substrate to the target of interest. Here, we use thermally evaporated anthracene films as the sacrificial layer for graphene transfer onto an arbitrary substrate. We show that clean suspended graphene can be achieved via desorbing the anthracene layer at temperatures in the 100 °C to 150 °C range, followed by two sequential annealing steps for the final cleaning, using a Pt catalyst and activated carbon. The cleanliness of the suspended graphene membranes was analyzed employing the high surface sensitivity of low energy scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A quantitative comparison with two other <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used transfer methods revealed the superiority of the anthracene approach to obtain a larger area of clean, suspended <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene. Lastly, our graphene transfer method based on anthracene paves the way for integrating cleaner graphene in various types of complex devices, including the ones that are heat and humidity sensitive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1344290','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1344290"><span>Toward clean suspended <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yulaev, Alexander; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela R.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Myers, Alline; Leite, Marina S.; Kolmakov, Andrei</p> <p>2016-08-26</p> <p>The application of suspended graphene as electron transparent supporting media in electron microscopy, vacuum electronics, and micromechanical devices requires the least destructive and maximally clean transfer from their original growth substrate to the target of interest. Here, we use thermally evaporated anthracene films as the sacrificial layer for graphene transfer onto an arbitrary substrate. We show that clean suspended graphene can be achieved via desorbing the anthracene layer at temperatures in the 100 °C to 150 °C range, followed by two sequential annealing steps for the final cleaning, using a Pt catalyst and activated carbon. The cleanliness of the suspended graphene membranes was analyzed employing the high surface sensitivity of low energy scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A quantitative comparison with two other <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used transfer methods revealed the superiority of the anthracene approach to obtain a larger area of clean, suspended <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene. Lastly, our graphene transfer method based on anthracene paves the way for integrating cleaner graphene in various types of complex devices, including the ones that are heat and humidity sensitive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1344290-toward-clean-suspended-cvd-graphene','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1344290-toward-clean-suspended-cvd-graphene"><span>Toward clean suspended <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Yulaev, Alexander; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela R.; ...</p> <p>2016-08-26</p> <p>The application of suspended graphene as electron transparent supporting media in electron microscopy, vacuum electronics, and micromechanical devices requires the least destructive and maximally clean transfer from their original growth substrate to the target of interest. Here, we use thermally evaporated anthracene films as the sacrificial layer for graphene transfer onto an arbitrary substrate. We show that clean suspended graphene can be achieved via desorbing the anthracene layer at temperatures in the 100 °C to 150 °C range, followed by two sequential annealing steps for the final cleaning, using a Pt catalyst and activated carbon. The cleanliness of the suspendedmore » graphene membranes was analyzed employing the high surface sensitivity of low energy scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A quantitative comparison with two other <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used transfer methods revealed the superiority of the anthracene approach to obtain a larger area of clean, suspended <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene. Lastly, our graphene transfer method based on anthracene paves the way for integrating cleaner graphene in various types of complex devices, including the ones that are heat and humidity sensitive.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27920903','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27920903"><span>Toward Clean Suspended <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Graphene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yulaev, Alexander; Cheng, Guangjun; Walker, Angela R Hight; Vlassiouk, Ivan V; Myers, Alline; Leite, Marina S; Kolmakov, Andrei</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The application of suspended graphene as electron transparent supporting media in electron microscopy, vacuum electronics, and micromechanical devices requires the least destructive and maximally clean transfer from their original growth substrate to the target of interest. Here, we use thermally evaporated anthracene films as the sacrificial layer for graphene transfer onto an arbitrary substrate. We show that clean suspended graphene can be achieved via desorbing the anthracene layer at temperatures in the 100 °C to 150 °C range, followed by two sequential annealing steps for the final cleaning, using Pt catalyst and activated carbon. The cleanliness of the suspended graphene membranes was analyzed employing the high surface sensitivity of low energy scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A quantitative comparison with two other <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used transfer methods revealed the superiority of the anthracene approach to obtain larger area of clean, suspended <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene. Our graphene transfer method based on anthracene paves the way for integrating cleaner graphene in various types of complex devices, including the ones that are heat and humidity sensitive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014FrEaS...2...28C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014FrEaS...2...28C"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> at unique volcanoes - a volcanological conundrum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cashman, Katharine; Biggs, Juliet</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on <span class="hlt">commonalities</span> among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or “personality”). In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption “styles” referenced to “type” volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian); this approach implicitly assumes that <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1). The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/935042','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/935042"><span>Saturation of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Diamond Detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lucile S. Dauffy; Richard A. Lerche; Greg J. Schmid; Jeffrey A. Koch; Christopher Silbernagel</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A 5 x 0.25 mm Chemical Vapor Deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond detector, with a voltage bias of + 250V, was excited by a 400 nm laser (3.1 eV photons) in order to study the saturation of the wafer and its surrounding electronics. In a first experiment, the laser beam energy was increased from a few tens of a pJ to about 100 µJ, and the signal from the diamond was recorded until full saturation of the detection system was achieved. Clear saturation of the detection system was observed at about 40 V, which corresponds with the expected saturation at 10% of the applied bias (250V). The results indicate that the interaction mechanism of the 3.1 eV photons in the diamond (Ebandgap = 5.45 eV) is not a multi-photon <span class="hlt">process</span> but is linked to the impurities and defects of the crystal. In a second experiment, the detector was irradiated by a saturating first laser pulse and then by a delayed laser pulse of equal or smaller amplitude with delays of 5, 10, and 20 ns. The results suggest that the diamond and associated electronics recover within 10 to 20 ns after a strong saturating pulse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27977129','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27977129"><span>Superhydrophobic Copper Surfaces with Anticorrosion Properties Fabricated by Solventless <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vilaró, Ignasi; Yagüe, Jose L; Borrós, Salvador</p> <p>2017-01-11</p> <p>Due to continuous miniaturization and increasing number of electrical components in electronics, copper interconnections have become critical for the design of 3D integrated circuits. However, corrosion attack on the copper metal can affect the electronic performance of the material. Superhydrophobic coatings are a <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used strategy to prevent this undesired effect. In this work, a solventless two-steps <span class="hlt">process</span> was developed to fabricate superhydrophobic copper surfaces using chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) methods. The superhydrophobic state was achieved through the design of a hierarchical structure, combining micro-/nanoscale domains. In the first step, O2- and Ar-plasma etchings were performed on the copper substrate to generate microroughness. Afterward, a conformal copolymer, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate-ethylene glycol diacrylate [p(PFDA-co-EGDA)], was deposited on top of the metal via initiated <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (i<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) to lower the surface energy of the surface. The copolymer topography exhibited a very characteristic and unique nanoworm-like structure. The combination of the nanofeatures of the polymer with the microroughness of the copper led to achievement of the superhydrophobic state. AFM, SEM, and XPS were used to characterize the evolution in topography and chemical composition during the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span>. The modified copper showed water contact angles as high as 163° and hysteresis as low as 1°. The coating withstood exposure to aggressive media for extended periods of time. Tafel analysis was used to compare the corrosion rates between bare and modified copper. Results indicated that i<span class="hlt">CVD</span>-coated copper corrodes 3 orders of magnitude slower than untreated copper. The surface modification <span class="hlt">process</span> yielded repeatable and robust superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anticorrosion properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4519978','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4519978"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span>-Enabled Graphene Manufacture and Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Integrated manufacturing is arguably the most challenging task in the development of technology based on graphene and other 2D materials, particularly with regard to the industrial demand for “electronic-grade” large-area films. In order to control the structure and properties of these materials at the monolayer level, their nucleation, growth and interfacing needs to be understood to a level of unprecedented detail compared to existing thin film or bulk materials. Chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) has emerged as the most versatile and promising technique to develop graphene and 2D material films into industrial device materials and this Perspective outlines recent progress, trends, and emerging <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> pathways. A key focus is the emerging understanding of the underlying growth mechanisms, in particular on the role of the required catalytic growth substrate, which brings together the latest progress in the fields of heterogeneous catalysis and classic crystal/thin-film growth. PMID:26240694</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23286462','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23286462"><span>A <span class="hlt">common</span> type system for clinical natural language <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Stephen T; Kaggal, Vinod C; Dligach, Dmitriy; Masanz, James J; Chen, Pei; Becker, Lee; Chapman, Wendy W; Savova, Guergana K; Liu, Hongfang; Chute, Christopher G</p> <p>2013-01-03</p> <p>One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language <span class="hlt">Processing</span> (NLP) plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be <span class="hlt">processed</span> and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a <span class="hlt">common</span> type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. We describe a <span class="hlt">common</span> type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs), thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture) and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System) versions 2.0 and later. We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21255253','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21255253"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> Diamond Dielectric Accelerating Structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Gat, R.</p> <p>2009-01-22</p> <p>The electrical and mechanical properties of diamond make it an ideal candidate material for use in dielectric accelerating structures: high RF breakdown field, extremely low dielectric losses and the highest available thermoconductive coefficient. Using chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) cylindrical diamond structures have been manufactured with dimensions corresponding to fundamental TM{sub 01} mode frequencies in the GHz to THz range. Surface treatments are being developed to reduce the secondary electron emission (SEE) coefficient below unity to reduce the possibility of multipactor. The diamond <span class="hlt">CVD</span> cylindrical waveguide technology developed here can be applied to a variety of other high frequency, large-signal applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JCrGr.123..587M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JCrGr.123..587M"><span>Observation of twinning in diamond <span class="hlt">CVD</span> films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marciniak, W.; Fabisiak, K.; Orzeszko, S.; Rozploch, F.</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p>Diamond particles prepared by dc-glow-discharge enhanced HF-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> hybrid method, from a mixture of acetone vapor and hydrogen gas have been examined by TEM, RHEED and dark field method of observation. Results suggest the presence of twinned diamond particles, which can be reconstructed by a sequence of twinning operations. Contrary to the 'stick model' of the lattice, very <span class="hlt">common</span> five-fold symmetry of diamond microcrystals may be obtained by applying a number of edge dislocations rather than the continuous deformation of many tetrahedral C-C bonds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP43B0971C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP43B0971C"><span>Challenges to natural <span class="hlt">process</span> restoration: <span class="hlt">common</span> dam removal management concerns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Collins, M. J.; Tullos, D. D.; Bellmore, J. R.; Bountry, J.; Connolly, P. J.; Shafroth, P. B.; Wilcox, A. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Practitioners must make dam removal decisions in spite of uncertainty about physical and ecological responses. This can result in implementing structural controls or other interventions at a site to avoid anticipated negative effects, sometimes even if a given concern is not warranted. We used a newly available dam removal science database and other information sources to explore seven frequently raised issues we call "<span class="hlt">Common</span> Management Concerns" (CMCs), investigating their occurrence and the contributing biophysical controls. We describe these controls to enable managers to better assess if further analyses are warranted at their sites before interventions are planned and implemented. The CMCs addressed are: rate and degree of reservoir sediment erosion; drawdown impacts on local water infrastructure; excessive channel incision; downstream sediment aggradation; elevated turbidity; colonization of reservoir sediments by non-native plants; and expansion of invasive fish. The relative dearth of case studies available for many CMCs limited the generalizable conclusions we could draw about prevalence, but the available data and established understanding of relevant <span class="hlt">processes</span> revealed important biophysical phenomena controlling the likelihood of CMC occurrence. To assess CMC risk, we recommend managers concurrently evaluate if site conditions suggest the ecosystem, infrastructure, or other human uses will be negatively affected if the biophysical phenomenon producing the CMC occurs. We show how many CMCs have one or more controls in <span class="hlt">common</span>, facilitating the identification of multiple risks at a site, and demonstrate why CMC risks should be considered in the context of other important factors like watershed disturbance history, natural variability, and dam removal tradeoffs. Better understanding CMCs and how to evaluate them will enable practitioners to avoid unnecessary interventions and thus maximize opportunities for working with natural <span class="hlt">processes</span> to restore river</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSSCh.230..350T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSSCh.230..350T"><span>Formation pathway, structural characterization and optimum <span class="hlt">processing</span> parameters of synthetic topaz - Al2SiO4(OH,F)2 - by <span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trujillo-Vázquez, E.; Pech-Canul, M. I.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>A novel synthesis route for topaz (Al2SiO4(OH,F)2) by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) using Na2SiF6 as solid precursor was developed. Synthesis tests were conducted with and without a flow of nitrogen, positioning the Al(OH)3 substrate at 0° and 90° with respect to the gas flow direction, at 700 and 750 °C, for 60 and 90 min, respectively. It was found that topaz is synthesized through two pathways, directly and indirectly, involving a series of endothermic and exothermic, heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions between Al(OH)3 and SiF4(g). Analytical structural determination confirmed existence of orthorhombic polycrystals with lattice parameters of a =4.6558 Å, b=8.8451 Å and c=8.4069 Å. According to ANOVA, while temperature, time and interaction of substrate angular position with atmosphere (P×A) are the parameters that most significantly influence the variability in the amount of topaz formed - equivalent contributions of 31% - topaz lattice parameters are mostly impacted by the same factors (T, t, P, A), but without the interaction factor. The projected amount of topaz is in good agreement with that obtained in confirmation tests under optimal conditions: Al(OH)3 substrate compact placed at 0°, treated at 750 °C for 90 min in the absence of N2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4721206S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4721206S"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Mountain-Building <span class="hlt">Processes</span> on Ceres and Pluto?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sykes, Mark V.; Bland, Michael; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Feldman, William; Hoffmann, Martin; Hughson, Kynan; Jaumann, Ralf; King, Scott; LeCorre, Lucille; Li, Jian-Yang; Mest, Scott; Natheus, Andreas; O'Brien, David; Platz, Thomas; Prettyman, Thomas; Raymond, Carol; Reddy, Vishnu; Reusch, Ottaviano; Russell, Christopher T.; Schenk, Paul; Sizemore, Hanna; Schmidt, Britney; Travis, Bryan</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The Dawn Framing Camera has revealed a unique feature on the surface of Ceres, popularly referred to as the “pyramid.” It is a roughly conical and flat-topped feature with an elevation of ~5 km and base diameter of ~20 km. The side slopes are roughly consistent with an angle of repose one expects of particulate material on Earth (which may change with gravity). The pyramid is also notable for its striations down its side over half of its circumference. These striations sharply terminate at the base of the cone without a distinctive talus deposit, including an adjacent crater. Recently released images of Norgay Montes and a second mountain chain in Tombaugh Regio on Pluto by the New Horizons mission reveal mountains with strikingly similar morphologies with the Ceres pyramid. They are of similar size to within a factor of a few. We investigate the hypothesis that there may be a <span class="hlt">common</span> mechanism giving rise to these features on the two dwarf planets. Given their significantly different heliocentric distances, the remarkable ongoing widespread <span class="hlt">processing</span> of the surface of Pluto and increasing evidence of relatively recent activity in some areas of Ceres, interior <span class="hlt">processes</span> such as plume activity or tectonics may be responsible. A comparative study of uplift morphology on the two dwarf planets may also lend insights into heat production and retention on such bodies throughout the solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA255862','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA255862"><span>Twin Quintuplets in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-08-26</p> <p>microscopy (HRTEM). We conclude that the twin quintuplets have two main morphologies. The first consists of four Sigma = 3 twin boundaries and one...slightly more than the 70.53 deg tilt of a Sigma = 3 boundary. These grain boundaries and the conventional diamond lattice twin boundaries are the only types of boundaries that we have observed in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/138807','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/138807"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond - fundamental phenomena</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yarbrough, W.A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This compilation of figures and diagrams addresses the basic physical <span class="hlt">processes</span> involved in the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Different methods of deposition are illustrated. For each method, observations are made of the prominent advantages and disadvantages of the technique. Chemical mechanisms of nucleation are introduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED111829.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED111829.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Commonality</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beaton, Albert E., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Commonality</span> analysis is an attempt to understand the relative predictive power of the regressor variables, both individually and in combination. The squared multiple correlation is broken up into elements assigned to each individual regressor and to each possible combination of regressors. The elements have the property that the appropriate sums…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/885565','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/885565"><span>Modeling for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of Solid Oxide Electrolyte</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Starr, T.L.</p> <p>2002-09-18</p> <p>Because of its low thermal conductivity, high thermal expansion and high oxygen ion conductivity yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the material of choice for high temperature electrolyte applications. Current coating fabrication methods have their drawbacks, however. Air plasma spray (APS) is a relatively low-cost <span class="hlt">process</span> and is suitable for large and relatively complex shapes. it is difficult to produce uniform, relatively thin coatings with this <span class="hlt">process</span>, however, and the coatings do not exhibit the columnar microstructure that is needed for reliable, long-term performance. The electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) <span class="hlt">process</span> does produce the desirable microstructure, however, the capital cost of these systems is very high and the line-of-sight nature of the <span class="hlt">process</span> limits coating uniformity and the ability to coat large and complex shapes. The chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) <span class="hlt">process</span> also produces the desirable columnar microstructure and--under proper conditions--can produce uniform coatings over complex shapes. <span class="hlt">CVD</span> has been used for many materials but is relatively undeveloped for oxides, in general, and for zirconia, in particular. The overall goal of this project--a joint effort of the University of Louisville and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)--is to develop the YSZ <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> for high temperature electrolyte applications. This report describes the modeling effort at the University of Louisville, which supports the experimental work at ORNL. Early work on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of zirconia and yttria used metal chlorides, which react with water vapor to form solid oxide. Because of this rapid gas-phase reaction the water generally is formed in-situ using the reverse water-gas-shift reaction or a microwave plasma. Even with these arrangements gas-phase nucleation and powder formation are problems when using these precursors. Recent efforts on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of zirconia and YSZ have focused on use of metal-organic precursors (MOCVD). These are more stable in the gas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990SPIE.1325...63K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990SPIE.1325...63K"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond growth by dc plasma torch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klocek, Paul; Hoggins, James T.; Taborek, Peter; McKenna, Tom A.</p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>A dc arc discharge plasma torch has been developed for chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond growth. The apparatus and <span class="hlt">process</span> parameters are described. Free-standing polycrystalline diamond samples of 50 mm by 50 mm by a few mm have been grown at high rates. The Raman spectra of the samples show little nondiamond structure. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that the diamond is highly twinned and has a high defect concentration. The infrared spectra indicate the presence of hydrogen contamination in the diamond via absorption bands associated with carbon-hydrogen motion. 2.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24103845','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24103845"><span>A review of vitamin D status and <span class="hlt">CVD</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cashman, Kevin D</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Beyond the well-accepted effects on the skeleton, low vitamin D status has been linked to increased risk of several non-skeletal disease, including <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. If low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is causally linked to risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> then this is important not only because low vitamin D status is quite <span class="hlt">common</span> particularly in winter in countries above 40°N, but also of key relevance is the fact that such low vitamin D status can be improved by food-based strategies. The overarching aim of the present paper is to review the current evidence-base to support a link between low vitamin D status and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk. The review initially briefly overviews how mechanistically vitamin D may play a role in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and then reviews the current available evidence-base to support a link between low vitamin D status and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk, with particular emphasis on data from the randomised control trials, cohort studies and recent meta-analysis data as well as to the conclusions of a number of authoritative agencies/bodies. Finally, the review summarises current serum 25(OH)D concentrations within a select number of adult populations in the context of different definitions of vitamin D status proposed recently, and then briefly highlights food-based strategies for increasing vitamin D intake and status. In conclusion, at present the data for a causal link between low vitamin D status and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> are mixed and ambiguous; however, should causality be affirmed by ongoing and future studies, there are food-based strategies for enhanced vitamin D status in the population which could ultimately lower risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARD37006D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARD37006D"><span>Electrical characterization of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dávila, Yarely; Pinto, Nicholas; Luo, Zhengtang; Johnson, Alan, Jr.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Graphene is a one atom thick carbon sheet that can be obtained via exfoliation of graphite or via chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>). By using a very simple shadow masking technique, gold contact pads were evaporated over the graphene thereby eliminating chemical etching that is required when using photolithography and often leads to sample contamination. <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene was electrically characterized in a FET configuration under different experimental conditions that include UV exposure, gas sensing and temperature. Our measurements yielded a carrier mobility of up to 3000 cm^2/V-s for some devices. Exposure to UV dopes graphene in a controlled manner. The doping level could be maintained indefinitely in vacuum or could be completely reversed by slight heating in air without loss of device performance. The FET's were also tested at different temperatures with little change in the transconductance response. Exposure to ammonia gas n-doped graphene while exposure to NO2 p-doped it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/138808','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/138808"><span>Comparative evaluation of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond technologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Anthony, T.R.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) of diamonds occurs from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures in the presence of atomic hydrogen at subatmospheric pressures. Most <span class="hlt">CVD</span> methods are based on different means of generating and transporting atomic hydrogen in a particular system. Evaluation of these different techniques involves their capital costs, material costs, energy costs, labor costs and the type and quality of diamond that they produce. Currently, there is no universal agreement on which is the best technique and technique selection has been largely driven by the professional background of the user as well as the particular application of interest. This article discusses the criteria for evaluating a <span class="hlt">process</span> for low-pressure deposition of diamond. Next, a brief history of low-pressure diamond synthesis is reviewed. Several specific <span class="hlt">processes</span> are addressed, including the hot filament <span class="hlt">process</span>, hot filament electron-assisted chemical vapor deposition, and plasma generation of atomic hydrogen by glow discharge, microwave discharge, low pressure radio frequency discharge, high pressure DC discharge, high pressure microwave discharge jets, high pressure RF discharge, and high and low pressure flames. Other types of diamond deposition methods are also evaluated. 101 refs., 15 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1123795.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1123795.pdf"><span>Universal Design: Supporting Students with Color Vision Deficiency (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) in Medical Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Meeks, Lisa M.; Jain, Neera R.; Herzer, Kurt R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Color Vision Deficiency (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is a <span class="hlt">commonly</span> occurring condition in the general population. For medical students, it has the potential to create unique challenges in the classroom and clinical environments. Few studies have provided medical educators with comprehensive recommendations to assist students with <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. This article presents a focused…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/801897','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/801897"><span>Thermal Analysis of Cold Vacuum Drying (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>PIEPHO, M.G.</p> <p>2000-03-23</p> <p>The thermal analysis examined transient thermal and chemical behavior of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) container for a broad range of cases that represent the Cold Vacuum Drying (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) <span class="hlt">processes</span>. The cases were defined to consider both normal and off-normal operations at the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Facility for an MCO with N Reactor spent fuel. This analysis provides the basis for the MCO thermal behavior at the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Facility in support of the safety basis documentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1335959','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1335959"><span>Graphene Synthesis by Plasma-Enhanced <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Growth with Ethanol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Campo, Teresa; Cotto, María; Márquez, Francisco; Elizalde, Eduardo; Morant, Carmen</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>A modified route to synthesize graphene flakes is proposed using the Chemical Vapor Deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) technique, by using copper substrates as supports. The carbon source used was ethanol, the synthesis temperature was 950°C and the pressure was controlled along the whole <span class="hlt">process</span>. In this <span class="hlt">CVD</span> synthesis <span class="hlt">process</span> the incorporation of the carbon source was produced at low pressure and 950°C inducing the appearance of a plasma blue flash inside the quartz tube. Apparently, the presence of this plasma blue flash is required for obtaining graphene flakes. The synthesized graphene was characterized by different techniques, showing the presence of non-oxidized graphene with high purity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5396877','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5396877"><span>The impact of a point-of-care testing device on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk assessment completion in New Zealand primary-care practice: A cluster randomised controlled trial and qualitative investigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wells, Sue; Rafter, Natasha; Kenealy, Timothy; Herd, Geoff; Eggleton, Kyle; Lightfoot, Rose; Arcus, Kim; Wadham, Angela; Jiang, Yannan; Bullen, Chris</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Objectives To assess the effect of a point of care (POC) device for testing lipids and HbA1c in addition to testing by community laboratory facilities (usual practice) on the completion of cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) risk assessments in general practice. Methods We conducted a pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in 20 New Zealand general practices stratified by size and rurality and randomised to POC device plus usual practice or usual practice alone (controls). Patients aged 35–79 years were eligible if they met national guideline criteria for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk assessment. Data on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk assessments were aggregated using a web-based decision support programme <span class="hlt">common</span> to each practice. Data entered into the on-line <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk assessment form could be saved pending blood test results. The primary outcome was the proportion of completed <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk assessments. Qualitative data on practice <span class="hlt">processes</span> for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk assessment and feasibility of POC testing were collected at the end of the study by interviews and questionnaire. The POC testing was supported by a comprehensive quality assurance programme. Results A <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk assessment entry was recorded for 7421 patients in 10 POC practices and 6217 patients in 10 control practices; 99.5% of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk assessments had complete data in both groups (adjusted odds ratio 1.02 [95%CI 0.61–1.69]). There were major external influences that affected the trial: including a national performance target for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk assessment and changes to <span class="hlt">CVD</span> guidelines. All practices had invested in systems and dedicated staff time to identify and follow up patients to completion. However, the POC device was viewed by most as an additional tool rather than as an opportunity to review practice work flow and leverage the immediate test results for patient education and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk management discussions. Shortly after commencement, the trial was halted due to a change in the HbA1c test assay performance. The trial restarted after the manufacturing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10103004','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10103004"><span>Reliability analysis of <span class="hlt">common</span> hazardous waste treatment <span class="hlt">processes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Waters, Robert D.</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>Five hazardous waste treatment <span class="hlt">processes</span> are analyzed probabilistically using Monte Carlo simulation to elucidate the relationships between <span class="hlt">process</span> safety factors and reliability levels. The treatment <span class="hlt">processes</span> evaluated are packed tower aeration, reverse osmosis, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and activated carbon adsorption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/446188','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/446188"><span>Characteristics of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> ternary refractory nitride diffusion barriers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fleming, J.G.; Smith, P.M.; Custer, J.S.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>A range of different ternary refractory nitride compositions have been deposited by <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (chemical vapor deposition) for the systems TiSiN, WBN, and WSiN. The precursors used are readily available. The structure, electrical, and barrier properties of the films produced by <span class="hlt">CVD</span> are similar to those observed for films with similar compositions deposited by PVD (physical vapor deposition). The step coverage of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> developed is good and in some cases, exceptional. A combination of desirable resistivity, step coverage, and barrier properties exists simultaneously over a reasonable range of compositions for each system. Initial attempts to integrate WSiN films into a standard 0.5 micrometer CMOS <span class="hlt">process</span> flow in place of a sputtered Ti/TiN stack were successful.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/8532','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/8532"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and uncommon sense about erosional <span class="hlt">processes</span> in mountain lands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>R. M. Rice</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Current knowledge of erosional <span class="hlt">processes</span> in mountainous watersheds is reviewed with emphasis on the west coast of the United States. Appreciation of the relative magnitude of erosional <span class="hlt">processes</span> may be distorted by the tendency for researchers to study ""problems"" and by the relatively short time span of their records</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA278595','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA278595"><span>A Survey of <span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Applied Methods for Software <span class="hlt">Process</span> Improvement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-02-01</p> <p>may be overly optimistic, which may result in the 󈨞 percent syndrome * wherein they claim to be 90 percent done for the last 50 percent of the...Management, 13, 1-10, 1987. [Abdel-Hamid 88]Abdel-Hamid, T. K., "Understanding the 󈨞% Syndrome ’ in Software Project Management: A Simulation-Based Case...of mixed expertise and functional responsibilities to improve communication and foster cross- pollination of ideas. Concurrent engineering is a <span class="hlt">commonly</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanos...615255C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanos...615255C"><span>How good can <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown monolayer graphene be?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Bingyan; Huang, Huixin; Ma, Xiaomeng; Huang, Le; Zhang, Zhiyong; Peng, Lian-Mao</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is considered the most promising method for pushing graphene into commercial products. However, <span class="hlt">CVD</span> grown graphene is usually of low quality. In this work we explore how good can <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-derived monolayer graphene be. Through the combinational optimization of the main <span class="hlt">processes</span> of growth, transfer, device fabrication and measurements, we show that the optimized <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene can present performance comparable to mechanical exfoliated ones: in particular, high carrier mobility at room temperature on the Si/SiO2 substrate, perfect electron-hole symmetry and excellent uniformity (the mobility ranged from 5000 to 12 000 cm2 V-1 s-1 with an average mobility of ~8800 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 50% were higher than 10 000 cm2 V-1 s-1). In addition we found that the adsorbed oxygen and water molecules on graphene lead to p-type doping in graphene, and transferred charges bring charged impurity scattering to the transporting carriers in the graphene channel. It is therefore necessary to carry out electrical measurements under vacuum to obtain high intrinsic carrier mobility <span class="hlt">CVD</span> grown graphene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCo...5E5461L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCo...5E5461L"><span>Giant enhancement in vertical conductivity of stacked <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene sheets by self-assembled molecular layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yanpeng; Yuan, Li; Yang, Ming; Zheng, Yi; Li, Linjun; Gao, Libo; Nerngchamnong, Nisachol; Nai, Chang Tai; Sangeeth, C. S. Suchand; Feng, Yuan Ping; Nijhuis, Christian A.; Loh, Kian Ping</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Layer-by-layer-stacked chemical vapour deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) graphene films find applications as transparent and conductive electrodes in solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes and touch panels. <span class="hlt">Common</span> to lamellar-type systems with anisotropic electron delocalization, the plane-to-plane (vertical) conductivity in such systems is several orders lower than its in-plane conductivity. The poor electronic coupling between the planes is due to the presence of transfer <span class="hlt">process</span> organic residues and trapped air pocket in wrinkles. Here we show the plane-to-plane tunnelling conductivity of stacked <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene layers can be improved significantly by inserting 1-pyrenebutyric acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester between the graphene layers. The six orders of magnitude increase in plane-to-plane conductivity is due to hole doping, orbital hybridization, planarization and the exclusion of polymer residues. Our results highlight the importance of interfacial modification for enhancing the performance of LBL-stacked <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene films, which should be applicable to other types of stacked two-dimensional films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25410480','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25410480"><span>Giant enhancement in vertical conductivity of stacked <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene sheets by self-assembled molecular layers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yanpeng; Yuan, Li; Yang, Ming; Zheng, Yi; Li, Linjun; Gao, Libo; Nerngchamnong, Nisachol; Nai, Chang Tai; Sangeeth, C S Suchand; Feng, Yuan Ping; Nijhuis, Christian A; Loh, Kian Ping</p> <p>2014-11-20</p> <p>Layer-by-layer-stacked chemical vapour deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) graphene films find applications as transparent and conductive electrodes in solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes and touch panels. <span class="hlt">Common</span> to lamellar-type systems with anisotropic electron delocalization, the plane-to-plane (vertical) conductivity in such systems is several orders lower than its in-plane conductivity. The poor electronic coupling between the planes is due to the presence of transfer <span class="hlt">process</span> organic residues and trapped air pocket in wrinkles. Here we show the plane-to-plane tunnelling conductivity of stacked <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene layers can be improved significantly by inserting 1-pyrenebutyric acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester between the graphene layers. The six orders of magnitude increase in plane-to-plane conductivity is due to hole doping, orbital hybridization, planarization and the exclusion of polymer residues. Our results highlight the importance of interfacial modification for enhancing the performance of LBL-stacked <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene films, which should be applicable to other types of stacked two-dimensional films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5559..131R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5559..131R"><span>Missile signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> <span class="hlt">common</span> computer architecture for rapid technology upgrade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabinkin, Daniel V.; Rutledge, Edward; Monticciolo, Paul</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>Interceptor missiles <span class="hlt">process</span> IR images to locate an intended target and guide the interceptor towards it. Signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> requirements have increased as the sensor bandwidth increases and interceptors operate against more sophisticated targets. A typical interceptor signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> chain is comprised of two parts. Front-end video <span class="hlt">processing</span> operates on all pixels of the image and performs such operations as non-uniformity correction (NUC), image stabilization, frame integration and detection. Back-end target <span class="hlt">processing</span>, which tracks and classifies targets detected in the image, performs such algorithms as Kalman tracking, spectral feature extraction and target discrimination. In the past, video <span class="hlt">processing</span> was implemented using ASIC components or FPGAs because computation requirements exceeded the throughput of general-purpose processors. Target <span class="hlt">processing</span> was performed using hybrid architectures that included ASICs, DSPs and general-purpose processors. The resulting systems tended to be function-specific, and required custom software development. They were developed using non-integrated toolsets and test equipment was developed along with the processor platform. The lifespan of a system utilizing the signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> platform often spans decades, while the specialized nature of processor hardware and software makes it difficult and costly to upgrade. As a result, the signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> systems often run on outdated technology, algorithms are difficult to update, and system effectiveness is impaired by the inability to rapidly respond to new threats. A new design approach is made possible three developments; Moore's Law - driven improvement in computational throughput; a newly introduced vector computing capability in general purpose processors; and a modern set of open interface software standards. Today's multiprocessor commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) platforms have sufficient throughput to support interceptor signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> requirements. This application</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030063130&hterms=nanoelectronics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dnanoelectronics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030063130&hterms=nanoelectronics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dnanoelectronics"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> Growth of Carbon Nanotubes: Structure, Catalyst, and Growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Delzeit, Lance</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit extraordinary mechanical and unique electronic properties and hence have been receiving much attention in recent years for their potential in nanoelectronics, field emission devices, scanning probes, high strength composites and many more applications. Catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbon feedstock with the aid of supported transition metal catalysts - also known as chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) - has become popular to produce single-walled and multi-walled nanotubes (SWNTs, MWNTs) and multiwalled nanofibers (MWNFs). The ability to grow CNTs on patterned substrates and in vertically aligned arrays, and the simplicity of the <span class="hlt">process</span>, has made <span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth of CNTs an attractive approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030063130&hterms=devices+Carbon+nanotubes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Ddevices%2BCarbon%2Bnanotubes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030063130&hterms=devices+Carbon+nanotubes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Ddevices%2BCarbon%2Bnanotubes"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> Growth of Carbon Nanotubes: Structure, Catalyst, and Growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Delzeit, Lance</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit extraordinary mechanical and unique electronic properties and hence have been receiving much attention in recent years for their potential in nanoelectronics, field emission devices, scanning probes, high strength composites and many more applications. Catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbon feedstock with the aid of supported transition metal catalysts - also known as chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) - has become popular to produce single-walled and multi-walled nanotubes (SWNTs, MWNTs) and multiwalled nanofibers (MWNFs). The ability to grow CNTs on patterned substrates and in vertically aligned arrays, and the simplicity of the <span class="hlt">process</span>, has made <span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth of CNTs an attractive approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/801152','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/801152"><span>Cold Vacuum Drying (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) Set Point Determination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>PHILIPP, B.L.</p> <p>2000-01-12</p> <p>This document provides the calculations used to determine the error of safety class signals used for the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> These errors are used with the Parameter limits to arrive at the initial set point. The Safety Class Instrumentation and Control (SCIC) system provides active detection and response to <span class="hlt">process</span> anomalies that, if unmitigated would result in a safety event. Specifically actuation of the SCIC system includes two portions. The portion which isolates the MCO and initiates the safety-class helium (SCHe) purge, and the portion which detects and stops excessive heat input to the MCO on high tempered water MCO inlet temperature. For the MCO isolation and purge the SCIC receives signals from MCO pressure (both positive pressure and vacuum) helium flow rate, bay high temperature switches, seismic trips and time under vacuum trips.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12494990','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12494990"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> may contribute to extinction and habituation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McSweeney, Frances K; Swindell, Samantha</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>Psychologists routinely attribute the characteristics of conditioned behavior to complicated cognitive <span class="hlt">processes</span>. For example, many of the characteristics of behavior undergoing extinction have been attributed to retrieval from memory. The authors argue that these characteristics may result from the simpler <span class="hlt">process</span> of habituation. In particular, conditioned responding may decrease during extinction partially because habituation occurs to the stimuli that control responding when those stimuli are presented repeatedly or for a prolonged time (e.g., the experimental context, the conditioned stimulus in classical conditioning). This idea is parsimonious, has face validity, and evokes only <span class="hlt">processes</span> that are well established by other evidence. In addition, behavior undergoing extinction shows 12 of the fundamental properties of behavior undergoing habituation. However, this model probably cannot provide a complete theory of extinction. It provides no obvious explanation for some of the other characteristics of extinguished behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991IPRSP.138..295M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991IPRSP.138..295M"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> formalism for adaptive identification in signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> and control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macchi, O.</p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>The transversal and recursive approaches to adaptive identification are compared. ARMA modeling in signal <span class="hlt">processing</span>, and identification in the indirect approach to control are developed in parallel. Adaptivity succeeds because the estimate is a linear function of the variable parameters for transversal identification. Control and signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> can be imbedded in a unified well-established formalism that guarantees convergence of the adaptive parameters. For recursive identification, the estimate is a nonlinear function of the parameters, possibly resulting in nonuniqueness of the solution, in wandering and even instability of adaptive algorithms. The requirement for recursivity originates in the structure of the signal (MA-part) in signal <span class="hlt">processing</span>. It is caused by the output measurement noise in control.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=263882','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=263882"><span>Sensitivity of Mycobacterium bovis to <span class="hlt">common</span> beef <span class="hlt">processing</span> interventions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Introduction. Cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and a relevant zoonosis to humans, may be sent to slaughter before diagnosis of infection because of slow multiplication of the pathogen. Purpose. This study evaluates multiple <span class="hlt">processing</span> interventi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18479670','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18479670"><span>Divided versus selective attention: evidence for <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> mechanisms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hahn, Britta; Wolkenberg, Frank A; Ross, Thomas J; Myers, Carol S; Heishman, Stephen J; Stein, Dan J; Kurup, Pradeep K; Stein, Elliot A</p> <p>2008-06-18</p> <p>The current study revisited the question of whether there are brain mechanisms specific to divided attention that differ from those used in selective attention. Increased neuronal activity required to simultaneously <span class="hlt">process</span> two stimulus dimensions as compared with each separate dimension has often been observed, but rarely has activity induced by a divided attention condition exceeded the sum of activity induced by the component tasks. Healthy participants performed a selective-divided attention paradigm while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). The task required participants to make a same-different judgment about either one of two simultaneously presented stimulus dimensions, or about both dimensions. Performance accuracy was equated between tasks by dynamically adjusting the stimulus display time. Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal differences between tasks were identified by whole-brain voxel-wise comparisons and by region-specific analyses of all areas modulated by the divided attention task (DIV). No region displayed greater activation or deactivation by DIV than the sum of signal change by the two selective attention tasks. Instead, regional activity followed the tasks' <span class="hlt">processing</span> demands as reflected by reaction time. Only a left cerebellar region displayed a correlation between participants' BOLD signal intensity and reaction time that was selective for DIV. The correlation was positive, reflecting slower responding with greater activation. Overall, the findings do not support the existence of functional brain activity specific to DIV. Increased activity appears to reflect additional <span class="hlt">processing</span> demands by introducing a secondary task, but those demands do not appear to qualitatively differ from <span class="hlt">processes</span> of selective attention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApSS..284..207L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApSS..284..207L"><span>An important atomic <span class="hlt">process</span> in the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth of graphene: Sinking and up-floating of carbon atom on copper surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yingfeng; Li, Meicheng; Gu, TianSheng; Bai, Fan; Yu, Yue; Trevor, Mwenya; Yu, Yangxin</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>By density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the early stages of the growth of graphene on copper (1 1 1) surface are investigated. At the very first time of graphene growth, the carbon atom sinks into subsurface. As more carbon atoms are adsorbed nearby the site, the sunken carbon atom will spontaneously form a dimer with one of the newly adsorbed carbon atoms, and the formed dimer will up-float on the top of the surface. We emphasize the role of the co-operative relaxation of the co-adsorbed carbon atoms in facilitating the sinking and up-floating of carbon atoms. In detail: when two carbon atoms are co-adsorbed, their co-operative relaxation will result in different carbon-copper interactions for the co-adsorbed carbon atoms. This difference facilitates the sinking of a single carbon atom into the subsurface. As a third carbon atom is co-adsorbed nearby, it draws the sunken carbon atom on top of the surface, forming a dimer. Co-operative relaxations of the surface involving all adsorbed carbon atoms and their copper neighbors facilitate these sinking and up-floating <span class="hlt">processes</span>. This investigation is helpful for the deeper understanding of graphene synthesis and the choosing of optimal carbon sources or <span class="hlt">process</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2254627L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2254627L"><span>A <span class="hlt">common</span> stochastic <span class="hlt">process</span> in solar and stellar flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Chuan; Fang, Cheng</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Solar flares, with energies of 1027 - 1032 ergs, are believed to be powered by sudden release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. Stellar flares, observationally 102 - 106 more intense than solar flares, are generally assumed to release energy through the same underlying mechanism: magnetic reconnection. It is thus expected similar statistical properties between two groups of flares. The selected candidates are 23400 solar flares observed over one solar cycle by GOES spacecraft and 3140 stellar flares from Kepler data adapted from the catalog of Balona (MNRAS, 447, 2714, 2015). We examine the flare frequency as a function of duration, energy, and waiting time. The distributions of flare duration and energy can be well understood in the context of the avalanche model of a self-organized criticality (SOC) system (Aschwanden, A&A, 539, 2, 2012). The waiting time distribution of the SOC system can be explained by a non-stationary Poisson <span class="hlt">process</span> (Li et al. ApJ Letters, 792, 26, 2014).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880020234&hterms=CVD+diamond&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCVD%2Bdiamond','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880020234&hterms=CVD+diamond&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCVD%2Bdiamond"><span>Diamond film by hot filament <span class="hlt">CVD</span> method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hirose, Y.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Diamond synthesis by the hot filament <span class="hlt">CVD</span> method is discussed. A hot filament decomposes gas mixtures and oxygen containing organic compounds such as alcohols. which are carbon sources. The resulting thin films, growth mechanisms, and characteristics and problems associated with the hot filament <span class="hlt">CVD</span> method are analyzed and evaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JCrGr.113..606L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JCrGr.113..606L"><span>Physical and chemical kinetic <span class="hlt">processes</span> in the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of silicon from SiH 2Cl 2/H 2 gaseous mixtures in a vertical cylindrical hot-wall reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Langlais, F.; Prebende, C.; Couderc, J. P.</p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p>The kinetic <span class="hlt">process</span> of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of silicon is studied in the Si-H-Cl system on the basis of a large-scale experimental investigation of the growth rates. A cylindrical hot-wall LPCVD reactor was specifically built up and equipped with a sensitive microbalance. The physical transport phenomena are theoretically studied for a cylindrical geometry of both the hot reactional zone and the substrate itself: by solving the heat equation, a large isothermal area is found to extend around the substrate; the study of the momentum transfers reveals, by calculating gas velocities and streamlines, a very low disturbance of the gas flow by the occurrence of the substrate, due to a creeping laminar flow; at last, a coupled modelling of momentum and mass transfers shows, by computing gaseous species concentrations and deposition thicknesses profiles, that the growth rate is not influenced by total pressure, hardly by temperature, is increased by increasing the total flow rate and decreased by increasing the dilution ratio. Then, on the basis of thermodynamic approaches and considerations on adsorption phenomena, two theoretical mechanisms are proposed for the chemical <span class="hlt">process</span>, depending on the experimental conditions. Taking into account theoretical and experimental kinetics, the temperature, the total flow rate and the total pressure are found to induce the transition between physical and chemical kinetic control. In both proposed chemical mechanisms, the limiting step is found to be the surface reaction between SiCl 2 adsorbed species and H 2 molecules. The predominant <span class="hlt">process</span> is those with an activation energy of about 170 kJ mol -1 and a reaction order close to one with respect to H 2 species. The second mechanism, which involves an inhibition of the surface by atomic Cl species, occurs under more specifics conditions, i.e., high temperature, high dilution ratio and low total pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3310358','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3310358"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> and obesity in transitional Syria: a perspective from the Middle East</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Barakat, Hani; Barakat, Hanniya; Baaj, Mohamad K</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Purpose Syria is caught in the middle of a disruptive nutritional transition. Its healthcare system is distracted by challenges and successes in other areas while neglecting to address the onslaught of Syria’s cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) epidemic. Despite the official viewpoint touting improvement in health indicators, current trends jeopardize population health, and several surveys in the Syrian population signal the epidemic spreading far and wide. The goal is to counteract the indifference towards obesity as a threat to Syrian’s health, as the country is slowly becoming a leader in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> mortality globally. Methods PubMed, World Health Organization, and official government websites were searched for primary surveys in Syria related to <span class="hlt">CVD</span> morbidity, mortality, and risk factors. Inclusion criteria ensured that results maximized relevance while producing comparable studies. Statistical analysis was applied to detect the most <span class="hlt">common</span> risk factor and significant differences in risk factor prevalence and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> rates. Results Obesity remained the prevailing <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factor except in older Syrian men, where smoking and hypertension were more <span class="hlt">common</span>. <span class="hlt">CVD</span> mortality was more <span class="hlt">common</span> in males due to coronary disease, while stroke dominated female mortality. The young workforce is especially impacted, with 50% of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> mortality occurring before age 65 years and an 81% prevalence of obesity in women over 45 years. Conclusion Syria can overcome its slow response to the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> epidemic and curb further deterioration by reducing obesity and, thus, inheritance and clustering of risk factors. This can be achieved via multilayered awareness and intensive parental and familial involvement. Extinguishing the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> epidemic is readily achievable as demonstrated in other countries. PMID:22454558</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21832321','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21832321"><span>Enhancing the mechanical properties of single-crystal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liang, Qi; Yan, Chih-Shiue; Meng, Yufei; Lai, Joseph; Krasnicki, Szczesny; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Hemley, Russell J</p> <p>2009-09-09</p> <p>Approaches for enhancing the strength and toughness of single-crystal diamond produced by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) at high growth rates are described. <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> used to grow single-crystal diamond in high density plasmas were modified to incorporate boron and nitrogen. Semi-quantitative studies of mechanical properties were carried out using Vickers indentation techniques. The introduction of boron in single-crystal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond can significantly enhance the fracture toughness of this material without sacrificing its high hardness (∼78 GPa). Growth conditions were varied to investigate its effect on boron incorporation and optical properties by means of photoluminescence, infrared, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Boron can be readily incorporated into single-crystal diamond by the methods used, but with nitrogen addition, the incorporation of boron was hindered. The spectroscopic measurements indicate that nitrogen and boron coexist in the diamond structure, which helps explain the origin of the enhanced fracture toughness of this material. Further, low pressure/high temperature annealing can enhance the intrinsic hardness of single-crystal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond by a factor of two without appreciable loss in fracture toughness. This doping and post-growth treatment of diamond may lead to new technological applications that require enhanced mechanical properties of diamond.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1019786','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1019786"><span>Enhancing the Mechanical Properties of Single-Crystal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liang, Q.; Yan, C; Meng, Y; Lai, J; Krasnicki, S; Mao, H; Hemley, R</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Approaches for enhancing the strength and toughness of single-crystal diamond produced by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) at high growth rates are described. <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> used to grow single-crystal diamond in high density plasmas were modified to incorporate boron and nitrogen. Semi-quantitative studies of mechanical properties were carried out using Vickers indentation techniques. The introduction of boron in single-crystal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond can significantly enhance the fracture toughness of this material without sacrificing its high hardness ({approx}78 GPa). Growth conditions were varied to investigate its effect on boron incorporation and optical properties by means of photoluminescence, infrared, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Boron can be readily incorporated into single-crystal diamond by the methods used, but with nitrogen addition, the incorporation of boron was hindered. The spectroscopic measurements indicate that nitrogen and boron coexist in the diamond structure, which helps explain the origin of the enhanced fracture toughness of this material. Further, low pressure/high temperature annealing can enhance the intrinsic hardness of single-crystal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond by a factor of two without appreciable loss in fracture toughness. This doping and post-growth treatment of diamond may lead to new technological applications that require enhanced mechanical properties of diamond.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/978419','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/978419"><span>Controlled incorporation of mid-to-high Z transition metals in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Biener, M M; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S O; Wang, Y M; El-Dasher, B; Teslich, N E; Hamza, A V; Obloh, H; Mueller-Sebert, W; Wolfer, M; Fuchs, T; Grimm, M; Kriele, A; Wild, C</p> <p>2010-01-08</p> <p>We report on a general method to fabricate transition metal related defects in diamond. Controlled incorporation of Mo and W in synthetic <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond was achieved by adding volatile metal precursors to the diamond chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) growth <span class="hlt">process</span>. Effects of deposition temperature, grain structure and precursor exposure on the doping level were systematically studied, and doping levels of up to 0.25 at.% have been achieved. The metal atoms are uniformly distributed throughout the diamond grains without any indication of inclusion formation. These results are discussed in context of the kinetically controlled growth <span class="hlt">process</span> of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24657996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24657996"><span>Fracture characteristics of monolayer <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hwangbo, Yun; Lee, Choong-Kwang; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Jang, Bongkyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Su; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Mo</p> <p>2014-03-24</p> <p>We have observed and analyzed the fracture characteristics of the monolayer <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene using pressure bulge testing setup. The monolayer <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene has appeared to undergo environmentally assisted subcritical crack growth in room condition, i.e. stress corrosion cracking arising from the adsorption of water vapor on the graphene and the subsequent chemical reactions. The crack propagation in graphene has appeared to be able to be reasonably tamed by adjusting applied humidity and stress. The fracture toughness, describing the ability of a material containing inherent flaws to resist catastrophic failure, of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene has turned out to be exceptionally high, as compared to other carbon based 3D materials. These results imply that the <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene could be an ideal candidate as a structural material notwithstanding environmental susceptibility. In addition, the measurements reported here suggest that specific non-continuum fracture behaviors occurring in 2D monoatomic structures can be macroscopically well visualized and characterized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E4439H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E4439H"><span>Fracture Characteristics of Monolayer <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-Graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hwangbo, Yun; Lee, Choong-Kwang; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Jang, Bongkyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Su; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Mo</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>We have observed and analyzed the fracture characteristics of the monolayer <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene using pressure bulge testing setup. The monolayer <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene has appeared to undergo environmentally assisted subcritical crack growth in room condition, i.e. stress corrosion cracking arising from the adsorption of water vapor on the graphene and the subsequent chemical reactions. The crack propagation in graphene has appeared to be able to be reasonably tamed by adjusting applied humidity and stress. The fracture toughness, describing the ability of a material containing inherent flaws to resist catastrophic failure, of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene has turned out to be exceptionally high, as compared to other carbon based 3D materials. These results imply that the <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene could be an ideal candidate as a structural material notwithstanding environmental susceptibility. In addition, the measurements reported here suggest that specific non-continuum fracture behaviors occurring in 2D monoatomic structures can be macroscopically well visualized and characterized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3963064','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3963064"><span>Fracture Characteristics of Monolayer <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-Graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hwangbo, Yun; Lee, Choong-Kwang; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Jang, Bongkyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Su; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Mo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We have observed and analyzed the fracture characteristics of the monolayer <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene using pressure bulge testing setup. The monolayer <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene has appeared to undergo environmentally assisted subcritical crack growth in room condition, i.e. stress corrosion cracking arising from the adsorption of water vapor on the graphene and the subsequent chemical reactions. The crack propagation in graphene has appeared to be able to be reasonably tamed by adjusting applied humidity and stress. The fracture toughness, describing the ability of a material containing inherent flaws to resist catastrophic failure, of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene has turned out to be exceptionally high, as compared to other carbon based 3D materials. These results imply that the <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene could be an ideal candidate as a structural material notwithstanding environmental susceptibility. In addition, the measurements reported here suggest that specific non-continuum fracture behaviors occurring in 2D monoatomic structures can be macroscopically well visualized and characterized. PMID:24657996</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1335959-graphene-synthesis-plasma-enhanced-cvd-growth-ethanol','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1335959-graphene-synthesis-plasma-enhanced-cvd-growth-ethanol"><span>Graphene Synthesis by Plasma-Enhanced <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Growth with Ethanol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Campo, Teresa; Cotto, María; Márquez, Francisco; ...</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>A modified route to synthesize graphene flakes is proposed using the Chemical Vapor Deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) technique, by using copper substrates as supports. The carbon source used was ethanol, the synthesis temperature was 950°C and the pressure was controlled along the whole <span class="hlt">process</span>. In this <span class="hlt">CVD</span> synthesis <span class="hlt">process</span> the incorporation of the carbon source was produced at low pressure and 950°C inducing the appearance of a plasma blue flash inside the quartz tube. Apparently, the presence of this plasma blue flash is required for obtaining graphene flakes. The synthesized graphene was characterized by different techniques, showing the presence of non-oxidized graphenemore » with high purity.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT........85A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT........85A"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> mullite coatings for Si-based ceramics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Auger, Michael Lawrence</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>To raise fuel efficiencies, the next generation of engines and fuel systems must be lighter and operate at higher temperatures. Ceramic-based materials, which are considerably lighter than metals and can withstand working temperatures of up to 1400sp°C, have been targeted to replace traditional metal-based components. The materials used in combustion environments must also be capable of withstanding erosion and corrosion caused by combustion gases, particulates, and deposit-forming corrodants. With these demanding criteria, silicon-based ceramics are the leading candidate materials for high temperature engine and heat exchanger structural components. However, these materials are limited in gaseous environments and in the presence of molten salts since they form liquid silicates on exposed surfaces at temperatures as low as 800sp°C. Protective coatings that can withstand higher operating temperatures and corrosive atmospheres must be developed for silicon-based ceramics. Mullite (3Alsb2Osb3{*}2SiOsb2) was targeted as a potential coating material due to its unique ability to resist corrosion, retain its strength, resist creep, and avoid thermal shock failure at elevated temperatures. Several attempts to deposit mullite coatings by various <span class="hlt">processing</span> methods have met with limited success and usually resulted in coatings that have had pores, cracks, poor adherence, and required thermal post-treatments. To overcome these deficiencies, the direct formation of chemically vapor deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) mullite coatings has been developed. <span class="hlt">CVD</span> is a high temperature atomistic deposition technique that results in dense, adherent crystalline coatings. The object of this dissertation was to further the understanding of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> mullite deposition <span class="hlt">process</span> and resultant coating. The kinetics of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> mullite deposition were investigated as a function of the following <span class="hlt">process</span> parameters: temperature, pressure, and the deposition reactor system. An empirical kinetic model was developed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT........11Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT........11Q"><span>Multiwalled carbon nanotube <span class="hlt">CVD</span> synthesis, modification, and composite applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qian, Dali</p> <p></p> <p>Well-aligned carbon multiwall nanotube (MWNT) arrays have been continuously synthesized by a floating catalytic chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) method involving the pyrolysis of xylene-ferrocene mixtures. The <span class="hlt">CVD</span> parameters have been studied to selectively synthesize nanotubes with required dimensions. A mixed tip-root growth model has been proposed for the floating catalytic <span class="hlt">CVD</span> synthesis. Coarsening of the catalyst particle at the root end promoted MWNT wall coarsening (addition of new concentric graphene shells), while the smaller catalyst particle at the tip contributed to MWNT elongation. A two-step <span class="hlt">process</span> in which ferrocene was fed for only five minutes to nucleate the DTs was developed to understand if a continuous supply of catalyst was necessary for continued growth. The results show that the ferrocene was only necessary for initial nucleation. To simplify the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> further, another two-step synthesis method was developed in which the ferrocene was pre-decomposed so that the nanotube nucleation could be isolated from the growth, enabling quantification of growth mechanisms and kinetics. Mass spectra and hydrocarbon analyses of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reactor tail gas were performed to understand the pyrolysis chemistry. Well-aligned N-doped and Ru-doped MWNT arrays have been produced by pyrolysis of pyridine ferrocene mixtures and xylene-ferrocene-ruthenocene mixtures, respectively. Various material characterization techniques were used to measure the dopant distributions and correlate the catalyst phase with the novel nanotube structures. High-temperature annealing has been shown to be a viable means to remove both the catalyst particles and certain microstructural defects within the <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-derived DTs. The phase transformation of catalyst during annealing has also been studied. Homogeneous distribution of MWNTs in polystyrene matrices was achieved by an ultrasonic assisted solution-evaporation method. Addition of only 1 wt % DTs to polystyrene increased the polymer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16565200','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16565200"><span>Optical bleaching, TSL and OSL features of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Benabdesselam, M; Iacconi, P; Trinkler, L; Berzina, B; Butler, J E</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Luminescence and optical features of chemical vapour deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond have been studied in view of the potential application of this material in ionising radiation dosimetry field. For this purpose, thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques have been used. A large amount of work has emphasised the excellent dosimetric properties of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond. Nevertheless, TSL measurements showed that after irradiation, this material is extremely sensitive to ambient light and the stored dose information is drastically affected by optical bleaching. From OSL analysis, it follows that both types of <span class="hlt">processes</span> (TSL and OSL) were characterised by the same excitation and emission spectra and that optical bleaching originated from a broad stimulation band lying from visible to near infrared with a continuous character.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21757793','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21757793"><span>Controlled <span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth of Cu-Sb alloy nanostructures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Jing; Yin, Zongyou; Sim, Daohao; Tay, Yee Yan; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Jan; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yan, Qingyu</p> <p>2011-08-12</p> <p>Sb based alloy nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their many promising applications, e.g. as battery electrodes, thermoelectric materials and magnetic semiconductors. In many cases, these applications require controlled growth of Sb based alloys with desired sizes and shapes to achieve enhanced performance. Here, we report a flexible catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) <span class="hlt">process</span> to prepare Cu-Sb nanostructures with tunable shapes (e.g. nanowires and nanoparticles) by transporting Sb vapor to react with copper foils, which also serve as the substrate. By simply controlling the substrate temperature and distance, various Sb-Cu alloy nanostructures, e.g. Cu(11)Sb(3) nanowires (NWs), Cu(2)Sb nanoparticles (NPs), or pure Sb nanoplates, were obtained. We also found that the growth of Cu(11)Sb(3) NWs in such a catalyst-free <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> was dependent on the substrate surface roughness. For example, smooth Cu foils could not lead to the growth of Cu(11)Sb(3) nanowires while roughening these smooth Cu foils with rough sand papers could result in the growth of Cu(11)Sb(3) nanowires. The effects of gas flow rate on the size and morphology of the Cu-Sb alloy nanostructures were also investigated. Such a flexible growth strategy could be of practical interest as the growth of some Sb based alloy nanostructures by <span class="hlt">CVD</span> may not be easy due to the large difference between the condensation temperature of Sb and the other element, e.g. Cu or Co.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Nanot..22F5602C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Nanot..22F5602C"><span>Controlled <span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth of Cu-Sb alloy nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Jing; Yin, Zongyou; Sim, Daohao; Tay, Yee Yan; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Jan; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yan, Qingyu</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Sb based alloy nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their many promising applications, e.g. as battery electrodes, thermoelectric materials and magnetic semiconductors. In many cases, these applications require controlled growth of Sb based alloys with desired sizes and shapes to achieve enhanced performance. Here, we report a flexible catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) <span class="hlt">process</span> to prepare Cu-Sb nanostructures with tunable shapes (e.g. nanowires and nanoparticles) by transporting Sb vapor to react with copper foils, which also serve as the substrate. By simply controlling the substrate temperature and distance, various Sb-Cu alloy nanostructures, e.g. Cu11Sb3 nanowires (NWs), Cu2Sb nanoparticles (NPs), or pure Sb nanoplates, were obtained. We also found that the growth of Cu11Sb3 NWs in such a catalyst-free <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> was dependent on the substrate surface roughness. For example, smooth Cu foils could not lead to the growth of Cu11Sb3 nanowires while roughening these smooth Cu foils with rough sand papers could result in the growth of Cu11Sb3 nanowires. The effects of gas flow rate on the size and morphology of the Cu-Sb alloy nanostructures were also investigated. Such a flexible growth strategy could be of practical interest as the growth of some Sb based alloy nanostructures by <span class="hlt">CVD</span> may not be easy due to the large difference between the condensation temperature of Sb and the other element, e.g. Cu or Co.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED195835.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED195835.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Core Units in Business Education: Data <span class="hlt">Processing</span> and the (W)5.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Muscat, Eugene</p> <p></p> <p>This secondary unit of instruction on data <span class="hlt">processing</span> is one of sixteen <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core Units in Business Education (CCUBE). The units were designed for implementing the sixteen <span class="hlt">common</span> core competencies identified in the California Business Education Program Guide for Office and Distributive Education. Each competency-based unit is designed to…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5330511','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5330511"><span>Knowledge of risk factors for diabetes or cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is poor among individuals with risk factors for <span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dunstan, Libby; Busingye, Doreen; Reyneke, Megan; Orgill, Mary; Cadilhac, Dominique A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background There is limited evidence on whether having pre-existing cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) or risk factors for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> such as diabetes, ensures greater knowledge of risk factors important for motivating preventative behaviours. Our objective was to compare knowledge among the Australian public participating in a health check program and their risk status. Methods Data from the Stroke Foundation ‘Know your numbers’ program were used. Staff in community pharmacies provided opportunistic health checks (measurement of blood pressure and diabetes risk assessment) among their customers. Participants were categorised: 1) <span class="hlt">CVD</span> ± risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>: history of stroke, heart disease or kidney disease, and may have risk factors; 2) risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> only: reported having high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes or atrial fibrillation; and 3) <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk free (no <span class="hlt">CVD</span> or risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed including adjustment for age and sex. Findings Among 4,647 participants, 12% had <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (55% male, 85% aged 55+ years), 47% were at risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (40% male, 72% 55+ years) and 41% were <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk free (33% male, 27% 55+ years). Participants with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.80) or risk factors for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.73) had poorer knowledge of the risk factors for diabetes/<span class="hlt">CVD</span> compared to those who were <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk free. After adjustment, only participants with risk factors for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.93) had poorer knowledge. Older participants (55+ years) and men had poorer knowledge of diabetes/<span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factors and complications of diabetes. Conclusions Participants with poorer knowledge of risk factors were older, more often male or were at risk of developing <span class="hlt">CVD</span> compared with those who were <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk free. Health education in these high risk groups should be a priority, as diabetes and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> are increasing in prevalence throughout the world. PMID:28245267</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28245267','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28245267"><span>Knowledge of risk factors for diabetes or cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is poor among individuals with risk factors for <span class="hlt">CVD</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kilkenny, Monique F; Dunstan, Libby; Busingye, Doreen; Purvis, Tara; Reyneke, Megan; Orgill, Mary; Cadilhac, Dominique A</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>There is limited evidence on whether having pre-existing cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) or risk factors for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> such as diabetes, ensures greater knowledge of risk factors important for motivating preventative behaviours. Our objective was to compare knowledge among the Australian public participating in a health check program and their risk status. Data from the Stroke Foundation 'Know your numbers' program were used. Staff in community pharmacies provided opportunistic health checks (measurement of blood pressure and diabetes risk assessment) among their customers. Participants were categorised: 1) <span class="hlt">CVD</span> ± risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>: history of stroke, heart disease or kidney disease, and may have risk factors; 2) risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> only: reported having high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes or atrial fibrillation; and 3) <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk free (no <span class="hlt">CVD</span> or risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed including adjustment for age and sex. Among 4,647 participants, 12% had <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (55% male, 85% aged 55+ years), 47% were at risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (40% male, 72% 55+ years) and 41% were <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk free (33% male, 27% 55+ years). Participants with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.80) or risk factors for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.73) had poorer knowledge of the risk factors for diabetes/<span class="hlt">CVD</span> compared to those who were <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk free. After adjustment, only participants with risk factors for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.93) had poorer knowledge. Older participants (55+ years) and men had poorer knowledge of diabetes/<span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factors and complications of diabetes. Participants with poorer knowledge of risk factors were older, more often male or were at risk of developing <span class="hlt">CVD</span> compared with those who were <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk free. Health education in these high risk groups should be a priority, as diabetes and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> are increasing in prevalence throughout the world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20787675','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20787675"><span>Investigation of the Millimeter-Wave Plasma Assisted <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vikharev, A.; Gorbachev, A.; Kozlov, A.; Litvak, A.; Bykov, Yu.; Caplan, M.</p> <p>2006-01-03</p> <p>A polycrystalline diamond grown by the chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) technique is recognized as a unique material for high power electronic devices owing to unrivaled combination of properties such as ultra-low microwave absorption, high thermal conductivity, high mechanical strength and chemical stability. Microwave vacuum windows for modern high power sources and transmission lines operating at the megawatt power level require high quality diamond disks with a diameter of several centimeters and a thickness of a few millimeters. The microwave plasma-assisted <span class="hlt">CVD</span> technique exploited today to produce such disks has low deposition rate, which limits the availability of large size diamond disk windows. High-electron-density plasma generated by the millimeter-wave power was suggested for enhanced-growth-rate <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. In this paper a general description of the 30 GHz gyrotron-based facility is presented. The output radiation of the gyrotron is converted into four wave-beams. Free localized plasma in the shape of a disk with diameter much larger than the wavelength of the radiation is formed in the intersection area of the wave-beams. The results of investigation of the plasma parameters, as well as the first results of diamond film deposition are presented. The prospects for commercially producing vacuum window diamond disks for high power microwave devices at much lower costs and <span class="hlt">processing</span> times than currently available are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/884781','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/884781"><span>Investigation of the Millimeter-Wave Plasma Assisted <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vikharev, A; Gorbachev, A; Kozlov, A; Litvak, A; Bykov, Y; Caplan, M</p> <p>2005-07-21</p> <p>A polycrystalline diamond grown by the chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) technique is recognized as a unique material for high power electronic devices owing to unrivaled combination of properties such as ultra-low microwave absorption, high thermal conductivity, high mechanical strength and chemical stability. Microwave vacuum windows for modern high power sources and transmission lines operating at the megawatt power level require high quality diamond disks with a diameter of several centimeters and a thickness of a few millimeters. The microwave plasma-assisted <span class="hlt">CVD</span> technique exploited today to produce such disks has low deposition rate, which limits the availability of large size diamond disk windows. High-electron-density plasma generated by the millimeter-wave power was suggested for enhanced-growth-rate <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. In this paper a general description of the 30 GHz gyrotron-based facility is presented. The output radiation of the gyrotron is converted into four wave-beams. Free localized plasma in the shape of a disk with diameter much larger than the wavelength of the radiation is formed in the intersection area of the wave-beams. The results of investigation of the plasma parameters, as well as the first results of diamond film deposition are presented. The prospects for commercially producing vacuum window diamond disks for high power microwave devices at much lower costs and <span class="hlt">processing</span> times than currently available are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2654667','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2654667"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> in pathogenesis by fungal and oomycete plant pathogens, described with Gene Ontology terms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Meng, Shaowu; Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Chibucos, Marcus C; Tyler, Brett M; Dean, Ralph A</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes result in significant economic losses every year. Although phylogenetically distant, the infection <span class="hlt">processes</span> by these organisms share many <span class="hlt">common</span> features. These include dispersal of an infectious particle, host adhesion, recognition, penetration, invasive growth, and lesion development. Previously, many of these <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> did not have corresponding Gene Ontology (GO) terms. For example, no GO terms existed to describe <span class="hlt">processes</span> related to the appressorium, an important structure for infection by many fungi and oomycetes. In this mini-review, we identify <span class="hlt">common</span> features of the pathogenic <span class="hlt">processes</span> of fungi and oomycetes and create a pathogenesis model using 256 newly developed and 38 extant GO terms, with an emphasis on the appressorium and signal transduction. This set of standardized GO terms provides a solid base to further compare and contrast the molecular underpinnings of fungal and oomycete pathogenesis. PMID:19278555</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3643927','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3643927"><span>Similar Local and Landscape <span class="hlt">Processes</span> Affect Both a <span class="hlt">Common</span> and a Rare Newt Species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Denoël, Mathieu; Perez, Amélie; Cornet, Yves; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more <span class="hlt">common</span> species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening <span class="hlt">processes</span>. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological <span class="hlt">processes</span> at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more <span class="hlt">common</span> smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same <span class="hlt">processes</span>, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both <span class="hlt">common</span> and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the <span class="hlt">common</span> species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of <span class="hlt">common</span> species in ecosystems and because <span class="hlt">commonness</span> could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most <span class="hlt">common</span> species. PMID:23658765</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28895170','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28895170"><span>Serial order working memory and numerical ordinal <span class="hlt">processing</span> share <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> and predict arithmetic abilities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Attout, Lucie; Majerus, Steve</p> <p>2017-09-12</p> <p>Recent studies have demonstrated that both ordinal number <span class="hlt">processing</span> and serial order working memory (WM) abilities predict calculation achievement. This raises the question of shared ordinal <span class="hlt">processes</span> operating in both numerical and WM domains. We explored this question by assessing the interrelations between numerical ordinal, serial order WM, and arithmetic abilities in 102 7- to 9-year-old children. We replicated previous studies showing that ordinal numerical judgement and serial order WM predict arithmetic abilities. Furthermore, we showed that ordinal numerical judgement abilities predict arithmetic abilities after controlling for serial order WM abilities while the relationship between serial order WM and arithmetic abilities was mediated by numerical ordinal judgement performance. We discuss these results in the light of recent theoretical frameworks considering that numerical ordinal codes support the coding of order information in verbal WM. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Numerical ordinal <span class="hlt">processes</span> predict mathematical achievement in adults. Order WM <span class="hlt">processing</span> predicts first mathematical abilities. What the present study adds? Numerical ordinal <span class="hlt">processes</span> predict mathematical achievement in children and independently of order WM. The link between order WM and mathematical abilities was mediated by long-term ordinal <span class="hlt">processes</span>. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/755649','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/755649"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Mullite Coatings for SiC Fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sarin, V.K.; Varadarajan, S.</p> <p>2000-03-15</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">process</span> for depositing <span class="hlt">CVD</span> mullite coatings on SiC fibers for enhanced oxidation and corrosion, and/or act as an interfacial protective barrier has been developed. <span class="hlt">Process</span> optimization via systematic investigation of system parameters yielded uniform crystalline mullite coatings on SiC fibers. Structural characterization has allowed for tailoring of coating structure and therefore properties. High temperature oxidation/corrosion testing of the optimized coatings has shown that the coatings remain adherent and protective for extended periods. However, preliminary tests of coated fibers showed considerable degradation in tensile strength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940000148&hterms=titanium+alloys&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtitanium%2Balloys','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940000148&hterms=titanium+alloys&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtitanium%2Balloys"><span>Thin <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Coating Protects Titanium Aluminide Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clark, Ronald; Wallace, Terryl; Cunnington, George; Robinson, John</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Feasibility of using very thin <span class="hlt">CVD</span> coatings to provide both protection against oxidation and surfaces of low catalytic activity for thin metallic heat-shield materials demonstrated. Use of aluminum in compositions increases emittances of coatings and reduces transport of oxygen through coatings to substrates. Coatings light in weight and applied to foil-gauge materials with minimum weight penalties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940000148&hterms=titanium+aluminide&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtitanium%2Baluminide','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940000148&hterms=titanium+aluminide&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtitanium%2Baluminide"><span>Thin <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Coating Protects Titanium Aluminide Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clark, Ronald; Wallace, Terryl; Cunnington, George; Robinson, John</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Feasibility of using very thin <span class="hlt">CVD</span> coatings to provide both protection against oxidation and surfaces of low catalytic activity for thin metallic heat-shield materials demonstrated. Use of aluminum in compositions increases emittances of coatings and reduces transport of oxygen through coatings to substrates. Coatings light in weight and applied to foil-gauge materials with minimum weight penalties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NIMPA.845...76F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NIMPA.845...76F"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond metallization and characterization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fraimovitch, D.; Adelberd, A.; Marunko, S.; Lefeuvre, G.; Ruzin, A.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In this study we compared three diamond substrate grades: polycrystalline, optical grade single crystal, and electronic grade single crystal for detector application. Beside the bulk type, the choice of contact material, pre-treatment, and sputtering <span class="hlt">process</span> details have shown to alter significantly the diamond detector performance. Characterization of diamond substrate permittivity and losses indicate grade and crystallinity related, characteristic differences for frequencies in 1 kHz-1 MHz range. Substantial grade related variations were also observed in surface electrostatic characterization performed by contact potential difference (CPD) mode of an atomic force microscope. Study of conductivity variations with temperature reveal that bulk trap energy levels are also dependent on the crystal grade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cse..book..285A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cse..book..285A"><span>A Comparison of <span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Used <span class="hlt">Processes</span> for Multi-Site Software Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Avritzer, Alberto; Paulish, Daniel J.</p> <p></p> <p>This chapter describes some <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used multi-site software development <span class="hlt">processes</span> and compares them with respect to the amount of coordination that they support across locations. Specifically, two <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span>, called the "<IndexTerm>Extended Workbench Model<Primary>extended workbench model</Primary> </IndexTerm>" and "<IndexTerm>System of Systems Model<Primary>system of systems model</Primary> </IndexTerm>" will be compared based on our experience. The <span class="hlt">processes</span> have each been experimentally applied over several years to a global development project, called the "Global Studio Project" (GSP) in which university students around the world have simulated the <span class="hlt">processes</span> used for an industrial multi-site development project. Lessons learned will be discussed and guidance given for multi-site development projects based on our experience from experimental and real projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/804801','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/804801"><span>Cold Vacuum Drying (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) Facility Sampling and Analysis Plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>IRWIN, J.J.</p> <p>2000-09-22</p> <p>The Cold Vacuum Drying (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) Facility provides the required <span class="hlt">process</span> systems, supporting equipment, and facilities needed for the conditioning of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the Hanford K-Basins prior to storage at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The <span class="hlt">process</span> water conditioning (PWC) system collects and treats the selected liquid effluent streams generated by the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span>. The PWC system uses ion exchange modules (IXMs) and filtration to remove radioactive ions and particulate from <span class="hlt">CVD</span> effluent streams. Water treated by the PWC is collected in a 5000-gallon storage tank prior to shipment to an on-site facility for additional treatment and disposal. The purpose of this sampling and analysis plan is to document the basis for achieving the following data quality objectives: (1) Measurement of the radionuclide content of the water transferred from the multi-canister overpack (MCO), vacuum purge system (VPS) condensate tank, MCO/Cask annulus and deionized water flushes to the PWC system receiver tanks. (2) Trending the radionuclide inventory of IXMs to assure that they do not exceed the limits prescribed in HNF-2760, Rev. 0-D, ''Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (Onsite) Ion Exchange Modules,'' and HNF-EP-0063 Rev. 5, ''Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria'' for Category 3, non-TRU, low level waste (LLW). (3) Determining the radionuclide content of the PWC system bulk water storage tank to assure that it meets the limits set forth in HNF-3 172, Rev. 0, ''Hanford Site Liquid Waste Acceptance Criteria,'' to permit transfer and disposal at the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) located at the 200 East Area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010091030&hterms=carbon+nanotube+field+emission&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcarbon%2Bnanotube%2Bfield%2Bemission','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010091030&hterms=carbon+nanotube+field+emission&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcarbon%2Bnanotube%2Bfield%2Bemission"><span>Plasma <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of Carbon Nanotubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Delzeit, Lance; Cruden, B.; Hash, D.; Meyyappan, M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Carbon nanotubes(CNT) exhibit remarkable mechanical and unique electronic properties and thus have created excitement in the research community about their potential in electronics, computing, sensor and structural applications. Realization of these applications critically depends on the ability to control the properties(such as diameter, chirality) as well purity. We have investigated CNT growth using an inductively coupled plasma(ICP) <span class="hlt">process</span> using hydrocarbon feedstock. The catalyst required for nanotube growth consists of thin sputtered layers of aluminum and iron(10 nm each) and aligned carbon nanotubes have been obtained. Optical emission diagnostics as well as a plasma modeling effort have been undertaken to understand growth mechanisms. This presentation will discuss growth characteristics under various pressure, power and feedgas compositions and our understanding from modeling and diagnostics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25970716','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25970716"><span>Drastically Enhanced High-Rate Performance of Carbon-Coated LiFePO4 Nanorods Using a Green Chemical Vapor Deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) Method for Lithium Ion Battery: A Selective Carbon Coating <span class="hlt">Process</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tian, Ruiyuan; Liu, Haiqiang; Jiang, Yi; Chen, Jiankun; Tan, Xinghua; Liu, Guangyao; Zhang, Lina; Gu, Xiaohua; Guo, Yanjun; Wang, Hanfu; Sun, Lianfeng; Chu, Weiguo</p> <p>2015-06-03</p> <p>Application of LiFePO4 (LFP) to large current power supplies is greatly hindered by its poor electrical conductivity (10(-9) S cm(-1)) and sluggish Li+ transport. Carbon coating is considered to be necessary for improving its interparticle electronic conductivity and thus electrochemical performance. Here, we proposed a novel, green, low cost and controllable <span class="hlt">CVD</span> approach using solid glucose as carbon source which can be extended to most cathode and anode materials in need of carbon coating. Hydrothermally synthesized LFP nanorods with optimized thickness of carbon coated by this recipe are shown to have superb high-rate performance, high energy, and power densities, as well as long high-rate cycle lifetime. For 200 C (18s) charge and discharge, the discharge capacity and voltage are 89.69 mAh g(-1) and 3.030 V, respectively, and the energy and power densities are 271.80 Wh kg(-1) and 54.36 kW kg(-1), respectively. The capacity retention of 93.0%, and the energy and power density retention of 93.6% after 500 cycles at 100 C were achieved. Compared to the conventional carbon coating through direct mixing with glucose (or other organic substances) followed by annealing (DMGA), the carbon phase coated using this <span class="hlt">CVD</span> recipe is of higher quality and better uniformity. Undoubtedly, this approach enhances significantly the electrochemical performance of high power LFP and thus broadens greatly the prospect of its applications to large current power supplies such as electric and hybrid electric vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100002254','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100002254"><span>Spray <span class="hlt">CVD</span> for Making Solar-Cell Absorber Layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Banger, Kulbinder K.; Harris, Jerry; Jin, Michael H.; Hepp, Aloysius</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Spray chemical vapor deposition (spray <span class="hlt">CVD</span>) <span class="hlt">processes</span> of a special type have been investigated for use in making CuInS2 absorber layers of thin-film solar photovoltaic cells from either of two subclasses of precursor compounds: [(PBu3) 2Cu(SEt)2In(SEt)2] or [(PPh3)2Cu(SEt)2 In(SEt)2]. The CuInS2 films produced in the experiments have been characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and four-point-probe electrical tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/988682','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/988682"><span>Ultratough <span class="hlt">CVD</span> single crystal diamond and three dimensional growth thereof</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Yan, Chih-shiue</p> <p>2009-09-29</p> <p>The invention relates to a single-crystal diamond grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition that has a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention also relates to a method of producing a single-crystal diamond with a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a <span class="hlt">process</span> for producing a single crystal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond in three dimensions on a single crystal diamond substrate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/231188','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/231188"><span>Selective, pulsed <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of platinum on microfilament gas sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Manginell, R.P.; Smith, J.H.; Ricco, A.J.; Moreno, D.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Huber, R.J.; Senturia, S.D.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>A post-<span class="hlt">processing</span>, selective micro-chemical vapor deposition (``micro-<span class="hlt">CVD</span>``) technology for the deposition of catalytic films on surface-micromachined, nitride-passivated polysilicon filaments has been investigated. Atmospheric pressure deposition of Pt on microfilaments was accomplished by thermal decomposition of Pt acetylacetonate; deposition occurs selectively only on those filaments which are electrically heated. Catalyst morphology, characterized by SEM, can be controlled by altering deposition time, filament temperature, and through the use of pulsed heating of the filament during deposition. Morphology plays an important role in determining the sensitivity of these devices when used as combustible gas sensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......193L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......193L"><span>Fabrication of nanostructured electrodes and interfaces using combustion <span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Ying</p> <p></p> <p>Reducing fabrication and operation costs while maintaining high performance is a major consideration for the design of a new generation of solid-state ionic devices such as fuel cells, batteries, and sensors. The objective of this research is to fabricate nanostructured materials for energy storage and conversion, particularly porous electrodes with nanostructured features for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and high surface area films for gas sensing using a combustion <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span>. This research started with the evaluation of the most important deposition parameters: deposition temperature, deposition time, precursor concentration, and substrate. With the optimum deposition parameters, highly porous and nanostructured electrodes for low-temperature SOFCs have been then fabricated. Further, nanostructured and functionally graded La0.8Sr0.2MnO2-La 0.8SrCoO3-Gd0.1Ce0.9O2 composite cathodes were fabricated on YSZ electrolyte supports. Extremely low interfacial polarization resistances (i.e. 0.43 Ocm2 at 700°C) and high power densities (i.e. 481 mW/cm2 at 800°C) were generated at operating temperature range of 600°C--850°C. The original combustion <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> is modified to directly employ solid ceramic powder instead of clear solution for fabrication of porous electrodes for solid oxide fuel cells. Solid particles of SOFC electrode materials suspended in an organic solvent were burned in a combustion flame, depositing a porous cathode on an anode supported electrolyte. Combustion <span class="hlt">CVD</span> was also employed to fabricate highly porous and nanostructured SnO2 thin film gas sensors with Pt interdigitated electrodes. The as-prepared SnO2 gas sensors were tested for ethanol vapor sensing behavior in the temperature range of 200--500°C and showed excellent sensitivity, selectivity, and speed of response. Moreover, several novel nanostructures were synthesized using a combustion <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span>, including SnO2 nanotubes with square-shaped or rectangular cross sections, well</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ecb&id=EJ1018971','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ecb&id=EJ1018971"><span>Developing <span class="hlt">Common</span> Measures in Evaluation Capacity Building: An Iterative Science and Practice <span class="hlt">Process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Labin, Susan N.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A fundamental reason for doing evaluation capacity building (ECB) is to improve program outcomes. Developing <span class="hlt">common</span> measures of outcomes and the activities, <span class="hlt">processes</span>, and factors that lead to these outcomes is an important step in moving the science and the practice of ECB forward. This article identifies a number of existing ECB measurement…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fertilization&pg=4&id=EJ627587','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fertilization&pg=4&id=EJ627587"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">Processes</span> of Change in Psychotherapy and Seven Other Social Interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lampropoulos, Georgios K.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Argues that change <span class="hlt">processes</span> in psychotherapy can be understood more clearly by comparing them with other change-inducing social relationships. In showing how this may be done, describes different social interactions and discusses them in terms of a parsimonious set of <span class="hlt">common</span> factors in change. Stresses the importance of the cross-fertilization of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fertilization&pg=4&id=EJ627587','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fertilization&pg=4&id=EJ627587"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">Processes</span> of Change in Psychotherapy and Seven Other Social Interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lampropoulos, Georgios K.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Argues that change <span class="hlt">processes</span> in psychotherapy can be understood more clearly by comparing them with other change-inducing social relationships. In showing how this may be done, describes different social interactions and discusses them in terms of a parsimonious set of <span class="hlt">common</span> factors in change. Stresses the importance of the cross-fertilization of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Capacity+AND+Planning&pg=4&id=EJ1018971','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Capacity+AND+Planning&pg=4&id=EJ1018971"><span>Developing <span class="hlt">Common</span> Measures in Evaluation Capacity Building: An Iterative Science and Practice <span class="hlt">Process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Labin, Susan N.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A fundamental reason for doing evaluation capacity building (ECB) is to improve program outcomes. Developing <span class="hlt">common</span> measures of outcomes and the activities, <span class="hlt">processes</span>, and factors that lead to these outcomes is an important step in moving the science and the practice of ECB forward. This article identifies a number of existing ECB measurement…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988AIPC..172..605O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988AIPC..172..605O"><span>Intracavity laser spectroscopy of reactive intermediates in the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of silicon containing films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'Brien, J. J.; Miller, D. C.; Atkinson, G. H.</p> <p>1988-10-01</p> <p>The use of intracavity laser spectroscopy (ILS) in the real time, in situ, detection of intermediate gas phase species during the chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) of silicon by plasma and pyrolysis <span class="hlt">processes</span> is demonstrated. Gas phase species that are important in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> as likely precursors either to film growth (e.g., SiH2) or to the incorporation of contaminants/dopants in the deposited films (e.g., C2, BH2) are observed with good sensitivity. ILS measurements of the relative concentrations of such species are used as a basis for selecting <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> conditions and for evaluating the potentials of various organosilanes as alternative source materials to silane in the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of silicon films. These ILS data, in combination with the results of film composition analyses, indicate that SiH2 is formed in a homogeneous, gas phase <span class="hlt">process</span> and is an important prerequisite for silicon film growth. This conclusion pertains to the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of silicon-containing films prepared by pyrolytic decompositions of various organosilanes under conditions of moderate temperature and pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1726b0071K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1726b0071K"><span>Dependent Neyman type A <span class="hlt">processes</span> based on <span class="hlt">common</span> shock Poisson approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kadilar, Gamze Özel; Kadilar, Cem</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Neyman type A <span class="hlt">process</span> is used for describing clustered data since the Poisson <span class="hlt">process</span> is insufficient for clustering of events. In a multivariate setting, there may be dependencies between multivarite Neyman type A <span class="hlt">processes</span>. In this study, dependent form of the Neyman type A <span class="hlt">process</span> is considered under <span class="hlt">common</span> shock approach. Then, the joint probability function are derived for the dependent Neyman type A Poisson <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Then, an application based on forest fires in Turkey are given. The results show that the joint probability function of the dependent Neyman type A <span class="hlt">processes</span>, which is obtained in this study, can be a good tool for the probabilistic fitness for the total number of burned trees in Turkey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20954937','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20954937"><span>Intention <span class="hlt">processing</span> in communication: a <span class="hlt">common</span> brain network for language and gestures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Enrici, Ivan; Adenzato, Mauro; Cappa, Stefano; Bara, Bruno G; Tettamanti, Marco</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Human communicative competence is based on the ability to <span class="hlt">process</span> a specific class of mental states, namely, communicative intention. The present fMRI study aims to analyze whether intention <span class="hlt">processing</span> in communication is affected by the expressive means through which a communicative intention is conveyed, that is, the linguistic or extralinguistic gestural means. Combined factorial and conjunction analyses were used to test two sets of predictions: first, that a <span class="hlt">common</span> brain network is recruited for the comprehension of communicative intentions independently of the modality through which they are conveyed; second, that additional brain areas are specifically recruited depending on the communicative modality used, reflecting distinct sensorimotor gateways. Our results clearly showed that a <span class="hlt">common</span> neural network is engaged in communicative intention <span class="hlt">processing</span> independently of the modality used. This network includes the precuneus, the left and right posterior STS and TPJ, and the medial pFC. Additional brain areas outside those involved in intention <span class="hlt">processing</span> are specifically engaged by the particular communicative modality, that is, a peri-sylvian language network for the linguistic modality and a sensorimotor network for the extralinguistic modality. Thus, <span class="hlt">common</span> representation of communicative intention may be accessed by modality-specific gateways, which are distinct for linguistic versus extralinguistic expressive means. Taken together, our results indicate that the information acquired by different communicative modalities is equivalent from a mental <span class="hlt">processing</span> standpoint, in particular, at the point at which the actor's communicative intention has to be reconstructed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11456874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11456874"><span>Chemical nucleation for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Giraud, A; Jenny, T; Leroy, E; Küttel, O M; Schlapbach, L; Vanelle, P; Giraud, L</p> <p>2001-03-14</p> <p>A new nucleation method to form diamond by chemically pretreating silicon (111) surfaces is reported. The nucleation consists of binding covalently 2,2-divinyladamantane molecules on the silicon substrate. Then low-pressure diamond growth was performed for 2 h via microwave plasma <span class="hlt">CVD</span> in a tubular deposition system. The resulting diamond layers presented a good cristallinity and the Raman spectra showed a single very sharp peak at 1331 cm(-1), indicating high-quality diamonds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITE..93..827O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITE..93..827O"><span>An Optimization System with Parallel <span class="hlt">Processing</span> for Reducing <span class="hlt">Common</span>-Mode Current on Electronic Control Unit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okazaki, Yuji; Uno, Takanori; Asai, Hideki</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, we propose an optimization system with parallel <span class="hlt">processing</span> for reducing electromagnetic interference (EMI) on electronic control unit (ECU). We adopt simulated annealing (SA), genetic algorithm (GA) and taboo search (TS) to seek optimal solutions, and a Spice-like circuit simulator to analyze <span class="hlt">common</span>-mode current. Therefore, the proposed system can determine the adequate combinations of the parasitic inductance and capacitance values on printed circuit board (PCB) efficiently and practically, to reduce EMI caused by the <span class="hlt">common</span>-mode current. Finally, we apply the proposed system to an example circuit to verify the validity and efficiency of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970019642','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970019642"><span>Dopant Incorporation Efficiency in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Silicon Carbide Epilayers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Larkin, D. J.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>In order to ensure reproducible and reliable SiC semiconductor device characteristics, controlled dopant incorporation must be accomplished. Some of the many factors which greatly influence dopant incorporation are the site-competition effect, SiC(0001) substrate polarity, substrate temperature, and the dopant-source reactor concentration. In this paper, dopant incorporation is considered and compared for various dopants in the context of dopant incorporation efficiency. By using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), the relative dopant incorporation efficiencies were calculated by dividing the SIMS determined dopant concentration in the resulting epitaxial layer by the intentional gas phase dopant concentration used during the SiC <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. Specifically, the relative magnitudes of dopant incorporation efficiencies for nitrogen, phosphorus, and boron in 6H-SiC (0001) Si-face epitaxial layers are compared as a function of the site-competition effect and the dopant-source reactor concentrations. This serves as a first approximation for comparison of the relative 'doping potencies' of some <span class="hlt">common</span> dopants used in SiC <span class="hlt">CVD</span> epitaxial growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000004527','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000004527"><span>Predicted Variations in Flow Patterns in a Horizontal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kuczmarski, Maria A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Expressions in terms of <span class="hlt">common</span> reactor operating parameters were derived for the ratio of the Grashof number to the Reynolds number, Gr/Re, the ratio of the Grashof to the square of 2 the Reynolds number, Gr/Re(exp 2), and the Rayleigh number, Ra. Values for these numbers were computed for an example horizontal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reactor and compared to numerical simulations to gauge their effectiveness as predictors of the presence or absence of transverse and longitudinal rolls in the reactor. Comparisons were made for both argon and hydrogen carrier gases over the pressure range 2- 101 kPa. Reasonable agreement was achieved in most cases when using Gr/Re to predict the presence of transverse rolls and Ra to predict the presence of longitudinal rolls. The ratio Gr/Re(exp 2) did not yield useful predictions regarding the presence of transverse rolls. This comparison showed that the ratio of the Grashof number to the Reynolds number, as well as the Rayleigh number, can be used to predict the presence or absence of transverse and longitudinal rolls in a horizontal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reactor for a given set of reactor conditions. These predictions are approximate, and care must be exercised when making predictions near transition regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26956562','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26956562"><span>Testing Multiple Psychological <span class="hlt">Processes</span> for <span class="hlt">Common</span> Neural Mechanisms Using EEG and Independent Component Analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wessel, Jan R</p> <p>2016-03-08</p> <p>Temporal independent component analysis (ICA) is applied to an electrophysiological signal mixture (such as an EEG recording) to disentangle the independent neural source signals-independent components-underlying said signal mixture. When applied to scalp EEG, ICA is most <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used either as a pre-<span class="hlt">processing</span> step (e.g., to isolate physiological <span class="hlt">processes</span> from non-physiological artifacts), or as a data-reduction step (i.e., to focus on one specific neural <span class="hlt">process</span> with increased signal-to-noise ratio). However, ICA can be used in an even more powerful way that fundamentally expands the inferential utility of scalp EEG. The core assumption of EEG-ICA-namely, that individual independent components represent separable neural <span class="hlt">processes</span>-can be leveraged to derive the following inferential logic: If a specific independent component shows activity related to multiple psychological <span class="hlt">processes</span> within the same dataset (e.g., elicited by different experimental events), it follows that those psychological <span class="hlt">processes</span> involve a <span class="hlt">common</span>, non-separable neural mechanism. As such, this logic allows testing a class of hypotheses that is beyond the reach of regular EEG analyses techniques, thereby crucially increasing the inferential utility of the EEG. In the current article, this logic will be referred to as the '<span class="hlt">common</span> independent <span class="hlt">process</span> identification' (CIPI) approach. This article aims to provide a tutorial into the application of this powerful approach, targeted at researchers that have a basic understanding of standard EEG analysis. Furthermore, the article aims to exemplify the usage of CIPI by outlining recent studies that successfully applied this approach to test neural theories of mental functions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3872522','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3872522"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Genetic Factors Influence Hand Strength, <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Speed, and Working Memory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ogata, Soshiro; Kato, Kenji; Honda, Chika; Hayakawa, Kazuo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background It is important to detect cognitive decline at an early stage, especially before onset of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. <span class="hlt">Processing</span> speed and working memory are aspects of cognitive function that are associated with cognitive decline. Hand strength is an inexpensive, easily measurable indicator of cognitive decline. However, associations between hand strength, <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed, and working memory have not been studied. In addition, the genetic and environmental structure of the association between hand strength and cognitive decline is unclear. We investigated phenotypic associations between hand strength, <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed, and working memory and examined the genetic and environmental structure of the associations between phenotypes. Methods Hand strength, <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed (digit symbol performance), and working memory (digit span performance) were examined in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify phenotypic associations, and structural equation modeling was used to investigate the genetic and environmental structure of the association. Results Generalized estimating equations showed that hand strength was phenotypically associated with digit symbol performance but not with digit span performance. Structural equation modeling showed that <span class="hlt">common</span> genetic factors influenced hand strength and digit symbol and digit span performance. Conclusions There was a phenotypic association between hand strength and <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed. In addition, some genetic factors were <span class="hlt">common</span> to hand strength, <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed, and working memory. PMID:24292650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486823','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486823"><span>Formation pathway, structural characterization and optimum <span class="hlt">processing</span> parameters of synthetic topaz – Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}(OH,F){sub 2} – by <span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trujillo-Vázquez, E. Pech-Canul, M.I.</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>A novel synthesis route for topaz (Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}(OH,F){sub 2}) by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) using Na{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} as solid precursor was developed. Synthesis tests were conducted with and without a flow of nitrogen, positioning the Al(OH){sub 3} substrate at 0° and 90° with respect to the gas flow direction, at 700 and 750 °C, for 60 and 90 min, respectively. It was found that topaz is synthesized through two pathways, directly and indirectly, involving a series of endothermic and exothermic, heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions between Al(OH){sub 3} and SiF{sub 4}(g). Analytical structural determination confirmed existence of orthorhombic polycrystals with lattice parameters of a =4.6558 Å, b=8.8451 Å and c=8.4069 Å. According to ANOVA, while temperature, time and interaction of substrate angular position with atmosphere (P×A) are the parameters that most significantly influence the variability in the amount of topaz formed – equivalent contributions of 31% – topaz lattice parameters are mostly impacted by the same factors (T, t, P, A), but without the interaction factor. The projected amount of topaz is in good agreement with that obtained in confirmation tests under optimal conditions: Al(OH){sub 3} substrate compact placed at 0°, treated at 750 °C for 90 min in the absence of N{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Topaz synthesis as a unique phase by <span class="hlt">CVD</span>, using solid precursor Na{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} is feasible. • Two pathways, a series of endothermic/exothermic, heterogeneous/homogeneous reactions. • Crystal structure, orthorhombic polycrystals: a =4.6558 Å, b=8.8451 Å, c=8.4069 Å. • Anova: amount of topaz formed and lattice parameters are impacted by same factors. • Projection of topaz quantity in good agreement with those from confirmation tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5367312','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5367312"><span>The positive side of a negative reference: the delay between linguistic <span class="hlt">processing</span> and <span class="hlt">common</span> ground</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Noveck, Ira; Rivera, Natalia; Jaume-Guazzini, Francisco</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Interlocutors converge on names to refer to entities. For example, a speaker might refer to a novel looking object as the jellyfish and, once identified, the listener will too. The hypothesized mechanism behind such referential precedents is a subject of debate. The <span class="hlt">common</span> ground view claims that listeners register the object as well as the identity of the speaker who coined the label. The linguistic view claims that, once established, precedents are treated by listeners like any other linguistic unit, i.e. without needing to keep track of the speaker. To test predictions from each account, we used visual-world eyetracking, which allows observations in real time, during a standard referential communication task. Participants had to select objects based on instructions from two speakers. In the critical condition, listeners sought an object with a negative reference such as not the jellyfish. We aimed to determine the extent to which listeners rely on the linguistic input, <span class="hlt">common</span> ground or both. We found that initial interpretations were based on linguistic <span class="hlt">processing</span> only and that <span class="hlt">common</span> ground considerations do emerge but only after 1000 ms. Our findings support the idea that—at least temporally—linguistic <span class="hlt">processing</span> can be isolated from <span class="hlt">common</span> ground. PMID:28386440</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28386440','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28386440"><span>The positive side of a negative reference: the delay between linguistic <span class="hlt">processing</span> and <span class="hlt">common</span> ground.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kronmüller, Edmundo; Noveck, Ira; Rivera, Natalia; Jaume-Guazzini, Francisco; Barr, Dale</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Interlocutors converge on names to refer to entities. For example, a speaker might refer to a novel looking object as the jellyfish and, once identified, the listener will too. The hypothesized mechanism behind such referential precedents is a subject of debate. The <span class="hlt">common</span> ground view claims that listeners register the object as well as the identity of the speaker who coined the label. The linguistic view claims that, once established, precedents are treated by listeners like any other linguistic unit, i.e. without needing to keep track of the speaker. To test predictions from each account, we used visual-world eyetracking, which allows observations in real time, during a standard referential communication task. Participants had to select objects based on instructions from two speakers. In the critical condition, listeners sought an object with a negative reference such as not the jellyfish. We aimed to determine the extent to which listeners rely on the linguistic input, <span class="hlt">common</span> ground or both. We found that initial interpretations were based on linguistic <span class="hlt">processing</span> only and that <span class="hlt">common</span> ground considerations do emerge but only after 1000 ms. Our findings support the idea that-at least temporally-linguistic <span class="hlt">processing</span> can be isolated from <span class="hlt">common</span> ground.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21241934','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21241934"><span>Thermal conductivity of polycrystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond: Experiment and theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Inyushkin, A. V. Taldenkov, A. N.; Ral'chenko, V. G.; Konov, V. I.; Khomich, A. V.; Khmel'nitskii, R. A.</p> <p>2008-09-15</p> <p>The temperature dependences of thermal conductivity {kappa} of polycrystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond are measured in the temperature range from 5 to 410 K. The diamond sample is annealed at temperatures sequentially increasing from 1550 to 1690{sup o}C to modify the properties of the intercrystallite contacts in it. As a result of annealing, the thermal conductivity decreases strongly at temperatures below 45 K, and its temperature dependence changes from approximately quadratic to cubic. At T > 45 K, the thermal conductivity remains almost unchanged upon annealing at temperatures up to 1650{sup o}C and decreases substantially at higher annealing temperatures. The experimental data are analyzed in terms of the Callaway theory of thermal conductivity [9], which takes into account the specific role of normal phonon-phonon scattering <span class="hlt">processes</span>. The thermal conductivity is calculated with allowance for three-phonon scattering <span class="hlt">processes</span>, the diffuse scattering by sample boundaries, the scattering by point and extended defects, the specular scattering by crystallite boundaries, and the scattering by intercrystallite contacts. A model that reproduces the main specific features of the thermal conductivity of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond is proposed. The phonon scattering by intercrystallite contacts plays a key role in this model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/945655','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/945655"><span>Crystallographic anisotropy of growth and etch rates of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wolfer, M; Biener, J; El-dasher, B S; Biener, M M; Hamza, A V; Kriele, A; Wild, C</p> <p>2008-08-05</p> <p>The investigation of orientation dependent crystal growth and etch <span class="hlt">processes</span> can provide deep insights into the underlying mechanisms and thus helps to validate theoretical models. Here, we report on homoepitaxial diamond growth and oxygen etch experiments on polished, polycrystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond wafers by use of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and white-light interferometry (WLI). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to provide additional atomic scale surface morphology information. The main advantage of using polycrystalline diamond substrates with almost random grain orientation is that it allows determining the orientation dependent growth (etch) rate for different orientations within one experiment. Specifically, we studied the effect of methane concentration on the diamond growth rate, using a microwave plasma <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span>. At 1 % methane concentration a maximum of the growth rate near <100> and a minimum near <111> is detected. Increasing the methane concentration up to 5 % shifts the maximum towards <110> while the minimum stays at <111>. Etch rate measurements in a microwave powered oxygen plasma reveal a pronounced maximum at <111>. We also made a first attempt to interpret our experimental data in terms of local micro-faceting of high-indexed planes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27858033','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27858033"><span>Epitaxial nucleation of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> bilayer graphene on copper.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Song, Yenan; Zhuang, Jianing; Song, Meng; Yin, Shaoqian; Cheng, Yu; Zhang, Xuewei; Wang, Miao; Xiang, Rong; Xia, Yang; Maruyama, Shigeo; Zhao, Pei; Ding, Feng; Wang, Hongtao</p> <p>2016-12-08</p> <p>Bilayer graphene (BLG) has emerged as a promising candidate for next-generation electronic applications, especially when it exists in the Bernal-stacked form, but its large-scale production remains a challenge. Here we present an experimental and first-principles calculation study of the epitaxial chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) nucleation <span class="hlt">process</span> for Bernal-stacked BLG growth on Cu using ethanol as a precursor. Results show that a carefully adjusted flow rate of ethanol can yield a uniform BLG film with a surface coverage of nearly 90% and a Bernal-stacking ratio of nearly 100% on ordinary flat Cu substrates, and its epitaxial nucleation of the second layer is mainly due to the active CH3 radicals with the presence of a monolayer-graphene-covered Cu surface. We believe that this nucleation mechanism will help clarify the formation of BLG by the epitaxial <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span>, and lead to many new strategies for scalable synthesis of graphene with more controllable structures and numbers of layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NJPh...16e3005G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NJPh...16e3005G"><span>Native NIR-emitting single colour centres in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gatto Monticone, D.; Traina, P.; Moreva, E.; Forneris, J.; Olivero, P.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Taccetti, F.; Giuntini, L.; Brida, G.; Amato, G.; Genovese, M.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Single-photon sources are a fundamental element for developing quantum technologies, and sources based on colour centres in diamonds are among the most promising candidates. The well-known nitrogen vacancy centres are characterized by several limitations, and thus few other defects have recently been considered. In the present work, we characterize, in detail, native efficient single colour centres emitting in the near infra-red (λ = 740-780 nm) in both standard IIa single-crystal and electronic-grade polycrystalline commercial chemical vapour deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond samples. In the former case, a high-temperature (T > 1000 °C) annealing <span class="hlt">process</span> in vacuum is necessary to induce the formation/activation of luminescent centres with good emission properties, while in the latter case the annealing <span class="hlt">process</span> has marginally beneficial effects on the number and performance of native centres in commercially available samples. Although displaying significant variability in several photo-physical properties (emission wavelength, emission rate instabilities, saturation behaviours), these centres generally display appealing photophysical properties for applications as single photon sources: short lifetimes (0.7-3 ns), high emission rates (˜50-500 × 103 photons s-1) and strongly (>95%) polarized light. The native centres are tentatively attributed to impurities incorporated in the diamond crystal during the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth of high-quality type-IIa samples, and offer promising perspectives in diamond-based photonics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EML....12..329M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EML....12..329M"><span>Enhanced cold wall <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reactor growth of horizontally aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mu, Wei; Kwak, Eun-Hye; Chen, Bingan; Huang, Shirong; Edwards, Michael; Fu, Yifeng; Jeppson, Kjell; Teo, Kenneth; Jeong, Goo-Hwan; Liu, Johan</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>HASynthesis of horizontally-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (HA-SWCNTs) by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) directly on quartz seems very promising for the fabrication of future nanoelectronic devices. In comparison to hot-wall <span class="hlt">CVD</span>, synthesis of HA-SWCNTs in a cold-wall <span class="hlt">CVD</span> chamber not only means shorter heating, cooling and growth periods, but also prevents contamination of the chamber. However, since most synthesis of HA-SWCNTs is performed in hot-wall reactors, adapting this well-established <span class="hlt">process</span> to a cold-wall chamber becomes extremely crucial. Here, in order to transfer the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth technology from a hot-wall to a cold-wall chamber, a systematic investigation has been conducted to determine the influence of <span class="hlt">process</span> parameters on the HA-SWCNT's growth. For two reasons, the cold-wall <span class="hlt">CVD</span> chamber was upgraded with a top heater to complement the bottom substrate heater; the first reason to maintain a more uniform temperature profile during HA-SWCNTs growth, and the second reason to preheat the precursor gas flow before projecting it onto the catalyst. Our results show that the addition of a top heater had a significant effect on the synthesis. Characterization of the CNTs shows that the average density of HA-SWCNTs is around 1 - 2 tubes/ μm with high growth quality as shown by Raman analysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27164589','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27164589"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span>2014-A Database for Evaluating No-Reference Video Quality Assessment Algorithms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nuutinen, Mikko; Virtanen, Toni; Vaahteranoksa, Mikko; Vuori, Tero; Oittinen, Pirkko; Hakkinen, Jukka</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present a new video database: <span class="hlt">CVD</span>2014-Camera Video Database. In contrast to previous video databases, this database uses real cameras rather than introducing distortions via post-<span class="hlt">processing</span>, which results in a complex distortion space in regard to the video acquisition <span class="hlt">process</span>. <span class="hlt">CVD</span>2014 contains a total of 234 videos that are recorded using 78 different cameras. Moreover, this database contains the observer-specific quality evaluation scores rather than only providing mean opinion scores. We have also collected open-ended quality descriptions that are provided by the observers. These descriptions were used to define the quality dimensions for the videos in <span class="hlt">CVD</span>2014. The dimensions included sharpness, graininess, color balance, darkness, and jerkiness. At the end of this paper, a performance study of image and video quality algorithms for predicting the subjective video quality is reported. For this performance study, we proposed a new performance measure that accounts for observer variance. The performance study revealed that there is room for improvement regarding the video quality assessment algorithms. The <span class="hlt">CVD</span>2014 video database has been made publicly available for the research community. All video sequences and corresponding subjective ratings can be obtained from the <span class="hlt">CVD</span>2014 project page (http://www.helsinki.fi/psychology/groups/visualcognition/).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......367M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......367M"><span>Metal oxide growth, spin precession measurements and Raman spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsubayashi, Akitomo</p> <p></p> <p>The focus of this dissertation is to explore the possibility of wafer scale graphene-based spintronics. Graphene is a single atomic layer of sp 2 bonded carbon atoms that has attracted much attention as a new type of electronic material due to its high carrier mobilities, superior mechanical properties and extremely high thermal conductivity. In addition, it has become an attractive material for use in spintronic devices owing to its long electron spin relaxation time at room temperature. This arises in part from its low spin-orbit coupling and negligible nuclear hyperfine interaction. In order to realize wafer scale graphene spintronics, utilization of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> grown graphene is crytical due to its scalability. In this thesis, a unique fabrication method of the metal oxide layers on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene is presented. This is motivated by theoretical work showing that an ultra thin metal oxide film used as a tunnel barrier improves the spin injection efficiency. Introducing a titanium seed layer prior to the aluminum oxide growth showed improved surface and film uniformity and resulted in a completely oxidized film. Utilizing this unique metal oxide film growth <span class="hlt">process</span>, lateral spin valve devices using <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene as a channel are successfully fabricated. Hanle spin precession measurements are demonstrated on these <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene spin devices. A non-local Hanle voltage model based upon the diffusive spin transport in a solid is utilized to find the spin diffusion length and spin relaxation time of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene. The measured spin relaxation times in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene were compatible with the values found in the literature. However, they are an order of magnitude shorter than the theoretical values expected in graphene. To investigate possible origins of this order of magnitude shorter spin relaxation time in graphene, crystal and electrical modifications in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene are studied throughout the entire device fabrication <span class="hlt">process</span>. Raman spectroscopy is utilized to track <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/805403','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/805403"><span>Cold Vacuum Dryer (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>SINGH, G.</p> <p>2000-10-17</p> <p>This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the <span class="hlt">process</span> bays and <span class="hlt">process</span> bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Facility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/900880','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/900880"><span>The Effect of Excess Carbon on the Crystallographic, Microstructural, and Mechanical Properties of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Silicon Carbide Fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marzik, J V; Croft, W J; Staples, R J; MoberlyChan, W J</p> <p>2006-12-05</p> <p>Silicon carbide (SiC) fibers made by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) are of interest for organic, ceramic, and metal matrix composite materials due their high strength, high elastic modulus, and retention of mechanical properties at elevated <span class="hlt">processing</span> and operating temperatures. The properties of SCS-6{trademark} silicon carbide fibers, which are made by a commercial <span class="hlt">process</span> and consist largely of stoichiometric SiC, were compared with an experimental carbon-rich <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC fiber, to which excess carbon was added during the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span>. The concentration, homogeneity, and distribution of carbon were measured using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The effect of excess carbon on the tensile strength, elastic modulus, and the crystallographic and microstructural properties of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> silicon carbide fibers was investigated using tensile testing, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23135386','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23135386"><span>Polycrystallinity and stacking in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsen, Adam W; Brown, Lola; Havener, Robin W; Park, Jiwoong</p> <p>2013-10-15</p> <p>Graphene, a truly two-dimensional hexagonal lattice of carbon atoms, possesses remarkable properties not seen in any other material, including ultrahigh electron mobility, high tensile strength, and uniform broadband optical absorption. While scientists initially studied its intrinsic properties with small, mechanically exfoliated graphene crystals found randomly, applying this knowledge would require growing large-area films with uniform structural and physical properties. The science of graphene has recently experienced revolutionary change, mainly due to the development of several large-scale growth methods. In particular, graphene synthesis by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) on copper is a reliable method to obtain films with mostly monolayer coverage. These films are also polycrystalline, consisting of multiple graphene crystals joined by grain boundaries. In addition, portions of these graphene films contain more than one layer, and each layer can possess a different crystal orientation and stacking order. In this Account, we review the structural and physical properties that originate from polycrystallinity and stacking in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene. To begin, we introduce dark-field transmission electron microscopy (DF-TEM), a technique which allows rapid and accurate imaging of key structural properties, including the orientation of individual domains and relative stacking configurations. Using DF-TEM, one can easily identify "lateral junctions," or grain boundaries between adjacent domains, as well as "vertical junctions" from the stacking of graphene multilayers. With this technique, we can distinguish between oriented (Bernal or rhombohedral) and misoriented (twisted) configurations. The structure of lateral junctions in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene is sensitive to growth conditions and is reflected in the material's electrical and mechanical properties. In particular, grain boundaries in graphene grown under faster reactant flow conditions have no gaps or overlaps, unlike more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28135902','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28135902"><span>Mapping <span class="hlt">Common</span> Aphasia Assessments to Underlying Cognitive <span class="hlt">Processes</span> and Their Neural Substrates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Xing, Shihui; Fama, Mackenzie E; Turkeltaub, Peter E</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Understanding the relationships between clinical tests, the <span class="hlt">processes</span> they measure, and the brain networks underlying them, is critical in order for clinicians to move beyond aphasia syndrome classification toward specification of individual language <span class="hlt">process</span> impairments. To understand the cognitive, language, and neuroanatomical factors underlying scores of <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used aphasia tests. Twenty-five behavioral tests were administered to a group of 38 chronic left hemisphere stroke survivors and a high-resolution magnetic resonance image was obtained. Test scores were entered into a principal components analysis to extract the latent variables (factors) measured by the tests. Multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to localize lesions associated with the factor scores. The principal components analysis yielded 4 dissociable factors, which we labeled Word Finding/Fluency, Comprehension, Phonology/Working Memory Capacity, and Executive Function. While many tests loaded onto the factors in predictable ways, some relied heavily on factors not <span class="hlt">commonly</span> associated with the tests. Lesion symptom mapping demonstrated discrete brain structures associated with each factor, including frontal, temporal, and parietal areas extending beyond the classical language network. Specific functions mapped onto brain anatomy largely in correspondence with modern neural models of language <span class="hlt">processing</span>. An extensive clinical aphasia assessment identifies 4 independent language functions, relying on discrete parts of the left middle cerebral artery territory. A better understanding of the <span class="hlt">processes</span> underlying cognitive tests and the link between lesion and behavior may lead to improved aphasia diagnosis, and may yield treatments better targeted to an individual's specific pattern of deficits and preserved abilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16846963','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16846963"><span>Control over speeded actions: a <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> locus for micro- and macro-trade-offs?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jentzsch, Ines; Leuthold, Hartmut</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>Cognitive control <span class="hlt">processes</span> associated with long- and short-term adjustments of human behaviour have attracted much interest recently. It is still unclear, however, whether the mechanisms underlying these adjustments share a <span class="hlt">common</span> locus within the chain of stimulus-response <span class="hlt">processing</span>. In order to address this issue, the present study employed a speed-accuracy instruction producing a macro-trade-off, whereas micro-trade-off was studied by means of posterror slowing in reaction time (RT). Participants performed a spatially compatible or incompatible four-stimuli-to-two-response alternative choice RT task. Reliable variations in micro-and macro-trade-off as well as effects of spatial compatibility were found in RT and error rate. Most importantly, posterror slowing was larger when instruction stressed accuracy rather than speed, an effect being independent of spatial compatibility. Because the influence of speed-accuracy instruction and posterror slowing on performance was strongest for response alternations, together present findings suggest that the mechanisms underlying micro- and macro-trade-offs have one <span class="hlt">common</span> locus at the level of motor <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Additional influences of macro-trade-off on premotoric <span class="hlt">processing</span> are likely.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001NIMPA.460..401R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001NIMPA.460..401R"><span>An assessment of radiotherapy dosimeters based on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> grown diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramkumar, S.; Buttar, C. M.; Conway, J.; Whitehead, A. J.; Sussman, R. S.; Hill, G.; Walker, S.</p> <p>2001-03-01</p> <p>Diamond is potentially a very suitable material for use as a dosimeter for radiotherapy. Its radiation hardness, the near tissue equivalence and chemical inertness are some of the characteristics of diamond, which make it well suited for its application as a dosimeter. Recent advances in the synthesis of diamond by chemical vapour deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) technology have resulted in the improvement in the quality of material and increased its suitability for radiotherapy applications. We report in this paper, the response of prototype dosimeters based on two different types (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>1 and <span class="hlt">CVD</span>2) of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond to X-rays. The diamond devices were assessed for sensitivity, dependence of response on dose and dose rate, and compared with a Scanditronix silicon photon diode and a PTW natural diamond dosimeter. The diamond devices of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>1 type showed an initial increase in response with dose, which saturates after ≈6 Gy. The diamond devices of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>2 type had a response at low fields (<1162.8 V/cm) that was linear with dose and dose rate. At high fields (>1162.8 V/cm), the <span class="hlt">CVD</span>2-type devices showed polarisation and dose-rate dependence. The sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond devices varied between 82 and 1300 nC/Gy depending upon the sample type and the applied voltage. The sensitivity of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond devices was significantly higher than that of natural diamond and silicon dosimeters. The results suggest that <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond devices can be fabricated for successful use in radiotherapy applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27822192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27822192"><span>The <span class="hlt">Common</span> Element Effect of Abstract-to-Abstract Mapping in Language <span class="hlt">Processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Xuqian; Wang, Guixiang; Liang, Yuchan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Since the 1990s, there has been much discussion about how concepts are learned and <span class="hlt">processed</span>. Many researchers believe that the experienced bodily states (i.e., embodied experiences) should be an important factor that affects concepts' learning and use, and metaphorical mappings between abstract concepts, such as TIME and POWER, and concrete concepts, such as SPATIAL ORIENTATION, STRUCTURED EXPERIENCEs, etc., suggest the abstract-concrete concepts' connections. In most of the recent literature, we can find <span class="hlt">common</span> elements (e.g., concrete concepts) shared by different abstract-concrete metaphorical expressions. Therefore, we assumed that mappings might also be found between two abstract concepts that share <span class="hlt">common</span> elements, though they have no symbolic connections. In the present study, two lexical decision tasks were arranged and the priming effect between TIME and ABSTRACT ACTIONs was used as an index to test our hypothesis. Results showed a robust priming effect when a target verb and its prime belonged to the same duration type (TIME consistent condition). These findings suggest that mapping between concepts was affected by <span class="hlt">common</span> elements. We propose a dynamic model in which mappings between concepts are influenced by <span class="hlt">common</span> elements, including symbolic or embodied information. What kind of elements (linguistic or embodied) can be used would depend on how difficult it is for a concept to be learned or accessed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5075534','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5075534"><span>The <span class="hlt">Common</span> Element Effect of Abstract-to-Abstract Mapping in Language <span class="hlt">Processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Xuqian; Wang, Guixiang; Liang, Yuchan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Since the 1990s, there has been much discussion about how concepts are learned and <span class="hlt">processed</span>. Many researchers believe that the experienced bodily states (i.e., embodied experiences) should be an important factor that affects concepts’ learning and use, and metaphorical mappings between abstract concepts, such as TIME and POWER, and concrete concepts, such as SPATIAL ORIENTATION, STRUCTURED EXPERIENCEs, etc., suggest the abstract-concrete concepts’ connections. In most of the recent literature, we can find <span class="hlt">common</span> elements (e.g., concrete concepts) shared by different abstract-concrete metaphorical expressions. Therefore, we assumed that mappings might also be found between two abstract concepts that share <span class="hlt">common</span> elements, though they have no symbolic connections. In the present study, two lexical decision tasks were arranged and the priming effect between TIME and ABSTRACT ACTIONs was used as an index to test our hypothesis. Results showed a robust priming effect when a target verb and its prime belonged to the same duration type (TIME consistent condition). These findings suggest that mapping between concepts was affected by <span class="hlt">common</span> elements. We propose a dynamic model in which mappings between concepts are influenced by <span class="hlt">common</span> elements, including symbolic or embodied information. What kind of elements (linguistic or embodied) can be used would depend on how difficult it is for a concept to be learned or accessed. PMID:27822192</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28927844','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28927844"><span>Reliability modelling of redundant safety systems without automatic diagnostics incorporating <span class="hlt">common</span> cause failures and <span class="hlt">process</span> demand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alizadeh, Siamak; Sriramula, Srinivas</p> <p>2017-09-16</p> <p>Redundant safety systems are <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used in the <span class="hlt">process</span> industry to respond to hazardous events. In redundant systems composed of identical units, <span class="hlt">Common</span> Cause Failures (CCFs) can significantly influence system performance with regards to reliability and safety. However, their impact has been overlooked due to the inherent complexity of modelling <span class="hlt">common</span> cause induced failures. This article develops a reliability model for a redundant safety system using Markov analysis approach. The proposed model incorporates <span class="hlt">process</span> demands in conjunction with CCF for the first time and evaluates their impacts on the reliability quantification of safety systems without automatic diagnostics. The reliability of the Markov model is quantified by considering the Probability of Failure on Demand (PFD) as a measure for low demand systems. The safety performance of the model is analysed using Hazardous Event Frequency (HEF) to evaluate the frequency of entering a hazardous state that will lead to an accident if the situation is not controlled. The utilisation of Markov model for a simple case study of a pressure protection system is demonstrated and it is shown that the proposed approach gives a sufficiently accurate result for all demand rates, durations, component failure rates and corresponding repair rates for low demand mode of operation. The Markov model proposed in this paper assumes the absence of automatic diagnostics, along with multiple stage repair strategy for CCFs and restoration of the system from hazardous state to the "as good as new" state. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21245276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21245276"><span>Interference in character <span class="hlt">processing</span> reflects <span class="hlt">common</span> perceptual expertise across writing systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wong, Alan C-N; Qu, Zhiyi; McGugin, Rankin W; Gauthier, Isabel</p> <p>2011-01-18</p> <p>Perceptual expertise, even within the visual domain, can take many forms, depending on the goals of the practiced task and the visual information available to support performance. Given the same goals, expertise for different categories can recruit <span class="hlt">common</span> perceptual resources, which could lead to interference during concurrent <span class="hlt">processing</span>. We measured whether irrelevant characters of one writing system produce interference during visual search for characters of another writing system, as a function of expertise. Chinese-English bilinguals and English readers searched for target Roman letters among other distractors in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sequence. Chinese character distractors interfered with Roman letter search more than pseudoletter distractors, only for bilingual readers, suggesting a <span class="hlt">common</span> perceptual bottleneck for Roman and Chinese <span class="hlt">processing</span> in experts with both domains. We ruled out an explanation at the level of phonetic codes, by showing that concurrent verbal rehearsal has no effect on the magnitude of such interference. These findings converge with results showing competition between faces and cars in car experts to suggest that different domains of expertise that overlap in their cortical representations also possess a <span class="hlt">common</span> perceptual bottleneck.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3204366','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3204366"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> or redundant neural circuits for duration <span class="hlt">processing</span> across audition and touch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Butler, John S.; Molholm, Sophie; Fiebelkorn, Ian C.; Mercier, Manuel R.; Schwartz, Theodore H.; Foxe, John J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Certain features of objects or events can be represented by more than a single sensory system such as roughness of a surface (sight, sound and touch), the location of a speaker (audition and sight) or the rhythm or duration of an event (by all three major sensory systems). Thus, these properties can be said to be sensory-independent or amodal. A key question is whether <span class="hlt">common</span> multisensory cortical regions <span class="hlt">process</span> these amodal features, or does each sensory-system contain its own specialized region(s) for <span class="hlt">processing</span> <span class="hlt">common</span> features? We tackled this issue by investigating simple duration detection mechanisms across audition and touch, specifically because fine duration discriminations are possible in both systems. The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the human event-related potential provides a sensitive metric of duration-<span class="hlt">processing</span> and it has been elicited independently during both auditory and somatosensory investigations. Employing high-density electroencephalographic recordings in conjunction with intracranial subdural recordings, we asked whether fine duration discriminations, represented by the MMN, were generated in the same cortical regions regardless of the sensory modality being probed. Scalp-recordings pointed to statistically distinct MMN topographies across senses, implying differential underlying cortical generator configurations. Intracranial recordings confirmed these non-invasive findings, showing generators of the auditory MMN along the superior temporal gyrus with no evidence of a somatosensory MMN in this region, whereas a robust somatosensory MMN was recorded from post-central gyrus in the absence of an auditory MMN. The current data clearly argue against a <span class="hlt">common</span> circuitry account for amodal duration <span class="hlt">processing</span>. PMID:21368051</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21406238','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21406238"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and dissociable neural correlates associated with component <span class="hlt">processes</span> of inductive reasoning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jia, Xiuqin; Liang, Peipeng; Lu, Jie; Yang, Yanhui; Zhong, Ning; Li, Kuncheng</p> <p>2011-06-15</p> <p>The ability to draw numerical inductive reasoning requires two key cognitive <span class="hlt">processes</span>, identification and extrapolation. This study aimed to identify the neural correlates of both component <span class="hlt">processes</span> of numerical inductive reasoning using event-related fMRI. Three kinds of tasks: rule induction (RI), rule induction and application (RIA), and perceptual judgment (Jud) were solved by twenty right-handed adults. Our results found that the left superior parietal lobule (SPL) extending into the precuneus and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were <span class="hlt">commonly</span> recruited in the two components. It was also observed that the fronto-parietal network was more specific to identification, whereas the striatal-thalamic network was more specific to extrapolation. The findings suggest that numerical inductive reasoning is mediated by the coordination of multiple brain areas including the prefrontal, parietal, and subcortical regions, of which some are more specific to demands on only one of these two component <span class="hlt">processes</span>, whereas others are sensitive to both.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990102613&hterms=shooting&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dshooting','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990102613&hterms=shooting&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dshooting"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> Rhenium Engines for Solar-Thermal Propulsion Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Williams, Brian E.; Fortini, Arthur J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Duffy, Andrew J.; Tucker, Stephen P.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Solar-thermal upper-stage propulsion systems have the potential to provide specific impulse approaching 900 seconds, with 760 seconds already demonstrated in ground testing. Such performance levels offer a 100% increase in payload capability compared to state-of-the-art chemical upper-stage systems, at lower cost. Although alternatives such as electric propulsion offer even greater performance, the 6- to 18- month orbital transfer time is a far greater deviation from the state of the art than the one to two months required for solar propulsion. Rhenium metal is the only material that is capable of withstanding the predicted thermal, mechanical, and chemical environment of a solar-thermal propulsion device. Chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is the most well-established and cost-effective <span class="hlt">process</span> for the fabrication of complex rhenium structures. <span class="hlt">CVD</span> rhenium engines have been successfully constructed for the Air Force ISUS program (bimodal thrust/electricity) and the NASA Shooting Star program (thrust only), as well as under an Air Force SBIR project (thrust only). The bimodal engine represents a more long-term and versatile approach to solar-thermal propulsion, while the thrust-only engines provide a potentially lower weight/lower cost and more near-term replacement for current upper-stage propulsion systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApSS..387...51J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApSS..387...51J"><span>VOx effectively doping <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene for transparent conductive films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ji, Qinghua; Shi, Liangjing; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Weiqi; Zheng, Huifeng; Zhang, Yuzhi; Liu, Yangqiao; Sun, Jing</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Chemical vapor deposition(<span class="hlt">CVD</span>)-synthesized graphene is potentially an alternative for tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) transparent conductive films (TCFs), however its sheet resistance is still too high to meet many demands. Vanadium oxide has been widely applied as smart window materials, however, no study has been reported to use it as dopant to improve the conductivity of graphene TCFs. In this study, we firstly reported that VOx doping can effectively lower the sheet resistance of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene films while keeping its good optical properties, whose transmittance is as high as 86-90%. The optimized VOx-doped graphene exhibits a sheet resistance as low as 176 Ω/□, which decreases by 56% compared to the undoped graphene films. The doping <span class="hlt">process</span> is convenient, stable, economical and easy to operate. What is more, VOx can effectively increase the work function(WF) of the film, making it more appropriate for use in solar cells. The evolution of the VOx species annealed at different temperatures below 400 °C has been detailed studied for the first time, based on which the doping mechanism is proposed. The prepared VOx doped graphene is expected to be a promising candidate for transparent conductive film purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990102613&hterms=rhenium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drhenium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990102613&hterms=rhenium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drhenium"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> Rhenium Engines for Solar-Thermal Propulsion Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Williams, Brian E.; Fortini, Arthur J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Duffy, Andrew J.; Tucker, Stephen P.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Solar-thermal upper-stage propulsion systems have the potential to provide specific impulse approaching 900 seconds, with 760 seconds already demonstrated in ground testing. Such performance levels offer a 100% increase in payload capability compared to state-of-the-art chemical upper-stage systems, at lower cost. Although alternatives such as electric propulsion offer even greater performance, the 6- to 18- month orbital transfer time is a far greater deviation from the state of the art than the one to two months required for solar propulsion. Rhenium metal is the only material that is capable of withstanding the predicted thermal, mechanical, and chemical environment of a solar-thermal propulsion device. Chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is the most well-established and cost-effective <span class="hlt">process</span> for the fabrication of complex rhenium structures. <span class="hlt">CVD</span> rhenium engines have been successfully constructed for the Air Force ISUS program (bimodal thrust/electricity) and the NASA Shooting Star program (thrust only), as well as under an Air Force SBIR project (thrust only). The bimodal engine represents a more long-term and versatile approach to solar-thermal propulsion, while the thrust-only engines provide a potentially lower weight/lower cost and more near-term replacement for current upper-stage propulsion systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/891910','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/891910"><span>Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Coated Powders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman</p> <p>2006-09-25</p> <p>This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this <span class="hlt">CVD</span> coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical <span class="hlt">processing</span> equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27851821','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27851821"><span>Neural Correlates of Contrast and Humor: <span class="hlt">Processing</span> <span class="hlt">Common</span> Features of Verbal Irony.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Obert, Alexandre; Gierski, Fabien; Calmus, Arnaud; Flucher, Aurélie; Portefaix, Christophe; Pierot, Laurent; Kaladjian, Arthur; Caillies, Stéphanie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Irony is a kind of figurative language used by a speaker to say something that contrasts with the context and, to some extent, lends humor to a situation. However, little is known about the brain regions that specifically support the <span class="hlt">processing</span> of these two <span class="hlt">common</span> features of irony. The present study had two main aims: (i) investigate the neural basis of irony <span class="hlt">processing</span>, by delivering short ironic spoken sentences (and their literal counterparts) to participants undergoing fMRI; and (ii) assess the neural effect of two irony parameters, obtained from normative studies: degree of contrast and humor appreciation. Results revealed activation of the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), posterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus, medial frontal cortex, and left caudate during irony <span class="hlt">processing</span>, suggesting the involvement of both semantic and theory-of-mind networks. Parametric models showed that contrast was specifically associated with the activation of bilateral frontal and subcortical areas, and that these regions were also sensitive to humor, as shown by a conjunction analysis. Activation of the bilateral IFG is consistent with the literature on humor <span class="hlt">processing</span>, and reflects incongruity detection/resolution <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Moreover, the activation of subcortical structures can be related to the reward <span class="hlt">processing</span> of social events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5113059','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5113059"><span>Neural Correlates of Contrast and Humor: <span class="hlt">Processing</span> <span class="hlt">Common</span> Features of Verbal Irony</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Obert, Alexandre; Gierski, Fabien; Calmus, Arnaud; Flucher, Aurélie; Portefaix, Christophe; Pierot, Laurent; Kaladjian, Arthur; Caillies, Stéphanie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Irony is a kind of figurative language used by a speaker to say something that contrasts with the context and, to some extent, lends humor to a situation. However, little is known about the brain regions that specifically support the <span class="hlt">processing</span> of these two <span class="hlt">common</span> features of irony. The present study had two main aims: (i) investigate the neural basis of irony <span class="hlt">processing</span>, by delivering short ironic spoken sentences (and their literal counterparts) to participants undergoing fMRI; and (ii) assess the neural effect of two irony parameters, obtained from normative studies: degree of contrast and humor appreciation. Results revealed activation of the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), posterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus, medial frontal cortex, and left caudate during irony <span class="hlt">processing</span>, suggesting the involvement of both semantic and theory-of-mind networks. Parametric models showed that contrast was specifically associated with the activation of bilateral frontal and subcortical areas, and that these regions were also sensitive to humor, as shown by a conjunction analysis. Activation of the bilateral IFG is consistent with the literature on humor <span class="hlt">processing</span>, and reflects incongruity detection/resolution <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Moreover, the activation of subcortical structures can be related to the reward <span class="hlt">processing</span> of social events. PMID:27851821</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27132175','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27132175"><span>Skills use and <span class="hlt">common</span> treatment <span class="hlt">processes</span> in dialectical behaviour therapy for borderline personality disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barnicot, Kirsten; Gonzalez, Rafael; McCabe, Rosemarie; Priebe, Stefan</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) trains participants to use behavioural skills for managing their emotions. The study aimed to evaluate whether skills use is associated with positive treatment outcomes independently of treatment <span class="hlt">processes</span> that are <span class="hlt">common</span> across different therapeutic models. Use of the DBT skills and three <span class="hlt">common</span> treatment <span class="hlt">processes</span> (therapeutic alliance, treatment credibility and self-efficacy) were assessed every 2 months for a year in 70 individuals with borderline personality disorder receiving DBT. Mixed-multilevel modelling was used to determine the association of these factors with frequency of self-harm and with treatment dropout. Participants who used the skills less often at any timepoint were more likely to drop out of DBT in the subsequent two months, independently of their self-efficacy, therapeutic alliance or perceived treatment credibility. More frequent use of the DBT skills and higher self-efficacy were each independently associated with less frequent concurrent self-harm. Treatment credibility and the alliance were not independently associated with self-harm or treatment dropout. The skills use measure could not be applied to a control group who did not receive DBT. The sample size was insufficient for structural equation modelling. Practising the DBT skills and building an increased sense of self-efficacy may be important and partially independent treatment <span class="hlt">processes</span> in dialectical behaviour therapy. However, the direction of the association between these variables and self-harm requires further evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3845374','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3845374"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> African cooking <span class="hlt">processes</span> do not affect the aflatoxin binding efficacy of refined calcium montmorillonite clay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Elmore, Sarah E.; Mitchell, Nicole; Mays, Travis; Brown, Kristal; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Romoser, Amelia; Phillips, Timothy D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Aflatoxins are <span class="hlt">common</span> contaminants of staple crops, such as corn and groundnuts, and a significant cause of concern for food safety and public health in developing countries. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been implicated in the etiology of acute and chronic disease in humans and animals, including growth stunting, liver cancer and death. Cost effective and culturally acceptable intervention strategies for the reduction of dietary AFB1 exposure are of critical need in populations at high risk for aflatoxicosis. Fermented gruels consisting of cornmeal are a <span class="hlt">common</span> source for such exposure and are consumed by both children and adults in many countries with a history of frequent, high-level aflatoxin exposure. One proposed method to reduce aflatoxins in the diet is to include a selective enterosorbent, Uniform Particle Size NovaSil (UPSN), as a food additive in contaminated foods. For UPSN to be effective in this capacity, it must be stable in complex, acidic mixtures that are often exposed to heat during the <span class="hlt">process</span> of fermented gruel preparation. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to test the ability of UPSN to sorb aflatoxin while <span class="hlt">common</span> cooking conditions were applied. The influence of fermentation, heat treatment, acidity, and <span class="hlt">processing</span> time were investigated with and without UPSN. Analyses were performed using the field-practical Vicam assay with HPLC verification of trends. Our findings demonstrated that UPSN significantly reduced aflatoxin levels (47-100%) in cornmeal, regardless of <span class="hlt">processing</span> conditions. Upon comparison of each element tested, time appeared to be the primary factor influencing UPSN efficacy. The greatest decreases in AFB1 were reported in samples allowed to incubate (with or without fermentation) for 72 hrs. This data suggests that addition of UPSN to staple corn ingredients likely to contain aflatoxins would be a sustainable approach to reduce exposure. PMID:24311894</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26804333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26804333"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and differential alterations of general emotion <span class="hlt">processing</span> in obsessive-compulsive and social anxiety disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weidt, S; Lutz, J; Rufer, M; Delsignore, A; Jakob, N J; Herwig, U; Bruehl, A B</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are characterized by biased perception and <span class="hlt">processing</span> of potentially threatening stimuli. A hyper-reactivity of the fear-circuit [e.g. amygdala, anterior cingulate (ACC)] has been consistently reported using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in SAD in comparison with healthy controls (HCs). Studies investigating the <span class="hlt">processing</span> of specific emotional stimuli in OCD reported mainly orbitofrontal-striatal abnormalities. The goal of this study was to examine similar/<span class="hlt">common</span> and differential neurobiological responses in OCD and SAD using unspecific emotional stimuli. Fifty-four subjects participated: two groups (each n = 18) of outpatients with a current diagnosis of OCD or SAD, and 18 HCs. All subjects underwent fMRI while anticipating and perceiving unspecific visual stimuli with prior announced emotional valence (e.g. positive). Compared to HCs, the combined patient group showed increased activation in amygdala, caudate and prefrontal/orbitofrontal cortex while anticipating unspecific emotional stimuli. Caudate was more active in the combined patient group during perception. A comparison between the OCD and the SAD samples revealed increased amygdala and decreased rostral ACC activation in OCD patients during perception, but no differences in the anticipation phase. Overall, we could identify <span class="hlt">common</span> fronto-subcortical hyper-reactivity in OCD and SAD while anticipating and perceiving unspecific emotional stimuli. While differential neurobiological responses between OCD and SAD when <span class="hlt">processing</span> specific stimuli are evident from the literature, differences were less pronounced using unspecific stimuli. This could indicate a disturbance of emotion regulation <span class="hlt">common</span> to both OCD and SAD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785633','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785633"><span>i<span class="hlt">CVD</span> Cyclic Polysiloxane and Polysilazane as Nanoscale Thin-Film Electrolyte: Synthesis and Properties.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Nan; Reeja-Jayan, B; Liu, Andong; Lau, Jonathan; Dunn, Bruce; Gleason, Karen K</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>A group of crosslinked cyclic siloxane (Si-O) and silazane (Si-N) polymers are synthesized via solvent-free initiated chemical vapor deposition (i<span class="hlt">CVD</span>). Notably, this is the first report of cyclic polysilazanes synthesized via the gas-phase i<span class="hlt">CVD</span> method. The deposited nanoscale thin films are thermally stable and chemically inert. By i<span class="hlt">CVD</span>, they can uniformly and conformally cover nonplanar surfaces having complex geometry. Although polysiloxanes are traditionally utilized as dielectric materials and insulators, our research shows these cyclic organosilicon polymers can conduct lithium ions (Li(+) ) at room temperature. The conformal coating and the room temperature ionic conductivity make these cyclic organosilicon polymers attractive for use as thin-film electrolytes in solid-state batteries. Also, their synthesis <span class="hlt">process</span> and properties have been systemically studied and discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..460...52S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..460...52S"><span>Chemical reactivity of CVC and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC with UO2 at high temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silva, Chinthaka M.; Katoh, Yutai; Voit, Stewart L.; Snead, Lance L.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Two types of silicon carbide (SiC) synthesized using two different vapor deposition <span class="hlt">processes</span> were embedded in UO2 pellets and evaluated for their potential chemical reaction with UO2. While minor reactivity between chemical-vapor-composited (CVC) SiC and UO2 was observed at comparatively low temperatures of 1100 and 1300 °C, chemical-vapor-deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) SiC did not show any such reactivity. However, both <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and CVC SiCs showed some reaction with UO2 at a higher temperature (1500 °C). Elemental maps supported by phase maps obtained using electron backscatter diffraction indicated that CVC SiC was more reactive than <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC at 1500 °C. Furthermore, this investigation indicated the formation of uranium carbides and uranium silicide chemical phases such as UC, USi2, and U3Si2 as a result of SiC reaction with UO2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26367247','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26367247"><span>Polymer Adsorption on Graphite and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Graphene Surfaces Studied by Surface-Specific Vibrational Spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Su, Yudan; Han, Hui-Ling; Cai, Qun; Wu, Qiong; Xie, Mingxiu; Chen, Daoyong; Geng, Baisong; Zhang, Yuanbo; Wang, Feng; Shen, Y R; Tian, Chuanshan</p> <p>2015-10-14</p> <p>Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy was employed to probe polymer contaminants on chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) graphene and to study alkane and polyethylene (PE) adsorption on graphite. In comparing the spectra from the two surfaces, it was found that the contaminants on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene must be long-chain alkane or PE-like molecules. PE adsorption from solution on the honeycomb surface results in a self-assembled ordered monolayer with the C-C skeleton plane perpendicular to the surface and an adsorption free energy of ∼42 kJ/mol for PE(H(CH2CH2)nH) with n ≈ 60. Such large adsorption energy is responsible for the easy contamination of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene by impurity in the polymer during standard transfer <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Contamination can be minimized with the use of purified polymers free of PE-like impurities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24936534','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24936534"><span>Role of sulodexide in the treatment of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Andreozzi, G M</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Treatment of vascular diseases should be based on established pathophysiological concepts, and this also applies to chronic venous disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>). On the basis of the latest research in this field, this paper summarizes the most advanced pathophysiological knowledge regarding the hemodynamics of the large veins and of the microcirculation, the endothelial function and inflammation, and the use of sulodexide in the treatment of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. The emerging theories on the pathophysiology of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> consider inflammation, endothelial glycocalyx dysfunction, and the consequent changes in the extracellular matrix to play key roles in the development of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>, and support a renewed interest in the research and application of sulodexide. As part of active approach to the treatment of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> including edema and trophic venous alterations, sulodexide could help to alleviate progressive signs and symptoms of disease in any clinical CEAP class of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>, from C1 to C6.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24485243','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24485243"><span>Managing access and flow through appropriate discharge: preventing <span class="hlt">common</span> errors and improving <span class="hlt">processes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chidwick, Paula; Sibbald, Robert W; Hansen, Terri-Lynn; Parkes, Christopher</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Increased pressure on acute care hospitals to move patients seamlessly through the healthcare system has resulted in more attention to the <span class="hlt">process</span> of discharging patients, particularly seniors, from hospitals. When alignment with the Health Care Consent Act is lacking, errors can occur in the <span class="hlt">process</span>. Examples of mistakes by healthcare professionals include these: taking direction from the wrong substitute decision-maker (SDM); taking direction from a family member when the patient is capable; allowing an SDM to make an advance directive on behalf of a patient; being aware of a known prior expressed wish but ignoring that wish when considering a placement plan; waiting for an SDM who is not available, willing and capable instead of proceeding down the hierarchy of decision-makers; or permitting families to propose discharge plans. Such errors have the potential to compromise quality of care, but they also work to prevent timely and appropriate discharge. In order to minimize these <span class="hlt">common</span> errors in the consent <span class="hlt">process</span> for placements, we have proposed a checklist to help meet ethical and legal obligations in the discharge <span class="hlt">process</span>. We suggest the checklist may minimize avoidable conflict and misunderstanding and promote a seamless discharge <span class="hlt">process</span>. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24509403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24509403"><span>Relating numeric cognition and language <span class="hlt">processing</span>: do numbers and words share a <span class="hlt">common</span> representational platform?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lachmair, Martin; Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Numerical <span class="hlt">processing</span> and language <span class="hlt">processing</span> are both grounded in space. In the present study we investigated whether these are fully independent phenomena, or whether they share a <span class="hlt">common</span> basis. If number <span class="hlt">processing</span> activates spatial dimensions that are also relevant for understanding words, then we can expect that <span class="hlt">processing</span> numbers may influence subsequent lexical access to words. Specifically, if high numbers relate to upper space, then they can be expected to facilitate understanding of words such as bird that are having referents typically found in the upper vertical space. The opposite should hold for low numbers. These should facilitate the understanding of words such as ground referring to entities with referents in the lower vertical space. Indeed, in two experiments we found evidence for such an interaction between number and word <span class="hlt">processing</span>. By eliminating a contribution of linguistic factors gained from additional investigations on large text corpora, this strongly suggests that understanding numbers and language is based on similar modal representations in the brain. The implications of these findings for a broader perspective on grounded cognition will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3694554','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3694554"><span>Natural Antioxidant Activity of <span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Consumed Plant Foods in India: Effect of Domestic <span class="hlt">Processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sreeramulu, D.; Reddy, C. V. K.; Chauhan, Anitha; Balakrishna, N.; Raghunath, M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Phytochemicals protect against oxidative stress which in turn helps in maintaining the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. In recent times natural antioxidants are gaining considerable interest among nutritionists, food manufacturers, and consumers because of their perceived safety, potential therapeutic value, and long shelf life. Plant foods are known to protect against degenerative diseases and ageing due to their antioxidant activity (AOA) attributed to their high polyphenolic content (PC). Data on AOA and PC of Indian plant foods is scanty. Therefore we have determined the antioxidant activity in 107 <span class="hlt">commonly</span> consumed Indian plant foods and assessed their relation to their PC. Antioxidant activity is presented as the range of values for each of the food groups. The foods studied had good amounts of PC and AOA although they belonged to different food groups. Interestingly, significant correlation was observed between AOA (DPPH and FRAP) and PC in most of the foods, corroborating the literature that polyphenols are potent antioxidants and that they may be important contributors to the AOA of the plant foods. We have also observed that <span class="hlt">common</span> domestic methods of <span class="hlt">processing</span> may not affect the PC and AOA of the foods studied in general. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results of the kind in <span class="hlt">commonly</span> consumed Indian plant foods. PMID:23844275</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844275','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844275"><span>Natural antioxidant activity of <span class="hlt">commonly</span> consumed plant foods in India: effect of domestic <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sreeramulu, D; Reddy, C V K; Chauhan, Anitha; Balakrishna, N; Raghunath, M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Phytochemicals protect against oxidative stress which in turn helps in maintaining the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. In recent times natural antioxidants are gaining considerable interest among nutritionists, food manufacturers, and consumers because of their perceived safety, potential therapeutic value, and long shelf life. Plant foods are known to protect against degenerative diseases and ageing due to their antioxidant activity (AOA) attributed to their high polyphenolic content (PC). Data on AOA and PC of Indian plant foods is scanty. Therefore we have determined the antioxidant activity in 107 <span class="hlt">commonly</span> consumed Indian plant foods and assessed their relation to their PC. Antioxidant activity is presented as the range of values for each of the food groups. The foods studied had good amounts of PC and AOA although they belonged to different food groups. Interestingly, significant correlation was observed between AOA (DPPH and FRAP) and PC in most of the foods, corroborating the literature that polyphenols are potent antioxidants and that they may be important contributors to the AOA of the plant foods. We have also observed that <span class="hlt">common</span> domestic methods of <span class="hlt">processing</span> may not affect the PC and AOA of the foods studied in general. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results of the kind in <span class="hlt">commonly</span> consumed Indian plant foods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11409759','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11409759"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> neural mechanism for <span class="hlt">processing</span> onset-to-onset intervals and silent gaps in sound sequences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Takegata, R; Syssoeva, O; Winkler, I; Paavilainen, P; Näätänen, R</p> <p>2001-06-13</p> <p>Stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) and inter-stimulus interval (ISI) are important factors in the perceptual organization of sound sequences. The present study tested whether these two temporal parameters are independently <span class="hlt">processed</span> in the auditory system. Independence was studied by testing the additivity of mismatch negativity (MMN). Four conditions differing in their temporal regularities were administered: (1) constant SOA and ISI, (2) constant SOA and variable ISI, (3) constant ISI and variable SOA, and (4) variable SOA and ISI. The MMN elicited by simultaneous deviance from the constant SOA and ISI (Condition 1) was compared with an additive model calculated from the MMNs elicited in the other conditions. The amplitude of the MMN in Condition 1 was significantly larger than that of the modeled MMN, suggesting that SOA and ISI are <span class="hlt">processed</span> by interactive or <span class="hlt">common</span> neural mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5872..629P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5872..629P"><span>Towards a <span class="hlt">Common</span> Platform to Support Business <span class="hlt">Processes</span>, Services and Semantics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piprani, Baba</p> <p></p> <p>The search for the Holy Grail in achieving interoperability of business <span class="hlt">processes</span>, services and semantics continues with every new type or search for the Silver Bullet. Most approaches towards interoperability either are focusing narrowly on the simplistic notion using technology supporting a cowboy-style development without much regard to metadata or semantics. At the same time, the distortions on semantics created by many of current modeling paradigms and approaches - including the disharmony created by multiplicity of parallel approaches to standardization - are not helping us resolve the real issues facing knowledge and semantics management. This paper will address some of the issues facing us, like: What have we achieved? Where did we go wrong? What are we doing right? - providing an ipso-facto encapsulated candid snapshot on an approach to harmonizing our approach to interoperability, and propose a <span class="hlt">common</span> platform to support Business <span class="hlt">Processes</span>, Services and Semantics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7847749','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7847749"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> industrial <span class="hlt">processes</span> and occupational irritants and allergens--an update.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goh, C L</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>This paper reviews the recent development of the industrial <span class="hlt">processes</span> in the construction, electronics and metal industries which are the predominant industries in developing countries. <span class="hlt">Common</span> occupational irritants and allergens are presented. The information is essential for occupational dermatologists and physicians managing patients with occupational skin diseases. In the construction industry, the prefabrication construction methods are now widely used. The commonest irritant is cement and the allergens are chromate, rubber chemicals and epoxy resins. In the electronics industry, the commonest irritants include soldering flux, solvent and fibreglass, and allergens include resins and metals, rubber chemicals and amines and colophony. Cutting fluid is the commonest occupational irritant in the metal industry. Biocides and metals in The electro-discharge machining <span class="hlt">process</span> now widely used in the metal industry for precision engineering uses the electrodischarge machining fluids (EDM fluids) which are a strong skin irritant. Preventive measures including health education are most effective against occupational dermatitis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2893261','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2893261"><span>All-Cause and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Mortality in Native Hawaiians</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Aluli, N. Emmett; Reyes, Phillip W.; Brady, S. Kalani; Tsark, JoAnn U.; Jones, Kristina L.; Mau, Marjorie; Howard, Wm. J.; Howard, Barbara V.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Aims Cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is the leading cause of death among Native Hawaiians. In this article, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates among Native Hawaiians are examined, along with associated <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factors. Methods A total of 855 Native Hawaiians (343 men and 512 women, ages 19–88) were examined as participants of the Cardiovascular Risk Clinics program (1992–1998) and underwent surveillance through September 2007. Cause of each death was determined by review of medical records, death certificates, newspapers, and through queries to community members. Results <span class="hlt">CVD</span> accounted for 55% of deaths. Coronary heart disease (CHD) accounted for the majority of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> deaths. <span class="hlt">CVD</span> increased with age and was higher in those with diabetes, hypertension, or high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). <span class="hlt">CVD</span> rates were higher in men than in women and 4-fold higher in those with diabetes. In addition to age, diabetes, hypertension, and elevated LDL-C were major risk factors. Conclusions Diabetes is a major determinant of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> in this population and most of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> is occurring in those with diabetes. Strategies to prevent diabetes and manage blood pressure and lipids should reduce <span class="hlt">CVD</span> rates in Native Hawaiians. PMID:20392507</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5354406','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5354406"><span>The spermatogenic <span class="hlt">process</span> of the <span class="hlt">common</span> vampire bat Desmodus rotundus under a histomorphometric view</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Puga, Luciano Carlos Heringer Porcaro; de Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rêgo; Freitas, Mariella Bontempo Duca; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Among all bat species, Desmodus rotundus stands out as one of the most intriguing due to its exclusively haematophagous feeding habits. However, little is known about their spermatogenic cycle. This study aimed at describing the spermatogenic <span class="hlt">process</span> of <span class="hlt">common</span> vampire bats through testicular histomorphometric characterization of adult specimens, spermatogenic production indexes, description of stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and estimative of the spermatogenic <span class="hlt">process</span> duration. Morphometrical and immunohistochemical analyzes for bromodeoxiuridine were conducted under light microscopy and ultrastructural analyzes were performed under transmission electron microscopy. Vampire bats showed higher investment in gonadal tissue (gonadosomatic index of 0.54%) and in seminiferous tubules (tubulesomatic index of 0.49%) when compared to larger mammals. They also showed a high tubular length per gram of testis (34.70 m). Approximately half of the intertubular compartment was found to be comprised by Leydig cells (51.20%), and an average of 23.77x106 of these cells was found per gram of testis. The germline cells showed 16.93% of mitotic index and 2.51% of meiotic index. The overall yield of spermatogenesis was 60% and the testicular spermatic reserve was 71.44x107 spermatozoa per gram of testis. With a total spermatogenesis duration estimated at 37.02 days, vampire bats showed a daily sperm production of 86.80x106 gametes per gram of testis. These findings demonstrate a high sperm production, which is <span class="hlt">commonly</span> observed in species with promiscuous mating system. PMID:28301534</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3196291','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3196291"><span>Are depictive gestures like pictures? <span class="hlt">Commonalities</span> and differences in semantic <span class="hlt">processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Ying Choon; Coulson, Seana</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Conversation is multi-modal, involving both talk and gesture. Does understanding depictive gestures engage <span class="hlt">processes</span> similar to those recruited in the comprehension of drawings or photographs? Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from neurotypical adults as they viewed spontaneously produced depictive gestures preceded by congruent and incongruent contexts. Gestures were presented either dynamically in short, soundless video-clips, or statically as freeze frames extracted from gesture videos. In a separate ERP experiment, the same participants viewed related or unrelated pairs of photographs depicting <span class="hlt">common</span> real-world objects. Both object photos and gesture stimuli elicited less negative ERPs from 400–600ms post-stimulus when preceded by matching versus mismatching contexts (dN450). Object photos and static gesture stills also elicited less negative ERPS between 300 and 400ms post-stimulus (dN300). Findings demonstrate <span class="hlt">commonalities</span> between the conceptual integration <span class="hlt">processes</span> underlying the interpretation of iconic gestures and other types of image-based representations of the visual world. PMID:21864890</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28301534','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28301534"><span>The spermatogenic <span class="hlt">process</span> of the <span class="hlt">common</span> vampire bat Desmodus rotundus under a histomorphometric view.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morais, Danielle Barbosa; Puga, Luciano Carlos Heringer Porcaro; Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rêgo de; Freitas, Mariella Bontempo Duca; Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto da</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Among all bat species, Desmodus rotundus stands out as one of the most intriguing due to its exclusively haematophagous feeding habits. However, little is known about their spermatogenic cycle. This study aimed at describing the spermatogenic <span class="hlt">process</span> of <span class="hlt">common</span> vampire bats through testicular histomorphometric characterization of adult specimens, spermatogenic production indexes, description of stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and estimative of the spermatogenic <span class="hlt">process</span> duration. Morphometrical and immunohistochemical analyzes for bromodeoxiuridine were conducted under light microscopy and ultrastructural analyzes were performed under transmission electron microscopy. Vampire bats showed higher investment in gonadal tissue (gonadosomatic index of 0.54%) and in seminiferous tubules (tubulesomatic index of 0.49%) when compared to larger mammals. They also showed a high tubular length per gram of testis (34.70 m). Approximately half of the intertubular compartment was found to be comprised by Leydig cells (51.20%), and an average of 23.77x106 of these cells was found per gram of testis. The germline cells showed 16.93% of mitotic index and 2.51% of meiotic index. The overall yield of spermatogenesis was 60% and the testicular spermatic reserve was 71.44x107 spermatozoa per gram of testis. With a total spermatogenesis duration estimated at 37.02 days, vampire bats showed a daily sperm production of 86.80x106 gametes per gram of testis. These findings demonstrate a high sperm production, which is <span class="hlt">commonly</span> observed in species with promiscuous mating system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27808543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27808543"><span>A psychometric investigation of gender differences and <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> across borderline and antisocial personality disorders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chun, Seokjoon; Harris, Alexa; Carrion, Margely; Rojas, Elizabeth; Stark, Stephen; Lejuez, Carl; Lechner, William V; Bornovalova, Marina A</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The comorbidity between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is well-established, and the 2 disorders share many similarities. However, there are also differences across disorders: most notably, BPD is diagnosed more frequently in women and ASPD in men. We investigated if (a) comorbidity between BPD and ASPD is attributable to 2 discrete disorders or the expression of <span class="hlt">common</span> underlying <span class="hlt">processes</span>, and (b) if the model of comorbidity is true across sex. Using a clinical sample of 1,400 drug users in residential substance abuse treatment, we tested 3 competing models to explore whether the comorbidity of ASPD and BPD should be represented by a single <span class="hlt">common</span> factor, 2 correlated factors, or a bifactor structure involving a general and disorder-specific factors. Next, we tested whether our resulting model was meaningful by examining its relationship with criterion variables previously reported to be associated with BPD and ASPD. The bifactor model provided the best fit and was invariant across sex. Overall, the general factor of the bifactor model significantly accounted for a large percentage of the variance in criterion variables, whereas the BPD and AAB specific factors added little to the models. The association of the general and specific factor with all criterion variables was equal for men and women. Our results suggest <span class="hlt">common</span> underlying vulnerability accounts for both the comorbidity between BPD and AAB (across sex), and this <span class="hlt">common</span> vulnerability drives the association with other psychopathology and maladaptive behavior. This in turn has implications for diagnostic classification systems and treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......162L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......162L"><span>High-rate diamond deposition by microwave plasma <span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Xianglin</p> <p></p> <p>In this dissertation, the growth of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond thin films is studied both theoretically and experimentally. The goal of this research is to deposit high quality HOD (Highly Oriented Diamond) films with a growth rate greater than 1 mum/hr. For the (100)-oriented HOD films, the growth rate achieved by the traditional <span class="hlt">process</span> is only 0.3 mum/hr while the theoretical limit is ˜0.45 mum/hr. This research increases the growth rate up to 5.3 mum/hr (with a theoretical limit of ˜7 mum/hr) while preserving the crystal quality. This work builds a connection between the theoretical study of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> and the experimental research. The study is extended from the growth of regular polycrystalline diamond to highly oriented diamond (HOD) films. For the increase of the growth rate of regular polycrystalline diamond thin films, a scaling growth model developed by Goodwin is introduced in details to assist in the understanding of the MPCVD (Microwave Plasma <span class="hlt">CVD</span>) <span class="hlt">process</span>. Within the Goodwin's scaling model, there are only four important sub-<span class="hlt">processes</span> for the growth of diamond: surface modification, adsorption, desorption, and incorporation. The factors determining the diamond growth rate and film quality are discussed following the description of the experimental setup and <span class="hlt">process</span> parameters. Growth rate and crystal quality models are reviewed to predict and understand the experimental results. It is shown that the growth rate of diamond can be increased with methane input concentration and the amount of atomic hydrogen (by changing the total pressure). It is crucial to provide enough atomic hydrogen to conserve crystal quality of the deposited diamond film. The experimental results demonstrate that for a fixed methane concentration, there is a minimum pressure for growth of good diamond. Similarly, for a fixed total pressure, there is a maximum methane concentration for growth of good diamond, and this maximum methane concentration increases</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA234790','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA234790"><span>Transmission Electron Microscopy of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Diamond Film/Substrate Interface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-03-15</p> <p>CRYSTALS WITH DIAMOND CUBIC STRUCTURE . THE KEY TO UNDERSTANDING THE ROLL OF TWINING IN THE GROWTH OF DIAMOND CRYSTALS IN THE <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">PROCESS</span> IS THE...THE CRYSTAL GROWS IN THE > DIRECTIONS THE BEST DEMONSTRATION OF THE EFFECT OF TWINING ON GROWTH IN DIAMOND CUBIC STRUCTURE IS GIVEN BY HAMILTON</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21738519','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21738519"><span>Transfer of Training between Music and Speech: <span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">Processing</span>, Attention, and Memory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Besson, Mireille; Chobert, Julie; Marie, Céline</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>After a brief historical perspective of the relationship between language and music, we review our work on transfer of training from music to speech that aimed at testing the general hypothesis that musicians should be more sensitive than non-musicians to speech sounds. In light of recent results in the literature, we argue that when long-term experience in one domain influences acoustic <span class="hlt">processing</span> in the other domain, results can be interpreted as <span class="hlt">common</span> acoustic <span class="hlt">processing</span>. But when long-term experience in one domain influences the building-up of abstract and specific percepts in another domain, results are taken as evidence for transfer of training effects. Moreover, we also discuss the influence of attention and working memory on transfer effects and we highlight the usefulness of the event-related potentials method to disentangle the different <span class="hlt">processes</span> that unfold in the course of music and speech perception. Finally, we give an overview of an on-going longitudinal project with children aimed at testing transfer effects from music to different levels and aspects of speech <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3125524','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3125524"><span>Transfer of Training between Music and Speech: <span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">Processing</span>, Attention, and Memory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Besson, Mireille; Chobert, Julie; Marie, Céline</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>After a brief historical perspective of the relationship between language and music, we review our work on transfer of training from music to speech that aimed at testing the general hypothesis that musicians should be more sensitive than non-musicians to speech sounds. In light of recent results in the literature, we argue that when long-term experience in one domain influences acoustic <span class="hlt">processing</span> in the other domain, results can be interpreted as <span class="hlt">common</span> acoustic <span class="hlt">processing</span>. But when long-term experience in one domain influences the building-up of abstract and specific percepts in another domain, results are taken as evidence for transfer of training effects. Moreover, we also discuss the influence of attention and working memory on transfer effects and we highlight the usefulness of the event-related potentials method to disentangle the different <span class="hlt">processes</span> that unfold in the course of music and speech perception. Finally, we give an overview of an on-going longitudinal project with children aimed at testing transfer effects from music to different levels and aspects of speech <span class="hlt">processing</span>. PMID:21738519</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5980C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5980C"><span>A <span class="hlt">common</span> framework for the development and analysis of <span class="hlt">process</span>-based hydrological models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clark, Martyn; Kavetski, Dmitri; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Gupta, Hoshin</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p> provide a <span class="hlt">common</span> framework for model development and analysis. We recognize that the majority of <span class="hlt">process</span>-based hydrological models use the same set of physics - most models use Darcy's Law to represent the flow of water through the soil matrix and Fourier's Law for thermodynamics. Our numerical model uses robust solutions of the hydrology and thermodynamic governing equations as the structural core, and incorporates multiple options to represent the impact of different modeling decisions, including different methods to represent spatial variability and different parameterizations of surface fluxes and shallow groundwater. Our analysis isolates individual modeling decisions and uses orthogonal diagnostic signatures to evaluate model behavior. Application of this framework in research basins demonstrates that the combination of (1) flexibility in the numerical model and (2) comprehensive scrutiny of orthogonal signatures provides a powerful approach to identify the suitability of different modeling options and different model parameter values. We contend that this <span class="hlt">common</span> framework has general utility, and its widespread application in both research basins and at larger spatial scales will help accelerate the development of <span class="hlt">process</span>-based hydrologic models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Nanot..28n5702K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Nanot..28n5702K"><span>Analysis of the interface characteristics of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown monolayer MoS2 by noise measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Tae-Young; Song, Younggul; Cho, Kyungjune; Amani, Matin; Ahn, Geun Ho; Kim, Jae-Keun; Pak, Jinsu; Chung, Seungjun; Javey, Ali; Lee, Takhee</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We investigated the current–voltage and noise characteristics of two-dimensional (2D) monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>). A large number of trap states were produced during the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> of synthesizing MoS2, resulting in a disordered monolayer MoS2 system. The interface trap density between <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown MoS2 and silicon dioxide was extracted from the McWhorter surface noise model. Notably, generation–recombination noise which is attributed to charge trap states was observed at the low carrier density regime. The relation between the temperature and resistance following the power law of a 2D inverted-random void model supports the idea that disordered <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown monolayer MoS2 can be analyzed using a percolation theory. This study can offer a viewpoint to interpret synthesized low-dimensional materials as highly disordered systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28276342','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28276342"><span>Analysis of the interface characteristics of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown monolayer MoS2 by noise measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Tae-Young; Song, Younggul; Cho, Kyungjune; Amani, Matin; Ho Ahn, Geun; Kim, Jae-Keun; Pak, Jinsu; Chung, Seungjun; Javey, Ali; Lee, Takhee</p> <p>2017-04-07</p> <p>We investigated the current-voltage and noise characteristics of two-dimensional (2D) monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>). A large number of trap states were produced during the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> of synthesizing MoS2, resulting in a disordered monolayer MoS2 system. The interface trap density between <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown MoS2 and silicon dioxide was extracted from the McWhorter surface noise model. Notably, generation-recombination noise which is attributed to charge trap states was observed at the low carrier density regime. The relation between the temperature and resistance following the power law of a 2D inverted-random void model supports the idea that disordered <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown monolayer MoS2 can be analyzed using a percolation theory. This study can offer a viewpoint to interpret synthesized low-dimensional materials as highly disordered systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhSRv...2..107L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhSRv...2..107L"><span>Controlled Chemical Synthesis in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Hongtao; Liu, Yunqi</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Due to the unique properties of graphene, single layer, bilayer or even few layer graphene peeled off from bulk graphite cannot meet the need of practical applications. Large size graphene with quality comparable to mechanically exfoliated graphene has been synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>). The main development and the key issues in controllable chemical vapor deposition of graphene has been briefly discussed in this chapter. Various strategies for graphene layer number and stacking control, large size single crystal graphene domains on copper, graphene direct growth on dielectric substrates, and doping of graphene have been demonstrated. The methods summarized here will provide guidance on how to synthesize other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2782861','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2782861"><span>Culturally tailored foods and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> prevention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Winham, Donna M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Culture plays an integral role in people’s food choices and lifestyle decisions. Health care messages may conflict with cultural beliefs for many immigrant, minority, and low income populations. The multiple ways that culture can positively and negatively affect disease risk must be utilized in the development of ‘culturally tailored’ messages or interventions. Only through the creation of interventions that are meaningful and culturally-relevant can successful behavior stability or change occur. The recognition of current health-promoting factors is important to develop rapport and credibility with individuals and population groups in order to reduce the risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and other lifestyle-based chronic diseases for optimal health. PMID:20046905</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20408329','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20408329"><span>Premature menopause linked to <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and osteoporosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Claire; Overton, Caroline</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40, the usual age of the menopause is 51. Most women will present with irregular periods or no periods at all with or without climacteric symptoms. Around 10% of women present with primary amenorrhoea. A careful history and examination are required. It is important to ask specifically about previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy and to look for signs of androgen excess e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, adrenal problems e.g. galactorrhoea and thyroid goitres. Once pregnancy has been excluded, a progestagen challenge test can be performed in primary care. Norethisterone 5 mg tds po for ten days or alternatively medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg daily for ten days is prescribed. A withdrawal bleed within a few days of stopping the norethisterone indicates the presence of oestrogen and bleeding more than a few drops is considered a positive withdrawal bleed. The absence of a bleed indicates low levels of oestrogen, putting the woman at risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and osteoporosis. FSH levels above 30 IU/l are an indicator that the ovaries are failing and the menopause is approaching or has occurred. It should be remembered that FSH levels fluctuate during the month and from one month to the next, so a minimum of two measurements should be made at least four to six weeks apart. The presence of a bleed should not exclude premature menopause as part of the differential diagnosis as there can be varying and unpredictable ovarian function remaining. The progestagen challenge test should not be used alone, but in conjunction with FSH, LH and oestradiol. There is no treatment for premature menopause. Women desiring pregnancy should be referred to a fertility clinic and discussion of egg donation. Women not wishing to become pregnant should be prescribed HRT until the age of 50 to control symptoms of oestrogen deficiency and reduce the risks of osteoporosis and <span class="hlt">CVD</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471250"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and distinct modulation of electrophysiological indices of feedback <span class="hlt">processing</span> by autistic and psychopathic traits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carter Leno, Virginia; Naples, Adam; Cox, Anthony; Rutherford, Helena; McPartland, James C</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and psychopathy are primarily characterized by social dysfunction; overlapping phenotypic features may reflect altered function in <span class="hlt">common</span> brain mechanisms. The current study examined the degree to which neural response to social and nonsocial feedback is modulated by autistic versus psychopathic traits in a sample of typically developing adults (N = 31, 11 males, 18-52 years). Event-related potentials were recorded whilst participants completed a behavioral task and received feedback on task performance. Both autistic and psychopathic traits were associated with alterations in the neural correlates of feedback <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Sensitivity to specific forms of feedback (social, nonsocial, positively valenced, negatively valenced) differed between the two traits. Autistic traits were associated with decreased sensitivity to social feedback. In contrast, the antisocial domain of psychopathic traits was associated with an overall decrease in sensitivity to feedback, and the interpersonal manipulation domain was associated with preserved <span class="hlt">processing</span> of positively valenced feedback. Results suggest distinct alterations within specific mechanisms of feedback <span class="hlt">processing</span> may underlie similar difficulties in social behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23229089','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23229089"><span>Neuter is not <span class="hlt">common</span> in Dutch: eye movements reveal asymmetrical gender <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Loerts, Hanneke; Wieling, Martijn; Schmid, Monika S</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Native speakers of languages with transparent gender systems can use gender cues to anticipate upcoming words. To examine whether this also holds true for a non-transparent two-way gender system, i.e. Dutch, eye movements were monitored as participants followed spoken instructions to click on one of four displayed items on a screen (e.g., Klik op [Formula: see text] rode appel [Formula: see text], 'Click on the[Formula: see text] red apple[Formula: see text]'). The items contained the target, a colour- and/or gender-matching competitor, and two unrelated distractors. A mixed-effects regression analysis revealed that the presence of a colour-matching and/or gender-matching competitor significantly slowed the <span class="hlt">process</span> of finding the target. The gender effect, however, was only observed for <span class="hlt">common</span> nouns, reflecting the fact that neuter gender-marking cannot disambiguate as all Dutch nouns become neuter when used as diminutives. The gender effect for <span class="hlt">common</span> nouns occurred before noun onset, suggesting that gender information is, at least partially, activated automatically before encountering the noun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25084092','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25084092"><span>Wisdom and psychotherapy: Studying expert therapists' clinical wisdom to explicate <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Levitt, Heidi M; Piazza-Bonin, Elizabeth</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This research study explores the concept of clinical wisdom. Seventeen psychologists who were nominated multiple times by their peers as wise clinicians participated in an interview on clinical wisdom, analyzed using grounded-theory methods. Participants described clinical wisdom as accepting that the best answers to clients' problems often were not immediately accessible and instead using their sense of their clients, their theory of psychotherapy, and their own experiences of adversity, diversity, and intimate relationships to help clients explore the ambiguities and vulnerabilities they experienced to craft idiosyncratic answers. An understanding of clinical wisdom is put forward, characterized by markers and principles for practice, to guide therapy <span class="hlt">processes</span> within therapists' intentionality and direct research on <span class="hlt">common</span> factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19923436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19923436"><span>Symbolic gestures and spoken language are <span class="hlt">processed</span> by a <span class="hlt">common</span> neural system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Jiang; Gannon, Patrick J; Emmorey, Karen; Smith, Jason F; Braun, Allen R</p> <p>2009-12-08</p> <p>Symbolic gestures, such as pantomimes that signify actions (e.g., threading a needle) or emblems that facilitate social transactions (e.g., finger to lips indicating "be quiet"), play an important role in human communication. They are autonomous, can fully take the place of words, and function as complete utterances in their own right. The relationship between these gestures and spoken language remains unclear. We used functional MRI to investigate whether these two forms of communication are <span class="hlt">processed</span> by the same system in the human brain. Responses to symbolic gestures, to their spoken glosses (expressing the gestures' meaning in English), and to visually and acoustically matched control stimuli were compared in a randomized block design. General Linear Models (GLM) contrasts identified shared and unique activations and functional connectivity analyses delineated regional interactions associated with each condition. Results support a model in which bilateral modality-specific areas in superior and inferior temporal cortices extract salient features from vocal-auditory and gestural-visual stimuli respectively. However, both classes of stimuli activate a <span class="hlt">common</span>, left-lateralized network of inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions in which symbolic gestures and spoken words may be mapped onto <span class="hlt">common</span>, corresponding conceptual representations. We suggest that these anterior and posterior perisylvian areas, identified since the mid-19th century as the core of the brain's language system, are not in fact committed to language <span class="hlt">processing</span>, but may function as a modality-independent semiotic system that plays a broader role in human communication, linking meaning with symbols whether these are words, gestures, images, sounds, or objects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2779203','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2779203"><span>Symbolic gestures and spoken language are <span class="hlt">processed</span> by a <span class="hlt">common</span> neural system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Jiang; Gannon, Patrick J.; Emmorey, Karen; Smith, Jason F.; Braun, Allen R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Symbolic gestures, such as pantomimes that signify actions (e.g., threading a needle) or emblems that facilitate social transactions (e.g., finger to lips indicating “be quiet”), play an important role in human communication. They are autonomous, can fully take the place of words, and function as complete utterances in their own right. The relationship between these gestures and spoken language remains unclear. We used functional MRI to investigate whether these two forms of communication are <span class="hlt">processed</span> by the same system in the human brain. Responses to symbolic gestures, to their spoken glosses (expressing the gestures' meaning in English), and to visually and acoustically matched control stimuli were compared in a randomized block design. General Linear Models (GLM) contrasts identified shared and unique activations and functional connectivity analyses delineated regional interactions associated with each condition. Results support a model in which bilateral modality-specific areas in superior and inferior temporal cortices extract salient features from vocal-auditory and gestural-visual stimuli respectively. However, both classes of stimuli activate a <span class="hlt">common</span>, left-lateralized network of inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions in which symbolic gestures and spoken words may be mapped onto <span class="hlt">common</span>, corresponding conceptual representations. We suggest that these anterior and posterior perisylvian areas, identified since the mid-19th century as the core of the brain's language system, are not in fact committed to language <span class="hlt">processing</span>, but may function as a modality-independent semiotic system that plays a broader role in human communication, linking meaning with symbols whether these are words, gestures, images, sounds, or objects. PMID:19923436</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28017920','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28017920"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and distinct brain regions <span class="hlt">processing</span> multisensory bodily signals for peripersonal space and body ownership.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grivaz, Petr; Blanke, Olaf; Serino, Andrea</p> <p>2017-02-15</p> <p>We take the feeling that our body belongs to us for granted. However, recent research has shown that it is possible to alter the subjective sensation of body ownership (BO) by manipulating multisensory bodily inputs. Several frontal and parietal regions are known to specifically <span class="hlt">process</span> multisensory cues presented close to the body, i.e., within the peripersonal space (PPS). It has been proposed that these PPS fronto-parietal regions also underlie BO. However, most previous studies investigated the brain mechanisms of either BO or of PPS <span class="hlt">processing</span> separately and by using a variety of paradigms. Here, we conducted an extensive meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to investigate PPS and BO <span class="hlt">processing</span> in humans in order to: a) assess quantitatively where each one of these functions was individually <span class="hlt">processed</span> in the brain; b) identify whether and where these <span class="hlt">processes</span> shared <span class="hlt">common</span> or engaged distinct brain mechanisms; c) characterize these areas in terms of whole-brain co-activation networks and functions, respectively. We identified (i) a bilateral PPS network including superior parietal, temporo-parietal and ventral premotor regions and (ii) a BO network including posterior parietal cortex (right intraparietal sulcus, IPS; and left IPS and superior parietal lobule, SPL), right ventral premotor cortex, and the left anterior insula. Co-activation maps related to both PPS and BO encompassed largely overlapping fronto-parietal networks, but whereas the PPS network was more frequently associated with sensorimotor tasks, the BO network was rather associated with attention and awareness tasks. Finally, the conjunction analysis showed that (iii) PPS and BO tasks anatomically overlapped only in two clusters located in the left parietal cortex (dorsally at the intersection between the SPL, the IPS and area 2 and ventrally between areas 2 and IPS). Distinct activations were located for PPS at the temporo-parietal junction and for BO in the anterior insula. These</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApPhA.116.1927B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApPhA.116.1927B"><span>Optical and structural properties of polycrystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond films grown on fused silica optical fibres pre-treated by high-power sonication seeding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bogdanowicz, R.; Śmietana, M.; Gnyba, M.; Gołunski, Ł.; Ryl, J.; Gardas, M.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>In this paper, the growth of polycrystalline chemical vapour deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond thin films on fused silica optical fibres has been investigated. The research results show that the effective substrate seeding <span class="hlt">process</span> can lower defect nucleation, and it simultaneously increases surface encapsulation. However, the growth <span class="hlt">process</span> on glass requires high seeding density. The effects of suspension type and ultrasonic power were the specific objects of investigation. In order to increase the diamond density, glass substrates were seeded using a high-power sonication <span class="hlt">process</span>. The highest applied power of sonotrode reached 72 W during the performed experiments. The two, most <span class="hlt">common</span> diamond seeding suspensions were used, i.e. detonation nanodiamond dispersed in (a) dimethyl sulfoxide and (b) deionised water. The <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond nucleation and growth <span class="hlt">processes</span> were performed using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition system. Next, the seeding efficiency was determined and compared using the numerical analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The molecular composition of nucleated diamond was examined with micro-Raman spectroscopy. The sp3/sp2 band ratio was calculated using Raman spectra deconvolution method. Thickness, roughness, and optical properties of the nanodiamond films in UV-vis wavelength range were investigated by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry. It has been demonstrated that the high-power sonication <span class="hlt">process</span> can improve the seeding efficiency on glass substrates. However, it can also cause significant erosion defects at the fibre surface. We believe that the proposed growth method can be effectively applied to manufacture the novel optical fibre sensors. Due to high chemical and mechanical resistance of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond films, deposition of such films on the sensors is highly desirable. This method enables omitting the deposition of an additional adhesion interlayer at the glass-nanocrystalline interface, and thus potentially increases</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=307282','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=307282"><span>Diet and lifestyle in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> prevention and treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and more recently in developing countries. Modifications to habitual dietary patterns and lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and tobacco use) can strongly influence the risk of developing <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. Thi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20725103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20725103"><span>Prevention: Reducing the risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> in patients with periodontitis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Genco, Robert J; Van Dyke, Thomas E</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The association between periodontitis and other chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) and type 2 diabetes mellitus, could be related to systemic inflammation initiated by a local inflammatory challenge. Oliveira et al. have added lack of oral hygiene, and its link with systemic inflammation, to the spectrum of risk factors for <span class="hlt">CVD</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27247865','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27247865"><span>Simultaneous synthesis of nanodiamonds and graphene via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW PE-<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) on copper.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gottlieb, Steven; Wöhrl, Nicolas; Schulz, Stephan; Buck, Volker</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The simultaneous growth of both nanodiamonds and graphene on copper samples is described for the first time. A PE-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> is used to synthesize graphene layers and nanodiamond clusters from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture as it is typically done successfully in thermal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> for graphene synthesis. However, the standard thermal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> is not without problems since the deposition of graphene is affected by the evaporation of a notable amount of copper caused by the slow temperature increase typical for thermal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> resulting in a long <span class="hlt">process</span> time. In sharp contrast, the synthesis of graphene by PE-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> can circumvent this problem by substantially shortening the <span class="hlt">process</span> time at holding out the prospect of a lower substrate temperature. The reduced thermal load and the possibility to industrially scale-up the PE-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> makes it a very attractive alternative to the thermal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> with respect to the graphene production in the future. Nanodiamonds are synthesized in PE-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> reactors for a long time because these <span class="hlt">processes</span> offer a high degree of control over the film's nanostructure and simultaneously providing a significant high deposition rate. To model the co-deposition <span class="hlt">process</span>, the three relevant macroscopic parameters (pressure, gas mixture and microwave power) are correlated with three relevant <span class="hlt">process</span> properties (plasma ball size, substrate temperature and C2/Hα-ratio) and the influence on the quality of the deposited carbon allotropes is investigated. For the evaluation of the graphene as well as the nanodiamond quality, Raman spectroscopy used whereas the plasma properties are measured by optical methods. It is found that the diamond nucleation can be influenced by the C2/Hα-ratio in the plasma, while the graphene quality remains mostly unchanged by this parameter. Moreover it is derived from the experimental data that the direct plasma contact with the copper surface is beneficial for the nucleation of the diamond while the growth and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16878210','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16878210"><span>Cutting characteristics of dental diamond burs made with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lima, Luciana Monti; Motisuki, Cristiane; dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; dos Santos-Pinto, Ary; Corat, Evaldo Jose</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the cutting ability of chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond burs coupled to an ultrasonic dental unit handpiece for minimally invasive cavity preparation. One standard cavity was prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of 40 extracted human third molars either with cylindrical or with spherical <span class="hlt">CVD</span> burs. The cutting ability was compared regarding type of substrate (enamel and dentin) and direction of handpiece motion. The morphological characteristics, width and depth of the cavities were analyzed and measured using scanning electron micrographs. Statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.05) revealed that the width and depth of the cavities were significantly greater when they were prepared on dentin. Wider cavities were prepared when the cylindrical <span class="hlt">CVD</span> bur was used, and deeper cavities resulted from preparation with the spherical <span class="hlt">CVD</span> bur. The direction of handpiece motion did not influence the size of the cavities, and the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> burs produced precise and conservative cutting.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5241487','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5241487"><span>In-service performance results for a 10-inch <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-tungsten coated lockhopper valve seat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gardner, J.F.</p> <p>1980-07-28</p> <p>This report deals with in-service performance results of one 10-inch <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-tungsten coated lockhopper valve seat produced by the Rolla Metallurgy Research Center of the US Bureau of Mines, Rolla, Missouri. This valve trim was produced under an interagency agreement between the Department of Energy and the US Bureau of Mines. The purpose of this agreement was to investigate the feasibility of hardfacing the critical sealing surfaces of solids handling valves and other devices by Chemical Vapor Deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) in order to increase the wear resistance of these components for use in the severe service applications found in advanced coal conversion and utilization <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Specifically, the results of in-service testing and evaluation of one 10-inch <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-tungsten coated valve seat on the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, 42-inch stirred fixed-bed gasifier are presented. The use of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-tungsten as a seal surface in lockhopper valve applications was determined to be feasible under the <span class="hlt">process</span> conditions to which it was subjected. Little or no significant wear other than a lapping effect was noted on the seal surface after 1,230 cycles of operation in a coal gasifier application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4957148','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4957148"><span>Hexagonal Boron Nitride assisted transfer and encapsulation of large area <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shautsova, Viktoryia; Gilbertson, Adam M.; Black, Nicola C. G.; Maier, Stefan A.; Cohen, Lesley F.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We report a <span class="hlt">CVD</span> hexagonal boron nitride (hBN-) assisted transfer method that enables a polymer-impurity free transfer <span class="hlt">process</span> and subsequent top encapsulation of large-area <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown graphene. We demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> hBN layer that is utilized in this transfer technique acts as a buffer layer between the graphene film and supporting polymer layer. We show that the resulting graphene layers possess lower doping concentration, and improved carrier mobilities compared to graphene films produced by conventional transfer methods onto untreated SiO2/Si, SAM-modified and hBN covered SiO2/Si substrates. Moreover, we show that the top hBN layer used in the transfer <span class="hlt">process</span> acts as an effective top encapsulation resulting in improved stability to ambient exposure. The transfer method is applicable to other <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown 2D materials on copper foils, thereby facilitating the preparation of van der Waals heterostructures with controlled doping. PMID:27443219</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8225804','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8225804"><span>A framework for a <span class="hlt">process</span>-driven <span class="hlt">common</span> foundation programme for graduates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jasper, M; Rolfe, G</p> <p>1993-10-01</p> <p>This paper discusses some of the problems encountered in writing a shortened <span class="hlt">Common</span> Foundation Programme in nursing for graduates, and outlines a course which takes as its starting point the particular educational needs and requirements of the student group. Thus, the first question to be addressed by the curriculum writers when designing the course was "How can we teach these students?", rather than "What can we teach them?". The resulting <span class="hlt">process</span>-driven course is heavily influenced by the student-centred philosophy of Carl Rogers, and utilizes a variety of large- and small-group methods to facilitate the students in gradually taking responsibility for, and making decisions about, their learning needs. The paper continues with some strategies for ensuring a smooth transition from a tutor-led, syllabus-driven start to the course, to a student-led, <span class="hlt">process</span>-driven finish for both the theoretical and clinical components, and for the assessment schedule. Finally, a student-centred approach to evaluation is briefly outlined, and the paper concludes by suggesting that the principles employed in designing and implementing this course could be successfully transferred to a wide variety of other educational settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EPJWC..3204014A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EPJWC..3204014A"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond Brewster window: feasibility study by FEM analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aiello, G.; Grossetti, G.; Meier, A.; Scherer, T.; Schreck, S.; Spaeh, P.; Strauss, D.; Vaccaro, A.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond windows are a crucial component in heating and current drive (H&CD) applications. In order to minimize the amount of reflected power from the diamond disc, its thickness must match the desired beam wavelength, thus proper targeting of the plasma requires movable beam reflectors. This is the case, for instance, of the ITER electron cyclotron H&CD system. However, looking at DEMO, the higher heat loads and neutron fluxes could make the use of movable parts close to the plasma difficult. The issue might be solved by using gyrotrons able to tune the beam frequency to the desired resonance, but this concept requires transmission windows that work in a given frequency range, such as the Brewster window. It consists of a <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond disc brazed to two copper cuffs at the Brewster angle. The brazing <span class="hlt">process</span> is carried out at about 800°C and then the temperature is decreased down to room temperature. Diamond and copper have very different thermal expansion coefficients, therefore high stresses build up during the cool down phase that might lead to failure of the disc. Considering also the complex geometry of the window with the skewed position of the disc, analyses are required in the first place to check its feasibility. The cool down phase was simulated by FEM structural analyses for several geometric and constraint configurations of the window. A study of indirect cooling of the window by water was also performed considering a HE11 mode beam. The results are here reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5998563','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5998563"><span>A mechanism for selectivity loss during tungsten <span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Creighton, J.R.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The authors have investigated possible mechanisms for the loss of selectivity (i.e., deposition on silicon dioxide) during tungsten <span class="hlt">CVD</span> by reduction of tungsten hexafluoride and found strong evidence that selectivity loss is initiated by desorption of tungsten subfluorides formed by the reaction of WF/sub 6/ with metallic tungsten surfaces. Adsorption and disproportionation of the tungsten subfluorides on the silicon dioxide surface produces a reactive state of tungsten that can lead directly to selectivity loss. The key feature of the experimental setup is the ability to independently heat a tungsten foil and a nearby oxide-covered silicon sample in the presence of tungsten hexafluoride. With the tungsten foil at 600/sup 0/C and the SiO/sub 2//Si sample at --30/sup 0/C under a WF/sub 6/ ambient, a tungsten subfluoride was found to deposit on the SiO/sub 2/ surface. Auger electron spectroscopy was used to measure a F/W ratio of 3.7 +- 0.5. Heating this tungsten subfluoride overlayer resulted in disporportionation to yield gas-phase WF/sub 6/ and metallic tungsten which remained on the surface. With the tungsten foil at 600/sup 0/C and the SiO/sub 2//Si sample at 300/sup 0/C in the presence of WF/sub 6/, metallic tungsten deposited directly on the SiO/sub 2/ without stopping at the subfluoride adsorption step. The net effect of this tungsten subfluoride desorption-disproportionation mechanism is the transport of tungsten from tungsten surfaces to silicon dioxide surfaces as well as other regions in the deposition chamber. Extrapolated rates for this <span class="hlt">process</span> are high enough to explain the magnitude of the selectivity loss seen at normal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..GECGT1159M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..GECGT1159M"><span>A thermocouple-based remote temperature controller of an electrically floated sample to study plasma <span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth of carbon nanotube</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miura, Takuya; Xie, Wei; Yanase, Takashi; Nagahama, Taro; Shimada, Toshihiro</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Plasma chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is now gathering attention from a novel viewpoint, because it is easy to combine plasma <span class="hlt">processes</span> and electrochemistry by applying a bias voltage to the sample. In order to explore electrochemistry during the plasma <span class="hlt">CVD</span>, the temperature of the sample must be controlled precisely. In traditional equipment, the sample temperature is measured by a radiation thermometer. Since emissivity of the sample surface changes in the course of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth, it is difficult to measure the exact temperature using the radiation thermometer. In this work, we developed new equipment to control the temperature of electrically floated samples by thermocouple with Wi-Fi transmission. The growth of the CNT was investigated using our plasma <span class="hlt">CVD</span> equipment. We examined the temperature accuracy and stability controlled by the thermocouple with monitoring the radiation thermometer. We noticed that the thermocouple readings were stable, whereas the readings of the radiation thermometer changes significantly (20 °C) during plasma <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. This result clearly shows that the sample temperature should be measured with direct connection. On the result of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> experiment, different structures of carbon including CNT were obtained by changing the bias voltages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5192998','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5192998"><span>Survival Regression Modeling Strategies in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Barkhordari, Mahnaz; Padyab, Mojgan; Sardarinia, Mahsa; Hadaegh, Farzad; Azizi, Fereidoun; Bozorgmanesh, Mohammadreza</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background A fundamental part of prevention is prediction. Potential predictors are the sine qua non of prediction models. However, whether incorporating novel predictors to prediction models could be directly translated to added predictive value remains an area of dispute. The difference between the predictive power of a predictive model with (enhanced model) and without (baseline model) a certain predictor is generally regarded as an indicator of the predictive value added by that predictor. Indices such as discrimination and calibration have long been used in this regard. Recently, the use of added predictive value has been suggested while comparing the predictive performances of the predictive models with and without novel biomarkers. Objectives User-friendly statistical software capable of implementing novel statistical procedures is conspicuously lacking. This shortcoming has restricted implementation of such novel model assessment methods. We aimed to construct Stata commands to help researchers obtain the aforementioned statistical indices. Materials and Methods We have written Stata commands that are intended to help researchers obtain the following. 1, Nam-D’Agostino X2 goodness of fit test; 2, Cut point-free and cut point-based net reclassification improvement index (NRI), relative absolute integrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI), and survival-based regression analyses. We applied the commands to real data on women participating in the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS) to examine if information relating to a family history of premature cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>), waist circumference, and fasting plasma glucose can improve predictive performance of Framingham’s general <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk algorithm. Results The command is adpredsurv for survival models. Conclusions Herein we have described the Stata package “adpredsurv” for calculation of the Nam-D’Agostino X2 goodness of fit test as well as cut point-free and cut point-based NRI, relative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4755235','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4755235"><span>Towards a general growth model for graphene <span class="hlt">CVD</span> on transition metal catalysts† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06873h Click here for additional data file.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Caneva, Sabina; Hofmann, Stephan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The chemical vapour deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) of graphene on three polycrystalline transition metal catalysts, Co, Ni and Cu, is systematically compared and a first-order growth model is proposed which can serve as a reference to optimize graphene growth on any elemental or alloy catalyst system. Simple thermodynamic considerations of carbon solubility are insufficient to capture even basic growth behaviour on these most <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used catalyst materials, and it is shown that kinetic aspects such as carbon permeation have to be taken into account. Key <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> parameters are discussed in this context and the results are anticipated to be highly useful for the design of future strategies for integrated graphene manufacture. PMID:26730836</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9395E..11G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9395E..11G"><span>Why simulations of colour for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> observers might not be what they seem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Green, Phil</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">common</span> task in universal design is to create a 'simulation' of the appearance of a colour image as it appears to a <span class="hlt">CVD</span> observer. Although such simulations are useful in illustrating the particular problems that a <span class="hlt">CVD</span> observer has in discriminating between colours in an image, it may not be reasonable to assume that such a simulation accurately conveys the experience of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> observer to an observer with normal vision. Two problems with this assumption are discussed here. First, it risks confusing appearance with sensation. A colour appearance model can more or less accurately predict the change in appearance of a colour when it is viewed under different conditions, but does not define the actual sensation. Such a sensation cannot be directly communicated but merely located on a scale with other related sensations. In practice we avoid this epistemological problem by asking observers to judge colour matches, relations and differences, none of which requires examination of the sensation itself. Since we do not truly know what sensation a normal observer experiences, it seems unscientific to suppose that we can do so for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> observers. Secondly, and following from the above, the relation between stimulus and corresponding sensation is established as part of neural development during infancy, and while we can determine the stimulus we cannot readily determine what sensation the stimulus is mapped to, or what the available range of sensations is for a given observer. It is suggested that a similar range of sensations could be available to <span class="hlt">CVD</span> observers as to normal observers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26349905','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26349905"><span>Salivary Biomarkers of Chronic Psychosocial Stress and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Risks: A Systematic Review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>An, Kyungeh; Salyer, Jeanne; Brown, Roy E; Kao, Hsueh-Fen Sabrina; Starkweather, Angela; Shim, Insop</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The use of salivary biomarkers in stress research is increasing, and the precision and accuracy with which researchers are able to measure these biomarkers have dramatically improved. Chronic psychosocial stress is often linked to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>). Salivary biomarkers represent a noninvasive biological method of characterizing the stress phenomenon that may help to more fully describe the mechanism by which stress contributes to the pathogenesis and outcomes of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. We conducted a systematic review of 40 research articles to identify the salivary biomarkers researchers have most <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used to help describe the biological impact of chronic psychosocial stress and explore its associations with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk. We address strengths and weaknesses of specimen collection and measurement. We used PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, BIOSIS Previews, Biological Sciences (ProQuest), and Dissertations/Theses (ProQuest) to retrieve 387 initial articles. Once we applied our inclusion/exclusion criteria to specifically target adult human studies dealing with chronic stress rather than acute/laboratory-induced stress, 40 studies remained, which we synthesized using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria. Cortisol was the biomarker used most frequently. Sources of psychosocial stress included job strain, low socioeconomic status, and environmental factors. Overall, psychosocial stress was associated with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risks such as vascular pathology (hypertension, blood pressure fluctuation, and carotid artery plaque) as well as metabolic factors such as abnormal blood glucose, dyslipidemia, and elevated cardiac enzymes. Diverse salivary biomarkers have been useful in stress research, particularly when linked to <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risks. © The Author(s) 2015.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1019615','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1019615"><span>Recent Advances in High-Growth Rate Single-Crystal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liang, Q.; Yan, C; Meng, Y; Lai, J; Krasnicki, S; Mao, H; Hemley, R</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>There have been important advances in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) of large single-crystal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond at high growth rates and applications of this diamond. The types of gas chemistry and growth conditions, including microwave power, pressure, and substrate surface temperatures, have been varied to optimize diamond quality and growth rates. The diamond has been characterized by a variety of spectroscopic and diffraction techniques. We have grown single-crystal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond over ten carats and above 1 cm in thickness at growth rates of 50-100 {micro}m/h. Colorless and near colorless single crystals up to two carats have been produced by further optimizing the <span class="hlt">process</span>. The nominal Vickers fracture toughness of this high-growth rate diamond can be tuned to exceed 20 MPa m{sup 1/2} in comparison to 5-10 MPa m{sup 1/2} for conventional natural and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond. Post-growth high-pressure/high-temperature (HPHT) and low-pressure/high-temperature (LPHT) annealing have been carried out to alter the optical, mechanical, and electronic properties. Most recently, single-crystal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond has been successfully annealed by LPHT methods without graphitization up to 2200 C and < 300 Torr for periods of time ranging from a fraction of minute to a few hours. Significant changes observed in UV, visible, infrared, and photoluminescence spectra are attributed to changes in various vacancy centers and extended defects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NIMPB.406..676B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NIMPB.406..676B"><span>The conductivity of high-fluence noble gas ion irradiated <span class="hlt">CVD</span> polycrystalline diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borisov, A. M.; Kazakov, V. A.; Mashkova, E. S.; Ovchinnikov, M. A.; Shemukhin, A. A.; Sigalaev, S. K.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>The conductivity of surface layer of polycrystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond has been studied experimentally after high-fluence 30 keV Ne+, 20 and 30 keV Ar+ ion irradiation at target temperature range from 30 to 400 °C. The hot ion irradiation of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond may be described as ion-stimulated heat graphitization in which an exponential resistance decrease with increasing of the irradiation temperature is much faster than at the heat treatment. Under ion irradiation of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond the graphite-like materials resistivity is achieved at temperatures not exceeding 200 °C. The graphite phase in a heterogeneous structure of diamond irradiated layer is in dynamic equilibrium. In the temperature range from RT to 400 °C, the proportion of graphite phase increases so that at temperatures 200 < Tir < 400 °C it is dominant. The Raman spectra of ion-induced conductive layer created on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond reflect the <span class="hlt">processes</span> of nanostructural ordering - disordering of sp2-bonded carbon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.109q3101E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.109q3101E"><span>The effect of ultraviolet light on structural properties of exfoliated and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Emelianov, A. V.; Kireev, D.; Levin, D. D.; Bobrinetskiy, I. I.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We investigate the effect of UV <span class="hlt">processing</span> of graphene with different structural properties prepared by mechanical exfoliation and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth. Depending on UV exposure time, we observe different effects like oxidation, doping, and etching. For bi-layered and few-layered graphene flakes, we do not observe significant etching even after 3 h exposure which indicates the high resistance of graphene to reactive oxygen species intercalation between graphene layers. Single-layer <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown graphene is fully etched after 2 h of UV treatment. The crystalline size of exfoliated single layer graphene after UV exposure drops from 45 to 5 nm while for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene from just 10 to 2 nm. We investigate the effect of UV irradiation on field effect transistors, demonstrating sequential cleaning from polymer residuals, oxidation (doping), and final etching of graphene. After 30 minutes of UV irradiation, we observe the hole mobility of a <span class="hlt">CVD</span> single layer graphene transistor increasing up to 400 cm2/V.s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24995402','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24995402"><span>Role of BCA in TIGER grant reviews: <span class="hlt">common</span> errors and influence on the selection <span class="hlt">process</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Homan, Anthony C</p> <p>2014-07-04</p> <p>Abstract As directed by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the US Department of Transportation (DOT) created the Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) discretionary grant program for surface transportation infrastructure projects. Through 2013, there have been five rounds of the grant program. TIGER uses a multi-step competitive application <span class="hlt">process</span> to award surface transportation funds. TIGER applications are initially screened by US DOT's staff of technical experts. For projects forwarded by the review team, US DOT economic experts then review the applicant's benefit-cost analysis (BCA) and attempt to determine the likelihood that the benefits exceeded costs (i.e. not the applicant's self-determination). The final awardees are then selected by a Review Team of Modal Administrators and DOT Office of the Secretary level officials. The purpose of this paper is to discuss many of the <span class="hlt">common</span> errors in preparing, and issues in reviewing the applicant's BCA and in making a net benefit determination. A secondary purpose is to determine if the most deserving projects, based on an applicant's BCA and the likelihood that benefits exceeded costs, are more likely to receive grant funding. We do so for the second through the fifth rounds of the program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16005556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16005556"><span>Impulsivity as a <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> across borderline personality and substance use disorders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bornovalova, Marina A; Lejuez, C W; Daughters, Stacey B; Zachary Rosenthal, M; Lynch, Thomas R</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a significant public health problem characterized by persistent problems with emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and interpersonal functioning. Research indicates an especially high rate of comorbidity between BPD and Substance Use Disorders (SUD). In trying to better understand, and therefore improve the assessment, prevention, and treatment of these disorders, researchers have considered the role of impulsivity. Indeed, impulsivity consistently has been shown to be a biologically-based, heritable characteristic with emergent psychological properties linked to the development and maintenance of BPD and SUD. Following from a previous review of the comorbidity between BPD and SUD (Trull, T. J., Sher, K. J., Minks-Brown, C., Durbin, J., & Burr, R. (2000). Borderline personality disorder and substance use disorders: A review and integration. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 235-253), the current manuscript revisits the role of impulsivity as a <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> across these disorders with a specific focus on the multidimensional nature of impulsivity and its interaction with trait and state negative affectivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16758116','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16758116"><span>In vitro availability of some essential minerals in <span class="hlt">commonly</span> eaten <span class="hlt">processed</span> and unprocessed Caribbean tuber crops.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dilworth, Lowell L; Omoruyi, Felix O; Asemota, Helen N</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>The levels of three essential minerals Ca, Fe and Mg and the extent of their availability were assessed in four <span class="hlt">commonly</span> eaten Caribbean tuber crops [dasheen (Xanthosoma spp.), Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis)] in their <span class="hlt">processed</span> and unprocessed states. Calcium was highest in cooked dasheen (5150+/-50 mg/kg) while Magnesium was highest in uncooked Irish potato (3600+/-200 mg/kg). There was no significant loss of calcium from the food samples upon cooking. All the uncooked food samples displayed higher levels minerals assessed compared to the cooked samples except for cooked Irish potato that recorded the level of iron (182.25+/-8.75 mg/kg). Availability of these minerals in the cooked and uncooked tubers crops upon digestion also showed a similar pattern. In conclusion, the consumption of these tuber crops in the Caribbean may not be responsible for the reported cases of iron deficiency in the region. However, the availability of minerals from these tuber crops when consumed with other foods (the usual practice in the Caribbean) needs further investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28553719','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28553719"><span>Quality indicators in digestive endoscopy: introduction to structure, <span class="hlt">process</span>, and outcome <span class="hlt">common</span> indicators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>López-Picazo, Julio; Alberca de Las Parras, Fernando; Sánchez Del Río, Antonio; Pérez Romero, Shirley; León Molina, Joaquín; Júdez, Francisco Javier</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The general goal of the project wherein this paper is framed is the proposal of useful quality and safety procedures and indicators to facilitate quality improvement in digestive endoscopy units. This initial offspring sets forth procedures and indicators <span class="hlt">common</span> to all digestive endoscopy procedures. First, a diagram of pre- and post-digestive endoscopy steps was developed. A group of health care quality and/or endoscopy experts under the auspices of the Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva (Spanish Society of Digestive Diseases) carried out a qualitative review of the literature regarding the search for quality indicators in endoscopic procedures. Then, a paired analysis was used for the selection of literature references and their subsequent review. Twenty indicators were identified, including seven for structure, eleven for <span class="hlt">process</span> (five pre-procedure, three intra-procedure, three post-procedure), and two for outcome. Quality of evidence was analyzed for each indicator using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) classification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ChJME..30..310Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ChJME..30..310Y"><span>Prediction of the Interface Temperature Rise in Tribochemical Polishing of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Zewei; He, Yan; Jin, Zhuji; Zheng, Peng; Li, Qiang</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Tribochemcial polishing is one of the most efficient methods for polishing <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond film due to the use of catalytic metal. However the difficulty to control the interface temperature during polishing <span class="hlt">process</span> often results in low material removal because of the unstable contact <span class="hlt">process</span>. So this research investigates the contact <span class="hlt">process</span> in the tribochemical polishing of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond film and proposes a dynamic contact model for predicting the actual contact area, the actual contact pressure, and the interface temperature in the polishing <span class="hlt">process</span>. This model has been verified by characterizing surface metrology of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond with Talysurf CLI2000 3D Surface Topography and measuring the polishing temperature. The theoretical and experimental results shows that the height distribution of asperities on diamond film surface in the polishing <span class="hlt">process</span> is well evaluated by combining the height distribution of original and polished asperities. The modeled surface asperity height distribution of diamond film agrees with the actual surface metrology in polishing <span class="hlt">process</span>. The actual contact pressure is very large due to the small actual contact area. The predicted interface temperature can reach the catalytic reaction temperature between diamond and polishing plate when the lowest rotation speed and load are 10 000 r/min and 50 N, respectively, and diamond material is significantly removed. The model may provide effective <span class="hlt">process</span> theory for tribochemcial polishing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ChJME.tmp...26Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ChJME.tmp...26Y"><span>Prediction of the Interface Temperature Rise in Tribochemical Polishing of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Zewei; He, Yan; Jin, Zhuji; Zheng, Peng; Li, Qiang</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Tribochemcial polishing is one of the most efficient methods for polishing <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond film due to the use of catalytic metal. However the difficulty to control the interface temperature during polishing <span class="hlt">process</span> often results in low material removal because of the unstable contact <span class="hlt">process</span>. So this research investigates the contact <span class="hlt">process</span> in the tribochemical polishing of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond film and proposes a dynamic contact model for predicting the actual contact area, the actual contact pressure, and the interface temperature in the polishing <span class="hlt">process</span>. This model has been verified by characterizing surface metrology of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond with Talysurf CLI2000 3D Surface Topography and measuring the polishing temperature. The theoretical and experimental results shows that the height distribution of asperities on diamond film surface in the polishing <span class="hlt">process</span> is well evaluated by combining the height distribution of original and polished asperities. The modeled surface asperity height distribution of diamond film agrees with the actual surface metrology in polishing <span class="hlt">process</span>. The actual contact pressure is very large due to the small actual contact area. The predicted interface temperature can reach the catalytic reaction temperature between diamond and polishing plate when the lowest rotation speed and load are 10 000 r/min and 50 N, respectively, and diamond material is significantly removed. The model may provide effective <span class="hlt">process</span> theory for tribochemcial polishing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16644953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16644953"><span>On the dose response of some <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond thermoluminescent detectors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marczewska, B; Bilski, P; Olko, P; Nesladek, M; Rebisz, M; Guerrero, M J</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The linearity of dose response of chemical vapour deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamonds grown at the Institute for Materials Research at Limburg University, Belgium, was investigated over a dose range relevant for radiotherapy. The following <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamonds were investigated: (1) a batch of square 3 x 3 mm2 detectors cut from a <span class="hlt">CVD</span> wafer and (2) an as-grown <span class="hlt">CVD</span> wafer of 6 cm diameter. A total of 20 <span class="hlt">CVD</span> square detectors were irradiated with 137Cs gamma rays over the dose range from 200 mGy to 25 Gy. The <span class="hlt">CVD</span> wafer, used as a large-area thermoluminescent (TL) detector, was exposed to a 226Ra needle. Very few square detectors showed linearity over a limited dose range, followed by saturation of the TL signal. The dose range of linearity was found to be strongly affected by the thermal annealing procedure of the detector. Owing to its high sensitivity and homogeneity of response, the large <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond wafer was found to be very suitable as a large-area detector for 2-D dose mapping of the 226Ra brachytherapy source, possibly for Quality Assurance purposes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850000073&hterms=polycrystalline+silicon&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpolycrystalline%2Bsilicon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850000073&hterms=polycrystalline+silicon&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpolycrystalline%2Bsilicon"><span>Efficient <span class="hlt">Process</span> for Making Polycrystalline Silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mccormick, J. R.; Plahutnik, F. JR.; Sawyer, D. H.; Arvidson, A. N.; Goldfarb, S. M.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Solar cells made with lower capital and operating costs. <span class="hlt">Process</span> based on chemical-vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) of dichlorosilane produces high-grade polycrystalline silicon for solar cells. <span class="hlt">Process</span> has potential as cost-effective replacement for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of trichlorosilane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT.......184L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT.......184L"><span>Multi-length scale analysis of chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) of diamond and titanium nitride films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lai, Shugang</p> <p>2000-10-01</p> <p>Chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is a widely used method for preparation of thin films and micron-thick coatings. Up to now, major advances in the development of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> and in obtaining high-quality films and coatings have been achieved by trial and error. In the present work, a multi-length scale computer modeling and simulation methodology is developed to analyze the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> and the evolution of the film/coating microstructure during deposition. The multi-length scale model developed in the present work consists of three parts each analyzing the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> at different length scales: (a) At the chemical reactor length scale, the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> is analyzed by solving the appropriate reactive-gas, fluid-dynamics, heat-transfer boundary value problem; (b) At the atomic scale, a kinetic Monte Carlo method is utilized to model, in a stochastic manner, the deposition <span class="hlt">process</span> of single crystalline films and the growth of polycrystalline film facets, and (c) At the grain scale, an improved van der Drift-type model is employed to simulate the evolution of microstructural and crystallographic texture of polycrystalline films and coatings. The three modeling schemes are coupled to each other so that the results obtained on one length-scale can be utilized when modeling is carried out at a different length scale. The reactor scale modeling predicts the concentration of gas-phase and surface species on the deposition surface which are used as input to the atomic scale modeling. Also, the atomic scale model predicts the growth rates of (111)- and (100)-oriented surface facets and the rates of defect incorporation which are used as input to the grain scale modeling. To ensure the consistency in prediction of different models, the exchange of information between the models is enabled to be in both directions. The method developed in the present work is subsequently used to analyze the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of single and polycrystalline diamond films and TiN coatings. The results of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARM37008S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARM37008S"><span>Fabrication of contamination-free <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Graphene devices using soak and peel method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sebastian, Abhilash; Kakatkar, Aniket; de Alba, Roberto; Zhelev, Nikolay; McEuen, Paul; Craighead, Harold; Parpia, Jeevak</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Large area graphene-based devices are <span class="hlt">commonly</span> fabricated by transferring the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> grown graphene from metal foils to semiconductor substrates. However, during device fabrication, the transfer <span class="hlt">process</span> involves chemical etching of metal that leads to the degradation of electrical properties of graphene. Recently, a clean transfer of graphene to devices with improved electrical properties, by delamination of graphene from metal substrates by soak and peel using DI-water has been demonstrated. We employed the soak and peel scheme to fabricate graphene transistor arrays on a SiO2/Si substrate with a back gate configuration. The source-drain contacts are patterned using Ti/Pt with graphene channel length varying from 2-50um. The graphene is transferred subsequently to the substrate and yields a high quality junction between metal electrodes and graphene. The contact resistance is low and the Dirac peak is observed across the array. The suitability of the graphene transistors for chemical functionalization will be presented. Possible application of this transfer technique for fabricating large area suspended nano-electro mechanical systems will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=inductive+AND+analogy&id=ED229734','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=inductive+AND+analogy&id=ED229734"><span>Eye Movement Analysis of Task and Content <span class="hlt">Commonalities</span> in Information <span class="hlt">Processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dillon, Ronna F.; Stevenson-Hicks, Randy</p> <p></p> <p>A study examined the extent to which <span class="hlt">common</span> knowledge structures and the presence of <span class="hlt">common</span> performance components are important factors in reasoning. The eye fixations of 37 college students were recorded as they solved four types of complex inductive reasoning tasks: (1) verbal analogies, (2) figural analogies, (3) verbal series completions, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=verbal+AND+analogies&pg=4&id=ED229734','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=verbal+AND+analogies&pg=4&id=ED229734"><span>Eye Movement Analysis of Task and Content <span class="hlt">Commonalities</span> in Information <span class="hlt">Processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dillon, Ronna F.; Stevenson-Hicks, Randy</p> <p></p> <p>A study examined the extent to which <span class="hlt">common</span> knowledge structures and the presence of <span class="hlt">common</span> performance components are important factors in reasoning. The eye fixations of 37 college students were recorded as they solved four types of complex inductive reasoning tasks: (1) verbal analogies, (2) figural analogies, (3) verbal series completions, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19450334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19450334"><span>Primary prevention of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>: treating dyslipidaemia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fodor, George</p> <p>2008-02-06</p> <p>The incidence of dyslipidaemia is high: in 2000, approximately 25% of adults in the USA had total cholesterol greater than 6.2 mmol/L or were taking lipid-lowering medication. Primary prevention in this context is defined as long-term management of people at increased risk but with no clinically overt evidence of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> - such as acute MI, angina, stroke, and PVD - and who have not undergone revascularisation. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of pharmacological cholesterol-lowering interventions in people at low risk (less than 0.6% annual CHD risk); at medium risk (0.6-1.4% annual CHD risk); and at high risk (at least 1.5% annual CHD risk)? What are the effects of reduced or modified fat diet? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to March 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 15 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: fibrates, niacin, reduced- or modified-fat diet, resins, and statins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16606663','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16606663"><span>Improvements in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond properties for radiotherapy dosimetry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Angelis, C; Bucciolini, M; Casati, M; Løvik, I; Bruzzi, M; Lagomarsino, S; Sciortino, S; Onori, S</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this work was to compare the behaviour of a chemical vapour deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond sample, grown at the University of Florence using a local procedure, with that of a commercial <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond. The comparison was performed exposing both systems to 25 MV photons and measuring the current response during irradiation. Properties of dosimetric interest such as stability of response, dose rate dependence and rise time were investigated. After a preliminary study, which evidenced better performances of the commercial device with respect to the local <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond, the latter was irradiated with a high fluence of fast neutrons. As a result of the neutron treatment, the quality of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> home-made diamond has been improved to match with that of the commercial dosemeter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/798139','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/798139"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> facility electrical system captor/dapper study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>SINGH, G.</p> <p>1999-10-28</p> <p>Project W-441, <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Facility Electrical System CAPTOWDAPPER Study validates Meier's hand calculations. This study includes Load flow, short circuit, voltage drop, protective device coordination, and transient motor starting (TMS) analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DFDM14006W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DFDM14006W"><span>Experimental Study of the Flow in a Rotating <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wong, Sun; Meng, Jiandong; Jaluria, Yogesh</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>An experimental model is developed to study the rotating, vertical, impinging chemical vapor deposition reactor. Deposition occurs only when the system has enough thermal energy. Therefore, understanding the fluid flow and thermal characteristics of the system would provide a good basis to model the thin film deposition <span class="hlt">process</span>. The growth rate and the uniformity of the film are the two most important factors in the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> and these depend strongly on the flow and the thermal transport within the system. Operating parameters, such as inflow velocity, susceptor temperature and rotational speed, are used to create different design simulations. Fluid velocities and temperature distributions are recorded to obtain the effects of different operating parameters. Velocities are recorded by using a rotameter and a hot wire anemometer. The temperatures are recorded by using thermocouples and an infrared thermometer. The effects of buoyancy and rotation are examined. The expermental study is also coupled with a numerical study for validation of the numerical model and to expand the domain. Comparisons between the two models are presented, indicating fair agreement. The numerical model also includes simulation of Gallium Nitride (GaN) thin film deposition. This simulation thus includes mass transport and gas kinetics, along with the flow and heat transfer within the system. A three dimensional simulation is needed due to the rotation of the susceptor. The results obtained as well as the underlying fluid flow phenomena are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4936..252T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4936..252T"><span>Innovative machining method on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond thin film</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsai, Hung-Yin; Cheng, Chih-Yung; Liu, Pin-Yin; Wu, Tung-Chuan</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>Chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond has outstanding properties, including low thermal expansion, high chemical resistance and high acoustic propagation and has been widely used in optical, electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal applications. Since synthesized diamond film results in large surface roughness, the surface treatment or polishing should be applied to expand the applications. Although reducing surface roughness by mechanical and etching methods have been investigated, the cost on the complicated equipment and on the long <span class="hlt">processing</span> time is the most particular important issue. A new method is developed in the present study to approach the smooth surface by a catalytic grinding wheel. As grinding, the catalytic reaction occurs at the contact area between the grinding wheel and the diamond surface, and sp3 structure of diamond can be converted to sp2 structure with lower bonding energy; therefore, the lower surface roughness. Consequently, the average surface roughness is extremely improved from 230 nm to 20 nm, and the <span class="hlt">processing</span> time can be shortened 10 times more than conventional methods, either lapping, or chemical assisted lapping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1241978','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1241978"><span>Photo-oxidation of Polymers Synthesized by Plasma and Initiated <span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baxamusa, Salmaan H.; Suresh, Aravind; Ehrmann, Paul; Laurence, Ted; Hanania, Jiries; Hayes, Jeff; Harley, Stephen; Burkey, Daniel D.</p> <p>2015-11-09</p> <p>Plasma polymers are often limited by their susceptibility to spontaneous and photo-oxidation. We show that the unusual photoluminescence (PL) behavior of a plasma polymer of trans-2-butene is correlated with its photoluminescence strength. These photo-<span class="hlt">processes</span> occur under blue light illumination (λ=405 nm), distinguishing them from traditional ultraviolet degradation of polymers. These photo-active defects are likely formed during the plasma deposition <span class="hlt">process</span> and we show that a polymer synthesized using initiated (i)<span class="hlt">CVD</span>, non-plasma method, has 1000× lower PL signal and enhanced photo-stability. In conclusion, non-plasma methods such as i<span class="hlt">CVD</span> may therefore be a route to overcoming material aging issues that limit the adoption of plasma polymers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1241978-photo-oxidation-polymers-synthesized-plasma-initiated-cvd','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1241978-photo-oxidation-polymers-synthesized-plasma-initiated-cvd"><span>Photo-oxidation of Polymers Synthesized by Plasma and Initiated <span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Baxamusa, Salmaan H.; Suresh, Aravind; Ehrmann, Paul; ...</p> <p>2015-11-09</p> <p>Plasma polymers are often limited by their susceptibility to spontaneous and photo-oxidation. We show that the unusual photoluminescence (PL) behavior of a plasma polymer of trans-2-butene is correlated with its photoluminescence strength. These photo-<span class="hlt">processes</span> occur under blue light illumination (λ=405 nm), distinguishing them from traditional ultraviolet degradation of polymers. These photo-active defects are likely formed during the plasma deposition <span class="hlt">process</span> and we show that a polymer synthesized using initiated (i)<span class="hlt">CVD</span>, non-plasma method, has 1000× lower PL signal and enhanced photo-stability. In conclusion, non-plasma methods such as i<span class="hlt">CVD</span> may therefore be a route to overcoming material aging issues that limit themore » adoption of plasma polymers.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130011299','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130011299"><span>Advances in the Development of a WCl6 <span class="hlt">CVD</span> System for Coating UO2 Powders with Tungsten</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mireles, Omar R.; Tieman, Alyssa; Broadway, Jeramie; Hickman, Robert</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Demonstrated viability and utilization of: a) Fluidized powder bed. b) WCl6 <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span>. c) Coated spherical particles with tungsten. The highly corrosive nature of the WCl6 solid reagent limits material of construction. Indications that identifying optimized <span class="hlt">process</span> variables with require substantial effort and will likely vary with changes in fuel requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA234767','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA234767"><span>Transmission Electron Microscopy of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Diamond Film/Substrate Interface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-03-15</p> <p>DIRECTIONS. THE BEST DEMONSTRATION OF THE EFFECT OF TWINING ON GROWTH IN DIAMOND CUBIC STRUCTURE IS GIVEN BY HAMILTON AND SEIDENSTICKER IN REF. 7. A CLEAR...DENDRITES. ONE EXAMPLE IS THE GROWTH OF CADMIUM CRYSTALS [REF 11]. HOWEVER, WE WILL NOT DISCUSS IT AND LIMIT OURSELVES TO CRYSTALS WITH DIAMOND CUBIC ... STRUCTURE . THE KEY TO UNDERSTANDING THE ROLL OF TWINING IN THE GROWTH OF DIAMOND CRYSTALS IN THE <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">PROCESS</span> IS THE STABILITY OF A CARBON ATOM</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27878010','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27878010"><span>A 3D tomographic EBSD analysis of a <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond thin film.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Tao; Raabe, Dierk; Zaefferer, Stefan</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>We have studied the nucleation and growth <span class="hlt">processes</span> in a chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond film using a tomographic electron backscattering diffraction method (3D EBSD). The approach is based on the combination of a focused ion beam (FIB) unit for serial sectioning in conjunction with high-resolution EBSD. Individual diamond grains were investigated in 3-dimensions particularly with regard to the role of twinning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5099667','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5099667"><span>A 3D tomographic EBSD analysis of a <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond thin film</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Tao; Raabe, Dierk; Zaefferer, Stefan</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We have studied the nucleation and growth <span class="hlt">processes</span> in a chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond film using a tomographic electron backscattering diffraction method (3D EBSD). The approach is based on the combination of a focused ion beam (FIB) unit for serial sectioning in conjunction with high-resolution EBSD. Individual diamond grains were investigated in 3-dimensions particularly with regard to the role of twinning. PMID:27878010</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993STIN...9515760H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993STIN...9515760H"><span>Modeling, simulation and engineering scale-up procedures for design of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reactors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hlavacek, Vladimir</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>The research program, initiated in 1989 by the Laboratory for Ceramic and Reaction Engineering (LCRE), was aimed towards the development of generic <span class="hlt">processes</span> for growing thick films deposited by <span class="hlt">CVD</span> techniques. The application of thick-film technology includes the manufacturing of optical windows and ceramic plates, fabrication of optical domes and refractory crucibles, production of refractory metal tubes, ceramic fibers, etc. The objective of this research was to understand the complex phenomena which could occur in a <span class="hlt">CVD</span> system, including problems of reactive fluid flow, instability of the deposition <span class="hlt">process</span> at the interphase fluid-solid, stability of the nucleation <span class="hlt">process</span> on the solid surface, and generation and development of stresses due to thermal gradients and growth-induced mechanisms. New ways of increasing the rate of deposition were also contemplated. Scale-up of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reactors for the applications previously mentioned, has not received much attention in the literature. LCRE has since been working on such Chemical Engineering procedures as the gathering and measuring of necessary data, and a priori simulation of laboratory bench-scale units and scale-up to pilot-plant size.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/256785','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/256785"><span>Corrosion protection of SiC-based ceramics with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> mullite coatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sarin, V.; Mulpuri, R.; Auger, M.</p> <p>1996-04-20</p> <p>SiC based ceramics have been identified as the leading candidate materials for elevated temperature applications in harsh oxidation/corrosion environments. It has been established that a protective coating can be effectively used to avoid problems with excessive oxidation and hot corrosion. However, to date, no coating configuration has been developed that can withstand the rigorous requirements imposed by such applications. Chemical vapor deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) mullite coatings due to their desirable properties of toughness, corrosion resistance, and good coefficient of thermal expansion match with SiC are being developed as a potential solution. Formation of mullite on ceramic substrates via chemical vapor deposition was investigated. Thermodynamic calculations performed on the AlCl{sub 3}- SiCl{sub 4}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2} system were used to construct equilibrium <span class="hlt">CVD</span> phase diagrams. Through <span class="hlt">process</span> optimization, crystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> mullite coatings have been successfully grown on SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} substrates. Results from the thermodynamic analysis, <span class="hlt">process</span> optimization, and effect of various <span class="hlt">process</span> parameters on deposition rate and coating morphology are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25567850','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25567850"><span>Heart disease is <span class="hlt">common</span> in humans and chimpanzees, but is caused by different pathological <span class="hlt">processes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Varki, Nissi; Anderson, Dan; Herndon, James G; Pham, Tho; Gregg, Christopher J; Cheriyan, Monica; Murphy, James; Strobert, Elizabeth; Fritz, Jo; Else, James G; Varki, Ajit</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Heart disease is <span class="hlt">common</span> in both humans and chimpanzees, manifesting typically as sudden cardiac arrest or progressive heart failure. Surprisingly, although chimpanzees are our closest evolutionary relatives, the major cause of heart disease is different in the two species. Histopathology data of affected chimpanzee hearts from two primate centers, and analysis of literature indicate that sudden death in chimpanzees (and in gorillas and orangutans) is <span class="hlt">commonly</span> associated with diffuse interstitial myocardial fibrosis of unknown cause. In contrast, most human heart disease results from coronary artery atherosclerosis, which occludes myocardial blood supply, causing ischemic damage. The typical myocardial infarction of humans due to coronary artery thrombosis is rare in these apes, despite their human-like coronary-risk-prone blood lipid profiles. Instead, chimpanzee 'heart attacks' are likely due to arrythmias triggered by myocardial fibrosis. Why do humans not often suffer from the fibrotic heart disease so <span class="hlt">common</span> in our closest evolutionary cousins? Conversely, why do chimpanzees not have the kind of heart disease so <span class="hlt">common</span> in humans? The answers could be of value to medical care, as well as to understanding human evolution. A preliminary attempt is made to explore possibilities at the histological level, with a focus on glycosylation changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=community+AND+networks&pg=4&id=EJ1102079','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=community+AND+networks&pg=4&id=EJ1102079"><span>Global Conceptualization of the Professional Learning Community <span class="hlt">Process</span>: Transitioning from Country Perspectives to International <span class="hlt">Commonalities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Huffman, Jane B.; Olivier, Dianne F.; Wang, Ting; Chen, Peiying; Hairon, Salleh; Pang, Nicholas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The authors seek to find <span class="hlt">common</span> PLC structures and actions among global educational systems to enhance understanding and practice. Six international researchers formed the Global Professional Learning Community Network (GloPLCNet), conducted literature reviews of each country's involvement with PLC actions, and noted similarities and common…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA532506','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA532506"><span>A <span class="hlt">Process</span> to Establish the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Functions Performed by a Multi-Role Vessel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>design trends , where the after deck space has been utilised for helicopter launch, recover and stow functions. DSTO-TR-2473 35 decomposes...form or another. The MRV hullform design in particular will be a delicate balancing act. Current design trends for performing the <span class="hlt">common</span> launch</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=frog&pg=6&id=EJ762018','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=frog&pg=6&id=EJ762018"><span>Using Dragonflies as <span class="hlt">Common</span>, Flexible & Charismatic Subjects for Teaching the Scientific <span class="hlt">Process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Switzer, Paul V.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Biology laboratories are usually designed around convenient and available subjects. For example, for animal laboratories "Daphnia magna," "Drosophila melanogaster," frogs, rats, and mice are <span class="hlt">common</span> animals that are relatively easy to obtain, relatively cheap, and consequently lend themselves well to laboratory experimentation. On many campuses, …</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=frog&pg=6&id=EJ762018','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=frog&pg=6&id=EJ762018"><span>Using Dragonflies as <span class="hlt">Common</span>, Flexible & Charismatic Subjects for Teaching the Scientific <span class="hlt">Process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Switzer, Paul V.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Biology laboratories are usually designed around convenient and available subjects. For example, for animal laboratories "Daphnia magna," "Drosophila melanogaster," frogs, rats, and mice are <span class="hlt">common</span> animals that are relatively easy to obtain, relatively cheap, and consequently lend themselves well to laboratory experimentation. On many campuses, …</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Plc&pg=6&id=EJ1102079','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Plc&pg=6&id=EJ1102079"><span>Global Conceptualization of the Professional Learning Community <span class="hlt">Process</span>: Transitioning from Country Perspectives to International <span class="hlt">Commonalities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Huffman, Jane B.; Olivier, Dianne F.; Wang, Ting; Chen, Peiying; Hairon, Salleh; Pang, Nicholas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The authors seek to find <span class="hlt">common</span> PLC structures and actions among global educational systems to enhance understanding and practice. Six international researchers formed the Global Professional Learning Community Network (GloPLCNet), conducted literature reviews of each country's involvement with PLC actions, and noted similarities and common…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-19/pdf/2011-17923.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-19/pdf/2011-17923.pdf"><span>76 FR 42590 - Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563; Improving <span class="hlt">Common</span> Acreage Reporting <span class="hlt">Processes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-19</p> <p>... information multiple times; and (3) Acreage reporting is inefficient and does not use Geographic Information... Comprehensive Information Management System (CIMS), which compiles <span class="hlt">common</span> producer, program, and land... information from their farm management and precision agriculture systems for reporting production, planted and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000110937','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000110937"><span>Composite, Cryogenic, Conformal, <span class="hlt">Common</span> Bulkhead, Aerogel-Insulated Tank (CBAT) Materials and <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Methodologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kovach, Michael P.; Roberts, J. Keith; Finckenor, Jeffrey L.; McMahon, William M.; Clinton, R. G., Jr. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A viewgraph presentation outlines the current status and future activities of the composite, cryogenic, conformal, <span class="hlt">common</span> bulkhead, aerogel-insulated tank (CBAT). Each term (composite, cryogenic, conformal, etc.) is explained. The fabrication method for the CBAT is described, including challenges and their solutions. Near term and long term goals are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3662971','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3662971"><span>Parametric Amplification and Cascaded-Nonlinearity <span class="hlt">Processes</span> in <span class="hlt">Common</span> Atomic System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zheng, Huaibin; Zhang, Xun; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Tian, Yaling; Chen, Haixia; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Yanpeng</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>For the first time, we study the parametric amplification <span class="hlt">process</span> of multi-wave mixing (PA-MWM) signal and cascaded-nonlinearity <span class="hlt">process</span> (CNP) in sodium vapors both theoretically and experimentally, based on a conventional phase-conjugate MWM and a self-diffraction four-wave mixing (SD-FWM) <span class="hlt">processes</span>, which are pumped by laser or amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), respectively. For laser pumping case, SD-FWM <span class="hlt">process</span> serves as a quantum linear amplifier (a CNP) out (inside) of the resonant absorption region. While for ASE case, only the CNP occurs and the output linewidth is much narrower than that of the MWM signal due to the second selected effect of its electromagnetically induced transparency window. In addition, the phase-sensitive amplifying <span class="hlt">process</span> seeded by two MWM <span class="hlt">processes</span> is discussed for the first time. Theoretical fittings agree well with the experiment. The investigations have important potential applications in quantum communication. PMID:23703292</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26134588','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26134588"><span>Radio Frequency Transistors and Circuits Based on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> MoS2.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanne, Atresh; Ghosh, Rudresh; Rai, Amritesh; Yogeesh, Maruthi Nagavalli; Shin, Seung Heon; Sharma, Ankit; Jarvis, Karalee; Mathew, Leo; Rao, Rajesh; Akinwande, Deji; Banerjee, Sanjay</p> <p>2015-08-12</p> <p>We report on the gigahertz radio frequency (RF) performance of chemical vapor deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) monolayer MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs). Initial DC characterizations of fabricated MoS2 FETs yielded current densities exceeding 200 μA/μm and maximum transconductance of 38 μS/μm. A contact resistance corrected low-field mobility of 55 cm(2)/(V s) was achieved. Radio frequency FETs were fabricated in the ground-signal-ground (GSG) layout, and standard de-embedding techniques were applied. Operating at the peak transconductance, we obtain short-circuit current-gain intrinsic cutoff frequency, fT, of 6.7 GHz and maximum intrinsic oscillation frequency, fmax, of 5.3 GHz for a device with a gate length of 250 nm. The MoS2 device afforded an extrinsic voltage gain Av of 6 dB at 100 MHz with voltage amplification until 3 GHz. With the as-measured frequency performance of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> MoS2, we provide the first demonstration of a <span class="hlt">common</span>-source (CS) amplifier with voltage gain of 14 dB and an active frequency mixer with conversion gain of -15 dB. Our results of gigahertz frequency performance as well as analog circuit operation show that large area <span class="hlt">CVD</span> MoS2 may be suitable for industrial-scale electronic applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MAR.B6006W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MAR.B6006W"><span>Improving the quality of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene-based devices: synthesis, transfer, fabrication and measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Junjie; Wang, Bei; Skinner, Anna; Zhu, Jun</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is potentially useful in a wide range of electronic and optoelectronic applications. In order to obtain <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene based devices with performance comparable to their exfoliated counterparts, improvement needs to be made on the synthesis and transfer of graphene, as well as device fabrication and measurement techniques. Here we report on a low-pressure growth procedure, which successfully suppresses the growth of multilayer patches, resulting in large-scale single-layer graphene production. By following the etching of the copper substrate with a HCl/H2O2 cleaning step similar to the RCA-2 procedure used in Silicon industry, metal particle contamination is reduced. By applying the gate voltage in pulse, we eliminate the hysteresis <span class="hlt">commonly</span> observed in the transfer curve of graphene field effect transistors. This allows us to accurately determine the charge neutrality point and carrier mobility of the device. We are able to achieve high-quality <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene devices with average carrier mobility of 7,000 cm2V-1s-1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/883548','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/883548"><span>Recovery of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Diamond Detectors using Laser Double Pulses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dauffy, L S; Lerche, R A; Schmid, G J; Koch, J A; Silbenagel, C</p> <p>2005-09-27</p> <p>A 5 x 0.25 mm Chemical Vapor Deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond detector, with a voltage bias of + 250V, was excited by a 400 nm laser (3.1 eV photons) in order to study the saturation of the wafer and its associated electronics. In a first experiment, the laser beam energy was increased from a few tens of a pJ to about 100 {micro}J, and the signal from the diamond was recorded until full saturation of the detection system was achieved. Clear saturation of the detection system was observed at about 40 V, which corresponds with the expected saturation at 10% of the applied bias (250V). The results indicate that the interaction mechanism of the 3.1 eV photons in the diamond (E{sub bandgap} = 5.45 eV) is not a multi-photon <span class="hlt">process</span> but is linked to the impurities and defects of the crystal. In a second experiment, the detector was irradiated by a saturating first laser pulse and then by a delayed laser pulse of equal or smaller amplitude with delays of 5, 10, and 20 ns. The results suggest that the diamond and associated electronics recover within 10 to 20 ns after a strong saturating pulse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SSEle.125..234G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SSEle.125..234G"><span>Contact resistance study of various metal electrodes with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gahoi, Amit; Wagner, Stefan; Bablich, Andreas; Kataria, Satender; Passi, Vikram; Lemme, Max C.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>In this study, the contact resistance of various metals to chemical vapor deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) monolayer graphene is investigated. Transfer length method (TLM) structures with varying channel widths and separation between contacts have been fabricated and electrically characterized in ambient air and vacuum condition. Electrical contacts are made with five metals: gold, nickel, nickel/gold, palladium and platinum/gold. The lowest value of 92 Ω μm is observed for the contact resistance between graphene and gold, extracted from back-gated devices at an applied back-gate bias of -40 V. Measurements carried out under vacuum show larger contact resistance values when compared with measurements carried out in ambient conditions. Post <span class="hlt">processing</span> annealing at 450 °C for 1 h in argon-95%/hydrogen-5% atmosphere results in lowering the contact resistance value which is attributed to the enhancement of the adhesion between metal and graphene. The results presented in this work provide an overview for potential contact engineering for high performance graphene-based electronic devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26971450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26971450"><span>High Efficiency <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Graphene-lead (Pb) Cooper Pair Splitter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borzenets, I V; Shimazaki, Y; Jones, G F; Craciun, M F; Russo, S; Yamamoto, M; Tarucha, S</p> <p>2016-03-14</p> <p>Generation and manipulation of quantum entangled electrons is an important concept in quantum mechanics, and necessary for advances in quantum information <span class="hlt">processing</span>; but not yet established in solid state systems. A promising device is a superconductor-two quantum dots Cooper pair splitter. Early nanowire based devices, while efficient, are limited in scalability and further electron manipulation. We demonstrate an optimized, high efficiency, <span class="hlt">CVD</span> grown graphene-based Cooper pair splitter. Our device is designed to induce superconductivity in graphene via the proximity effect, resulting in both a large superconducting gap Δ = 0.5 meV, and coherence length ξ = 200 nm. The flat nature of the device lowers parasitic capacitance, increasing charging energy EC. Our design also eases geometric restrictions and minimizes output channel separation. As a result we measure a visibility of up to 86% and a splitting efficiency of up to 62%. This will pave the way towards near unity efficiencies, long distance splitting, and post-splitting electron manipulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22215719','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22215719"><span>Synthesis of vertically aligned boron nitride nanosheets using <span class="hlt">CVD</span> method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Chao; Hao, Xiaopeng; Wu, Yongzhong; Du, Miao</p> <p>2012-09-15</p> <p>Highlights: ► The synthesized boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) are vertically aligned and very thin. ► No electrical field is applied in the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span>. ► The thin BNNSs show a low turn-on field of 6.5 V μm{sup −1} and emit strong UV light. -- Abstract: Boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) protruding from boron nitride (BN) films were synthesized on silicon substrates by chemical vapor deposition technique from a gas mixture of BCl{sub 3}–NH{sub 3}–H{sub 2}–N{sub 2}. Parts of the as-grown nanosheets were vertically aligned on the BN films. The morphology and structure of the synthesized BNNSs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. The chemical composition was studied by energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cathodoluminescence spectra revealed that the product emitted strong UV light with a broad band ranging from 250 to 400 nm. Field-emission characteristic of the product shows a low turn-on field of 6.5 V μm{sup −1}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4789789','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4789789"><span>High Efficiency <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Graphene-lead (Pb) Cooper Pair Splitter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Borzenets, I. V.; Shimazaki, Y.; Jones, G. F.; Craciun, M. F.; Russo, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Tarucha, S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Generation and manipulation of quantum entangled electrons is an important concept in quantum mechanics, and necessary for advances in quantum information <span class="hlt">processing</span>; but not yet established in solid state systems. A promising device is a superconductor-two quantum dots Cooper pair splitter. Early nanowire based devices, while efficient, are limited in scalability and further electron manipulation. We demonstrate an optimized, high efficiency, <span class="hlt">CVD</span> grown graphene-based Cooper pair splitter. Our device is designed to induce superconductivity in graphene via the proximity effect, resulting in both a large superconducting gap Δ = 0.5 meV, and coherence length ξ = 200 nm. The flat nature of the device lowers parasitic capacitance, increasing charging energy EC. Our design also eases geometric restrictions and minimizes output channel separation. As a result we measure a visibility of up to 86% and a splitting efficiency of up to 62%. This will pave the way towards near unity efficiencies, long distance splitting, and post-splitting electron manipulation. PMID:26971450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...623051B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...623051B"><span>High Efficiency <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Graphene-lead (Pb) Cooper Pair Splitter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borzenets, I. V.; Shimazaki, Y.; Jones, G. F.; Craciun, M. F.; Russo, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Tarucha, S.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Generation and manipulation of quantum entangled electrons is an important concept in quantum mechanics, and necessary for advances in quantum information <span class="hlt">processing</span>; but not yet established in solid state systems. A promising device is a superconductor-two quantum dots Cooper pair splitter. Early nanowire based devices, while efficient, are limited in scalability and further electron manipulation. We demonstrate an optimized, high efficiency, <span class="hlt">CVD</span> grown graphene-based Cooper pair splitter. Our device is designed to induce superconductivity in graphene via the proximity effect, resulting in both a large superconducting gap Δ = 0.5 meV, and coherence length ξ = 200 nm. The flat nature of the device lowers parasitic capacitance, increasing charging energy EC. Our design also eases geometric restrictions and minimizes output channel separation. As a result we measure a visibility of up to 86% and a splitting efficiency of up to 62%. This will pave the way towards near unity efficiencies, long distance splitting, and post-splitting electron manipulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=poor+AND+vision&pg=4&id=EJ766681','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=poor+AND+vision&pg=4&id=EJ766681"><span>Is There a <span class="hlt">Common</span> Linkage among Reading Comprehension, Visual Attention, and Magnocellular <span class="hlt">Processing</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Solan, Harold A.; Shelley-Tremblay, John F.; Hansen, Peter C.; Larson, Steven</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The authors examined the relationships between reading comprehension, visual attention, and magnocellular <span class="hlt">processing</span> in 42 Grade 7 students. The goal was to quantify the sensitivity of visual attention and magnocellular visual <span class="hlt">processing</span> as concomitants of poor reading comprehension in the absence of either vision therapy or cognitive…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1217...89A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1217...89A"><span>Chemical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared Using Camphoric Carbon by Thermal-<span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azira, A. A.; Rusop, M.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Chemical properties and surface study on the influence of starting carbon materials by using thermal chemical vapor deposition (Thermal-<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) to produced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated. The CNTs derived from camphor were synthesized as the precursor material due to low sublimation temperature. The major parameters are also evaluated in order to obtain high-yield and high-quality CNTs. The prepared CNTs are examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) to determine the microstructure of nanocarbons. The FESEM investigation of the CNTs formed on the support catalysts provides evidence that camphor is suitable as a precursor material for nanotubes formation. The chemical properties of the CNTs were conducted using FTIR spectroscopy and PXRD analysis. The high-temperature graphitization <span class="hlt">process</span> induced by the Thermal-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> enables the hydrocarbons to act as carbon sources and changes the aromatic species into the layered graphite structure of CNTs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5445847','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5445847"><span>A Review of the Properties and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Synthesis of Coiled Carbon Nanotubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fejes, Dóra; Hernádi, Klára</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">CVD</span> route for carbon nanotube production has become a popular method to make large amounts of multiwall carbon nanotubes. The structure, morphology and size of carbon materials depend critically on the catalyst preparation and deposition conditions. According to current knowledge, <span class="hlt">CVD</span> method is the only <span class="hlt">process</span> which can produce carbon nanocoils. These nanocoils are perfect candidates for nanotechnology applications. One might indeed hope that these coils would have the extraordinary stiffness displayed by straight nanotubes. Based on theoretical studies, regular coiled nanotubes exhibit exceptional mechanical, electrical, and magnetic properties due to the combination of their peculiar helical morphology and the fascinating properties of nanotubes. In spite of its technological interest, relatively low attention has been paid to this special field. In this paper we attempt to summarize results obtained until now.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989ApSS...43..277M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989ApSS...43..277M"><span>Photoenhanced <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of hydrogenated amorphous silicon using an internal hydrogen discharge lamp</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Milne, W. I.; Clough, F. J.; Deane, S. C.; Baker, S. D.; Robertson, P. A.</p> <p>1989-12-01</p> <p>This paper reviews the production of a-Si:H by photo-enhanced chemical vapour deposition using a novel windowless, internal hydrogen discharge lamp. The absence of highly charged species bombarding the film surface in the photo<span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> means that we have the potential to produce material with a lower defect state density and cleaner interfaces. Our technique avoids the problems of mercury contamination and window fogging. High quality a-Si:H has been produced at a growth rate of 4 Å/s, with an optical bandgap of 1.75 eV, dark conductivity of 10-10-10-11 S/cm and AM1 conductivity of 10-4 S/cm, giving a photoconductivity ratio of 6-7 orders. We are currently investigating the manufacture of TFTs using our photo<span class="hlt">CVD</span> produced material to compare their performance with more conventionally produced PECVD devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21371702','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21371702"><span>Chemical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared Using Camphoric Carbon by Thermal-<span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Azira, A. A.; Rusop, M.</p> <p>2010-03-11</p> <p>Chemical properties and surface study on the influence of starting carbon materials by using thermal chemical vapor deposition (Thermal-<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) to produced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated. The CNTs derived from camphor were synthesized as the precursor material due to low sublimation temperature. The major parameters are also evaluated in order to obtain high-yield and high-quality CNTs. The prepared CNTs are examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) to determine the microstructure of nanocarbons. The FESEM investigation of the CNTs formed on the support catalysts provides evidence that camphor is suitable as a precursor material for nanotubes formation. The chemical properties of the CNTs were conducted using FTIR spectroscopy and PXRD analysis. The high-temperature graphitization <span class="hlt">process</span> induced by the Thermal-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> enables the hydrocarbons to act as carbon sources and changes the aromatic species into the layered graphite structure of CNTs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://prevention.cancer.gov/funding-and-grants/funded-grants/R01CA214057','NCI'); return false;" href="https://prevention.cancer.gov/funding-and-grants/funded-grants/R01CA214057"><span>Predictors of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> among breast cancer survivors in an integrated health system | Division of Cancer Prevention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>PROJECT SUMMARY / ABSTRACT Breast cancer survivors are at high risk of developing and dying from cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) following breast cancer diagnosis, but subpopulations at increased risk and targets for intervention have not been well- characterized. A growing body of literature links <span class="hlt">CVD</span> with specific cardiotoxic cancer treatments. <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk among breast cancer survivors might vary by concomitant non-adherence to <span class="hlt">CVD</span> medications and presence of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factors. |</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......207B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......207B"><span>Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (i<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) Polymer Thin Films: Structure-Property Effects on Thermal Degradation and Adhesion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bharamaiah Jeevendrakumar, Vijay Jain</p> <p></p> <p>Opportunities and challenges for chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) of polymer thin films stems from their applications in electronics, sensors, and adhesives with demands for control over film composition, conformity and stability. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (i<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is a subset of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> technique that conjoins bulk free-radical polymerization chemistry with gas-phase <span class="hlt">processing</span>. The novelty of i<span class="hlt">CVD</span> technique stems from the use of an initiator that can be activated at low energies (150 -- 300 °C) to react with surface adsorbed monomer to form a polymer film. This reduces risk for potential unwarranted side-reactions. Until recently, majority of i<span class="hlt">CVD</span> research was limited to understanding the deposition kinetics with monomer properties being the principal parameters. However, there is a lack of study on the properties of deposited films which is critical for utilizing the technique in any real-world applications. The work presented here aims to advance investigation in this direction by characterizing the thermal properties of i<span class="hlt">CVD</span> polymer films with primary focus on the initiators. A detailed characterization of custom-built i<span class="hlt">CVD</span> system served as ground work for following investigations. Poly(neopentyl methacrylate) (PnPMA) thin films were deposited with tert-butyl peroxide (TBPO) initiators and their Tg, CTE and thermal degradation properties were investigated. i<span class="hlt">CVD</span> PnPMA films presented low-temperature degradation peaks attributed to weak linkages from H-abstraction and beta-scission reactions of TBPO. To test this hypothesis, PnPMA films were deposited with tert-butyl peroxybenzoate (TBPOB) which is selective towards vinyl addition. Contrary to expected results, TBPOB initiated films showed degradation at lower temperatures compared to TBPO initiated films. It is postulated that with TBPOB, the surface initiator concentration is higher and consequently small oligomeric molecules were formed that degraded easily. Following these investigations, poly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25754566','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25754566"><span>The training and fieldwork experiences of community health workers conducting population-based, noninvasive screening for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> in LMIC.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika; Denman, Catalina A; Montano, Carlos Mendoza; Gaziano, Thomas A; Levitt, Naomi; Rivera-Andrade, Alvaro; Carrasco, Diana Munguía; Zulu, Jabu; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Puoane, Thandi</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is on the rise in low- and middle-income countries and is proving difficult to combat due to the emphasis on improving outcomes in maternal and child health and infectious diseases against a backdrop of severe human resource and infrastructure constraints. Effective task-sharing from physicians or nurses to community health workers (CHW) to conduct population-based screening for persons at risk has the potential to mitigate the impact of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> on vulnerable populations. CHW in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa were trained to conduct noninvasive population-based screening for persons at high risk for <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. This study sought to quantitatively assess the performance of CHW during training and to qualitatively capture their training and fieldwork experiences while conducting noninvasive screening for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk in their communities. Written tests were used to assess CHW's acquisition of content knowledge during training, and focus group discussions were conducted to capture their training and fieldwork experiences. Training was effective at increasing the CHW's content knowledge of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>, and this knowledge was largely retained up to 6 months after the completion of fieldwork. <span class="hlt">Common</span> themes that need to be addressed when designing task-sharing with CHW in chronic diseases are identified, including language, respect, and compensation. The importance of having intimate knowledge of the community receiving services from design to implementation is underscored. Effective training for screening for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> in community settings should have a strong didactic core that is supplemented with culture-specific adaptations in the delivery of instruction. The incorporation of expert and intimate knowledge of the communities themselves is critical, from the design to implementation phases of training. Challenges such as role definition, defining career paths, and providing adequate remuneration must be addressed. Copyright © 2015 World Heart</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCrGr.404...89N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCrGr.404...89N"><span>Modeling and simulation of silicon epitaxial growth in Siemens <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ni, Haoyin; Lu, Shijie; Chen, Caixia</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Siemens <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reactor is an important chemical device for the production of polysilicon. The chemical and physical phenomenon involved in the reactor is very complex. Understanding the multispecies thermal fluid transport and its interaction with the gas/surface reactions is crucial for an optimal design and operation of the reactor. In the present paper, a mathematical model was constructed to describe the fluid dynamics, the heat and mass transfer and the reaction kinetics of the epitaxial growth <span class="hlt">process</span> in industrial <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reactors. A modified reaction kinetics model was used to represent the gas phase and surface reactions. The kinetics model was validated using the published experimental data obtained in a temperature range similar to the industrial <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> of silicon productions. The epitaxial growth of silicon in a Siemens reactor was simulated using commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS FLUENT. The distributions of gas velocity, temperature and species concentrations in the reactor were predicted numerically. Based on the numerical simulation results, a sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the key factors influencing the growth rate in industrial <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reactors. Under the conditions of fixed heating power applied to three different rod diameters of 50 mm, 80 mm and 100 mm, the simulated results show, when the rods' diameter is 50 mm, the surface temperature is high and the gas temperature is low, the growth rate of silicon is determined by the transport of gas species. When the rods' diameter increases to 80 mm, the averaged surface temperature decreases to 1361 K, the surface reaction rate and transport of gas species control the growth rate of Si together. When the rods' diameter is 100 mm, the surface temperature decreases further, the rates of surface reactions become the control factor of deposition rate of Si.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24658264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24658264"><span>Synthesis of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene on rapidly heated copper foils.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Hwangbo, Yun; Yoon, Jong-Hyuk; Lee, Eun-Kyu; Ryu, Jaechul; Lee, Hak-Joo; Cho, Seungmin; Lee, Seung-Mo</p> <p>2014-05-07</p> <p>Most chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) systems used for graphene growth mainly employ convection and radiation heat transfer between the heating source and the metal catalyst in order to reach the activation temperature of the reaction, which in general leads to a long synthesis time and poor energy efficiency. Here, we report a highly time- and energy-efficient <span class="hlt">CVD</span> setup, in which the metal catalyst (Cu) is designed to be physically contacted with a heating source to give quick heat transfer by conduction. The induced conduction heating enabled the usual effects of the pretreatment and annealing of Cu (i.e., annihilation of surface defects, impurities and contaminants) to be achieved in a significantly shorter time compared to conventional <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. Notably, the rapid heating was observed to lead to larger grains of Cu with high uniformity as compared to the Cu annealed by conventional <span class="hlt">CVD</span>, which are believed to be beneficial for the growth of high quality graphene. Through this <span class="hlt">CVD</span> setup, bundles of high quality (∼252 Ω per square) and large area (over 16 inch) graphenes were able to be readily synthesized in 40 min in a significantly efficient way. When considering ease of scalability, high energy effectiveness and considerable productivity, our method is expected to be welcomed by industrialists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA365150','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA365150"><span>The Arsenal Ship Acquisition <span class="hlt">Process</span> Experience: Contrasting and <span class="hlt">Common</span> Impressions from the Contractor Teams and Joint Program Office</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>commands, and the defense agencies under Contract DASW01-95-C-0059. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publlcation Data Leonard, Robert S. The arsenal ... ARSENAL SHIP ACQUISITION <span class="hlt">PROCESS</span> EXPERIENCE Contrasting and <span class="hlt">Common</span> Impressions from the Contractor Teams and Joint Program Office ROBERT S. LEONARD...DASW01-95-C-0059. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Leonard, Robert S. The arsenal ship acquisition <span class="hlt">process</span> experience : contrasting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3152830','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3152830"><span>Similar <span class="hlt">Processes</span> Despite Divergent Behavior in Two <span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Used Measures of Risky Decision Making</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>BISHARA, ANTHONY J.; PLESKAC, TIMOTHY J.; FRIDBERG, DANIEL J.; YECHIAM, ELDAD; LUCAS, JESOLYN; BUSEMEYER, JEROME R.; FINN, PETER R.; STOUT, JULIE C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Performance on complex decision-making tasks may depend on a multitude of <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Two such tasks, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), are of particular interest because they are associated with real world risky behavior, including illegal drug use. We used cognitive models to disentangle underlying <span class="hlt">processes</span> in both tasks. Whereas behavioral measures from the IGT and BART were uncorrelated, cognitive models revealed two reliable cross-task associations. Results suggest that the tasks similarly measure loss aversion and decision-consistency <span class="hlt">processes</span>, but not necessarily the same learning <span class="hlt">process</span>. Additionally, substance-using individuals (and especially stimulant users) performed worse on the IGT than healthy controls did, and this pattern could be explained by reduced decision consistency. PMID:21836771</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20185456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20185456"><span>Harmonisation of the appearance of digital radiographs from different vendors by means of <span class="hlt">common</span> external image <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Larsson, Lars; Båth, Magnus; Engman, Eva-Lena; Månsson, Lars Gunnar</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of <span class="hlt">common</span> external image <span class="hlt">processing</span> to compensate for differences in appearance between digital X-ray images from different vendors. Twenty posteroanterior chest radiographs were collected from each of three different modalities from different vendors (GE, Siemens and Canon) with vendor-specific image <span class="hlt">processing</span> applied. The images were also extracted with neutral <span class="hlt">process</span> parameters and <span class="hlt">processed</span> with external image-<span class="hlt">processing</span> software. Six experienced radiologists rated the quality and the similarity of the images with the original Siemens images. The externally <span class="hlt">processed</span> GE images were rated of higher quality than the original GE images and more similar to the original Siemens images (p < 0.001). The opposite was obtained for the Canon images. The externally <span class="hlt">processed</span> Siemens images were rated of similar quality as the original images. The present study indicates the possibility of using <span class="hlt">common</span> external image <span class="hlt">processing</span> to harmonise the appearance of images from different vendors, although the exposure parameters may need to be adjusted for individual vendors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16565201','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16565201"><span>Thermoluminescence properties of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond for clinical dosimetry use.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Benabdesselam, M; Serrano, B; Iacconi, P; Wrobel, F; Lapraz, D; Herault, J; Butler, J E</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The application of diamond to dosimetry is desirable because of its tissue equivalence, chemical inertness and small size, but this has not been commercially viable owing to the non-reproducible response of natural diamond. The chemical vapour deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) of diamond permits controlled, reproducible and large-scale production of this material at potentially low cost. An investigation of some clinically relevant features like the depth-dose distribution as well as the absorbed dose profile, obtained using thermoluminescence (TL), is reported for several <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond films. The TL characterisation presented here shows that <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond films should be excellent TL-mode detectors in instances of radiotherapy and in vivo radiation dosimetry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/823742','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/823742"><span>Nucleation and growth of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond films on patterned substrates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Monteiro, Othon R.; Liu, Hongbin</p> <p>2002-12-20</p> <p>The interest in using <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond in the fabrication of microelectro-mechanical components has steadily increased over the last few years. Typical technology for manufacturing such components involves the use of molds patterned in silicon or silicon dioxide, which are filled by diamond deposition. The degree of conformality of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> film and the characteristics of the diamond-substrate interface becomes critical for the successful fabrication and performance of such devices. We have investigated the growth of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond films on patterned substrates using a microwave plasma assisted deposition reactor. In particular the use of seed layers to enhance nucleation on horizontal and vertical walls as well as to promote complete filling of narrow trenches is investigated. Scanning electron microscopy is used to characterize the nucleation and growth of the diamond films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27677254','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27677254"><span>Graphene Glass from Direct <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Routes: Production and Applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Jingyu; Chen, Yubin; Priydarshi, Manish Kr; Gao, Teng; Song, Xiuju; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Recently, direct chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) growth of graphene on various types of glasses has emerged as a promising route to produce graphene glass, with advantages such as tunable quality, excellent film uniformity and potential scalability. Crucial to the performance of this graphene-coated glass is that the outstanding properties of graphene are fully retained for endowing glass with new surface characteristics, making direct-<span class="hlt">CVD</span>-derived graphene glass versatile enough for developing various applications for daily life. Herein, recent advances in the synthesis of graphene glass, particularly via direct <span class="hlt">CVD</span> approaches, are presented. Key applications of such graphene materials in transparent conductors, smart windows, simple heating devices, solar-cell electrodes, cell culture medium, and water harvesters are also highlighted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=text+AND+mining&pg=3&id=ED536057','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=text+AND+mining&pg=3&id=ED536057"><span>Combining Natural Language <span class="hlt">Processing</span> and Statistical Text Mining: A Study of Specialized versus <span class="hlt">Common</span> Languages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jarman, Jay</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This dissertation focuses on developing and evaluating hybrid approaches for analyzing free-form text in the medical domain. This research draws on natural language <span class="hlt">processing</span> (NLP) techniques that are used to parse and extract concepts based on a controlled vocabulary. Once important concepts are extracted, additional machine learning algorithms,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dn&pg=2&id=EJ943259','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dn&pg=2&id=EJ943259"><span>Are Depictive Gestures like Pictures? <span class="hlt">Commonalities</span> and Differences in Semantic <span class="hlt">Processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wu, Ying Choon; Coulson, Seana</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Conversation is multi-modal, involving both talk and gesture. Does understanding depictive gestures engage <span class="hlt">processes</span> similar to those recruited in the comprehension of drawings or photographs? Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from neurotypical adults as they viewed spontaneously produced depictive gestures preceded by congruent…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sip&pg=4&id=EJ685595','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sip&pg=4&id=EJ685595"><span>Finding <span class="hlt">Commonalities</span>: Social Information <span class="hlt">Processing</span> and Domain Theory in the Study of Aggression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nucci, Larry</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The Arsenio and Lemerise (this issue) proposal integrating social information <span class="hlt">processing</span> (SIP) and domain theory to study children's aggression is evaluated from a domain theory perspective. Basic tenets of domain theory rendering it compatible with SIP are discussed as well as points of divergence. Focus is directed to the proposition that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000073715&hterms=plasma+etching&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dplasma%2Betching','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000073715&hterms=plasma+etching&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dplasma%2Betching"><span>Ionization Properties of Molecules <span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Used for Plasma <span class="hlt">Processing</span> of Semi-Conductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Srivastava, S. K.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Two types of <span class="hlt">processes</span> are involved in plasma <span class="hlt">processing</span> of semi-conductors. They are: plasma etching or cleaning and plasma deposition of the semi-conducting materials. For plasma etching of semi-conductors mostly halogen containing gases are used as additives to gases such as O2 and N2. For plasma deposition gases such as C2H2, SiH4, Si2H6 have been tested in the past. For an optimal performance of a reactor it is important to model the plasma. In this modeling effort electron impact excitation and ionization cross sections play a central role. For ionization balance calculations values of ionization cross sections are needed. Ion molecule reactions determine the ultimate composition of the plasma. Recently it has been discovered that the by products of many of these plasmas are per fluro hydrocarbons (PFCs) which are highly infrared absorbing species and have long life times in the atmosphere. They cause global warming. A lot of research is being pursued at the present time to find alternative molecules which do not produce global warming gases as the and product of the plasma <span class="hlt">processing</span> reactor. There is also interest in the ionization and dissociative ionization properties of these molecules from the point view of the plasma abatement of the pollutant gases at the exhaust of the semi-conductor <span class="hlt">processing</span> reactors. At the conference ionization and dissociative ionization properties of some of these molecules will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000073715&hterms=properties+hydrocarbons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dproperties%2Bhydrocarbons','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000073715&hterms=properties+hydrocarbons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dproperties%2Bhydrocarbons"><span>Ionization Properties of Molecules <span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Used for Plasma <span class="hlt">Processing</span> of Semi-Conductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Srivastava, S. K.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Two types of <span class="hlt">processes</span> are involved in plasma <span class="hlt">processing</span> of semi-conductors. They are: plasma etching or cleaning and plasma deposition of the semi-conducting materials. For plasma etching of semi-conductors mostly halogen containing gases are used as additives to gases such as O2 and N2. For plasma deposition gases such as C2H2, SiH4, Si2H6 have been tested in the past. For an optimal performance of a reactor it is important to model the plasma. In this modeling effort electron impact excitation and ionization cross sections play a central role. For ionization balance calculations values of ionization cross sections are needed. Ion molecule reactions determine the ultimate composition of the plasma. Recently it has been discovered that the by products of many of these plasmas are per fluro hydrocarbons (PFCs) which are highly infrared absorbing species and have long life times in the atmosphere. They cause global warming. A lot of research is being pursued at the present time to find alternative molecules which do not produce global warming gases as the and product of the plasma <span class="hlt">processing</span> reactor. There is also interest in the ionization and dissociative ionization properties of these molecules from the point view of the plasma abatement of the pollutant gases at the exhaust of the semi-conductor <span class="hlt">processing</span> reactors. At the conference ionization and dissociative ionization properties of some of these molecules will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15685978','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15685978"><span>Towards a <span class="hlt">common</span> benchmark for long-term <span class="hlt">process</span> control and monitoring performance evaluation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rosen, C; Jeppsson, U; Vanrolleghem, P A</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The COST/IWA benchmark simulation model has been available for seven years. Its primary purpose has been to create a platform for control strategy benchmarking of biological wastewater treatment <span class="hlt">processes</span>. The fact that the benchmark has resulted in more than 100 publications, not only in Europe but also worldwide, demonstrates the interest for such a tool in the research community. In this paper, an extension of the benchmark simulation model no. 1 (BSM1) is proposed. It aims at facilitating evaluation of two closely related operational tasks: long-term control strategy performance and <span class="hlt">process</span> monitoring performance. The motivation for the extension is that these two tasks typically act on longer time scales. The extension proposed here consists of 1) prolonging the evaluation period to one year (including influent files), 2) specifying time varying <span class="hlt">process</span> parameters and 3) including sensor and actuator failures. The prolonged evaluation period is necessary to obtain a relevant and realistic assessment of the effects of such disturbances. Also, a prolonged evaluation period allows for a number of long-term control actions/handles that cannot be evaluated in a realistic fashion in the one week BSM1 evaluation period. In the paper, models for influent file design, parameter changes and sensor failures, initialization procedure and evaluation criteria are discussed. Important remaining topics, for which consensus is required, are identified. The potential of a long-term benchmark is illustrated with an example of <span class="hlt">process</span> monitoring algorithm benchmarking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=object+OR+target+AND+classification+OR+detection+OR+identification+OR+recognition&pg=5&id=ED536057','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=object+OR+target+AND+classification+OR+detection+OR+identification+OR+recognition&pg=5&id=ED536057"><span>Combining Natural Language <span class="hlt">Processing</span> and Statistical Text Mining: A Study of Specialized versus <span class="hlt">Common</span> Languages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jarman, Jay</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This dissertation focuses on developing and evaluating hybrid approaches for analyzing free-form text in the medical domain. This research draws on natural language <span class="hlt">processing</span> (NLP) techniques that are used to parse and extract concepts based on a controlled vocabulary. Once important concepts are extracted, additional machine learning algorithms,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26084020','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26084020"><span>Proteolytic <span class="hlt">Processing</span> of Interleukin-1 Family Cytokines: Variations on a <span class="hlt">Common</span> Theme.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Afonina, Inna S; Müller, Christina; Martin, Seamus J; Beyaert, Rudi</p> <p>2015-06-16</p> <p>Members of the extended interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokine family, such as IL-1, IL-18, IL-33, and IL-36, play a pivotal role in the initiation and amplification of immune responses. However, deregulated production and/or activation of these cytokines can lead to the development of multiple inflammatory disorders. IL-1 family members share a broadly similar domain organization and receptor signaling pathways. Another striking similarity between IL-1 family members is the requirement for proteolytic <span class="hlt">processing</span> in order to unlock their full biological potential. Although much emphasis has been put on the role of caspase-1, another emerging theme is the involvement of neutrophil- and mast cell-derived proteases in IL-1 family cytokine <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Elucidating the regulation of IL-1 family members by proteolytic <span class="hlt">processing</span> is of great interest for understanding inflammation and immunity. Here, we review the identity of the proteases involved in the proteolytic <span class="hlt">processing</span> of IL-1 family cytokines and the therapeutic implications in inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=conceptual+AND+photography&pg=3&id=EJ943259','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=conceptual+AND+photography&pg=3&id=EJ943259"><span>Are Depictive Gestures like Pictures? <span class="hlt">Commonalities</span> and Differences in Semantic <span class="hlt">Processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wu, Ying Choon; Coulson, Seana</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Conversation is multi-modal, involving both talk and gesture. Does understanding depictive gestures engage <span class="hlt">processes</span> similar to those recruited in the comprehension of drawings or photographs? Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from neurotypical adults as they viewed spontaneously produced depictive gestures preceded by congruent…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12659525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12659525"><span>Spectral and photocatalytic characteristics of TiO2 <span class="hlt">CVD</span> films on quartz.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mills, Andrew; Lee, Soo-Keun; Lepre, Anne; Parkin, Ivan P; O'Neill, Shane A</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>A series of novel <span class="hlt">CVD</span> films of titanium(IV) oxide of different thicknesses, spanning the range 10-91 nm, are prepared on quartz, via the reaction of titanium(IV) chloride and ethyl acetate, using a <span class="hlt">CVD</span> technique. The films are clear, mechanically robust and comprise thin layer of nanocrystalline anatase titania of different thicknesses that absorb UV light. The UV-Visible spectral profiles of all the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> TiO2 films of different thickness are the same and obey Lambert's law (absorbance is porportional to film thickness). A plot of the reciprocal length for the TiO2 coating versus wavelength is reported. The photocatalytic activity of each film to mediate the destruction of a thin layer of stearic acid is investigated. The rate depends directly upon the fraction of light absorbed and the apparent quantum yield for the overall <span class="hlt">process</span> is 0.00035, which appears low compared with that for sol-gel TiO2 films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1185795-chemical-reactivity-cvc-cvd-sic-uo2-high-temperatures','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1185795-chemical-reactivity-cvc-cvd-sic-uo2-high-temperatures"><span>Chemical reactivity of CVC and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC with UO2 at high temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Silva, Chinthaka M.; Katoh, Yutai; Voit, Stewart L.; ...</p> <p>2015-02-11</p> <p>Two types of silicon carbide (SiC) synthesized using two different vapor deposition <span class="hlt">processes</span> were embedded in UO2 pellets and evaluated for their potential chemical reaction with UO2. While minor reactivity between chemical-vapor-composited (CVC) SiC and UO2 was observed at comparatively low temperatures of 1100 and 1300 C, chemical-vapor-deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) SiC did not show any such reactivity, according to microstructural investigations. But, both <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and CVC SiCs showed some reaction with UO2 at a higher temperature (1500 C). Elemental maps supported by phase maps obtained using electron backscatter diffraction indicated that CVC SiC was more reactive than <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC at 1500more » C. Moreover, this investigation indicated the formation of uranium carbides and uranium silicide chemical phases such as UC, USi2, and U3Si2 as a result of SiC reaction with UO2.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.146e2816J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.146e2816J"><span>Photochemical <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of Ru on functionalized self-assembled monolayers from organometallic precursors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Kelsea R.; Arevalo Rodriguez, Paul; Brewer, Christopher R.; Brannaka, Joseph A.; Shi, Zhiwei; Yang, Jing; Salazar, Bryan; McElwee-White, Lisa; Walker, Amy V.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is an attractive technique for the metallization of organic thin films because it is selective and the thickness of the deposited film can easily be controlled. However, thermal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> often require high temperatures which are generally incompatible with organic films. In this paper, we perform proof-of-concept studies of photochemical <span class="hlt">CVD</span> to metallize organic thin films. In this method, a precursor undergoes photolytic decomposition to generate thermally labile intermediates prior to adsorption on the sample. Three readily available Ru precursors, CpRu(CO)2Me, (η3-allyl)Ru(CO)3Br, and (COT)Ru(CO)3, were employed to investigate the role of precursor quantum yield, ligand chemistry, and the Ru oxidation state on the deposition. To investigate the role of the substrate chemistry on deposition, carboxylic acid-, hydroxyl-, and methyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers were used. The data indicate that moderate quantum yields for ligand loss (φ ≥ 0.4) are required for ruthenium deposition, and the deposition is wavelength dependent. Second, anionic polyhapto ligands such as cyclopentadienyl and allyl are more difficult to remove than carbonyls, halides, and alkyls. Third, in contrast to the atomic layer deposition, acid-base reactions between the precursor and the substrate are more effective for deposition than nucleophilic reactions. Finally, the data suggest that selective deposition can be achieved on organic thin films by judicious choice of precursor and functional groups present on the substrate. These studies thus provide guidelines for the rational design of new precursors specifically for selective photochemical <span class="hlt">CVD</span> on organic substrates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28178809','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28178809"><span>Photochemical <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of Ru on functionalized self-assembled monolayers from organometallic precursors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnson, Kelsea R; Arevalo Rodriguez, Paul; Brewer, Christopher R; Brannaka, Joseph A; Shi, Zhiwei; Yang, Jing; Salazar, Bryan; McElwee-White, Lisa; Walker, Amy V</p> <p>2017-02-07</p> <p>Chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is an attractive technique for the metallization of organic thin films because it is selective and the thickness of the deposited film can easily be controlled. However, thermal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> often require high temperatures which are generally incompatible with organic films. In this paper, we perform proof-of-concept studies of photochemical <span class="hlt">CVD</span> to metallize organic thin films. In this method, a precursor undergoes photolytic decomposition to generate thermally labile intermediates prior to adsorption on the sample. Three readily available Ru precursors, CpRu(CO)2Me, (η(3)-allyl)Ru(CO)3Br, and (COT)Ru(CO)3, were employed to investigate the role of precursor quantum yield, ligand chemistry, and the Ru oxidation state on the deposition. To investigate the role of the substrate chemistry on deposition, carboxylic acid-, hydroxyl-, and methyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers were used. The data indicate that moderate quantum yields for ligand loss (φ ≥ 0.4) are required for ruthenium deposition, and the deposition is wavelength dependent. Second, anionic polyhapto ligands such as cyclopentadienyl and allyl are more difficult to remove than carbonyls, halides, and alkyls. Third, in contrast to the atomic layer deposition, acid-base reactions between the precursor and the substrate are more effective for deposition than nucleophilic reactions. Finally, the data suggest that selective deposition can be achieved on organic thin films by judicious choice of precursor and functional groups present on the substrate. These studies thus provide guidelines for the rational design of new precursors specifically for selective photochemical <span class="hlt">CVD</span> on organic substrates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090011858','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090011858"><span>Fabricating Large-Area Sheets of Single-Layer Graphene by <span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bronikowski, Michael; Manohara, Harish</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This innovation consists of a set of methodologies for preparing large area (greater than 1 cm(exp 2)) domains of single-atomic-layer graphite, also called graphene, in single (two-dimensional) crystal form. To fabricate a single graphene layer using chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>), the <span class="hlt">process</span> begins with an atomically flat surface of an appropriate substrate and an appropriate precursor molecule containing carbon atoms attached to substituent atoms or groups. These molecules will be brought into contact with the substrate surface by being flowed over, or sprayed onto, the substrate, under <span class="hlt">CVD</span> conditions of low pressure and elevated temperature. Upon contact with the surface, the precursor molecules will decompose. The substituent groups detach from the carbon atoms and form gas-phase species, leaving the unfunctionalized carbon atoms attached to the substrate surface. These carbon atoms will diffuse upon this surface and encounter and bond to other carbon atoms. If conditions are chosen carefully, the surface carbon atoms will arrange to form the lowest energy single-layer structure available, which is the graphene lattice that is sought. Another method for creating the graphene lattice includes metal-catalyzed <span class="hlt">CVD</span>, in which the decomposition of the precursor molecules is initiated by the catalytic action of a catalytic metal upon the substrate surface. Another type of metal-catalyzed <span class="hlt">CVD</span> has the entire substrate composed of catalytic metal, or other material, either as a bulk crystal or as a think layer of catalyst deposited upon another surface. In this case, the precursor molecules decompose directly upon contact with the substrate, releasing their atoms and forming the graphene sheet. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) can also be used. In this method, a substrate surface at low temperature is covered with exactly one monolayer of precursor molecules (which may be of more than one type). This is heated up so that the precursor molecules decompose and form one</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19581986','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19581986"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span>-diamond external cavity Raman laser at 573 nm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mildren, Richard P; Butler, James E; Rabeau, James R</p> <p>2008-11-10</p> <p>Recent progress in diamond growth via chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) has enabled the manufacture of single crystal samples of sufficient size and quality for realizing Raman laser devices. Here we report an external cavity <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-diamond Raman laser pumped by a Q-switched 532 nm laser. In the investigated configuration, the dominant output coupling was by reflection loss at the diamond's uncoated Brewster angle facets caused by the crystal's inherent birefringence. Output pulses of wavelength 573 nm with a combined energy of 0.3 mJ were obtained with a slope efficiency of conversion of up to 22%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150022237','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150022237"><span>Tractable Chemical Models for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of Silicon and Carbon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blanquet, E.; Gokoglu, S. A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Tractable chemical models are validated for the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of silicon and carbon. Dilute silane (SiH4) and methane (CH4) in hydrogen are chosen as gaseous precursors. The chemical mechanism for each systems Si and C is deliberately reduced to three reactions in the models: one in the gas phase and two at the surface. The axial-flow <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reactor utilized in this study has well-characterized flow and thermal fields and provides variable deposition rates in the axial direction. Comparisons between the experimental and calculated deposition rates are made at different pressures and temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA619031','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA619031"><span>A Long-Term Memory Competitive <span class="hlt">Process</span> Model of a <span class="hlt">Common</span> Procedural Error</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>systematic error, Memory for Goals (Altmann & Trafton, 2002), posits that we encode episodic traces of our goals as we complete tasks. Each goal is...encapsulated in an episodic memory , which sparsely represents a behavioral context at the time of its encoding . The strength of these memories decay... <span class="hlt">process</span> -level theory for why certain types of errors are made during a well-learned task as a consequence of retrospective, episodic memory (Altmann</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002871','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002871"><span>Design <span class="hlt">Process</span> of Flight Vehicle Structures for a <span class="hlt">Common</span> Bulkhead and an MPCV Spacecraft Adapter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Aggarwal, Pravin; Hull, Patrick V.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Design and manufacturing space flight vehicle structures is a skillset that has grown considerably at NASA during that last several years. Beginning with the Ares program and followed by the Space Launch System (SLS); in-house designs were produced for both the Upper Stage and the SLS Multipurpose crew vehicle (MPCV) spacecraft adapter. Specifically, critical design review (CDR) level analysis and flight production drawing were produced for the above mentioned hardware. In particular, the experience of this in-house design work led to increased manufacturing infrastructure for both Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF), improved skillsets in both analysis and design, and hands on experience in building and testing (MSA) full scale hardware. The hardware design and development <span class="hlt">processes</span> from initiation to CDR and finally flight; resulted in many challenges and experiences that produced valuable lessons. This paper builds on these experiences of NASA in recent years on designing and fabricating flight hardware and examines the design/development <span class="hlt">processes</span> used, as well as the challenges and lessons learned, i.e. from the initial design, loads estimation and mass constraints to structural optimization/affordability to release of production drawing to hardware manufacturing. While there are many documented design <span class="hlt">processes</span> which a design engineer can follow, these unique experiences can offer insight into designing hardware in current program environments and present solutions to many of the challenges experienced by the engineering team.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22363015','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22363015"><span>Efficacy of optimal long-term management of multiple cardiovascular risk factors (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) on walking and quality of life in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD): protocol for randomized controlled trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oka, Roberta K; Conte, Michael S; Owens, Christopher D; Rapp, Joseph; Fung, Gordon; Alley, Hugh F; Giacomini, John C; Myers, Jonathan; Mohler, Emile R</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an understudied chronic illness most prevalent in elderly individuals. PAD patients experience substantial walking impairment due to symptoms of limb ischemia that significantly diminishes quality of life (QOL). Cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) morbidity and mortality is increased in this population because of aggressive atherosclerosis resulting from untreated <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factors. Despite current national guidelines recommending intensive <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factor management for PAD patients, untreated <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factors are <span class="hlt">common</span>. Interventions that bridge this gap are imperative. The Vascular Insufficiency - Goals for Optimal Risk Reduction (VIGOR(2)) study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that examines the effectiveness of a long-term multifactor <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk reduction program on walking and quality of life in patients with PAD. The purpose of this article is to provide a detailed description of the design and methods of VIGOR(2). Clinical Trial Registration - URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00537225.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24040085','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24040085"><span>Projected impact of a sodium consumption reduction initiative in Argentina: an analysis from the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> policy model--Argentina.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Konfino, Jonatan; Mekonnen, Tekeshe A; Coxson, Pamela G; Ferrante, Daniel; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is the leading cause of death in adults in Argentina. Sodium reduction policies targeting <span class="hlt">processed</span> foods were implemented in 2011 in Argentina, but the impact has not been evaluated. The aims of this study are to use Argentina-specific data on sodium excretion and project the impact of Argentina's sodium reduction policies under two scenarios - the 2-year intervention currently being undertaken or a more persistent 10 year sodium reduction strategy. We used Argentina-specific data on sodium excretion by sex and projected the impact of the current strategy on sodium consumption and blood pressure decrease. We assessed the projected impact of sodium reduction policies on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> using the Cardiovascular Disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) Policy Model, adapted to Argentina, modeling two alternative policy scenarios over the next decade. Our study finds that the initiative to reduce sodium consumption currently in place in Argentina will have substantial impact on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> over the next 10 years. Under the current proposed policy of 2-year sodium reduction, the mean sodium consumption is projected to decrease by 319-387 mg/day. This decrease is expected to translate into an absolute reduction of systolic blood pressure from 0.93 mmHg to 1.81 mmHg. This would avert about 19,000 all-cause mortality, 13,000 total myocardial infarctions, and 10,000 total strokes over the next decade. A more persistent sodium reduction strategy would yield even greater <span class="hlt">CVD</span> benefits. The impact of the Argentinean initiative would be effective in substantially reducing mortality and morbidity from <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. This paper provides evidence-based support to continue implementing strategies to reduce sodium consumption at a population level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3767589','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3767589"><span>Projected Impact of a Sodium Consumption Reduction Initiative in Argentina: An Analysis from the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Policy Model – Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Konfino, Jonatan; Mekonnen, Tekeshe A.; Coxson, Pamela G.; Ferrante, Daniel; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is the leading cause of death in adults in Argentina. Sodium reduction policies targeting <span class="hlt">processed</span> foods were implemented in 2011 in Argentina, but the impact has not been evaluated. The aims of this study are to use Argentina-specific data on sodium excretion and project the impact of Argentina’s sodium reduction policies under two scenarios - the 2-year intervention currently being undertaken or a more persistent 10 year sodium reduction strategy. Methods We used Argentina-specific data on sodium excretion by sex and projected the impact of the current strategy on sodium consumption and blood pressure decrease. We assessed the projected impact of sodium reduction policies on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> using the Cardiovascular Disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) Policy Model, adapted to Argentina, modeling two alternative policy scenarios over the next decade. Results Our study finds that the initiative to reduce sodium consumption currently in place in Argentina will have substantial impact on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> over the next 10 years. Under the current proposed policy of 2-year sodium reduction, the mean sodium consumption is projected to decrease by 319–387 mg/day. This decrease is expected to translate into an absolute reduction of systolic blood pressure from 0.93 mmHg to 1.81 mmHg. This would avert about 19,000 all-cause mortality, 13,000 total myocardial infarctions, and 10,000 total strokes over the next decade. A more persistent sodium reduction strategy would yield even greater <span class="hlt">CVD</span> benefits. Conclusion The impact of the Argentinean initiative would be effective in substantially reducing mortality and morbidity from <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. This paper provides evidence-based support to continue implementing strategies to reduce sodium consumption at a population level. PMID:24040085</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4334462','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4334462"><span>Implicit and Explicit Second Language Training Recruit <span class="hlt">Common</span> Neural Mechanisms for Syntactic <span class="hlt">Processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In contrast to native language acquisition, adult second language (L2) acquisition occurs under highly variable learning conditions. While most adults acquire their L2 at least partially through explicit instruction, as in a classroom setting, many others acquire their L2 primarily through implicit exposure, as is typical of an immersion environment. Whether these differences in acquisition environment play a role in determining the neural mechanisms that are ultimately recruited to <span class="hlt">process</span> L2 grammar has not been well characterized. The present study investigated this issue by comparing the event-related potential response to novel L2 syntactic rules acquired under conditions of implicit exposure and explicit instruction, using a novel laboratory language-learning paradigm. Native speakers tested on these stimuli showed a biphasic response to syntactic violations, consisting of an earlier negativity followed by a later P600 effect. After merely an hour of training, both implicitly- and explicitly-trained learners who were capable of detecting grammatical violations also elicited P600 effects. In contrast, learners who were unable to discriminate between grammatically correct and incorrect sentences did not show significant P600 effects. The magnitude of the P600 effect was found to correlate with learners’ behavioral proficiency. Behavioral measures revealed that successful learners from both the implicit and explicit groups gained explicit, verbalizable knowledge about the L2 grammar rules. Taken together, these results indicate that late, controlled mechanisms indexed by the P600 play a crucial role in <span class="hlt">processing</span> a late-learned L2 grammar, regardless of training condition. These findings underscore the remarkable plasticity of later, attention-dependent <span class="hlt">processes</span> and their importance in lifelong learning. PMID:23631551</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23631551','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23631551"><span>Implicit and explicit second language training recruit <span class="hlt">common</span> neural mechanisms for syntactic <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>In contrast to native language acquisition, adult second-language (L2) acquisition occurs under highly variable learning conditions. Although most adults acquire their L2 at least partially through explicit instruction, as in a classroom setting, many others acquire their L2 primarily through implicit exposure, as is typical of an immersion environment. Whether these differences in acquisition environment play a role in determining the neural mechanisms that are ultimately recruited to <span class="hlt">process</span> L2 grammar has not been well characterized. This study investigated this issue by comparing the ERP response to novel L2 syntactic rules acquired under conditions of implicit exposure and explicit instruction, using a novel laboratory language-learning paradigm. Native speakers tested on these stimuli showed a biphasic response to syntactic violations, consisting of an earlier negativity followed by a later P600 effect. After merely an hour of training, both implicitly and explicitly trained learners who were capable of detecting grammatical violations also elicited P600 effects. In contrast, learners who were unable to discriminate between grammatically correct and incorrect sentences did not show significant P600 effects. The magnitude of the P600 effect was found to correlate with learners' behavioral proficiency. Behavioral measures revealed that successful learners from both the implicit and explicit groups gained explicit, verbalizable knowledge about the L2 grammar rules. Taken together, these results indicate that late, controlled mechanisms indexed by the P600 play a crucial role in <span class="hlt">processing</span> a late-learned L2 grammar, regardless of training condition. These findings underscore the remarkable plasticity of later, attention-dependent <span class="hlt">processes</span> and their importance in lifelong learning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2570793','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2570793"><span>New Insight into the Colonization <span class="hlt">Processes</span> of <span class="hlt">Common</span> Voles: Inferences from Molecular and Fossil Evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tougard, Christelle; Renvoisé, Elodie; Petitjean, Amélie; Quéré, Jean-Pierre</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Elucidating the colonization <span class="hlt">processes</span> associated with Quaternary climatic cycles is important in order to understand the distribution of biodiversity and the evolutionary potential of temperate plant and animal species. In Europe, general evolutionary scenarios have been defined from genetic evidence. Recently, these scenarios have been challenged with genetic as well as fossil data. The origins of the modern distributions of most temperate plant and animal species could predate the Last Glacial Maximum. The glacial survival of such populations may have occurred in either southern (Mediterranean regions) and/or northern (Carpathians) refugia. Here, a phylogeographic analysis of a widespread European small mammal (Microtus arvalis) is conducted with a multidisciplinary approach. Genetic, fossil and ecological traits are used to assess the evolutionary history of this vole. Regardless of whether the European distribution of the five previously identified evolutionary lineages is corroborated, this combined analysis brings to light several colonization <span class="hlt">processes</span> of M. arvalis. The species' dispersal was relatively gradual with glacial survival in small favourable habitats in Western Europe (from Germany to Spain) while in the rest of Europe, because of periglacial conditions, dispersal was less regular with bottleneck events followed by postglacial expansions. Our study demonstrates that the evolutionary history of European temperate small mammals is indeed much more complex than previously suggested. Species can experience heterogeneous evolutionary histories over their geographic range. Multidisciplinary approaches should therefore be preferentially chosen in prospective studies, the better to understand the impact of climatic change on past and present biodiversity. PMID:18958287</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19453170','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19453170"><span>Improvement of the hypocholesterolemic activities of two <span class="hlt">common</span> fruit fibers by micronization <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, She-Ching; Wu, Shiuan-Huei; Chau, Chi-Fai</p> <p>2009-06-24</p> <p>This study investigated and compared the potential hypocholesterolemic activities of different insoluble fibers (IFs) prepared from carambola and orange pomace with or without micronization <span class="hlt">processing</span>. After micronization, the cation-exchange and water-holding capacities of these pectic polysaccharide-rich IFs were effectively increased (from 140 to 180% and from 260 to 290%, respectively). The abilities of these microsized fruit IFs to lower the concentrations of serum triglyceride (by 15.6-17.8%) and serum total cholesterol (by 15.7-17.0%) were significantly (p < 0.05) improved, possibly by means of enhancing the excretion of cholesterol (123-126%) and bile acids (129-133%) in feces. Fecal moisture content was also increased (127-131%) by the consumption of microsized IFs. These results demonstrated that particle size is an important factor in affecting the characteristics and physiological functions of insoluble fibers. The approach of micronization <span class="hlt">processing</span> might offer the industry an opportunity to improve the physiological functions of food fibers in fiber-rich functional food applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19883494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19883494"><span>Bottom-up and top-down <span class="hlt">processes</span> in emotion generation: <span class="hlt">common</span> and distinct neural mechanisms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ochsner, Kevin N; Ray, Rebecca R; Hughes, Brent; McRae, Kateri; Cooper, Jeffrey C; Weber, Jochen; Gabrieli, John D E; Gross, James J</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Emotions are generally thought to arise through the interaction of bottom-up and top-down <span class="hlt">processes</span>. However, prior work has not delineated their relative contributions. In a sample of 20 females, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare the neural correlates of negative emotions generated by the bottom-up perception of aversive images and by the top-down interpretation of neutral images as aversive. We found that (a) both types of responses activated the amygdala, although bottom-up responses did so more strongly; (b) bottom-up responses activated systems for attending to and encoding perceptual and affective stimulus properties, whereas top-down responses activated prefrontal regions that represent high-level cognitive interpretations; and (c) self-reported affect correlated with activity in the amygdala during bottom-up responding and with activity in the medial prefrontal cortex during top-down responding. These findings provide a neural foundation for emotion theories that posit multiple kinds of appraisal <span class="hlt">processes</span> and help to clarify mechanisms underlying clinically relevant forms of emotion dysregulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMM%26M..16b4501C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMM%26M..16b4501C"><span>Ge/IIIV fin field-effect transistor <span class="hlt">common</span> gate <span class="hlt">process</span> and numerical simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Bo-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Lin; Chu, Chun-Lin; Luo, Guang-Li; Lee, Shyong; Chang, Edward Yi</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>This study investigates the manufacturing <span class="hlt">process</span> of thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) and analyzes its thermal and physical mechanisms. Moreover, experimental observations and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are both used to investigate the formation and deposition rate of a film for precisely controlling the thickness and structure of the deposited material. First, the design of the TALD system model is analyzed, and then CFD is used to simulate the optimal parameters, such as gas flow and the thermal, pressure, and concentration fields, in the manufacturing <span class="hlt">process</span> to assist the fabrication of oxide-semiconductors and devices based on them, and to improve their characteristics. In addition, the experiment applies ALD to grow films on Ge and GaAs substrates with three-dimensional (3-D) transistors having high electric performance. The electrical analysis of dielectric properties, leakage current density, and trapped charges for the transistors is conducted by high- and low-frequency measurement instruments to determine the optimal conditions for 3-D device fabrication. It is anticipated that the competitive strength of such devices in the semiconductor industry will be enhanced by the reduction of cost and improvement of device performance through these optimizations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20424096','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20424096"><span>Self-control without a "self"?: <span class="hlt">common</span> self-control <span class="hlt">processes</span> in humans and dogs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miller, Holly C; Pattison, Kristina F; DeWall, C Nathan; Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca; Zentall, Thomas R</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Self-control constitutes a fundamental aspect of human nature. Yet there is reason to believe that human and nonhuman self-control <span class="hlt">processes</span> rely on the same biological mechanism--the availability of glucose in the bloodstream. Two experiments tested this hypothesis by examining the effect of available blood glucose on the ability of dogs to exert self-control. Experiment 1 showed that dogs that were required to exert self-control on an initial task persisted for a shorter time on a subsequent unsolvable task than did dogs that were not previously required to exert self-control. Experiment 2 demonstrated that providing dogs with a boost of glucose eliminated the negative effects of prior exertion of self-control on persistence; this finding parallels a similar effect in humans. These findings provide the first evidence that self-control relies on the same limited energy resource among humans and nonhumans. Our results have broad implications for the study of self-control <span class="hlt">processes</span> in human and nonhuman species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2280P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2280P"><span>How <span class="hlt">common</span> are aeolian <span class="hlt">processes</span> on planetary bodies with very thin atmospheres?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pähtz, Thomas; Duran, Orencio</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Observations from the Voyager 2, New Horizons, and Rosetta missions indicate that aeolian surface features, such as ripples and dunes, do not only occur on the surfaces of Earth, Mars, and Titan, but seemingly also on the surfaces of planetary bodies with extremely thin atmospheres, such as Triton, Pluto, and the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This is highly intriguing since the saltation-threshold wind shear velocities predicted for these bodies from standard saltation-threshold models are so large that wind erosion actually should not occur. Here, guided by coupled DEM/RANS numerical simulations of sediment transport in Newtonian fluid using the numerical model by Duran et al. (POF 24, 103306, 2012), we propose an analytical model based entirely on physical princinples that predicts the minimal fluid speeds required to sustain sediment transport in Newtonian fluid. The analytical model is consistent with measurements of the transport threshold in water and Earth's air and with a recent observational estimate of the threshold on Mars. When applied to Triton and Pluto, it predicts threshold wind shear velocities (ut) of about 1-3m/s, which is comparable to wind shear occurring during storms on Earth and Mars, for particles with diameters (d) within the range d ∈ [200,3000]μm. The minimal values (≈ 1m/s) are thereby predicted for surprisingly large particles with d ≈ 2000μm. When applied to 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the analytical model predicts threshold wind shear velocities that are fairly extreme (e.g., ut = 45m/s for d = 1cm), but nonetheless consistent with wind shear velocities estimated to occur on this comet. From our results, we conclude that surface-shaping wind erosion and thus the occurrence of aeolian surface features might be much more <span class="hlt">common</span> on low-air-density planetary bodies than previously thought.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25743587','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25743587"><span>[Examination of <span class="hlt">processed</span> vegetable foods for the presence of <span class="hlt">common</span> DNA sequences of genetically modified tomatoes].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Ubukata, Shoji; Akiyama, Hiroshi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The contamination of <span class="hlt">processed</span> vegetable foods with genetically modified tomatoes was investigated by the use of qualitative PCR methods to detect the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (P35S) and the kanamycin resistance gene (NPTII). DNA fragments of P35S and NPTII were detected in vegetable juice samples, possibly due to contamination with the genomes of cauliflower mosaic virus infecting juice ingredients of Brassica species and soil bacteria, respectively. Therefore, to detect the transformation construct sequences of GM tomatoes, primer pairs were designed for qualitative PCR to specifically detect the border region between P35S and NPTII, and the border region between nopaline synthase gene promoter and NPTII. No amplification of the targeted sequences was observed using genomic DNA purified from the juice ingredients. The developed qualitative PCR method is considered to be a reliable tool to check contamination of products with GM tomatoes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4898687','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4898687"><span>Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases: do they share a <span class="hlt">common</span> soil? The Asian Indian experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pradeepa, Rajendra; Nazir, Adamsha; Mohan, Viswanathan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In India, diabetes and cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) are growing health problems. <span class="hlt">CVD</span> accounts for much of the increased morbidity and premature mortality associated with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, <span class="hlt">CVD</span> also occurs 2–3 decades earlier among diabetic subjects and runs a more aggressive course and has a worse prognosis. The pathophysiology of the link between diabetes and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> is complex and multifactorial and understanding the mechanisms of the disease can help identify and treat <span class="hlt">CVD</span> in patients with diabetes and vice versa. The current article reviews the <span class="hlt">common</span> antecedents between type 2 diabetes and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> including non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors and suggests that future research on diabetes and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> should focus on searching for risk factors for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> that may be more specific to diabetes, such as hypoglycaemia or medication related comorbidities. Also, the authors recommend research on <span class="hlt">common</span> genetic variants which might have stronger effects and hence have a potential role in diabetes and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk prediction. Finally, primary prevention trials trying to prevent both diabetes and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> are the urgent need of the hour! PMID:27326035</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25851057','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25851057"><span>The interaction between self-bias and reward: Evidence for <span class="hlt">common</span> and distinct <span class="hlt">processes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sui, Jie; Humphreys, Glyn W</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The perceptual matching of shapes and labels can be affected by both self- and reward-biases when shapes are linked either to labels referring to particular individuals (you, friend, stranger) or to different reward values (£8, £2, £0). We investigated the relations between these biases by varying the reward value associated with particular shape-label pairs (circle-you, square-friend, triangle-stranger). Self shape-label pairs (circle-you) always received no reward, while friend shape-label pairs (square-friend) received high reward and stranger shape-label pairs low reward (triangle-stranger), or the reverse (friend-low reward; stranger-high reward). Despite receiving no reward, responses to self-related pairs were advantaged relative to those to low-reward stimuli and did not differ from those to high-reward items. There was also an advantage for responses to high-reward friend pairs relative to low-reward stranger stimuli, and for high-reward stranger stimuli compared to low-reward friends. Correlations across individuals were found across trial blocks for both the self-advantage and the high-reward advantage, but the self- and reward-advantages were uncorrelated. This suggests that the self- and reward-advantage effects have different origins. In addition, the magnitude of the self-advantage varied according to the rated personal distance between a participant and a stranger. For individuals manifesting a close personal distance to strangers, the self-advantage was smaller, and sensitivity to reward influenced the difference between the self- and high-reward conditions. For individuals manifesting a large personal distance to strangers, sensitivity to reward did not affect self-matching. We suggest that self-advantages on perceptual matching arise independent of reward for individuals with a large personal distance to strangers. On the other hand, in individuals with a weak self-bias, high reward and the self modulate a <span class="hlt">common</span> subjective value system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApPhL.110z3110S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApPhL.110z3110S"><span>High mobility dry-transferred <span class="hlt">CVD</span> bilayer graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmitz, Michael; Engels, Stephan; Banszerus, Luca; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Stampfer, Christoph; Beschoten, Bernd</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>We report on the fabrication and characterization of high-quality chemical vapor-deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) bilayer graphene (BLG). In particular, we demonstrate that <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown BLG can be detached mechanically from the copper foil by a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) crystal after oxidation of the copper-to-BLG interface. Confocal Raman spectroscopy reveals an AB-stacking order of the BLG crystals and a high structural quality. From transport measurements on fully encapsulated hBN/BLG/hBN Hall bar devices, we extract charge carrier mobilities up to 180 000 cm2/(Vs) at 2 K and up to 40 000 cm2/(Vs) at 300 K, outperforming state-of-the-art <span class="hlt">CVD</span> bilayer graphene devices. Moreover, we show an on-off ratio of more than 10 000 and a band gap opening with values of up to 15 meV for a displacement field of 0.2 V/nm in such <span class="hlt">CVD</span> grown BLG.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARD30012H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARD30012H"><span>Negative Photoconductivity and Carrier Heating in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heyman, James; Alebachew, Banteaymolu; Banman, Andrew; Kaminski, Zofia; Foo Kune, Rhyan; Stein, Jacob; Massari, Aaron; Robinson, Jeremy</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Ultrafast photoexcitation of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene typically leads to a transient decrease in conductivity. Previous reports identify two possible mechanisms for this decrease: carrier heating leading to a decrease in mobility, and a photo-induced population inversion producing a negative dynamic resistance. We present time-resolved THz transmission (TRTS) measurements which show that population inversion is not required to observe negative photoconductivity in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene and confirm the role of carrier heating. In p-type <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene samples interband optical transitions are blocked for pump photon energies less than twice the Fermi energy. However, our pump photon-energy resolved TRTS measurements exhibit negative photoconductivity at all pump wavelengths investigated, indicating that interband excitation leading to population inversion is not required to observe this effect. In addition, we have performed TRTS measurements on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene in magnetic fields that separately probe carrier mobility and population. We find that negative photoconductivity following photoexcitation primarily arises from a decrease in carrier mobility, confirming the role of carrier heating. Research at NRL was supported by the Office of Naval Research. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under the RUI grant DMR-1006065.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14653311','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14653311"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">common</span>-use pesticides on developmental and reproductive <span class="hlt">processes</span> in Daphnia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kashian, Donna R; Dodson, Stanley I</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>Daphnia magna were evaluated for use as a screen for pesticides that have been demonstrated to have estrogenic (o'p'-DDT, di-n-butyl phthalate, toxaphene), anti-androgenic (p'p-DDE, linuron), thyroid (acetochlor, alachlor, metribuzin), insulin (amitraz) or lutenizing hormone (2,4-D) activity in vertebrates, and to establish daphnid sensitivity to these compounds. Pesticides with unknown effects on vertebrate endocrine systems (chlorosulfuran, cyanazine, diflubenzuron, metolachlor, and diquat) were also evaluated. Compounds were assayed for six days at environmentally relevant concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 100 mirog/L, using female Daphnia and their offspring. Sublethal endpoints included offspring sex (sex determination), clutch size (fecundity), and adult size (growth rate). Toxaphene was the only compound that affected sexual differentiation, increasing male production. Daphnia fecundity declined with exposure to toxaphene, and daphnid growth rates were reduced by acetochlor exposure. Diflubenzuron, o'p'-DDT, and p'p-DDE significantly reduced Daphnia survival. No correlation existed between affected reproductive or developmental <span class="hlt">processes</span> and specific endocrine systems or subsystems. Results from this study indicate that Daphnia make a good screen for assessing potential environmental impacts but are not a useful indicator of pesticide hormonal activity in vertebrates. This assay consistently detected sublethal but ecologically relevant effects of these pesticides on Daphnia at environmentally relevant concentrations typically below their listed EC50 value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21441460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21441460"><span>Colonization <span class="hlt">process</span> of the Brazilian <span class="hlt">common</span> vesper mouse, Calomys expulsus (Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae): a biogeographic hypothesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nascimento, Fabrícia Ferreira do; Pereira, Luciana G; Geise, Lena; Bezerra, Alexandra M R; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Bonvicino, Cibele R</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Riverine barriers have been associated to genetic diversification and speciation of several taxa. The Rio São Francisco is one of the largest rivers in South America, representing the third largest river basin in Brazil and operating as a geographic barrier to gene flow of different taxa. To evaluate the influence of the Rio São Francisco in the speciation of small rodents, we investigated the genetic structure of Calomys expulsus with phylogenetic and network analyses of cytochrome b DNA. Our results suggested that C. expulsus can be divided into 3 subpopulations, 2 on the left and another one on the right bank of this river. The time of divergence of these subpopulations, using a Bayesian framework, suggested colonization from the south to the north/northeast. Spatial analysis using a clustering method and the Monmonier's algorithm suggested that the Rio São Francisco is a biogeographic barrier to gene flow and indicated that this river may play a role in the incipient speciation <span class="hlt">process</span> of these subpopulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21474941','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21474941"><span>Healing <span class="hlt">process</span> of the guinea pig <span class="hlt">common</span> bile duct after end-to-end anastomosis: pathological evaluation after 6 months.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, X; Tian, Y; Xu, Z; Wang, L; Hou, C; Ling, X</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The healing <span class="hlt">process</span> of an injured bile duct is always associated with stricture formation, the specific mechanism of which remains unclear. Our objective in this study was to establish a guinea pig <span class="hlt">common</span> bile duct end-to-end anastomosis (EEA) model after total transection of the <span class="hlt">common</span> bile duct and to assess the postoperative healing <span class="hlt">process</span> after 6 months. Thirty-two male guinea pigs were randomly divided into 4 groups with or without operation (a control group without operation and 3 groups examined 2, 3 and 6 months after biliary EEA reconstruction, respectively). Histological, immunohistochemical (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, α-smooth muscle actin, h-caldesmon, and Bcl-2 expression) and ultrastructural characteristics were examined and evaluated. Myofibroblasts (MFBs) were differentiated from smooth muscle cells by α-SMA and h-caldesmon staining. Gross inspection of operated bile ducts revealed coarctation formation at the anastomotic stoma. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations showed significant inflammatory reaction, the presence of MFBs, epithelial proliferation and glandular element hyperplasia. Bcl-2 expression decreased in groups 2 and 3, indicating an epithelial self-protecting mechanism. A guinea pig <span class="hlt">common</span> bile duct EEA model was successfully established. Glandular elements, bile duct epithelial cells and MFBs all played crucial roles in the bile duct healing <span class="hlt">process</span>. It seems important to elucidate the pathomechanisms of these components for restoring bile duct physiological function. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApNan...6.1211I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApNan...6.1211I"><span>Low-temperature growth of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers by acetonitrile catalytic <span class="hlt">CVD</span> using Ni-based catalysts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Makino, Yuri; Fukukawa, Makoto; Nakamura, Hideya; Watano, Satoru</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>To synthesize nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (N-CNFs) at high growth rates and low temperatures less than 673 K, nickel species (metallic nickel and nickel oxide) supported on alumina particles were used as the catalysts for an acetonitrile catalytic chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) <span class="hlt">process</span>. The nickel:alumina mass ratio in the catalysts was fixed at 0.05:1. The catalyst precursors were prepared from various nickel salts (nitrate, chloride, sulfate, acetate, and lactate) and then calcined at 1073 K for 1 h in oxidative (air), reductive (hydrogen-containing argon), or inert (pure argon) atmospheres to activate the nickel-based catalysts. The effects of precursors and calcination atmosphere on the catalyst activity at low temperatures were studied. We found that the catalysts derived from nickel nitrate had relatively small crystallite sizes of nickel species and provided N-CNFs at high growth rates of 57 ± 4 g-CNF/g-Ni/h at 673 K in the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> using 10 vol% hydrogen-containing argon as the carrier gas of acetonitrile vapor, which were approximately 4 times larger than that of a conventional <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span>. The obtained results reveal that nitrate ions in the catalyst precursor and hydrogen in the carrier gas can contribute effectively to the activation of catalysts in low-temperature <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. The fiber diameter and nitrogen content of N-CNFs synthesized at high growth rates were several tens of nanometers and 3.5 ± 0.3 at.%, respectively. Our catalysts and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> may lead to cost reductions in the production of N-CNFs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MAR.H1197T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MAR.H1197T"><span>A first principles study on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene growth on copper surfaces: C-C bonding reactions at graphene edges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tajima, Nobuo; Kaneko, Tomoaki; Nara, Jun; Takahisa, Ohno</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Graphene has attracted considerable research interest owing to its potential application to future electronic devices. Large area and high quality graphene is needed for device applications. Chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) using a copper surface with a hydrocarbon source is one of the practical methods to produce graphene. This method is appropriate for creating large area graphene with low cost, and the graphene growth control to obtain a high quality product is a remaining challenge. The carbon atom nucleation and cluster growth <span class="hlt">processes</span> in the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reactions have been studied extensively as key steps that affect the graphene growth behavior. We have been studying the carbon atom reactions in these <span class="hlt">processes</span> by theoretical approaches In the present study, we have focused on the later stage of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reaction, that is, carbon atom reactions at graphene edges by which carbon clusters grow in the Cu-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> We have found that these reactions have energy barriers of ~1 eV. First principles simulation code PHASE http://www.ciss.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/riss/english/project/device/) was used in the theoretical calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21951254','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21951254"><span>The <span class="hlt">process</span>-knowledge model of health literacy: evidence from a componential analysis of two <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used measures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chin, Jessie; Morrow, Daniel G; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L; Conner-Garcia, Thembi; Graumlich, James F; Murray, Michael D</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We investigated the effects of domain-general <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity (fluid ability such as working memory), domain-general knowledge (crystallized ability such as vocabulary), and domain-specific health knowledge for two of the most <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used measures of health literacy (S-TOFHLA and REALM). One hundred forty six community-dwelling older adults participated; 103 had been diagnosed with hypertension. The results showed that older adults who had higher levels of <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity or knowledge (domain-general or health) performed better on both of the health literacy measures. <span class="hlt">Processing</span> capacity interacted with knowledge: <span class="hlt">Processing</span> capacity had a lower level of association with health literacy for participants with more knowledge than for those with lower levels of knowledge, suggesting that knowledge may offset the effects of <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity limitations on health literacy. Furthermore, performance on the two health literacy measures appeared to reflect a different weighting for the three types of abilities. S-TOFHLA performance reflected <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity as well as general knowledge, whereas performance on the REALM depended more on general and health knowledge than on <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity. The findings support a <span class="hlt">process</span>-knowledge model of health literacy among older adults, and have implications for selecting health literacy measures in various health care contexts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3310366','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3310366"><span>The <span class="hlt">Process</span>-Knowledge Model of Health Literacy: Evidence from a Componential Analysis of Two <span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Used Measures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chin, Jessie; Morrow, Daniel G.; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Conner-Garcia, Thembi; Graumlich, James F.; Murray, Michael D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We investigated the effects of domain-general <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity (fluid ability such as working memory), domain-general knowledge (crystallized ability such as vocabulary), and domain-specific health knowledge for two of the most <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used measures of health literacy (S-TOFHLA and REALM). One hundred forty six community-dwelling older adults participated; 103 had been diagnosed with hypertension. The results showed that older adults who had higher levels of <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity or knowledge (domain-general or health) performed better on both of the health literacy measures. <span class="hlt">Processing</span> capacity interacted with knowledge: <span class="hlt">Processing</span> capacity had a lower level of association with health literacy for participants with more knowledge than for those with lower levels of knowledge, suggesting that knowledge may offset the effects of <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity limitations on health literacy. Furthermore, performance on the two health literacy measures appeared to reflect a different weighting for the three types of abilities. S-TOFHLA performance reflected <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity as well as general knowledge, whereas performance on the REALM depended more on general and health knowledge than on <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity. The findings support a <span class="hlt">process</span>-knowledge model of health literacy among older adults, and have implications for selecting health literacy measures in various health care contexts. PMID:21951254</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25190015','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25190015"><span>Iron (III) chloride doping of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Song, Yi; Fang, Wenjing; Hsu, Allen L; Kong, Jing</p> <p>2014-10-03</p> <p>Chemical doping has been shown as an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. We present the results of our investigations into doping large area chemical vapor deposition graphene using Iron (III) Chloride (FeCl(3)). It is shown that evaporating FeCl(3) can increase the carrier concentration of monolayer graphene to greater than 10(14) cm(-2) and achieve resistances as low as 72 Ω sq(-1). We also evaluate other important properties of the doped graphene such as surface cleanliness, air stability, and solvent stability. Furthermore, we compare FeCl(3) to three other <span class="hlt">common</span> dopants: Gold (III) Chloride (AuCl(3)), Nitric Acid (HNO(3)), and TFSA ((CF(3)SO(2))(2)NH). We show that compared to these dopants, FeCl(3) can not only achieve better sheet resistance but also has other key advantages including better solvent stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3162189','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3162189"><span>Oxidative DNA Damage in Blood of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Patients Taking Detralex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krzyściak, Wirginia; Cierniak, Agnieszka; Kózka, Mariusz; Kozieł, Joanna</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The main goal of the work reported here was to determine the degree of oxidative/alkali-labile DNA damages in peripheral blood as well as in the blood stasis from varicose vein of (chronic venous disorder) <span class="hlt">CVD</span> patients. Moreover, determination of the impact of Detralex usage on the level of (oxidative) DNA damages in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> patients was evaluated as well. The degree of oxidative DNA damages was studied in a group consisted of thirty patients with diagnosed chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) in the 2nd and 3rd degree, according to clinical state, etiology, anatomy and pathophysiology (CEAP), and qualified to surgical procedure. The control group consisted of normal volunteers (blood donors) qualified during standard examinations at Regional Centers of Blood Donation and Blood Therapy. The comet assay was used for determination of DNA damages. Analyses of the obtained results showed increase in the level of oxidative/alkali-labile DNA damages in lymphocytes originating from antebrachial blood of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> patients as compared to the control group (Control) (p < 0.002; ANOVA). In addition, it was demonstrated that the usage of Detralex® resulted in decrease of the level of oxidative/alkali-labile DNA damages in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> patients as compared to patients without Detralex® treatment (p < 0.001; ANOVA). Based on findings from the study, it may be hypothesized about occurrence of significant oxidative DNA damages as the consequence of strong oxidative stress in <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. In addition, antioxidative effectiveness of Detralexu® was observed at the recommended dose, one tablet twice daily. PMID:21912579</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2286..229S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2286..229S"><span>Optical and dielectric properties of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> polycrystalline diamond plates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sussmann, Ricardo S.; Wort, Christopher J. H.; Sweeney, Charles G.; Collins, J. L.; Dodge, C. N.; Savage, James A.</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>Optical, and dielectric properties of free-standing plates of polycrystalline diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) are reported and compared with Type IIa natural single crystal diamond specimens. Ultra-violet, visible, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies have been used to assess the optical quality of the material. It has been found that over most of the spectral range, except at short wavelengths close to the fundamental edge, the transmission of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> plates is almost indistinguishable from that of Type IIa natural diamond. In the visible and ultra-violet the transmission is reduced due to a combination of scattering and true absorption. The imaging potential of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond at 10.6 micrometers wavelength has been assessed by measurements of modulation transfer function (MTF). The intrinsic optical quality of the material is adequate for imaging in the infrared region but improvements are needed to planarize the optical surfaces in order to minimize astigmatism and lensing. Measurements of dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent were performed at 36 GHz, 72 GHz, and 144 GHz microwave frequencies using an open resonator technique. Bulk values of dielectric loss tangent as low as 73 X 10-6 have been observed. There is evidence that these values may still be affected by surface effects and that the true value for the bulk dielectric loss tangent in high quality <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond plates studied in this paper could be as low as 30 X 10-6 or lower over a wide temperature range up to 250 degree(s)C, the lowest value of loss tangent so far reported for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20561554','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20561554"><span>Multiple aberrations in shared inflammatory and oxidative & nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways explain the co-association of depression and cardiovascular disorder (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>), and the increased risk for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and due mortality in depressed patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maes, Michael; Ruckoanich, Piyanuj; Chang, Young Seun; Mahanonda, Nithi; Berk, Michael</p> <p>2011-04-29</p> <p>There is evidence that there is a bidirectional relationship between major depression and cardiovascular disorder (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>): depressed patients are a population at risk for increased cardiac morbidity and mortality, and depression is more frequent in patients who suffer from <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. There is also evidence that inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways underpin the <span class="hlt">common</span> pathophysiology of both <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and major depression. Activation of these pathways may increase risk for both disorders and contribute to shared risk. The shared IO&NS pathways that may contribute to <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and depression comprise the following: increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ; T cell activation; increased acute phase proteins, like C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, fibrinogen and α1-antitrypsin; complement factors; increased LPS load through bacterial translocation and subsequent gut-derived inflammation; induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase with increased levels of tryptophan catabolites; decreased levels of antioxidants, like coenzyme Q10, zinc, vitamin E, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase; increased O&NS characterized by oxidative damage to low density lipoprotein (LDL) and phospholipid inositol, increased malondialdehyde, and damage to DNA and mitochondria; increased nitrosative stress; and decreased ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The complex interplay between the abovementioned IO&NS pathways in depression results in pro-atherogenic effects and should be regarded as a risk factor to future clinical <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and due mortality. We suggest that major depression should be added as a risk factor to the Charlson "comorbidity" index. It is advised that patients with (sub)chronic or recurrent major depression should routinely be assessed by serology tests to predict if they have an increased risk to cardiovascular disorders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27544206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27544206"><span>Unity and disunity in evolutionary sciences: <span class="hlt">process</span>-based analogies open <span class="hlt">common</span> research avenues for biology and linguistics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>List, Johann-Mattis; Pathmanathan, Jananan Sylvestre; Lopez, Philippe; Bapteste, Eric</p> <p>2016-08-20</p> <p>For a long time biologists and linguists have been noticing surprising similarities between the evolution of life forms and languages. Most of the proposed analogies have been rejected. Some, however, have persisted, and some even turned out to be fruitful, inspiring the transfer of methods and models between biology and linguistics up to today. Most proposed analogies were based on a comparison of the research objects rather than the <span class="hlt">processes</span> that shaped their evolution. Focusing on <span class="hlt">process</span>-based analogies, however, has the advantage of minimizing the risk of overstating similarities, while at the same time reflecting the <span class="hlt">common</span> strategy to use <span class="hlt">processes</span> to explain the evolution of complexity in both fields. We compared important evolutionary <span class="hlt">processes</span> in biology and linguistics and identified <span class="hlt">processes</span> specific to only one of the two disciplines as well as <span class="hlt">processes</span> which seem to be analogous, potentially reflecting core evolutionary <span class="hlt">processes</span>. These new <span class="hlt">process</span>-based analogies support novel methodological transfer, expanding the application range of biological methods to the field of historical linguistics. We illustrate this by showing (i) how methods dealing with incomplete lineage sorting offer an introgression-free framework to analyze highly mosaic word distributions across languages; (ii) how sequence similarity networks can be used to identify composite and borrowed words across different languages; (iii) how research on partial homology can inspire new methods and models in both fields; and (iv) how constructive neutral evolution provides an original framework for analyzing convergent evolution in languages resulting from <span class="hlt">common</span> descent (Sapir's drift). Apart from new analogies between evolutionary <span class="hlt">processes</span>, we also identified <span class="hlt">processes</span> which are specific to either biology or linguistics. This shows that general evolution cannot be studied from within one discipline alone. In order to get a full picture of evolution, biologists and linguists need to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/801885','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/801885"><span>Cold Vacuum Drying (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) Set Point Determination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>PHILIPP, B.L.</p> <p>2000-03-21</p> <p>The Safety Class Instrumentation and Control (SCIC) system provides active detection and response to <span class="hlt">process</span> anomalies that, if unmitigated, would result in a safety event. Specifically, actuation of the SCIC system includes two portions. The portion which isolates the MCO and initiates the safety-class helium (SCHe) purge, and the portion which detects and stops excessive heat input to the MCO on high tempered water MCO inlet temperature. For the MCO isolation and purge, the SCIC receives signals from MCO pressure (both positive pressure and vacuum), helium flow rate, bay high temperature switches, seismic trips and time under vacuum trips.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=159585&keyword=Antioxidants&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=159585&keyword=Antioxidants&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) IN GENETICALLY PREDISPOSED RATS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Rodent <span class="hlt">CVD</span> models are increasingly used for understanding individual differences in susceptibility to environmental stressors such as air pollution. We characterized pathologies and a number of known human risk factors of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> in genetically predisposed, male young adult Spontaneo...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=143142&keyword=Antioxidants&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=143142&keyword=Antioxidants&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OZONE-INDUCED LUNG INJURY, ANTIOXIDANT COMPENSATION AND UNDERLYING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Increased levels of oxidants and compromised compensatory response are associated with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> susceptibility. We hypothesized that rat strains demonstrating genetic <span class="hlt">CVD</span> will have lower levels of antioxidants and greater ozone-induced pulmonary injury relative to healthy strains. Mal...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=143142&keyword=stroke&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90646353&CFTOKEN=64391558','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=143142&keyword=stroke&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90646353&CFTOKEN=64391558"><span>THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OZONE-INDUCED LUNG INJURY, ANTIOXIDANT COMPENSATION AND UNDERLYING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Increased levels of oxidants and compromised compensatory response are associated with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> susceptibility. We hypothesized that rat strains demonstrating genetic <span class="hlt">CVD</span> will have lower levels of antioxidants and greater ozone-induced pulmonary injury relative to healthy strains. Mal...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=159585&keyword=Lungs+AND+blood&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78709800&CFTOKEN=17591247','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=159585&keyword=Lungs+AND+blood&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78709800&CFTOKEN=17591247"><span>COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) IN GENETICALLY PREDISPOSED RATS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Rodent <span class="hlt">CVD</span> models are increasingly used for understanding individual differences in susceptibility to environmental stressors such as air pollution. We characterized pathologies and a number of known human risk factors of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> in genetically predisposed, male young adult Spontaneo...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15825438','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15825438"><span>[Changes of four <span class="hlt">common</span> plant populations growth and their anti-oxidative enzymatic system in desertification <span class="hlt">process</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Zhimei; Yang, Chi</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>This paper studied the changes of the growth and anti-oxidative enzymatic system of four <span class="hlt">common</span> plant populations during the desertification <span class="hlt">process</span> of sandy grassland. The results showed that in the <span class="hlt">process</span> of desertification, the individual height and density and the density percentage of the populations all had a decreasing trend. The growth of Melilotoides ruthenica was more vigorous before moderate desertification (MD) stage, but restricted after that. In MD stage, the growth of Leymus chinensis was heavily restricted, and its individual height, density and density percentage accounted for 57.19%, 2.50% and 6.22% of those in original vegetation (OV) stage, respectively. The individual height and density of Cleistogenes squarrosa and Artemisia frigida increased in the stages of potential desertification (PD), light desertification (LD) or MD because of their phase status of dominant species and their stronger stress resistance. The SOD and POD activities of the <span class="hlt">common</span> plant populations increased in PD and MD stages, but decreased in LD and heavy desertification (HD) stages. The CAT activity of Leymus chinensis was higher, whose response to desertification was not significant (P > 0.05), and that of Melilotoides ruthenica increased significantly in PD and HD stages (P < or = 0.01). The activities of the three anti-oxidative enzymes in the <span class="hlt">common</span> plant populations, except the CAT activity of Melilotoides ruthenica, decreased in HD stage. The MDA content in the <span class="hlt">common</span> populations increased firstly, then decreased, and finally increased from OV to MD stage, and had a significant difference in different desertification gradients (P < or = 0.05). Based on the integrated analysis of the ecological and physiological changes, it could be concluded that Leymus chinensis was more sensitive to desertification, while Melilotoides ruthenica had a stronger bioenergy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=96565','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=96565"><span>Expanded Safety and Immunogenicity of a Bivalent, Oral, Attenuated Cholera Vaccine, <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 103-HgR Plus <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111, in United States Military Personnel Stationed in Panama</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Taylor, David N.; Sanchez, José L.; Castro, José M.; Lebron, Carlos; Parrado, Carlos M.; Johnson, David E.; Tacket, Carol O.; Losonsky, Genevieve A.; Wasserman, Steven S.; Levine, Myron M.; Cryz, Stanley J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>To provide optimum protection against classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1, a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine was developed by combining two live, attenuated vaccine strains, <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 103-HgR (classical, Inaba) and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111 (El Tor, Ogawa). The vaccines were formulated in a double-chamber sachet; one chamber contained lyophilized bacteria, and the other contained buffer. A total of 170 partially-immune American soldiers stationed in Panama received one of the following five formulations: (a) <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 103-HgR at 108 CFU plus <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111 at 107 CFU, (b) <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 103-HgR at 108 CFU plus <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111 at 106 CFU, (c) <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 103-HgR alone at 108 CFU, (d) <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111 alone at 107 CFU, or (e) inactivated Escherichia coli placebo. Among those who received <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111 at the high or low dose either alone or in combination with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 103-HgR, 8 of 103 had diarrhea, defined as three or more liquid stools. None of the 32 volunteers who received <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 103-HgR alone or the 35 placebo recipients had diarrhea. <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111 was detected in the stools of 46% of the 103 volunteers who received it. About 65% of all persons who received <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 103-HgR either alone or in combination had a fourfold rise in Inaba vibriocidal titers. The postvaccination geometric mean titers were comparable among groups, ranging from 450 to 550. Ogawa vibriocidal titers were about twice as high in persons who received <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111 as in those who received <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 103-HgR alone (600 versus 300). The addition of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111 improved the overall seroconversion rate and doubled the serum Ogawa vibriocidal titers, suggesting that the combination of an El Tor and a classical cholera strain is desirable. While <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111 was previously found to be well tolerated in semiimmune Peruvians, the adverse effects observed in this study indicate that this strain requires further attenuation before it can be safely used in nonimmune populations. PMID:10085055</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10085055','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10085055"><span>Expanded safety and immunogenicity of a bivalent, oral, attenuated cholera vaccine, <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 103-HgR plus <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111, in United States military personnel stationed in Panama.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taylor, D N; Sanchez, J L; Castro, J M; Lebron, C; Parrado, C M; Johnson, D E; Tacket, C O; Losonsky, G A; Wasserman, S S; Levine, M M; Cryz, S J</p> <p>1999-04-01</p> <p>To provide optimum protection against classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1, a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine was developed by combining two live, attenuated vaccine strains, <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 103-HgR (classical, Inaba) and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111 (El Tor, Ogawa). The vaccines were formulated in a double-chamber sachet; one chamber contained lyophilized bacteria, and the other contained buffer. A total of 170 partially-immune American soldiers stationed in Panama received one of the following five formulations: (a) <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111 at 10(7) CFU, (b) <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111 at 10(6) CFU, (c) <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 103-HgR alone at 10(8) CFU, (d) <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111 alone at 10(7) CFU, or (e) inactivated Escherichia coli placebo. Among those who received <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111 at the high or low dose either alone or in combination with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 103-HgR, 8 of 103 had diarrhea, defined as three or more liquid stools. None of the 32 volunteers who received <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 103-HgR alone or the 35 placebo recipients had diarrhea. <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111 was detected in the stools of 46% of the 103 volunteers who received it. About 65% of all persons who received <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 103-HgR either alone or in combination had a fourfold rise in Inaba vibriocidal titers. The postvaccination geometric mean titers were comparable among groups, ranging from 450 to 550. Ogawa vibriocidal titers were about twice as high in persons who received <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111 as in those who received <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 103-HgR alone (600 versus 300). The addition of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111 improved the overall seroconversion rate and doubled the serum Ogawa vibriocidal titers, suggesting that the combination of an El Tor and a classical cholera strain is desirable. While <span class="hlt">CVD</span> 111 was previously found to be well tolerated in semiimmune Peruvians, the adverse effects observed in this study indicate that this strain requires further attenuation before it can be safely used in nonimmune populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9575E..0NS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9575E..0NS"><span>Material removal characteristics of orthogonal velocity polishing tool for efficient fabrication of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC mirror surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seo, Hyunju; Han, Jeong-Yeol; Kim, Sug-Whan; Seong, Sehyun; Yoon, Siyoung; Lee, Kyungmook; Lee, Haengbok</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Today, <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC mirrors are readily available in the market. However, it is well known to the community that the key surface fabrication <span class="hlt">processes</span> and, in particular, the material removal characteristics of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC mirror surface varies sensitively depending on the shop floor polishing and figuring variables. We investigated the material removal characteristics of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC mirror surfaces using a new and patented polishing tool called orthogonal velocity tool (OVT) that employs two orthogonal velocity fields generated simultaneously during polishing and figuring machine runs. We built an in-house OVT machine and its operating principle allows for generation of pseudo Gaussian shapes of material removal from the target surface. The shapes are very similar to the tool influence functions (TIFs) of other polishing machine such as IRP series polishing machines from Zeeko. Using two <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC mirrors of 150 mm in diameter and flat surface, we ran trial material removal experiments over the machine run parameter ranges from 12.901 to 25.867 psi in pressure, 0.086 m/sec to 0.147 m/sec in tool linear velocity, and 5 to 15 sec in dwell time. An in-house developed data analysis program was used to obtain a number of Gaussian shaped TIFs and the resulting material removal coefficient varies from 3.35 to 9.46 um/psi hour m/sec with the mean value to 5.90 ± 1.26(standard deviation). We report the technical details of the new OVT machine, of the data analysis program, of the experiments and the results together with the implications to the future development of the OVT machine and <span class="hlt">process</span> for large <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC mirror surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880061738&hterms=chemical+reactors&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dchemical%2Breactors','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880061738&hterms=chemical+reactors&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dchemical%2Breactors"><span>Numerical modeling of chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) in a horizontal reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sheikholeslami, M. Z.; Jasinski, T.; Fretz, K. W.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>In the present numerical prediction of the deposition rate of silicon from silane in a <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span>, the conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy, and chemical species are solved on a staggered grid using the SIMPLE algorithm, while the rate of chemical reactions in the gas phase and on the susceptor surface is obtained from an Arrhenius rate equation. Predicted deposition rates as a function of position along the susceptor with and without the gas phase chemical reaction are compared with the available experimental and numerical data; agreement is excellent except at the leading edge of the susceptor, where the deposition rate is overpredicted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880061738&hterms=chemical+equation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dchemical%2Bequation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880061738&hterms=chemical+equation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dchemical%2Bequation"><span>Numerical modeling of chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) in a horizontal reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sheikholeslami, M. Z.; Jasinski, T.; Fretz, K. W.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>In the present numerical prediction of the deposition rate of silicon from silane in a <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span>, the conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy, and chemical species are solved on a staggered grid using the SIMPLE algorithm, while the rate of chemical reactions in the gas phase and on the susceptor surface is obtained from an Arrhenius rate equation. Predicted deposition rates as a function of position along the susceptor with and without the gas phase chemical reaction are compared with the available experimental and numerical data; agreement is excellent except at the leading edge of the susceptor, where the deposition rate is overpredicted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4049504','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4049504"><span>TGF-β stimulation in human and murine cells reveals <span class="hlt">commonly</span> affected biological <span class="hlt">processes</span> and pathways at transcription level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background The TGF-β signaling pathway is a fundamental pathway in the living cell, which plays a key role in many central cellular <span class="hlt">processes</span>. The complex and sometimes contradicting mechanisms by which TGF-β yields phenotypic effects are not yet completely understood. In this study we investigated and compared the transcriptional response profile of TGF-β1 stimulation in different cell types. For this purpose, extensive experiments are performed and time-course microarray data are generated in human and mouse parenchymal liver cells, human mesenchymal stromal cells and mouse hematopoietic progenitor cells at different time points. We applied a panel of bioinformatics methods on our data to uncover <span class="hlt">common</span> patterns in the dynamic gene expression response in respective cells. Results Our analysis revealed a quite variable and multifaceted transcriptional response profile of TGF-β1 stimulation, which goes far beyond the well-characterized classical TGF-β1 signaling pathway. Nonetheless, we could identify several <span class="hlt">commonly</span> affected <span class="hlt">processes</span> and signaling pathways across cell types and species. In addition our analysis suggested an important role of the transcription factor EGR1, which appeared to have a conserved influence across cell-types and species. Validation via an independent dataset on A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells largely confirmed our findings. Network analysis suggested explanations, how TGF-β1 stimulation could lead to the observed effects. Conclusions The analysis of dynamical transcriptional response to TGF-β treatment experiments in different human and murine cell systems revealed <span class="hlt">commonly</span> affected biological <span class="hlt">processes</span> and pathways, which could be linked to TGF-β1 via network analysis. This helps to gain insights about TGF-β pathway activities in these cell systems and its conserved interactions between the species and tissue types. PMID:24886091</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2050491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2050491"><span>Programme notes. 36th IPA Congress, Rome, 1989. The search for <span class="hlt">common</span> ground: clinical aims and <span class="hlt">processes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Richards, A D</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a summary and an overview of the 36th IPA Congress, '<span class="hlt">Common</span> ground in psychoanalysis: clinical aims and <span class="hlt">processes</span>'. The theme emerged from Dr Robert Wallerstein's 1987 Montreal Congress Plenary Address, 'One psychoanalysis or many'. The paper focuses on the three Rome Plenary presentations and their discussions, Wallerstein's presidential address, and the final panel review. A paper presented at the meeting by Charles Hanly, 'The concept of truth in psychoanalysis', which outlines theories of truth: correspondence versus coherence, provides the conceptual tools for considering the different points of view. The author shares Hanly's support for a pragmatically qualified commitment to a correspondence theory of truth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25212326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25212326"><span>Reduction of antiproliferative capacities, cell-based antioxidant capacities and phytochemical contents of <span class="hlt">common</span> beans and soybeans upon thermal <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The effects of boiling and steaming <span class="hlt">processes</span> on the antiproliferative and cellular antioxidant properties, as well as phytochemicals, of two types of <span class="hlt">common</span> beans (pinto and black beans) and two types of soybeans (yellow and black) were investigated. All thermal-<span class="hlt">processing</span> methods caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in total phenolic content (TPC), total saponin content (TSC) and phytic acid content (PAC) values in all bean types (except for TPC values in pressure-steamed yellow soybeans) as compared to those of the raw beans. All types of uncooked raw beans exhibited cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in dose-dependent manners. Black soybeans exhibited the greatest CAA, followed by black beans, pinto beans and yellow soybeans. The CAA of cooked beans were generally diminished or eliminated by thermal <span class="hlt">processing</span>. The hydrophilic extracts from raw pinto beans, black beans and black soybeans exhibited antiproliferation capacities against human gastric (AGS) and colorectal (SW480) cancer cells in dose-dependent manners. The raw yellow soybeans exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferation activities against the SW480 cells. Most of the cooked beans lost their antiproliferation capacities as observed in the raw beans. These results indicate that different <span class="hlt">processing</span> methods may have various effects on phytochemical profiles and bioactivities. Overall, thermal <span class="hlt">processing</span> caused a significant reduction of the health-promotion effects of beans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/804794','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/804794"><span>Cold Vacuum Drying (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) Set Point Determination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>PHILIPP, B.L.</p> <p>2000-09-04</p> <p>The Safety Class Instrumentation and Control (SCIC) system provides active detection and response to <span class="hlt">process</span> anomalies that, if unmitigated, would result in a safety event. Specifically, actuation of the SCIC system includes two portions. The portion which isolates the MCO and initiates the safety-class helium (SCHe) purge, and the portion which detects and stops excessive heat input to the MCO annulus on high Tempered Water (TW) inlet temperature. For the MCO isolation and purge, the SCIC receives MCO pressure (both positive pressure and vacuum), helium flow rate, bay high temperature switch status, seismic trip status, and time-under-vacuum trips signals. The SCIC system will isolate the MCO and start an SCHe system purge if any of the following occur. (1) Isolation and purge from one of the SCHe ''isolation'' and ''purge'' buttons is manually initiated (administratively controlled). (2) The first vacuum cycle exceeds 8 hours at vacuum, or any subsequent vacuum cycle exceeds 4 hours at vacuum without re-pressurizing the MCO for a minimum of 4 hours. (This is referred to as the 8/4/4 requirement and provides thermal equilibrium within the MCO.) (3) MCO is below atmospheric pressure and the helium flow is below the minimum required to keep hydrogen less than 4% by volume. (When MCO pressure is below 12 torr there is insufficient hydrogen to exceed the 4% level and therefore no purge is required. A five minute time delay on low flow allows flow to be stopped in order to reach < 12 torr.) (4) The duration for the transition from above atmospheric pressure to vacuum (time to reach pressure below -11.7 psig [{approx}155 torr]) exceeds 5 minutes. (5) The duration for the transition from vacuum (below -11.1 psig [{approx}185 torr]) back to pressure [greater than 0.5 psig] exceeds 5 minutes. (6) MCO reaches a vacuum state (<0.5 psig) without an adequate, verified purge volume. (The MCO must be maintained above atmospheric pressure (approximately 0.5 psig) to prevent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16806379','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16806379"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond coating layer using leaky Rayleigh wave.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Song, Sung-Jin; Kim, Hak-Joon; Wang, Wen-Wu; Yang, Dong-Ju; Kim, Young H; Kwon, Sung D; Takagi, T; Uchimoto, T; Abe, T</p> <p>2006-12-22</p> <p>In the present study, the possibility of using leaky Rayleigh waves as a nondestructive tool for the evaluation of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond coating layer is explored experimentally. For this purpose, a set of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond coated specimens are prepared and the leaky Rayleigh waves are measured in an immersion, pulse-echo setup. For the proper analysis of the acquired signals we propose a novel signal analysis approach, namely the "time trace angular scan (TTAS)" image. Then, the proposed approach together with the backward radiation profiles are applied for the analysis of signals acquired in the initial experiments. The TTAS image shows the entire information on both time-of-arrival and angle of incidence of the signals for the proper "time-angle windowing." Then, the backward radiation profile of the windowed signals provides adequate parameters from which nondestructive evaluation of the coated specimens is carried out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/826973','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/826973"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> Diamonds in the BABAR Radiation Monitoring System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bruinsma, M</p> <p>2004-06-28</p> <p>To prevent excessive radiation damage to its Silicon Vertex Tracker, the BaBar experiment at SLAC uses a radiation monitoring and protection system that triggers a beam abort whenever radiation levels are anomalously high. The existing system, which employs large area Si PIN diodes as radiation sensors, has become increasingly difficult to operate due to radiation damage. We have studied <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond sensors as a potential alternative for these silicon sensors. Two diamond sensors have been routinely used since their installation in the Vertex Tracker in August 2002. The experience with these sensors and a variety of tests in the laboratory have shown <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamonds to be a viable solution for dosimetry in high radiation environments. However, our studies have also revealed surprising side-effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5144007','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5144007"><span>In situ size sorting in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> synthesis of Si microspheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Garín, M.; Fenollosa, R.; Kowalski, L.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Silicon microspheres produced in gas-phase by hot-wall <span class="hlt">CVD</span> offer unique quality in terms of sphericity, surface smoothness, and size. However, the spheres produced are polydisperse in size, which typically range from 0.5 μm to 5 μm. In this work we show through experiments and calculations that thermophoretic forces arising from strong temperature gradients inside the reactor volume effectively sort the particles in size along the reactor. These temperature gradients are shown to be produced by a convective gas flow. The results prove that it is possible to select the particle size by collecting them in a particular reactor region, opening new possibilities towards the production by <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of size-controlled high-quality silicon microspheres. PMID:27929055</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...638719G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...638719G"><span>In situ size sorting in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> synthesis of Si microspheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garín, M.; Fenollosa, R.; Kowalski, L.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Silicon microspheres produced in gas-phase by hot-wall <span class="hlt">CVD</span> offer unique quality in terms of sphericity, surface smoothness, and size. However, the spheres produced are polydisperse in size, which typically range from 0.5 μm to 5 μm. In this work we show through experiments and calculations that thermophoretic forces arising from strong temperature gradients inside the reactor volume effectively sort the particles in size along the reactor. These temperature gradients are shown to be produced by a convective gas flow. The results prove that it is possible to select the particle size by collecting them in a particular reactor region, opening new possibilities towards the production by <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of size-controlled high-quality silicon microspheres.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22082585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22082585"><span>Argan oil improves surrogate markers of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> in humans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sour, Souad; Belarbi, Meriem; Khaldi, Darine; Benmansour, Nassima; Sari, Nassima; Nani, Abdelhafid; Chemat, Farid; Visioli, Francesco</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Limited - though increasing - evidence suggests that argan oil might be endowed with potential healthful properties, mostly in the areas of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and prostate cancer. We sought to comprehensively determine the effects of argan oil supplementation on the plasma lipid profile and antioxidant status of a group of healthy Algerian subjects, compared with matched controls. A total of twenty healthy subjects consumed 15 g/d of argan oil - with toasted bread - for breakfast, during 4 weeks (intervention group), whereas twenty matched controls followed their habitual diet, but did not consume argan oil. The study lasted 30 d. At the end of the study, argan oil-supplemented subjects exhibited higher plasma vitamin E concentrations, lower total and LDL-cholesterol, lower TAG and improved plasma and cellular antioxidant profile, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we showed that Algerian argan oil is able to positively modulate some surrogate markers of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>, through mechanisms which warrant further investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14669877','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14669877"><span>Fairly <span class="hlt">processing</span> rare and <span class="hlt">common</span> species in multivariate analysis of ecological series. Application to macrobenthic communities from Algiers harbour.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manté, C; Claudet, J; Rebzani-Zahaf, C</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Systematic sampling of communities gives rise to large contingency tables summing up possible changes in the assemblages' structure. Such tables are generally analysed by multivariate statistical methods, which are ill-suited for simultaneously analysing rare and <span class="hlt">common</span> species (Field et al., 1982). In order to separately <span class="hlt">process</span> species belonging to either of these categories, we propose a statistical method to select <span class="hlt">common</span> species in a sequence of ecological surveys. It is based on a precise definition of rarity, and depends on a rarity parameter. In this work, this parameter will be optimised so that the sub-table of <span class="hlt">common</span> species captures the essential features of the complete table as well as possible. In this way we analysed the spatio-temporal evolution of macrobenthic communities from the Algiers harbour to study the pollution influence during a year. The examination of the communities' structuring was done through Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the species proportions table. Environmental variables were simultaneously sampled. We show that the data structure can be explained by about 25% of the total number of present species. Two environmental gradients were brought to the fore inside the harbour, the first one representing pollution, and the second one representing hydrological instabilities. Since rare species can also convey information, the complete table was also coded according to a generalised presence/absence index and submitted to Correspondence Analysis. The results were consistent with those of PCA, but they depended on more species, and highlighted the influence of sedimentology on the assemblages composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15001917','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15001917"><span>A Web-Based <span class="hlt">Common</span> Framework to Support the Test and Evaluation <span class="hlt">Process</span> Any Time, Anywhere, and Anyhow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schur, Anne ); Brown, James C. ); Eaton, Sharon L. ); Gibson, Alex G. ); Scott, Ryan T. ); Tanasse, Ted E. )</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Test and evaluation (T and E) is an enterprise. For any product, large or small, performance data is desired on many aspects to evaluate the product?s effectiveness for the intended users. Representing the many T and E facets without bewildering the user is challenging when there is a range of people, from the system developers to the manager of the organization, that want specific feedback. A web-based One-Stop Evaluation Center was created to meet these needs for a particular project. The evaluation center is usable at any time in the systems development lifecycle and streamlines the T and E enterprise. This paper discusses a <span class="hlt">common</span> framework that unifies the T and E <span class="hlt">process</span> with many stakeholders involved and is flexible to accommodate each stakeholders?specific evaluative <span class="hlt">processes</span> and content. Our success has translated to many cost savings by enabling quick responses to change and a better line of communication between the users, developers, and managers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.867a2013L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.867a2013L"><span>Ultrafast dynamics of photoexcited free carriers in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamonds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xiangming; Zhang, Ben; Zhong, Quanjie; Peng, Xiaoshi; Liu, Shenye</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>We report on the experimental studies of the free-carrier dynamics and nonlinear optical properties in both bulk polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamonds. The dynamics of nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption is measured by use of a time-resolved femtosecond pump-probe technique under UV excitation. Nonlinear refraction dynamics indicates a positive Kerr effect. Slow and fast components in nonlinear absorption transmittance are separated and used to determine the free-carrier lifetimes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25297880','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25297880"><span>Evidence relating sodium intake to blood pressure and <span class="hlt">CVD</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Sodium is an essential nutrient, mostly ingested as salt (sodium chloride). Average sodium intake ranges from 3 to 6 g per day (7.5-15 g/day of salt) in most countries, with regional variations. Increasing levels of sodium intake have a positive association with higher blood pressure. Randomized controlled trials report a reduction in blood pressure with reducing sodium intake from moderate to low levels, which is the evidence that forms the basis for international guidelines recommending all people consume less than 2.0 g of sodium per day. However, no randomized trials have demonstrated that reducing sodium leads to a reduction in cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>). In their absence, the next option is to examine the association between sodium consumption and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> in prospective cohort studies. Several recent prospective cohort studies have indicated that while high intake of sodium (>6 g/d) is associated with higher risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> compared to those with moderate intake (3 to 5 g/d), lower intake (<3 g/day) is also associated with a higher risk (despite lower blood pressure levels). However, most of these studies were conducted in populations at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Current epidemiologic evidence supports that an optimal level of sodium intake is in the range of about 3-5 g/day, as this range is associated with lowest risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> in prospective cohort studies. Randomized controlled trials, comparing the effect of low sodium intake to moderate intake on incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality, are required to truly define optimal intake range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26171667','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26171667"><span>Strain Relaxation in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Graphene: Wrinkling with Shear Lag.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bronsgeest, Merijntje S; Bendiab, Nedjma; Mathur, Shashank; Kimouche, Amina; Johnson, Harley T; Coraux, Johann; Pochet, Pascal</p> <p>2015-08-12</p> <p>We measure uniaxial strain fields in the vicinity of edges and wrinkles in graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>), by combining microscopy techniques and local vibrational characterization. These strain fields have magnitudes of several tenths of a percent and extend across micrometer distances. The nonlinear shear-lag model remarkably captures these strain fields in terms of the graphene-substrate interaction and provides a complete understanding of strain-relieving wrinkles in graphene for any level of graphene-substrate coherency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JCrGr.198.1230G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JCrGr.198.1230G"><span>Electrochromic behavior in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> grown tungsten oxide films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gogova, D.; Iossifova, A.; Ivanova, T.; Dimitrova, Zl; Gesheva, K.</p> <p>1999-03-01</p> <p>Solid state electrochemical devices (ECDs) for smart windows, large area displays and automobile rearview mirrors are of considerable technological and commercial interest. In this paper, we studied the electrochromic properties of amorphous and polycrystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> carbonyl tungsten oxide films and the possibility for sol-gel thin TiO 2 film to play the role of passive electrode in an electrochromic window with solid polymer electrolyte.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2729283','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2729283"><span>Nutrient Intake, Physical Activity, and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Risk Factors in Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Day, R. Sue; Fulton, Janet E.; Dai, Shifan; Mihalopoulos, Nicole L.; Barradas, Danielle T.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Associations among dietary intake, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) risk factors are inconsistent among male and female youth, possibly from lack of adjustment for pubertal status. The purpose of this report is to describe the associations of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factors among youth, adjusted for sexual maturation. Methods Data analyzed in 2007 from a sumsample of 556 children aged 8, 11, and 14 years in Project HeartBeat!, 1991–1993, provide cross-sectional patterns of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factors by age and gender, adjusting for sexual maturation, within dietary fat and physical activity categories. Results Girls consuming moderate- to high-fat diets were significantly less physically active than those consuming low-fat diets. Boys and girls consuming high-fat diets had higher saturated fat and cholesterol intakes than children in low-fat categories. Boys had no significant differences in physical activity, blood pressure, waist circumference, or plasma cholesterol levels across fat categories. Girls’ plasma cholesterol levels showed no significant differences across fat categories. Dietary intake did not differ across moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) categories within gender. There were no differences in BMI by fat or MVPA categories for either gender. Girls’ waist circumference differed significantly by fat category, and systolic blood pressure differed significantly across fat and MVPA categories. Boys’ fifth-phase diastolic blood pressure was significantly different across MVPA categories. Conclusions Girls consuming atherogenic diets were significantly less physically active than those with low fat intakes, whereas boys consuming high-fat diets did not show differences in physical activity measures. With the prevalence of overweight rising among youth, the impact of atherogenic diets and sedentary lifestyles on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factors is of concern to public health professionals. PMID:19524152</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA238248','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA238248"><span>Single Molecule Source Reagents for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of Beta Silicon Carbide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-06-30</p> <p>Beta silicon carbide is an excellent candidate semiconductor material for demanding applications in high power and high temperature electronic...devices due to its high breakdown voltage, relatively large band gap, high thermal conductivity and high melting point. Use of silicon carbide thin films is...equipment has been used in the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> systems, but small disparities remain between successive deposited films. The production of practical beta silicon carbide devices</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED544399.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED544399.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards for Mathematics: Teacher Self-Learning Series. Module 1: Introduction to the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards in Mathematics--The Need, the Development <span class="hlt">Process</span>, the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Languages, and the Structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Louisiana Department of Education, 2013</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This module provides background information and presents the new terminology used in the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). Educators should complete this module to understand the need for <span class="hlt">common</span> standards, determine information about who developed the Standards, and learn the terminology and the coding used in the CCSSM. An…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930039819&hterms=thermophoresis&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dthermophoresis','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930039819&hterms=thermophoresis&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dthermophoresis"><span>Laser velocimetry measurements in non-isothermal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, E. J.; Hyer, P. V.; Culotta, P. W.; Clark, I. O.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center are applying laser velocimetry (LV) techniques to characterize the fluid dynamics of non-isothermal flows inside fused silica chambers designed for chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>). Experimental issues involved in the application of LV techniques to this task include thermophoretic effects on the LV seed particles, seeding the hazardous gases, index of refraction gradients in the flow field and surrounding media, optical access, relatively low flow velocities, and analysis and presentation of sparse data. An overview of the practical difficulties these issues represent to the use of laser velocimetry instrumentation for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> applications is given. A fundamental limitation on the application of LV techniques in non-isothermal systems is addressed which involves a measurement bias due to the presence of thermal gradients. This bias results from thermophoretic effects which cause seed particle trajectories to deviate from gas streamlines. Data from a research <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reactor are presented which indicate that current models for the interaction of forces such as Stokes drag, inertia, gravity, and thermophoresis are not adequate to predict thermophoretic effects on particle-based velocimetry measurements in arbitrary flow configurations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8049E..0WK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8049E..0WK"><span>Multisensor ISR in geo-registered contextual visual dataspace (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Kyungnam; Owechko, Yuri; Flores, Arturo; Korchev, Dmitriy</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Current ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance) systems require an analyst to observe each video stream, which will result in analyst overload as systems such as ARGUS or Gorgon Stare come into use with many video streams generated by those sensor platforms. Full exploitation of these new sensors is not possible using today's one video stream per analyst paradigm. The Contextual Visual Dataspace (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is a compact representation of real-time updating of dynamic objects from multiple video streams in a global (geo-registered/annotated) view that combines automated 3D modeling and semantic labeling of a scene. <span class="hlt">CVD</span> provides a single integrated view of multiple automatically-selected video windows with 3D context. For a proof of concept, a <span class="hlt">CVD</span> demonstration system performing detection, localization, and tracking of dynamic objects (e.g., vehicles and pedestrians) in multiple infrastructure camera views was developed using a combination of known computer vision methods, including foreground detection by background subtraction, ground-plane homography mapping, and appearance model-based tracking. Automated labeling of fixed and moving objects enables intelligent context-aware tracking and behavior analysis and will greatly improve ISR capabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6075265','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6075265"><span>Fracture behavior of warm forged and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> tungsten</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lassila, D.H.; Connor, A.</p> <p>1991-02-14</p> <p>The fracture behavior of warm forged and chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) tungsten was studied. Three-point bend tests were used to determine ductile-brittle transition temperatures (DBTT) of the materials using a strain based criterion for the DBTT which was arrived at by analysis of computer code modelling results of the three-point bend test. The DBTT's of the warm forged materials were found to be considerably lower than those of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> materials. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were performed to characterize the fracture morphologies and fracture surface compositions of the materials. All fracture surfaces were found to be comprised entirely of tungsten with significant and varying amounts of oxygen and carbon segregation. A large portion of the fracture surfaces of the warm forged materials is intergranular, although this is not always directly evident from SEM observations. The fracture surfaces of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> materials were clearly 100% intergranular. Results of the study suggest that the fracture paths of the different materials were related to the DBTTs. 22 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12382797','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12382797"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamonds as thermoluminescent detectors for medical applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marczewska, B; Olko, P; Nesladek, M; Waligórski, M P R; Kerremans, Y</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Diamond is believed to be a promising material for medical dosimetry due to its tissue equivalence, mechanical and radiation hardness, and lack of solubility in water or in disinfecting agents. A number of diamond samples, obtained under different growth conditions at Limburg University, using the chemical vapour deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) technique, was tested as thermoluminescence dosemeters. Their TL glow curve, TL response after doses of gamma rays, fading, and so on were studied at dose levels and for radiation modalities typical for radiotherapy. The investigated <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamonds displayed sensitivity comparable with that of MTS-N (Li:Mg,Ti) detectors, signal stability (reproducibility after several readouts) below 10% (1 SD) and no fading was found four days after irradiation. A dedicated <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond plate was grown, cut into 20 detector chips (3 x 3 x 0.5 mm) and used for measuring the dose-depth distribution at different depths in a water phantom, for 60Co and six MV X ray radiotherapy beams. Due to the sensitivity of diamond to ambient light, it was difficult to achieve reproducibility comparable with that of standard LiF detectors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JOM....67g1565D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JOM....67g1565D"><span>Engineered <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Diamond Coatings for Machining and Tribological Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dumpala, Ravikumar; Chandran, Maneesh; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Diamond is an allotropes of carbon and is unique because of its extreme hardness (~100 GPa), low friction coefficient (<0.05), high thermal conductivity (~2000 Wm-1 K-1), and high chemical inertness. Diamond is being synthesized artificially in bulk form as well as in the form of surface coatings for various engineering applications. The mechanical characteristics of chemical vapor deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond coatings such as hardness, adhesion, friction coefficient, and fracture toughness can be tuned by controlling the grain size of the coatings from a few microns to a few nanometers. In this review, characteristics and performance of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond coatings deposited on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrates were discussed with an emphasis on WC-Co grade selection, substrate pretreatment, nanocrystallinity and microcrystallinity of the coating, mechanical and tribological characteristics, coating architecture, and interfacial adhesion integrity. Engineered coating substrate architecture is essential for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond coatings to perform well under harsh and highly abrasive machining and tribological conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26411567','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26411567"><span>Approach to diabetes management in patients with <span class="hlt">CVD</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lathief, Sanam; Inzucchi, Silvio E</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Epidemiologic analyses have established a clear association between diabetes and macrovascular disease. Vascular dysfunction caused by metabolic abnormalities in patients with diabetes is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Patients with diabetes are at two to four fold higher CV risk as compared to non-diabetic individuals, and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> remains the leading cause of mortality in patients with this condition. One strategy to reduce <span class="hlt">CVD</span> burden in patients with diabetes has been to focus on controlling the major metabolic abnormality in this condition, namely hyperglycemia. However, this has not been unequivocally demonstrated to reduced CV events, in contrast to controlling other <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factors linked to hyperglycemia, such as blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and platelet dysfunction. However, In contradistinction, accrued data from a number of large, randomized clinical trials in both type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) over the past 3 decades have proven that more intensive glycemic control retards the onset and progression of microvascular disease. In this review, we will summarize the key glucose-lowering CV outcomes trials in diabetes, provide an overview of the different drugs and their impact on the CV system, and describe our approach to management of the frequently encountered patient with T2DM and coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or heart failure (HF). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94w5404Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94w5404Y"><span>Infrared spectroscopic study of carrier scattering in gated <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Kwangnam; Kim, Jiho; Kim, Joo Youn; Lee, Wonki; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Hwang, E. H.; Choi, E. J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We measured Drude absorption of gated <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene using far-infrared transmission spectroscopy and determined the carrier scattering rate (γ ) as a function of the varied carrier density (n ). The n -dependent γ (n ) was obtained for a series of conditions systematically changed as (10 K, vacuum) → (300 K, vacuum) → (300 K, ambient pressure), which reveals that (1) at low-T, charged impurity (=A /√{n } ) and short-range defect (=B √{n } ) are the major scattering sources which constitute the total scattering γ =A /√{n }+B √{n } , (2) among various kinds of phonons populated at room-T , surface polar phonon of the SiO2 substrate is the dominantly scattering source, and (3) in air, the gas molecules adsorbed on graphene play a dual role in carrier scattering as charged impurity center and resonant scattering center. We present the absolute scattering strengths of those individual scattering sources, which provides the complete map of scattering mechanism of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene. This scattering map allows us to find out practical measures to suppress the individual scatterings, the mobility gains accompanied by them, and finally the ultimate attainable carrier mobility for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFD.H9001W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFD.H9001W"><span>Ultra-high Burst Strength of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Graphene Membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Luda; Boutilier, Michael; Kidambi, Piran; Karnik, Rohit; Microfluidics; Nanofluidics Research Lab Team</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Porous graphene membranes have significant potential in gas separation, water desalination and nanofiltration. Understanding the mechanical strength of porous graphene is crucial because membrane separations can involve high pressures. We studied the burst strength of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene membrane placed on porous support at applied pressures up to 100 bar by monitoring the gas flow rate across the membrane as a function of pressure. Increase of gas flow rate with pressure allowed for extraction of the burst fraction of graphene as it failed under increasing pressure. We also studied the effect of sub-nanometer pores on the ability of graphene to withstand pressure. The results showed that porous graphene membranes can withstand pressures comparable to or even higher than the >50 bar pressures encountered in water desalination, with non-porous <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene exhibiting even higher mechanical strength. Our study shows that porous polycrystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene has ultra-high burst strength under applied pressure, suggesting the possibility for its use in high-pressure membrane separations. Principal Investigator</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22197801','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22197801"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> data model for natural language <span class="hlt">processing</span> based on two existing standard information models: CDA+GrAF.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meystre, Stéphane M; Lee, Sanghoon; Jung, Chai Young; Chevrier, Raphaël D</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>An increasing need for collaboration and resources sharing in the Natural Language <span class="hlt">Processing</span> (NLP) research and development community motivates efforts to create and share a <span class="hlt">common</span> data model and a <span class="hlt">common</span> terminology for all information annotated and extracted from clinical text. We have combined two existing standards: the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), and the ISO Graph Annotation Format (GrAF; in development), to develop such a data model entitled "CDA+GrAF". We experimented with several methods to combine these existing standards, and eventually selected a method wrapping separate CDA and GrAF parts in a <span class="hlt">common</span> standoff annotation (i.e., separate from the annotated text) XML document. Two use cases, clinical document sections, and the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge (i.e., problems, tests, and treatments, with their assertions and relations), were used to create examples of such standoff annotation documents, and were successfully validated with the XML schemata provided with both standards. We developed a tool to automatically translate annotation documents from the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge format to GrAF, and automatically generated 50 annotation documents using this tool, all successfully validated. Finally, we adapted the XSL stylesheet provided with HL7 CDA to allow viewing annotation XML documents in a web browser, and plan to adapt existing tools for translating annotation documents between CDA+GrAF and the UIMA and GATE frameworks. This <span class="hlt">common</span> data model may ease directly comparing NLP tools and applications, combining their output, transforming and "translating" annotations between different NLP applications, and eventually "plug-and-play" of different modules in NLP applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25813739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25813739"><span>Converging evidence that <span class="hlt">common</span> timing <span class="hlt">processes</span> underlie temporal-order and simultaneity judgments: a model-based analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>García-Pérez, Miguel A; Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Perception of simultaneity and temporal order is studied with simultaneity judgment (SJ) and temporal-order judgment (TOJ) tasks. In the former, observers report whether presentation of two stimuli was subjectively simultaneous; in the latter, they report which stimulus was subjectively presented first. SJ and TOJ tasks typically give discrepant results, which has prompted the view that performance is mediated by different <span class="hlt">processes</span> in each task. We looked at these discrepancies from a model that yields psychometric functions whose parameters characterize the timing, decisional, and response <span class="hlt">processes</span> involved in SJ and TOJ tasks. We analyzed 12 data sets from published studies in which both tasks had been used in within-subjects designs, all of which had reported differences in performance across tasks. Fitting the model jointly to data from both tasks, we tested the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">common</span> timing <span class="hlt">processes</span> sustain simultaneity and temporal-order judgments, with differences in performance arising from task-dependent decisional and response <span class="hlt">processes</span>. The results supported this hypothesis, also showing that model psychometric functions account for aspects of SJ and TOJ data that classical analyses overlook. Implications for research on perception of simultaneity and temporal order are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2632330','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2632330"><span>Dopamine Modulation of Emotional <span class="hlt">Processing</span> in Cortical and Subcortical Neural Circuits: Evidence for a Final <span class="hlt">Common</span> Pathway in Schizophrenia?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The neural regulation of emotional perception, learning, and memory is essential for normal behavioral and cognitive functioning. Many of the symptoms displayed by individuals with schizophrenia may arise from fundamental disturbances in the ability to accurately <span class="hlt">process</span> emotionally salient sensory information. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) and its ability to modulate neural regions involved in emotional learning, perception, and memory formation has received considerable research attention as a potential final <span class="hlt">common</span> pathway to account for the aberrant emotional regulation and psychosis present in the schizophrenic syndrome. Evidence from both human neuroimaging studies and animal-based research using neurodevelopmental, behavioral, and electrophysiological techniques have implicated the mesocorticolimbic DA circuit as a crucial system for the encoding and expression of emotionally salient learning and memory formation. While many theories have examined the cortical-subcortical interactions between prefrontal cortical regions and subcortical DA substrates, many questions remain as to how DA may control emotional perception and learning and how disturbances linked to DA abnormalities may underlie the disturbed emotional <span class="hlt">processing</span> in schizophrenia. Beyond the mesolimbic DA system, increasing evidence points to the amygdala-prefrontal cortical circuit as an important processor of emotionally salient information and how neurodevelopmental perturbances within this circuitry may lead to dysregulation of DAergic modulation of emotional <span class="hlt">processing</span> and learning along this cortical-subcortical emotional <span class="hlt">processing</span> circuit. PMID:17519393</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Nanos...719403H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Nanos...719403H"><span>Enhancing <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene's inter-grain connectivity by a graphite promoter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Chiu, Yi-Jing; Hofmann, Mario</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Graphene's impact on future applications is intimately linked to advances in the synthesis of high quality materials. Chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) shows great potential in this area but insufficient connectivity between single-crystalline domains deteriorates the achievable electrical and mechanical performance. We here demonstrate that the inter-grain connectivity can be significantly improved by adding a second material in the vicinity of the growth substrate. This promoter decreases the amount of structural defects that remain at the grain boundaries of conventionally grown graphene even after 6 hour growth. A two-step growth <span class="hlt">process</span> was employed to selectively enhance the grain connectivity while maintaining an identical graphene grain morphology with and without a promoter. Graphite was found to yield the largest enhancement in the connectivity of graphene grains due to its high catalytic activity compared to other promoter materials. A novel cap-design ensured a large scale and uniform improvement of the inter-grain connectivity results which led to an enhancement of large scale carrier mobilities from 2700 cm2 V-1 s-1 to 4000 cm2 V-1 s-1 and highlights the potential of our approach to improving the connectivity of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown graphene.Graphene's impact on future applications is intimately linked to advances in the synthesis of high quality materials. Chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) shows great potential in this area but insufficient connectivity between single-crystalline domains deteriorates the achievable electrical and mechanical performance. We here demonstrate that the inter-grain connectivity can be significantly improved by adding a second material in the vicinity of the growth substrate. This promoter decreases the amount of structural defects that remain at the grain boundaries of conventionally grown graphene even after 6 hour growth. A two-step growth <span class="hlt">process</span> was employed to selectively enhance the grain connectivity while maintaining an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7066','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7066"><span>GaN <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Reactions: Hydrogen and Ammonia Decomposition and the Desorption of Gallium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bartram, Michael E.; Creighton, J. Randall</p> <p>1999-05-26</p> <p>Isotopic labeling experiments have revealed correlations between hydrogen reactions, Ga desorption, and ammonia decomposition in GaN <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) were used to demonstrate that hydrogen atoms are available on the surface for reaction after exposing GaN(0001) to deuterium at elevated temperatures. Hydrogen reactions also lowered the temperature for Ga desorption significantly. Ammonia did not decompose on the surface before hydrogen exposure. However, after hydrogen reactions altered the surface, N<sup>15</sup>H<sub>3</sub> did undergo both reversible and irreversible decomposition. This also resulted in the desorption of N<sub>2</sub> of mixed isotopes below the onset of GaN sublimation, This suggests that the driving force of the high nitrogen-nitrogen bond strength (226 kcal/mol) can lead to the removal of nitrogen from the substrate when the surface is nitrogen rich. Overall, these findings indicate that hydrogen can influence G-aN <span class="hlt">CVD</span> significantly, being a <span class="hlt">common</span> factor in the reactivity of the surface, the desorption of Ga, and the decomposition of ammonia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..GECMW6106T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..GECMW6106T"><span>High speed deposition of SiO2 film by slot-type microwave <span class="hlt">CVD</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Toyoda, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Masaki; Suzuki, Haruka</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>High density microwave plasma is attractive because of its ability for high-throughput <span class="hlt">processing</span>. So far, we have successfully produced large-area surface wave excited plasma (SWP) and have applied it to plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) of silicon films. However, the SWP requires a dielectric plate for the surface wave propagation, and high density plasma sometimes erodes the dielectric plate to produce oxygen contamination. To avoid such problem, we propose the PE-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> using the microwave plasma produced inside slots of a waveguide without using the dielectric plate. A 2.45 GHz pulsed microwave (repetition: 20 kHz, duty ratio: 20%, average power: 40 W) is introduced to a rectangular waveguide through an isolator, a tuner, and a vacuum window. A slot of 4 mm in length and 0.2 mm in width is placed at the end of the waveguide, and is connected to a vacuum chamber. Both the waveguide and the chamber are evacuated by a turbomolecular pump. Oxygen and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) gases are introduced from the waveguide and from the outside of the waveguide, respectively, to deposit SiO2 film on Si substrates at a pressure of 15 Torr and a slot-substrate distance of 1.1 cm. Deposition rate as high as 80 nm/s is observed at a TEOS flow rate of 0.8 sccm. The result suggests that the present PE-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> system is promising as a new high-speed film deposition technique. Part of this work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25286079.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761869','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761869"><span>Graphene growth on Ge(100)/Si(100) substrates by <span class="hlt">CVD</span> method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pasternak, Iwona; Wesolowski, Marek; Jozwik, Iwona; Lukosius, Mindaugas; Lupina, Grzegorz; Dabrowski, Pawel; Baranowski, Jacek M.; Strupinski, Wlodek</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The successful integration of graphene into microelectronic devices is strongly dependent on the availability of direct deposition <span class="hlt">processes</span>, which can provide uniform, large area and high quality graphene on nonmetallic substrates. As of today the dominant technology is based on Si and obtaining graphene with Si is treated as the most advantageous solution. However, the formation of carbide during the growth <span class="hlt">process</span> makes manufacturing graphene on Si wafers extremely challenging. To overcome these difficulties and reach the set goals, we proposed growth of high quality graphene layers by the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> method on Ge(100)/Si(100) wafers. In addition, a stochastic model was applied in order to describe the graphene growth <span class="hlt">process</span> on the Ge(100)/Si(100) substrate and to determine the direction of further <span class="hlt">processes</span>. As a result, high quality graphene was grown, which was proved by Raman spectroscopy results, showing uniform monolayer films with FWHM of the 2D band of 32 cm−1. PMID:26899732</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25343787','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25343787"><span>Ultra-thin optical grade sc<span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond as X-ray beam position monitor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Desjardins, Kewin; Pomorski, Michal; Morse, John</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Results of measurements made at the SIRIUS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron for a new X-ray beam position monitor based on a super-thin single crystal of diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) are presented. This detector is a quadrant electrode design <span class="hlt">processed</span> on a 3 µm-thick membrane obtained by argon-oxygen plasma etching the central area of a <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown diamond plate of 60 µm thickness. The membrane transmits more than 50% of the incident 1.3 keV energy X-ray beam. The diamond plate was of moderate purity (∼1 p.p.m. nitrogen), but the X-ray beam induced current (XBIC) measurements nevertheless showed a photo-charge collection efficiency approaching 100% for an electric field of 2 V µm(-1), corresponding to an applied bias voltage of only 6 V. XBIC mapping of the membrane showed an inhomogeneity of more than 10% across the membrane, corresponding to the measured variation in the thickness of the diamond plate before the plasma etching <span class="hlt">process</span>. The measured XBIC signal-to-dark-current ratio of the device was greater than 10(5), and the X-ray beam position resolution of the device was better than a micrometer for a 1 kHz sampling rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993mrs..meetR....A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993mrs..meetR....A"><span>Performance of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and CVR coated carbon-carbon in high temperature hydrogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adams, J. W.; Barletta, R. E.; Svandrlik, J.; Vanier, P. E.</p> <p></p> <p>As a part of the component development <span class="hlt">process</span> for the particle bed reactor (PBR), it is necessary to develop coatings which will be time and temperature stable at extremely high temperatures in flowing hydrogen. These coatings must protect the underlying carbon structure from attack by the hydrogen coolant. Degradation which causes small changes in the reactor component, e.g. hole diameter in the hot frit, can have a profound effect on operation. The ability of a component to withstand repeated temperature cycles is also a coating development issue. Coatings which crack or spall under these conditions would be unacceptable. While refractory carbides appear to be the coating material of choice for carbon substrates being used in PBR components, the method of applying these coatings can have a large effect on their performance. Two deposition <span class="hlt">processes</span> for these refractory carbides, chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) and chemical vapor reaction (CVR), have been evaluated. Screening tests for these coatings consisted of testing of coated 2-D and 3-D weave carbon-carbon in flowing hot hydrogen at one atmosphere. Carbon loss from these samples was measured as a function of time. Exposure temperatures up to 3,000 K were used, and samples were exposed in a cyclical fashion cooling to room temperature between exposures. The results of these measurements are presented along with an evaluation of the relative merits of CVR and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> coatings for this application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017TDM.....4b5023A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017TDM.....4b5023A"><span>Large scale integration of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-graphene based NEMS with narrow distribution of resonance parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arjmandi-Tash, Hadi; Allain, Adrien; (Vitto Han, Zheng; Bouchiat, Vincent</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>We present a novel method for the fabrication of the arrays of suspended micron-sized membranes, based on monolayer pulsed-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene. Such devices are the source of an efficient integration of graphene nano-electro-mechanical resonators, compatible with production at the wafer scale using standard photolithography and <span class="hlt">processing</span> tools. As the graphene surface is continuously protected by the same polymer layer during the whole <span class="hlt">process</span>, suspended graphene membranes are clean and free of imperfections such as deposits, wrinkles and tears. Batch fabrication of 100 μm-long multi-connected suspended ribbons is presented. At room temperature, mechanical resonance of electrostatically-actuated devices show narrow distribution of their characteristic parameters with high quality factor and low effective mass and resonance frequencies, as expected for low stress and adsorbate-free membranes. Upon cooling, a sharp increase of both resonant frequency and quality factor is observed, enabling to extract the thermal expansion coefficient of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene. Comparison with state-of-the-art graphene NEMS is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JEMat..17..213R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JEMat..17..213R"><span>Application of selective <span class="hlt">CVD</span> tungsten for low contact resistance via filling to aluminum multilayer interconnection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rang, S.; Chow, R.; Wilson, R. H.; Gorowitz, B.; Williams, A. G.</p> <p>1988-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Process</span> parameters for selective chemical vapor deposition of tungsten to fill vias between aluminum or aluminum alloy multilevel metallization have been identified and demonstrated. By controlling two competing parallel reactions: Aluminum and hydrogen reductions of tungsten hexafluoride in one reduction step <span class="hlt">process</span>, the specific contact resistivity was found to be in the range of 2.5 to 8.0 x 10-9 ohm-cm2 for 1.8 micron diameter vias. This is at least one order of magnitude lower than the values reported by the previous workers. It was also observed that alloying the aluminum did not appear to affect the contact resistance significantly. In this experiment one cold wall experimental reactor, two cold wall production systems of two different models and one hot wall tube furnace were used to deposit selective <span class="hlt">CVD</span> tungsten on aluminum or aluminum with 1% silicon first level metal. As a consequence of these findings, problems associated with filling straight wall vias of high aspect ratio in VLSI multilevel interconnection (i.e., high contact resistance, poor step coverage, electromigration, etc.) can now be alleviated or resolved. Therefore, the use of selective <span class="hlt">CVD</span> tungsten in the existing aluminum IC metallization becomes very attractive and feasible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2000668','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2000668"><span>Manually controlled human balancing using visual, vestibular and proprioceptive senses involves a <span class="hlt">common</span>, low frequency neural <span class="hlt">process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lakie, Martin; Loram, Ian D</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Ten subjects balanced their own body or a mechanically equivalent unstable inverted pendulum by hand, through a compliant spring linkage. Their balancing <span class="hlt">process</span> was always characterized by repeated small reciprocating hand movements. These bias adjustments were an observable sign of intermittent alterations in neural output. On average, the adjustments occurred at intervals of ∼400 ms. To generate appropriate stabilizing bias adjustments, sensory information about body or load movement is needed. Subjects used visual, vestibular or proprioceptive sensation alone and in combination to perform the tasks. We first ask, is the time between adjustments (bias duration) sensory specific? Vision is associated with slow responses. Other senses involved with balance are known to be faster. Our second question is; does bias duration depend on sensory abundance? An appropriate bias adjustment cannot occur until unplanned motion is unambiguously perceived (a sensory threshold). The addition of more sensory data should therefore expedite action, decreasing the mean bias adjustment duration. Statistical analysis showed that (1) the mean bias adjustment duration was remarkably independent of the sensory modality and (2) the addition of one or two sensory modalities made a small, but significant, decrease in the mean bias adjustment duration. Thus, a threshold effect can alter only a very minor part of the bias duration. The bias adjustment duration in manual balancing must reflect something more than visual sensation and perceptual thresholds; our suggestion is that it is a <span class="hlt">common</span> central motor planning <span class="hlt">process</span>. We predict that similar <span class="hlt">processes</span> may be identified in the control of standing. PMID:16959857</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16925852','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16925852"><span>Food <span class="hlt">processing</span> methods influence the glycaemic indices of some <span class="hlt">commonly</span> eaten West Indian carbohydrate-rich foods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bahado-Singh, P S; Wheatley, A O; Ahmad, M H; Morrison, E Y St A; Asemota, H N</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>Glycaemic index (GI) values for fourteen <span class="hlt">commonly</span> eaten carbohydrate-rich foods <span class="hlt">processed</span> by various methods were determined using ten healthy subjects. The foods studied were round leaf yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis), negro and lucea yams (Dioscorea rotundata), white and sweet yams (Dioscorea alata), sweet potato (Solanum tuberosum), Irish potato (Ipomoea batatas), coco yam (Xanthosoma spp.), dasheen (Colocasia esculenta), pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), green banana (Musa sapientum), and green and ripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca). The foods were <span class="hlt">processed</span> by boiling, frying, baking and roasting where applicable. Pure glucose was used as the standard with a GI value of 100. The results revealed marked differences in GI among the different foods studied ranging from 35 (se 3) to 94 (se 8). The area under the glucose response curve and GI value of some of the roasted and baked foods were significantly higher than foods boiled or fried (P<0.05). The results indicate that foods <span class="hlt">processed</span> by roasting or baking may result in higher GI. Conversely, boiling of foods may contribute to a lower GI diet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23108370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23108370"><span>A target sample of adolescents and reward <span class="hlt">processing</span>: same neural and behavioral correlates engaged in <span class="hlt">common</span> paradigms?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nees, Frauke; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Steiner, Sabina; Mann, Karl; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Artiges, Eric; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Struve, Maren; Loth, Eva; Schumann, Gunter; Flor, Herta</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Adolescence is a transition period that is assumed to be characterized by increased sensitivity to reward. While there is growing research on reward <span class="hlt">processing</span> in adolescents, investigations into the engagement of brain regions under different reward-related conditions in one sample of healthy adolescents, especially in a target age group, are missing. We aimed to identify brain regions preferentially activated in a reaction time task (monetary incentive delay (MID) task) and a simple guessing task (SGT) in a sample of 14-year-old adolescents (N = 54) using two <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used reward paradigms. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed during the MID with big versus small versus no win conditions and the SGT with big versus small win and big versus small loss conditions. Analyses focused on changes in blood oxygen level-dependent contrasts during reward and punishment <span class="hlt">processing</span> in anticipation and feedback phases. We found clear magnitude-sensitive response in reward-related brain regions such as the ventral striatum during anticipation in the MID task, but not in the SGT. This was also true for reaction times. The feedback phase showed clear reward-related, but magnitude-independent, response patterns, for example in the anterior cingulate cortex, in both tasks. Our findings highlight neural and behavioral response patterns engaged in two different reward paradigms in one sample of 14-year-old healthy adolescents and might be important for reference in future studies investigating reward and punishment <span class="hlt">processing</span> in a target age group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21098933','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21098933"><span>Direct deposition of patterned nanocrystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond using an electrostatic self-assembly method with nanodiamond particles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Min-Goon; Song, Min-Jung; Lim, Dae-Soon</p> <p>2010-12-17</p> <p>Micron-sized and precise patterns of nanocrystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond were fabricated successfully on substrates using dispersed nanodiamond particles, charge connection by electrostatic self-assembly, and photolithography <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Nanodiamond particles which had been dispersed using an attritional milling system were attached electrostatically on substrates as nuclei for diamond growth. In this milling <span class="hlt">process</span>, poly sodium 4-styrene sulfonate (PSS) was added as an anionic dispersion agent to produce the PSS/nanodiamond conjugates. Ultra dispersed nanodiamond particles with a ζ-potential and average particle size of - 60.5 mV and ∼ 15 nm, respectively, were obtained after this milling <span class="hlt">process</span>. These PSS/nanodiamond conjugates were attached electrostatically to a cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated surface on to which a photoresist had been patterned in an aqueous solution of the PSS/nanodiamond conjugated suspension. A selectively seeded area was formed successfully using the above <span class="hlt">process</span>. A hot filament chemical vapor deposition system was used to synthesize the nanocrystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond on the seeded area. Micron-sized, thin and precise nanocrystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond patterns with a high nucleation density (3.8 ± 0.4 × 10(11) cm(-2)) and smooth surface were consequently fabricated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130011342','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130011342"><span>Advances in the Development of a WCl6 <span class="hlt">CVD</span> System for Coating UO2 Powders with Tungsten</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mireles, Omar R.; Tieman, Alyssa; Broadway, Jeramie; Hickman, Robert</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>W-UO2 CERMET fuels are under development to enable Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) for deep space exploration. Research efforts with an emphasis on fuel fabrication, testing, and identification of potential risks is underway. One primary risk is fuel loss due to CTE mismatch between W and UO2 and the grain boundary structure of W particles resulting in higher thermal stresses. Mechanical failure can result in significant reduction of the UO2 by hot hydrogen. Fuel loss can be mitigated if the UO2 particles are coated with a layer of high density tungsten before the consolidation <span class="hlt">process</span>. This paper discusses the work to date, results, and advances of a fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) system that utilizes the H2-WCl6 reduction <span class="hlt">process</span>. Keywords: Space, Nuclear, Thermal, Propulsion, Fuel, CERMET, <span class="hlt">CVD</span>, Tungsten, Uranium</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24012545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24012545"><span>Competitive mechanisms in sentence <span class="hlt">processing</span>: <span class="hlt">common</span> and distinct production and reading comprehension networks linked to the prefrontal cortex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Humphreys, Gina F; Gennari, Silvia P</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Despite much interest in language production and comprehension mechanisms, little is known about the relationship between the two. Previous research suggests that linguistic knowledge is shared across these tasks and that the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) may be <span class="hlt">commonly</span> recruited. However, it remains unclear the extent to which production and comprehension share competition mechanisms. Here we investigate this issue and specifically examine competition in determining the event roles in a sentence (agent or affected participant). We used both behavioral and fMRI methods and compared the reading and production of high- and low-competition sentences, specifically targeting LIFG. We found that activity in pars opercularis (PO), independently identified by a competition-driven localizer, was modulated by competition in both tasks. Psychophysiological interaction analyses seeded in PO revealed task-specific networks: In comprehension, PO only interacted with the posterior temporal lobe, whereas in production, it interacted with a large network including hippocampal, posterior temporal, medial frontal and subcortical structures. Production and comprehension therefore recruit partially distinct functional networks but share competitive <span class="hlt">processes</span> within fronto-temporal regions. We argue that these <span class="hlt">common</span> regions store long-term linguistic associations and compute their higher-order contingencies, but competition in production ignites a larger neural network implementing planning, as required by task demands. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3530405','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3530405"><span>A <span class="hlt">common</span> SNP in ER aminopeptidase 2 induces a specificity switch that leads to altered antigen <span class="hlt">processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Evnouchidou, Irini; Birtley, James; Seregin, Sergey; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Zervoudi, Efthalia; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Giastas, Petros; Petrakis, Olivia; Georgiadis, Dimitris; Amalfitano, Andrea; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Mavridis, Irene M.; Stratikos, Efstratios</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>ER aminopeptidases 1 and 2 (ERAP1 and ERAP2) cooperate to trim antigenic peptide precursors for loading onto MHC class I molecules and help regulate the adaptive immune response. <span class="hlt">Common</span> coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ERAP1 and ERAP2 have been linked with predisposition to human diseases ranging from viral and bacterial infections to autoimmunity and cancer. It has been hypothesized that altered antigen <span class="hlt">processing</span> by these enzymes is a causal link to disease etiology but the molecular mechanisms are obscure. We report here that the <span class="hlt">common</span> ERAP2 SNP rs2549782 that codes for amino acid variation N392K leads to alterations in both the activity and the specificity of the enzyme. Specifically, the 392N allele excises hydrophobic N-terminal residues from epitope precursors up to 165-fold faster compared to the 392K allele, although both alleles are very similar in excising positively charged N-terminal amino acids. These effects are primarily due to changes in the catalytic turnover rate (kcat) and not in the affinity for the substrate. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the ERAP2 392K allele suggests that the polymorphism interferes with the stabilization of the N-terminus of the peptide both directly and indirectly through interactions with key residues participating in catalysis. This specificity-switch allows the 392N allele of ERAP2 to supplement ERAP1 activity for the removal of hydrophobic N-terminal residues. Our results provide mechanistic insight to the association of this ERAP2 polymorphism with disease and support the idea that polymorphic variation in antigen <span class="hlt">processing</span> enzymes constitutes a component of immune response variability in humans. PMID:22837489</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26256002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26256002"><span>Roll-to-Roll Green Transfer of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Graphene onto Plastic for a Transparent and Flexible Triboelectric Nanogenerator.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chandrashekar, Bananakere Nanjegowda; Deng, Bing; Smitha, Ankanahalli Shankaregowda; Chen, Yubin; Tan, Congwei; Zhang, Haixia; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan</p> <p>2015-09-16</p> <p>A novel roll-to-roll, etching-free, clean transfer of <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown graphene from copper to plastic using surface-energy-assisted delamination in hot deionized water is reported. The delamination <span class="hlt">process</span> is realized by water penetration between the hydrophobic graphene and a hydrophilic native oxide layer on a copper foil.The transferred graphene on plastic is used as a high-output flexible and transparent triboelectric nanogenerator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Nanos...7.7802K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Nanos...7.7802K"><span>A predictive approach to <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of crystalline layers of TMDs: the case of MoS2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kranthi Kumar, V.; Dhar, Sukanya; Choudhury, Tanushree H.; Shivashankar, S. A.; Raghavan, Srinivasan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as MoS2, are candidate materials for next generation 2-D electronic and optoelectronic devices. The ability to grow uniform, crystalline, atomic layers over large areas is the key to developing such technology. We report a chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) technique which yields n-layered MoS2 on a variety of substrates. A generic approach suitable to all TMDs, involving thermodynamic modeling to identify the appropriate <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> window, and quantitative control of the vapor phase supersaturation, is demonstrated. All reactant sources in our method are outside the growth chamber, a significant improvement over vapor-based methods for atomic layers reported to date. The as-deposited layers are p-type, due to Mo deficiency, with field effect and Hall hole mobilities of up to 2.4 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 44 cm2 V-1 s-1 respectively. These are among the best reported yet for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> MoS2.Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as MoS2, are candidate materials for next generation 2-D electronic and optoelectronic devices. The ability to grow uniform, crystalline, atomic layers over large areas is the key to developing such technology. We report a chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) technique which yields n-layered MoS2 on a variety of substrates. A generic approach suitable to all TMDs, involving thermodynamic modeling to identify the appropriate <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> window, and quantitative control of the vapor phase supersaturation, is demonstrated. All reactant sources in our method are outside the growth chamber, a significant improvement over vapor-based methods for atomic layers reported to date. The as-deposited layers are p-type, due to Mo deficiency, with field effect and Hall hole mobilities of up to 2.4 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 44 cm2 V-1 s-1 respectively. These are among the best reported yet for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> MoS2. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Methodology for thermodynamic modeling, supersaturation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...515903C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...515903C"><span>Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes formed by solution <span class="hlt">processed</span> red emitters with evaporated blue <span class="hlt">common</span> layer structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cho, Ye Ram; Kim, Hyung Suk; Yu, Young-Jun; Suh, Min Chul</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We prepared highly-efficient solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with a blue <span class="hlt">common</span> layer structure that can reasonably confine the triplet excitons inside of the red emission layer (EML) with the assistance of a bipolar exciton blocking layer. The red PHOLEDs containing EML with a 7 : 3 ratio of 11-(4,6-diphenyl-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-12-phenyl-11,12-dihydro-11,12-diaza-indeno[2,1-a]fluorene (n-type host, NH) : 4-(3-(triphenylen-2-yl)phenyl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene (p-type host, PH) doped with 5% Iridium(III) bis(2-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)quinolinato-N,C2’)tetramethylheptadionate (Red Dopant, RD) produced the highest current and power efficiencies at 23.4 cd/A and 13.6 lm/W, with a 19% external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m2. To the best of our knowledge, such efficiency was the best among those that have been obtained from solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> small molecular red PHOLEDs. In addition, the host molecules utilized in this study have no flexible spacers, such as an alkyl chain, which normally deteriorate the stability of the device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26514274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26514274"><span>Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes formed by solution <span class="hlt">processed</span> red emitters with evaporated blue <span class="hlt">common</span> layer structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cho, Ye Ram; Kim, Hyung Suk; Yu, Young-Jun; Suh, Min Chul</p> <p>2015-10-30</p> <p>We prepared highly-efficient solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with a blue <span class="hlt">common</span> layer structure that can reasonably confine the triplet excitons inside of the red emission layer (EML) with the assistance of a bipolar exciton blocking layer. The red PHOLEDs containing EML with a 7 : 3 ratio of 11-(4,6-diphenyl-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-12-phenyl-11,12-dihydro-11,12-diaza-indeno[2,1-a]fluorene (n-type host, NH) : 4-(3-(triphenylen-2-yl)phenyl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene (p-type host, PH) doped with 5% Iridium(III) bis(2-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)quinolinato-N,C2')tetramethylheptadionate (Red Dopant, RD) produced the highest current and power efficiencies at 23.4 cd/A and 13.6 lm/W, with a 19% external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m(2). To the best of our knowledge, such efficiency was the best among those that have been obtained from solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> small molecular red PHOLEDs. In addition, the host molecules utilized in this study have no flexible spacers, such as an alkyl chain, which normally deteriorate the stability of the device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1948895','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1948895"><span>OLDER ADULTS’ COPING WITH NEGATIVE LIFE EVENTS: <span class="hlt">COMMON</span> <span class="hlt">PROCESSES</span> OF MANAGING HEALTH, INTERPERSONAL, AND FINANCIAL/WORK STRESSORS*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>MOOS, RUDOLF H.; BRENNAN, PENNY L.; SCHUTTE, KATHLEEN K.; MOOS, BERNICE S.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This study examined how older adults cope with negative life events in health, interpersonal, and financial/work domains and whether <span class="hlt">common</span> stress and coping <span class="hlt">processes</span> hold across these three domains. On three occasions, older adults identified the most severe negative event they faced in the last year and described how they appraised and coped with that event, their ambient chronic stressors, and event and functioning outcomes. The stress and coping <span class="hlt">process</span> was largely consistent across the three life domains. Individuals who appraised events as challenging and relied more on approach coping were more likely to report some benefit from those events. Individuals who experienced more chronic stressors and favored avoidance coping were more likely to be depressed and to have late-life drinking problems. Chronic stressors, as well as approach and avoidance coping, were predictably associated with overall outcomes in all three event domains. These findings provide a basis for preventive interventions that may help older adults’ address the most prevalent stressors of aging more effectively. PMID:16454482</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25267241','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25267241"><span>Oats and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk markers: a systematic literature review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thies, Frank; Masson, Lindsey F; Boffetta, Paolo; Kris-Etherton, Penny</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>High consumption of whole-grain food such as oats is associated with a reduced risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature describing long-term intervention studies that investigated the effects of oats or oat bran on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factors. The literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline and the Cochrane library, which identified 654 potential articles. Seventy-six articles describing sixty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies lacked statistical power to detect a significant effect of oats on any of the risk factors considered: 59 % of studies had less than thirty subjects in the oat intervention group. Out of sixty-four studies that assessed systemic lipid markers, thirty-seven (58 %) and thirty-four (49 %) showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol (2-19 % reduction) and LDL-cholesterol (4-23 % reduction) respectively, mostly in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Few studies (three and five, respectively) described significant effects on HDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations. Only three out of twenty-five studies found a reduction in blood pressure after oat consumption. None of the few studies that measured markers of insulin sensitivity and inflammation found any effect after long-term oat consumption. Long-term dietary intake of oats or oat bran has a beneficial effect on blood cholesterol. However, there is no evidence that it favourably modulates insulin sensitivity. It is still unclear whether increased oat consumption significantly affects other risk markers for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk, and comprehensive, adequately powered and controlled intervention trials are required to address this question.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3039214','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3039214"><span>Biomarkers of the osteoprotegerin pathway: clinical correlates, subclinical disease, incident <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lieb, Wolfgang; Gona, Philimon; Larson, Martin G.; Massaro, Joseph M; Lipinska, Izabella; Keaney, John F.; Rong, Jian; Corey, Diane; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; O’Donnell, Christopher J; Kathiresan, Sekar</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objective Experimental evidence identified the osteoprotegerin [OPG]/receptor activator of nuclear factor–kappa-B [RANK]/RANK ligand [RANKL] pathway as a candidate system modulating vascular remodeling and cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>). Methods and Results Serum concentrations of OPG and RANKL were measured in 3250 Framingham Study participants (54% women, 61±9 years). During a median follow-up of 4.6 years, 143 (of 3084 free of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> at baseline) participants developed a first <span class="hlt">CVD</span> event and 235 died. In multivariable models OPG was associated with increased hazards for incident <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and mortality (HR: 1.27; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.54 and HR: 1.25; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.47 per one-SD increment in log-OPG, respectively). Log-OPG was positively related to multiple <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factors including age, smoking, diabetes, systolic blood pressure and prevalent <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. In a subsample (n=1264), the prevalence of coronary artery calcification, measured by computed tomography, increased non-significantly with OPG-quartiles. RANKL concentrations displayed inverse associations with multiple <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factors including smoking, diabetes and antihypertensive treatment, and were not related to coronary artery calcification or incident <span class="hlt">CVD</span> or mortality. Conclusions Our prospective data reinforce OPG as marker for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factor burden and predictor for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and mortality in the community. PMID:20448212</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MARA24003L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MARA24003L"><span>Effective Growth of Boron Nitride Nanotubes by Thermal-<span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Chee Huei; Xie, Ming; Meyers, Derek; Wang, Jiesheng; Khin Yap, Yoke</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>The synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are challenging as compared to the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Most of reported techniques required unique setup and temperatures >1300 ^oC. Here we show that clean and long multiwalled BNNTs can be grown by simple catalytic thermal <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. This was obtained by a growth vapor trapping approach inspired by the whisker nucleation theory. Based on our new findings, we have achieved patterned growth of BNNTs at desired locations. High resolution TEM shows that these BNNTs are highly crystallized. Besides, the tangential vibrational mode predicted by theory was detected in our BNNTs. This vibration mode could be the fingerprint for BNNTs with high crystallinity.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970022609','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970022609"><span>Paralinear Oxidation of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC in Water Vapor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Opila, Elizabeth J.; Hann, Raiford E., Jr.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The oxidation kinetics of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC were monitored by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in a 50% H2O/50% O2 gas mixture flowing at 4.4 cm/s for temperatures between 1200 and 1400 C. Paralinear weight change kinetics were observed as the water vapor oxidized the SiC and simultaneously volatilized the silica scale. The long-term degradation rate of SiC is determined by the volatility of the silica scale. Rapid SiC surface recession rates were estimated from these data for actual aircraft engine combustor conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990007925','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990007925"><span>The Oxidation of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Silicon Carbide in Carbon Dioxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Opila, Elizabeth J.; Nguyen, QuynchGiao N.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Chemically-vapor-deposited silicon carbide (<span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC) was oxidized in carbon dioxide (CO2) at temperatures of 1200-1400 C for times between 100 and 500 hours at several gas flow rates. Oxidation weight gains were monitored by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and were found to be very small and independent of temperature. Possible rate limiting kinetic laws are discussed. Oxidation of SiC by CO2 is negligible compared to the rates measured for other oxidants typically found in combustion environments: oxygen and water vapor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970017406','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970017406"><span>Creep and Rupture Strength of an Advanced <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC Fiber</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldsby, J. C.; Yun, H. M.; DiCarlo, J. A.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>In the as-produced condition the room temperature strength (approx. 6 GPa) of Textron Specialty Materials' 50 microns <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC fiber represents the highest value thus far obtained for commercially produced polycrystalline SiC fibers. To understand whether this strength can be maintained after composite <span class="hlt">processing</span> conditions, high temperature studies were performed on the effects of time, stress, and environment on 1400 deg. C tensile creep strain and stress rupture on as-produced, chemically vapor deposited SiC fibers. Creep strain results were consistent, allowing an evaluation of time and stress effects. Test environment had no influence on creep strain but I hour annealing at 1600 deg. C in argon gas significantly reduced the total creep strain and increased the stress dependence. This is attributed to changes in the free carbon morphology and its distribution within the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC fiber. For the as-produced and annealed fibers, strength at 1400 deg. C was found to decrease from a fast fracture value of 2 GPa to a 100-hr rupture strength value of 0. 8 GPa. In addition a loss of fast fracture strength from 6 GPa is attributed to thermally induced changes in the outer carbon coating and microstructure. Scatter in rupture times made a definitive analysis of environmental and annealing effects on creep strength difficult.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPA....5d7130K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPA....5d7130K"><span>A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond deposition on steel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kundrát, Vojtěch; Zhang, Xiaoling; Cooke, Kevin; Sun, Hailin; Sullivan, John; Ye, Haitao</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) <span class="hlt">processes</span> is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42) substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo) - tungsten (W) interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond deposition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4440526','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4440526"><span>High-speed roll-to-roll manufacturing of graphene using a concentric tube <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Polsen, Erik S.; McNerny, Daniel Q.; Viswanath, B.; Pattinson, Sebastian W.; John Hart, A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We present the design of a concentric tube (CT) reactor for roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) on flexible substrates, and its application to continuous production of graphene on copper foil. In the CTCVD reactor, the thin foil substrate is helically wrapped around the inner tube, and translates through the gap between the concentric tubes. We use a bench-scale prototype machine to synthesize graphene on copper substrates at translation speeds varying from 25 mm/min to 500 mm/min, and investigate the influence of <span class="hlt">process</span> parameters on the uniformity and coverage of graphene on a continuously moving foil. At lower speeds, high-quality monolayer graphene is formed; at higher speeds, rapid nucleation of small graphene domains is observed, yet coalescence is prevented by the limited residence time in the CTCVD system. We show that a smooth isothermal transition between the reducing and carbon-containing atmospheres, enabled by injection of the carbon feedstock via radial holes in the inner tube, is essential to high-quality roll-to-roll graphene <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. We discuss how the foil quality and microstructure limit the uniformity of graphene over macroscopic dimensions. We conclude by discussing means of scaling and reconfiguring the CTCVD design based on general requirements for 2-D materials manufacturing. PMID:25997124</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.M1390K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.M1390K"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span>-based, photolithographically patterned, highly-sensitive graphene Hall element on hexagonal BN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Joonggyu; Joo, Min-Kyu; Park, Ji-Hoon; Nguyen, Van Luan; Kim, Ki Kang; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok</p> <p></p> <p>Graphene is known to have a high carrier mobility, and the carrier density can be minimized at the charge neutrality point (CNP). Because such features are suitable for Hall sensor measuring magnetic field, we examined the possibility of graphene Hall element (GHE) as a highly sensitive magnetic sensor. For the high-throughput production of GHE in the future, the material synthesized by a chemical-vapor-deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) method and the fabrication <span class="hlt">processes</span> based on photolithography were adopted to show its mass-production feasibility. Specifically, the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> synthesized hexagonal BN (hBN) was tested as a protection layer of graphene from extrinsic doping driven by SiO2 substrate, which causes the shift of CNP. In addition, post annealing sequences were also included between each step, such as the hBN attachment on SiO2 and the graphene transfer on hBN/SiO2 substrate followed by the PMMA removal. From this work, we can get minimum magnetic resolution around 10 mG/Hz0.5 at 300 Hz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/663566','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/663566"><span>Electrically insulating films deposited on V-4%Cr-4%Ti by reactive <span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Park, J.H.</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>In the design of liquid-metal blankets for magnetic fusion reactors, corrosion resistance of structural materials and the magnetohydrodynamic forces and their influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion are major concerns. Electrically insulating CaO films deposited on V-4%Cr-4%Ti exhibit high-ohmic insulator behavior even though a small amount of vanadium from the alloy become incorporated into the film. However, when vanadium concentration in the film is > 15 wt.%, the film becomes conductive. When the vanadium concentration is high in localized areas, a calcium vanadate phase that exhibits semiconductor behavior can form. The objective of this study is to evaluate electrically insulating films that were deposited on V-4%Cr-4%Ti by a reactive chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) method. To this end, CaO and Ca-V-O coatings were produced on vanadium alloys by <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and by a metallic-vapor <span class="hlt">process</span> to investigate the electrical resistance of the coatings. The authors found that the Ca-V-O films exhibited insulator behavior when the ratio of calcium concentration to vanadium concentration R in the film > 0.9, and semiconductor or conductor behavior when R < 0.8. However, in some cases, semiconductor behavior was observed when CaO-coated samples with R > 0.98 were exposed in liquid lithium. Based on these studies, they conclude that semiconductor behavior occurs if a conductive calcium vanadate phase is present in localized regions in the CaO coating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1217..100A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1217..100A"><span>Surface Study of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared by Thermal-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> of Camphor Precursor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azira, A. A.; Rusop, M.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Surface morphology study on the influence of starting carbon materials by using thermal chemical vapor deposition (Thermal-<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) to produced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated. The CNTs derived from camphor were synthesized as the precursor material due to low sublimation temperature, which indirectly maybe cost effective. The major parameters are also evaluated in order to obtain high-yield and high-quality CNTs. The prepared CNTs are examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) to determine the microstructure of nanocarbons. The FESEM investigation of the CNTs formed on the support catalysts provides evidence that camphor is suitable as a precursor material for nanotubes formation. The high-temperature graphitization <span class="hlt">process</span> induced by the Thermal-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> enables the hydrocarbons to act as carbon sources and changes the aromatic species into the layered graphite structure of CNTs. The camphoric hydrocarbons not only found acts as the precursors but also enhances the production rate and the quality of CNTs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4175238','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4175238"><span>The Effects of Exercise Therapy on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Risk Factors in Women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hur, Sun; Kim, Seon-Rye</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to search for the association of Type D personality and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factors through comparison of the association of exercise participation with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factors in women. [Subjects] The research subjects were randomly assigned to four groups: Type D+Exercise (n=12), Type D+non-exercise (n=12), non-Type D+Exercise (n=12), and non-Type D+non-exercise (n=10). The study consisted of 46 participants. [Methods] An aerobic exercise program and meditation were conducted in parallel for 10 months. Stretching was performed for 10 min as a warm-up, and then walking and running on a treadmill at 60 to 70% of HRmax were performed for 40 min three times a week. Blood samples were <span class="hlt">processed</span> according to standard laboratory procedures. The concentrations of TG and HDL cholesterol were determined enzymatically using a clinical chemistry analyzer (Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). [Results] The weight, percentage of body fat, waist circumference, triglyceride concentration, HDL cholesterol concentration, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure showed a significant difference between measurement times in the exercise groups. [Conclusion] In conclusion, there were significant differences between groups in terms of cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:25276017</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22488539','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22488539"><span>A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond deposition on steel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kundrát, Vojtěch; Sullivan, John; Ye, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoling; Cooke, Kevin; Sun, Hailin</p> <p>2015-04-15</p> <p>Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) <span class="hlt">processes</span> is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42) substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo) – tungsten (W) interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond deposition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26245487','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26245487"><span>Control of layer stacking in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene under quasi-static condition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Subhedar, Kiran M; Sharma, Indu; Dhakate, Sanjay R</p> <p>2015-09-14</p> <p>The type of layer stacking in bilayer graphene has a significant influence on its electronic properties because of the contrast nature of layer coupling. Herein, different geometries of the reaction site for the growth of bilayer graphene by the chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) technique and their effects on the nature of layer stacking are investigated. Micro-Raman mapping and curve fitting analysis confirmed the type of layer stacking for the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> grown bilayer graphene. The samples grown with sandwiched structure such as quartz/Cu foil/quartz along with a spacer, between the two quartz plates to create a sealed space, resulted in Bernal or AB stacked bilayer graphene while the sample sandwiched without a spacer produced the twisted bilayer graphene. The contrast difference in the layer stacking is a consequence of the difference in the growth mechanism associated with different geometries of the reaction site. The diffusion dominated <span class="hlt">process</span> under quasi-static control is responsible for the growth of twisted bilayer graphene in sandwiched geometry while surface controlled growth with ample and continual supply of carbon in sandwiched geometry along with a spacer, leads to AB stacked bilayer graphene. Through this new approach, an efficient technique is presented to control the nature of layer stacking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25276017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25276017"><span>The Effects of Exercise Therapy on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Risk Factors in Women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hur, Sun; Kim, Seon-Rye</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to search for the association of Type D personality and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factors through comparison of the association of exercise participation with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk factors in women. [Subjects] The research subjects were randomly assigned to four groups: Type D+Exercise (n=12), Type D+non-exercise (n=12), non-Type D+Exercise (n=12), and non-Type D+non-exercise (n=10). The study consisted of 46 participants. [Methods] An aerobic exercise program and meditation were conducted in parallel for 10 months. Stretching was performed for 10 min as a warm-up, and then walking and running on a treadmill at 60 to 70% of HRmax were performed for 40 min three times a week. Blood samples were <span class="hlt">processed</span> according to standard laboratory procedures. The concentrations of TG and HDL cholesterol were determined enzymatically using a clinical chemistry analyzer (Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). [Results] The weight, percentage of body fat, waist circumference, triglyceride concentration, HDL cholesterol concentration, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure showed a significant difference between measurement times in the exercise groups. [Conclusion] In conclusion, there were significant differences between groups in terms of cardiovascular disease risk factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23770625','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23770625"><span>β-glucan enriched bath directly stimulates the wound healing <span class="hlt">process</span> in <span class="hlt">common</span> carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Przybylska-Diaz, D A; Schmidt, J G; Vera-Jiménez, N I; Steinhagen, D; Nielsen, M E</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Wound healing is a complex and well-organized <span class="hlt">process</span> in which physiological factors and immune mechanisms are involved. A number of different immune modulators have been found to enhance the non-specific defence system in vertebrates, among which β-glucans are the most powerful and extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological impact of two different commercially available β glucan containing products on the wound healing <span class="hlt">process</span> in carp. Throughout a two week experiment fish were kept either untreated (control), or in water supplemented with the two different types of β-glucans. The wound healing <span class="hlt">process</span> was monitored using a multispectral visualisation system. The correlation between wound closure and immune response was investigated by measuring the gene expression patterns of IL-1β, IL-6 family member M17, IL-8 and Muc5b, and measurement of production of radical oxygen species. PAMPs/DAMPs stimulation caused by the wounding and or β-glucans resulted in an inflammatory response by activating IL-1β, IL-6 family member M17 and IL-8 and differences in the expression pattern were seen depending on stimuli. IL-1β, IL-6 family member M17 and IL-8 were activated in all wounds regardless of treatment. Expression of all three interleukins was highly up regulated in control wounded muscle already at day 1 post-wounding and decreased at subsequent time-points. The reverse was the case with control wounded skin, where expression increased from day 1 through day 14. The results for the β-glucan treated wounds were more complex. The images showed significantly faster wound contraction in both treated groups compared to the control. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that a β glucan enriched bath promotes the closure of wounds in <span class="hlt">common</span> carp and induce a local change in cytokine expression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MRE.....3l5601S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MRE.....3l5601S"><span>A design of experiments investigation of the effects of synthesis conditions on the quality of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shanmugam, Ramakrishnan; Rangarajan, Murali; Devanathan, Sriram; Sathe, Vasant G.; Senthilkumar, R.; Kothurkar, Nikhil K.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Control over quality of graphene and the number of layers is vital for various applications. This is the first methodical report which quantitatively relates the <span class="hlt">process</span> conditions in the chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) of graphene with crystallinity and number of graphene layers, using a design of experiments approach. This report investigates the effects of three vital synthesis parameters namely (i) carbon source (benzene, naphthalene and anthracene) (ii) synthesis temperature and (iii) mass flow rate of the carbon source, on the crystallinity and the number of layers of graphene, as inferred through micro-Raman analysis. These results give a preliminary indication of how the quality of graphene synthesized through <span class="hlt">CVD</span> could be controlled. These results throw light on further experiments, simulations, and analysis needed to precisely determine how to control the synthesis of graphene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12382917','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12382917"><span>Thermoluminescence in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond films: application to actinometric dosimetry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barboza-Flores, M; Meléndrez, R; Chernov, V; Castañeda, B; Pedroza-Montero, M; Gan, B; Ahn, J; Zhang, Q; Yoon, S F</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Diamond is considered a tissue-equivalent material since its atomic number (Z =6) is close to the effective atomic number of biological tissue (Z =7.42). Such a situation makes it suitable for radiation detection purposes in medical applications. In the present work the analysis is reported of the thermoluminescence (TL) and dosimetric features of chemically vapour deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond film samples subjected to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in the actinometric region. The TL glow curve shows peaks at 120, 220), 320 and 370 degrees C. The 120 and 370 degrees C peaks are too weak and the first one fades away in a few seconds after exposure. The overall room temperature fading shows a 50% TL decay 30 min after exposure. The 320 degrees C glow peak is considered to be the most adequate for dosimetric applications due to its low fading and linear TL behaviour as a function of UV dose in the 180-260 nm range. The TL excitation spectrum presents a broad band with at least two overlapped components around 205 and 220 nm. The results indicate that the TL behaviour of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond film can be a good alternative to the currently available dosemeter and detector in the actinometric region as well as in clinical and medical applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930055524&hterms=Porous+Silicon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DPorous%2BSilicon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930055524&hterms=Porous+Silicon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DPorous%2BSilicon"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> of silicon carbide on structural fibers - Microstructure and composition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Veitch, Lisa C.; Terepka, Francis M.; Gokoglu, Suleyman A.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Structural fibers are currently being considered as reinforcements for intermetallic and ceramic materials. Some of these fibers, however, are easily degraded in a high temperature oxidative environment. Therefore, coatings are needed to protect the fibers from environmental attack. Silicon carbide (SiC) was chemically vapor deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) on Textron's SCS6 fibers. Fiber temperatures ranging from 1350 to 1500 C were studied. Silane (SiH4) and propane (C2H8) were used for the source gases and different concentrations of these source gases were studied. Deposition rates were determined for each group of fibers at different temperatures. Less variation in deposition rates were observed for the dilute source gas experiments than the concentrated source gas experiments. A careful analysis was performed on the stoichiometry of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC coating using electron microprobe. Microstructures for the different conditions were compared. At 1350 C, the microstructures were similar; however, at higher temperatures, the microstructure for the more concentrated source gas group were porous and columnar in comparison to the cross sections taken from the same area for the dilute source gas group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920009197','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920009197"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> of silicon carbide on structural fibers: Microstructure and composition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Veitch, Lisa C.; Terepka, Francis M.; Gokoglu, Suleyman A.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Structural fibers are currently being considered as reinforcements for intermetallic and ceramic materials. Some of these fibers, however, are easily degraded in a high temperature oxidative environment. Therefore, coatings are needed to protect the fibers from environmental attack. Silicon carbide (SiC) was chemically vapor deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) on Textron's SCS6 fibers. Fiber temperatures ranging from 1350 to 1500 C were studied. Silane (SiH4) and propane (C2H8) were used for the source gases and different concentrations of these source gases were studied. Deposition rates were determined for each group of fibers at different temperatures. Less variation in deposition rates were observed for the dilute source gas experiments than the concentrated source gas experiments. A careful analysis was performed on the stoichiometry of the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC coating using electron microprobe. Microstructures for the different conditions were compared. At 1350 C, the microstructures were similar; however, at higher temperatures, the microstructure for the more concentrated source gas group were porous and columnar in comparison to the cross sections taken from the same area for the dilute source gas group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990SPIE.1325..240B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990SPIE.1325..240B"><span>Subbandgap-excited photoconductivity in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beetz, Charles P., Jr.; Lincoln, B. A.; Winn, David R.</p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>The results of room-temperature photoconductivity measurements on free-standing diamond films are reported. The films were grown on Si(100) substrates by hot filament-assisted chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) from a methane/hydrogen mixture and ranged in thickness from 40 to 100 pm. The observed photocurrents in unintentionally doped films increased monotonically with increasing excitation energy. The films are found to exhibit photocurrent excitation similar to that observed for bulk diamond. In films doped with either N or Li the photocurrent exhibited broad structure superposed on the monotonic background. The photocurrent was found to depend on the chopping frequency of the excitation light decreasing with increasing chopper frequency indicative of trapping center dominated recombination dynamics. Schottky barrier heights were determined from the photoresponse for Au on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond film and on (100) oriented single crystalline type ila natural diamond. The measured barrier heights were 2. 02 and 2. 24 eV respectively in good agreement with previously measured values. A second barrier height was obtained from a threshold for internal photoemission at lower energies P4. 35 eV. We were able to observe for the first time an optical enhancement of 20X in the photocurrent using an optical biasing technique. 1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanot..25a4012K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanot..25a4012K"><span>Organic solar cells using <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown graphene electrodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Hobeom; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Han, Tae-Hee; Lim, Kyung-Geun; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Tae-Woo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We report on the development of flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) incorporating graphene sheets synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) as transparent conducting electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. A key barrier that must be overcome for the successful fabrication of OSCs with graphene electrodes is the poor-film properties of water-based poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) when coated onto hydrophobic graphene surfaces. To form a uniform PEDOT:PSS film on a graphene surface, we added perfluorinated ionomers (PFI) to pristine PEDOT:PSS to create ‘GraHEL’, which we then successfully spin coated onto the graphene surface. We systematically investigated the effect of number of layers in layer-by-layer stacked graphene anode of an OSC on the performance parameters including the open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc), and fill factor (FF). As the number of graphene layers increased, the FF tended to increase owing to lower sheet resistance, while Jsc tended to decrease owing to the lower light absorption. In light of this trade-off between sheet resistance and transmittance, we determined that three-layer graphene (3LG) represents the best configuration for obtaining the optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) in OSC anodes, even at suboptimal sheet resistances. We finally developed efficient, flexible OSCs with a PCE of 4.33%, which is the highest efficiency attained so far by an OSC with <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown graphene electrodes to the best of our knowledge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24334624','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24334624"><span>Organic solar cells using <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown graphene electrodes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Hobeom; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Han, Tae-Hee; Lim, Kyung-Geun; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Tae-Woo</p> <p>2014-01-10</p> <p>We report on the development of flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) incorporating graphene sheets synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) as transparent conducting electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. A key barrier that must be overcome for the successful fabrication of OSCs with graphene electrodes is the poor-film properties of water-based poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) when coated onto hydrophobic graphene surfaces. To form a uniform PEDOT:PSS film on a graphene surface, we added perfluorinated ionomers (PFI) to pristine PEDOT:PSS to create 'GraHEL', which we then successfully spin coated onto the graphene surface. We systematically investigated the effect of number of layers in layer-by-layer stacked graphene anode of an OSC on the performance parameters including the open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc), and fill factor (FF). As the number of graphene layers increased, the FF tended to increase owing to lower sheet resistance, while Jsc tended to decrease owing to the lower light absorption. In light of this trade-off between sheet resistance and transmittance, we determined that three-layer graphene (3LG) represents the best configuration for obtaining the optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) in OSC anodes, even at suboptimal sheet resistances. We finally developed efficient, flexible OSCs with a PCE of 4.33%, which is the highest efficiency attained so far by an OSC with <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown graphene electrodes to the best of our knowledge.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/82626','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/82626"><span>Microstructure comparison of transparent and opaque <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, Y.; Zangvil, A.; Goela, J.S.; Taylor, R.L.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Transparent, translucent, and opaque regions of high-purity bulk SiC, produced by <span class="hlt">CVD</span>, have been characterized for physical properties as well as microstructure and chemical purity to correlate degree of transparency with other material characteristics. A good correlation was obtained between SiC vis-a-vis IR transmission and its microstructure. The transparent material is highly oriented toward the {l_angle}111{r_angle} direction and is characterized by pure, essentially defect-free, cubic {beta}-SiC columnar grains of size 5--10 {micro}m. The translucent material of various colors is mostly cubic in structure but contains large amounts of twins, usually as complex mixtures of several twinning variants and secondary twinning within a single grain. Opaque <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC is randomly oriented, does not exhibit columnar grains, and contains one directional disorder with hexagonal ({alpha}-SiC) symmetry in a majority of grains and high density of dislocations elsewhere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017TDM.....4b5026T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017TDM.....4b5026T"><span>Mobility enhancement of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene by spatially correlated charges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turyanska, Lyudmila; Makarovsky, Oleg; Eaves, Laurence; Patanè, Amalia; Mori, Nobuya</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>We present a strategy for enhancing the carrier mobility of single layer <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene (<span class="hlt">CVD</span> SLG) based on spatially correlated charges. Our Monte Carlo simulations, numerical modeling and the experimental results confirm that spatial correlation between defects with opposite charges can provide a means to control independently the carrier concentration and mobility of planar field effect transistors in which graphene is decorated with a layer of colloidal quantum dots (QDs). We show that the spatial correlation between electrically charged scattering centres close to the graphene/SiO2 interface and the localised charges in a QD layer can smooth out the electrostatic potential landscape, thus reducing scattering and enhancing the carrier mobility. The QD capping molecules influence the distribution and correlation of electrical charges in the vicinity of SLG and provide a means of tuning the carrier concentration and increasing the carrier mobility in graphene. These results represent a significant conceptual advance and provide a novel strategy for control of the electronic properties of 2D materials that could accelerate their utilization in optoelectronic devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16644955','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16644955"><span>Neutron detection and dosimetry using polycrystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond detectors with high collection efficiency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Angelone, M; Marinelli, M; Milani, E; Tucciarone, A; Pillon, M; Pucella, G; Verona-Rinati, G</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Polycrystalline chemical vapour deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond film is an interesting material for neutron detection and dosimetry. However, the use of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond detectors is still limited by the low-level signal pulse produced because of the high energy required to produce an electron-hole pair in diamond (13.2 eV) and by the reduced charge collection efficiency owing to several types of traps for electrons and holes in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> films. A new type of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond detector with high gain (HG) contacts was produced as part of the collaboration between the ENEA Fusion Division and the Faculty of Engineering of Rome 'Tor Vergata' University. In this paper the performance of the HG <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond detector is presented and possible applications of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond detectors to neutron dosimetry are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24115244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24115244"><span>25th anniversary article: <span class="hlt">CVD</span> polymers: a new paradigm for surface modification and device fabrication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Coclite, Anna Maria; Howden, Rachel M; Borrelli, David C; Petruczok, Christy D; Yang, Rong; Yagüe, Jose Luis; Ugur, Asli; Chen, Nan; Lee, Sunghwan; Jo, Won Jun; Liu, Andong; Wang, Xiaoxue; Gleason, Karen K</p> <p>2013-10-11</p> <p>Well-adhered, conformal, thin (<100 nm) coatings can easily be obtained by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) for a variety of technological applications. Room temperature modification with functional polymers can be achieved on virtually any substrate: organic, inorganic, rigid, flexible, planar, three-dimensional, dense, or porous. In <span class="hlt">CVD</span> polymerization, the monomer(s) are delivered to the surface through the vapor phase and then undergo simultaneous polymerization and thin film formation. By eliminating the need to dissolve macromolecules, <span class="hlt">CVD</span> enables insoluble polymers to be coated and prevents solvent damage to the substrate. <span class="hlt">CVD</span> film growth proceeds from the substrate up, allowing for interfacial engineering, real-time monitoring, and thickness control. Initiated-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> shows successful results in terms of rationally designed micro- and nanoengineered materials to control molecular interactions at material surfaces. The success of oxidative-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> is mainly demonstrated for the deposition of organic conducting and semiconducting polymers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/801356','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/801356"><span>Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) Facility Operations Manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>IRWIN, J.J.</p> <p>2000-02-03</p> <p>This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of the <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Systems (Garvin 1998) and, the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1997, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 3a. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the <span class="hlt">process</span>, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general <span class="hlt">CVD</span> operations sequence, and has been developed for the spent nuclear fuel project (SNFP) Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27148443','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27148443"><span>Microhabitat selection in the <span class="hlt">common</span> lizard: implications of biotic interactions, age, sex, local <span class="hlt">processes</span>, and model transferability among populations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peñalver-Alcázar, Miguel; Aragón, Pedro; Breedveld, Merel C; Fitze, Patrick S</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Modeling species' habitat requirements are crucial to assess impacts of global change, for conservation efforts and to test mechanisms driving species presence. While the influence of abiotic factors has been widely examined, the importance of biotic factors and biotic interactions, and the potential implications of local <span class="hlt">processes</span> are not well understood. Testing their importance requires additional knowledge and analyses at local habitat scale. Here, we recorded the locations of species presence at the microhabitat scale and measured abiotic and biotic parameters in three different <span class="hlt">common</span> lizard (Zootoca vivipara) populations using a standardized sampling protocol. Thereafter, space use models and cross-evaluations among populations were run to infer local <span class="hlt">processes</span> and estimate the importance of biotic parameters, biotic interactions, sex, and age. Biotic parameters explained more variation than abiotic parameters, and intraspecific interactions significantly predicted the spatial distribution. Significant differences among populations in the relationship between abiotic parameters and lizard distribution, and the greater model transferability within populations than between populations are in line with effects predicted by local adaptation and/or phenotypic plasticity. These results underline the importance of including biotic parameters and biotic interactions in space use models at the population level. There were significant differences in space use between sexes, and between adults and yearlings, the latter showing no association with the measured parameters. Consequently, predictive habitat models at the population level taking into account different sexes and age classes are required to understand a specie's ecological requirements and to allow for precise conservation strategies. Our study therefore stresses that future predictive habitat models at the population level and their transferability should take these parameters into account.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26359538','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26359538"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Dorsal Stream Substrates for the Mapping of Surface Texture to Object Parts and Visual Spatial <span class="hlt">Processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zachariou, Valentinos; Nikas, Christine V; Safiullah, Zaid N; Behrmann, Marlene; Klatzky, Roberta; Ungerleider, Leslie G</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Everyday objects are often composed of multiple parts, each with a unique surface texture. The neural substrates mediating the integration of surface features on different object parts are not fully understood, and potential contributions by both the ventral and dorsal visual pathways are possible. To explore these substrates, we collected fMRI data while human participants performed a difference detection task on two objects with textured parts. The objects could either differ in the assignment of the same texture to different object parts ("texture-location") or the types of texture ("texture-type"). In the ventral stream, comparable BOLD activation levels were observed in response to texture-location and texture-type differences. In contrast, in a priori localized spatial <span class="hlt">processing</span> regions of the dorsal stream, activation was greater for texture-location than texture-type differences, and the magnitude of the activation correlated with behavioral performance. We confirmed the reliance of surface texture to object part mapping on spatial <span class="hlt">processing</span> mechanisms in subsequent psychophysical experiments, in which participants detected a difference in the spatial distance of an object relative to a reference line. In this task, distracter objects occasionally appeared, which differed in either texture-location or texture-type. Distracter texture-location differences slowed detection of spatial distance differences, but texture-type differences did not. More importantly, the distracter effects were only observed when texture-location differences were presented within whole shapes and not between separated shape parts at distinct spatial locations. We conclude that both the mapping of texture features to object parts and the representation of object spatial position are mediated by <span class="hlt">common</span> neural substrates within the dorsal visual pathway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3016639','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3016639"><span>A Comparison of Drug Coverage in Alberta Before and After the Introduction of the National <span class="hlt">Common</span> Drug Review <span class="hlt">Process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gamble, John-Michael; Eurich, Dean T.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Objective: The integration of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Drug Review (CDR) was a substantial change for Canada's public drug plans. Detailed comparisons of time-to-listing and proportion of medications covered by the province of Alberta's drug plans within the context of the CDR <span class="hlt">process</span> have not been rigorously conducted. Methods: New drugs approved by Health Canada were identified five years prior to the CDR's first recommendation (May 2004) and five years after. The time-to-listing and proportion of new drugs covered on the Alberta Health and Wellness Drug Benefit List (AHWDBL) was compared between these periods. The level of agreement between CDR recommendations and coverage in Alberta was calculated using a kappa score. Results: Two hundred and twenty new drugs were identified and met the study eligibility criteria (118 pre-CDR, 102 post-CDR). The median time-to-listing was 312 vs. 524 days in the pre-CDR and post-CDR periods, respectively, with the difference largely driven by time from notice of compliance (NOC) to the CDR recommendation. The level of agreement between 73 drugs with CDR recommendations and coverage in Alberta was fair (kappa 0.55). Conclusion: Following the implementation of the CDR, the proportion of drugs covered has decreased and overall median time-to-listing of new drugs has increased in the province of Alberta. For drugs listed on the AHWDBL, the proportion of time attributable to the CDR <span class="hlt">process</span> (NOC to CDR recommendation) was 63% of the overall time-to-listing. PMID:22043227</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3395003','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3395003"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and distinct networks underlying reward valence and <span class="hlt">processing</span> stages: A meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Xun; Hairston, Jacqueline; Schrier, Madeleine; Fan, Jin</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To better understand the reward circuitry in human brain, we conducted activation likelihood estimation (ALE) and parametric voxel-based meta-analyses (PVM) on 142 neuroimaging studies that examined brain activation in reward-related tasks in healthy adults. We observed several core brain areas that participated in reward-related decision making, including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), caudate, putamen, thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), bilateral anterior insula, anterior (ACC) and posterior (PCC) cingulate cortex, as well as cognitive control regions in the inferior parietal lobule and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The NAcc was <span class="hlt">commonly</span> activated by both positive and negative rewards across various stages of reward <span class="hlt">processing</span> (e.g., anticipation, outcome, and evaluation). In addition, the medial OFC and PCC preferentially responded to positive rewards, whereas the ACC, bilateral anterior insula, and lateral PFC selectively responded to negative rewards. Reward anticipation activated the ACC, bilateral anterior insula, and brain stem, whereas reward outcome more significantly activated the NAcc, medial OFC, and amygdala. Neurobiological theories of reward-related decision making should therefore distributed and interrelated representations of reward valuation and valence assessment into account. PMID:21185861</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22132322','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22132322"><span>Relationship between <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Cultivars <span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Consumed in Jamaica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bahado-Singh, Perceval S; Riley, Cliff K; Wheatley, Andrew O; Lowe, Henry I C</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI) and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars <span class="hlt">commonly</span> eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 ± 2 years). The GI varied between 41 ± 5-93 ± 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 ± 5-50 ± 3), while those <span class="hlt">processed</span> by baking (82 ± 3-94 ± 3) and roasting (79 ± 4-93 ± 2) had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3297836','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3297836"><span>Modeling invariant object <span class="hlt">processing</span> based on tight integration of simulated and empirical data in a <span class="hlt">Common</span> Brain Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Peters, Judith C.; Reithler, Joel; Goebel, Rainer</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Recent advances in Computer Vision and Experimental Neuroscience provided insights into mechanisms underlying invariant object recognition. However, due to the different research aims in both fields models tended to evolve independently. A tighter integration between computational and empirical work may contribute to cross-fertilized development of (neurobiologically plausible) computational models and computationally defined empirical theories, which can be incrementally merged into a comprehensive brain model. After reviewing theoretical and empirical work on invariant object perception, this article proposes a novel framework in which neural network activity and measured neuroimaging data are interfaced in a <span class="hlt">common</span> representational space. This enables direct quantitative comparisons between predicted and observed activity patterns within and across multiple stages of object <span class="hlt">processing</span>, which may help to clarify how high-order invariant representations are created from low-level features. Given the advent of columnar-level imaging with high-resolution fMRI, it is time to capitalize on this new window into the brain and test which predictions of the various object recognition models are supported by this novel empirical evidence. PMID:22408617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24840675','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24840675"><span>Increased risk of cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) with age in HIV-positive men: a comparison of the D:A:D <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk equation and general population <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk equations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petoumenos, K; Reiss, P; Ryom, L; Rickenbach, M; Sabin, C A; El-Sadr, W; d'Arminio Monforte, A; Phillips, A N; De Wit, S; Kirk, O; Dabis, F; Pradier, C; Lundgren, J D; Law, M G</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to statistically model the relative increased risk of cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) per year older in Data collection on Adverse events of anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) and to compare this with the relative increased risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> per year older in general population risk equations. We analysed three endpoints: myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD: MI or invasive coronary procedure) and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (CHD or stroke). We fitted a number of parametric age effects, adjusting for known risk factors and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. The best-fitting age effect was determined using the Akaike information criterion. We compared the ageing effect from D:A:D with that from the general population risk equations: the Framingham Heart Study, CUORE and ASSIGN risk scores. A total of 24 323 men were included in analyses. Crude MI, CHD and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> event rates per 1000 person-years increased from 2.29, 3.11 and 3.65 in those aged 40-45 years to 6.53, 11.91 and 15.89 in those aged 60-65 years, respectively. The best-fitting models included inverse age for MI and age + age(2) for CHD and <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. In D:A:D there was a slowly accelerating increased risk of CHD and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> per year older, which appeared to be only modest yet was consistently raised compared with the risk in the general population. The relative risk of MI with age was not different between D:A:D and the general population. We found only limited evidence of accelerating increased risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> with age in D:A:D compared with the general population. The absolute risk of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> associated with HIV infection remains uncertain. © 2014 British HIV Association.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED527334.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED527334.pdf"><span>Analyzing How Formalist, Cognitive-<span class="hlt">Processing</span>, and Literacy Practices Learning Paradigms are Shaping the Implementation of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beach, Richard</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper analyzes the influence of three different learning paradigms for learning literacy--formalist, cognitive-<span class="hlt">processing</span>, and literacy practices--on the implementation of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards. It argues that the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards are based largely on a formalist paradigm as evident in the emphasis on teaching text…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880041995&hterms=growth+pressure&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dgrowth%2Bpressure','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880041995&hterms=growth+pressure&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dgrowth%2Bpressure"><span>Kinetics of low pressure <span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth of SiO2 on InP and Si</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Iyer, R.; Lile, D. L.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The kinetics of low pressure <span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth of SiO2 from SiH4 and O2 has been investigated for the case of an indirect (remote) plasma <span class="hlt">process</span>. Homogeneous (gas phase) and heterogeneous operating ranges have been experimentally identified. The <span class="hlt">process</span> was shown to be consistent within the heterogeneous surface-reaction dominated range of operation. A kinetic rate equation is given for growth at 14 W RF power input and 400 mtorr total pressure on both InP and Si substrates. The <span class="hlt">process</span> exhibits an activation energy of 8.4 + or - 0.6 kcal/mol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21205381','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21205381"><span>Derivation of anthropometric cut-off levels to define <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk in Sri Lankan adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katulanda, P; Jayawardena, M A R; Sheriff, M H R; Matthews, D R</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Anthropometric cut-off values derived for Caucasians may not be applicable to other populations. The main objective of the present study was to derive population-specific anthropometric cut-off values to define high <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk for Sri Lankan adults. A nationally representative sample of 4474 non-institutionalised adults aged ≥ 18 years was analysed. Cut-off values to provide optimum sensitivity and specificity were derived using receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure and overnight fasting venous blood samples were collected to measure glucose, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed. The results suggested that the age-adjusted BMI, WC and WHR were significantly associated with all cardiovascular risk factors (P < 0·001). Cut-off values for BMI, WC and WHR for males were 20·7 kg/m2, 76·5 cm and 0·89, respectively. The respective values for females were 22·0 kg/m2, 76·3 cm and 0·85. The <span class="hlt">common</span> cut-off value for BMI for males and females was 21·5 kg/m2. Similarly, WC and WHR cut-off values for both males and females were 76·3 cm and 0·87, respectively. The Asian and Caucasian anthropometric cut-off levels showed lower sensitivity and higher false negative percentage compared with newly derived cut-off levels. In conclusion, BMI, WC and WHR were all associated with increased <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk. We propose the following anthropometric cut-off points to determine high <span class="hlt">CVD</span> risk level for Sri Lankan adults: BMI ≥ 21·5 kg/m2, WC ≥ 76 cm and WHR ≥ 0·85 (women) and 0·90 (men).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1185795','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1185795"><span>Chemical reactivity of CVC and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC with UO<sub>2</sub> at high temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Silva, Chinthaka M.; Katoh, Yutai; Voit, Stewart L.; Snead, Lance L.</p> <p>2015-02-11</p> <p>Two types of silicon carbide (SiC) synthesized using two different vapor deposition <span class="hlt">processes</span> were embedded in UO<sub>2</sub> pellets and evaluated for their potential chemical reaction with UO<sub>2</sub>. While minor reactivity between chemical-vapor-composited (CVC) SiC and UO<sub>2</sub> was observed at comparatively low temperatures of 1100 and 1300 C, chemical-vapor-deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) SiC did not show any such reactivity, according to microstructural investigations. But, both <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and CVC SiCs showed some reaction with UO<sub>2</sub> at a higher temperature (1500 C). Elemental maps supported by phase maps obtained using electron backscatter diffraction indicated that CVC SiC was more reactive than <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC at 1500 C. Moreover, this investigation indicated the formation of uranium carbides and uranium silicide chemical phases such as UC, USi<sub>2</sub>, and U<sub>3</sub>Si<sub>2</sub> as a result of SiC reaction with UO<sub>2</sub>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApSS..388..281S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApSS..388..281S"><span>Prediction of the properties of PVD/<span class="hlt">CVD</span> coatings with the use of FEM analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Śliwa, Agata; Mikuła, Jarosław; Gołombek, Klaudiusz; Tański, Tomasz; Kwaśny, Waldemar; Bonek, Mirosław; Brytan, Zbigniew</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to present the results of the prediction of the properties of PVD/<span class="hlt">CVD</span> coatings with the use of finite element method (FEM) analysis. The possibility of employing the FEM in the evaluation of stress distribution in multilayer Ti/Ti(C,N)/CrN, Ti/Ti(C,N)/(Ti,Al)N, Ti/(Ti,Si)N/(Ti,Si)N, and Ti/DLC/DLC coatings by taking into account their deposition conditions on magnesium alloys has been discussed in the paper. The difference in internal stresses in the zone between the coating and the substrate is caused by, first of all, the difference between the mechanical and thermal properties of the substrate and the coating, and also by the structural changes that occur in these materials during the fabrication <span class="hlt">process</span>, especially during the cooling <span class="hlt">process</span> following PVD and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> treatment. The experimental values of stresses were determined based on X-ray diffraction patterns that correspond to the modelled values, which in turn can be used to confirm the correctness of the accepted mathematical model for testing the problem. An FEM model was established for the purpose of building a computer simulation of the internal stresses in the coatings. The accuracy of the FEM model was verified by comparing the results of the computer simulation of the stresses with experimental results. A computer simulation of the stresses was carried out in the ANSYS environment using the FEM method. Structure observations, chemical composition measurements, and mechanical property characterisations of the investigated materials has been carried out to give a background for the discussion of the results that were recorded during the modelling <span class="hlt">process</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP51D1899N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP51D1899N"><span>Climatic change and evaporative <span class="hlt">processes</span> in the development of <span class="hlt">Common</span> Era hypersaline lakes, East Antarctica: A study of Lake Suribati</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakashima, H.; Seto, K.; Katsuki, K.; Kaneko, H.; yamada, K.; Imura, S.; Dettman, D. L.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Antarctic continent was uplifted by glacioisostatic rebound due to the regression of ice sheets after the last glacial period. Today's saline lakes were formed in shallow basins originally below sea level. Antarctic hypersaline lakes are formed by concentration of isolated seawater bodies as affected by recent climate change. Many saline lakes are found in the ice-free area of the Soya coast, East Antarctica. Lake Suribati is located in Sukarvsnes on the Soya coast. It is a hypersaline lake with maximum salinity ~200 psu, and an observable stable halocline at 7~12m depth. This study uses Lake Suribati sediment core Sr4C-01, collected by the 46th Japanese Antarctica Research Expedition, to examine the relationship of climatic change to evaporative <span class="hlt">processes</span> and solute concentration in Lake Suribati in the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Era. Sr4C-01 core was collected at 9.53m water depth in Lake Suribati in 2005 (core length is 63cm). This core primarily consists of black mud and laminated black organic mud. In the interval from 10 to 24cm below the sediment surface evaporite crystals occur. The age of the Sr4C-01 core bottom is estimated to be ~3,500 cal yrs BP, based on AMS carbon-14 dating at 6 core horizons. The evaporite crystals were indentified as aragonite based on XRD. Total inorganic carbon (TIC) content is low, around 0.5%, throughout the Sr4C-01 core, with higher values, approximately 1~4%, in two intervals, 57~52cm and 29~10cm core depth. Variation in CaO content tracks TIC content. We suggest that synchronous change in CaO and TIC contents indicate the vertical change in the amount of aragonite. Two intervals of evaporite precipition imply two intervals of evaporation and concentration of lake water. Hypersaline lake conditions did not occur soon after the isolation from the sea, rather these occurred under repeated concentration and dilution of lake water. Dilution of saline lake water could occur through the inflow of melt water from local snow or ice, indicating a warm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16442276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16442276"><span>EDC-mediated DNA attachment to nanocrystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond films.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Christiaens, P; Vermeeren, V; Wenmackers, S; Daenen, M; Haenen, K; Nesládek, M; vandeVen, M; Ameloot, M; Michiels, L; Wagner, P</p> <p>2006-08-15</p> <p>Chemical vapour deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond is a very promising material for biosensor fabrication owing both to its chemical inertness and the ability to make it electrical semiconducting that allows for connection with integrated circuits. For biosensor construction, a biochemical method to immobilize nucleic acids to a diamond surface has been developed. Nanocrystalline diamond is grown using microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (MPECVD). After hydrogenation of the surface, 10-undecenoic acid, an omega-unsaturated fatty acid, is tethered by 254 nm photochemical attachment. This is followed by 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide (EDC)-mediated attachment of amino (NH(2))-modified dsDNA. The functionality of the covalently bound dsDNA molecules is confirmed by fluorescence measurements, PCR and gel electrophoresis during 35 denaturation and rehybridisation steps. The linking method after the fatty acid attachment can easily be applied to other biomolecules like antibodies and enzymes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24164667','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24164667"><span>Interfaces in nano-/microcrystalline multigrade <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond coatings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Almeida, Flávia A; Salgueiredo, Ermelinda; Oliveira, Filipe J; Silva, Rui F; Baptista, Daniel L; Peripolli, Suzana B; Achete, Carlos A</p> <p>2013-11-27</p> <p>The interfaces of multilayered <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond films grown by the hot-filament technique were characterized with high detail using HRTEM, STEM-EDX, and EELS. The results show that at the transition from micro- (MCD) to nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), a thin precursor graphitic film is formed, irrespectively of the NCD gas chemistry used (with or without argon). On the contrary, the transition of the NCD to MCD grade is free of carbon structures other than diamond, the result of a higher substrate temperature and more abundant atomic H in the gas chemistry. At those transitions WC nanoparticles could be found due to contamination from the filament, being also present at the first interface of the MCD layer with the silicon nitride substrate.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JInst...8C1056Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JInst...8C1056Z"><span>Leakage current measurements of a pixelated polycrystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zain, R. M.; Maneuski, D.; O'Shea, V.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Cunnigham, L.; Stehl, C.; Berderman, E.; Rahim, R. A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Diamond has several desirable features when used as a material for radiation detection. With the invention of synthetic growth techniques, it has become feasible to look at developing diamond radiation detectors with reasonable surface areas. Polycrystalline diamond has been grown using a chemical vapour deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) technique by the University of Augsburg and detector structures fabricated at the James Watt Nanofabrication Centre (JWNC) in the University of Glasgow in order to produce pixelated detector arrays. The anode and cathode contacts are realised by depositing gold to produce ohmic contacts. Measurements of I-V characteristics were performed to study the material uniformity. The bias voltage is stepped from -1000V to 1000V to investigate the variation of leakage current from pixel to pixel. Bulk leakage current is measured to be less than 1nA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19498892','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19498892"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond alpha-particle detectors with different electrode geometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Linjun; Lou, Yanyan; Su, Qingfeng; Shi, Weimin; Xia, Yiben</p> <p>2005-10-17</p> <p>In this paper, two types of detectors, one with a coplanar and the other with a sandwich geometry using an identical <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond film, were fabricated in order to investigate the effects of the film microstructure on the performance of diamond film alpha-particle detectors. An average charge collection efficiency of 42.9% for the coplanar structure and of 37.4% for the sandwich structure detectors was obtained, respectively. Raman scattering studies directly demonstrated that the different counts, collection efficiencies and photocurrents of the two types of detectors mainly resulted from the different micro-structural features between the final growth side and the nucleation side of the diamond film. Under alpha particle irradiation the detector with sandwich geometry had a similar trend on energy resolution with coplanar geometry under different applied electric field. A good energy resolution of 1.1% was obtained for both detectors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.439a2020R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.439a2020R"><span>A controlled atmosphere tube furnace was designed for thermal <span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rashid, M.; Bhatti, J. A.; Hussain, F.; Imran, M.; Khawaja, I. U.; Chaudhary, K. A.; Ahmad, S. A.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>High quality materials were used for the fabrication of hi-tech tube furnace. The furnace was especially suitable for thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>). High density alumina tube was used for the fabrication of furnace. The tube furnace was found to have three different temperature zones with maximum temperature at central zone was found to be 650°C. The flexible heating tape with capacity of 760°C was wrapped on the tube. To minimize the heat losses, asbestos and glass wool were used on heating tape. The temperature of the tube furnace was controlled by a digital temperature controller had accuracy of ±1°C. Methanol was taken as the representative of hydrocarbon sources, to give thin film of carbon. The a-C: H structure was investigated by conventional techniques using optical microscopy, FT-IR and SEM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5441513','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5441513"><span>Low temperature <span class="hlt">CVD</span> of TaB/sub 2/</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Randich, E.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Crystalline TaB/sub 2/ has been deposited using the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reaction of TaCl/sub 5/ and B/sub 2/H/sub 6/ in the temperature range of 773-1200/sup 0/K. Thermodynamic calculations have been made which compare the use of both B/sub 2/H/sub 6/ and BCl/sub 3/ as B source gases. The deposits obtained with B/sub 2/H/sub 6/ exhibited extremely small crystal size and contained amorphous B when the deposition temperature was below approx. 873/sup 0/K but were substoichiometric in B above this temperature. Carbon analysis indicated that C may substitute for B and thereby stabilize the diboride structure at high deposition temperatures. Microhardness of the coatings decreased with increasing B/Ta ratio and decreasing crystal size.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JPhCS..26..139A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JPhCS..26..139A"><span>Supported Catalytic Growth of SWCNTs using the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aslam, Z.; Li, X.; Brydson, R.; Rand, B.; Falke, U.; Bleloch, A.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from supported metal catalysts using the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> method with CH4 as the carbon feedstock was investigated using SEM and TEM. Studies include the influence of the substrate structure, the metal catalyst content and other experimental parameters on the nature of the CNTs produced using calcined aluminium nitrate and delta-alumina nanoparticles (~13nm). The iron catalyst precursors are ferric sulphate and also iron oxide nanoparticles. Using an aberration corrected STEM and a FEGTEM BF imaging has been used to identify symmetries of tubes produced, as well as a TEM-STM tip to measure I-V curves of SWCNTs. It appears the optimum iron precursor and catalyst support for production of SWCNTs is either ferric sulphate or iron oxide nanoparticles supported on deltaalumina nanoparticles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MatSP..32..243J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MatSP..32..243J"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> synthesis of graphene nanoplates on MgO support</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jugade, Ravin M.; Sharma, Shalini; Gokhale, Suresh</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Synthesis of graphene directly on MgO has been carried out and the structural properties of the obtained material have been investigated. Few-layered graphene was produced by simple thermal decomposition of methane over MgO powder at 950 °C in a <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reactor. The samples were purified by 10 N HNO3 treatment, and studied by TEM, Raman spectroscopy, EDAX and SEM. TEM clearly indicated the formation of graphene. EDAX showed that the purified sample contained only carbon and no traces of MgO. The characteristic Raman features of graphene were also seen as D-band at 1316 cm-1, G-band at 1602 cm-1, and a small 2D-band at 2700 cm-1 in the Raman spectra. The strong D-band suggests that the graphene possess large number of boundary defects. The small 2D-band indicates the formation of few-layered graphene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920057050&hterms=cristobalite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcristobalite','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920057050&hterms=cristobalite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcristobalite"><span>Oxidation kinetics of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> silicon carbide and silicon nitride</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fox, Dennis S.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The long-term oxidation behavior of pure, monolithic <span class="hlt">CVD</span> SiC and Si3N4 is studied, and the isothermal oxidation kinetics of these two materials are obtained for the case of 100 hrs at 1200-1500 C in flowing oxygen. Estimates are made of lifetimes at the various temperatures investigated. Parabolic rate constants for SiC are within an order of magnitude of shorter exposure time values reported in the literature. The resulting silica scales are in the form of cristobalite, with cracks visible after exposure. The oxidation protection afforded by silica for these materials is adequate for long service times under isothermal conditions in 1-atm dry oxygen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/797505','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/797505"><span>Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Cold Vacuum Drying (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) Facility Operations Manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>IRWIN, J.J.</p> <p>1999-07-02</p> <p>This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report Annex B--Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1999, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 4, and the CVDF Final Design Report. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the <span class="hlt">process</span>, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general <span class="hlt">CVD</span> operations sequence and references to the CVDF System Design Descriptions (SDDs). This manual has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JInst..11C1017G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JInst..11C1017G"><span>Spectroscopy of defects in HPHT and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond by ESR and pulsed photo-ionization measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Meskauskaite, D.; Grigonis, R.; Sirutkaitis, V.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Synthetic diamond is one of the most promising wide band-gap materials for fabrication of solar-blind photo-sensors and radiation tolerant particle detectors. However, defects introduced during crystal growth and <span class="hlt">processing</span>, causing carrier trapping and recombination, limit the functional characteristics of devices made of this material. In order to reveal the predominant defects, pulsed photo-ionization (PPI), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic measurements have been performed on diamond samples grown by chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) and high pressure-high temperature (HPHT) methods. Measured photo-activation energies have been assigned to point defects associated with nitrogen and nickel impurities as well as to their complexes involving vacancies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JaJAP..56dCJ02L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JaJAP..56dCJ02L"><span>Incorporation of yttrium to yttrium iron garnet thin films fabricated by mist <span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Li; Suwa, Yuta; Sato, Shota; Nakasone, Yoshiaki; Nishi, Misaki; Dang, Giang T.; Pradeep, Ellawala K. C.; Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin films were deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates under atmospheric pressure by a mist <span class="hlt">CVD</span> technique, and their chemical composition and optical properties were examined. The thin films deposited at 450 °C showed an [Y]/[Fe] ratio of 0.57, indicating the deposition of yttrium iron oxide, while the molar ratio of [Y]/[Fe] in the precursor solution was set at 1.5. A thermodynamic model was developed to explain the reaction paths of the YIG thin film fabrication <span class="hlt">process</span> using thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) results. The model indicates that the decomposition rate of yttrium acetylacetonate [Y(acac)3 • nH2O] was much lower than that of iron acetylacetonate [Fe(acac)3], providing a plausible explanation for the large difference between the composition ratio of the thin films and that of the precursor solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1374542','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1374542"><span>Fast method for reactor and feature scale coupling in ALD and <span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Elam, Jeffrey W.</p> <p>2017-08-08</p> <p>Transport and surface chemistry of certain deposition techniques is modeled. Methods provide a model of the transport inside nanostructures as a single-particle discrete Markov chain <span class="hlt">process</span>. This approach decouples the complexity of the surface chemistry from the transport model, thus allowing its application under general surface chemistry conditions, including atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>). Methods provide for determination of determine statistical information of the trajectory of individual molecules, such as the average interaction time or the number of wall collisions for molecules entering the nanostructures as well as to track the relative contributions to thin-film growth of different independent reaction pathways at each point of the feature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23759928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23759928"><span>Incorporation of small BN domains in graphene during <span class="hlt">CVD</span> using methane, boric acid and nitrogen gas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bepete, George; Voiry, Damien; Chhowalla, Manish; Chiguvare, Zivayi; Coville, Neil J</p> <p>2013-07-21</p> <p>Chemical doping of graphene with small boron nitride (BN) domains has been shown to be an effective way of permanently modulating the electronic properties in graphene. Herein we show a facile method of growing large area graphene doped with small BN domains on copper foils using a single step <span class="hlt">CVD</span> route with methane, boric acid powder and nitrogen gas as the carbon, boron and nitrogen sources respectively. This facile and safe <span class="hlt">process</span> avoids the use of boranes and ammonia. Optical microscopy confirmed that continuous films were grown and Raman spectroscopy confirmed changes in the electronic structure of the grown BN doped graphene. Using XPS studies we find that both B and N can be substituted into the graphene structure in the form of small BN domains to give a B-N-C system. A novel structure for the BN doped graphene is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1832h0028R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1832h0028R"><span>Low temperature growth of carbon nanotubes with aligned multiwalls by microwave plasma-<span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roy, Ajay; Das, Debajyoti</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs) have been prepared in a microwave-plasma enhanced <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (MW-PECVD) tubular system at a low temperature ˜300 °C from CH4-H2 plasma with the addition of CO2 using as a week oxidant to selectively remove the amorphous carbon component and promote the CNT growth. CNTs are typically with outer diameter ˜20 nm, inner diameter ˜10 nm of several μm in length and are grown via the tip growth <span class="hlt">process</span>, bearing Fe catalyst nano-particles at the tip. The presence of CO2 as a weak oxidant in the plasma may influence in reducing the size of the support catalyst nano-particles and narrowing the CNTs with aligned multiwalls.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980210984','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980210984"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> Fiber Coatings for Al2O3/NiAl Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Boss, Daniel E.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>While sapphire-fiber-reinforced nickel aluminide (Al2O3/NiAl) composites are an attractive candidate for high-temperature structures, the significant difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the NiAl matrix and the sapphire fiber creates substantial residual stresses in the composite. This study seeks to produce two fiber-coating systems with the potential to reduce the residual stresses in the sapphire/NiAl composite system. Chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) was used to produce both the compensating and compliant-fiber coatings for use in sapphire/NiAl composites. A special reactor was designed and built to produce the FGM and to handle the toxic nickel precursors. This <span class="hlt">process</span> was successfully used to produce 500-foot lengths of fiber with coating thicknesses of approximately 3 microns, 5 microns, and 10 microns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050169162&hterms=CVD+diamond&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCVD%2Bdiamond','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050169162&hterms=CVD+diamond&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCVD%2Bdiamond"><span>Chemical Vapor-Deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) Diamond Films for Electronic Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Diamond films have a variety of useful applications as electron emitters in devices such as magnetrons, electron multipliers, displays, and sensors. Secondary electron emission is the effect in which electrons are emitted from the near surface of a material because of energetic incident electrons. The total secondary yield coefficient, which is the ratio of the number of secondary electrons to the number of incident electrons, generally ranges from 2 to 4 for most materials used in such applications. It was discovered recently at the NASA Lewis Research Center that chemical vapor-deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond films have very high secondary electron yields, particularly when they are coated with thin layers of CsI. For CsI-coated diamond films, the total secondary yield coefficient can exceed 60. In addition, diamond films exhibit field emission at fields orders of magnitude lower than for existing state-of-the-art emitters. Present state-of-the-art microfabricated field emitters generally require applied fields above 5x10^7 V/cm. Research on field emission from <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond and high-pressure, high-temperature diamond has shown that field emission can be obtained at fields as low as 2x10^4 V/cm. It has also been shown that thin layers of metals, such as gold, and of alkali halides, such as CsI, can significantly increase field emission and stability. Emitters with nanometer-scale lithography will be able to obtain high-current densities with voltages on the order of only 10 to 15 V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050169162&hterms=high+temperature+pressure+diamond&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dhigh%2Btemperature%2Bpressure%2Bdiamond','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050169162&hterms=high+temperature+pressure+diamond&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dhigh%2Btemperature%2Bpressure%2Bdiamond"><span>Chemical Vapor-Deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) Diamond Films for Electronic Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Diamond films have a variety of useful applications as electron emitters in devices such as magnetrons, electron multipliers, displays, and sensors. Secondary electron emission is the effect in which electrons are emitted from the near surface of a material because of energetic incident electrons. The total secondary yield coefficient, which is the ratio of the number of secondary electrons to the number of incident electrons, generally ranges from 2 to 4 for most materials used in such applications. It was discovered recently at the NASA Lewis Research Center that chemical vapor-deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond films have very high secondary electron yields, particularly when they are coated with thin layers of CsI. For CsI-coated diamond films, the total secondary yield coefficient can exceed 60. In addition, diamond films exhibit field emission at fields orders of magnitude lower than for existing state-of-the-art emitters. Present state-of-the-art microfabricated field emitters generally require applied fields above 5x10^7 V/cm. Research on field emission from <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond and high-pressure, high-temperature diamond has shown that field emission can be obtained at fields as low as 2x10^4 V/cm. It has also been shown that thin layers of metals, such as gold, and of alkali halides, such as CsI, can significantly increase field emission and stability. Emitters with nanometer-scale lithography will be able to obtain high-current densities with voltages on the order of only 10 to 15 V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JInst..11C2043M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JInst..11C2043M"><span>Polycrystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)<span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pc<span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50H5103W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50H5103W"><span>Q-factors of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> monolayer graphene and graphite inductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Zidong; Zhang, Qingping; Peng, Pei; Tian, Zhongzheng; Ren, Liming; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Ru; Wen, Jincai; Fu, Yunyi</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>A carbon-based inductor may serve as an important passive component in a carbon-based radio-frequency (RF) integrated circuit (IC). In this work, chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) synthesized monolayer graphene and graphite inductors are fabricated and their Q-factors are investigated. We find that the large series resistance of signal path (including coil resistance and contact resistance) in monolayer graphene inductors causes negative Q-factors at the whole frequency range in measurement. Comparatively, some of the graphite inductors have all of their Q-factors above zero, due to their small signal path resistance. We also note that some other graphite inductors have negative Q-factor values at low frequency regions, but positive Q-factor values at high frequency regions. With an equivalent circuit model, we confirm that the negative Q-factors of some graphite inductors at low frequency regions are related to their relatively large contact resistances, and we are able to eliminate these negative Q-factors by improving the graphite-metal contact. Furthermore, the peak Q-factor (Q p) can be enhanced by lowering down the resistance of graphite coil. For an optimized 3/4-turn graphite inductor, the measured maximum Q-factor (Q m) can reach 2.36 and the peak Q-factor is theoretically predicted by the equivalent circuit to be as high as 6.46 at a high resonant frequency, which is beyond the testing frequency range. This research indicates that <span class="hlt">CVD</span> synthesized graphite thin film is more suitable than graphene for fabricating inductors in carbon-based RF IC in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22420762','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22420762"><span><span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth of graphene under exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride for vertical hybrid structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Min; Jang, Sung Kyu; Song, Young Jae; Lee, Sungjoo</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>Graphical abstract: We have demonstrated a novel yet simple method for fabricating graphene-based vertical hybrid structures by performing the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth of graphene at an h-BN/Cu interface. Our systematic Raman measurements combined with plasma etching <span class="hlt">process</span> indicate that a graphene film is grown under exfoliated h-BN rather than on its top surface, and that an h-BN/graphene vertical hybrid structure has been fabricated. Electrical transport measurements of this h-BN/graphene, transferred on SiO2, show the carrier mobility up to approximately 2250 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The developed method would enable the exploration of the possibility of novel hybrid structure integration with two-dimensional material systems. - Abstract: We have demonstrated a novel yet simple method for fabricating graphene-based vertical hybrid structures by performing the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth of graphene at an h-BN/Cu interface. Our systematic Raman measurements combined with plasma etching <span class="hlt">process</span> indicate that a graphene film is grown under exfoliated h-BN rather than on its top surface, and that an h-BN/graphene vertical hybrid structure has been fabricated. Electrical transport measurements of this h-BN/graphene, transferred on SiO{sub 2}, show the carrier mobility up to approximately 2250 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The developed method would enable the exploration of the possibility of novel hybrid structure integration with two-dimensional material systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17288695','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17288695"><span>Comparison of health care costs and co-morbidities between men diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia and cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) and men with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> alone in a US commercial population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shah, Manan; Butler, Melissa; Bramley, Thomas; Curtice, Tammy G; Fine, Shari</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to compare costs and treatment patterns between men with concomitant benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> to men with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (but not BPH). A retrospective, matched cohort study was utilized to assess costs and treatment between two study populations. The data source was administrative claims from managed care organizations between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2004. A control group of men with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> only was created matching by age, index <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diagnosis date, and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diagnoses. Diagnosis and procedure codes identified men with BPH and <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. Differences in medical costs, co-morbidities, and drug treatments were assessed. Approximately 39% of men identified with BPH also had some form of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> at the time of BPH diagnosis. Men with BPH and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> were more likely to have additional co-morbidities, more frequently received medications for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and non-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> disorders, had 44% higher total medical costs than men with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> only (p < 0.001), and had 42% higher <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-related costs (p < 0.001) than men with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> only. The population studied in this analysis was primarily working individuals with health benefits provided by managed care plans; therefore, the results may not generalize to other populations. This study demonstrates in a commercial payer population that men with concomitant BPH and <span class="hlt">CVD</span> have more co-morbidities, receive pharmacologic agents more frequently, and have higher health care resource utilization than men with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> only. Due to the high prevalence of co-morbid BPH and <span class="hlt">CVD</span>, screening for BPH in men presenting with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> may assist with earlier disease identification and cost management over time.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22039030','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22039030"><span>Combined single-crystalline and polycrystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond substrates for diamond electronics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vikharev, A. L. Gorbachev, A. M.; Dukhnovsky, M. P.; Muchnikov, A. B.; Ratnikova, A. K.; Fedorov, Yu. Yu.</p> <p>2012-02-15</p> <p>The fabrication of diamond substrates in which single-crystalline and polycrystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond form a single wafer, and the epitaxial growth of diamond films on such combined substrates containing polycrystalline and (100) single-crystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond regions are studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JaJAP..26L.902S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JaJAP..26L.902S"><span>Doping-Induced Defects in P-Doped Photo-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> a-Si:H</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Kominato, Toshimi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Kuroiwa, Koichi; Tarui, Yasuo</p> <p>1987-06-01</p> <p>Doping-induced defect creation of photo-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> amorphous silicon is investigated by photoluminescence and the isothermal capacitance transient spectroscopy technique. The defects induced by phosphorus doping increase as the square root of the gas phase doping ratio, indicating Street’s doping mechanism is basically valid for the Hg-sensitized photo-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> a-Si:H.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21049296','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21049296"><span>NEXAFS Study of the Annealing Effect on the Local Structure of FIB-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> DLC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Saikubo, Akihiko; Kato, Yuri; Igaki, Jun-ya; Kanda, Kazuhiro; Matsui, Shinji; Kometani, Reo</p> <p>2007-01-19</p> <p>Annealing effect on the local structure of diamond like carbon (DLC) formed by focused ion beam-chemical vapor deposition (FIB-<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) was investigated by the measurement of near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectra. Carbon K edge absorption NEXAFS spectrum of FIB-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> DLC was measured in the energy range of 275-320 eV. In order to obtain the information on the location of the gallium in the depth direction, incidence angle dependence of NEXAFS spectrum was measured in the incident angle range from 0 deg. to 60 deg. . The peak intensity corresponding to the resonance transition of 1s{yields}{sigma}* originating from carbon-gallium increased from the FIB-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> DLC annealed at 200 deg. C to the FIB-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> DLC annealed at 400 deg. C and decreased from that at 400 deg. C to that at 600 deg. C. Especially, the intensity of this peak remarkably enhanced in the NEXAFS spectrum of the FIB-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> DLC annealed at 400 deg. C at the incident angle of 60 deg. . On the contrary, the peak intensity corresponding to the resonance transition of 1s{yields}{pi}* originating from carbon double bonding of emission spectrum decreased from the FIB-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> DLC annealed at 200 deg. C to that at 400 deg. C and increased from that at 400 deg. C to that at 600 deg. C. Gallium concentration in the FIB-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> DLC decreased from {approx_equal}2.2% of the as-deposited FIB-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> DLC to {approx_equal}1.5% of the FIB-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> DLC annealed at 600 deg. C from the elementary analysis using EDX. Both experimental results indicated that gallium atom departed from FIB-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> DLC by annealing at the temperature of 600 deg. C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21832320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21832320"><span>Charge transfer effects, thermo and photochromism in single crystal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> synthetic diamond.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khan, R U A; Martineau, P M; Cann, B L; Newton, M E; Twitchen, D J</p> <p>2009-09-09</p> <p>We report on the effects of thermal treatment and ultraviolet irradiation on the point defect concentrations and optical absorption profiles of single crystal <span class="hlt">CVD</span> synthetic diamond. All thermal treatments were below 850 K, which is lower than the growth temperature and unlikely to result in any structural change. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy measurements showed that upon thermal treatment (823 K), various broad absorption features diminished: an absorption band at 270 nm (used to deduce neutral single substitutional nitrogen (N(S)(0)) concentrations) and also two broad features centred at approximately 360 and 520 nm. Point defect centre concentrations as a function of temperature were also deduced using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Above ∼500 K, we observed a decrease in the concentration of N(S)(0) centres and a concomitant increase in the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy-hydrogen (NVH) complex (NVH(-)) concentration. Both transitions exhibited an activation energy between 0.6 and 1.2 eV, which is lower than that for the N(S)(0) donor (∼1.7 eV). Finally, it was found that illuminating samples with intense short-wave ultraviolet light recovered the N(S)(0) concentration and also the 270, 360 and 520 nm absorption features. From these results, we postulate a valence band mediated charge transfer <span class="hlt">process</span> between NVH and single nitrogen centres with an acceptor trap depth for NVH of 0.6-1.2 eV. Because the loss of N(S)(0) concentration is greater than the increase in NVH(-) concentration we also suggest the presence of another unknown acceptor existing at a similar energy to NVH. The extent to which the colour in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> synthetic diamond is dependent on prior history is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21832308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21832308"><span>Microwave engineering of plasma-assisted <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reactors for diamond deposition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silva, F; Hassouni, K; Bonnin, X; Gicquel, A</p> <p>2009-09-09</p> <p>The unique properties of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond make it a compelling choice for high power electronics. In order to achieve industrial use of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond, one must simultaneously obtain an excellent control of the film purity, very low defect content and a sufficiently rapid growth rate. Currently, only microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition (MPACVD) <span class="hlt">processes</span> making use of resonant cavity systems provide enough atomic hydrogen to satisfy these requirements. We show in this paper that the use of high microwave power density (MWPD) plasmas is necessary to promote atomic hydrogen concentrations that are high enough to ensure the deposition of high purity diamond films at large growth rates. Moreover, the deposition of homogeneous films on large surfaces calls for the production of plasma with appropriate shapes and large volumes. The production of such plasmas needs generating a fairly high electric field over extended regions and requires a careful design of the MW coupling system, especially the cavity. As far as MW coupling efficiency is concerned, the presence of a plasma load represents a mismatching perturbation to the cavity. This perturbation is especially important at high MWPD where the reflected fraction of the input power may be quite high. This mismatch can lead to a pronounced heating of the reactor walls. It must therefore be taken into account from the very beginning of the reactor design. This requires the implementation of plasma modelling tools coupled to detailed electromagnetic simulations. This is discussed in section 3. We also briefly discuss the operating principles of the main commercial plasma reactors before introducing the reactor design methodology we have developed. Modelling results for a new generation of reactors developed at LIMHP, working at very high power density, will be presented. Lastly, we show that scaling up this type of reactor to lower frequencies (915 MHz) can result in high density plasmas allowing for fast and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21767046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21767046"><span>The sentence-composition effect: <span class="hlt">processing</span> of complex sentences depends on the configuration of <span class="hlt">common</span> noun phrases versus unusual noun phrases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnson, Marcus L; Lowder, Matthew W; Gordon, Peter C</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>In 2 experiments, the authors used an eye tracking while reading methodology to examine how different configurations of <span class="hlt">common</span> noun phrases versus unusual noun phrases (NPs) influenced the difference in <span class="hlt">processing</span> difficulty between sentences containing object- and subject-extracted relative clauses. Results showed that <span class="hlt">processing</span> difficulty was reduced when the head NP was unusual relative to the embedded NP, as manipulated by lexical frequency. When both NPs were <span class="hlt">common</span> or both were unusual, results showed strong effects of both <span class="hlt">commonness</span> and sentence structure, but no interaction. In contrast, when 1 NP was <span class="hlt">common</span> and the other was unusual, results showed the critical interaction. These results provide evidence for a sentence-composition effect analogous to the list-composition effect that has been well documented in memory research, in which the pattern of recall for <span class="hlt">common</span> versus unusual items is different, depending on whether items are studied in a pure or mixed list context. This work represents an important step in integrating the list-memory and sentence-<span class="hlt">processing</span> literatures and provides additional support for the usefulness of studying complex sentence <span class="hlt">processing</span> from the perspective of memory-based models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Home/GetFileByID/1862','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Home/GetFileByID/1862"><span>Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Prevention in Adults with Risk Factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... final recommendation statement applies to adults who are overweight or obese and who have at least one ... harms of behavioral counseling to prevent <span class="hlt">CVD</span> in overweight or obese adults at increased risk for <span class="hlt">CVD</span>: ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995ApSS...91..162J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995ApSS...91..162J"><span>Influence of mixed reductants on the growth rate of WF 6-based W-<span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jongste, J. F.; Oosterlaken, T. G. M.; Leusink, G. J.; van der Jeugd, C. A.; Janssen, G. C. A. M.; Radelaar, S.</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>The influence of adding dichlorosilane (SiH 2Cl 2) or germane (GeH 4) to the SiH 4-based reduction reaction of tungsten-hexafluoride (WF 6) has been investigated in order to enhance the properties of the silane W-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span>: e.g. selectivity and step-coverage. It is shown that the kinetics of the silane-dichlorosilane <span class="hlt">process</span> can be characterised by a surface reaction limitation, thus improving the control of the <span class="hlt">process</span>. For the mixed SiH 4GeH 4 reduction reaction of WF 6 it is shown that the GeH 4 <span class="hlt">process</span> dominates the reaction kinetics. Also addition of SiH 2Cl 2 to the GeH 4-based reduction of WF 6 has been examined. It is found that in this case the formation of W is only slightly influenced. The reaction kinetics are similar to that of the unmodified deposition <span class="hlt">process</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......112B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......112B"><span>Interlayer utilization (including metal borides) for subsequent deposition of NSD films via microwave plasma <span class="hlt">CVD</span> on 316 and 440C stainless steels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ballinger, Jared</p> <p></p> <p>. Surface boriding was implemented using the novel method of microwave plasma <span class="hlt">CVD</span> with a mixture of hydrogen and diborane gases. On 440C bearings, dual phase boride layers of Fe2B and FeB were formed which supported adhered nanostructured diamond films. Continuity of the films was not seamless with limited regions remaining uncoated potentially corresponding to delamination of the film as evidenced by the presence of tubular structures presumably composed of sp2 bonded carbon. Surface boriding of 316 stainless steel discs was conducted at various powers and pressures to achieve temperatures ranging from 550-800 °C. The substrate boriding temperature was found to substantially influence the resultant interlayer by altering the metal boride(s) present. The lowest temperatures produced an interlayer where CrB was the single detected phase, higher temperatures yielded the presence of only Fe2B, and a combination of the two phases resulted from an intermediate boriding temperature. Compared with the more <span class="hlt">common</span>, commercialized boriding methods, this a profound result given the problems posed by the FeB phase in addition to other advantages offered by <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> and microwave generated plasmas in general. Indentation testing of the boride layers revealed excellent adhesion strength for all borided interlayers, and above all, no evidence of cracking was observed for a sole Fe2B phase. As with boriding of 440C bearings, subsequent diamond deposition was achieved on these interlayers with substantially improved adhesion strength relative to diamond coated TiN interlayers. Both XRD and Raman spectroscopy confirmed a nanostructured diamond film with interfacial chromium carbides responsible for enhanced adhesion strength. Interlayers consisting solely of Fe2B have displayed an ability to support fully continuous nanostructured diamond films, yet additional study is required for consistent reproduction. This is in good agreement with initial work on pack borided high alloy steels</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5296040','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5296040"><span>Simple method for the calculation and use of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> phase diagrams with applications to the Ti-B-Cl-H system, 1200 to 800/sup 0/K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Randich, E.; Gerlach, T. M.</p> <p>1980-03-01</p> <p>A simple method for calculating multi-component gas-solid equilibrium phase diagrams for chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) systems is presented. The method proceeds in three steps: dtermination of stable solid assemblages, evaluation of gas-solid stability relations, and calcuation of conventional phase diagrams using a new free energy minimization technique. The phase diagrams can be used to determine (1) bulk compositions and phase fields accessible by <span class="hlt">CVD</span> techniques; (2) expected condensed phases for various starting gas mixtures; and (3) maximum equilibrium yields for specific <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> variables. The three step thermodynamic method is used to calcuate phase diagrams for the example <span class="hlt">CVD</span> system Ti-B-Cl-H at 1200 and 800/sup 0/K. Examples of applications of the diagrams for yield optimization and experimental accessibility studies are presented and discussed. Experimental verification of the TiB/sub 2/ + Gas/Gas phase field boundary at 1200/sup 0/K, H/Cl = 1 confirms the calculated boundary and indicates that equilibrium is nearly and rapidly approached under laboratory conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020072731&hterms=graphite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dgraphite','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020072731&hterms=graphite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dgraphite"><span>Carbon Nanotubes Growth by <span class="hlt">CVD</span> on Graphite Fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Cochrane, J. C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Muntele, I.; Ila, D.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Due to the superior electrical and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT), synthesizing CNT on various substances for electronics devices and reinforced composites have been engaged in many efforts for applications. This presentation will illustrate CNT synthesized on graphite fibers by thermal <span class="hlt">CVD</span>. On the fiber surface, iron nanoparticles as catalysts for CNT growth are coated. The growth temperature ranges from 600 to 1000 C and the pressure ranges from 100 Torr to one atmosphere. Methane and hydrogen gases with methane content of 10% to 100% are used for the CNT synthesis. At high growth temperatures (greater than or equal to 900 C), the rapid inter-diffusion of the transition metal iron on the graphite surface results in the rough fiber surface without any CNT grown on it. When the growth temperature is relative low (650-800 C), CNT with catalytic particles on the nanotube top ends are fabricated on the graphite surface. (Methane and hydrogen gases with methane content of 10% to 100% are used for the CNT synthesis.) (By measuring the samples) Using micro Raman spectroscopy in the breath mode region, single-walled or multi-walled CNT (MWCNT), depending on growth concentrations, are found. Morphology, length and diameter of these MWCNT are determined by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The detailed results of syntheses and characterizations will be discussed in the presentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/131215','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/131215"><span>Simple and inexpensive microwave plasma assisted <span class="hlt">CVD</span> facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brewer, M.A.; Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>A simple and inexpensive microwave plasma assisted <span class="hlt">CVD</span> facility has been developed and used for synthesis of diamond thin films. The system is similar to those developed by others but includes several unique features that make it particularly economical and safe, yet capable of producing high quality diamond films. A 2.45 GHz magnetron from a commercial microwave oven is used as the microwave power source. A conventional mixture of 0.5% methane in hydrogen is ionized in a bell jar reaction chamber located within a simple microwave cavity. By using a small hydrogen reservoir adjacent to the gas supply, an empty hydrogen tank can be replaced without interrupting film synthesis or causing any drift in plasma characteristics. Hence, films can be grown continuously while storing only a 24-hour supply of explosive gases. System interlocks provide safe start-up and shut-down, and allow unsupervised operation. Here the authors describe the electrical, microwave and mechanical aspects of the system, and summarize the performance of the facility as used to reproducibly synthesize high quality diamond thin films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1292..145G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1292..145G"><span>Excimer Laser Beam Analyzer Based on <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Girolami, Marco; Salvatori, Stefano; Conte, Gennaro</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>1-D and 2-D detector arrays have been realized on <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-diamond. The relatively high resistivity of diamond in the dark allowed the fabrication of photoconductive "sandwich" strip (1D) or pixel (2D) detectors: a semitransparent light-receiving back-side contact was used for detector biasing. Cross-talk between pixels was limited by using intermediate guard contacts connected at the same ground potential of the pixels. Each pixel photocurrent was conditioned by a read-out electronics composed by a high sensitive integrator and a Σ-Δ ADC converter. The overall 500 μs conversion time allowed a data acquisition rate up to 2 kSPS. The measured fast photoresponse of the samples in the ns time regime suggests to use the proposed devices for fine tuning feedback of high-power pulsed-laser cavities, whereas solar-blindness guarantees high performance in UV beam diagnostics also under high intensity background illumination. Offering unique properties in terms of thermal conductivity and visible-light transparency, diamond represents one of the most suitable candidate for the detection of high-power UV laser emission. The technology of laser beam profiling is evolving with the increase of excimer lasers applications that span from laser-cutting to VLSI and MEMS technologies. Indeed, to improve emission performances, fine tuning of the laser cavity is required. In such a view, the development of a beam-profiler, able to work in real-time between each laser pulse, is mandatory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPB.372..161G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPB.372..161G"><span>The evaluation of radiation damage parameter for <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakšić, M.; Pomorski, M.; Kada, W.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>There are a few different phenomenological approaches that aim to track the dependence of signal height in irradiated solid state detectors on the fluence of damaging particles. However, none of them are capable to provide a unique radiation hardness parameter that would reflect solely the material capability to withstand high radiation environment. To extract such a parameter for chemical vapor deposited (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamond, two different diamond detectors were irradiated with proton beams in MeV energy range and subjected afterwards to ion beam induced charge (IBIC) analysis. The change in charge collection efficiency (CCE) due to defects produced was investigated in context of a theoretical model that was developed on the basis of the adjoint method for linearization of the continuity equations of electrons and holes. Detailed modeling of measured data resulted with the first known value of the kσ product for diamond, where k represents the number of charge carriers' traps created per one simulated primary lattice vacancy and σ represents the charge carriers' capture cross section. As discussed in the text, this product could be considered as a true radiation damage parameter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22936561','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22936561"><span>Infrared photodetectors based on <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown graphene and PbS quantum dots with ultrahigh responsivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Zhenhua; Liu, Zhike; Li, Jinhua; Tai, Guo-An; Lau, Shu-Ping; Yan, Feng</p> <p>2012-11-14</p> <p>Infrared photodetectors based on single-layer <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown graphene and PbS quantum dots, which are fabricated by solution <span class="hlt">processing</span>, show ultrahigh responsivities of up to 10(7) A/W under infrared light illumination. The devices fabricated on flexible plastic substrates have excellent bending stability. The photoresponse is attributed to the field-effect doping in graphene films induced by negative charges generated in the quantum dots. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21492949','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21492949"><span>Labour force participation and the influence of having <span class="hlt">CVD</span> on income poverty of older workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schofield, Deborah J; Callander, Emily J; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Percival, Richard; Kelly, Simon J; Passey, Megan E</p> <p>2012-04-05</p> <p>In addition to being the leading cause of death, cardiovascular disease (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) also impacts upon the ability of individuals to function normally in everyday activities, which is likely to affect individuals' employment. This paper will quantify the relationship between labour force participation, <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and being in poverty. The 2003 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers (SDAC) data were used to assess the impact of having <span class="hlt">CVD</span> on being in poverty amongst the older working aged (aged 45 to 64) population in Australia. Those not in the labour force with no chronic health condition are 93% less likely to be in poverty than those not in the labour force due to <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (OR 0.07, 95%CI: 0.07-0.07, p<.0001). The likelihood of being in poverty varies with labour force status for those with <span class="hlt">CVD</span>: those who were either in full time (OR 0.04, 95% CI: 0.04-0.05, p<.0001) or part time (OR 0.19, 95% CI: 0.18-0.19) employment are significantly less likely to be in poverty than those who have had to retire because of the condition. The efforts to increase the labour force participation of individuals with <span class="hlt">CVD</span>, or ideally prevent the onset of the condition will likely improve their living standards. This study has shown that having <span class="hlt">CVD</span> and not being in the labour force because of the condition drastically increases the chances of living in poverty. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Nanot..22C5201K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Nanot..22C5201K"><span>Characteristics of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene nanoribbon formed by a ZnO nanowire hardmask</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kang, Chang Goo; Kang, Jang Won; Lee, Sang Kyung; Lee, Seung Yong; Hum Cho, Chun; Hwang, Hyeon Jun; Lee, Young Gon; Heo, Jinseong; Chung, Hyun-Jong; Yang, Heejun; Seo, Sunae; Park, Seong-Ju; Ko, Ki Young; Ahn, Jinho; Lee, Byoung Hun</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>A graphene nanoribbon (GNR) is an important basic structure to open a bandgap in graphene. The GNR <span class="hlt">processes</span> reported in the literature are complex, time-consuming, and expensive; moreover, the device yield is relatively low. In this paper, a simple new <span class="hlt">process</span> to fabricate a long and straight graphene nanoribbon with a high yield has been proposed. This <span class="hlt">process</span> utilizes <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene substrate and a ZnO nanowire as the hardmask for patterning. 8 µm long and 50-100 nm wide GNRs were successfully demonstrated in high density without any trimming, and ~ 10% device yield was realized with a top-down patterning <span class="hlt">process</span>. After passivating the surfaces of the GNRs using a low temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3, high performance GNR MOSFETs with symmetric drain-current-gate-voltage (Id-Vg) curves were demonstrated and a field effect mobility up to ~ 1200 cm2 V - 1 s - 1 was achieved at Vd = 10 mV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21673381','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21673381"><span>Characteristics of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene nanoribbon formed by a ZnO nanowire hardmask.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kang, Chang Goo; Kang, Jang Won; Lee, Sang Kyung; Lee, Seung Yong; Cho, Chun Hum; Hwang, Hyeon Jun; Lee, Young Gon; Heo, Jinseong; Chung, Hyun-Jong; Yang, Heejun; Seo, Sunae; Park, Seong-Ju; Ko, Ki Young; Ahn, Jinho; Lee, Byoung Hun</p> <p>2011-07-22</p> <p>A graphene nanoribbon (GNR) is an important basic structure to open a bandgap in graphene. The GNR <span class="hlt">processes</span> reported in the literature are complex, time-consuming, and expensive; moreover, the device yield is relatively low. In this paper, a simple new <span class="hlt">process</span> to fabricate a long and straight graphene nanoribbon with a high yield has been proposed. This <span class="hlt">process</span> utilizes <span class="hlt">CVD</span> graphene substrate and a ZnO nanowire as the hardmask for patterning. 8 µm long and 50-100 nm wide GNRs were successfully demonstrated in high density without any trimming, and ∼ 10% device yield was realized with a top-down patterning <span class="hlt">process</span>. After passivating the surfaces of the GNRs using a low temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al(2)O(3), high performance GNR MOSFETs with symmetric drain-current-gate-voltage (I(d)-V(g)) curves were demonstrated and a field effect mobility up to ∼ 1200 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) was achieved at V(d) = 10 mV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MAR.B3003B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MAR.B3003B"><span>Development of Micro and Nano Crystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Diamond TL/OSL Radiation Detectors for Clinical Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barboza-Flores, Marcelino</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Modern radiotherapy methods requires the use of high photon radiation doses delivered in a fraction to small volumes of cancer tumors. An accurate dose assessment for highly energetic small x-ray beams in small areas, as in stereotactic radiotherapy, is necessary to avoid damage to healthy tissue surrounding the tumor. Recent advances on the controlled synthesis of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond have demonstrated the possibility of using high quality micro and nano crystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> as an efficient detector and dosimeter suitable for high energy photons and energetic particle beams. <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond is a very attractive material for applications in ionizing radiation dosimetry, particularly in the biomedical field since the radiation absorption by a <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond is very close to that of soft tissue. Furthermore, diamond is stable, non-toxic and radiation hard. In the present work we discuss the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond properties and dosimeter performance and discuss its relevance and advantages of various dosimetry methods, including thermally stimulated luminescence (TL) as well as optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The recent <span class="hlt">CVD</span> improved method of growth allows introducing precisely controlled impurities into diamond to provide it with high dosimetry sensitivity. For clinical dosimetry applications, high accuracy of dose measurements, low fading, high sensitivity, good reproducibility and linear dose response characteristics are very important parameters which all are found in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamonds specimens. In some cases, dose linearity and reproducibility in <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond have been found to be higher than standard commercial TLD materials like LiF. In the present work, we discuss the state-of-the art developments in dosimetry applications using <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond. The financial support from Conacyt (Mexico) is greatly acknowledged</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/commoncold.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/commoncold.html"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Cold</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold. It is probably the most <span class="hlt">common</span> illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26499807','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26499807"><span>The <span class="hlt">common</span> genetic influence over <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed and white matter microstructure: Evidence from the Old Order Amish and Human Connectome Projects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kochunov, Peter; Thompson, Paul M; Winkler, Anderson; Morrissey, Mary; Fu, Mao; Coyle, Thomas R; Du, Xiaoming; Muellerklein, Florian; Savransky, Anya; Gaudiot, Christopher; Sampath, Hemalatha; Eskandar, George; Jahanshad, Neda; Patel, Binish; Rowland, Laura; Nichols, Thomas E; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Shuldiner, Alan R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Hong, L Elliot</p> <p>2016-01-15</p> <p>Speed with which brain performs information <span class="hlt">processing</span> influences overall cognition and is dependent on the white matter fibers. To understand genetic influences on <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed and white matter FA, we assessed <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed and diffusion imaging fractional anisotropy (FA) in related individuals from two populations. Discovery analyses were performed in 146 individuals from large Old Order Amish (OOA) families and findings were replicated in 485 twins and siblings of the Human Connectome Project (HCP). The heritability of <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed was h(2)=43% and 49% (both p<0.005), while the heritability of whole brain FA was h(2)=87% and 88% (both p<0.001), in the OOA and HCP, respectively. Whole brain FA was significantly correlated with <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed in the two cohorts. Quantitative genetic analysis demonstrated a significant degree to which <span class="hlt">common</span> genes influenced joint variation in FA and brain <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed. These estimates suggested <span class="hlt">common</span> sets of genes influencing variation in both phenotypes, consistent with the idea that <span class="hlt">common</span> genetic variations contributing to white matter may also support their associated cognitive behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691385','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691385"><span>The <span class="hlt">common</span> genetic influence over <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed and white matter microstructure: Evidence from the Old Order Amish and Human Connectome Projects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kochunov, Peter; Thompson, Paul M.; Winkler, Anderson; Morrissey, Mary; Fu, Mao; Coyle, Thomas R.; Du, Xiaoming; Muellerklein, Florian; Savransky, Anya; Gaudiot, Christopher; Sampath, Hemalatha; Eskandar, George; Jahanshad, Neda; Patel, Binish; Rowland, Laura; Nichols, Thomas E; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Hong, L. Elliot</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Speed with which brain performs information <span class="hlt">processing</span> influences overall cognition and is dependent on the white matter fibers. To understand genetic influences on <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed and white matter FA, we assessed <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed and diffusion imaging fractional anisotropy (FA) in related individuals from two populations. Discovery analyses were performed in 146 individuals from large Old Order Amish (OOA) families and findings were replicated in 485 twins and siblings of the Human Connectome Project (HCP). The heritability of <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed was h2=43% and 49% (both p < 0.005), while the heritability of whole brain FA was h2=87% and 88% (both p < 0.001), in the OOA and HCP, respectively. Whole brain FA was significantly correlated with <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed in the two cohorts. Quantitative genetic analysis demonstrated a significant degree to which <span class="hlt">common</span> genes influenced joint variation in FA and brain <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed. These estimates suggested <span class="hlt">common</span> sets of genes influencing variation in both phenotypes, consistent with the idea that <span class="hlt">common</span> genetic variations contributing to white matter may also support their associated cognitive behavior. PMID:26499807</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED418130.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED418130.pdf"><span>Equating Multiple Tests via an IRT Linking Design: Utilizing a Single Set of Anchor Items with Fixed <span class="hlt">Common</span> Item Parameters during the Calibration <span class="hlt">Process</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Li, Yuan H.; Griffith, William D.; Tam, Hak P.</p> <p></p> <p>This study explores the relative merits of a potentially useful item response theory (IRT) linking design: using a single set of anchor items with fixed <span class="hlt">common</span> item parameters (FCIP) during the calibration <span class="hlt">process</span>. An empirical study was conducted to investigate the appropriateness of this linking design using 6 groups of students taking 6 forms…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED557593.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED557593.pdf"><span>States' Implementation of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards and the Australian Curriculum: A Comparison of the Change <span class="hlt">Process</span> in Two Countries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watt, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to examine and compare key elements of the actions that states in the USA and Australia took to implement the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards or Phase One of the Australian Curriculum, and what <span class="hlt">processes</span> and products they used to facilitate implementation of these innovations. A rubric adapted from a diagnostic tool,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/923767','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/923767"><span>Radiation monitoring with <span class="hlt">CVD</span> Diamonds and PIN Diodes at BaBar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bruinsma, M.; Burchat, P.; Curry, S.; Edwards, A.J.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Kirkby, D.; Majewski, S.; Petersen, B.A.; /UC, Irvine /SLAC /Ohio State U.</p> <p>2008-02-13</p> <p>The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center has been using two polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (p<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) diamonds and 12 silicon PIN diodes for radiation monitoring and protection of the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT). We have used the p<span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamonds for more than 3 years, and the PIN diodes for 7 years. We will describe the SVT and SVT radiation monitoring system as well as the operational difficulties and radiation damage effects on the PIN diodes and p<span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamonds in a high-energy physics environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26514091','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26514091"><span>Interpretation of mushroom as a <span class="hlt">common</span> therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular diseases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Aminudin, Norhaniza</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cardiovascular diseases (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) share <span class="hlt">common</span> etiology and preventive strategies. As the population of old-aged people is increasing worldwide, AD complications tend to afflict global healthcare budget and economy heavily. <span class="hlt">CVD</span> is the prime cause of global mortality and remains a grave threat to both the developed and the developing nations. Mushroom bio-components may be promising in controlling both diseases. Based mainly on in vitro, ex vivo, cell line and animal studies, this review interprets the polypharmaceutic role of mushrooms treating AD and <span class="hlt">CVD</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20809367','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20809367"><span>A rigorous approach to investigating <span class="hlt">common</span> assumptions about disease transmission: <span class="hlt">Process</span> algebra as an emerging modelling methodology for epidemiology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCaig, Chris; Begon, Mike; Norman, Rachel; Shankland, Carron</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Changing scale, for example, the ability to move seamlessly from an individual-based model to a population-based model, is an important problem in many fields. In this paper, we introduce <span class="hlt">process</span> algebra as a novel solution to this problem in the context of models of infectious disease spread. <span class="hlt">Process</span> algebra allows us to describe a system in terms of the stochastic behaviour of individuals, and is a technique from computer science. We review the use of <span class="hlt">process</span> algebra in biological systems, and the variety of quantitative and qualitative analysis techniques available. The analysis illustrated here solves the changing scale problem: from the individual behaviour we can rigorously derive equations to describe the mean behaviour of the system at the level of the population. The biological problem investigated is the transmission of infection, and how this relates to individual interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23915804','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23915804"><span>Using image <span class="hlt">processing</span> technology combined with decision tree algorithm in laryngeal video stroboscope automatic identification of <span class="hlt">common</span> vocal fold diseases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jeffrey Kuo, Chung-Feng; Wang, Po-Chun; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wang, Hsing-Won; Lai, Chun-Yu</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>This study used the actual laryngeal video stroboscope videos taken by physicians in clinical practice as the samples for experimental analysis. The samples were dynamic vocal fold videos. Image <span class="hlt">processing</span> technology was used to automatically capture the image of the largest glottal area from the video to obtain the physiological data of the vocal folds. In this study, an automatic vocal fold disease identification system was designed, which can obtain the physiological parameters for normal vocal folds, vocal paralysis and vocal nodules from image <span class="hlt">processing</span> according to the pathological features. The decision tree algorithm was used as the classifier of the vocal fold diseases. The identification rate was 92.6%, and the identification rate with an image recognition improvement <span class="hlt">processing</span> procedure after classification can be improved to 98.7%. Hence, the proposed system has value in clinical practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/494113','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/494113"><span>Advanced methods for <span class="hlt">processing</span> ceramics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carter, W.B.</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>Combustion chemical vapor deposition (combustion <span class="hlt">CVD</span>) is being developed for the deposition of high temperature oxide coatings. The <span class="hlt">process</span> is being evaluated as an alternative to more capital intensive conventional coating <span class="hlt">processes</span>. The thrusts during this reporting period were the development of the combustion <span class="hlt">CVD</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> for depositing lanthanum monazite, the determination of the influence of aerosol size on coating morphology, the incorporation of combustion <span class="hlt">CVD</span> coatings into thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and related oxidation research, and continued work on the deposition of zirconia-yttria coatings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/803026','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/803026"><span>Cold Vacuum Drying (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) Facility General Service Helium System Design Description</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>SHAPLEY, B.J.</p> <p>2000-04-20</p> <p>The purpose of this System Design Description (SDD) is to describe the characteristics of the Cold Vacuum Drying (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) Facility general service helium system. The general service helium system is a general service facility <span class="hlt">process</span> support system, but does include safety-class structures, systems and components (SSCs) providing protection to the offsite public. The general service helium system also performs safety-significant functions that provide protection to onsite workers. The general helium system essential function is to provide helium (He) to support <span class="hlt">process</span> functions during all phases of facility operations. General service helium is used to purge the cask and the MCO in order to maintain their internal atmospheres below hydrogen flammability concentrations. The general service helium system also supplies helium to purge the <span class="hlt">process</span> water conditioning (PWC) lines and components and the vacuum purge system (VPS) vacuum pump. The general service helium system, if available following an Safety Class Instrument and Control System (SCIC) Isolation and Purge (IS0 and PURGE) Trip, can provide an alternate general service helium system source to supply the Safety-Class Helium (SCHe) System.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCrGr.426...15Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCrGr.426...15Z"><span>The deposition parameters in the synthesis of <span class="hlt">CVD</span> microcrystalline diamond powders optimized by the orthogonal experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Tao; Liu, Xuan; Sun, Fanghong; Zhang, Zhiming</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>In the present work, microcrystalline diamond powders are deposited by using a bias-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) apparatus. Mirror-polished silicon wafers are served as substrates, pretreated by the scratching <span class="hlt">process</span> for 10-15 s. A systematic investigation is under taken into the combined effects of deposition parameters on nucleation and growth characteristics of microcrystalline diamonds, based on the orthogonal collocation method. The results show that the morphology of final microcrystals depend mainly on that of nuclei rather than the deposition parameters, while the quality and grain size of crystals largely depend upon the deposition parameters. A high reactor pressure (3-4.5 kPa) in the nucleation <span class="hlt">process</span> is a necessary condition for depositing the ideal nuclei with the single-crystal structure and euhedral diamond faces. Then under a set of optimized growth parameters, the final single crystals exhibit the regular-shaped morphology and smooth surfaces. The <span class="hlt">CVD</span> microcrystals with various grain sizes in the range of 0.3-2 μm can be obtained by regulating the deposition time; moreover, they have a dramatically narrow particle size distribution, meeting the requirements on certain types of commercial powders without the <span class="hlt">process</span> of sieving grain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=eyes+AND+saccadics+AND+movements&pg=3&id=EJ777467','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=eyes+AND+saccadics+AND+movements&pg=3&id=EJ777467"><span>Effects of Task Requirements on Rapid Natural Scene <span class="hlt">Processing</span>: From <span class="hlt">Common</span> Sensory Encoding to Distinct Decisional Mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bacon-Mace, Nadege; Kirchner, Holle; Fabre-Thorpe, Michele; Thorpe, Simon J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Using manual responses, human participants are remarkably fast and accurate at deciding if a natural scene contains an animal, but recent data show that they are even faster to indicate with saccadic eye movements which of 2 scenes contains an animal. How could it be that 2 images can apparently be <span class="hlt">processed</span> faster than a single image? To better…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20028474','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20028474"><span>Gene flow and population admixture as the primary post-invasion <span class="hlt">processes</span> in <span class="hlt">common</span> ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) populations in France.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chun, Young Jin; Fumanal, Boris; Laitung, Beryl; Bretagnolle, François</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>*An improved inference of the evolutionary history of invasive species may be achieved by analyzing the genetic variation and population differentiation of recently established populations and their ancestral (historical) populations. Employing this approach, we investigated the role of gene flow in the post-invasion evolution of <span class="hlt">common</span> ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). *Using eight microsatellite loci, we compared genetic diversity and structure among nine pairs of historical and recent populations in France. Historical populations were reconstructed from herbarium specimens dated from the late 19th to early 20th century, whereas recent populations were collected within the last 5 yr. *Recent populations showed greater allelic and genetic diversity than did historical populations. Recent populations exhibited a lower level of population differentiation, shorter genetic distances among populations and more weakly structured populations than did historical populations. *Our results suggest that currently invasive populations have arisen from active gene flow and the subsequent admixture of historical populations, incorporating new alleles from multiple introductions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998APS..GEC.QR201T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998APS..GEC.QR201T"><span>Advanced Functional Thin Films Prepared by Plasma <span class="hlt">CVD</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takai, Osamu</p> <p>1998-10-01</p> <p>Recently water repellency has been required for many types of substrate (e.g. glass, plastics, fibers, ceramics and metals) in various industrial fields. This paper reports on the preparation of highly water-repellent thin films by plasma <span class="hlt">CVD</span> (PCVD). We have prepared transparent water-repellent thin films at low substrate temperatures by two types of PCVD, rf PCVD and microwave PCVD, using fluoro-alkyl silanes (FASs) as source gases. Silicon oxide thin films contained fluoro-alkyl functions were deposited onto glass and plastics, and realized the excellent water repellency like polytetrafluoroetylene (PTFE) and the high transparency like glass. Increasing the deposition pressure we have formed ultra water-repellent (contact angle for a water drop of over about 150 degrees) thin films by microwave PCVD using a multiple gas mixture of tetramethylsilane (TMS), (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydro-decyl)-1-trimethoxysilane (FAS-17) and argon. Ultra water-repellency appears at higher total pressures over 40 Pa because the surface becomes rough due to the growth of large particles. The color of these ultra water-repellent films is slightly white because of the scattering of light by the large particles. Recently we have also deposited transparent ultra water-repellent thin films at low substrate temperatures by microwave PCVD using organosilicon compounds without fluorine as source gases. We evaluated water repellency, optical transmittance, surface morphology and chemical composition of the deposited films. At the suitable substrate position the deposited film gave the contact angle of about 150 degrees and the transmittance of over 80 visible region for a coated glass (thickness was about 1 micron). The control of the surface morphology of the deposited films is most important to obtain the transparent ultra water-repellent films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23576235','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23576235"><span>A platform for large-scale graphene electronics--<span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth of single-layer graphene on <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown hexagonal boron nitride.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Min; Jang, Sung Kyu; Jang, Won-Jun; Kim, Minwoo; Park, Seong-Yong; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kahng, Se-Jong; Choi, Jae-Young; Ruoff, Rodney S; Song, Young Jae; Lee, Sungjoo</p> <p>2013-05-21</p> <p>Direct chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) growth of single-layer graphene on <span class="hlt">CVD</span>-grown hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) film can suggest a large-scale and high-quality graphene/h-BN film hybrid structure with a defect-free interface. This sequentially grown graphene/h-BN film shows better electronic properties than that of graphene/SiO2 or graphene transferred on h-BN film, and suggests a new promising template for graphene device fabrication. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26024650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26024650"><span>The High performance of nanocrystalline <span class="hlt">CVD</span> diamond coated hip joints in wear simulator test.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maru, M M; Amaral, M; Rodrigues, S P; Santos, R; Gouvea, C P; Archanjo, B S; Trommer, R M; Oliveira, F J; Silva, R F; Achete, C A</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The superior biotribological performance of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings grown by a chemical vapor deposition (<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) method was already shown to demonstrate high wear resistance in ball on plate experiments under physiological liquid lubrication. However, tests with a close-to-real approach were missing and this constitutes the aim of the present work. Hip joint wear simulator tests were performed with cups and heads made of silicon nitride coated with NCD of ~10 μm in thickness. Five million testing cycles (Mc) were run, which represent nearly five years of hip joint implant activity in a patient. For the wear analysis, gravimetry, profilometry, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy techniques were used. After 0.5 Mc of wear test, truncation of the protruded regions of the NCD film happened as a result of a fine-scale abrasive wear mechanism, evolving to extensive plateau regions and highly polished surface condition (Ra<10nm). Such surface modification took place without any catastrophic features as cracking, grain pullouts or delamination of the coatings. A steady state volumetric wear rate of 0.02 mm(3)/Mc, equivalent to a linear wear of 0.27 μm/Mc favorably compares with the best performance reported in the literature for the fourth generation alumina ceramic (0.05 mm(3)/Mc). Also, squeaking, quite <span class="hlt">common</span> phenomenon in hard-on-hard systems, was absent in the present all-NCD system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22319593','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22319593"><span>Introspective minds: using ALE meta-analyses to study <span class="hlt">commonalities</span> in the neural correlates of emotional <span class="hlt">processing</span>, social & unconstrained cognition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schilbach, Leonhard; Bzdok, Danilo; Timmermans, Bert; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Vogeley, Kai; Eickhoff, Simon B</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Previous research suggests overlap between brain regions that show task-induced deactivations and those activated during the performance of social-cognitive tasks. Here, we present results of quantitative meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies, which confirm a statistical convergence in the neural correlates of social and resting state cognition. Based on the idea that both social and unconstrained cognition might be characterized by introspective <span class="hlt">processes</span>, which are also thought to be highly relevant for emotional experiences, a third meta-analysis was performed investigating studies on emotional <span class="hlt">processing</span>. By using conjunction analyses across all three sets of studies, we can demonstrate significant overlap of task-related signal change in dorso-medial prefrontal and medial parietal cortex, brain regions that have, indeed, recently been linked to introspective abilities. Our findings, therefore, provide evidence for the existence of a core neural network, which shows task-related signal change during socio-emotional tasks and during resting states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa0240.photos.131834p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa0240.photos.131834p/"><span>20. Photocopy of circa 1909 photo Photocopy taken by <span class="hlt">C.V.D</span>. ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>20. Photocopy of circa 1909 photo Photocopy taken by <span class="hlt">C.V.D</span>. Hubbard SOUTH FRONT CIRCA 1909, SHOWING ORIGINAL PORCH - Mary A. Bair House, Conestoga Road & Cassatt Avenue (Tredyffrin Township), Berwyn, Chester County, PA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984JaJAP..23.1209H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984JaJAP..23.1209H"><span>Structural and Electrical Properies of Photo-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> Silicon Nitride Film</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamano, Kuniyuki; Numazawa, Yoichiro; Yamazaki, Koji</p> <p>1984-09-01</p> <p>Silicon nitride film was deposited by mercury-sensitized photochemical vapor deposition (photo-<span class="hlt">CVD</span>) utilizing a gaseous mixture of SiH4 and NH3 under 253.7 nm ultraviolet light irradiation. The structural and electrical properties of the film were then evaluated with emphasis on the substrate temperature dependence. The film contains a considerable amount of hydrogen, and less dense than silicon nitride film deposited by high-temperature chemical vapor deposition. The structural properties of photo-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> silicon nitride film are basically similar to those of silicon nitride film deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (P-<span class="hlt">CVD</span>). However, the film has better insulating properties than P-<span class="hlt">CVD</span> film, with a smaller leakage current, a higher breakdown field and a smaller positive charge density within the film.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990howu.rept.....H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990howu.rept.....H"><span>Laser assisted <span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth of AlN and GaN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Halpern, Joshua B.; Frye, Joan M.; Harris, Gary; Aluko, M.</p> <p>1990-08-01</p> <p>This is the first annual report of a project for investigating laser assisted <span class="hlt">CVD</span> growth of AlN and GaN. In the first year, three experimental systems have been built. The first is a small, mobile <span class="hlt">CVD</span> test system for evaluating growth schemes and detection methods for gas and heterogeneous phases. The second is a tunable diode laser spectrometer for monitoring gas phase components in a <span class="hlt">CVD</span> reactor. The third is a dye laser system for monitoring atoms and small free radicals in the <span class="hlt">CVD</span> system. First experiments have been done with all three systems. In particular we are investigating the use of 248 nm photolysis of trimethylaluminum near a slightly heated substrate in a mixture of TMA1 and hydrazine for growth of AlN.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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