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Sample records for common embryologic basis

  1. Bilateral Internal Carotid Artery Segmental Agenesis: Embryology, Common Collateral Pathways, Clinical Presentation, and Clinical Importance of a Rare Condition.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Andrea M; Visconti, Emiliano; Schiarelli, Chiara; Frassanito, Paolo; Pedicelli, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    Bilateral segmental agenesis of the internal carotid artery is a rare congenital anomaly. We present a case of bilateral internal carotid artery segmental agenesis in an asymptomatic 18-year-old man. Embryology, common collateral pathways, clinical presentation, and clinical importance of this condition are discussed. According to our review of the literature, this report is the first to describe bilateral internal carotid artery segmental agenesis in a patient studied with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, Doppler ultrasonography, and digital subtraction angiography. An 18-year-old man presented to our hospital complaining of occasional mild headaches. Neurologic examination was unremarkable. Imaging findings consisted of bilateral segmental agenesis of the internal carotid arteries. Bilateral segmental agenesis of internal carotid artery may be completely asymptomatic and harmless, but associated conditions, such as cerebral aneurysms or abnormal collateral circulation, should alert clinicians to the possibilities of subarachnoid hemorrhage or cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Embryological basis and clinical correlation of the rare congenital anomaly of the human gall bladder: - "the diverticulum" - a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Rajguru, Jaba; Jain, Shilpi; Khare, Satyam; Fulzele, Ratna R; Ghai, Rashmi

    2013-10-01

    Diverticulum of the human gall bladder is an important but distinct anatomical entity with significant clinical implications. It is one of the rarest congenital anomalies of the gall bladder being rarely discussed in literature. This article details the morphology of the diverticula found, along with the embryological basis and clinical significance of this important anatomical and clinical entity. To study the diverticula found, with respect to their morphology, and ascertain whether they were of congenital or acquired variety. Setting and Designs: The present study is a retrospective study carried on hundred cadavers during undergraduate dissection, in the Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, and Department of Anatomy, Subharti Medical College , Meerut during a four year period i.e. 2008-2012 after obtaining necessary permission from institutional ethical committee. Hundred gall bladder specimens collected from 10% formalin fixed cadavers were studied in detail with regard to their number, position, shapes dimensions and histology. Nine, congenital (true) diverticula were found in one hundred gall bladder specimens. The diverticula were of various shapes and dimensions. They formed pouches on the luminal surface of the gall bladder. Diagnosis of congenital diverticulum was confirmed by histology. In this cadaveric study, solitary diverticulum was found in nine (9%) specimens out of one hundred specimens. Association of diverticulum with non-specific prolonged ailments, acalculus cholecystitis, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, recurrent cholangitis and carcinoma of gallbladder has been reported in literature. This important anatomical as well as clinical entity poses challenges for radiologists and laparoscopic surgeons during interventional procedures and also should be differentiated from other types of congenital anomalies and pathological states of gall bladder.

  3. Embryological Basis and Clinical Correlation of the Rare Congenital Anomaly of the Human Gall Bladder: - “The Diverticulum” - A Morphological Study

    PubMed Central

    Rajguru, Jaba; Jain, Shilpi; Khare, Satyam; Fulzele, Ratna R; Ghai, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diverticulum of the human gall bladder is an important but distinct anatomical entity with significant clinical implications. It is one of the rarest congenital anomalies of the gall bladder being rarely discussed in literature. This article details the morphology of the diverticula found, along with the embryological basis and clinical significance of this important anatomical and clinical entity. Aim: To study the diverticula found, with respect to their morphology, and ascertain whether they were of congenital or acquired variety. Setting and Designs: The present study is a retrospective study carried on hundred cadavers during undergraduate dissection, in the Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, and Department of Anatomy, Subharti Medical College , Meerut during a four year period i.e. 2008-2012 after obtaining necessary permission from institutional ethical committee. Material and Methods: Hundred gall bladder specimens collected from 10% formalin fixed cadavers were studied in detail with regard to their number, position, shapes dimensions and histology. Results: Nine, congenital (true) diverticula were found in one hundred gall bladder specimens. The diverticula were of various shapes and dimensions. They formed pouches on the luminal surface of the gall bladder. Diagnosis of congenital diverticulum was confirmed by histology. Conclusion: In this cadaveric study, solitary diverticulum was found in nine (9%) specimens out of one hundred specimens. Association of diverticulum with non-specific prolonged ailments, acalculus cholecystitis, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, recurrent cholangitis and carcinoma of gallbladder has been reported in literature. This important anatomical as well as clinical entity poses challenges for radiologists and laparoscopic surgeons during interventional procedures and also should be differentiated from other types of congenital anomalies and pathological states of gall

  4. Common-translation-factor method with an atomic basis

    SciTech Connect

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A. ); Harel, C.; Jouin, H.; Pons, B. )

    1994-07-01

    We show, for the benchmark case of He[sup 2+]+H collisions, that a close-coupling expansion in terms of an atomic basis modified with a common translation factor is competitive with the molecular approach at low and intermediate impact energies.

  5. The Embryology of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorge, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    More than 50 years after the appearance of the term "gender" in the clinical setting, we have yet to uncover the mechanisms and factors that lead to gender identity formation. Based on human embryology principles, the scientific reasoning with regard to the sexual differentiation of the body is erroneously applied to gender identity formation. The…

  6. Acid-shock, aluminium, and presence of Sphagnum aurantiacum: effect on embryological development in the common frog, Rana temporaria and the moor frog, Rana arvalis

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, M.; Hogstrand, C.; Dahlberg, A.; Berglind, S.A.

    1987-07-01

    During the last two decades, several effects of acidification have been shown, e.g., enhanced leaching of metals from sediments and soil. Furthermore, an increased growth of Sphagnum aurantiacum frequently occurs in acidified waters. The aim of the present study is to investigate some effects of acidification on the embryological development on two Anurans. The toxicity of aluminium is thought to vary with pH. The highest toxicity of aluminium in the hydroxyl form have been found at pH 5. In the present study a laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the toxicity of Al to frog embryos in water with pH 5.0. In acidified waters Sphagnum and especially S. aurantiacum, is competitive and quickly become established. It has been indicated that frog spawn deposited on Sphagnum show an unusually high mortality and questions have been raised if Sphagnum reinforces the detrimental effects of acidification on Anuran reproduction.

  7. Congenital anomalies of the IVC—embryological perspective and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Ghandour, Abed; Partovi, Sasan; Karuppasamy, Karunakaravel

    2016-01-01

    With the increased use of cross-sectional imaging, systemic venous anomalies are more frequently being recognized in asymptomatic patients. Accurate characterization of systemic venous anomalies plays a major role in the appropriate selection of a surgical approach or interventional procedure. In this article, we review common and uncommon inferior vena cava (IVC) anomalies. We describe the embryological basis and clinical implications of these anomalies, particularly from an interventional radiology perspective. We also discuss the complications and treatments of these anomalies. PMID:28123970

  8. Embryology in Holy Bible.

    PubMed

    Subhaktha, P K

    1996-01-01

    The knowledge of Embryology and its existence dates back to the remote antiquity of mankind. The theory of maternal impressions on Embryo has its sanction in the Holy Bible. Apart from this it is remarkable to find artificial incubation of the eggs of birds practised 'probably' as far back as about 3000 B.C. Other than these, the existence of midwives, cases of premature births, deliveries of the women of advanced age and the obstetric chair etc. are the expositions of the science of medicine in the Holy Bible.

  9. A common biological basis of obesity and nicotine addiction.

    PubMed

    Thorgeirsson, T E; Gudbjartsson, D F; Sulem, P; Besenbacher, S; Styrkarsdottir, U; Thorleifsson, G; Walters, G B; Furberg, H; Sullivan, P F; Marchini, J; McCarthy, M I; Steinthorsdottir, V; Thorsteinsdottir, U; Stefansson, K

    2013-10-01

    Smoking influences body weight such that smokers weigh less than non-smokers and smoking cessation often leads to weight increase. The relationship between body weight and smoking is partly explained by the effect of nicotine on appetite and metabolism. However, the brain reward system is involved in the control of the intake of both food and tobacco. We evaluated the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting body mass index (BMI) on smoking behavior, and tested the 32 SNPs identified in a meta-analysis for association with two smoking phenotypes, smoking initiation (SI) and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in an Icelandic sample (N=34,216 smokers). Combined according to their effect on BMI, the SNPs correlate with both SI (r=0.019, P=0.00054) and CPD (r=0.032, P=8.0 × 10(-7)). These findings replicate in a second large data set (N=127,274, thereof 76,242 smokers) for both SI (P=1.2 × 10(-5)) and CPD (P=9.3 × 10(-5)). Notably, the variant most strongly associated with BMI (rs1558902-A in FTO) did not associate with smoking behavior. The association with smoking behavior is not due to the effect of the SNPs on BMI. Our results strongly point to a common biological basis of the regulation of our appetite for tobacco and food, and thus the vulnerability to nicotine addiction and obesity.

  10. Embryological development of Caiman latirostris (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae).

    PubMed

    Iungman, Josefina; Piña, Carlos I; Siroski, Pablo

    2008-08-01

    A standard development embryological series is the primary basis to organize information of any embryological study and is also used to determine the age of eggs and embryos in field conditions. In this article, we calibrate developmental series of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris, against an established series for Alligator mississippiensis. Morphometric measures and extend of the opaque-shell banding were also related to embryo age. In earlier stages, external morphological features alone can account for embryo age, but we suggest that morphometric measurements should be introduced later in the development. Unlike morphologic and morphometric attributes, the opaque patch was not a useful age predictor. As expected, a close correlation between embryonic development of C. latirostris and A. mississippiensis was observed.

  11. Subdivision of mouse vibrissae on an embryological basis, with descriptions of variations in the number and arrangement of sinus hairs and cortical barrels in BALB/c (nu/+; nude, nu/nu) and hairless (hr/hr) strains.

    PubMed

    Yamakado, M; Yohro, T

    1979-06-01

    Development of vibrissae was studied in dd/y mouse embryos by scanning electron microscopy. Arrangement of vibrissae and cortical barrels were also studied by light microscopy in adult dd/y, BALB/c(nu/+), nude (BALB/c, nu/nu) and hairless (hr/hr) mice to find genetic or epigenetic variations. Rudiments of vibrissae first appear on Day 12 of pregnancy as longitudinal ridges on the developing muzzle, and each hair rudiment is represented by a dome on the ridges. The dorsal two rows (A and B; Woolsey and Van der Loos, '70) of mystacial vibrissae are on the lateral nasal prominence, while the ventral three (C, D and E) are on the maxillary prominence. Smaller hairs of mystacial vibrissae appear at the labial part of the maxillary prominenceon Day 13. The rudiments of rhinal hairs also appear at this stage on the part of the muzzle derived from the medial nasal prominence. Thus the so-called mystacial vibrissae should be subdivided into three (or 4, including the rhinal) groups on an embryological basis. They are the lateral nasal, the maxillary and the labial. A supernumerary sinus hair and a corresponding barrel was observed between D and C rows uni-or bilaterally in one third of individuals of BALB/c, nude and hairless mice. It is suggested that supernumerary hairs tend to occur between the groups of hairs as defined above. In nude and hairless mice small barrels representing labial hairs are diminished in number. The number of hair follicles, however, is normal.

  12. Penile embryology and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Yiee, Jenny H; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-06-29

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7th and 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  13. Is there a common neuronal basis for autism and catatonia?

    PubMed

    Dhossche, Dirk Marcel; Carroll, Brendan T; Carroll, Tressa D

    2006-01-01

    Neuronal bases for autism and catatonia are unknown although integrative theories may soon become feasible as research in autism and catatonia advances. Catatonia and autism may both qualify as neurobiological syndromes in their own right. There is emerging evidence that catatonia may be a common syndrome in autism. Although the relation between autism and catatonia is unclear, coexpression of autism and catatonia may be due to abnormalities in common neuronal circuitries. This possibility constitutes another level of complexity to neurobiological inquiry, but also provides an opportunity to advance our understanding of both disorders. There is a great potential benefit in studying the relation between catatonia and autism in order to focus future research on subtype-specific causes and treatments. Future research avenues are outlined.

  14. Is there a Common Genetic Basis for Autoimmune Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Gómez, LuisMiguel; Castiblanco, John

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) represent a diverse collection of diseases in terms of their demographic profile and primary clinical manifestations. The commonality between them however, is the damage to tissues and organs that arises from the response to self-antigens. The presence of shared pathophysiological mechanisms within ADs has stimulated searches for common genetic roots to these diseases. Two approaches have been undertaken to sustain the “common genetic origin” theory of ADs. Firstly, a clinical genetic analysis showed that autoimmunity aggregates within families of probands diagnosed with primary Sjögren's (pSS) syndrome or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). A literature review supported the establishment of a familiar cluster of ADs depending upon the proband's disease phenotype. Secondly, in a same and well-defined population, a large genetic association study indicated that a number of polymorphic genes (i.e. HLA-DRB1, TNF and PTPN22) influence the susceptibility for acquiring different ADs. Likewise, association and linkage studies in different populations have revealed that several susceptibility loci overlap in ADs, and clinical studies have shown that frequent clustering of several ADs occurs. Thus, the genetic factors for ADs consist of two types: those which are common to many ADs (acting in epistatic pleitropy) and those that are specific to a given disorder. Their identification and functional characterization will allow us to predict their effect as well as to indicate potential new therapeutic interventions. Both autoimmunity family history and the co-occurrence of ADs in affected probands should be considered when performing genetic association and linkage studies. PMID:17162361

  15. Objective basis of the common law of population.

    PubMed

    Ma, S

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between social production and population growth in China's Marxist society. Marxist population theory states that the mode of social production determines the law of population. The law of population is peculiar to that society and is a natural law. Population cannot be studied apart from the specific production mode. Social production also determines the common law of population since the common law exists in the specific law peculiar to a society. Population phenomena, population growth, and relations between population and social economy have common characteristics in different societies. Material production determines population production, and only within the socialist society are the 2 conditions of public ownership of production means and scientific, technological, and medical development present so that population growth is planned. Marx's historical materialism describes the relationship between production relations and productive forces, and may be applied to other social forms. Only through study of historical materialism can people see capitalism's historical limitations and socialism's superiority. Capitalism oppresses and exploits laboring people. The capitalist law of population surplus stems from the capitalist mode of production, and is a special manifestation of the law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production; it results in anarchic competition and periodic economic crises. The law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production does not exist objectively and in different societies cannot be measured by the same rule. This law is the scientific abstraction of the particular laws of all societies; it acts as a particular law only with given modes of social production. In any society, lack of conformity between 2 kinds of production cannot last. In capitalistic societies, the ruling class changes the production relations of some of the superstructure to alleviate the nonconformity between the 2 kinds of

  16. Neuroanatomical basis of acupuncture treatment for some common illnesses.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kwokming James

    2009-06-01

    The acupuncture treatment formulae for some common conditions are reviewed. These conditions include low back pain, sciatica, trigeminal neuralgia, facial nerve palsy, asthma, nausea and vomiting, gastritis and dysmenorrhoea. It is found that in many cases, the acupuncture points traditionally used for the treatment have a neuroanatomical significance from the viewpoint of Western medicine. And from that one can hypothesise a plausible mechanism of action as to how acupuncture achieves its therapeutic effects in terms of contemporary Western medicine. These mechanisms of action include intramuscular stimulation for treating muscular pain and nerve stimulation for treating neuropathies. The sympathetic ganglion may be involved in the acupuncture treatment of asthma. Somato-autonomic reflex may be responsible for the acupuncture effect on gastritis.

  17. Embryological Staging of the Zebra Finch, Taeniopygia guttata

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jessica R; Varian-Ramos, Claire W; Welch, Zoe S; Saha, Margaret S

    2013-01-01

    Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are the most commonly used laboratory songbird species, yet their embryological development has been poorly characterized. Most studies to date apply Hamburger and Hamilton stages derived from chicken development; however, significant differences in development between precocial and altricial species suggest that they may not be directly comparable. We provide the first detailed description of embryological development in the Zebra Finch under standard artificial incubation. These descriptions confirm that some of the features used to classify chicken embryos into stages are not applicable in an altricial bird such as the Zebra Finch. This staging protocol will help to standardize future studies of embryological development in the Zebra Finch. J. Morphol. 274:1090–1110, 2013. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Morphology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23813920

  18. Comparative embryology of basal angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Friedman, W E

    2001-02-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses of basal angiosperms have identified those lineages central to the study of the origin and early diversification of flowering plants. As we begin to understand the early evolution of endosperm developmental patterns in flowering plants, it is apparent that we know little about the other basic embryological features of basal angiosperms, such as the nature of the female gametophyte and even whether a process of double fertilization occurs.

  19. Clinical embryology teaching: is it relevant anymore?

    PubMed

    Scott, Karen M; Charles, Antony Robert; Holland, Andrew J A

    2013-10-01

    Embryology finds itself jostling for precious space in the crowded medical curriculum, yet remains important for helping students understand birth defects. It has been suggested that teaching embryology through clinical scenarios can increase its relevance and interest. The aim of this research was to determine the attitudes of final-year medical students to learning embryology and whether clinical scenarios aid understanding. Final-year medical students undertaking their paediatric rotation in 2009 and 2010 were invited to attend an optional lecture on clinical embryology and participate in the research. In the lecture, three clinical scenarios were presented, in which the lecturer traced the normal development of a foetus and the abnormal development that resulted in a birth defect. Outcomes were assessed quantitatively using a paper-based survey. The vast majority of students who valued embryology teaching in their medical programme thought it would assist them with clinical management, and believed learning through case scenarios helped their understanding. Students were divided in their beliefs about when embryology should be taught in the medical programme and whether it would increase their workload. Embryology teaching appears to be a valuable part of the medical curriculum. Embryology teaching was valued when taught in the clinical environment in later years of the medical programme. Students, clinicians and medical educators should be proactive in finding clinical learning opportunities for embryology teaching. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  20. Anatomy and embryology of the biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Keplinger, Kara M; Bloomston, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Working knowledge of extrahepatic biliary anatomy is of paramount importance to the general surgeon. The embryologic development of the extrahepatic biliary tract is discussed in this article as is the highly variable anatomy of the biliary tract and its associated vasculature. The salient conditions related to the embryology and anatomy of the extrahepatic biliary tract, including biliary atresia, choledochal cysts, gallbladder agenesis, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, and ducts of Luschka, are addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fanconi anemia with concurrent thumb polydactyly and dorsal dimelia: a case report with discussion of embryology.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, M M

    2013-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is known to be associated with radial ray deficiency (thumb and radius hypoplasia), and its embryological basis remains to be poorly understood. We describe a rare case of Fanconi anemia with concurrent thumb polydactyly and dorsal dimelia. The embryological basis of limb abnormalities in Fanconi anemia patients is thought to be based on the complex interactions between the apical ectodermal ridge (where Fanconi anemia genes are expressed) and both the mesoderm (where Spalt-like 4 (SALL4) and Sonic hedgehog (SHH) are located and which are responsible for radial ray deficiency, thumb polydactyly, and triphalangism) and the dorsoventral axis (an error in that axis leads to dorsal dimelia).

  2. [Systematization and hygienic standardization of environmental factors on the basis of common graphic models].

    PubMed

    Galkin, A A

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of graphic models of the human response to environmental factors, two main types of complex quantitative influence as well as interrelation between determined effects at the level of an individual, and stochastic effects on population were revealed. Two main kinds of factors have been suggested to be distinguished. They are essential factors and accidental factors. The essential factors are common for environment. The accidental factors are foreign for environment. The above two kinds are different in approaches of hygienic standardization Accidental factors need a dot-like approach, whereas a two-level range approach is suitable for the essential factors.

  3. Genetic-basis analysis of heterotic loci in Dongxiang common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Jin; Xin, Xiao-Yun; Yang, Jin-Shui

    2012-04-01

    Heterosis is widely used in genetic crop improvement; however, the genetic basis of heterosis is incompletely understood. The use of whole-genome segregating populations poses a problem for establishing the genetic basis of heterosis, in that interactions often mask the effects of individual loci. However, introgression line (IL) populations permit the partitioning of heterosis into defined genomic regions, eliminating a major part of the genome-wide epistasis. In our previous study, based on mid-parental heterosis (HMP) value with single-point analysis, 42 heterotic loci (HLs) associated with six yield-related traits were detected in wild and cultivated rice using a set of 265 ILs of Dongxiang common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.). In this study, the genetic effects of HLs were determined as the combined effects of both additive and dominant gene actions, estimated from the performance values of testcross F1s and the dominance effects estimated from the HMP values of testcross F1s. We characterized the gene action type at each HL. Thirty-eight of the 42 HLs were over-dominant, and in the absence of epistasis, four HLs were dominant. Therefore, we favour that over-dominance is a major genetic basis of 'wild-cultivar' crosses at the single functional Mendelian locus level.

  4. Exploring the common molecular basis for the universal DNA mutation bias: Revival of Loewdin mutation model

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Liang-Yu; Wang, Guang-Zhong; Ma, Bin-Guang; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} There exists a universal G:C {yields} A:T mutation bias in three domains of life. {yields} This universal mutation bias has not been sufficiently explained. {yields} A DNA mutation model proposed by Loewdin 40 years ago offers a common explanation. -- Abstract: Recently, numerous genome analyses revealed the existence of a universal G:C {yields} A:T mutation bias in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. To explore the molecular basis for this mutation bias, we examined the three well-known DNA mutation models, i.e., oxidative damage model, UV-radiation damage model and CpG hypermutation model. It was revealed that these models cannot provide a sufficient explanation to the universal mutation bias. Therefore, we resorted to a DNA mutation model proposed by Loewdin 40 years ago, which was based on inter-base double proton transfers (DPT). Since DPT is a fundamental and spontaneous chemical process and occurs much more frequently within GC pairs than AT pairs, Loewdin model offers a common explanation for the observed universal mutation bias and thus has broad biological implications.

  5. Gender-common and -specific neuroanatomical basis of human anxiety-related personality traits.

    PubMed

    Yamasue, Hidenori; Abe, Osamu; Suga, Motomu; Yamada, Haruyasu; Inoue, Hideyuki; Tochigi, Mamoru; Rogers, Mark; Aoki, Shigeki; Kato, Nobumasa; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2008-01-01

    Exploration of the relationships between regional brain volume and anxiety-related personality traits is important for understanding preexisting vulnerability to depressive and anxiety disorders. However, previous studies on this topic have employed relatively limited sample sizes and/or image processing methodology, and they have not clarified possible gender differences. In the present study, 183 (male/female: 117/66) right-handed healthy individuals in the third and fourth decades of life underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging scans and Temperament and Character Inventory. Neuroanatomical correlates of individual differences in the score of harm avoidance (HA) were examined throughout the entire brain using voxel-based morphometry. We found that higher scores on HA were associated with smaller regional gray matter volume in the right hippocampus, which was common to both genders. In contrast, female-specific correlation was found between higher anxiety-related personality traits and smaller regional brain volume in the left anterior prefrontal cortex. The present findings suggest that smaller right hippocampal volume underlies the basis for higher anxiety-related traits common to both genders, whereas anterior prefrontal volume contributes only in females. The results may have implications for why susceptibility to stress-related disorders such as anxiety disorders and depression shows gender and/or individual differences.

  6. A combination of transcriptome and methylation analyses reveals embryologically-relevant candidate genes in MRKH patients.

    PubMed

    Rall, Katharina; Barresi, Gianmaria; Walter, Michael; Poths, Sven; Haebig, Karina; Schaeferhoff, Karin; Schoenfisch, Birgitt; Riess, Olaf; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Bonin, Michael; Brucker, Sara

    2011-05-28

    The Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is present in at least 1 out of 4,500 female live births and is the second most common cause for primary amenorrhea. It is characterized by vaginal and uterine aplasia in an XX individual with normal secondary characteristics. It has long been considered a sporadic anomaly, but familial clustering occurs. Several candidate genes have been studied although no single factor has yet been identified. Cases of discordant monozygotic twins suggest that the involvement of epigenetic factors is more likely. Differences in gene expression and methylation patterns of uterine tissue between eight MRKH patients and eight controls were identified using whole-genome microarray analyses. Results obtained by expression and methylation arrays were confirmed by qRT-PCR and pyrosequencing. We delineated 293 differentially expressed and 194 differentially methylated genes of which nine overlap in both groups. These nine genes are mainly embryologically relevant for the development of the female genital tract. Our study used, for the first time, a combined whole-genome expression and methylation approach to reveal the etiology of the MRKH syndrome. The findings suggest that either deficient estrogen receptors or the ectopic expression of certain HOXA genes might lead to abnormal development of the female reproductive tract. In utero exposure to endocrine disruptors or abnormally high maternal hormone levels might cause ectopic expression or anterior transformation of HOXA genes. It is, however, also possible that different factors influence the anti-Mullerian hormone promoter activity during embryological development causing regression of the Müllerian ducts. Thus, our data stimulate new research directions to decipher the pathogenic basis of MRKH syndrome.

  7. A combination of transcriptome and methylation analyses reveals embryologically-relevant candidate genes in MRKH patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is present in at least 1 out of 4,500 female live births and is the second most common cause for primary amenorrhea. It is characterized by vaginal and uterine aplasia in an XX individual with normal secondary characteristics. It has long been considered a sporadic anomaly, but familial clustering occurs. Several candidate genes have been studied although no single factor has yet been identified. Cases of discordant monozygotic twins suggest that the involvement of epigenetic factors is more likely. Methods Differences in gene expression and methylation patterns of uterine tissue between eight MRKH patients and eight controls were identified using whole-genome microarray analyses. Results obtained by expression and methylation arrays were confirmed by qRT-PCR and pyrosequencing. Results We delineated 293 differentially expressed and 194 differentially methylated genes of which nine overlap in both groups. These nine genes are mainly embryologically relevant for the development of the female genital tract. Conclusion Our study used, for the first time, a combined whole-genome expression and methylation approach to reveal the etiology of the MRKH syndrome. The findings suggest that either deficient estrogen receptors or the ectopic expression of certain HOXA genes might lead to abnormal development of the female reproductive tract. In utero exposure to endocrine disruptors or abnormally high maternal hormone levels might cause ectopic expression or anterior transformation of HOXA genes. It is, however, also possible that different factors influence the anti-Mullerian hormone promoter activity during embryological development causing regression of the Müllerian ducts. Thus, our data stimulate new research directions to decipher the pathogenic basis of MRKH syndrome. PMID:21619687

  8. Physical Basis behind Achondroplasia, the Most Common Form of Human Dwarfism*

    PubMed Central

    He, Lijuan; Horton, William; Hristova, Kalina

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in long bone development. The G380R mutation in FGFR3 transmembrane domain is known as the genetic cause for achondroplasia, the most common form of human dwarfism. Despite many studies, there is no consensus about the exact mechanism underlying the pathology. To gain further understanding into the physical basis behind the disorder, here we measure the activation of wild-type and mutant FGFR3 in mammalian cells using Western blots, and we analyze the activation within the frame of a physical-chemical model describing dimerization, ligand binding, and phosphorylation probabilities within the dimers. The data analysis presented here suggests that the mutation does not increase FGFR3 dimerization, as proposed previously. Instead, FGFR3 activity in achondroplasia is increased due to increased probability for phosphorylation of the unliganded mutant dimers. This finding has implications for the design of targeted molecular treatments for achondroplasia. PMID:20624921

  9. Physical basis behind achondroplasia, the most common form of human dwarfism.

    PubMed

    He, Lijuan; Horton, William; Hristova, Kalina

    2010-09-24

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in long bone development. The G380R mutation in FGFR3 transmembrane domain is known as the genetic cause for achondroplasia, the most common form of human dwarfism. Despite many studies, there is no consensus about the exact mechanism underlying the pathology. To gain further understanding into the physical basis behind the disorder, here we measure the activation of wild-type and mutant FGFR3 in mammalian cells using Western blots, and we analyze the activation within the frame of a physical-chemical model describing dimerization, ligand binding, and phosphorylation probabilities within the dimers. The data analysis presented here suggests that the mutation does not increase FGFR3 dimerization, as proposed previously. Instead, FGFR3 activity in achondroplasia is increased due to increased probability for phosphorylation of the unliganded mutant dimers. This finding has implications for the design of targeted molecular treatments for achondroplasia.

  10. Poland syndrome: from embryological basis to plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cingel, Vladimir; Bohac, Martin; Mestanova, Veronika; Zabojnikova, Lenka; Varga, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly described by Sir Alfred Poland over 170 years ago. Combination of unilateral aplasia of the sternocostal head of musculus pectoralis major, and an ipsilateral hypoplastic hand with simple syndactyly and short fingers is typical for this condition. It occurs more frequent among males, and is usually situated on the right hemithorax in the unilateral form. The pathogenesis of Poland syndrome is not clear. Most of the authors assume that the etiologic insult is vascular in nature. During the sixth week of gestation, not only the pectoral mass splits (future muscles of the thorax) and intervening tissue between the finger rays of hands starts to disappear but also the vascular differentiation from six aortic arches begins. In our paper we report two cases of children with Poland syndrome, who underwent surgical procedure in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia. Our case reports are focused on pre-operatively and also post-operatively imaging (RTG, CT, and 3D CT imaging) of the affected thorax and arm, as well as the operative reconstruction technique of abnormal ribs. We also discussed the possible embryonic backgrounds of this anomaly as well as the importance of plastic surgery resulting in patients' normal life.

  11. Some problems challenging the UK's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority.

    PubMed

    Pattinson, Shaun D

    2005-06-01

    The UK's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (hereafter the HFEA) is a regulatory body facing growing pressures and difficulties. Like any regulatory body, it faces the challenge of regulating with sufficient expertise, legitimacy, and contemporaneity. This challenge is, however, exacerbated by the fact that it seeks to regulate some of the most controversial and rapidly changing technologies of our time. Its decisions and jurisdictional assumptions face increasing challenge. In addition to the multitude of cases brought against it, the HFEA's actions recently led a House of Commons Select Committee to pointedly declare that "democracy is not served by unelected quangos (quasi-autonomous non-governmental organizations) taking decisions on behalf of Parliament". While endorsing the general need to review the legislation under which the HFEA operates (the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990), this paper will argue that the HFEA was correct in interpreting its jurisdiction to encompass the technique used to produce Dolly the sheep. This paper thereby defends the key feature of the approach of the House of Lords in the recent case of R (Bruno Quintavalle on behalf of the ProLife Alliance) v Secretary of State for Health [2003] UKHL 13.

  12. Embryological Consideration of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    The topographical distribution of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) was analyzed based on the embryological anatomy of the dural membrane. Sixty-six consecutive cases of intracranial and spinal DAVFs were analyzed based on the angiography, and each shunt point was identified according to the embryological bony structures. The area of dural membranes was categorized into three different groups: a ventral group located on the endochondral bone (VE group), a dorsal group located on the membranous bone (DM group) and a falcotentorial group (FT group) located in the falx cerebri, tentorium cerebelli, falx cerebelli, and diaphragm sellae. The FT group was designated when the dural membrane was formed only with the dura propria (meningeal layer of the dura mater) and not from the endosteal dura. Cavernous sinus, sigmoid sinus, and anterior condylar confluence was categorized to VE group, which had a female predominance, more benign clinical presentations, and a lower rate of cortical and spinal venous reflux. Transverse sinus, confluence, and superior sagittal sinus belonged to the DM group. Olfactory groove, falx, tent of the cerebellum, and nerve sleeve of spinal cord were categorized to the FT group, which presented later in life and which had a male predominance, more aggressive clinical presentations, and significant cortical and spinal venous reflux. The DAVFs was associated with the layers of the dural membrane characterized by the two different embryological bony structures. The FT group was formed only with the dura propria as an independent risk factor for aggressive clinical course and hemorrhage of DAVFs. PMID:27250699

  13. Embryological variation during nematode development.

    PubMed

    Schierenberg, Einhard

    2006-01-02

    Early cell lineages and arrangement of blastomeres in C. elegans are similar to the pattern found in Ascaris and other studied nematodes leading to the assumption that embryonic development shows little variation within the phylum Nematoda. However, analysis of a larger variety of species from various branches of the phylogenetic tree demonstrate that prominent variations in crucial steps of early embryogenesis exist among representatives of this taxon. So far, most of these variations have only been studied on a descriptive level and thus essentially nothing is known about their molecular or genetic basis. Nevertheless, it is obvious that the limited morphological diversity of the freshly hatched juvenile and the uniformity of the basic body plan contrast with the many modifications in the way a worm is generated from the egg cell. This chapter focuses on the initial phase between egg activation and gastrulation and deals with the following aspects: reproduction and diploidy, polarity, cleavage and germ line, cell lineages; cell cycles and maternal contribution, cell-cell communication and cell specification, gastrulation.

  14. Developing germplasm resources to identify the genetic basis of resistance to common scab in potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common scab, caused mainly by the soil-borne bacterium Streptomyces scabies, produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing tuber quality and profitability. Methods to manage common scab are often expensive, impractical, and can be ineffective. Therefore, creating cultivars that are resistant to common...

  15. Absence of Posterior Triangle: Clinical and Embryological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shikha; Loh, Hitendra Kumar; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and Trapezius (TM) muscle present in the cervical region serves as an important landmark in forming boundaries of posterior triangle of neck. This case reports a continuous muscle sheet obscuring the left posterior triangle in the neck of a 60-year-old Indian male cadaver. An unfamiliar oval gap was observed in its posterosuperior portion. Description of such a variant in anatomical literature is rare and is scarcely reported. An attempt has been made to portray its embryological and phylogenetic basis. In addition authors have endeavoured to discuss its clinical implications. Awareness of such anatomical variations is relevant for the operating surgeons in their endeavour to perform various reconstruction surgeries of head and neck, radiologists while concluding various levels in Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of the region and to the anaesthetists in their search for nerves and vessels while attempting various anaesthetic procedures. PMID:28384846

  16. Nanostructural basis of rainbow-like iridescence in common bronzewing Phaps chalcoptera feathers.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ming; Dhinojwala, Ali; Shawkey, Matthew

    2014-06-16

    Structural colors are common in nature. Generally single feathers or other integuments contain only one structural color, but those of the common bronzewing display a consistent color gradient from blue to red (462-647 nm) over the proximo-distal length of individual barbs. We used optical microscopy and macro- and micro-spectrophotometry to characterize this color gradient, and transmission electron microscopy to investigate the nanostructure. Combining optical modeling and experimental results, we demonstrate that the rainbow-like iridescence is caused by multilayer interference from organized arrays of melanosome rods in a keratin matrix and that the color gradient results from subtle shifts in both diameter and spacing of melanosome rods. This result illustrates tight developmental control feathers and may provide inspiration for the design of multi-colored coatings or fibers.

  17. Common-Cause Failure Treatment in Event Assessment: Basis for a Proposed New Model

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Song-Hua Shen; Gary DeMoss; Kevin Coyne; Don Marksberry

    2010-06-01

    Event assessment is an application of probabilistic risk assessment in which observed equipment failures and outages are mapped into the risk model to obtain a numerical estimate of the event’s risk significance. In this paper, we focus on retrospective assessments to estimate the risk significance of degraded conditions such as equipment failure accompanied by a deficiency in a process such as maintenance practices. In modeling such events, the basic events in the risk model that are associated with observed failures and other off-normal situations are typically configured to be failed, while those associated with observed successes and unchallenged components are assumed capable of failing, typically with their baseline probabilities. This is referred to as the failure memory approach to event assessment. The conditioning of common-cause failure probabilities for the common cause component group associated with the observed component failure is particularly important, as it is insufficient to simply leave these probabilities at their baseline values, and doing so may result in a significant underestimate of risk significance for the event. Past work in this area has focused on the mathematics of the adjustment. In this paper, we review the Basic Parameter Model for common-cause failure, which underlies most current risk modelling, discuss the limitations of this model with respect to event assessment, and introduce a proposed new framework for common-cause failure, which uses a Bayesian network to model underlying causes of failure, and which has the potential to overcome the limitations of the Basic Parameter Model with respect to event assessment.

  18. Progress and promise in understanding the genetic basis of common diseases

    PubMed Central

    Price, Alkes L.; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Donnelly, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility to common human diseases is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The explosive growth of genetic data, and the knowledge that it is generating, are transforming our biological understanding of these diseases. In this review, we describe the technological and analytical advances that have enabled genome-wide association studies to be successful in identifying a large number of genetic variants robustly associated with common disease. We examine the biological insights that these genetic associations are beginning to produce, from functional mechanisms involving individual genes to biological pathways linking associated genes, and the identification of functional annotations, some of which are cell-type-specific, enriched in disease associations. Although most efforts have focused on identifying and interpreting genetic variants that are irrefutably associated with disease, it is increasingly clear that—even at large sample sizes—these represent only the tip of the iceberg of genetic signal, motivating polygenic analyses that consider the effects of genetic variants throughout the genome, including modest effects that are not individually statistically significant. As data from an increasingly large number of diseases and traits are analysed, pleiotropic effects (defined as genetic loci affecting multiple phenotypes) can help integrate our biological understanding. Looking forward, the next generation of population-scale data resources, linking genomic information with health outcomes, will lead to another step-change in our ability to understand, and treat, common diseases. PMID:26702037

  19. Progress and promise in understanding the genetic basis of common diseases.

    PubMed

    Price, Alkes L; Spencer, Chris C A; Donnelly, Peter

    2015-12-22

    Susceptibility to common human diseases is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The explosive growth of genetic data, and the knowledge that it is generating, are transforming our biological understanding of these diseases. In this review, we describe the technological and analytical advances that have enabled genome-wide association studies to be successful in identifying a large number of genetic variants robustly associated with common disease. We examine the biological insights that these genetic associations are beginning to produce, from functional mechanisms involving individual genes to biological pathways linking associated genes, and the identification of functional annotations, some of which are cell-type-specific, enriched in disease associations. Although most efforts have focused on identifying and interpreting genetic variants that are irrefutably associated with disease, it is increasingly clear that--even at large sample sizes--these represent only the tip of the iceberg of genetic signal, motivating polygenic analyses that consider the effects of genetic variants throughout the genome, including modest effects that are not individually statistically significant. As data from an increasingly large number of diseases and traits are analysed, pleiotropic effects (defined as genetic loci affecting multiple phenotypes) can help integrate our biological understanding. Looking forward, the next generation of population-scale data resources, linking genomic information with health outcomes, will lead to another step-change in our ability to understand, and treat, common diseases. © 2015 The Authors.

  20. A QTL model to map the common genetic basis for correlative phenotypic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Lyu, Yafei; Xu, Fang; Bo, Wenhao; Zhai, Yi; Zhang, Jian; Pang, Xiaoming; Zheng, Bingsong; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    As an important mechanism for adaptation to heterogeneous environment, plastic responses of correlated traits to environmental alteration may also be genetically correlated, but less is known about the underlying genetic basis. We describe a statistical model for mapping specific quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control the interrelationship of phenotypic plasticity between different traits. The model is constructed by a bivariate mixture setting, implemented with the EM algorithm to estimate the genetic effects of QTLs on correlative plastic response. We provide a series of procedure that test (1) how a QTL controls the phenotypic plasticity of a single trait; and (2) how the QTL determines the correlation of environment-induced changes of different traits. The model is readily extended to test how epistatic interactions among QTLs play a part in the correlations of different plastic traits. The model was validated through computer simulation and used to analyse multi-environment data of genetic mapping in winter wheat, showing its utilization in practice.

  1. Is there a common basis between hiatal hernia and hemorrhoidal disease?

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Zeynep; Uzel, Mehmet; Filik, Levent

    2015-05-01

    In this letter-to-editor, we hypothesize that there is a link between hemorrhoidal disease and hiatal hernia. We underline common risk factors for both and present a cross-sectional patient data. Therefore, we emphasize the necessity of new studies to clarify this coincidence. Clinical benefit of establishment of this link is to delay or prevent development of hiatal hernia as a result of appropriate preventive measures. Accordingly, postoperative period of hiatal hernia operations may also be relieved or recurrence risk may also be decreased with this precautions.

  2. The cellular basis of chitin synthesis in fungi and insects: common principles and differences.

    PubMed

    Merzendorfer, Hans

    2011-09-01

    Chitin is a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, which assembles into microfibrils of about 20 sugar chains. These microfibrils serve as a structural component of natural biocomposites found in cell walls and specialized extracellular matrices such as cuticles and peritrophic membranes. Chitin synthesis is performed by a wide range of organisms including fungi and insects. The underlying biosynthetic machinery is highly conserved and involves several enzymes, of which the chitin synthase is the key enzyme. This membrane integral glycosyltransferase catalyzes the polymerization reaction. Most of what we know about chitin synthesis derives from studies of fungal and insect systems. In this review, common principles and differences will be worked out at the levels of gene organization, enzymatic properties, cellular localization and regulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbes on building materials--evaluation of DNA extraction protocols as common basis for molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Ettenauer, Jörg D; Piñar, Guadalupe; Lopandic, Ksenija; Spangl, Bernhard; Ellersdorfer, Günther; Voitl, Christian; Sterflinger, Katja

    2012-11-15

    The study of microbial life in building materials is an emerging topic concerning biodeterioration of materials as well as health risks in houses and at working places. Biodegradation and potential health implications associated with microbial growth in our residues claim for more precise methods for quantification and identification. To date, cultivation experiments are commonly used to gain insight into the microbial diversity. Nowadays, molecular techniques for the identification of microorganisms provide efficient methods that can be applied in this field. The efficiency of DNA extraction is decisive in order to perform a reliable and reproducible quantification of the microorganisms by qPCR or to characterize the structure of the microbial community. In this study we tested thirteen DNA extraction methods and evaluated their efficiency for identifying (1) the quantity of DNA, (2) the quality and purity of DNA and (3) the ability of the DNA to be amplified in a PCR reaction using three universal primer sets for the ITS region of fungi as well as one primer pair targeting the 16S rRNA of bacteria with three typical building materials - common plaster, red brick and gypsum cardboard. DNA concentration measurements showed strong variations among the tested methods and materials. Measurement of the DNA yield showed up to three orders of magnitude variation from the same samples, whereas A260/A280 ratios often prognosticated biases in the PCR amplifications. Visualization of the crude DNA extracts and the comparison of DGGE fingerprints showed additional drawbacks of some methods. The FastDNA Spin kit for soil showed to be the best DNA extraction method and could provide positive results for all tests with the three building materials. Therefore, we suggest this method as a gold standard for quantification of indoor fungi and bacteria in building materials.

  4. Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: Embryological Consideration

    PubMed Central

    TOMA, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    There are considerable variations in the anatomy of the human ophthalmic artery (OphA), such as anomalous origins of the OphA and anastomoses between the OphA and the adjacent arteries. These anatomical variations seem to attribute to complex embryology of the OphA. In human embryos and fetuses, primitive dorsal and ventral ophthalmic arteries (PDOphA and PVOphA) form the ocular branches, and the supraorbital division of the stapedial artery forms the orbital branches of the OphA, and then numerous anastomoses between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) systems emerge in connection with the OphA. These developmental processes can produce anatomical variations of the OphA, and we should notice these variations for neurosurgical and neurointerventional procedures. PMID:27298261

  5. Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: Embryological Consideration.

    PubMed

    Toma, Naoki

    2016-10-15

    There are considerable variations in the anatomy of the human ophthalmic artery (OphA), such as anomalous origins of the OphA and anastomoses between the OphA and the adjacent arteries. These anatomical variations seem to attribute to complex embryology of the OphA. In human embryos and fetuses, primitive dorsal and ventral ophthalmic arteries (PDOphA and PVOphA) form the ocular branches, and the supraorbital division of the stapedial artery forms the orbital branches of the OphA, and then numerous anastomoses between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) systems emerge in connection with the OphA. These developmental processes can produce anatomical variations of the OphA, and we should notice these variations for neurosurgical and neurointerventional procedures.

  6. Technical Basis for Evaluating Software-Related Common-Cause Failures

    SciTech Connect

    Muhlheim, Michael David; Wood, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The instrumentation and control (I&C) system architecture at a nuclear power plant (NPP) incorporates protections against common-cause failures (CCFs) through the use of diversity and defense-in-depth. Even for well-established analog-based I&C system designs, the potential for CCFs of multiple systems (or redundancies within a system) constitutes a credible threat to defeating the defense-in-depth provisions within the I&C system architectures. The integration of digital technologies into the I&C systems provides many advantages compared to the aging analog systems with respect to reliability, maintenance, operability, and cost effectiveness. However, maintaining the diversity and defense-in-depth for both the hardware and software within the digital system is challenging. In fact, the introduction of digital technologies may actually increase the potential for CCF vulnerabilities because of the introduction of undetected systematic faults. These systematic faults are defined as a “design fault located in a software component” and at a high level, are predominately the result of (1) errors in the requirement specification, (2) inadequate provisions to account for design limits (e.g., environmental stress), or (3) technical faults incorporated in the internal system (or architectural) design or implementation. Other technology-neutral CCF concerns include hardware design errors, equipment qualification deficiencies, installation or maintenance errors, instrument loop scaling and setpoint mistakes.

  7. Large variation among photoreceptors as the basis of visual flexibility in the common backswimmer

    PubMed Central

    Immonen, Esa-Ville; Ignatova, Irina; Gislen, Anna; Warrant, Eric; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko; Weckström, Matti; Frolov, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The common backswimmer, Notonecta glauca, uses vision by day and night for functions such as underwater prey animal capture and flight in search of new habitats. Although previous studies have identified some of the physiological mechanisms facilitating such flexibility in the animal's vision, neither the biophysics of Notonecta photoreceptors nor possible cellular adaptations are known. Here, we studied Notonecta photoreceptors using patch-clamp and intracellular recording methods. Photoreceptor size (approximated by capacitance) was positively correlated with absolute sensitivity and acceptance angles. Information rate measurements indicated that large and more sensitive photoreceptors performed better than small ones. Our results suggest that backswimmers are adapted for vision in both dim and well-illuminated environments by having open-rhabdom eyes with large intrinsic variation in absolute sensitivity among photoreceptors, exceeding those found in purely diurnal or nocturnal species. Both electrophysiology and microscopic analysis of retinal structure suggest two retinal subsystems: the largest peripheral photoreceptors provide vision in dim light and the smaller peripheral and central photoreceptors function primarily in sunlight, with light-dependent pigment screening further contributing to adaptation in this system by dynamically recruiting photoreceptors with varying sensitivity into the operational pool. PMID:25274359

  8. Global Neural Pattern Similarity as a Common Basis for Categorization and Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Gui; Love, Bradley C.; Preston, Alison R.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Familiarity, or memory strength, is a central construct in models of cognition. In previous categorization and long-term memory research, correlations have been found between psychological measures of memory strength and activation in the medial temporal lobes (MTLs), which suggests a common neural locus for memory strength. However, activation alone is insufficient for determining whether the same mechanisms underlie neural function across domains. Guided by mathematical models of categorization and long-term memory, we develop a theory and a method to test whether memory strength arises from the global similarity among neural representations. In human subjects, we find significant correlations between global similarity among activation patterns in the MTLs and both subsequent memory confidence in a recognition memory task and model-based measures of memory strength in a category learning task. Our work bridges formal cognitive theories and neuroscientific models by illustrating that the same global similarity computations underlie processing in multiple cognitive domains. Moreover, by establishing a link between neural similarity and psychological memory strength, our findings suggest that there may be an isomorphism between psychological and neural representational spaces that can be exploited to test cognitive theories at both the neural and behavioral levels. PMID:24872552

  9. Global neural pattern similarity as a common basis for categorization and recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Davis, Tyler; Xue, Gui; Love, Bradley C; Preston, Alison R; Poldrack, Russell A

    2014-05-28

    Familiarity, or memory strength, is a central construct in models of cognition. In previous categorization and long-term memory research, correlations have been found between psychological measures of memory strength and activation in the medial temporal lobes (MTLs), which suggests a common neural locus for memory strength. However, activation alone is insufficient for determining whether the same mechanisms underlie neural function across domains. Guided by mathematical models of categorization and long-term memory, we develop a theory and a method to test whether memory strength arises from the global similarity among neural representations. In human subjects, we find significant correlations between global similarity among activation patterns in the MTLs and both subsequent memory confidence in a recognition memory task and model-based measures of memory strength in a category learning task. Our work bridges formal cognitive theories and neuroscientific models by illustrating that the same global similarity computations underlie processing in multiple cognitive domains. Moreover, by establishing a link between neural similarity and psychological memory strength, our findings suggest that there may be an isomorphism between psychological and neural representational spaces that can be exploited to test cognitive theories at both the neural and behavioral levels.

  10. Large variation among photoreceptors as the basis of visual flexibility in the common backswimmer.

    PubMed

    Immonen, Esa-Ville; Ignatova, Irina; Gislen, Anna; Warrant, Eric; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko; Weckström, Matti; Frolov, Roman

    2014-11-22

    The common backswimmer, Notonecta glauca, uses vision by day and night for functions such as underwater prey animal capture and flight in search of new habitats. Although previous studies have identified some of the physiological mechanisms facilitating such flexibility in the animal's vision, neither the biophysics of Notonecta photoreceptors nor possible cellular adaptations are known. Here, we studied Notonecta photoreceptors using patch-clamp and intracellular recording methods. Photoreceptor size (approximated by capacitance) was positively correlated with absolute sensitivity and acceptance angles. Information rate measurements indicated that large and more sensitive photoreceptors performed better than small ones. Our results suggest that backswimmers are adapted for vision in both dim and well-illuminated environments by having open-rhabdom eyes with large intrinsic variation in absolute sensitivity among photoreceptors, exceeding those found in purely diurnal or nocturnal species. Both electrophysiology and microscopic analysis of retinal structure suggest two retinal subsystems: the largest peripheral photoreceptors provide vision in dim light and the smaller peripheral and central photoreceptors function primarily in sunlight, with light-dependent pigment screening further contributing to adaptation in this system by dynamically recruiting photoreceptors with varying sensitivity into the operational pool.

  11. The population genomic basis of geographic differentiation in North American common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.).

    PubMed

    Martin, Michael D; Olsen, Morten Tange; Samaniego, Jose A; Zimmer, Elizabeth A; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is an invasive, wind-pollinated plant nearly ubiquitous in disturbed sites in its eastern North American native range and present across growing portions of Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. Phenotypic divergence between European and native-range populations has been described as rapid evolution. However, a recent study demonstrated major human-mediated shifts in ragweed genetic structure before introduction to Europe and suggested that native-range genetic structure and local adaptation might fully explain accelerated growth and other invasive characteristics of introduced populations. Genomic differentiation that potentially influenced this structure has not yet been investigated, and it remains unclear whether substantial admixture during historical disturbance of the native range contributed to the development of invasiveness in introduced European ragweed populations. To investigate fine-scale population genetic structure across the species' native range, we characterized diallelic SNP loci via a reduced-representation genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach. We corroborate phylogeographic domains previously discovered using traditional sequencing methods, while demonstrating increased power to resolve weak genetic structure in this highly admixed plant species. By identifying exome polymorphisms underlying genetic differentiation, we suggest that geographic differentiation of this important invasive species has occurred more often within pathways that regulate growth and response to defense and stress, which may be associated with survival in North America's diverse climatic regions.

  12. The molecular basis of variable phenotypic severity among common missense mutations causing Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kyla; Selfridge, Jim; Lagger, Sabine; Connelly, John; De Sousa, Dina; Kerr, Alastair; Webb, Shaun; Guy, Jacky; Merusi, Cara; Koerner, Martha V.; Bird, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene, which encodes a chromosomal protein that binds to methylated DNA. Mouse models mirror the human disorder and therefore allow investigation of phenotypes at a molecular level. We describe an Mecp2 allelic series representing the three most common missense Rett syndrome (RTT) mutations, including first reports of Mecp2[R133C] and Mecp2[T158M] knock-in mice, in addition to Mecp2[R306C] mutant mice. Together these three alleles comprise ∼25% of all RTT mutations in humans, but they vary significantly in average severity. This spectrum is mimicked in the mouse models; R133C being least severe, T158M most severe and R306C of intermediate severity. Both R133C and T158M mutations cause compound phenotypes at the molecular level, combining compromised DNA binding with reduced stability, the destabilizing effect of T158M being more severe. Our findings contradict the hypothesis that the R133C mutation exclusively abolishes binding to hydroxymethylated DNA, as interactions with DNA containing methyl-CG, methyl-CA and hydroxymethyl-CA are all reduced in vivo. We find that MeCP2[T158M] is significantly less stable than MeCP2[R133C], which may account for the divergent clinical impact of the mutations. Overall, this allelic series recapitulates human RTT severity, reveals compound molecular aetiologies and provides a valuable resource in the search for personalized therapeutic interventions. PMID:26647311

  13. The molecular basis of variable phenotypic severity among common missense mutations causing Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kyla; Selfridge, Jim; Lagger, Sabine; Connelly, John; De Sousa, Dina; Kerr, Alastair; Webb, Shaun; Guy, Jacky; Merusi, Cara; Koerner, Martha V; Bird, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Rett syndrome is caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene, which encodes a chromosomal protein that binds to methylated DNA. Mouse models mirror the human disorder and therefore allow investigation of phenotypes at a molecular level. We describe an Mecp2 allelic series representing the three most common missense Rett syndrome (RTT) mutations, including first reports of Mecp2[R133C] and Mecp2[T158M] knock-in mice, in addition to Mecp2[R306C] mutant mice. Together these three alleles comprise ∼25% of all RTT mutations in humans, but they vary significantly in average severity. This spectrum is mimicked in the mouse models; R133C being least severe, T158M most severe and R306C of intermediate severity. Both R133C and T158M mutations cause compound phenotypes at the molecular level, combining compromised DNA binding with reduced stability, the destabilizing effect of T158M being more severe. Our findings contradict the hypothesis that the R133C mutation exclusively abolishes binding to hydroxymethylated DNA, as interactions with DNA containing methyl-CG, methyl-CA and hydroxymethyl-CA are all reduced in vivo. We find that MeCP2[T158M] is significantly less stable than MeCP2[R133C], which may account for the divergent clinical impact of the mutations. Overall, this allelic series recapitulates human RTT severity, reveals compound molecular aetiologies and provides a valuable resource in the search for personalized therapeutic interventions.

  14. Evaluating trihalomethane content in drinking water on the basis of common monitoring parameters: regression models.

    PubMed

    Espigares, Miguel; Lardelli, Pablo; Ortega, Pedro

    2003-10-01

    The presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in potable-water sources is an issue of great interest because of the negative impact THMs have on human health. The objective of this study was to correlate the presence of trihalomethanes with more routinely monitored parameters of water quality, in order to facilitate THM control. Water samples taken at various stages of treatment from a water treatment plant were analyzed for the presence of trihalomethanes with the Fujiwara method. The data collected from these determinations were compared with the values obtained for free-residual-chlorine and combined-residual-chlorine levels as well as standard physico-chemical and microbiological indicators such as chemical oxygen demand (by the KMnO4 method), total chlorophyll, conductivity, pH, alkalinity, turbidity, chlorides, sulfates, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, ammonia, calcium, magnesium, heterotrophic bacteria count, Pseudomonas spp., total and fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci. The data from these determinations were compiled, and statistical analysis was performed to determine which variables correlate best with the presence and quantity of trihalomethanes in the samples. Levels of THMs in water seem to correlate directly with levels of combined residual chlorine and nitrates, and inversely with the level of free residual chlorine. Statistical analysis with multiple linear regression was conducted to determine the best-fitting models. The models chosen incorporate between two and four independent variables and include chemical oxygen demand, nitrites, and ammonia. These indicators, which are commonly determined during the water treatment process, demonstrate the strongest correlation with the levels of trihalomethanes in water and offer great utility as an accessible method for THM detection and control.

  15. For the Classroom: The Sea Urchin Fertilization and Embryology Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevoort, Douglas

    1984-01-01

    The sea urchin provides an ideal embryology laboratory because it is visually representative of the fertilization process in higher animals. Procedures for conducting such a laboratory (including methods for securing specimens) are provided. (JN)

  16. For the Classroom: The Sea Urchin Fertilization and Embryology Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevoort, Douglas

    1984-01-01

    The sea urchin provides an ideal embryology laboratory because it is visually representative of the fertilization process in higher animals. Procedures for conducting such a laboratory (including methods for securing specimens) are provided. (JN)

  17. Primary retroperitoneal seminoma - embryology, histopathology and treatment particularities.

    PubMed

    Gîngu, Constantin Virgil; Mihai, Mihaela; Baston, Cătălin; Crăsneanu, Mugurel Alexandru; Dick, Alexandru Vladimir; Olaru, Vlad; Sinescu, Ioanel

    2016-01-01

    Retroperitoneal seminoma is a very rare form of cancer, with embryological origin represented by primordial germ cells from the urogenital ridges left behind during the fetal development. Extragenital germ cell tumors can also occur in the mediastinum or the pineal gland. The aim of this paper is to outline the particularities and draw embryological, histopatological and treatment conclusions regarding extragonadal germ cell tumors. A 43-year-old patient without any additional pathology was admitted for anemia of unknown etiology. The clinical examination revealed through deep abdominal palpation a mass in the left flank, and normal testes. Thoraco-abdomino-pelvic computed tomography (CT) scan showed a large retroperitoneal tumor adjacent to the great vessels in the left lumbo-iliac region. The blood work revealed just a low hemoglobin and hematocrit. With the established diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor, radical surgical removal was decided. During the surgery, we were required to dissect a large solid encapsulated tumor mass from the aorta and the common iliac artery, starting at the renal pedicle all the way to the left iliac bifurcation. The surgical access was obtained through a transperitoneal left subcostal incision prolonged pararectally. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies revealed a seminoma of the usual type. After the histological findings, the patient's tumor markers were investigated (LDH - lactate dehydrogenase, βHCG - beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, αFP - alpha-fetoprotein), all values being within normal ranges. In addition, the left testicle was thoroughly reexamined, clinically, through ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and no abnormalities were observed. After the surgery, the patient followed three courses of chemotherapy (BEP - Bleomycin, Etoposide and Cisplatin). The CT scan done 24 months after surgery found no signs of local or distant tumor recurrence. The patient entered a follow-up schedule

  18. Anomalous pulmonary venous connections and related anomalies: nomenclature, embryology, anatomy, and morphology.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael J; Ungerleider, Ross M; Aiello, Vera D; Spicer, Diane; Giroud, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    This article combines material from three complementary overviews presented in the Symposium on Pulmonary Venous Anomalies during the Joint Meeting of the World Society for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery and Sociedad Latina de Cardiologia y Cirugia Cardiovascular Pediátrica in Lima, Peru. We discuss the embryologic basis for nomenclature, the hierarchical diagnostic categories, and the important anatomic and morphologic characteristics of anomalous pulmonary venous connections. The anatomic descriptions help to guide an understandable and sensible approach to the diagnosis and surgical management of these various disorders.

  19. Molecular Basis of N,N-Diethyl-3-Methylbenzamide (DEET) in Repelling the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Xia, Xiaoming; Liu, Nannan

    2017-01-01

    As the most extensively used chemical repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) displayed repellency to a wide range of insects, including the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius. While the neuronal or molecular basis involved in DEET's repellency have been majorly focused on mosquitos and fruit flies, DEET's repellency to the common bed bug is largely unreached. To gain new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms in DEET's repellency to the common bed bug, we characterized the neuronal response of bed bugs to DEET, identified the olfactory receptors targeted by DEET and demonstrated the interfering effect of DEET on bed bug's responses to human odorants. High doses of DEET were required for activating the olfactory receptor neurons in the sensilla of bed bugs and at least three DEET-sensitive receptors were functionally deciphered. These DEET-sensitive receptors presented even more sensitive to certain botanical terpenes/terpenoids which also displayed repellency at varying levels for bed bugs. In addition, DEET produced a blocking effect on the neuronal responses of bed bugs to specific human odors and showed inhibitory effect on the function of odorant receptors in responding to certain human odors. Taken together, our results indicate that DEET may function as a stimulus that triggers avoidance behaviors and a molecular "confusant" for interrupting the host odor recognition in the odorant receptors of bed bugs. The receptors that coincidently responded to both synthetic DEET and botanical terpenes/terpenoids suggested that DEET probably target on receptors that originally responded to terpenes/terpenoids. This study gave novel insight into the mechanisms of DEET's repellency to bed bugs and also provided valuable information for developing new reagents for bed bug control.

  20. Molecular Basis of N,N-Diethyl-3-Methylbenzamide (DEET) in Repelling the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Xia, Xiaoming; Liu, Nannan

    2017-01-01

    As the most extensively used chemical repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) displayed repellency to a wide range of insects, including the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius. While the neuronal or molecular basis involved in DEET's repellency have been majorly focused on mosquitos and fruit flies, DEET's repellency to the common bed bug is largely unreached. To gain new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms in DEET's repellency to the common bed bug, we characterized the neuronal response of bed bugs to DEET, identified the olfactory receptors targeted by DEET and demonstrated the interfering effect of DEET on bed bug's responses to human odorants. High doses of DEET were required for activating the olfactory receptor neurons in the sensilla of bed bugs and at least three DEET-sensitive receptors were functionally deciphered. These DEET-sensitive receptors presented even more sensitive to certain botanical terpenes/terpenoids which also displayed repellency at varying levels for bed bugs. In addition, DEET produced a blocking effect on the neuronal responses of bed bugs to specific human odors and showed inhibitory effect on the function of odorant receptors in responding to certain human odors. Taken together, our results indicate that DEET may function as a stimulus that triggers avoidance behaviors and a molecular “confusant” for interrupting the host odor recognition in the odorant receptors of bed bugs. The receptors that coincidently responded to both synthetic DEET and botanical terpenes/terpenoids suggested that DEET probably target on receptors that originally responded to terpenes/terpenoids. This study gave novel insight into the mechanisms of DEET's repellency to bed bugs and also provided valuable information for developing new reagents for bed bug control. PMID:28676765

  1. Cancer Is to Embryology as Mutation Is to Genetics: Hypothesis of the Cancer as Embryological Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Cofre, Jaime; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    Despite numerous advances in cell biology, genetics, and developmental biology, cancer origin has been attributed to genetic mechanisms primarily involving mutations. Embryologists have expressed timidly cancer embryological origin with little success in leveraging the discussion that cancer could involve a set of conventional cellular processes used to build the embryo during morphogenesis. Thus, this "cancer process" allows the harmonious and coherent construction of the embryo structural base, and its implementation as the embryonic process involves joint regulation of differentiation, proliferation, cell invasion, and migration, enabling the human being recreation of every generation. On the other hand, "cancer disease" is the representation of an abnormal state of the cell that might happen in the stem cells of an adult person, in which the mechanism for joint gene regulating of differentiation, proliferation, cell invasion, and migration could be reactivated in an entirely inappropriate context.

  2. The history of scientific endeavors towards understanding hagfish embryology.

    PubMed

    Ota, Kinya G; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2006-05-01

    Due to their curious phylogenetic position and anatomy, hagfishes have attracted the interest of zoologists, especially in the context of vertebrate evolution. Embryological information on these animals is now also needed in the field of evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-Devo), as it is expected to provide hints about the origin of vertebrate traits, whether the hagfishes are an in-or outgroup of vertebrates. This review summarizes the importance of hagfish embryology from a phylogenetic perspective, and the history of attempts to obtain hagfish eggs and embryos. Clearly, the main difficulty associated with these animals is their deep-sea habitat. To circumvent this problem, this review also discusses the future prospects for obtaining embryological material, both from the wild and in the laboratory.

  3. Commonality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E., Jr.

    Commonality analysis is an attempt to understand the relative predictive power of the regressor variables, both individually and in combination. The squared multiple correlation is broken up into elements assigned to each individual regressor and to each possible combination of regressors. The elements have the property that the appropriate sums…

  4. Olfactory basis of floral preference of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) among common African plants.

    PubMed

    Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood R; Terbot, John W; Otienoburu, Philip E; Foster, Woodbridge A

    2014-12-01

    Mosquitoes of both sexes feed on plants to obtain sugar. Nocturnal species probably locate the plants primarily by their volatile semiochemicals that also form the basis for the mosquitoes' innate plant-species preferences. To evaluate these olfactory preferences quantitatively, we used a two-choice wind-tunnel olfactometer to measure the upwind orientation of Anopheles gambiae Giles, an important vector of malaria in equatorial Africa, toward odor plumes produced by nine plant species common where this mosquito occurs. These plants are reported to induce feeding behaviors in An. gambiae and to produce floral or extrafloral nectar. Results presented here demonstrated that the volatiles of S. didymobotrya, P. hysterophorus, S. occidentalis, and L. camara, in descending order of numbers of mosquitoes responding, were all attractive, compared to a control plant species, whereas D. stramonium, R. communis, S. bicapsularis, T. stans, and T. diversifolia were not. As expected, chromatographic analysis of the headspace of attractive plants whose volatiles were captured by stir-bar sorptive extraction revealed a wide range of compounds, primarily terpenoids. Once their bioactivity and attractiveness for An. gambiae, alone and in blends, has been firmly established, some of these semiochemicals may have applications in population sampling and control. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  5. The adolescent female: Breast and reproductive embryology and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Lemaine, Valerie; Simmons, Patricia S

    2013-01-01

    Congenital breast and genital tract anomalies are seen frequently in the care of children and adolescents. Breast and internal gynecologic anomalies more often present in adolescence than in early childhood. Management is best delivered through a multidisciplinary team approach. Carefully timed surgical intervention is of importance to optimize psychological, aesthetic and functional outcomes. An understanding of the female breast and genital tract embryology and anatomy is important for a meticulous clinical examination and appropriate surgical treatment. This article will review the normal embryology and anatomy of the adolescent female breast and genital tract.

  6. Push it to the limit: Characterizing the convergence of common sequences of basis sets for intermolecular interactions as described by density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Witte, Jonathon; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-05-21

    With the aim of systematically characterizing the convergence of common families of basis sets such that general recommendations for basis sets can be made, we have tested a wide variety of basis sets against complete-basis binding energies across the S22 set of intermolecular interactions-noncovalent interactions of small and medium-sized molecules consisting of first- and second-row atoms-with three distinct density functional approximations: SPW92, a form of local-density approximation; B3LYP, a global hybrid generalized gradient approximation; and B97M-V, a meta-generalized gradient approximation with nonlocal correlation. We have found that it is remarkably difficult to reach the basis set limit; for the methods and systems examined, the most complete basis is Jensen's pc-4. The Dunning correlation-consistent sequence of basis sets converges slowly relative to the Jensen sequence. The Karlsruhe basis sets are quite cost effective, particularly when a correction for basis set superposition error is applied: counterpoise-corrected def2-SVPD binding energies are better than corresponding energies computed in comparably sized Dunning and Jensen bases, and on par with uncorrected results in basis sets 3-4 times larger. These trends are exhibited regardless of the level of density functional approximation employed. A sense of the magnitude of the intrinsic incompleteness error of each basis set not only provides a foundation for guiding basis set choice in future studies but also facilitates quantitative comparison of existing studies on similar types of systems.

  7. Early development and embryology of the platypus.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, R L; Hall, L S

    1998-01-01

    Information on the pre-hatching development of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, is reliant on a small number of specimens, whose precise age is unknown. Material collected for J. P. Hill and now housed in the Hubrecht International Embryological Laboratory, Utrecht, contributes a major source of specimens. This paper presents new observations on developmental stages from the Hill collection, which allow for a more complete description of pre-hatching development. A feature of the pre-embryonic development of the platypus is the incomplete meroblastic cleavage. A column of fine yolk spheres extends from beneath the embryonic blastodisc towards the centre of a yolky vitellus, as seen in birds. The major expansion of extra-embryonic membranes occurs after the formation of the primitive streak. The primitive streak develops within an embryonal area as part of the superficial wall of the yolk-sac, a feature also shared with marsupials, birds and reptiles. The full-term, subspheroidal, intrauterine egg of the platypus has a major axis of about 17 mm and contains a flat, 19-20 somite, neurula-stage embryo which has prominent trigeminal ganglion primordia. The embryo at this stage is in a period of rapid modelling of the major early organ primordia of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, excretory system, and somite-derived components of the body wall. Soon after laying, five primary brain vesicles are present, the trigeminal ganglia CN5 as well as CN7, CN8, CN9, CN10, CN11 and CN12 are well developed. The alimentary system has an expanded stomach, pancreatic primordia and a gall bladder. Mesonephric tubules are associated with patent mesonephric ducts, which empty laterally into the cloaca. Extra-embryonic membranes at this stage show an extensive chorioamniotic connection that extends through the greater part of the caudal half of fused amniotic folds. The vascularized yolk-sac consists of a superficial yolk-sac omphalopleura and a deep yolk

  8. Light Use Efficiency and Photochemical Reflectance Index: do we have a common basis defining them? Implications for productivity estimation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, A. A.; Gamon, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    There are at least three commonly used definitions of photosynthetic Light Use Efficiency (LUE) based on: (a) incident radiation (LUEinc); (b) total absorbed light (LUEtotal); and (c) radiation absorbed by photosynthetically active vegetation (LUEps). Consequently, LUE values reported do not have a common basis, bringing confusion and limiting the utility of reported LUE values for comparative analyses. Not surprisingly, the value of LUE reported in literature varies by a factor of three. Similarly, the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) has different operational definitions, resulting in a wide range of reported values for comparable conditions. The objectives of this paper are to investigate (a) temporal behavior of each definition of LUE; and (b) factors affecting PRI, often used as a surrogate of LUE at leaf and canopy levels. We focused on annual and winter-deciduous vegetation where total chlorophyll content is closely tied to the seasonal dynamics of GPP. In these conditions, LUEinc is closely related to total plant chlorophyll (Chl) content. LUEtotal oscillates around a constant value during the vegetative stage, depending mainly on plant physiological status, PAR composition and magnitude, while in reproductive and senescence stages it relates closely to Chl content. LUEps may vary 2- to 3-fold during the growing season with no clear seasonal pattern, and does not seem to be related to any biophysical characteristic studied; rather, it depends on the physiological status of vegetation, PAR composition and magnitude as well as air temperature and soil moisture. At the leaf level, PRI depends greatly on pigment content and composition and relates closely to the ratio of Chl to carotenoid content. At the canopy and stand levels, both total plant Chl content and green LAI are responsible for more than 95% of PRI variation, demonstrating that PRI is confounded by pigment pool sizes and canopy structure in these conditions. Importantly, the close relationship

  9. Genetic basis and fitness correlates of dynamic carotenoid-based ornamental coloration in male and female common kestrels Falco tinnunculus.

    PubMed

    Vergara, P; Fargallo, J A; Martínez-Padilla, J

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the genetic basis of sexual ornaments is essential to understand their evolution through sexual selection. Although carotenoid-based ornaments have been instrumental in the study of sexual selection, given the inability of animals to synthesize carotenoids de novo, they are generally assumed to be influenced solely by environmental variation. However, very few studies have directly estimated the role of genes and the environment in shaping variation in carotenoid-based traits. Using long-term individual-based data, we here explore the evolutionary potential of a dynamic, carotenoid-based ornament (namely skin coloration), in male and female common kestrels. We first estimate the amount of genetic variation underlying variation in hue, chroma and brightness. After correcting for sex differences, the chroma of the orange-yellow eye ring coloration was significantly heritable (h2±SE=0.40±0.17), whereas neither hue (h2=0) nor brightness (h2=0.02) was heritable. Second, we estimate the strength and shape of selection acting upon chromatic (hue and chroma) and achromatic (brightness) variation and show positive and negative directional selection on female but not male chroma and hue, respectively, whereas brightness was unrelated to fitness in both sexes. This suggests that different components of carotenoid-based signals traits may show different evolutionary dynamics. Overall, we show that carotenoid-based coloration is a complex and multifaceted trait. If we are to gain a better understanding of the processes responsible for the generation and maintenance of variation in carotenoid-based coloration, these complexities need to be taken into account.

  10. Embryology and Anatomy of the Jaw and Dentition.

    PubMed

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Poon, Colin S; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Radiologists should possess working knowledge of the embryological development and anatomy of the jaw and dentition in order to aid in the diagnosis of both simple and complex disorders that affect them. Here, we review the elaborate process of odontogenesis, as well as describe in detail the anatomy of a tooth and its surrounding structures.

  11. Embryology, sternal clefts, ectopia cordis, and Cantrell's pentalogy.

    PubMed

    Engum, Scott A

    2008-08-01

    Sternal clefts, ectopia cordis, and Cantrell's pentalogy continue to be very rare congenital anomalies in pediatric surgery. Unfortunately, these conditions present as neonatal emergencies and demand early surgical intervention. This article reviews the embryological development of the chest wall, specific sternal defect anomalies, along with available methods of treatment.

  12. The future of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority.

    PubMed

    English, Veronica

    2013-04-01

    The UK Government has proposed that the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) should be abolished and its functions transferred to the Care Quality Commission. This commentary explores the problems with this proposal and suggests that an independent review of how the HFEA carries out its functions and a subsequent reform of some of its practices represent a better option for the UK.

  13. Early development and embryology of the platypus.

    PubMed

    Hughes, R L; Hall, L S

    1998-07-29

    Information on the pre-hatching development of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, is reliant on a small number of specimens, whose precise age is unknown. Material collected for J. P. Hill and now housed in the Hubrecht International Embryological Laboratory, Utrecht, contributes a major source of specimens. This paper presents new observations on developmental stages from the Hill collection, which allow for a more complete description of pre-hatching development. A feature of the pre-embryonic development of the platypus is the incomplete meroblastic cleavage. A column of fine yolk spheres extends from beneath the embryonic blastodisc towards the centre of a yolky vitellus, as seen in birds. The major expansion of extra-embryonic membranes occurs after the formation of the primitive streak. The primitive streak develops within an embryonal area as part of the superficial wall of the yolk-sac, a feature also shared with marsupials, birds and reptiles. The full-term, subspheroidal, intrauterine egg of the platypus has a major axis of about 17 mm and contains a flat, 19-20 somite, neurula-stage embryo which has prominent trigeminal ganglion primordia. The embryo at this stage is in a period of rapid modelling of the major early organ primordia of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, excretory system, and somite-derived components of the body wall. Soon after laying, five primary brain vesicles are present, the trigeminal ganglia CN5 as well as CN7, CN8, CN9, CN10, CN11 and CN12 are well developed. The alimentary system has an expanded stomach, pancreatic primordia and a gall bladder. Mesonephric tubules are associated with patent mesonephric ducts, which empty laterally into the cloaca. Extra-embryonic membranes at this stage show an extensive chorioamniotic connection that extends through the greater part of the caudal half of fused amniotic folds. The vascularized yolk-sac consists of a superficial yolk-sac omphalopleura and a deep yolk

  14. Blood vessels of the shin - anterior tibial artery - anatomy and embryology - own studies and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mróz, Izabela; Kielczewski, Stanislas; Pawlicki, Dominik; Kurzydło, Wojciech; Bachul, Piotr; Konarska, Monika; Bereza, Tomasz; Walocha, Klaudia; Kaythampillai, Lourdes Niroja; Depukat, Paweł; Pasternak, Artur; Bonczar, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Przemysław; Mizia, Ewa; Skrzat, Janusz; Mazur, Małgorzata; Warchoł, Łukasz; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof

    Injuries of the lower leg are rather frequent in every day orthopedic routine. Process of healing takes quite a long time and is commonly dependent on the proper vasculature. e study was carried out on 50 human lower legs obtained during autopsies. The anatomy of the vascular system of the leg was studied using classical anatomical dissection methods. Based also on literature we have reviewed the current knowledge on the vascularization of the lower leg and its embryological background.

  15. A Functional Perspective on the Embryology and Anatomy of the Cerebral Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Menshawi, Khaled; Mohr, Jay P

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the arterial system supplying blood to the brain can influence the development of arterial disease such as aneurysms, dolichoectasia and atherosclerosis. As the arteries supplying blood to the brain develop during embryogenesis, variation in their anatomy may occur and this variation may influence the development of arterial disease. Angiogenesis, which occurs mainly by sprouting of parent arteries, is the first stage at which variations can occur. At day 24 of embryological life, the internal carotid artery is the first artery to form and it provides all the blood required by the primitive brain. As the occipital region, brain stem and cerebellum enlarge; the internal carotid supply becomes insufficient, triggering the development of the posterior circulation. At this stage, the posterior circulation consists of a primitive mesh of arterial networks that originate from projection of penetrators from the distal carotid artery and more proximally from carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. These anastomoses regress when the basilar artery and the vertebral arteries become independent from the internal carotid artery, but their persistence is not uncommon in adults (e.g., persistent trigeminal artery). Other common remnants of embryological development include fenestration or duplication (most commonly of the basilar artery), hypoplasia (typically of the posterior communicating artery) or agenesis (typically of the anterior communicating artery). Learning more about the hemodynamic consequence that these variants may have on the brain territories they supply may help understand better the underlying physiopathology of cerebral arterial remodeling and stroke in patients with these variants. PMID:26060802

  16. The human fetal venous system: normal embryologic, anatomic, and physiologic characteristics and developmental abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Fasouliotis, Sozos J; Achiron, Reuven; Kivilevitch, Zvi; Yagel, Simcha

    2002-10-01

    The introduction of high-resolution ultrasonography combined with color-coded Doppler imaging offered a breakthrough in the evaluation of the human fetal venous system, considerably enhancing our understanding of fetal venous circulation in normal physiologic conditions, as well as providing us the ability to study circulatory changes in abnormal circumstances. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal anatomic development and complex of anomalies of the human fetal venous system and to review recently published series of these anomalies. Normal embryologic and anatomic development is described. An English language literature search of recent MEDLINE listings was performed to glean data from recently published series reporting prenatal diagnosis of the various anomalies and their associated malformations. Anomalies of the human fetal venous system occur sporadically, often associated with cardiac or other malformations. The pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to abnormal in utero development of the human venous system remain largely undetermined. On the basis of the type of vein involved, embryologic precursor, and etiologic correlation (primary or secondary), classification into 4 major groups is described. Prenatal evaluation of fetuses found to have anomalies of the venous system should include a careful search for cardiac anomalies, including pulmonary venous drainage, and a detailed anatomic survey of the umbilical, portal, hepatic, and ductal systems to determine aberrant communication and, if possible, to discover clues to systemic diseases or thromboembolic phenomena.

  17. Abnormal Congenital Location of Stapes' Superstructure: Clinical and Embryological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Teles, Rafaela; Sousa, Ana; Estevão, Roberto; Rodrigues, Jorge; Gomes, Alexandra; Silva, Francisco; Fernandes, Ângelo; Fernandes, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Congenital middle ear malformations are rare. Most part of them are usually associated with other malformations, such as aural atresia, microtia, and dysmorphic craniofacial features. A clinical case of a 24-year-old male with a right-sided conductive hearing loss since his childhood, without craniofacial malformation, is presented. He was proposed for exploratory tympanotomy under the suspicious diagnosis of otosclerosis. The surgery revealed an abnormal location of stapes' superstructure, which was attached to the promontory and had an isolated and mobile osseous footplate in the oval window. A stapes prosthesis was inserted and resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 25 dB. A review of the literature was also performed using MEDLINE. Two theories diverge on the embryologic origin of the stapes. Our findings seem to be in favour of the theory that defines two different embryologic origins to the stapes. PMID:27648330

  18. Female pelvic congenital malformations. Part I: embryology, anatomy and surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Laterza, Rosa M; De Gennaro, Mario; Tubaro, Andrea; Koelbl, Heinz

    2011-11-01

    This review covers the most important female congenital pelvic malformations. The first part focuses on the embryological development of the urogenital and anorectal apparatus, morphological features, and the diagnostic and surgical approach to abnormalities. Comprehension of the embryological development of the urogenital and anorectal apparatus is essential to understand the morphology of congenital pelvic abnormalities and their surgical treatment. Congenital pelvic malformations are characterized by specific common features; the severity of which often subverts the pelvic morphology completely and makes it difficult to comprehend before surgery. The development of imaging, mainly magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, in the investigation of pelvic floor disorders has recently become a fundamental tool for surgeons to achieve better understanding of the anatomy. Forty years ago, the primary aim of clinicians was to save the lives of such patients and to achieve anatomical normality. However, nowadays, functional reconstruction and recovery are essential parts of surgical management. Introduction of minimally invasive surgery has allowed the improvement of cosmetic results that is so important in paediatric or adolescent patients after reconstructive surgery. The option of sharing the complexity of pelvic congenital diseases by entrusting specific competencies to subspecialists (paediatric urologists, urogynaecologists, neurourologists, paediatric endocrinologists and neonatologists) has improved the quality of care for patients. However, at the same time, active interaction between various specialists remains fundamental. The exchange of knowledge and expertise, not only during the diagnostic-therapeutic process but also during follow-up, is crucial to obtain the best anatomical and functional results throughout the life of the patient.

  19. Vitrification in human and domestic animal embryology: work in progress.

    PubMed

    Vajta, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    According to the analysis of papers published in major international journals, rapidly increasing application of vitrification is one of the greatest achievements in domestic animal and especially human embryology during the first decade of our century. This review highlights factors supporting or hampering this progress, summarises results achieved with vitrification and outlines future tasks to fully exploit the benefits of this amazing approach that has changed or will change many aspects of laboratory (and also clinical) embryology. Supporting factors include the simplicity, cost efficiency and convincing success of vitrification compared with other approaches in all species and developmental stages in mammalian embryology, while causes that slow down the progress are mostly of human origin: inadequate tools and solutions, superficial teaching, improper application and unjustified concerns resulting in legal restrictions. Elimination of these hindrances seems to be a slower process and more demanding task than meeting the biological challenge. A key element of future progress will be to pass the pioneer age, establish a consensus regarding biosafety requirements, outline the indispensable features of a standard approach and design fully-automated vitrification machines executing all phases of the procedure, including equilibration, cooling, warming and dilution steps.

  20. Foreseeing fates: a commentary on Manton (1928) 'On the embryology of a mysid crustacean, Hemimysis lamornae'.

    PubMed

    Akam, Michael

    2015-04-19

    Sidnie Manton became best known for her work on arthropod locomotion, and for proposing radical views on the evolution of arthropods that were accepted for a generation. However, her early training was as an embryologist, and the work that she carried out at the beginning of her career still stands as one of the major twentieth century contributions to the study of crustacean embryology. Here, I review her first major paper, largely completed while she was a graduate student, describing embryonic development in Hemimysis lamornae, a small shrimp-like animal found in the seas around the UK. The clarity of her writing and the quality of her figures set a standard that laid the basis for subsequent work, and although not all of her conclusions have stood the test of time, they remain a standard reference for work today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  1. Dorsoscapularis triangularis: embryological and phylogenetic characterization of a rare variation of trapezius

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Anita; Raheja, Shashi

    2016-01-01

    The muscle trapezius shows considerable morphological diversity. Variations include an anomalous origin and complete or partial absence of the muscle. The present study reported, a hitherto undocumented complete bilateral absence of the cervical part of trapezius. Based on its peculiar origin and insertion, it was named dorsoscapularis triangularis. The embryological, phylogenetic and molecular basis of the anomaly was elucidated. Failure of cranial migration of the trapezius component of the branchial musculature anlage to gain attachment on the occipital bone, cervical spinous processes, ligamentum nuchae between 11 mm and 16 mm stage of the embryo, resulted in this anomaly. A surgeon operating on the head and neck region or a radiologist analyzing a magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical region would find the knowledge of this morphological variation of trapezius useful in making clinical decisions. PMID:27722016

  2. SymRK defines a common genetic basis for plant root endosymbioses with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi, rhizobia, and Frankiabacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gherbi, Hassen; Markmann, Katharina; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Estevan, Joan; Autran, Daphné; Giczey, Gabor; Auguy, Florence; Péret, Benjamin; Laplaze, Laurent; Franche, Claudine; Parniske, Martin; Bogusz, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Root endosymbioses vitally contribute to plant nutrition and fitness worldwide. Nitrogen-fixing root nodulation, confined to four plant orders, encompasses two distinct types of associations, the interaction of legumes (Fabales) with rhizobia bacteria and actinorhizal symbioses, where the bacterial symbionts are actinomycetes of the genus Frankia. Although several genetic components of the host–symbiont interaction have been identified in legumes, the genetic basis of actinorhiza formation is unknown. Here, we show that the receptor-like kinase gene SymRK, which is required for nodulation in legumes, is also necessary for actinorhiza formation in the tree Casuarina glauca. This indicates that both types of nodulation symbiosis share genetic components. Like several other legume genes involved in the interaction with rhizobia, SymRK is also required for the interaction with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi. We show that SymRK is involved in AM formation in C. glauca as well and can restore both nodulation and AM symbioses in a Lotus japonicus symrk mutant. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SymRK functions as a vital component of the genetic basis for both plant–fungal and plant–bacterial endosymbioses and is conserved between legumes and actinorhiza-forming Fagales. PMID:18316735

  3. Genetic Changes Accompanying the Domestication of Pisum sativum: Is there a Common Genetic Basis to the ‘Domestication Syndrome’ for Legumes?

    PubMed Central

    Weeden, Norman F.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The changes that occur during the domestication of crops such as maize and common bean appear to be controlled by relatively few genes. This study investigates the genetic basis of domestication in pea (Pisum sativum) and compares the genes involved with those determined to be important in common bean domestication. Methods Quantitative trait loci and classical genetic analysis are used to investigate and identify the genes modified at three stages of the domestication process. Five recombinant inbred populations involving crosses between different lines representing different stages are examined. Key Results A minimum of 15 known genes, in addition to a relatively few major quantitative trait loci, are identified as being critical to the domestication process. These genes control traits such as pod dehiscence, seed dormancy, seed size and other seed quality characters, stem height, root mass, and harvest index. Several of the genes have pleiotropic effects that in species possessing a more rudimentary genetic characterization might have been interpreted as clusters of genes. Very little evidence for gene clustering was found in pea. When compared with common bean, pea has used a different set of genes to produce the same or similar phenotypic changes. Conclusions Similar to results for common bean, relatively few genes appear to have been modified during the domestication of pea. However, the genes involved are different, and there does not appear to be a common genetic basis to ‘domestication syndrome’ in the Fabaceae. PMID:17660515

  4. [The mark of envy: metaphysics and embryology according to Descartes].

    PubMed

    Gaudemard, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction between medicine and metaphysics in modern natural philosophy and especially in Descartes' philosophy. I argue that Descartes hypothetical account of birthmarks in connection with his embryology provides an argumentative proof of the metaphysical necessity of a substantial union between mind and body, which however does not threaten his doctrine of the real distinction between these two substances. It would appear that his argument relies on a temporal conception of alethic modalities and provides a new answer to Henricus Regius who in 1641 claimed that, for Descartes, the human being is an ensper accidens.

  5. Pediatric skull base surgery. 1. Embryology and developmental anatomy.

    PubMed

    Gruber, David P; Brockmeyer, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the pediatric cranial base is uncommon, but in affected children, traditional operative techniques and management philosophies predominate. While the creation of multidisciplinary skull base teams synergistically pools the talents of individual specialties, a better understanding of the developmental anatomy of the cranial base becomes essential in order for such teams to safely implement these approaches in children. The extant neurosurgical literature lacks a comprehensive review of this anatomy. This report discusses the developmental anatomy and embryology of the cranial base within the context of specific surgical approaches. Detailed development of the calvaria, midface skeleton and orbit is excluded. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Müllerian duct anomalies: embryological development, classification, and MRI assessment.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Jessica B; Broadwell, Christy; Chow, Lawrence C; Parry, John P; Sadowski, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Müllerian duct anomalies (MDA) occur due to abnormal development of the uterus, cervix, and vagina, many times affecting a woman's ability to conceive and carry a pregnancy to term. The spectrum of possible abnormalities are related to the development of two separate Müllerian systems, which then fuse and subsequently undergo degeneration of the fused segments. This multiphasic development explains the multiple variations within the scheme of MDA classification. The purpose of this article is to review the embryologic development of the Müllerian ducts, relate the development to the most commonly used classification system, and review the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of Müllerian duct anomalies. A brief review of the treatment options, as they relate to the imaging diagnosis, will be provided as well. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Human Brain Basis of Musical Rhythm Perception: Common and Distinct Neural Substrates for Meter, Tempo, and Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Thaut, Michael H.; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Parsons, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET) as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a) pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b) pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus). Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas). These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure. PMID:24961770

  8. Human brain basis of musical rhythm perception: common and distinct neural substrates for meter, tempo, and pattern.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Parsons, Lawrence M

    2014-06-17

    Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET) as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a) pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b) pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus). Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas). These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure.

  9. Regions of common inter-individual DNA methylation differences in human monocytes: genetic basis and potential function.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Christopher; Leitão, Elsa; Wallner, Stefan; Schmitz, Gerd; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Sinha, Anupam; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Hoffmann, Per; Nöthen, Markus M; Steffens, Michael; Ebert, Peter; Rahmann, Sven; Horsthemke, Bernhard

    2017-07-26

    There is increasing evidence for inter-individual methylation differences at CpG dinucleotides in the human genome, but the regional extent and function of these differences have not yet been studied in detail. For identifying regions of common methylation differences, we used whole genome bisulfite sequencing data of monocytes from five donors and a novel bioinformatic strategy. We identified 157 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) with four or more CpGs, almost none of which has been described before. The DMRs fall into different chromatin states, where methylation is inversely correlated with active, but not repressive histone marks. However, methylation is not correlated with the expression of associated genes. High-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of the five donors revealed evidence for a role of cis-acting genetic variation in establishing methylation patterns. To validate this finding in a larger cohort, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using SNP genotypes and 450k array methylation data from blood samples of 1128 individuals. Only 30/157 (19%) DMRs include at least one 450k CpG, which shows that these arrays miss a large proportion of DNA methylation variation. In most cases, the GWAS peak overlapped the CpG position, and these regions are enriched for CREB group, NF-1, Sp100 and CTCF binding motifs. In two cases, there was tentative evidence for a trans-effect by KRAB zinc finger proteins. Allele-specific DNA methylation occurs in discrete chromosomal regions and is driven by genetic variation in cis and trans, but in general has little effect on gene expression.

  10. Embryology, ethology and ecology of ontogenetic critical periods in fish.

    PubMed

    Browman, H I

    1989-01-01

    Overviews of critical period concepts, as they appear at several biological levels, are presented. In embryology, critical periods generally refer to restricted periods in development during which undifferentiated groups of cells can be induced to differentiate. In neurobiology, critical periods are those during which neural circuits are particularly plastic and subject to molding by cellular processes and by experience. The ethological critical period concept advances the idea that an individual's behavioral characteristics can be more strongly influenced by a given event (some stimulus) at one stage of development than at others. For example, this is the period during which young birds imprint upon their parent(s) and learn their species' songs, or during which young salmon imprint to the odor of their home streams. The fisheries science critical period, an ecological concept, refers to a restricted time in the early life history of fish during which there is massive mortality. For many fish, this event is generally considered the primary factor controlling the size of the adult population. The cause of variable mortality between years is thought to be a result of differential food availability and predation during a critical stage in early fish larval development. At each biological level of the critical period, spatial and temporal overlap between the developing organism and specific environmental input is essential. It is likely that critical periods in embryology, neurobiology and ethology are causally interrelated in a hierarchical manner and that they can be manifested as ecological critical periods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Variations of Gonadal Veins: Embryological Prospective and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Raman; Aggarwal, Navita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: An adequate knowledge of anomalies of gonadal veins will help the radiologists and surgeons in recognition and protection of these veins which play major roles in thermo-regulation that is essential for the efficient functioning of testis on which the survival of the human species depends. Aim: The aim of this work is to present an analysis of the anatomical variations of gonadal veins. An effort has also been made to explicate the possible embryological model of development of such variants and to present the variable clinical aspects concerning them. Materials and Methods: Gonadal veins in 60 dissection room cadavers were examined for variations from the classic anatomic description. Result: In the present study, out of 60 cases, male: female ratio was 2:1(40:20) in which no variation was found in ovarian veins. In the 18 (45%) cases, testicular veins showed variations which consist of duplication and atypical drainage. Discussion: Variations of drainage of gonadal vein are due to error of embryological development in venous shift and alteration in anastomotic channel of post-cardinal, supra-cardinal and sub cardinal veins. Conclusion: The gonadal veins present numeric variations as well as variations in its site of drainage, which attributed to the various pathological conditions as varicocele and pelvic congestion syndrome, leading to infertility in patients. Hence, in -depth knowledge of these developmental anomalies of gonadal veins is important. PMID:25859438

  12. The Use of "Kryptolebias marmoratus" Eggs as an Educational Tool for Embryology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genade, Tyrone

    2016-01-01

    Plastic embryological models lack the excitement of seeing real, live embryos. Chick embryos are often used to demonstrate embryological development and blood circulation to students but this necessitates the death of the organism. "Kryptolebias marmoratus" embryos are large and can be viewed by means of a light microscope without need…

  13. Holoprosencephaly: a survey of the entity, with embryology and fetal imaging.

    PubMed

    Winter, Thomas C; Kennedy, Anne M; Woodward, Paula J

    2015-01-01

    Structural malformations of the brain are an important cause of childhood mortality and morbidity, with the latter having long-term financial and psychosocial implications for the affected child and family. Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a severe brain malformation characterized by abnormal cleavage of the prosencephalon in the 5th gestational week. Aprosencephaly and atelencephaly occur earlier because of failure in the formation of the prosencephalon and telencephalon, respectively. The HPE holoprosencephaly spectrum classically includes alobar, semilobar, and lobar forms, although there are no clear-cut defining features. The middle interhemispheric variant (MIH), also known as syntelencephaly, is classified as a variant of HPE holoprosencephaly with midline interhemispheric fusion. Other conditions sometimes included in the spectrum of HPE holoprosencephaly include septo-optic dysplasia (SOD); "minimal" HPE holoprosencephaly , which is associated with subtle craniofacial malformations and mild developmental delay; and microform HPE holoprosencephaly , which by definition excludes brain involvement. The focus of this article will be on the spectrum of findings visible in fetal manifestation of the HPE holoprosencephaly spectrum. Brain embryology; the imaging characteristics, epidemiology, and embryology of HPE; and the more common associated anomalies, particularly those of the face ("the face predicts the brain") are reviewed. Recognition of these anomalies is important for accurate parental counseling, since the prognosis is poor but not invariably lethal; children with the milder forms may live well into their teens with severe developmental delays, endocrine dysfunction, and disrupted homeostasis. Available data on outcome in surviving children are summarized. Illustrative fetal ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance images are presented with clinical, autopsy, and postnatal imaging correlation.

  14. Lens epithelial cell apoptosis appears to be a common cellular basis for non-congenital cataract development in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Cataract is a major ocular disease that causes blindness in many developing countries of the world. It is well established that various factors such as oxidative stress, UV, and other toxic agents can induce both in vivo and in vitro cataract formation. However, a common cellular basis for this induction has not been previously recognized. The present study of lens epithelial cell viability suggests such a general mechanism. When lens epithelial cells from a group of 20 cataract patients 12 to 94 years old were analyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) labeling and DNA fragmentation assays, it was found that all of these patients had apoptotic epithelial cells ranging from 4.4 to 41.8%. By contrast, in eight normal human lenses of comparable age, very few apoptotic epithelial cells were observed. We suggest that cataract patients may have deficient defense systems against factors such as oxidative stress and UV at the onset of the disease. Such stress can trigger lens epithelial cell apoptosis that then may initiate cataract development. To test this hypothesis, it is also demonstrated here that hydrogen peroxide at concentrations previously found in some cataract patients induces both lens epithelial cell apoptosis and cortical opacity. Moreover, the temporal and spatial distribution of induced apoptotic lens epithelial cells precedes development of lens opacification. These results suggest that lens epithelial cell apoptosis may be a common cellular basis for initiation of noncongenital cataract formation. PMID:7790371

  15. Craniopagus twins: surgical anatomy and embryology and their implications.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, J E

    1976-01-01

    Craniopagus is of two types, partial and total. In the partial form the union is of limited extent, particularly as regards its depth, and separation can be expected to be followed by the survival of both children to lead normal lives. In the total form, of which three varieties can be recognized, the two brains can be regarded as lying within a single cranium and a series of gross intracranial abnormalities develops. These include deformity of the skull base, deformity and displacement of the cerebrum, and a gross circulatory abnormality. It is considered that these and other abnormalities, unlike the primary defect, which is defined, are secondary ones; explanations for them, based on anatomy and embryology, are put forward. The implications of the various anomalies are discussed and the ethical aspects of attempted separation in these major unions considered. Images PMID:1255206

  16. Embryological changes induced by weak, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, J M; Leal, J; Monteagudo, J L; Gracia, M G

    1982-01-01

    Fertilized chicken eggs were incubated for 48 hours while exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELMF) of 10 Hz, 100 Hz and 1000 Hz with intensities of 0.12, 1.2 and 12 micro T. Gross morphological and histological analysis of the exposed embryos revealed the following effects: (1) ELMF of 100 Hz/1.2 micro T had the most consistent and powerful inhibitory effect on embryogenesis. Development of embryos was reduced to the formation of the three primitive layers. Brain vesicles, auditory pit, neural tube, foregut, heart, vessels, and somites were not developed. Glycosaminoglycans were almost absent. (2) The above results demonstrate a window effect because embryos exposed to 100 Hz/1.2 micro T were less developed than embryos exposed at lower and higher intensities and frequencies. (3) Developing organs reacted with different sensitivity to ELMF of specific frequencies and intensities. Somites were not disturbed by exposure to 10 Hz with any of the intensities used. Formation of blood vessels was completely blocked by ELMF of 1000 Hz/12 micro T while traces of other organs were present. (4) The drastic embryological disturbances described were obtained with much lower intensities (1 micro T = 0.01 Gauss) than those used in studies by other investigators. (5) Embryological alterations induced by ELMF may depend on disturbances in the presence and structure of glycosaminoglycans which are essential elements in cellular activities, including cell migration. (6) The use of ELMF of low intensity may be a powerful method to investigate embryogenetic mechanisms and may also be a useful technique for investigation of other biological systems. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7107514

  17. The attitudes of medical students in Europe toward the clinical importance of embryology.

    PubMed

    Moxham, Bernard John; Emmanouil-Nikoloussi, Elpida; Standley, Henrietta; Brenner, Erich; Plaisant, Odile; Brichova, Hana; Pais, Diogo; Stabile, Isobel; Borg, Jordy; Chirculescu, Andy

    2016-03-01

    Although there have been many studies reporting the attitudes of medical students to the clinical importance of gross anatomy, little is known about their opinions concerning the clinical importance of embryology. Using Thurstone and Chave methods to assess attitudes, nearly 1,600 medical students across Europe in the early stages of their training provided responses to a survey that tested the hypothesis that they do not regard embryology as highly clinically relevant. Indeed, we further proposed that student attitudes to gross anatomy are much more positive than those toward embryology. Our findings show that our hypotheses hold, regardless of the university and country surveyed and regardless of the teaching methods employed for embryology. Clearly, embryology has a significant part to play in medical education in terms of understanding prenatal life, of appreciating how the organization of the mature human body has developed, and of providing essential information for general medical practice, obstetrics and pediatrics, and teratology. However, while newly recruited medical students understand the importance of gross anatomy in the development of professional competence, understanding the importance of embryology requires teachers, medical educationalists, and devisors of medical curricula to pay special attention to informing students of the significant role played by embryology in attaining clinical competence and achieving the knowledge and understanding of the biomedical sciences that underpins becoming a learned member of a health care profession. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The molecular basis of invasiveness: differences in gene expression of native and introduced common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in stressful and benign environments.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Lai, Zhao; Nurkowski, Kristin; Huang, Jie; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2013-05-01

    Although the evolutionary and ecological processes that contribute to plant invasion have been the focus of much research, investigation into the molecular basis of invasion is just beginning. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an annual weed native to North America and has been introduced to Europe where it has become invasive. Using a custom-designed NimbleGen oligoarray, we examined differences in gene expression between five native and six introduced populations of common ragweed in three different environments (control, light stress and nutrient stress), as well as two different time points. We identified candidate genes that may contribute to invasiveness in common ragweed based on differences in expression between native and introduced populations from Europe. Specifically, we found 180 genes where range explained a significant proportion of the variation in gene expression and a further 103 genes with a significant range by treatment interaction. Several of these genes are potentially involved in the metabolism of secondary compounds, stress response and the detoxification of xenobiotics. Previously, we found more rapid growth and greater reproductive success in introduced populations, particularly in benign and competitive (light stress) environments, and many of these candidate genes potentially underlie these growth differences. We also found expression differences among populations within each range, reflecting either local adaptation or neutral processes, although no associations with climate or latitude were identified. These data provide a first step in identifying genes that are involved with introduction success in an aggressive annual weed. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Update on the Notochord Including its Embryology, Molecular Development, and Pathology: A Primer for the Clinician

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Tushar; Nagula, Sai V; Saker, Erfanul; Shoja, Mohammadali; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2017-01-01

    The notochord is a rod-like embryological structure, which plays a vital role in the development of the vertebrate. Though embryological, remnants of this structure have been observed in the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral discs of normal adults. Pathologically, these remnants can give rise to slow-growing and recurrent notochord-derived tumors called chordomas. Using standard search engines, the literature was reviewed regarding the anatomy, embryology, molecular development, and pathology of the human notochord. Clinicians who interpret imaging or treat patients with pathologies linked to the notochord should have a good working knowledge of its development and pathology. PMID:28480155

  20. Three dimensional ultrasound and hdlive technology as possible tools in teaching embryology.

    PubMed

    Popovici, Razvan; Pristavu, Anda; Sava, Anca

    2017-10-01

    Embryology is an important subject in order to gain an understanding of medicine and surgery; however, sometimes students find the subject difficult to grasp and apply to clinical practice. Modern imaging techniques can be useful aids in teaching and understanding embryology. Imaging techniques have very rapidly evolved over the last few years, advancing from two- to three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. HDlive is an innovative ultrasound technique that generates near-realistic images of the human fetus. In order to evince the capabilities of 3D ultrasound and HDlive technology in teaching embryology, we evaluated using this technique the normal evolution of the embryo and fetus from the fifth to eleventh week of amenorrhea. Our conclusion is that by yielding clear and impressive images, 3D ultrasound and HDlive could be useful tools in teaching embryology to medical students. Clin. Anat. 30:953-957, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Trifurcation of superficial brachial artery: a rare case with its clinico-embryological implications.

    PubMed

    Gupta, N; Anshu, A; Dada, R

    2014-01-01

    Literatures on vasculature of upper limbs are crammed with reports of distinctly deviant version of normally prevalent vessels having modified origins, altered branching and odd courses. A unique anatomical variation in vascular pattern was observed during routine dissection of right upper limb in gross anatomy laboratory, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. The brachial artery was placed superficial to median nerve in the arm and therefore it was called superficial brachial artery. In the cubital fossa, 2.8 cm distal to intercondylar line of elbow joint, this superficial brachial artery terminated by trifurcation into radial, common interosseous and ulnar branches. Strikingly the ulnar branch, after its origin ran superficially over the median nerve and epitrochlear superficial flexor group of muscles of forearm in succession for the initial third of its course in the forearm, consequently it was addressed as superficial ulnar artery. The existence of superficial brachial artery in place of normal brachial artery, its termination by trifurcation into radial, common interosseous and superficial ulnar arteries with remarkably different courses, leads to confusing disposition of structures in the arm, cubital fossa and in the forearm and collectively makes this myriad of anatomical variations even rarer. The clinico-embryological revelations for combination of these unconventional observations, apprises and guides the specialized medical personnel attempting blind and invasive procedures in brachium and ante-brachium. This case report depicts the anatomical perspective and clinical implications on confronting a rare variant vasculature architecture pattern of upper limb.

  2. Isolated Anomalous Origin of Left Pulmonary Artery From the Descending Aorta: An Embryologic Ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Gnanappa, Ganesh Kumar; Laohachai, Karina; Orr, Yishay; Ayer, Julian

    2016-11-01

    Anomalous origin of a branch pulmonary artery from the aorta is a rare malformation, accounting for 0.12% of all congenital heart defects. Anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the aorta (ALPA) constitutes a small proportion of these cases. ALPA has been reported to arise from the ascending aorta with various embryologic postulates. We report a case of isolated ALPA arising from the descending aorta in association with a patent ductus arteriosus, to emphasize its embryologic ambiguity.

  3. An embryological perspective on the early arthropod fossil record.

    PubMed

    Chipman, Ariel D

    2015-12-18

    Our understanding of the early evolution of the arthropod body plan has recently improved significantly through advances in phylogeny and developmental biology and through new interpretations of the fossil record. However, there has been limited effort to synthesize data from these different sources. Bringing an embryological perspective into the fossil record is a useful way to integrate knowledge from different disciplines into a single coherent view of arthropod evolution. I have used current knowledge on the development of extant arthropods, together with published descriptions of fossils, to reconstruct the germband stages of a series of key taxa leading from the arthropod lower stem group to crown group taxa. These reconstruction highlight the main evolutionary transitions that have occurred during early arthropod evolution, provide new insights into the types of mechanisms that could have been active and suggest new questions and research directions. The reconstructions suggest several novel homology hypotheses - e.g. the lower stem group head shield and head capsules in the crown group are all hypothesized to derive from the embryonic head lobes. The homology of anterior segments in different groups is resolved consistently. The transition between "lower-stem" and "upper-stem" arthropods is highlighted as a major transition with a concentration of novelties and innovations, suggesting a gap in the fossil record. A close relationship between chelicerates and megacheirans is supported by the embryonic reconstructions, and I suggest that the depth of the mandibulate-chelicerate split should be reexamined.

  4. Folding into being: early embryology and the epistemology of rhythm.

    PubMed

    Wellmann, Janina

    2015-03-01

    Historians have often described embryology and concepts of development in the period around 1800 in terms of "temporalization" or "dynamization". This paper, in contrast, argues that a central epistemological category in the period was "rhythm", which played a major role in the establishment of the emerging discipline of biology. I show that Caspar Friedrich Wolff's epigenetic theory of development was based on a rhythmical notion, namely the hypothesis that organic development occurs as a series of ordered rhythmical repetitions and variations. Presenting Christian Heinrich Pander's and Karl Ernst von Baer's theory of germ layers, I argue that Pander and Baer regarded folding as an organizing principle of ontogenesis, and that the principle's explanatory power stems from their understanding of folding as a rhythmical figuration. In a brief discussion of the notion of rhythm in contemporary music theory, I identify an underlying physiological epistemology in the new musical concept of rhythm around 1800. The paper closes with a more general discussion of the relationship between the rhythmic episteme, conceptions of life, and aesthetic theory at the end of the eighteenth century.

  5. Embryologic and Fetal Development of the Human Eyelid

    PubMed Central

    Abdulhafez, Mohamed H.; Fouad, Yousef A.; Dutton, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To review the recent data about eyelid morphogenesis, and outline a timeline for eyelid development from the very early stages during embryonic life till final maturation of the eyelid late in fetal life. Methods: The authors extensively review major studies detailing human embryologic and fetal eyelid morphogenesis. These studies span almost a century and include some more recent cadaver studies. Numerous studies in the murine model have helped to better understand the molecular signals that govern eyelid embryogenesis. The authors summarize the current findings in molecular biology, and highlight the most significant studies in mice regarding the multiple and interacting signaling pathways involved in regulating normal eyelid morphogenesis. Results: Eyelid morphogenesis involves a succession of subtle yet strictly regulated morphogenetic episodes of tissue folding, proliferation, contraction, and even migration, which may occur simultaneously or in succession. Conclusions: Understanding the extraordinary process of building eyelid tissue in embryonic life, and deciphering its underlying signaling machinery has far reaching clinical implications beyond understanding the developmental abnormalities involving the eyelids, and may pave the way for achieving scar-reducing therapies in adult mammalian wounds, or control the spread of malignancies. PMID:27124372

  6. Embryology meets molecular biology: Deciphering the apical ectodermal ridge.

    PubMed

    Verheyden, Jamie M; Sun, Xin

    2017-09-15

    More than sixty years ago, while studying feather tracks on the shoulder of the chick embryo, Dr. John Saunders used Nile Blue dye to stain the tissue. There, he noticed a darkly stained line of cells that neatly rims the tip of the growing limb bud. Rather than ignoring this observation, he followed it up by removing this tissue and found that it led to a striking truncation of the limb skeletons. This landmark experiment marks the serendipitous discovery of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), the quintessential embryonic structure that drives the outgrowth of the limb. Dr. Saunders continued to lead the limb field for the next fifty years, not just through his own work, but also by inspiring the next generation of researchers through his infectious love of science. Together, he and those who followed ushered in the discovery of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) as the AER molecule. The seamless marriage of embryology and molecular biology that led to the decoding of the AER serves as a shining example of how discoveries are made for the rest of the developmental biology field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Embryological and molecular development of the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ian L; Louw, Graham J

    2015-03-01

    In this mini review, the embryological and functional development of the adrenal glands is presented from a molecular perspective. While acknowledging that this is a highly complex series of events, the processes are described in simple and broad strokes in a single text for the reader who is interested in this field but is not an active researcher. The origin of the adrenal glands is in the mesodermal ridge as early as the fourth week of gestation. Between the eighth and ninth weeks of gestation, the adrenal glands are encapsulated and this results in the presence of a distinct organ. There have been great strides in deciphering the very complicated molecular aspects of adrenal gland development in which multiple transcription factors have been identified, directing the adrenogonadal primordium into the adrenal cortex, kidney, or bipotential gonad. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone is critical for early development of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. Several mutations in transcription factors, responsible for normal adrenal gland development have been found to induce the familial syndrome of congenital adrenal hypoplasia or neoplasia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A burgeoning science of embryological genetics demands a modern ethics.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R G

    2007-09-01

    This brief article discusses the nature of recent scientific advances in reproductive biomedicine and genetics, their moral implications and their effects on society. The pace of research has amplified exponentially, leading society into situations incomprehended by our ancestors. Early studies on reproductive biology in animals, and clinical methods such as artificial insemination by donor spermatozoa, were introduced several centuries ago and led to prolonged ethical disagreements. The 20th century witnessed the introduction of controlled ovulation in laboratory animals, the fertilization of the oocyte and preimplantation embryology in mammalian species. The second half of this century produced an avalanche of knowledge on genetics, developmental biology, the fertilization of the human oocyte in vitro, test-tube babies, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, designer babies, stem cells and a deeper understanding of molecular differentiation in the human embryo. The ethical and legal aspects of these items have led to intense debates on their rights and wrongs. The future may have even more bizarre possibilities such as producing medicines in cow's milk or trees and delaying death for many years.

  9. Reproductive medicine involving genome editing: clinical uncertainties and embryological needs.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing based on site-directed nucleases facilitated efficient and versatile genetic modifications in human cells. However, recent reports, demonstrating CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in human embryos have raised profound concerns worldwide. This commentary explores the clinical justification and feasibility of reproductive medicine using germline genome editing. Despite the perceived utility of reproductive medicine for treating intractable infertility, it is difficult to justify germline genome editing from the perspective of the prospective child. As suggested by the UK legalization regarding mitochondrial donation, the prevention of genetic disease in offspring by genome editing might be acceptable in limited cases of serious or life-threatening conditions, where no alternative medicine is available. Nonetheless, the mosaicism underlying human embryos as well as the off-target effect by artificial nucleases will likely hamper preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to embryo transfer. Such considerations suggest that this type of reproductive medicine should not be developed toward a clinical application. However, the clinical uncertainties underscore the need for embryology that can address fundamental questions regarding germline aneuploidy and mosaicism using genome editing. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Foreseeing fates: a commentary on Manton (1928) ‘On the embryology of a mysid crustacean, Hemimysis lamornae’

    PubMed Central

    Akam, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sidnie Manton became best known for her work on arthropod locomotion, and for proposing radical views on the evolution of arthropods that were accepted for a generation. However, her early training was as an embryologist, and the work that she carried out at the beginning of her career still stands as one of the major twentieth century contributions to the study of crustacean embryology. Here, I review her first major paper, largely completed while she was a graduate student, describing embryonic development in Hemimysis lamornae, a small shrimp-like animal found in the seas around the UK. The clarity of her writing and the quality of her figures set a standard that laid the basis for subsequent work, and although not all of her conclusions have stood the test of time, they remain a standard reference for work today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750244

  11. The educational and professional status of clinical embryology and clinical embryologists in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kovačič, B; Plas, C; Woodward, B J; Verheyen, G; Prados, F J; Hreinsson, J; De los Santos, M J; Magli, M C; Lundin, K; Plancha, C E

    2015-08-01

    What is the recognition of clinical embryology and the current status of clinical embryologists in European countries, regarding educational levels, responsibilities and workload, and need for a formal education in assisted reproductive technology (ART)? It is striking that the profession of clinical embryology, almost 40 years after the introduction of IVF, is still not officially recognized in most European countries. Reproductive medicine has developed into a sophisticated multidisciplinary medical branch since the birth of Louise Brown 37 years ago. The European Board & College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (EBCOG) has recognized reproductive medicine as a subspeciality and has developed a subspeciality training for gynaecologists in collaboration with the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). However, nothing similar exists for the field of clinical embryology or for clinical embryologists. A questionnaire about the situation in clinical embryology in the period of 2012-2013 in the respective European country was sent to ESHRE National representatives (basic scientists only) in December 2013. At this time, 28 European countries had at least one basic scientist in the ESHRE Committee of National Representatives. The survey consisted of 46 numeric, dichotomous (yes/no) or descriptive questions. Answers were obtained from 27 out of 28 countries and the data were tabulated. Data about the numbers of 'ESHRE Certified Embryologists' were taken from the ESHRE Steering Committee for Embryologist Certification. In 2012, more than 7000 laboratory staff from 1349 IVF clinics in 27 European countries performed over 700 000 fresh and frozen ART cycles. Despite this, clinical embryology is only recognized as an official profession in 3 out of 27 national health systems. In most countries clinical embryologists need to be registered under another profession, and have limited possibilities for organized education in clinical embryology. Mostly they

  12. Quality changes and predictive models of radial basis function neural networks for brined common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Kong, Chunli; Wang, Huiyi; Li, Dapeng; Zhang, Yuemei; Pan, Jinfeng; Zhu, Beiwei; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-06-15

    To investigate and predict quality of 2% brined common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets during frozen storage, free fatty acids (FFA), salt extractable protein (SEP), total sulfhydryl (SH) content, and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity were determined at 261 K, 253 K, and 245 K, respectively. There was a dramatic increase (P<0.05) in FFA and a sharp decrease (P<0.05) in SH at 261 K during the first 3 weeks. SEP decreased to 67.31% after 17 weeks at 245 K, whereas it took about 7 weeks and 13 weeks to decrease to the same extent at 261 K and 253 K, respectively. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity kept decreasing to 18.28% after 7 weeks at 261 K. Furthermore, radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs) were developed to predict quality (FFA, SEP, SH, and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity) of brined carp fillets during frozen storage with relative errors all within ±5%. Thus, RBFNN is a promising method to predict quality of carp fillets during storage at 245-261 K.

  13. [Embryology and "official science": the contribution of the anatomical school of José Escolar to embryology during the first Francoism (1939-1959)].

    PubMed

    Velasco Morgado, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the contribution of the anatomical school of José Escolar (1913-1998) to embryology during the first two decades of the Francoist dictatorship. Special attention is paid to the process by which the Spanish group, with the support of the new Superior National Research Council, made contact with the German morphology being developed by Hugo Spatz (1888-1979) at the Max Planck-Institut für Hirnforschung. Our study reveals the numerous influences that finally led to the anatomy and embryology of Escolar. In Spain, we found a direct influence of the Gegenbaurian morphology of Gumersindo Sánchez Guisande (1894-1976) and the neuroanatomy of Juan José Barcia Goyanes (1901-2003), full of references to studies by Braus. International contacts of the "Escolarian group", first with North America and then with Germany, created a homogeneous group with a single anatomy (functional and ontophylogenetic) but with so many research interests that subspecialisations had to be developed. An important embryological work resulted from an intense relationship with the German anatomical community during the 1950s. Escolar worked in this field on the development of the amygdala and allocortex, Fernando Reinoso studied the embryology of the diencephalon and Smith Victor Agreda, along with the German scientist Rudolf Diepen, made some important discoveries on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary system.

  14. Hagfish embryology with reference to the evolution of the neural crest.

    PubMed

    Ota, Kinya G; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2007-04-05

    Hagfish, which lack both jaws and vertebrae, have long been the subject of intense interest owing to their position at a crucial point in the evolutionary transition to a truly vertebrate body plan. However, unlike the comparatively well characterized vertebrate agnathan lamprey, little is known about hagfish development. The inability to analyse hagfish at early embryonic stages has frustrated attempts to resolve questions with important phylogenetic implications, including fundamental ones relating to the emergence of the neural crest. Here we report the obtainment of multiple pharyngula-stage embryos of the hagfish species Eptatretus burgeri and our preliminary analyses of their early development. We present histological evidence of putative neural crest cells, which appear as delaminated cells that migrate along pathways corresponding to neural crest cells in fish and amphibians. Molecular cloning studies further revealed the expression of several regulatory genes, including cognates of Pax6, Pax3/7, SoxEa and Sox9, suggesting that the hagfish neural crest is specified by molecular mechanisms that are general to vertebrates. We propose that the neural crest emerged as a population of de-epithelialized migratory cells in a common vertebrate ancestor, and suggest that the possibility of classical and molecular embryology in hagfish opens up new approaches to clarifying the evolutionary history of vertebrates.

  15. On recent advances in human engineering Provocative trends in embryology, genetics, and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Anton, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Advances in embryology, genetics, and regenerative medicine regularly attract attention from scientists, scholars, journalists, and policymakers, yet implications of these advances may be broader than commonly supposed. Laboratories culturing human embryos, editing human genes, and creating human-animal chimeras have been working along lines that are now becoming intertwined. Embryogenic methods are weaving traditional in vivo and in vitro distinctions into a new "in vivitro" (in life in glass) fabric. These and other methods known to be in use or thought to be in development promise soon to bring society to startling choices and discomfiting predicaments, all in a global effort to supply reliably rejuvenating stem cells, to grow immunologically non-provocative replacement organs, and to prevent, treat, cure, or even someday eradicate diseases having genetic or epigenetic mechanisms. With humanity's human-engineering era now begun, procedural prohibitions, funding restrictions, institutional controls, and transparency rules are proving ineffective, and business incentives are migrating into the most basic life-sciences inquiries, wherein lie huge biomedical potentials and bioethical risks. Rights, health, and heritage are coming into play with bioethical presumptions and formal protections urgently needing reassessment.

  16. The Incredible, Embryological Egg: Calcium and Strontium Isotopes Recapitulate Ontogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, G. W.; Skulan, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Embryological development reflects evolutionary history. Understanding the processes of fetal growth is important for curing human birth defects and predicting damage to ecosystems from environmental insults. Tracing enzymatic and hormonal gradients during development, and correlating them to genetic cues dominate modern embryology. Previous work done tracing the mass transfer of elements has generally been limited to isotope spikes in vitro. Natural mass-dependent Ca and Sr isotopic ratios and radiogenic Sr isotopes have the potential to reveal both source and biochemical mechanism information about processes in vivo, but have not previously been extensively explored. The process when a hen lays a fertilized egg that becomes a chick includes formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate (bone) and calcium carbonate (shell). Skulan and DePaolo (1999) showed that chickens have 2% δ44/42Ca between a hen's bones and an egg white; this span represents more than 80% of the entire range of natural Ca isotope variation and illustrates there is significant variation to investigate. A striking feature of archosaurian development that also occurs in many mammals, including humans, is mass transfer of calcium from mother to embryo. The yolk of the domestic hen matures over 7-9 days, but the albumen, shell membranes and shell form in less than 20 hours. Domestic laying hens are at the physiological limit of egg production and selective breeding is no longer an effective method of increasing egg production. 60-75% of the shell's ~1.5 g of calcium comes from dietary sources, while 25-40% comes from the hen's medullary bone. Medullary bone is spicules formed in the marrow of long bones, and is a store of dietary calcium rapidly available for eggshell secretion. During in ovo development, the embryo's skeleton is formed from calcium in the yolk and by bulk dissolution of the eggshell's inner aspect via carbonic anhydrase in a process that has an effect on bone density similar to

  17. Exposure to high ambient temperatures alters embryology in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, M. L.; Argente, M. J.

    2017-09-01

    High ambient temperatures are a determining factor in the deterioration of embryo quality and survival in mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat stress on embryo development, embryonic size and size of the embryonic coats in rabbits. A total of 310 embryos from 33 females in thermal comfort zone and 264 embryos of 28 females in heat stress conditions were used in the experiment. The traits studied were ovulation rate, percentage of total embryos, percentage of normal embryos, embryo area, zona pellucida thickness and mucin coat thickness. Traits were measured at 24 and 48 h post-coitum (hpc); mucin coat thickness was only measured at 48 hpc. The embryos were classified as zygotes or two-cell embryos at 24 hpc, and 16-cells or early morulae at 48 hpc. The ovulation rate was one oocyte lower in heat stress conditions than in thermal comfort. Percentage of normal embryos was lower in heat stress conditions at 24 hpc (17.2%) and 48 hpc (13.2%). No differences in percentage of zygotes or two-cell embryos were found at 24 hpc. The embryo development and area was affected by heat stress at 48 hpc (10% higher percentage of 16-cells and 883 μm2 smaller, respectively). Zona pellucida was thicker under thermal stress at 24 hpc (1.2 μm) and 48 hpc (1.5 μm). No differences in mucin coat thickness were found. In conclusion, heat stress appears to alter embryology in rabbits.

  18. Exposure to high ambient temperatures alters embryology in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, M. L.; Argente, M. J.

    2017-03-01

    High ambient temperatures are a determining factor in the deterioration of embryo quality and survival in mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat stress on embryo development, embryonic size and size of the embryonic coats in rabbits. A total of 310 embryos from 33 females in thermal comfort zone and 264 embryos of 28 females in heat stress conditions were used in the experiment. The traits studied were ovulation rate, percentage of total embryos, percentage of normal embryos, embryo area, zona pellucida thickness and mucin coat thickness. Traits were measured at 24 and 48 h post-coitum (hpc); mucin coat thickness was only measured at 48 hpc. The embryos were classified as zygotes or two-cell embryos at 24 hpc, and 16-cells or early morulae at 48 hpc. The ovulation rate was one oocyte lower in heat stress conditions than in thermal comfort. Percentage of normal embryos was lower in heat stress conditions at 24 hpc (17.2%) and 48 hpc (13.2%). No differences in percentage of zygotes or two-cell embryos were found at 24 hpc. The embryo development and area was affected by heat stress at 48 hpc (10% higher percentage of 16-cells and 883 μm2 smaller, respectively). Zona pellucida was thicker under thermal stress at 24 hpc (1.2 μm) and 48 hpc (1.5 μm). No differences in mucin coat thickness were found. In conclusion, heat stress appears to alter embryology in rabbits.

  19. Exposure to high ambient temperatures alters embryology in rabbits.

    PubMed

    García, M L; Argente, M J

    2017-03-22

    High ambient temperatures are a determining factor in the deterioration of embryo quality and survival in mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat stress on embryo development, embryonic size and size of the embryonic coats in rabbits. A total of 310 embryos from 33 females in thermal comfort zone and 264 embryos of 28 females in heat stress conditions were used in the experiment. The traits studied were ovulation rate, percentage of total embryos, percentage of normal embryos, embryo area, zona pellucida thickness and mucin coat thickness. Traits were measured at 24 and 48 h post-coitum (hpc); mucin coat thickness was only measured at 48 hpc. The embryos were classified as zygotes or two-cell embryos at 24 hpc, and 16-cells or early morulae at 48 hpc. The ovulation rate was one oocyte lower in heat stress conditions than in thermal comfort. Percentage of normal embryos was lower in heat stress conditions at 24 hpc (17.2%) and 48 hpc (13.2%). No differences in percentage of zygotes or two-cell embryos were found at 24 hpc. The embryo development and area was affected by heat stress at 48 hpc (10% higher percentage of 16-cells and 883 μm(2) smaller, respectively). Zona pellucida was thicker under thermal stress at 24 hpc (1.2 μm) and 48 hpc (1.5 μm). No differences in mucin coat thickness were found. In conclusion, heat stress appears to alter embryology in rabbits.

  20. Embryology and histology education in North American dental schools: the Basic Science Survey Series.

    PubMed

    Burk, Dorothy T; Lee, Lisa M J; Lambert, H Wayne

    2013-06-01

    As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Anatomical Sciences Section surveyed faculty members teaching embryology and histology courses at North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, curriculum content, utilization of laboratories, use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and recent curricular changes. Responses were received from fifty-nine (88.1 percent) of the sixty-seven U.S. and Canadian dental schools. Findings suggest the following: 1) a trend toward combining courses is evident, though the integration was predominantly discipline-based; 2) embryology is rarely taught as a stand-alone course, as content is often covered in gross anatomy, oral histology, and/or in an integrated curriculum; 3) the number of contact hours in histology is decreasing; 4) a trend toward reduction in formal laboratory sessions, particularly in embryology, is ongoing; and 5) use of CAI tools, including virtual microscopy, in both embryology and histology has increased. Additionally, embryology and histology content topic emphasis is identified within this study. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to new instructors, curriculum and test construction committees, and colleagues in the anatomical sciences, especially when determining a foundational knowledge base.

  1. Fabricating a face: the essence of embryology in the dental curriculum.

    PubMed

    Sperber, G H

    2003-03-01

    The current explosive growth in developmental biology, fuelled by the almost completed sequencing of the human genome, is bound to have a profound impact upon the practice of medicine and dentistry in the twenty-first century. No other discipline more accurately reflects this impact than embryology, which combines the basic and clinical sciences of genetics, ontogeny, phylogeny, teratology, and syndromology into the essence of modern medical and dental practice. The advent of in vitro fertilization, chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis, prenatal ultrasonography, intrauterine surgery, and stem cell therapy has vaulted the previously esoteric subject of embryology into clinical consciousness. All these aforementioned procedures require an intimate knowledge of the different stages of development. The alphabet soup of acronyms that now peppers papers proclaiming the genetics and characteristics of various growth factors and cytokines (e.g., FGF, TGFalpha) are all based upon an understanding of the developmental mechanisms occurring in the embryo and subsequently in wound healing and oncology. Congenital abnormalities ranging from lethal syndromes to dental malocclusions cannot be diagnosed, treated, cured, or prognosticated upon without a sound conceptualization of embryology. Computer technology has revolutionized the understanding and teaching of embryology by portraying developmental phenomena as three-dimensional model images in sequential depictions of changes proceeding in the fourth dimension of time. Embryology must now form the essential core of the basic sciences in medical and dental curricula. Future dental practice will become rooted in the genetics and morphogenesis of facial fabrication.

  2. Embryological Features of Tofieldia glutinosa and Their Bearing on the Early Diversification of Monocotyledonous Plants

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Samuel J.; Friedman, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Although much is known about the vegetative traits associated with early monocot evolution, less is known about the reproductive features of early monocotyledonous lineages. A study was made of the embryology of Tofieldia glutinosa, a member of an early divergent monocot clade (Tofieldiaceae), and aspects of its development were compared with the development of other early divergent monocots in order to gain insight into defining reproductive features of early monocots. Methods Field-collected developing gynoecial tissues of Tofieldia glutinosa were prepared for histological examination. Over 600 ovules were sectioned and studied using brightfield, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. High-resolution digital imaging was used to document important stages of megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis and early endosperm development. Key Results Development of the female gametophyte in T. glutinosa is of a modified Polygonum-type. At maturity the female gametophyte is seven-celled and 11-nucleate with a standard three-celled egg apparatus, a binucleate central cell (where ultimately, the two polar nuclei will fuse into a diploid secondary nucleus) and three binucleate antipodal cells. The antipodal nuclei persist past fertilization, and the process of double fertilization appears to yield a diploid zygote and triploid primary endosperm cell, as is characteristic of plants with Polygonum-type female gametophytes. Endosperm development is helobial, and free-nuclear growth initially proceeds at equal rates in both the micropylar and chalazal endosperm chambers. Conclusions The analysis suggests that the shared common ancestor of monocots possessed persistent and proliferating antipodals similar to those found in T. glutinosa and other early-divergent monocots (e.g. Acorus and members of the Araceae). Helobial endosperm among monocots evolved once in the common ancestor of all monocots excluding Acorus. Thus, the analysis further

  3. Control of development of the oral apparatus of Paramecium during sexual reproduction: an embryological perspective.

    PubMed

    Ng, S F; Fujishima, M

    1989-08-01

    This study shows that development of the new soma during sexual reproduction in ciliates can be conceptualized on the same basis as embryogenesis in multicellular organisms. In conjugating Paramecium, development of a new oral apparatus takes place during fertilization and the first three divisions of the zygotic nucleus and completes well before the postsexual cell undergoes the first cell fission. The control of oral development is analyzed by microsurgical removal of the zygotic nucleus or the postzygotic nuclei from conjugants. The enucleated exconjugants can pass through an early hurdle in oral development (the initiation of oral membranelle assembly) and subsequently develop an oral apparatus. Such oral apparatuses nevertheless exhibit structural and functional abnormalities including fragmentation and misalignment of oral membranelles, absence of the postoral microtubular bundle, reduction in the length of buccal cavity, and impaired phagocytosis. Other stomatogenic aspects, such as the arrangement of basal bodies in the oral membranelles, remain unaffected. The two groups of exconjugants, one derived from cells enucleated at the zygotic stage, and the other at the postzygotic stage, exhibit the same types of oral abnormality. We conclude that (i) the zygotic nucleus is not essential for the initiation of oral membranelle assembly. The existence of zygotic signals for subsequent oral development is not ruled out, but these are insufficient. (ii) Postzygotic nuclei, as well as maternal nuclei (the old somatic nucleus and meiotic derivatives of the germ nucleus), control oral development. This reveals a parallelism between postsexual development in ciliates and the early embryology of multicellular organisms, in their reliance on information provided by maternal, as well as early postzygotic nuclei. (iii) The activity of the old somatic nucleus alone is not sufficient for the later stages of oral development. Probably, some stomatogenic functions of the old

  4. The mandible and its foramen: anatomy, anthropology, embryology and resulting clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Lipski, M; Tomaszewska, I M; Lipska, W; Lis, G J; Tomaszewski, K A

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarise the knowledge about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen and also to highlight the most important clinical implications of the current studies regarding anaesthesia performed in the region of the mandible. An electronic journal search was undertaken to identify all the relevant studies published in English. The search included MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and years from 1950 to 2012. The subject search used a combination of controlled vocabulary and free text based on the search strategy for MEDLINE using key words: 'mandible', 'mandibular', 'foramen', 'anatomy', 'embryology', 'anthropology', and 'mental'. The reference lists of all the relevant studies and existing reviews were screened for additional relevant publications. Basing on relevant manuscripts, this short review about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen was written.

  5. Unusual association of congenital middle ear cholesteatoma and first branchial cleft anomaly: management and embryological concepts.

    PubMed

    Nicollas, R; Tardivet, L; Bourlière-Najean, B; Sudre-Levillain, I; Triglia, J M

    2005-02-01

    To report two cases of an undescribed association of first branchial cleft fistula and middle ear congenital cholesteatoma and to discuss management and embryological hypothesis. Retrospective study and review of the literature Both patients were young girls free of past medical or surgical history. Surgical removal of the first cleft anomaly found in the two cases a fistula routing underneath the facial nerve. Both cholesteatomas were located in the hypotympanum, mesotympanum. In one case, an anatomical link between the two malformations was clearly identified with CT scan. The main embryological theories and classification are reviewed. A connection between Aimi's and Michaels' theories (congenital cholesteatoma) and Work classification might explain the reported clinical association.

  6. Contemporary issues in the regulation of artificial reproduction and embryology in the UK.

    PubMed

    Garwood-Gowers, Austen

    2004-01-01

    The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 was one of the most comprehensive and flexible vehicles for regulation of artificial reproduction and embryology of its area. However, its serviceability has recently been brought into question by both the materialisation of unforeseen dilemmas and the response of legal actors to these dilemma's which has often been ethically and democratically deficient. Nowhere is this better demonstrated than in the reproach of the regulatory authority and judiciary to the use pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and cloning by cell nuclear replacement.

  7. A Retrospective Look at Replacing Face-to-Face Embryology Instruction with Online Lectures in a Human Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Elmus G.; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Lee, Vaughan H.

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology…

  8. A Retrospective Look at Replacing Face-to-Face Embryology Instruction with Online Lectures in a Human Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Elmus G.; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Lee, Vaughan H.

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology…

  9. Comparative embryology without a microscope: using genomic approaches to understand the evolution of development

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, David A; Wray, Gregory A

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, understanding developmental conservation and change has relied on embryological comparisons and analyses of single genes. Several studies, including one recently published in BMC Biology, have now taken a genomic approach to this classical problem, providing insights into how selection operates differentially across the life cycle. PMID:19664180

  10. Sudden infant death syndrome: case-control frequency differences at genes pertinent to early autonomic nervous system embryologic development.

    PubMed

    Weese-Mayer, Debra E; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M; Zhou, Lili; Maher, Brion S; Curran, Mark E; Silvestri, Jean M; Marazita, Mary L

    2004-09-01

    We have previously identified polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene promoter region and in intron 2 that were more common among sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases compared with control subjects. To elucidate further the genetic profile that might increase an infant's vulnerability to SIDS, we focused on the recognized relationship between autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation and SIDS. We therefore studied genes pertinent to early embryologic development of the ANS, including MASH1, BMP2, PHOX2a, PHOX2b, RET, ECE1, EDN1, TLX3, and EN1 in 92 probands with SIDS and 92 gender- and ethnicity-matched control subjects. Eleven protein-changing rare mutations were identified in 14 of 92 SIDS cases among the PHOX2a, RET, ECE1, TLX3, and EN1 genes. Only 1 of these mutations (TLX3) was identified in 2 of 92 control subjects. Black infants accounted for 10 of these mutations in SIDS cases and 2 control subjects. Four protein-changing common polymorphisms were identified in BMP2, RET, ECE1, and EDN1, but the allele frequency did not differ between SIDS cases and control subjects. However, among SIDS cases, the allele frequency for the BMP2 common polymorphism demonstrated ethnic differences; among control subjects, the allele frequency for the BMP2 and the ECE1 common polymorphisms also demonstrated ethnic differences. These data represent further refinement of the genetic profile that might place an infant at risk for SIDS.

  11. Congenital basis of posterior fossa anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Cotes, Claudia; Bonfante, Eliana; Lazor, Jillian; Jadhav, Siddharth; Caldas, Maria; Swischuk, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    The classification of posterior fossa congenital anomalies has been a controversial topic. Advances in genetics and imaging have allowed a better understanding of the embryologic development of these abnormalities. A new classification schema correlates the embryologic, morphologic, and genetic bases of these anomalies in order to better distinguish and describe them. Although they provide a better understanding of the clinical aspects and genetics of these disorders, it is crucial for the radiologist to be able to diagnose the congenital posterior fossa anomalies based on their morphology, since neuroimaging is usually the initial step when these disorders are suspected. We divide the most common posterior fossa congenital anomalies into two groups: 1) hindbrain malformations, including diseases with cerebellar or vermian agenesis, aplasia or hypoplasia and cystic posterior fossa anomalies; and 2) cranial vault malformations. In addition, we will review the embryologic development of the posterior fossa and, from the perspective of embryonic development, will describe the imaging appearance of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. Knowledge of the developmental bases of these malformations facilitates detection of the morphological changes identified on imaging, allowing accurate differentiation and diagnosis of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. PMID:26246090

  12. Harmonic Vibrational Frequencies: Approximate Global Scaling Factors for TPSS, M06, and M11 Functional Families Using Several Common Basis Sets.

    PubMed

    Kashinski, D O; Chase, G M; Nelson, R G; Di Nallo, O E; Scales, A N; VanderLey, D L; Byrd, E F C

    2017-03-23

    We propose new approximate global multiplicative scaling factors for the DFT calculation of ground state harmonic vibrational frequencies using functionals from the TPSS, M06, and M11 functional families with standard correlation consistent cc-pVxZ and aug-cc-pVxZ (x = D, T, and Q), 6-311G split valence family, Sadlej and Sapporo polarized triple-ζ basis sets. Results for B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, B3PW91, PBE, and PBE0 functionals with these basis sets are also reported. A total of 99 harmonic frequencies were calculated for 26 gas-phase organic and nonorganic molecules typically found in detonated solid propellant residue. Our proposed approximate multiplicative scaling factors are determined using a least-squares approach comparing the computed harmonic frequencies to experimental counterparts well established in the scientific literature. A comparison of our work to previously published global scaling factors is made to verify method reliability and the applicability of our molecular test set.

  13. Computational Embryology and Predictive Toxicology of Hypospadias (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypospadias, one of the most common birth defects in human male infants, is a condition in which the urethral opening is misplaced along ventral aspect of the penis. We developed an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework and computer simulation that describes the pathogenesis of...

  14. Computational Embryology and Predictive Toxicology of Hypospadias (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypospadias, one of the most common birth defects in human male infants, is a condition in which the urethral opening is misplaced along ventral aspect of the penis. We developed an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework and computer simulation that describes the pathogenesis of...

  15. A common core microbiota between obese individuals and their lean relatives? Evaluation of the predisposition to obesity on the basis of the fecal microflora profile.

    PubMed

    Elli, M; Colombo, O; Tagliabue, A

    2010-10-01

    Obesity represents a crucial social problem in developed countries as a cause of multiple metabolic abnormalities. The exact etiology of this multifactorial disease is still unknown. The impact of dietary habits and lifestyle is currently under investigation but the role of other predisposing factors, such as genetic determinants and familial history, needs still to be elucidated. Significant alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota have been recently identified in obese mice, suggesting an involvement of gut microbes in obesity. In humans, obese subjects are supposed to have a more efficient flora in energy extraction from food, due to the detection of quantitative differences in the major bacterial groups in obese subjects compared to lean ones. Despite these observations, the homologies in gut microbiota between obese adults and their lean relatives have never been investigated in details. Few reports about the detection of common microbial profiles between members of the same family have been published in the past but only one recent scientific article, investigating the presence of a common core microbiota between obese and lean twins, correlates genetic background and gut microflora as significant variables in obesity. The hypothesis suggested herein is that the identification of a familial-specific core microbiota could be precious in order to identify key-bacterial groups to be used as biomarkers for the evaluation of predisposition to obesity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Review of the Relevant Embryology, Pathohistology, and Anatomy of the Left Atrial Appendage for the Invasive Cardiac Electrophysiologist

    PubMed Central

    DeSimone, Christopher V.; Gaba, Prakriti; Tri, Jason; Syed, Faisal; Noheria, Amit; Asirvatham, Samuel J.

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of the left atrial appendage provides the substrate for thrombus generation, and is a harbinger for embolic material due to its direct connection to the left-sided circulation. Appreciating the development of the appendage from mesodermal layer to its adult form provides the basis to improve exclusion from the atrial circulation, and thereby can lead to a significant reduction in stroke risk. This process also provides insight into the role of the left atrial appendage as an endocrine organ, its involvement in fluid homeostasis, and its connection to the autonomic nervous system. Knowledge of the surrounding structural arrangement is critical to identify landmarks from both an endocardial and epicardial perspective to improve targeted device placement. Furthermore, correlation of the left atrial appendage body, neck, and ostium to the surrounding anatomy can also improve both procedural efficacy and safety. In addition, a working knowledge of the regional anatomy adds a prudent degree of awareness for procedural complications, and allows for early identification and timely intervention as these situations arise. A detailed understanding of the left atrial appendage embryology, histology, and gross anatomy is imperative to identify the correct device and approach for each individual patient. In addition, this increased awareness can identify areas that are in need of further innovation, and thus provide the ability to adapt and refine existing technologies to overcome pitfalls currently facing catheter-based approaches. PMID:27087889

  17. Analysis of Extracellular Nucleotide Metabolism in Adult Zebrafish After Embryological Exposure to Valproic Acid.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Fernanda Francine; Gaspary, Karina Vidarte; Siebel, Anna Maria; Leite, Carlos Eduardo; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2016-05-17

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms related to stereotyped movements, deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, anxiety, hyperactivity, and the presence of restricted interests. Evidence indicates an important role of extracellular ATP and adenosine as signaling molecules in autism. ATP hydrolysis by ectonucleotidases is an important source of adenosine, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) contributes to the control of the nucleoside concentrations. Considering zebrafish is an animal model that may contribute towards to understanding the mechanisms that underlie social behavior, we investigated the purinergic signaling in a model of embryological exposure to valproic acid (VPA) that induces social interaction deficit in adult zebrafish. We demonstrated embryological exposure to VPA did not change ATP and ADP hydrolysis in zebrafish at 120 dpf, and the cytosolic (soluble) ADA activity was not altered. However, we observed an increase of AMP hydrolysis (12.5 %) whereas the ecto-ADA activity was decreased (19.2 %) in adult zebrafish submitted to embryological exposure to VPA. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis showed changes on ntpd8, ADA 2.1, and A2a1 mRNA transcript levels. Brain ATP metabolism showed a rapid catabolism of ATP and ADP, whereas the extracellular metabolism of AMP and adenosine (ADO) occurred slowly. We demonstrated that embryological exposure to VPA altered biochemical and molecular parameters related to purinergic system in adult zebrafish. These findings indicate that the enzyme activities involved in the control of ATP and adenosine levels may be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases related to the impairment of social interaction, such as autism.

  18. [Activities and responsibilities of workers in embryologic and andrologic laboratories in assisted reproduction centers].

    PubMed

    Záková, J; Trávník, P; Malenovská, A; Hűttelová, R

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the current status and rules for the laboratory staff activities and their competences in the centers of assisted reproduction. The rules were processed by the members of the Association of Reproductive Embryology (ARE) committee under the current legislation. Committee members of the Czech Sterility and Assisted Reproduction Society and Czech Gynecology and Obstetric Society approved these rules as obligatory for assisted reproduction centres in Czech Republic.

  19. Duplication of the superficial femoral artery: comprehensive review of imaging literature and insight into embryology

    PubMed Central

    Hapugoda, Sachintha; Kwan, Gigi Nga Chi; Watkins, Trevor William; Rophael, John A

    2016-01-01

    An extremely rare case of duplicated superficial femoral artery (SFA) was incidentally observed on computed tomography angiogram (CTA) of the lower limbs for presurgical planning for an osteomyocutaneous fibula flap in a patient with T4a oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case in the imaging literature. We performed a comprehensive review of the English literature and discuss the underlying embryological origin underpinning this rare anatomical variant. PMID:27504194

  20. Toxicity Ranking and Toxic Mode of Action Evaluation of Commonly Used Agricultural Adjuvants on the Basis of Bacterial Gene Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Nobels, Ingrid; Spanoghe, Pieter; Haesaert, Geert; Robbens, Johan; Blust, Ronny

    2011-01-01

    The omnipresent group of pesticide adjuvants are often referred to as “inert” ingredients, a rather misleading term since consumers associate this term with “safe”. The upcoming new EU regulation concerning the introduction of plant protection products on the market (EC1107/2009) includes for the first time the demand for information on the possible negative effects of not only the active ingredients but also the used adjuvants. This new regulation requires basic toxicological information that allows decisions on the use/ban or preference of use of available adjuvants. In this study we obtained toxicological relevant information through a multiple endpoint reporter assay for a broad selection of commonly used adjuvants including several solvents (e.g. isophorone) and non-ionic surfactants (e.g. ethoxylated alcohols). The used assay allows the toxicity screening in a mechanistic way, with direct measurement of specific toxicological responses (e.g. oxidative stress, DNA damage, membrane damage and general cell lesions). The results show that the selected solvents are less toxic than the surfactants, suggesting that solvents may have a preference of use, but further research on more compounds is needed to confirm this observation. The gene expression profiles of the selected surfactants reveal that a phenol (ethoxylated tristyrylphenol) and an organosilicone surfactant (ethoxylated trisiloxane) show little or no inductions at EC20 concentrations, making them preferred surfactants for use in different applications. The organosilicone surfactant shows little or no toxicity and good adjuvant properties. However, this study also illustrates possible genotoxicity (induction of the bacterial SOS response) for several surfactants (POEA, AE, tri-EO, EO FA and EO NP) and one solvent (gamma-butyrolactone). Although the number of compounds that were evaluated is rather limited (13), the results show that the used reporter assay is a promising tool to rank commonly used

  1. Cranial dural arteriovenous shunts. Part 1. Anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins.

    PubMed

    Baltsavias, Gerasimos; Parthasarathi, Venkatraman; Aydin, Emre; Al Schameri, Rahman A; Roth, Peter; Valavanis, Anton

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins aiming to elucidate aspects related to the cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae. Data from relevant articles on the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins were identified using one electronic database, supplemented by data from selected reference texts. Persisting fetal pial-arachnoidal veins correspond to the adult bridging veins. Relevant embryologic descriptions are based on the classic scheme of five divisions of the brain (telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon). Variation in their exact position and the number of bridging veins is the rule and certain locations, particularly that of the anterior cranial fossa and lower posterior cranial fossa are often neglected in prior descriptions. The distal segment of a bridging vein is part of the dural system and can be primarily involved in cranial dural arteriovenous lesions by constituting the actual site of the shunt. The veins in the lamina cribriformis exhibit a bridging-emissary vein pattern similar to the spinal configuration. The emissary veins connect the dural venous system with the extracranial venous system and are often involved in dural arteriovenous lesions. Cranial dural shunts may develop in three distinct areas of the cranial venous system: the dural sinuses and their interfaces with bridging veins and emissary veins. The exact site of the lesion may dictate the arterial feeders and original venous drainage pattern.

  2. Evidence for a common biological basis of the Absorption trait, hallucinogen effects, and positive symptoms: epistasis between 5-HT2a and COMT polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Ott, Ulrich; Reuter, Martin; Hennig, Juergen; Vaitl, Dieter

    2005-08-05

    Absorption represents a disposition to experience altered states of consciousness characterized by intensively focused attention. It is correlated with hypnotic susceptibility and includes phenomena ranging from vivid perceptions and imaginations to mystical experiences. Based on the assumption that drug-induced and naturally occurring mystical experiences share common neural mechanisms, we hypothesized that Absorption is influenced by the T102C polymorphism affecting the 5-HT2a receptor, which is known to be an important target site of hallucinogens like LSD. Based on the pivotal role ascribed to the prefrontal executive control network for absorbed attention and positive symptoms in schizophrenia, it was further hypothesized that Absorption is associated with the VAL158MET polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affecting the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system. The Tellegen Absorption Scale was administered to 336 subjects (95 male, 241 female). Statistical analysis revealed that the group with the T/T genotype of the T102C polymorphism, implying a stronger binding potential of the 5-HT2a receptor, indeed had significantly higher Absorption scores (F = 10.00, P = 0.002), while no main effect was found for the COMT polymorphism. However, the interaction between T102C and COMT genotypes yielded significance (F = 3.89; P = 0.049), underlining the known functional interaction between the 5-HT and the dopaminergic system. These findings point to biological foundations of the personality trait of Absorption.

  3. Planarian embryology in the era of comparative developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Martín-Durán, José M; Monjo, Francisco; Romero, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade, the field of evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) has emerged as a major research discipline in modern biology and an essential approach to understanding evolutionary relationships in the animal kingdom. At the same time, planarians have become a useful and important model with which to address basic questions regarding the molecular and cellular basis of regeneration, tissue repair and stem cells in adult organisms. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to their embryonic development, even though this provides a unique opportunity for studying how molecular developmental mechanisms are re-deployed during adult regeneration or the independent losses of spiral cleavage that took place in different lophotrochozoan lineages. In this paper, we review the most relevant works on planarian embryos from a historical point of view. In doing so, we highlight the questions that have recurrently intrigued researchers, most of which remain unanswered. Finally, we present a comprehensive scenario for planarian embryogenesis in an attempt to provide a testable hypothesis that will help to bridge the gap between this divergent mode of development, the ancestral canonical spiral cleavage, and adult planarian regeneration.

  4. Fetus in Fetu: Case Report and Brief Review of Literature on Embryologic Origin, Clinical Presentation, Imaging and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sitharama, Suhas Aithal; Jindal, Bibekanand; Vuriti, Mrudula Kumari; Naredi, Bikash Kumar; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Subramania, Deepak Barathi

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Fetus in fetu (FIF) is a rare entity in which a malformed diamniotic monochorionic parasitic fetal twin develops inside a normal co-twin’s body, most commonly in the abdominal cavity. FIF is differentiated from the teratoma by the presence of vertebral column often with an appropriate arrangement of other organs or limbs around it. Case Report A two-and-a-half-year-old girl presented with a painless abdominal swelling in the right hypochondrium. On imaging, a heterogenous soft tissue mass with internal calcific densities was noted in the retroperitoneum. The mass had vertebral organization, limb and pelvic bones. The presence of a fetiform teratoma was suspected and surgery revealed an encapsulated mass with an anencephalic head, spine, upper and lower limb buds. Histopathology confirmed the presence of a fetus in fetu. The postoperative period was uneventful with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusions FIF is a pediatric rarity. Cross-sectional imaging helps in differentiating it from a teratoma, meconium peritonitis and abdominal ectopic pregnancy. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for this benign condition, which requires a follow-up only in certain cases. This case report describes a retroperitoneal fetus in fetu and discusses its clinical presentation, differential diagnosis and embryologic origin. PMID:28217238

  5. Superficial brachioradial artery (radial artery originating from the axillary artery): a case-report and its embryological background.

    PubMed

    Konarik, M; Knize, J; Baca, V; Kachlik, D

    2009-08-01

    A case of anomalous terminal branching of the axillary artery, concerning the variant called superficial brachioradial artery (arteria brachioradialis superficialis) was described, with special regard to its embryological origin. The left upper limb of a male cadaver was dissected in successive steps from the axillary fossa distally to the palmar region. A variant artery, stemming from the end of the third segment of the axillary artery, followed a superficial course distally. It skipped the cubital fossa, ran on the lateral side of the forearm, crossed ventrally to the palm, and terminated in the deep palmar arch. This vessel is a case of so-called "brachioradial artery" (inexactly called a "radial artery with a high origin"). The origin of the brachioradial artery directly from the axillary artery belongs to the rare variants of the arterial pattern of the upper limb. Its incidence is approximately 3%. Moreover, this vascular variant was associated with another one concerning the brachial plexus. The medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm joined the median nerve in the middle third of the arm and ran further distally as a common trunk, as the normal median nerve does. Anatomical knowledge of the axillary region is crucial for radiodiagnostic and surgical procedures, especially in cases of trauma. The superficially located artery brings an elevated risk of bleeding complications in unexpected situations.

  6. Embryology of a planktonic tunicate reveals traces of sessility.

    PubMed

    Stach, Thomas; Winter, Jonas; Bouquet, Jean-Marie; Chourrout, Daniel; Schnabel, Ralf

    2008-05-20

    A key problem in understanding deuterostome evolution has been the origin of the chordate body plan. A biphasic life cycle with a sessile adult and a free-swimming larva is traditionally considered ancestral in chordates with subsequent neotenic loss of the sessile adult stage. Molecular phylogenies challenged this view, suggesting that the primitive life cycle in chordates was entirely free-living as in modern day larvaceans. Here, we report the precise cell lineage and fate map in the normal embryo of the larvacean Oikopleura dioica, using 4D microscopy technique and transmission electron microscopy. We document the extraordinary rapidity of cleavage and morphogenetic events until hatching and demonstrate that--compared with ascidians--fate restriction occurs considerably earlier in O. dioica and that clonal organization of the cell lineage is more tightly coupled to tissue fate. We show that epidermal cells in the trunk migrate through 90 degrees, reminiscent of events in ascidian metamorphosis and that the axis of bilateral symmetry in the tail rotates in relation to the trunk. We argue that part of the tail muscle cells are ectomesodermal, because they are more closely associated with prospective epidermis than with other tissues in the cell lineage. Cladistic comparison with other deuterostomes suggests that these traits are derived within tunicates strengthening the hypothesis that the last common ancestor of tunicates had a sessile adult and thus support traditional morphology-derived scenarios. Our results allow hypothesizing that molecular developmental mechanisms known from ascidian models are restricted to fewer, yet identifiable, cells in O. dioica.

  7. A retrospective look at replacing face-to-face embryology instruction with online lectures in a human anatomy course.

    PubMed

    Beale, Elmus G; Tarwater, Patrick M; Lee, Vaughan H

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology instruction model with four face-to-face classes that supplemented online recorded lectures was used. One instructor delivered the lectures face-to-face in 2007 and by online videos in 2008-2009, while a second instructor provided the supplemental face-to-face classes in 2008-2009. The same embryology learning objectives and selected examination questions were used for each of the three years. This allowed direct comparison of learning outcomes, as measured by examination performance, for students receiving only face-to-face embryology instruction versus the hybrid approach. Comparison of the face-to-face lectures to the hybrid approach showed no difference in overall class performance on embryology questions that were used all three years. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the delivery method on the examination scores for bottom quartile students. Students completed an end-of-course survey to assess their opinions. They rated the two forms of delivery similarly on a six-point Likert scale and reported that face-to-face lectures have the advantage of allowing them to interact with the instructor, whereas online lectures could be paused, replayed, and viewed at any time. These experiences suggest the need for well-designed prospective studies to determine whether online lectures can be used to enhance the efficacy of embryology instruction.

  8. The perceptual basis of common photographic practice

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Emily A.; Piazza, Elise A.; Banks, Martin S.

    2012-01-01

    Photographers, cinematographers, and computer-graphics engineers use certain techniques to create striking pictorial effects. By using lenses of different focal lengths, they can make a scene look compressed or expanded in depth, make a familiar object look natural or distorted, or make a person look smarter, more attractive, or more neurotic. We asked why pictures taken with a certain focal length look natural, while those taken with other focal lengths look distorted. We found that people's preferred viewing distance when looking at pictures leads them to view long-focal-length pictures from too near and short-focal-length pictures from too far. Perceptual distortions occur because people do not take their incorrect viewing distances into account. By following the rule of thumb of using a 50-mm lens, photographers greatly increase the odds of a viewer looking at a photograph from the correct distance, where the percept will be undistorted. Our theory leads to new guidelines for creating pictorial effects that are more effective than conventional guidelines. PMID:22637709

  9. A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Developmental biology is today unimaginable without the normal stages that define standard divisions of development. This history of normal stages, and the related normal plates and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist Franz Keibel (16 volumes, 1897-1938). These were a major response to problems in the relations between ontogeny and phylogeny that amounted in practical terms to a crisis in staging embryos, not just between, but (for some) also within species. Keibel's design adapted a plate by Wilhelm His and tables by Albert Oppel in order to go beyond the already controversial comparative plates of the Darwinist propagandist Ernst Haeckel. The project responded to local pressures, including intense concern with individual variation, but recruited internationally and mapped an embryological empire. Though theoretically inconclusive, the plates became standard laboratory tools and forged a network within which the Institut International d'Embryologie (today the International Society of Developmental Biologists) was founded in 1911. After World War I, experimentalists, led by Ross Harrison and Viktor Hamburger, and human embryologists, especially George Streeter at the Carnegie Department of Embryology, transformed Keibel's complex, bulky tomes to suit their own contrasting demands. In developmental biology after World War II, normal stages-reduced to a few journal pages-helped domesticate model organisms. Staging systems had emerged from discussions that questioned the very possibility of assigning an embryo to a stage. The historical issues resonate today as developmental biologists work to improve and extend stage series, to make results from different laboratories easier to compare and to take individual variation into account.

  10. A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology

    PubMed Central

    HOPWOOD, NICK

    2006-01-01

    Developmental biology is today unimaginable without the normal stages that define standard divisions of development. This history of normal stages, and the related normal plates and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist Franz Keibel (16 volumes, 1897–1938). These were a major response to problems in the relations between ontogeny and phylogeny that amounted in practical terms to a crisis in staging embryos, not just between, but (for some) also within species. Keibel’s design adapted a plate by Wilhelm His and tables by Albert Oppel in order to go beyond the already controversial comparative plates of the Darwinist propagandist Ernst Haeckel. The project responded to local pressures, including intense concern with individual variation, but recruited internationally and mapped an embryological empire. Though theoretically inconclusive, the plates became standard laboratory tools and forged a network within which the Institut International d’Embryologie (today the International Society of Developmental Biologists) was founded in 1911. After World War I, experimentalists, led by Ross Harrison and Viktor Hamburger, and human embryologists, especially George Streeter at the Carnegie Department of Embryology, transformed Keibel’s complex, bulky tomes to suit their own contrasting demands. In developmental biology after World War II, normal stages—reduced to a few journal pages—helped domesticate model organisms. Staging systems had emerged from discussions that questioned the very possibility of assigning an embryo to a stage. The historical issues resonate today as developmental biologists work to improve and extend stage series, to make results from different laboratories easier to compare and to take individual variation into account. PMID:17183461

  11. Duplication of the inferior vena cava: anatomy, embryology and classification proposal.

    PubMed

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Apostolidis, Stylianos; Noussios, George; Papathanasiou, Efthymia; Kyriazidou, Aggela; Vyzas, Vasilios

    2010-03-01

    A case of a duplicated inferior vena cava (IVC) along with other anatomical vessel variations in a 72-year-old male cadaver is presented. The anomalous vessels involved, besides the IVC, were the left testicular vein and artery, the left suprarenal artery and a superior accessory left renal artery. Based on the gross appearance of the preaortic anastomotic trunk between the left and right IVC as well as on the underlying embryological features, a classification is proposed: incomplete bilateral duplication of the IVC and complete bilateral duplication of the IVC. The latter can be further divided into three types: major, minor and asymmetric.

  12. The European embryonic stem-cell debate and the difficulties of embryological Kantianism.

    PubMed

    Mauron, Alexandre; Baertschi, Bernard

    2004-10-01

    As elsewhere, the ethical debate on embryonic stem cell research in Central Europe, especially Germany and Switzerland, involves controversy over the status of the human embryo. There is a distinctive Kantian flavor to the standard arguments however, and we show how they often embody a set of misunderstandings and argumentative shortcuts we term"embryological Kantianism."We also undertake a broader analysis of three arguments typically presented in this debate, especially in official position papers, namely the identity, continuity, and potentiality arguments. It turns out that these arguments do not support the strong, quasi-personal status accorded to the embryos in these official opinions.

  13. The anatomic basis of parathyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, C

    1976-03-01

    A study of 645 normal adult parathyroid glands in 160 cadavers revealed that there is a definite pattern of anatomic distribution on the basis of the embryologic development of the parathyroid, thyroid, and thymic glands. The sites of predilection of the upper gland (Parathyroid IV) are, in order of frequency, the cricothyroid junction; the dorsum of the upper pole of the thyroid; and the retropharyngeal space. Those of the lower gland (Parathyroid III) are at the lower pole of the thyroid and the thymic tongue; rarely in the upper, the lateral neck, or the mediastinum. An understanding of the developmental relationship of the parathyroid glands to the thyroid and the thymus is fundamental in the delineation of the embryologic origin of the parathyroid glands. The parathyroid gland, located within the surgical capsule of the thyroid (subcapsular), when diseased, remains in place locally. A gland outside of the capsule (extracapsular) is often displaced into the posterior or anterior mediastinum. A collective assessment of the size, weight, color, shape, and consistency of the parathyroid gland is mandatory in the determination of its normalcy. Frozen section examination for stromal and intracellular fatty content is an added assurance of normalcy. That parathyroid glands sink in saline solution, and fat globules float, may aid in differentiating the two types of tissue. Supernumerary, fused, and intrathyroidal parathyroids, albeit rare, are of surgical importance.

  14. The anatomic basis of parathyroid surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C

    1976-01-01

    A study of 645 normal adult parathyroid glands in 160 cadavers revealed that there is a definite pattern of anatomic distribution on the basis of the embryologic development of the parathyroid, thyroid, and thymic glands. The sites of predilection of the upper gland (Parathyroid IV) are, in order of frequency, the cricothyroid junction; the dorsum of the upper pole of the thyroid; and the retropharyngeal space.Those of the lower gland (Parathyroid III) are at the lower pole of the thyroid and the thymic tongue; rarely in the upper, the lateral neck, or the mediastinum. An understanding of the developmental relationship of the parathyroid glands to the thyroid and the thymus is fundamental in the delineation of the embryologic origin of the parathyroid glands. The parathyroid gland, located within the surgical capsule of the thyroid (subcapsular), when diseased, remains in place locally. A gland outside of the capsule (extracapsular) is often displaced into the posterior or anterior mediastinum. A collective assessment of the size, weight, color, shape, and consistency of the parathyroid gland is mandatory in the determination of its normalcy. Frozen section examination for stromal and intracellular fatty content is an added assurance of normalcy. That parathyroid glands sink in saline solution, and fat globules float, may aid in differentiating the two types of tissue. Supernumerary, fused, and intrathyroidal parathyroids, albeit rare, are of surgical importance. PMID:1259483

  15. Embryological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.

    1989-01-01

    To integrate a research/discovery component into one course, an experiment using the sea urchin embryo system is introduced because the teacher manages only one organism and students provide the variables. The materials, handling methods, and experimental methods of the experiment are described. (YP)

  16. Embryological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.

    1989-01-01

    To integrate a research/discovery component into one course, an experiment using the sea urchin embryo system is introduced because the teacher manages only one organism and students provide the variables. The materials, handling methods, and experimental methods of the experiment are described. (YP)

  17. Reptile embryology.

    PubMed

    Vickaryous, Matthew K; McLean, Katherine E

    2011-01-01

    Reptiles (lizards, snakes, turtles and crocodylians) are becoming increasing popular as models for developmental investigations. In this review the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, is presented as a reptilian model for embryonic studies. We provide details of husbandry, breeding and modifications to two popular histological techniques (whole-mount histochemistry and immunohistochemistry). In addition, we provide a summary of basic reptilian husbandry requirements and discuss important details of embryonic nutrition, egg anatomy and sex determination.

  18. Embryology and anatomy of the vulva: the female orgasm and women's sexual health.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Sexual health is vital to overall well-being. Orgasm is a normal psycho-physiological function of human beings and every woman has the right to feel sexual pleasure. The anatomy of the vulva and of the female erectile organs (trigger of orgasm) is described in human anatomy textbooks. Female sexual physiology was first described in Dickinson's textbook in 1949 and subsequently by Masters and Johnson in 1966. During women's sexual response, changes occur in the congestive structures that are essential to the understanding of women's sexual response and specifically of their orgasm. Female and male external genital organs arise from the same embryologic structures, i.e. phallus, urogenital folds, urogenital sinus and labioscrotal swellings. The vulva is formed by the labia majora and vestibule, with its erectile apparatus: clitoris (glans, body, crura), labia minora, vestibular bulbs and corpus spongiosum. Grafenberg, in 1950, discovered no "G-spot" and did not report an orgasm of the intraurethral glands. The hypothetical area named "G-spot" should not be defined with Grafenberg's name. The female orgasm should be a normal phase of the sexual response cycle, which is possible to achieve by all healthy women with effective sexual stimulation. Knowledge of the embryology, anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs are important in the field of women's sexual health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of the coronary arteries in staged human embryos (the Paris Embryological Collection revisited).

    PubMed

    Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C A

    1990-03-01

    Twenty seven human embryos from stages 15 to 23 (postsomitic period), belonging to the collection of the "UFR Biomédicale des Saints-Pères, Université René Descartes Paris V", were studied. Details of the aorticopulmonary cleavage were analysed specially aortic valve development and origin of the coronary artery. At stage 18 the aortic valve was clearly distinguished (cup-shaped) presenting semilunar valves and aortic sinus (Valsalvae); at this stage the left coronary artery was detected in 66.7 per cent of the cases as an endothelial epicardial invagination. At stage 19, the left and right coronary arteries were detected simultaneously in 100 per cent of the cases. At stage 20, the coronary arteries showed greater structural complexity with a coat of mesenchymal cells. These results agree with previous data from different embryological collections. These findings suggest that the left coronary artery has a tendency to develop earlier than the right. We found no evidence of the coronary origin from the aortic lumen. This work provides additional information about the embryological development of the heart, obtained from the analyses of a French collection of human embryos.

  20. R (on the application of Quintavalle) v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Court Decision: 2 All England Law Reports 105; 2002 December 20 (date of decision). The Queen's Bench Division held that testing an embryo to determine compatibility with potential donees fell under the statutory definition of the use of an embyro. A pro-life organization brought suit against the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority following its announcement that it would authorize tissue typing of embryos. Tissue typing involves the removal of embryonic cells and the pre-implantation genetic screening of them. This process can lead to a genetic diagnosis to determine compatibility with an older sibling who is suffering from a serious genetic disorder. Despite the fact that the embryo was not itself analyzed, tissue typing constituted the "use" of the embryo because analyzing the cells necessarily leads to a diagnosis of the embryo. Furthermore, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 allowed the "use" of an embryo only for the purpose of providing "treatment services" which was construed by the court to mean "assisting women to carry children". Because tissue typing is not necessary for gestation, it is not allowed by the Act.

  1. Desperately seeking donors: the 'saviour sibling' decision in Quintavalle v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (UK).

    PubMed

    Hocking, Barbara Ann; Guy, Scott

    2005-08-01

    The recent House of Lords decision in Quintavalle v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority has raised difficult and complex issues regarding the extent to which embryo selection and reproductive technology can be used as a means of rectifying genetic disorders and treating critically ill children. This comment outlines the facts of Quintavalle and explores how the House of Lords approached the legal, ethical and policy issues that arose out of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority's (UK) decision to allow reproductive and embryo technology to be used to produce a 'saviour sibling' whose tissue could be used to save the life of a critically ill child. Particular attention will be given to the implications of the decision in Quintavalle for Australian family and medical law and policy. As part of this focus, the comment explores the current Australian legislative and policy framework regarding the use of genetic and reproductive technology as a mechanism through which to assist critically ill siblings. It is argued that the present Australian framework would appear to impose significant limits on the medical uses of genetic technology and, in this context, would seem to reflect many of the principles that were articulated by the House of Lords in Quintavalle.

  2. Pre-modern Islamic medical ethics and Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryology.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, Mohammed

    2014-02-01

    This article examines the, hitherto comparatively unexplored, reception of Greek embryology by medieval Muslim jurists. The article elaborates on the views attributed to Hippocrates (d. ca. 375 BC), which received attention from both Muslim physicians, such as Avicenna (d. 1037), and their Jewish peers living in the Muslim world including Ibn Jumay' (d. ca. 1198) and Moses Maimonides (d. 1204). The religio-ethical implications of these Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryological views were fathomed out by the two medieval Muslim jurists Shihāb al-Dīn al-Qarāfī (d. 1285) and Ibn al-Qayyim (d. 1350). By putting these medieval religio-ethical discussions into the limelight, the article aims to argue for a two-pronged thesis. Firstly, pre-modern medical ethics did exist in the Islamic tradition and available evidence shows that this field had a multidisciplinary character where the Islamic scriptures and the Graeco-Islamic-Jewish medical legacy were highly intertwined. This information problematizes the postulate claiming that medieval Muslim jurists were hostile to the so-called 'ancient sciences'. Secondly, these medieval religio-ethical discussions remain playing a significant role in shaping the nascent field of contemporary Islamic bioethics. However, examining the exact character and scope of this role still requires further academic ventures.

  3. A multimedia approach for teaching human embryology: Development and evaluation of a methodology.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Suzana Guimarães; Pereira, Luis Antonio Violin

    2010-12-20

    Human embryology requires students to understand the simultaneous changes in embryos, but students find it difficult to grasp the concepts presented and to visualise the related processes in three dimensions. The aims of this study have been to develop and evaluate new educational materials and a teaching methodology based on multimedia approaches to improve the comprehension of human development. The materials developed at the State University of Campinas include clinical histories, movies, animations, and ultrasound, as well as autopsy images from embryos and foetuses. The series of embryology lectures were divided into two parts. The first part of the series addressed the development of the body's structures, while in the second part, clinical history and the corresponding materials were shown to the students, who were encouraged to discuss the malformations. The teaching materials were made available on software used by the students in classes. At the end of the discipline, the material and methodology were evaluated with an attitudinal instrument, interviews, and knowledge examination. The response rate to the attitudinal instrument was 95.35%, and the response rate to the interview was 46%. The students approved of the materials and the teaching methodology (reliability of the attitudinal instrument was 0.9057). The exams showed that most students scored above 6.0. A multimedia approach proved useful for solving an important problem associated with teaching methods in many medical institutions: the lack of integration between basic sciences and clinical disciplines. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. The concept of crosstalk-directed embryological target mining and its application to essential hypertension treatment failures.

    PubMed

    Sag, Alan Alper; Sal, Oguzhan; Kilic, Yagmur; Onal, Emine Meltem; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2017-05-01

    This review aims to introduce the novel concept of embryological target mining applied to interorgan crosstalk network genesis, and applies embryological target mining to multidrug-resistant essential hypertension (a prototype, complex, undertreated, multiorgan systemic syndrome) to uncover new treatment targets and critique why existing strategies fail. Briefly, interorgan crosstalk pathways represent the next frontier for target mining in molecular medicine. This is because stereotyped stepwise organogenesis presents a unique opportunity to infer interorgan crosstalk pathways that may be crucial to discovering novel treatment targets. Insights gained from this review will be applied to patient management in a clinician-directed fashion. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Some embryological aspects of cholinergic innervation in the cardiovascular system--a close association with the subintestinal circulatory channel.

    PubMed

    Shigei, Tatsuro; Tsuru, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Naohisa; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    A series of our studies on the dog venous system revealed that cholinergic excitatory innervation was localized in a group of veins: the portal, mesenteric, and hepatic veins and the middle segment of the inferior vena cava. Our studies on pharmacological responsiveness of dog veins also revealed that they could be divided into two groups: the visceral and somatic parts, and the cholinergic excitatory innervation localized to the visceral part. Considering these results and some relevant literature, a hypothesis is proposed on the classification of muscles of the cardiovascular system and some embryological aspects of the parasympathetic cholinergic innervation in the circulatory system are discussed. The embryonic circulatory system of vertebrates can be divided into two parts: somatic and visceral. The body of an embryo is regarded as a double tube and vessels of the visceral part and the heart belong to the inner tube. The muscle of these vessels and the heart are derived from visceral mesoderm, either the coelomic epithelium or mesenchymal cells, in common with muscle of the digestive tube; and thus the parasympathetic cholinergic nerves innervating the muscle of the digestive tube also distribute to these vessels and the heart. The heart and vascular muscles in the visceral part are structures developed early in the course of evolution in invertebrates. Their primary function is to propel the body fluid, and the chief structure containing them is the subintestinal circulatory channel (ventral aorta - heart - subintestinal vein). They exhibit spontaneous, rhythmic activity, showing characteristics of a single unit muscle, and receive parasympathetic cholinergic innervation. On the other hand, the vascular muscles in the somatic part are endothelium-associated muscles developed anew in the vertebrate; do not contract spontaneously, being classified as a multiunit muscle; and lack parasympathetic cholinergic innervation.

  6. Learning about Heredity and Embryology. Superific Science Book II. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Designed to provide teachers with low cost laboratory exercises, project ideas, and classroom activities for individuals and groups, this document focuses on the concepts of heredity and embryology. The materials address the topics of: (1) cell division; (2) the identification of the human embryo; (3) chromosomes; (4) DNA; (5) differences in the…

  7. An Eight-Year Study of Online Lecture Use in a Medical Gross Anatomy and Embryology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieder, Gary L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Online lectures have been used in lieu of live lectures in our gross anatomy and embryology course for the past eight years. We examined patterns of online lecture use by our students and related that use to academic entry measures, gender and examination performance. Detailed access records identified by student were available from server logs.…

  8. Learning about Heredity and Embryology. Superific Science Book II. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Designed to provide teachers with low cost laboratory exercises, project ideas, and classroom activities for individuals and groups, this document focuses on the concepts of heredity and embryology. The materials address the topics of: (1) cell division; (2) the identification of the human embryo; (3) chromosomes; (4) DNA; (5) differences in the…

  9. An Eight-Year Study of Online Lecture Use in a Medical Gross Anatomy and Embryology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieder, Gary L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Online lectures have been used in lieu of live lectures in our gross anatomy and embryology course for the past eight years. We examined patterns of online lecture use by our students and related that use to academic entry measures, gender and examination performance. Detailed access records identified by student were available from server logs.…

  10. Pictures of evolution and charges of fraud: Ernst Haeckel's embryological illustrations.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Nick

    2006-06-01

    Comparative illustrations of vertebrate embryos by the leading nineteenth-century Darwinist Ernst Haeckel have been both highly contested and canonical. Though the target of repeated fraud charges since 1868, the pictures were widely reproduced in textbooks through the twentieth century. Concentrating on their first ten years, this essay uses the accusations to shed light on the novelty of Haeckel's visual argumentation and to explore how images come to count as proper representations or illegitimate schematics as they cross between the esoteric and exoteric circles of science. It exploits previously unused manuscripts to reconstruct the drawing, printing, and publishing of the illustrations that attracted the first and most influential attack, compares these procedures to standard practice, and highlights their originality. It then explains why, though Haeckel was soon accused, controversy ignited only seven years later, after he aligned a disciplinary struggle over embryology with a major confrontation between liberal nationalism--and Catholicism--and why the contested pictures nevertheless survived.

  11. Embryologically based resection of cervical cancers: a new concept of surgical radicality.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, Attibele Palaksha; Girija, Shivarudraiah

    2012-02-01

    Objectives With the objective of improving outcomes in oncological surgery, a new concept of surgical anatomy deduced from embryonic development, called ontogenetic anatomy and compartment theory of local tumor spread, is proposed by Michael Höckel from Germany. Hypothesis Compartment resection enables the preservation of functionally important tissues of different embryonic origin despite its close proximity to the tumor and incomplete resection of the compartment results in increase in local recurrences. This approach should maximize local tumor control and minimize treatment-related morbidity. Total Mesometrial Resection (TMMR) This new surgical technique has been developed and standardized over past 12 years for cervical cancer with a high local control rate without need for adjuvant radiotherapy. Conclusion This Embryological based surgery holds a great promise for management of cervical cancer. However this novel surgery needs confirmation in multi institutional settings to translate research into practice for an excellent therapeutic index.

  12. ATLAS-plus: Multimedia Instruction in Embryology, Gross Anatomy, and Histology

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, CM; Miller, JG; Bush, LC; Bruenger, JA; Wysor, WJ; Meininger, ET; Wolf, FM; Fischer, TV; Beaudoin, AR; Burkel, WE; MacCallum, DK; Fisher, DL; Carlson, BM

    1992-01-01

    ATLAS-plus [Advanced Tools for Learning Anatomical Structure] is a multimedia program used to assist in the teaching of anatomy at the University of Michigan Medical School. ATLAS-plus contains three courses: Histology, Embryology, and Gross Anatomy. In addition to the three courses, a glossary containing terms from the three courses is available. All three courses and the glossary are accessible in the ATLAS-plus environment. The ATLAS-plus environment provides a consistent set of tools and options so that the user can navigate easily and intelligently in and between the various courses and modules in the ATLAS-plus world. The program is a collaboration between anatomy and cell biology faculty, medical students, graphic artists, systems analysts, and instructional designers. PMID:1482964

  13. [Disciplinar thematic integration in medicine: a proposal from histology and embryology].

    PubMed

    Bassan, N D; D'Ottavio, A E

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to clarify a concept with multiple meanings and a complex reality. It starts providing varied histological and embryological examples apt to contribute the stimulation of teacher and student imaginations in favor of a crucial skill, as thematic integration is, into the present and changing curricula in Medicine in particular and Health Sciences in general. In this sense, it offers linear and branched sequences as well as consolidation graphics which focusing in both disciplines may also include other basic ones, key for clinic diagnosis, among the competences to be developed. After registering some preliminary results revealing the need of its continuous and progressive training along the complete medical career, its own integrative value and the integrative one for their teachers due to its natural link with other basic ones is outlined, its relevance for undergraduate is reaffirmed and possible future variations for them are previewed, considering the present exponential growth of science and technology.

  14. Unilateral Existence of Chondro-epitrochlearis: Its Embryological Perspectives and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Padavinangadi, Abhinitha; Rao, Mohandas KG; Nayak, Satheesha B

    2016-01-01

    Chondroepitrochlearis (CET) is an anomalous muscular slip that originates from the pectoralis major muscle and inserts into epicondyle of the humerus. The morphology of this variant form of pectoralis major can vary from slender to strong musculo-tendinous. In its course, it usually crosses the neurovascular structures of arm; their compression is a major complication that could be manifested by its persistence. In the present case, potentially anomalous CET muscle with the slender slip of origin, but strong tendinous insertion to the medial epicondyle of the humerus was found unilaterally. This musculo-tendinous structure was found to be compressing the brachial artery and median nerve in the arm. Detailed embryological and clinical perspective of such variant muscular slip helps the physiotherapists, orthopaedicians in their treatment strategy in complain of restricted shoulder movement. It may also help the neurologists, radiologists in their diagnostic approach of ulnar neuropathy. PMID:27630831

  15. Vascular High Ligation and Embryological Dissection in Laparoscopic Restorative Proctocolectomy for Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, Deniz; Aghayeva, Afag; Bayraktar, Onur; Ozben, Volkan; Baca, Bilgi; Hamzaoglu, Ismail; Karahasanoglu, Tayfun

    2017-01-01

    After its description in 1980, restorative proctocolectomy has become the procedure of choice for ulcerative colitis (UC). The supposed advantages of the laparoscopy have proven beneficial for colorectal operations but a standard technique in laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy (LRP) is still lacking. In this study, we present our technique of LRP with vascular high ligation (VHL) and embryological dissection (ED). This retrospective study reviewed patients who underwent LRP with VHL for UC from January 2009 to June 2015. Of these, only two-stage LRP patients were included to the study. The LRP technique was performed by five ports through a medial-to-lateral approach. The dissection was carried out between the embryological planes and all the vessel roots were highly divided. A diverting ileostomy was performed in all of the patients. Forty-six patients were operated for UC with the laparoscopic approach. Among these patients, there were 19 (8 females) patients who were performed LRP with VHL. The median age was 42 (range 25-62) years. No intraoperative complications occurred. There was no conversion to open procedure. Early postoperative complications were observed in 3 (15.8%) patients, including postoperative mechanical bowel obstruction (n = 1), wound infection (n = 1), and ileal pouch bleeding (n = 1). High ligation of the vessels is not routinely performed except in the presence of malignancy. In our study, we focus on the importance of high ligation and ED for better observation and preservation of the important anatomical structures. According to our opinion, this approach aids in the preservation of the ureters, nerves, and the duodenum providing better observation of dissection planes.

  16. Molecular basis of vertebrate limb patterning.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Cheryll

    2002-10-15

    Mechanisms of limb development are common to all higher vertebrates. The current understanding of how vertebrate limbs develop comes mainly from studies on chick embryos, which are classical models for experimental manipulation, and mouse embryos, which can be genetically manipulated. Work on chick and mouse embryos is often complementary and has direct implications for human limb development. Analysis has moved to the molecular level, which allows direct links to genetics. Even though genes involved in limb development have been discovered by basic scientists through different routes to that taken by clinical geneticists, many of the same genes have been identified. Thus, the fields of embryology and clinical medicine increasingly converge. The next challenge will be to go back to animal models to begin to dissect how particular gene mutations lead to specific limb phenotypes.

  17. Graphic and movie illustrations of human prenatal development and their application to embryological education based on the human embryo specimens in the Kyoto collection.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Nakatsu-Komatsu, Tomoko; Minekura, Yutaka; Iwakura, Masaji; Motoki, Tamaki; Nishimiya, Kazuhiko; Iiyama, Masaaki; Kakusho, Koh; Minoh, Michihiko; Mizuta, Shinobu; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Kose, Katsumi; Fujii, Shingo; Shiota, Kohei

    2006-02-01

    Morphogenesis in the developing embryo takes place in three dimensions, and in addition, the dimension of time is another important factor in development. Therefore, the presentation of sequential morphological changes occurring in the embryo (4D visualization) is essential for understanding the complex morphogenetic events and the underlying mechanisms. Until recently, 3D visualization of embryonic structures was possible only by reconstruction from serial histological sections, which was tedious and time-consuming. During the past two decades, 3D imaging techniques have made significant advances thanks to the progress in imaging and computer technologies, computer graphics, and other related techniques. Such novel tools have enabled precise visualization of the 3D topology of embryonic structures and to demonstrate spatiotemporal 4D sequences of organogenesis. Here, we describe a project in which staged human embryos are imaged by the magnetic resonance (MR) microscope, and 3D images of embryos and their organs at each developmental stage were reconstructed based on the MR data, with the aid of computer graphics techniques. On the basis of the 3D models of staged human embryos, we constructed a data set of 3D images of human embryos and made movies to illustrate the sequential process of human morphogenesis. Furthermore, a computer-based self-learning program of human embryology is being developed for educational purposes, using the photographs, histological sections, MR images, and 3D models of staged human embryos.

  18. [Scientific revolution and embryology: rejection or transformation of antiquity? A comparison between the procreation teachings of Cesare Cremonini, William Harvey und René Descartes].

    PubMed

    Lo Presti, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I address the issue of the theoretical and epistemological status of embryology at the rise of the so-called "Scientific Revolution" (also in the first half of the seventeenth-century) and raise the question, in what sense and to what extent the historiographical concept of "Scientific Revolution" is applicable to the domain of embryology. To achieve this aim I compare the theories of three protagonists of the medical, scientific and philosophical debate of that age, namely Cesare Cremonini, William Harvey and René Descartes, who had very different views on the world structure and human nature and a very different concept of science, but who shared, as concerns embryological issues, an epigenetic conception of the development of the embryo. Their theories are discussed and compared in light of following questions: 1) What do Cremonini's, Harvey's and Descartes's embryological theories exactly aim to?; 2) In developing their theories, do these thinkers deal explicitly or implicitly with the Aristotelian and the Galenic embryological paradigm?; 3)Do they refer polemically to the Aristotelian and the Galenic tradition and what theoretical and/or rhetorical function have these polemical references?; 4) Do the embryological theories of Cremonini, Harvey and Descartes reflect the century-long dispute between "(Aristotelian) philosophers" and "(Galenic) doctors"?; 5) How is represented embryology as a 'scientific' and/or 'theoretical' domain? And what relationship between concepts of 'truth', 'research', 'tradition' and 'scientific progress' is implied or proposed in the embryological works of these three thinkers? What kind of use do Cremonini, Harvey and Descartes make of the argumenta ex ratione and of those ex experientia?

  19. The ventricular system of the brain: a comprehensive review of its history, anatomy, histology, embryology, and surgical considerations.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, M M; Adeeb, N; Griessenauer, C J; Sheikh, H; Shahidi, S; Tubbs, R I; Tubbs, R S

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral ventricles have been recognized since ancient medical history. Their true function started to be realized more than a thousand years later. Their anatomy and function are extremely important in the neurosurgical panorama. The literature was searched for articles and textbooks of different topics related to the history, anatomy, physiology, histology, embryology and surgical considerations of the brain ventricles. Herein, we summarize the literature about the cerebral ventricular system.

  20. Dural Venous System in the Cavernous Sinus: A Literature Review and Embryological, Functional, and Endovascular Clinical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    MITSUHASHI, Yutaka; HAYASAKI, Koji; KAWAKAMI, Taichiro; NAGATA, Takashi; KANESHIRO, Yuta; UMABA, Ryoko; OHATA, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The cavernous sinus (CS) is one of the cranial dural venous sinuses. It differs from other dural sinuses due to its many afferent and efferent venous connections with adjacent structures. It is important to know well about its complex venous anatomy to conduct safe and effective endovascular interventions for the CS. Thus, we reviewed previous literatures concerning the morphological and functional venous anatomy and the embryology of the CS. The CS is a complex of venous channels from embryologically different origins. These venous channels have more or less retained their distinct original roles of venous drainage, even after alterations through the embryological developmental process, and can be categorized into three longitudinal venous axes based on their topological and functional features. Venous channels medial to the internal carotid artery “medial venous axis” carry venous drainage from the skull base, chondrocranium and the hypophysis, with no direct participation in cerebral drainage. Venous channels lateral to the cranial nerves “lateral venous axis” are exclusively for cerebral venous drainage. Venous channels between the internal carotid artery and cranial nerves “intermediate venous axis” contribute to all the venous drainage from adjacent structures, directly from the orbit and membranous skull, indirectly through medial and lateral venous axes from the chondrocranium, the hypophysis, and the brain. This concept of longitudinal venous axes in the CS may be useful during endovascular interventions for the CS considering our better understandings of its functions in venous drainage. PMID:27063146

  1. Divided nevus of the eyelid: review of embryology, pathology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Desai, Shaun C; Walen, Scott; Holds, John B; Branham, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Divided nevus, which is also known as "kissing nevus," "split ocular nevus" and "panda nevus" is a rare congenital dermatological abnormality that occurs on opposing margins of upper and lower eyelids. There is a paucity of literature on this rare anomaly, with most knowledge from this disease process derived from isolated case reports and series. The purpose of this study is to report a new case of divided nevus of the eyelid and to discuss the unique embryology, pathology, and potential treatment options for this rare entity. A systematic review of literature was performed of the English literature on PubMed and Medline with just under 150 cases reported in the literature. The vast majority of the divided nevi seen in this review were medium sized and of the melanocytic intradermal type. There were no described cases of malignant transformation in any of the documented cases. Numerous methods for reconstruction were described including the entire reconstructive ladder with both one and two staged approaches. In this review, we present basic guidelines to the reconstruction of these complicated defects, although ultimate treatment should be individualized and dependent on surgeon comfort.

  2. Preliminary studies of enhanced contrast radiography in anatomy and embryology of insects with Elettra synchrotron light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Foerster, L. A.; Navarro-Silva, M. A.; Menk, R.-H.; Rigon, L.; Cusatis, C.

    2005-08-01

    Enhanced contrast X-ray imaging is achieved by exploiting the real part of the refraction index, which is responsible for the phase shifts, in addition to the imaginary part, which is responsible for the absorption. Such techniques are called X-ray phase contrast imaging. An analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast imaging set-up with Diffraction Enhanced Imaging processing (DEI) were used for preliminary studies in anatomy and embryology of insects. Parasitized stinkbug and moth eggs used as control agents of pests in vegetables and adult stinkbugs and mosquitoes ( Aedes aegypti) were used as samples. The experimental setup was mounted in the SYRMEP beamline at ELETTRA. Images were obtained using a high spatial resolution CCD detector (pixel size 14×14 μm 2) coupled with magnifying optics. Analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast images (PCI) and edge detection images show contrast and details not observed with conventional synchrotron radiography and open the possibility for future study in the embryonic development of insects.

  3. The embryological development of primary visual centres in the turtle Emys orbicularis.

    PubMed

    Hergueta, S; Lemire, M; Pieau, C; Ward, R; Repérant, J

    1993-10-01

    The development of the primary visual centres was studied in a series of embryos of the turtle, Emys orbicularis, incubated at 25 degrees C. The differentiation of both visual and nonvisual diencephalic and mesencephalic structures takes place entirely within the 2nd quarter of the period of incubation; this finding appears to be consistent with previous descriptions of the embryology of 2 other chelonian species, Lepidochelys and Chelydra. Two successive waves of migration, each dividing into internal and external sheaves, are involved in the formation of the structures of the diencephalon and mesencephalon. The primary visual centres, which comprise 2 hypothalamic, 5 thalamic and 5 pretectal zones of retinal projections, together with the 2 superficial layers of the tectum and a single tegmental projection zone, all have their origin in the external sheaf of the 1st wave of migration. The finding that the adult nucleus geniculatus lateralis dorsalis, pars ventralis arises from one of the migrations of the dorsal thalamus is discussed in the context of the debate over the possible homologues of the mammalian geniculostriate visual pathway.

  4. The embryological development of primary visual centres in the turtle Emys orbicularis.

    PubMed Central

    Hergueta, S; Lemire, M; Pieau, C; Ward, R; Repérant, J

    1993-01-01

    The development of the primary visual centres was studied in a series of embryos of the turtle, Emys orbicularis, incubated at 25 degrees C. The differentiation of both visual and nonvisual diencephalic and mesencephalic structures takes place entirely within the 2nd quarter of the period of incubation; this finding appears to be consistent with previous descriptions of the embryology of 2 other chelonian species, Lepidochelys and Chelydra. Two successive waves of migration, each dividing into internal and external sheaves, are involved in the formation of the structures of the diencephalon and mesencephalon. The primary visual centres, which comprise 2 hypothalamic, 5 thalamic and 5 pretectal zones of retinal projections, together with the 2 superficial layers of the tectum and a single tegmental projection zone, all have their origin in the external sheaf of the 1st wave of migration. The finding that the adult nucleus geniculatus lateralis dorsalis, pars ventralis arises from one of the migrations of the dorsal thalamus is discussed in the context of the debate over the possible homologues of the mammalian geniculostriate visual pathway. Images Fig. 1 (cont.) Fig. 1 Fig. 2 (cont.) Fig. 2 Fig. 3 (cont.) Fig. 3 Fig. 4 (cont.) Fig. 4 Fig. 5 (cont.) Fig. 5 Fig. 6 (cont.) Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 (cont.) Fig. 8 Fig. 9 (cont.) Fig. 9 Fig. 10 (cont.) Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:8300423

  5. Assessing child welfare under the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008: a case study in medicalisation?

    PubMed

    Lee, Ellie; Macvarish, Jan; Sheldon, Sally

    2014-05-01

    This article reports on a study with staff working in assisted conception clinics in the UK about making welfare of the child (WOC) assessments pre-conception. This aspect of infertility treatment is obligatory under section 13(5) of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act, which was amended in 2008. The aim of the study was to find out how this change to the law had impacted on practice. In describing what we found, we also make a contribution to scholarship about the medicalisation of reproduction. S13(5) has often been discussed as a prime example of medicalisation, giving clinics power to grant or deny access to treatment on child welfare grounds, encompassing far more than purely clinical considerations. Yet, while such medicalisation may be entrenched in the law, our findings suggest this power is used with a very light touch. Further, while our interviewees offered near-universal support for the need to consider child welfare, this is now justified by concerns that address not only family form (e.g. the need for a father figure) but also the quality of interactions between parents and children. In this light we suggest that the concept of medicalisation may offer a rather blunt tool for understanding a far more complex reality. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Self-organizing potential and morphogenetic potential (comparing current embryological and Atlan's views).

    PubMed

    Bernier, R

    1986-01-01

    The concept of self-organizing potential proposed by Atlan, conceived within the framework of information theory, attempts to explain the emergence of the structures and functions of the organism, as well as the concept of morphogenetic potential, conceived in the embryological laboratories. Are the two theses diverging or converging and/or complementary to each other? The paper indicates, first, the context of Atlan's thesis and the meaning of his concepts of self-organization and self-organizing potential in evolutionary systems as well as in individual systems. It then develops an in-depth analysis of these individual systems and attempts to discern, in Atlan's thesis, the respective roles of the genetic factors (first at the initial stage of the system and then in the course of its development) and of the epigenetic factors in the formation of the individual, particularly during morphogenesis. This analysis reveals some difficulties inherent in the theory and induces the author to propose a few additional distinctions. Finally, the paper underlines the analogies and divergences between the concepts of self-organizing potential and morphogenetic potential.

  7. Anatomy and embryology of umbilicus in newborns: a review and clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Abdelmonem A

    2016-09-01

    Umbilicus is considered a mirror of the abdomen in newborns. Despite its importance, the umbilicus has been stated in literature and textbooks as discrete subjects with many body systems, such as the urinary, digestive, and cardiovascular ones. This article aimed to address the basic knowledge of the umbilicus in relation to clinical disorders under one integrated topic to aid physicians and surgeons in assessing newborns and infants. The umbilicus appears as early as the fourth week of fetal life when the folding of the embryonic plate occurs. The umbilicus appears initially as a primitive umbilical ring on the ventral aspect of the body. The primitive umbilicus contains the connecting stalk, umbilical vessels, vitelline duct and vessels, allantois, and loop of the intestine. Changes occur to form the definitive cord, which contains three umbilical vessels, namely, "one vein and two arteries," embedded in Wharton's jelly. After birth, the umbilical vessels inside the body obliterate and gradually form ligaments. Congenital disorders at the umbilicus include herniation, bleeding, and discharge of mucous, urine, or feces. Some of these disorders necessitate emergent surgical interference, whereas others may be managed conservatively. The umbilicus has many embryological remnants. Thus, the umbilicus is prone to various clinical disorders. Detecting these disorders as early as possible is essential to prevent or minimize possible complications.

  8. [Head and neck paragangliomas. Embryological origin and anatomical characteristics: topographic distribution and vascularization pattern].

    PubMed

    Carretero González, José; Blanco Pérez, Pedro; Vázquez Osorio, María Teresa; Benito González, Fernando; Sañudo Tejedo, José Ramón

    2009-02-01

    Paragangliomas are tumors that arise in the extraadrenal paraganglia and result from migration of neural crest cells during embryonic development. Based on their anatomical distribution, innervation and microscopic structure, these tumors can be classified into interrelated families: branchiomeric paraganglia (related to the branchial clefts and arches), intravagal, aortic-sympathetic and visceral-autonomic. Head and neck paragangliomas belong mainly to the first two of these families. The present article is divided into two parts. The first part reviews the embryological origin of these tumors. Special emphasis is placed on the process of neurulation or neural tube formation, neurosegmentation (with a summary of the mechanisms involved in the initial segmentation of the neural tube and of the hindbrain and spinal medulla), and the development of the sensory placodes and secondary inductions in the cranial region. Subsequently, the neural crest is analyzed, with special attention paid to the cranial neural crest. The embryonogenesis of paragangliomas is also described. The second part describes the topographical distribution of head and neck paragangliomas according to their localization: jugulotympanic, orbit, intercarotid, subclavian and laryngeal. The embryonogenesis and most important anatomical characteristics are described for each type.

  9. Embryologic development of the prostate. Insights into the etiology and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, E

    1990-08-01

    Pharmacologic strategies for the treatment of BPH are at present directed toward relaxing prostate smooth muscle and reducing prostate volume. Historically, the primary limitation of pharmacotherapy for BPH has been that the symptomatic improvement achieved was overshadowed by the morbidity of treatment. However, the morbidity has been markedly diminished based on a more precise understanding of the embryology, physiology, and pharmacology of the prostate. The origins and pharmacologic properties of the smooth musculature of the prostate and bladder are unique. Therefore, drugs such as alpha blockers may relax the prostate selectively without altering bladder function. Although phenoxybenzamine, a nonselective alpha blocker, relieves infravesical obstruction secondary to BPH, the severity of the adverse reactions limits the use of this drug. The contractile properties of the prostate smooth muscle are mediated by alpha-1 adrenoceptors. The effectiveness of phenoxybenzamine and selective alpha-1 blockers such as prazosin and terazosin are similar. The side effects of the selective alpha-1 blockers are negligible. Androgen suppression, which lowers testosterone, produces intolerable side effects such as gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction, and impaired libido. The androgen dependency of the prostate provides the rationale for using 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors for the treatment of BPH. Reduction of prostate volume can be achieved by blocking the action or synthesis of dihydrotestosterone without impotence, gynecomastia, and hot flashes. These recent advances in pharmacotherapy for BPH are based on understanding of the fundamental developmental properties of the prostate.

  10. Multiple variations of the arterial pattern in upper extremities: a case report and embryological pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Klimek-Piotrowska, Wiesława; Pacholczak, Renata; Walocha, Jerzy

    2013-11-01

    During a routine dissection at the Department of Anatomy, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, one cadaver was found to have multiple variations of the arteries of the upper limbs. The variations pertained to the course of the brachial artery as well as to its distribution. An unusual formation of the superficial palmar arch was observed in both upper limbs. The anatomical peculiarities encountered included: in the left upper limb-the brachioradial artery, which formed the superficial palmar arch by turning to the palmar side of the hand and connecting with the ulnar artery and in the right upper limb-a subscapular-circumflex humeral-deep brachial trunk that correlated with a high division of the brachial artery (in the upper third of the biceps brachii muscle), a large anastomosis between the radial and the ulnar artery, the presence of a persistent median artery, and the unusual formation of the superficial palmar arch, which was created by the median, ulnar, and radial arteries. In this report, we will trace the path of the axillary artery and its branches in detail and emphasize its embryological significance.

  11. Congenital Upper Eyelid Coloboma: Embryologic, Nomenclatorial, Nosologic, Etiologic, Pathogenetic, Epidemiologic, Clinical, and Management Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Abdulhafez, Mohamed H.; Fouad, Yousef A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To review the recent literature and describe the authors’ experience with congenital upper eyelid coloboma. Methods: In this review, we will summarize the embryologic and etiopathogenetic bases of congenital upper eyelid coloboma, and study the published clinical reports. We will also attempt to briefly shed some light on the rarer syndromic curiosities associated with upper eyelid coloboma. Results: Congenital upper eyelid colobomas are one of the few nontraumatic oculoplastic emergencies that may occasionally present in the first few days of life with a corneal ulcer and may even present with impending perforation. They can present with or without corneopalpebral adhesions, may be isolated findings or a part of a larger spectrum of congenital anomalies as in the case of Fraser syndrome or Goldenhar syndrome, or could be associated with other rare curiosities that could challenge the clinician with a huge diagnostic dilemma. Conclusions: Existing literature dealing with congenital colobomas of the upper eyelid is fraught with nosologic problems, confusing etiologies, and overlapping clinical features. We attempted to clarify the salient clinical features, outline the management principles, and until a time in the not-so-distant future where advances in molecular genetic testing would help redefine the etiology and the diverse clinical spectrum of genetic diseases associated with upper eyelid colobomas, we propose a simplified classification scheme based on the relation of the coloboma to the cornea, the presence or absence of systemic features, and all the syndromic and nonsyndromic associations of congenital coloboma of the upper eyelid known today. PMID:25419956

  12. Supernumerary renal arteries and their embryological and clinical correlation: a cadaveric study from north India.

    PubMed

    Budhiraja, Virendra; Rastogi, Rakhi; Anjankar, Vaibhav; Babu, C S Ramesh; Goel, Prabhat

    2013-01-01

    Background. Classically, each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery originating from abdominal aorta. The present study aimed at its variations and their embryological and clinical correlation. Material and Methods. The formalin-fixed thirty-seven cadavers from north India constituted the material for the study. During routine abdominal dissection conducted for medical undergraduates at the department of anatomy, the kidneys along with their arteries were explored and the morphological variations of renal arteries were noted. Results. We observed supernumerary renal arteries in 23/37 (62.2%) cases (48.6% of aortic origin and 13.5% of renal origin) on the right side and 21/37 (56.8%) cases (45.9% of aortic origin and 10.8% of renal origin) on the left side. Supernumerary renal arteries entered the kidney through hilum, superior pole, and inferior pole. Conclusion. Awareness of variations of renal artery is necessary for surgical management during renal transplantation, repair of abdominal aorta aneurysm, and urological procedures and for angiographic interventions.

  13. Experimental embryology of mammals at the Jastrzebiec Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding.

    PubMed

    Karasiewicz, Jolanta; Andrzej-Modlinski, Jacek

    2008-01-01

    Our Department of Experimental Embryology originated from The Laboratory of Embryo Biotechnology, which was organized and directed by Dr. Maria Czlonkowska until her premature death in 1991. Proving successful international transfer of frozen equine embryos and generation of an embryonic sheep-goat chimaera surviving ten years were outstanding achievements of her term. In the 1990s, we produced advanced fetuses of mice after reconstructing enucleated oocytes with embryonic stem (ES) cells, as well as mice originating entirely from ES cells by substitution of the inner cell mass with ES cells. Attempts at obtaining ES cells in sheep resulted in the establishment of embryo-derived epithelioid cell lines from Polish Heatherhead and Polish Merino breeds, producing overt chimaeras upon blastocyst injection. Successful re-cloning was achieved from 8-cell rabbit embryos, and healthy animals were born from the third generation of cloned embryos. Recently mice were born after transfer of 8-cell embryonic nuclei into selectively enucleated zygotes, and mouse blastocysts were produced from selectively enucleated germinal vesicle oocytes surrounded by follicular cells, upon their reconstruction with 2-cell nuclei and subsequent activation. Embryonic-somatic chimaeras were born after transfer of foetal fibroblasts into 8-cell embryos (mouse) and into morulae and blastocysts (sheep). We also regularly perform the following applications: in vitro production of bovine embryos from slaughterhouse oocytes or those recovered by ovum pick up; cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos (freezing: mouse, rabbit, sheep, goat; vitrification: rabbit, cow); and banking of somatic cells from endangered wild mammalian species (mainly Cervidae).

  14. The dawn of chelonian research: turtles between comparative anatomy and embryology in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    MacCord, Kate; Caniglia, Guido; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Burke, Ann C

    2015-05-01

    Many evo-devo studies of the turtle's shell draw hypotheses and support from historical sources. The groundbreaking works of Cuvier, Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Carus, Rathke, Owen, and others are being revived in modern research, and their centuries-old understanding of the turtle's shell reconsidered. In the works of these eminent biologists of the 19th century, comparative anatomy and embryology of turtle morphology set the stage for future studies in developmental biology, histology, and paleontology. Given the impact that these works still make on modern research, it is important to develop a thorough appreciation of previous authors, regarding how they arrived at their conclusions (i.e., what counted as evidence?), whether there was debate amongst these authors about shell development (i.e., what counted as an adequate explanation?), and even why these men, some of the most powerful and influential thinkers and anatomists of their day, were concerned with turtles. By tracing and exposing the context and content of turtle shell studies in history, our aim is to inform modern debates about the evolution and development of the turtle's shell.

  15. Embryology of Early Jurassic dinosaur from China with evidence of preserved organic remains.

    PubMed

    Reisz, Robert R; Huang, Timothy D; Roberts, Eric M; Peng, ShinRung; Sullivan, Corwin; Stein, Koen; LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Shieh, DarBin; Chang, RongSeng; Chiang, ChengCheng; Yang, Chuanwei; Zhong, Shiming

    2013-04-11

    Fossil dinosaur embryos are surprisingly rare, being almost entirely restricted to Upper Cretaceous strata that record the late stages of non-avian dinosaur evolution. Notable exceptions are the oldest known embryos from the Early Jurassic South African sauropodomorph Massospondylus and Late Jurassic embryos of a theropod from Portugal. The fact that dinosaur embryos are rare and typically enclosed in eggshells limits their availability for tissue and cellular level investigations of development. Consequently, little is known about growth patterns in dinosaur embryos, even though post-hatching ontogeny has been studied in several taxa. Here we report the discovery of an embryonic dinosaur bone bed from the Lower Jurassic of China, the oldest such occurrence in the fossil record. The embryos are similar in geological age to those of Massospondylus and are also assignable to a sauropodomorph dinosaur, probably Lufengosaurus. The preservation of numerous disarticulated skeletal elements and eggshells in this monotaxic bone bed, representing different stages of incubation and therefore derived from different nests, provides opportunities for new investigations of dinosaur embryology in a clade noted for gigantism. For example, comparisons among embryonic femora of different sizes and developmental stages reveal a consistently rapid rate of growth throughout development, possibly indicating that short incubation times were characteristic of sauropodomorphs. In addition, asymmetric radial growth of the femoral shaft and rapid expansion of the fourth trochanter suggest that embryonic muscle activation played an important role in the pre-hatching ontogeny of these dinosaurs. This discovery also provides the oldest evidence of in situ preservation of complex organic remains in a terrestrial vertebrate.

  16. Case series: variations in the embryology of congenital midline cervical clefts.

    PubMed

    Mendis, D; Moss, A L H

    2007-01-01

    Congenital midline cervical clefts (CMCC) is a clinical diagnosis and represents a spectrum of rare developmental anomalies. Fewer than 100 cases have been reported overall, the first being described by Bailey in 1924 (1). It is not a true cleft because it does not include a gap between adjacent skin flaps. It is thought to represent a failure of midline fusion of the branchial arches although this is controversial. It is a clinical diagnosis and presents at birth with a ventral midline defect of the skin of the neck. This consists of a skin tag (nipple-like projection), an atrophic mucosal surface and a caudal sinus. It may be associated with a subcutaneous fibrous cord, which can cause a vertical midline tethering restricting cervical extension. Associated defects may be a median cleft of the mandible, tongue and lower lip. There may be an associated delay in mandibular development and hypoplasia or absence of neck structures such as the hyoid bone. Associated thyroglossal and bronchogenic cysts may occur as well as defects in other parts of the body such as a sternal cleft (2). CMCC has been previously reported in the literature as being of a branchial origin, however a review of the histology of previous cases suggests a combined branchial and bronchogenic component (2-6). We report on two cases that presented with the clinical picture of a classical CMCC. Our first case appears to have a bronchogenic origin with possible branchial components and the second case appears to be solely branchial in origin. There is much debate as to the embryology of this clinical entity; we shall endeavour to address the main theories.

  17. The secondary external inguinal ring and associated fascial planes: surgical anatomy, embryology, applications.

    PubMed

    Mirilas, P; Mentessidou, A

    2013-06-01

    Classically, two inguinal rings are defined: internal and external. We previously introduced a third one, the secondary internal inguinal ring, deep to the classic internal. Here, we present a fourth ring, the secondary external inguinal ring, initially described by McGregor (Surg Gynecol Obstet 49:273-307, 1929), but now forgotten. Embryologically, this ring may be formed by evagination of Scarpa's fascia during testicular descent. Anatomically, it is located 2 cm below the pubic tubercle. It is formed by Scarpa's fascia that covers the spermatic cord anteriorly; medial and lateral fascial reflections delineate the ring and form the spermatic cord canal. The cord is attached to the posterior wall of the canal. The canal ends at the entrance of the scrotum, where Colles' fascia fuses with coverings of the cord. Adjoining the secondary external ring, at the same surgical layer and communicating with the subcutaneous abdominal space, are four subcutaneous pouches: laterally, the superficial inguinal pouch; medially, the perineal, femoral, and pubic pouches. Surgically, an inguinoscrotal hernia passes though the secondary external ring and obtains an extra outer layer by entering the spermatic cord canal. Underdevelopment of the ring leads to incomplete testicular descent or ectopic testis. We recommend reconstruction of Scarpa's ring after orcheopexies and herniotomies in children. After urethral rupture distal to the urogenital diaphragm, urine may fill the subcutaneous abdominal space, pouches, and scrotum, due to their communication around the secondary external ring. In females, this ring was not found, possibly because of the non-descent of the ovaries through (and beyond) the inguinal canal.

  18. Pancreas divisum: a common developmental variant that deserves attention in preclinical medical education.

    PubMed

    White, Jessica J; Roberts, Zoey N; Gest, Thomas R; Beale, Elmus G

    2014-10-01

    Clinical literature indicates that pancreas divisum (PD) is present in 3-22% of the population and may be associated with an increased risk of pancreatitis. PD is a developmental variant wherein the duct systems derived from the dorsal and ventral pancreatic buds are not fused. Hence secretions from the head, neck, body, and tail, which develop from the dorsal bud, must pass through the minor duodenal papilla. The smaller uncinate process, derived from the ventral bud, drains through the major duodenal papilla. The purpose of this study was: (1) to do a cadaveric dissection to confirm whether PD is common in donors who had not been selected because they had pancreatitis and (2) to determine the frequency of PD descriptions in anatomy, embryology, pathology, and surgery books in our libraries. For our anatomical study, pancreata of eight human donors were dissected. Dye was injected into the ducts so that any communications between main and accessory ducts could be easily located. For our literature review, 22 anatomy, 14 embryology, 11 pathology, and 26 surgery books were examined for mention of PD. PD was unambiguously identified in two donor cadavers. However, only 14% of the anatomy plus embryology books compared to 70% of the surgery plus pathology books describe PD. Cadaveric dissection confirms that PD is indeed prevalent. The prevalence of PD with its increased risk of pancreatitis merits inclusion of this topic in textbooks of anatomy and embryology.

  19. Evaluation of a modified team based learning method for teaching general embryology to 1st year medical graduate students.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Nachiket; Roopa, R

    2009-01-01

    To encourage student participation in the learning process, the authors introduced a modified team based learning (TBL) method to cover two general embryology topics in the 1st year MBBS curriculum. The aim of this study was to evaluate students' perception of this method vis-à-vis the lecture method of teaching. A questionnaire was used to survey and evaluate the perceptions of 1st year MBBS students at the Department of Anatomy at our medical college in India. A total of eight classes were allotted to cover General Embryology. Six of these classes were conducted using the traditional didactic lecture method. Two topics were covered using the modified TBL method. Five teams of students were constituted, and each team was given handouts which contained basic factual material, four clinical case histories, and previous university exam questions from the topic. On the day of the session, these were discussed in the presence of the faculty facilitator. Students evaluated these sessions through a questionnaire. A majority of students felt that the modified TBL sessions were better at fulfilling learning objectives (46 students, 85%), enabled better understanding (43 students, 79%), were more interesting (43 students, 81%), ensured greater student participation (51 students, 94%) and involved greater effort on the part of students (53 students, 98%), as compared to traditional teaching methods. Most of the students (43 students, 79%) opined that more such sessions should be organized in the future. Responses from students show that the modified TBL classes could be utilized judiciously along with the traditional didactic lectures for teaching embryology.

  20. Analysis of the low-molecular weight protein profile of egg-white and its changes during early chicken embryological development.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jun; Ma, Mei H; Qiu, Ning; Wu, Xiao; Jin, Yong G

    2012-01-01

    Many low-molecular weight (LMW) proteins in egg-white are potentially bioactive, but the mass range and number of these are not yet fully characterized. The aim of the present study was to map the LMW protein profile in egg-white and provide the basis for further understanding of the physiological function of these proteins. For this purpose, six time points (days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 of incubation) were selected in an attempt to delineate the LMW proteomic profile in egg-white and its changes during early chicken embryological development. Samples were pretreated using gel chromatography techniques prior to analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Protein search focused on the mass range m/z 1,000 to 8,000. One hundred and fourteen mass signal peaks of LMW proteins ranging from m/z 1,035.88 to 7,112.91 were detected at all six time points. The observed changes in the LMW protein profile during development were highly dynamic. Eighty six novel mass signal peaks of LMW proteins were generated during incubation, the origin of which could be assigned to the high-molecular weight protein fractions.The list of egg-white LMW proteins provided in this paper is by far the most comprehensive and is intended to serve as a starting point for the isolation and functional characterization of interesting LMW proteins which may play a crucial role in early embryo nutrition and immunity.

  1. Embryological outcomes in cycles with human oocytes containing large tubular smooth endoplasmic reticulum clusters after conventional in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Itoi, Fumiaki; Asano, Yukiko; Shimizu, Masashi; Honnma, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    There have been no studies analyzing the effect of large aggregates of tubular smooth endoplasmic reticulum (aSERT) after conventional in vitro fertilization (cIVF). The aim of this study was to investigate whether aSERT can be identified after cIVF and the association between the embryological outcomes of oocytes in cycles with aSERT. This is a retrospective study examining embryological data from cIVF cycles showing the presence of aSERT in oocytes 5-6 h after cIVF. To evaluate embryo quality, cIVF cycles with at least one aSERT-metaphase II (MII) oocyte observed (cycles with aSERT) were compared to cycles with normal-MII oocytes (control cycles). Among the 4098 MII oocytes observed in 579 cycles, aSERT was detected in 100 MII oocytes in 51 cycles (8.8%). The fertilization rate, the rate of embryo development on day 3 and day 5-6 did not significantly differ between cycles with aSERT and control group. However, aSERT-MII oocytes had lower rates for both blastocysts and good quality blastocysts (p < 0.05). aSERT can be detected in the cytoplasm by removing the cumulus cell 5 h after cIVF. However, aSERT-MII oocytes do not affect other normal-MII oocytes in cycles with aSERT.

  2. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  3. Genomic basis of broad host range and environmental adaptability of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 which are used in inoculants for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Menna, Pâmela; Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga P; Ollero, Francisco Javier; Nicolás, Marisa Fabiana; Pains Rodrigues, Elisete; Shigueyoshi Nakatani, Andre; Silva Batista, Jesiane Stefânia; Oliveira Chueire, Ligia Maria; Souza, Rangel Celso; Ribeiro Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Megías, Manuel; Hungria, Mariangela; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2012-12-27

    Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are α-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym) that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical rhizobia with common bean and other legume hosts.

  4. Genomic basis of broad host range and environmental adaptability of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 which are used in inoculants for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are α-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. Results Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym) that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. Conclusions Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical rhizobia with common bean

  5. [Local species, the market, and transportation in embryological research: the study of polyembryony in armadillos in the early twentieth century].

    PubMed

    García, Susana V

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the general affirmation that communication networks and mobility are important to science by examining how these factors played a relevant role in one specific case, that is, research on the embryology of certain species of armadillos in the early twentieth century. As we show, access to pregnant females of the species and transport time from the wild to the laboratory were significant issues in the early days of such research. The strategies used to obtain field samples, the temporality of certain phenomena, the commercial circuits of which the organisms under study were a part, and the transformations they underwent in the laboratory all afford a glimpse at some aspects of how these scientists approached their work and what problems they faced in producing new knowledge.

  6. Embryology, normal anatomy, and imaging techniques of the hyoid and larynx with respect to forensic purposes: a review article.

    PubMed

    Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, Vidija; van Rijn, Rick R

    2008-01-01

    Experiences with pre- and postmortem imaging in a forensic setting create more and more interest. If autopsy is permitted, forensic pathologists perform careful examination of the neck structures, which plays an important role as this is decisive in the diagnostics of compressive neck injury. Primary tools are important: forensic pathologists and radiologists are supposed to be aware of the complex anatomy of the neck, especially the laryngeal region, to interprete their findings at autopsy and after imaging. It is of great interest whether CT and MR imaging techniques would be useful in comparing findings of autopsy and document findings if autopsy is refused. In the light of this, the embryology, anatomy and a review of imaging techniques of the neck will be highlighted in this article, with special attention to the value of updated imaging techniques of the larynx for forensic purposes in living people and postmortem.

  7. Could Revision of the Embryology Influence Our Cesarean Delivery Technique: Towards an Optimized Cesarean Delivery for Universal Use.

    PubMed

    Stark, Michael; Mynbaev, Ospan; Vassilevski, Yuri; Rozenberg, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Until today, there is no standardized Cesarean Section method and many variations exist. The main variations concern the type of abdominal incision, usage of abdominal packs, suturing the uterus in one or two layers, and suturing the peritoneal layers or leaving them open. One of the questions is the optimal location of opening the uterus. Recently, omission of the bladder flap was recommended. The anatomy and histology as results from the embryological knowledge might help to solve this question. The working thesis is that the higher the incision is done, the more damage to muscle tissue can take place contrary to incision in the lower segment, where fibrous tissue prevails. In this perspective, a call for participation in a two-armed prospective study is included, which could result in an optimal, evidence-based Cesarean Section for universal use.

  8. Lifting the Veil on Reptile Embryology: The Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) as a Model System to Study Reptilian Development.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Raul E; Bertocchini, Federica; Trainor, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Living amniotes comprise three major phylogenetic lineages: mammals, birds, and non-avian reptiles. Mouse and avian embryos continue to be the primary species used in experimental settings to further our knowledge and understanding of the genetics and embryology of amniotes. In comparison, non-avian reptiles, which constitute up to 40% of all living amniotes, have played a comparatively minor role. Studies of non-avian reptiles are, however, paramount for providing insights into the evolutionary changes that occurred in the transition from reptilian-like amniote ancestors to derived mammalian and avian species. Here, we introduce the Veiled Chameleon, a squamate reptile, as a new experimental model for examining fundamental questions in development, evolution, and disease.

  9. Embryological exposure to valproic acid disrupts morphology of the deep cerebellar nuclei in a sexually dimorphic way.

    PubMed

    Mowery, Todd M; Wilson, Sarah M; Kostylev, Polina V; Dina, Blair; Buchholz, Jennifer B; Prieto, Anne L; Garraghty, Preston E

    2015-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is diagnosed in males at a much higher rate than females. For this reason, the majority of autism research has used male subjects exclusively. However; more recent studies using genetic sex as a factor find that the development of the male and female brain is differentially affected by ASD. That is, the natural sex-specific differences that exist between male and female brains lead to sexually dimorphic expressions of autism. Here we investigate the putative sexual dimorphism that exists in the deep cerebellar nuclei of male and female rats exposed to valproic acid (VPA) on embryological day 12.5. We find natural sex-specific differences in adult nucleus area, length, and estimated cell populations. Therefore VPA exposure during embryology creates some sex-specific deficits such as higher cell counts in the VPA males and lower cell counts in the VPA females. At the same time, some effects of VPA exposure occur regardless of sex. That is, smaller nucleus area and length lead to truncated nuclei in both VPA males and females. These deficits are more pronounced in the VPA males suggesting that genetic sex could play a role in teratogenic susceptibility to VPA. Taken together our results suggests that VPA exposure induces sexually dimorphic aberrations in morphological development along a mediolateral gradient at a discrete region of the hindbrain approximate to rhombomere (R) 1 and 2. Sex-specific disruption of the local and long-range projections emanating from this locus of susceptibility could offer a parsimonious explanation for the brain-wide neuroanatomical variance reported in males and females with ASD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  11. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  12. Commons Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, William E.; Tyler, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    Explains how a commons area can serve both the school and community by becoming a cost-effective, space-saving asset to the school building. Examines the commons area as a place for interaction; discusses subdividing it into smaller functional units, locating it, and related lighting and heating issues. (GR)

  13. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  14. Unusual Variation in the Branching Pattern of the Celiac Trunk and Its Embryological and Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pangtey, Babita; Vasudeva, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of variations in the branching pattern of Celiac Trunk (CT) is important for surgeries of stomach, duodenum, pancreas and hepatobiliary region, for abdominal aortic aneurysm, for liver transplant and chaemoembolization of hepatic tumours. An unusual variation in the branching pattern of CT was observed in 50-year-old male cadaver of Indian origin. CT divided into six branches out of which right & left inferior phrenic arteries originated as first two branches and left gastric artery as the third branch. CT ended into three terminal branches as common hepatic artery, splenic artery & dorsal pancreatic artery. Right gastric artery originated from left hepatic artery instead of common hepatic artery. A variant hepatic artery to the left lobe of liver was also observed which originated from right gastric artery. Anatomical variations in the branching pattern of CT are due to developmental changes in ventral splanchnic artery. PMID:27504274

  15. Chemoconvulsant-induced seizure susceptibility: toward a common genetic basis?

    PubMed

    Chaix, Yohan; Ferraro, Thomas N; Lapouble, Eve; Martin, Benoît

    2007-01-01

    Despite the efforts employed, understanding the genetic architecture underlying epilepsy remains difficult. To reach this aim, convulsive epilepsies are classically modeled in mice, where genetic studies are less constricting than in humans. Pharmacogenetic approaches are one major source of investigation where kainic acid, pentylenetetrazol, and the ss-carboline family represent compounds that are used extensively. Several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influencing the convulsant effects of these drugs have been mapped using either recombinant inbred strains (RIS) or segregating F2 populations (or both). In our laboratory, we have recently mapped two QTLs for methyl 6, 7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-ss-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM), and seizure response using an F2 method. One is located on the distal part of Chromosome 1, a region implicated in a number of other studies. Here, we address the general importance of this chromosomal fragment for influencing seizure susceptibility.

  16. Perceived vulnerability as a common basis of moral emotions.

    PubMed

    Dijker, Anton J M

    2010-06-01

    It is theorized that many moral emotions are triggered when a mechanism for (parental) care is activated by perceived vulnerability, and changes in the care object's well-being are subsequently evaluated and causally attributed. Participants reported different moral emotions (tenderness, concern, sympathy, guilt, and moral anger) in relation to different photographs of males and females widely differing in age. Using variation between emotion objects, it was shown that emotional reactions were highly intercorrelated and strongly related to perceived vulnerability and aroused protective tendency; with children and elderly arousing the strongest, and adult males the weakest, emotions. Moreover, these intercorrelations largely disappeared when vulnerability and protective tendency were statistically controlled. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  17. QCI Common

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  18. Omnis definitio periculosa est: on the definition of the term "embryo" in the Human Fertilisation & Embryology Act 1990.

    PubMed

    Callus, Therese

    2003-01-01

    In adopting a purposive interpretation of the definition of the term "embryo" in the Human Fertilisation & Embryology Act 1990, the Court of Appeal judgement in R(on the application of B. Quintavalle on behalf of Pro-Life Alliance) v. Secretary of State for Health effectively stifled democratic debate on the development of therapeutic cloning techniques. Instead of being evidence of the flexibility of of the statute to adapt to the rapid evolution of scientific techniques, the judgment bears witness to a certain dependence of the law on scientific criteria and moreover, raises the question of legitimate judicial function. Indeed, judges should not be seen to be deciding questions of social choice that should ultimately be decided through the democratic process. Although the purposive approach may be objectively justified, it is suggested that the appeal judges erred in their appreciation of the very purpose of the 1990 Act. It is argued that the Parliamentary debates in 1990 illustrate that the purpose of the 1990 Act does not go beyond the area of procreation and embryo research in this context. Consequently, it is claimed that no economy should have been made on a full democratic debate. By preventing such a debate, the Court of Appeal appears to admit that the law has become servile to the scientific, political and a fortiori economic, interests at stake.

  19. Curving and looping of the internal carotid artery in relation to the pharynx: frequency, embryology and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    PAULSEN, FRIEDRICH; TILLMANN, BERNHARD; CHRISTOFIDES, CHRISTOS; RICHTER, WALBURGA; KOEBKE, JÜRGEN

    2000-01-01

    Variations of the course of the internal carotid artery in the parapharyngeal space and their frequency were studied in order to determine possible risks for acute haemorrhage during pharyngeal surgery and traumatic events, as well as their possible relevance to cerebrovascular disease. The course of the internal carotid artery showed no curvature in 191 cases, but in 74 cases it had a medial, lateral or ventrocaudal curve, and 17 preparations showed kinking (12) or coiling (5) out of a total of 265 dissected carotid sheaths and 17 corrosion vascular casts. In 6 cases of kinking and 2 of coiling, the internal carotid artery was located in direct contact with the tonsillar fossa. No significant sex differences were found. Variations of the internal carotid artery leading to direct contact with the pharyngeal wall are likely to be of great clinical relevance in view of the large number of routine procedures performed. Whereas coiling is ascribed to embryological causes, curving is related to ageing and kinking is thought to be exacerbated by arteriosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia with advancing age and may therefore be of significance in relation to the occurrence of cerebrovascular symptoms. PMID:11117624

  20. Review of Prostate Anatomy and Embryology and the Etiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Aaron, LaTayia; Franco, Omar E; Hayward, Simon W

    2016-08-01

    Prostate development follows a common pattern between species and depends on the actions of androgens to induce and support ductal branching morphogenesis of buds emerging from the urogenital sinus. The human prostate has a compact zonal anatomy immediately surrounding the urethra and below the urinary bladder. Rodents have a lobular prostate with lobes radiating away from the urethra. The human prostate is the site of benign hyperplasia, prostate cancer, and prostatitis. The rodent prostate has little naturally occurring disease. Rodents can be used to model aspects of human benign hyperplasia, but care should be taken in data interpretation and extrapolation to the human condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome: Embryology, Genetics and Clinical and Surgical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sturlese, Emanuele; Retto, Giovanni; Retto, Annalisa; De Dominici, Rosanna; Puzzolo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a pathological condition characterized by primary amenorrhea and infertility and by congenital aplasia of the uterus and of the upper vagina. The development of secondary sexual characters is normal as well as that the karyotype (46,XX). Etiologically, this syndrome may be caused by the lack of development of the Müllerian ducts between the fifth and the sixth weeks of gestation. To explain this condition, it has been suggested that in patients with MRKH syndrome, there is a very strong hyperincretion of Müllerian-inhibiting factor (MIF), which would provoke the lack of development of the Müllerian ducts from primitive structures (as what normally occurs in male phenotype). These alterations are commonly associated with renal agenesis or ectopia. Specific mutations of several genes such as WT1, PAX2, HOXA7-HOXA13, PBX1, and WNT4 involved in the earliest stages of embryonic development could play a key role in the etiopathogenesis of this syndrome. Besides, it seems that the other two genes, TCF2 (HNF1B) and LHX1, are involved in the determinism of this pathology. Currently, the most widely nonsurgical used techniques include the “Frank's dilators method,” while the surgical ones most commonly used are those developed by McIndoe, Williams, Vecchietti, Davydov, and Baldwin. PMID:23431465

  2. Pathophysiology of thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA): is it not one uniform aorta? Role of embryologic origin.

    PubMed

    Ruddy, Jean Marie; Jones, Jeffery A; Ikonomidis, John S

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a clinically silent and potentially fatal disease whose pathophysiology is poorly understood. Application of data derived from animal models and human tissue analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms may prove misleading given current evidence of structural and biochemical aortic heterogeneity above and below the diaphragm. Genetic predisposition is more common in TAA and includes multi-faceted syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and type IV Ehlers-Danlos as well as autosomal-dominant familial patterns of inheritance. Investigation into the consequences of these known mutations has provided insight into the cell signaling cascades leading to degenerative remodeling of the aortic medial extracellular matrix (ECM) with TGF-β playing a major role. Targeted research into modifying the upstream regulation or downstream effects of the TGF-β1 pathway may provide opportunities for intervention to attenuate TAA progression.

  3. Study of Genetics and Embryology of Polyembryonic Mutant of Autotetraploid Rice Induced by N+ Beam Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ximei; Huang, Qunce; Li, Guoping; Hu, Xiuming; Qin, Guangyong; Yu, Zengliang

    2006-11-01

    In the present study autotetraploid rice IR36-4X was treated by an ion implantation technique with nitrogen ion beams. A polyembryonic mutant (named IR36-Shuang) was identified in the M2 generation. The mutant line and its offspring were systematically investigated in regard to their major agronomic properties and the rate of polyembryonic seedling in the M3-M6 generation. The abnormal phenomena in the embryo sac development and the cytological mechanism of the initiation of additional embryo in IR36-Shuang were observed by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy. The results were as follows. 1) The plant height, the panicle length and 1000 grain weight of IR36-Shuang were lower than that of its control by 35.41%, 5.08% and 15.72% respectively, Moreover, the setting percentage decreased 12.39% compared with that in normal IR36-4X plants. 2) The polyembryonic trait of IR36-Shuang was genetically stable and the frequency of the polyembryonic seedlings in the IR36-Shuang line was also relatively stable. 3) The rate of abnormal embryo sacs in IR36-Shuang was significantly higher than that in the control IR36-4X. 4) The additional embryo in IR36-Shuang might arise from the double set of embryo sacs in a single ovary, antipodal cells or endosperm cells. These results suggest that IR36-Shuang is a polyembryonic mutant and a new apomixis rice line induced by low energy ion implantation. The prospects for the application in production of the IR36-Shuang line are also discussed. The present study may provide a basis for future investigations of apomixis rice breeding via the ion implantation biotechnology.

  4. Perspectives on the use of the baboon in embryology and teratology research.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, A G; Peterson, P E

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the developmental stages of the baboon during the period of organ formation and provides comparative information for other primates, including the human. Special attention is directed to the early development of the nervous system, eye, ear and nose/palate. The similarity in development of these structures with humans indicates that the baboon is a suitable model for studies of normal and abnormal neurological development. Spontaneous prenatal loss rates in the baboon (2.4-11.2%) are slightly lower than those reported in rhesus and cynomologus monkeys. The baboon, in addition to the cynomologus monkey and macaque, has been used as a model in teratology research to assess the potential risk of thalidomide, sex steroids, Bendectin and rubella virus, as well as to study the pathogenesis of malformations associated with the corticosteroid triamcinolone acetonide. The rate of spontaneous malformations (<1%) in baboons, similar to that reported for other commonly used primates, supports their continued use as a teratological model. In this regard, a sample protocol is provided for the safety evaluation of biotechnology products using nonhuman primates, which are the most appropriate model for those compounds which are bioactive in species closely related to humans.

  5. Current concepts in the embryology and genetics of cleft lip and cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Marazita, Mary L; Mooney, Mark P

    2004-04-01

    Many mechanisms underlying normal and abnormal craniofacial embryogenesis are well understood. The genetic factors that provoke abnormal development and result in orofacial clefts are not clear, but much progress has occurred in our understanding. Genes or chromosomal rearrangements on many chromosomes can lead to syndromes that include orofacial clefts. This diversity in the mechanisms that can lead to syndromic clefts highlights the fact that the processes leading to the development of the oral cavity and face are complex and sensitive to disturbances at multiple timepoints or within multiple genetic domains. As for nonsyndromic clefting, large-scale family studies are consistent with one or a few loci exerting major effects on phenotypic expression, although no single gene has been identified as a "necessary" locus for development of nonsyndromic clefts. Rather, the emerging consensus is that the genetic etiology of nonsyndromic clefting is complex, with several loci showing significant results in at least some studies. Some of these loci may be genes for susceptibility to environmental factors, some may be modifying loci, and some may be "necessary" loci. Mutations in genes that are now known to control early development are logical candidate genes for future studies of nonsyndromic orofacial clefting. Continued genetic analyses and developmental studies are crucial for eventual understanding of the complex etiology of these common congenital anomalies.

  6. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  7. Online Embryology teaching using learning management systems appears to be a successful additional learning tool among Egyptian medical students.

    PubMed

    Al-Neklawy, Ahmed Farid

    2017-07-29

    Although the traditional didactic lecture is considered to be efficient for presenting information and providing explanations, it usually does not provide adequate time for deeper learning activities. So, traditional lecture is one of the most widely criticized educational methods. Virtual learning environment (VLE) is a specially designed environment that facilitates teachers' management of educational courses for their students, using computer hardware and software, which involves distance learning. In this study, we evaluated the experiment of online teaching of General Embryology for Egyptian undergraduate medical students using WizIQ learning management system. A total of 100 students were invited to submit an online survey at the end of the course to evaluate delivery of instruction, creation of an environment that supported learning, and administrative issues. Most of the students reported that they were strongly satisfied with the efficacy of the instructional methods and were strongly satisfied with the degree of clarity of the course material. They strongly accepted the page format and design of the virtual classroom and strongly agreed that the learning environment supported the learning procedure. The item of easy logging into the virtual classroom had aberrant variable responses; it recorded the lowest mean response; this variation in responses was due to technical factors as the students used different devices with different speeds of internet connections. Ninety percent of students have strongly recommended the course attendance for their fellow students. These results demonstrate that online Anatomy teaching using learning management systems appears to be a successful additional learning tool among Egyptian medical students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. An eight-year study of online lecture use in a medical gross anatomy and embryology course.

    PubMed

    Nieder, Gary L; Borges, Nicole J

    2012-01-01

    Online lectures have been used in lieu of live lectures in our gross anatomy and embryology course for the past eight years. We examined patterns of online lecture use by our students and related that use to academic entry measures, gender and examination performance. Detailed access records identified by student were available from server logs. Total views per page of lecture material increased over the first six years, then decreased markedly between years seven and eight, possibly due to the recent availability of alternate forms of lecture audio. Lecture use peaked in midafternoon and again in the evening, although some use was seen at all hours. Usage was highest at midweek and lowest on Fridays as might be expected. Individual student's use varied widely from rates equivalent to less than one viewing/page to more than three viewings per page. Overall use by male students was greater than that of females and gender-specific differences in the daily pattern were seen. Lecture use was correlated to the Medical College Admission Test(®) (MCAT(®)) Verbal Reasoning and Physical Sciences scores but not to composite MCAT scores or undergraduate grade point average. Overall use appeared to be driven by scheduled team-based learning (TBL) sessions and major examinations. Specific subsets of lecture material were most often viewed before related TBL sessions and again during review for examinations. A small but significant correlation between lecture use and examination and course performance was seen, specifically in the male student population. These findings, along with earlier observations, suggest that varied use of online lectures is attributable to multiple factors. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Analysis of medical students' use of web-based resources for a gross anatomy and embryology course.

    PubMed

    Nieder, Gary L; Nagy, Frank

    2002-11-01

    An extensive Web site supporting our gross anatomy and embryology course, which includes various course management pages as well as online lectures, has been in use for the past 2 years. To determine how this Web site is being used by students, we examined server log files to track access to each of the Web pages on the site. Using this data, along with student responses on a course evaluation, we have been able to quantitatively characterize Web site use and gain some insight into students' perception of the site. This analysis showed that all of the resources available online, including course management information, exam reviews, online lectures, and dissection guides were heavily used and deemed useful by students. Despite universal computer ownership and Internet access from home, most use of the Web site was from on-campus computer labs, especially for lectures with audio streams. This was probably due to the limited bandwidth of off-campus connections. Data on the day of the week and time of the day of access showed peak activity at expected times, but also significant activity at all hours, as students took full advantage of 'access on demand.' This on-demand nature of the Web was also evident in students' viewing of lectures in short sessions rather than in one sitting. Online lectures were used regularly by a majority of students both before and after corresponding class sessions, however, this was not the preferred venue for all students. Although the flexibility of Web-based resources accommodates students' varying study habits, the alternative of traditional print material and live lectures should not be abandoned lightly. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. The Basis System

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, P.F.

    1989-05-16

    This paper discusses the basis system. Basis is a program development system for scientific programs. It has been developed over the last five years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), where it is now used in about twenty major programming efforts. The Basis System includes two major components, a program development system and a run-time package. The run-time package provides the Basis Language interpreter, through which the user does input, output, plotting, and control of the program's subroutines and functions. Variables in the scientific packages are known to this interpreter, so that the user may arbitrarily print, plot, and calculate with, any major program variables. Also provided are facilities for dynamic memory management, terminal logs, error recovery, text-file i/o, and the attachment of non-Basis-developed packages.

  11. Safety Basis Report

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-14

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities.

  12. 47 CFR 27.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.1 Basis and purpose. This section contains the statutory basis... rules for miscellaneous wireless communications services (WCS) in this part are promulgated under...

  13. 47 CFR 27.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.1 Basis and purpose. This section contains the statutory basis... rules for miscellaneous wireless communications services (WCS) in this part are promulgated under...

  14. 47 CFR 27.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.1 Basis and purpose. This section contains the statutory basis... rules for miscellaneous wireless communications services (WCS) in this part are promulgated under...

  15. 47 CFR 27.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.1 Basis and purpose. This section contains the statutory basis... rules for miscellaneous wireless communications services (WCS) in this part are promulgated under...

  16. Embryology of the VNO and associated structures in the grass snake Natrix natrix (Squamata: Naticinae): a 3D perspective.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Paweł; Hermyt, Mateusz; Rupik, Weronika

    2017-01-01

    Snakes are considered to be vomerolfaction specialists. They are members of one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates, Squamata. The vomeronasal organ and the associated structures (such as the lacrimal duct, choanal groove, lamina transversalis anterior and cupola Jacobsoni) of adult lizards and snakes have received much anatomical, histological, physiological and behavioural attention. However, only limited embryological investigation into these structures, constrained to some anatomical or cellular studies and brief surveys, has been carried out thus far. The purpose of this study was, first, to examine the embryonic development of the vomeronasal organ and the associated structures in the grass snake (Natrix natrix), using three-dimensional reconstructions based on histological studies, and, second, to compare the obtained results with those presented in known publications on other snakes and lizards. Five major developmental processes were taken into consideration in this study: separation of the vomeronasal organ from the nasal cavity and its specialization, development of the mushroom body, formation of the lacrimal duct, development of the cupola Jacobsoni and its relation to the vomeronasal nerve, and specialization of the sensory epithelium. Our visualizations showed the VNO in relation to the nasal cavity, choanal groove, lacrimal duct and cupola Jacobsoni at different embryonic stages. We confirmed that the choanal groove disappears gradually, which indicates that this structure is absent in adult grass snakes. On our histological sections, we observed a gradual growth in the height of the columns of the vomeronasal sensory epithelium and widening of the spaces between them. The main ophidian taxa (Scolecophidia, Henophidia and Caenophidia), just like other squamate clades, seem to be evolutionarily conservative at some levels with respect to the VNO and associated structures morphology. Thus, it was possible to homologize certain embryonic levels

  17. Complete Basis Set Model Chemistries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochterski, Joseph Wallace

    1994-01-01

    The major source of error in most ab initio calculations of molecular energies is the truncation of the one-electron basis set. Extrapolation to the complete basis set second -order (CBS2) limit using the N^{-1 } asymptotic convergence of N-configuration pair natural orbital (PNO) expansions can be combined with the use of relatively small basis sets for the higher-order correlation energy to develop cost effective computational models. Following this strategy, four new computational models denoted CBS-4, CBS-q, CBS-Q, and CBS-QCI/APNO are introduced. The mean absolute deviations (MAD) from experiment for the 125 energies of the G2 test set are 2.0, 1.7, 1.0 and 0.5 kcal/mol, respectively. The error distributions for all six models are indistinguishable from Gaussian distribution functions. Calculations on the cyclopropenyl radical and cyclopropenylidene provide new dissociation energies which are in accord with an interpretation of the thermochemistry emphasizing aromaticity. Several levels of theory are examined as candidates for the routine calculation of molecular geometries. The very simple UHF/3-21G* model gives bond lengths to an accuracy of +/-0.027 A compared with experiment for a test set of 69 small molecules. The commonly used MP2/6-31G* model (RMS error 0.025 A) offers virtually no improvement and use of the considerably more expensive QCISD calculations with the same basis set provides only a modest reduction to 0.020 A. However, spin projected MP3 calculations with a modified basis set including f -functions on Si, P, S, and Cl, reduce the RMS error to 0.010 A. This PMP3/6-31Gdf* model is recommended as a general scheme of geometry optimization for small molecules. The equilibrium structure and binding energy of the water dimer have been determined for several levels of ab initio theory. The basis set convergence of the SCF energy, the intramolecular and intermolecular MP2 energy, and higher-order effects, are examined separately and realistic error

  18. Preduodenal portal vein with preduodenal common bile duct: an extremely rare anomaly.

    PubMed

    Shah, Omar J; Robbani, Irfan; Khuroo, Mohammad S

    2009-04-01

    Preduodenal portal vein (PDPV) may occur as an isolated event and result in no symptoms, or it may found at autopsy as an incidental finding; associated preduodenal common bile duct (PDCBD) is an extremely rare event. To the 8 reported cases of PDPV with PDCBD, we add this rare case. Such a discovery is often incidental and of little import; however, it takes on major importance for hepatobiliary surgeons because the accidental damage of PDPV with PDCBD can lead to serious consequences. In addition to describing and illustrating this case, we discuss its relevant anatomy, embryology and associated malformations.

  19. Congenital web of the common bile duct in association with cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Papaziogas, Basilios; Lazaridis, Charalampos; Pavlidis, Theodoros; Galanis, Ioannis; Paraskevas, George; Papaziogas, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Congenital web formations are extremely rare anomalies of the extrahepatic biliary tree. The age at presentation and the clinical symptomatology of these anomalies depend on the grade of the biliary obstruction. We report a case of a common bile duct septum in association with cholelithiasis in a 30-year-old woman. The diagnosis was made on preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and confirmed with intraoperative cholangiography. Because all known causes of acquired web formation were excluded, a congenital origin of the web was assumed. The patient was treated with a hepaticoduodenostomy above the level of the septum. The embryological aspects of this rare anomaly are described.

  20. Sex identification using the ZFX and ZFY genes in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Takabayashi, Shuji; Katoh, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated sex determination via the ZFX and ZFY genes using PCR-RFLP in the common marmoset. We designed a novel primer set to detect ZFX and ZFY. A 483-bp band from the ZFX gene and a 471-bp band from the ZFY gene were amplified. Sequencing data of the products amplified from ZFX and ZFY showed the recognition sites of two restriction enzymes, DdeI and MseI, respectively. After digestion of the products using each enzyme, we found that the band patterns between females and males were different. PCR-based sex identification might provide a tool for further breeding studies and experimental embryological studies using marmosets.

  1. Embryology of oesophageal atresia

    PubMed Central

    Ioannides, Adonis S.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Oesophageal atresia (OA) and tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TOF) are important human birth defects of unknown aetiology. The embryogenesis of OA/TOF remains poorly understood mirroring the lack of clarity of the mechanisms of normal tracheo-oesophageal development. The development of rat and mouse models of OA/TOF has allowed the parallel study of both normal and abnormal embryogenesis. Although controversies persist, the fundamental morphogenetic process appears to be a rearrangement of the proximal foregut into separate respiratory (ventral) and gastrointestinal (dorsal) tubes. This process depends on the precise temporal and spatial pattern of expression of a number of foregut patterning genes. Disturbance of this pattern disrupts foregut separation and underlies the development of tracheo-oesophageal malformations. PMID:19103415

  2. Congenital coronary artery anomalies: a bridge from embryology to anatomy and pathophysiology--a position statement of the development, anatomy, and pathology ESC Working Group.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pomares, José María; de la Pompa, José Luis; Franco, Diego; Henderson, Deborah; Ho, Siew Yen; Houyel, Lucile; Kelly, Robert G; Sedmera, David; Sheppard, Mary; Sperling, Silke; Thiene, Gaetano; van den Hoff, Maurice; Basso, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Congenital coronary artery anomalies are of major significance in clinical cardiology and cardiac surgery due to their association with myocardial ischaemia and sudden death. Such anomalies are detectable by imaging modalities and, according to various definitions, their prevalence ranges from 0.21 to 5.79%. This consensus document from the Development, Anatomy and Pathology Working Group of the European Society of Cardiology aims to provide: (i) a definition of normality that refers to essential anatomical and embryological features of coronary vessels, based on the integrated analysis of studies of normal and abnormal coronary embryogenesis and pathophysiology; (ii) an animal model-based systematic survey of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate coronary blood vessel development; (iii) an organization of the wide spectrum of coronary artery anomalies, according to a comprehensive anatomical and embryological classification scheme; (iv) current knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying symptoms and signs of coronary artery anomalies, with diagnostic and therapeutic implications. This document identifies the mosaic-like embryonic development of the coronary vascular system, as coronary cell types differentiate from multiple cell sources through an intricate network of molecular signals and haemodynamic cues, as the necessary framework for understanding the complex spectrum of coronary artery anomalies observed in human patients.

  3. 'By the work, one knows the workman': the practice and profession of the embryologist and its translation to quality in the embryology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Go, Kathryn J

    2015-10-01

    The embryologist presides over the fulfillment of a patient's treatment in the laboratory for IVF through use of assisted reproduction techniques, and is in a unique position to impart quality to the process. Although the technical skill of the embryologist is critical, the embryologist's contribution to quality is equally conveyed through a knowledge of reproductive biology, keen observation and judgment, astute decision-making, the 'grit' to work under pressure and time constraints, and a sense of mission in the provision and continual development of a safe and effective laboratory. The embryologist also ensures that the laboratory complies with the regulations of federal, state, local and institutional authorities and the recommendations and guidelines of professional associations. In these roles, the embryologist assumes unique responsibilities counterbalanced by the unique rewards of assisting patients in having a family. This article aspires to illuminate this singular profession for those who may be contemplating a career in embryology and act as a resource for those who seek insight into this amalgam of basic science, technical proficiency, and managerial skill and acumen that characterize the practice of clinical embryology and the myriad of ways that practitioners contribute to the quality of assisted reproduction techniques and patient care. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuromechanical Basis of Kinesiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enoka, Roger M.

    This textbook provides a scientific basis for the study of human motion. The eight chapters are organized under three major sections. Part One--The Force-Motion Relationship--contains chapters on (1) motion; (2) force; (3) types of movement analysis. In Part Two--The Simple Joint System--chapters concern (4) simple joint system components; (5)…

  5. Neuromechanical Basis of Kinesiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enoka, Roger M.

    This textbook provides a scientific basis for the study of human motion. The eight chapters are organized under three major sections. Part One--The Force-Motion Relationship--contains chapters on (1) motion; (2) force; (3) types of movement analysis. In Part Two--The Simple Joint System--chapters concern (4) simple joint system components; (5)…

  6. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  7. Ordinary Retirement: Commonalities and Continuity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John R.; Westcott, Glyn

    1991-01-01

    Case studies of 25 recent retirees from midwest plant formed basis for profile of ordinary retirement. Found that commonalities of preparation, satisfaction, activity patterns, and relationships far outweighed differences. Exceptions were found for the widowed, divorced, and those with health disabilities. (Author/NB)

  8. The Academic Common Market. 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    The Academic Common Market is an interstate agreement among Southern states for sharing academic programs. Participating states are able to make arrangements for their residents who qualify for admission to enroll in specific programs in other states on an in-state tuition basis. Thus far, the arrangements have been limited to unusual graduate…

  9. 47 CFR 64.2001 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.2001 Section 64.2001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2001 Basis and...

  10. 47 CFR 64.2001 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.2001 Section 64.2001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2001 Basis and...

  11. 47 CFR 64.2001 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.2001 Section 64.2001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2001 Basis and...

  12. 47 CFR 64.2001 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.2001 Section 64.2001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2001 Basis and...

  13. 47 CFR 64.2001 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.2001 Section 64.2001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2001 Basis and purpose...

  14. Genetic basis of cognitive disability

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    The importance of genetic influences on cognitive disability has been recognized for a long time, but molecular analysis has only recently begun to yield insights into the pathogenesis of this common and disabling condition. The availability of genome sequences has enabled the characterization of the chromosomal deletions and trisomies that result in cognitive disability, and mutations in rare single-gene conditions are being discovered. The molecular pathology of cognitive disability is turning out to be as heterogeneous as the condition itself, with unexpected complexities even in apparently simple gene-deletion syndromes. One remarkable finding from studies on X-linked mental retardation is that mutations in different small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins result in cognitive disability without other somatic features. Advances are also being made in cognitive disability with polygenic origins, such as dyslexia and autism. However, the genetic basis of mild intellectual disability has yet to be satisfactorily explained. PMID:22034445

  15. Common Geometry Module

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  16. A glance at Spanish embryology and teratology during the XX century through the academic life of Francisco Orts-Llorca (1905-1993).

    PubMed

    Aréchaga, Juan; Jiménez-Collado, Juan; Ruano-Gil, Domingo

    2009-01-01

    Francisco Ort-Llorca (1905-1993) was one of the most outstanding Spanish embryologists of the XX century. He was disciple of Henri Rouvire in Paris (France), Alfred Fischel in Vienna (Austria), Walther Vogt in Munich (Germany) and Pedro Ara in Madrid (Spain). From 1935, he was professor of Human Anatomy at the Faculty of Medicine of Cadiz, belonged then to the University of Seville (accidentally, in the University of Valencia, during the Spanish Civil War from 1936-1939) and, later on, at the Faculty of Medicine of Madrid (Complutense University) from 1954 to 1975. He was internationally recognized in anatomical sciences and stood out for his contributions to descriptive and experimental Embryology and Teratology, particularly in those aspects connected to the normal and pathological development of the heart and visual organs.

  17. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  18. Embryological Results of Couples Undergoing ICSI-ET Treatments with Males Carrying the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs175080 of the MLH3 Gene.

    PubMed

    Anifandis, George; Markandona, Ourania; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos; Messini, Christina; Tsezou, Aspasia; Dimitraki, Marina; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Daponte, Alexandros; Messinis, Ioannis

    2017-02-02

    Human MLH3 (hMLH3) gene has been suggested to play a role in the DNA mismatch repair mechanism, while it may also be associated with abnormal spermatogenesis and subsequently male infertility. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible relationships between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs175080 in the MLH3 gene of males and the embryological results in couples undergoing intracytoplasmatic sperm injection-embryo transfer (ICSI-ET) treatments. A total of 132 men volunteered for the study and gave written informed consent. All couples were subjected to ICSI-ET treatments in the years 2010 to 2012. The couples were divided into three groups according to the genotype of their husbands: the wild type GG (n = 28), the heterozygotic type GA (n = 72) and the mutant type AA (n = 32). Significantly lower sperm concentration and progressive motility were observed in the AA group as compared to the other two groups (Concentration: 14.57 ± 4.9 mil/mL in AA, 38.3 ± 5.4 mil/mL in GA and 41.03 ± 6.8 mil/mL in GG, p < 0.05, mean ± standard error of the mean-SEM). However, significantly better embryological results (mean score of embryo quality-MSEQ) were found in the AA (8.12 ± 0.5) and the GA group (7.36 ± 0.4) as compared to the GG group (5.82 ± 0.7), (p < 0.05). Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the AA genotype group (43.8%) and the GA group (30.6%) than in the GG group (14.3%), (p < 0.05). Live birth rate was not different. It is suggested for the first time that the deteriorating effect of the mutant type on sperm characteristics does not impact on embryo development after fertilization in vitro.

  19. Embryological Results of Couples Undergoing ICSI-ET Treatments with Males Carrying the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs175080 of the MLH3 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Anifandis, George; Markandona, Ourania; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos; Messini, Christina; Tsezou, Aspasia; Dimitraki, Marina; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Daponte, Alexandros; Messinis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Human MLH3 (hMLH3) gene has been suggested to play a role in the DNA mismatch repair mechanism, while it may also be associated with abnormal spermatogenesis and subsequently male infertility. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible relationships between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs175080 in the MLH3 gene of males and the embryological results in couples undergoing intracytoplasmatic sperm injection-embryo transfer (ICSI-ET) treatments. A total of 132 men volunteered for the study and gave written informed consent. All couples were subjected to ICSI-ET treatments in the years 2010 to 2012. The couples were divided into three groups according to the genotype of their husbands: the wild type GG (n = 28), the heterozygotic type GA (n = 72) and the mutant type AA (n = 32). Significantly lower sperm concentration and progressive motility were observed in the AA group as compared to the other two groups (Concentration: 14.57 ± 4.9 mil/mL in AA, 38.3 ± 5.4 mil/mL in GA and 41.03 ± 6.8 mil/mL in GG, p < 0.05, mean ± standard error of the mean—SEM). However, significantly better embryological results (mean score of embryo quality–MSEQ) were found in the AA (8.12 ± 0.5) and the GA group (7.36 ± 0.4) as compared to the GG group (5.82 ± 0.7), (p < 0.05). Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the AA genotype group (43.8%) and the GA group (30.6%) than in the GG group (14.3%), (p < 0.05). Live birth rate was not different. It is suggested for the first time that the deteriorating effect of the mutant type on sperm characteristics does not impact on embryo development after fertilization in vitro. PMID:28157160

  20. Structural basis of aspartylglucosaminuria

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Seiji; Ohno, Kazuki; Sugawara, Kanako; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Togawa, Tadayasu; Sakuraba, Hitoshi

    2008-12-26

    To elucidate the basis of aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) from the viewpoint of enzyme structure, we constructed structural models of mutant aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA) proteins using molecular modeling software, TINKER. We classified the amino acid substitutions responsible for AGU and divided them into three groups based on the biochemical phenotype. Then, we examined the structural changes in the AGA protein for each group by calculating the solvent-accessible surface area (ASA), the number of atoms affected, and the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD). Our results revealed that the structural changes in group 1, which exhibits folding/transport defects and a complete deficiency of AGA activity, were generally large and located in the core region of the enzyme molecule. In group 2, exhibiting the mature AGA protein but no AGA activity, the functionally important region of the enzyme molecule was seriously affected. In group 3 exhibiting residual AGA activity, the structural changes in AGA were small and localized near the surface of the enzyme molecule. Coloring of affected atoms based on the distances between the wild-type and mutant ones revealed the characteristic structural changes in the AGA protein geographically and semi-quantitatively. Structural investigation provides us with a deeper insight into the basis of AGU.

  1. TMT common software update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Kim; Brighton, Allan; Buur, Hanne

    2016-08-01

    TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their functional roles in the software system. TMT CSW has recently passed its preliminary design review. The unique features of CSW include its use of multiple, open-source products as the basis for services, and an approach that works to reduce the amount of CSW-provided infrastructure code. Considerable prototyping was completed during this phase to mitigate risk with results that demonstrate the validity of this design approach and the selected service implementation products. This paper describes the latest design of TMT CSW, key features, and results from the prototyping effort.

  2. WEST Physics Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907-12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L-H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  3. Neurobiological Basis of Hypersexuality.

    PubMed

    Kühn, S; Gallinat, J

    2016-01-01

    Until now, hypersexuality has not found entry into the common diagnostic classification systems. However it is a frequently discussed phenomenon consisting of excessive sexual appetite that is maladaptive for the individual. Initial studies investigated the neurobiological underpinnings of hypersexuality, but current literature is still insufficient to draw unequivocal conclusions. In the present review, we summarize and discuss findings from various perspectives: neuroimaging and lesion studies, studies on other neurological disorders that are sometimes accompanied by hypersexuality, neuropharmacological evidence, genetic as well as animal studies. Taken together, the evidence seems to imply that alterations in the frontal lobe, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, septum, and brain regions that process reward play a prominent role in the emergence of hypersexuality. Genetic studies and neuropharmacological treatment approaches point at an involvement of the dopaminergic system. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental Basis of Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Floreani, Annarosa; Leung, Patrick S C; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-06-01

    The three common themes that underlie the induction and perpetuation of autoimmunity are genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and immune regulation. Environmental factors have gained much attention for their role in triggering autoimmunity, with increasing evidence of their influence as demonstrated by epidemiological studies, laboratory research, and animal studies. Environmental factors known to trigger and perpetuate autoimmunity include infections, gut microbiota, as well as physical and environmental agents. To address these issues, we will review major potential mechanisms that underlie autoimmunity including molecular mimicry, epitope spreading, bystander activation, polyclonal activation of B and T cells, infections, and autoinflammatory activation of innate immunity. The association of the gut microbiota on autoimmunity will be particularly highlighted by their interaction with pharmaceutical agents that may lead to organ-specific autoimmunity. Nonetheless, and we will emphasize this point, the precise mechanism of environmental influence on disease pathogenesis remains elusive.

  5. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  6. An extremely rare inversion of the preduodenal portal vein and common bile duct associated with multiple malformations. Report of an adult cadaver case with a brief review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yi, S-Q; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, A; Shimokawa, T; Ru, F; Nakatani, T

    2004-05-01

    A preduodenal position of the portal vein (PDPV) is a very rare congenital anomaly; even rarer is its association with a preduodenal position of the common bile duct (PDCBD). To the seven cases of PDCBD mentioned in the literature, we add this particularly rare case which is associated with multiple abnormalities such as situs inversus totalis, intestinal malrotation, short pancreas, bilobed spleen, accessory spleen, and abnormal ramification of the celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery and renal arteries. Besides describing and illustrating this case, we also discuss the anatomy and embryology of these structures and briefly review the patterns of previously reported cases that we found. We performed an immunohistochemical examination of the pancreas to demonstrate the ventro-dorsal pancreas in our case. For the explanation of the embryology of the PDCBD, the ventro-dorsal pancreas and PDPV malformation, we emphasized the reverse rotation of the ventral pancreas and duodenum.

  7. The need for interaction between assisted reproduction technology and genetics: recommendations of the European Societies of Human Genetics and Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    PubMed

    2006-08-01

    Infertility and reproductive genetic risk are both increasing in our societies because of lifestyle changes and possibly environmental factors. Owing to the magnitude of the problem, they have implications not only at the individual and family levels but also at the community level. This leads to an increasing demand for access to assisted reproduction technology (ART) and genetic services, especially when the cause of infertility may be genetic in origin. The increasing application of genetics in reproductive medicine and vice versa requires closer collaboration between the two disciplines. ART and genetics are rapidly evolving fields where new technologies are currently introduced without sufficient knowledge of their potential long-term effects. As for any medical procedures, there are possible unexpected effects which need to be envisaged to make sure that the balance between benefits and risks is clearly on the benefit side. The development of ART and genetics as scientific activities is creating an opportunity to understand the early stages of human development, which is leading to new and challenging findings/knowledge. However, there are opinions against investigating the early stages of development in humans who deserve respect and attention. For all these reasons, these two societies, European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), have joined efforts to explore the issues at stake and to set up recommendations to maximize the benefit for the couples in need and for the community.

  8. Obligatory versus elective single embryo transfer in in vitro fertilization. A population-based analysis of data from the U.K. Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority.

    PubMed

    Straughen, Jennifer K; Salihu, Hamisu M; Keith, Louis; Petrozzino, Jeffrey; Jones, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    To determine how obligatory single embryo transfer (SET) and elective SET influence pregnancy outcome. We compared women who underwent obligatory and elective SET using data from a comprehensive, population-based register from the United Kingdom Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, which contained all in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments administered between 1991 and 1998. Generalized estimating equations were used to generate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to compare clinical pregnancy, live birth, and multiple birth rates. Obligatory and elective SET had similar clinical pregnancy and live birth rates and comparable multiple birth rates. Obligatory and elective SET were equally likely to end in a live birth (OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.90, 1.30). Similar results were found after restricting the data to women without previous IVF births (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.42) and without previous naturally conceived live births (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.95, 1.43). This study suggests that obligatory SET can achieve pregnancy and live birth rates that are at least as good as elective SET. Equally important is the low multiple birth rate which was maintained in both forms of SET. More studies comparing elective versus obligatory SET can assist with achieving optimal pregnancy rates while preventing multiple births.

  9. 42 CFR 412.25 - Excluded hospital units: Common requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.25 Excluded hospital units: Common requirements. (a) Basis...

  10. 42 CFR 412.25 - Excluded hospital units: Common requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.25 Excluded hospital units: Common requirements. (a) Basis...

  11. 42 CFR 412.25 - Excluded hospital units: Common requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.25 Excluded hospital units: Common requirements. (a) Basis...

  12. 42 CFR 412.25 - Excluded hospital units: Common requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.25 Excluded hospital units: Common requirements. (a) Basis...

  13. 42 CFR 412.25 - Excluded hospital units: Common requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.25 Excluded hospital units: Common requirements. (a) Basis...

  14. CMAC with General Basis Functions.

    PubMed

    Chun-Shin, Lin; Ching-Tsan, Chiang

    1996-10-01

    The cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) is often used in learning control. It can be viewed as a basis function network (BFN). The conventional CMAC uses local constant basis functions. A disadvantage is that its output is constant within each quantized state and the derivative information is not preserved. If the constant basis functions are replaced by non-constant differentiable basis functions, the derivative information will be able to be stored into the structure as well. In this paper, the generalized scheme that uses general basis functions is investigated. The conventional CMAC is a special case of the generalized technique. The mathematical foundation for the modified scheme is derived and the convergence of learning is proved. Simulations for the CMAC with Gaussian basis functions (GBFs) are performed to demonstrate the improvement of accuracy in modeling, and the capability in providing derivative information. Copyright 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

  15. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  16. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  17. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  18. p75 Neurotrophin receptor differentiates between morphoeic basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma: insights into the histogenesis of adnexal tumours based on embryology and hair follicle biology.

    PubMed

    Krahl, D; Sellheyer, K

    2010-07-01

    Tumour development is frequently described in the basic pathology literature as a recapitulation of embryogenesis. However, a link between the embryology of the skin and the histogenesis of adnexal tumours has been largely overlooked. The low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) has a profound role in hair follicle biology. We therefore speculated that it is involved in the histogenesis of follicular adnexal tumours. One of the most challenging diagnoses in dermatopathology is differentiating morphoeic basal cell carcinoma from desmoplastic trichoepithelioma. To describe the expression pattern of p75NTR during cutaneous embryogenesis, in the adult hair follicle and in morphoeic basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma. Evaluation of the staining pattern for p75NTR was performed using standard immunohistochemical techniques. For comparison, we examined staining for cytokeratin 20 which highlights Merkel cells. All 17 desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas were immunoreactive with > 80% of the cells stained, whereas 12 of the 14 (86%) morphoeic basal cell carcinomas were p75NTR negative. In the two positive cases of morphoeic basal cell carcinoma < 30% of cells were labelled. In the late bulbous hair peg stage and in the postnatal anagen hair follicle p75NTR highlights the outer root sheath. Our results support the classification of desmoplastic trichoepithelioma as a follicular hamartoma mimicking the outer root sheath. In contrast, the lack of p75NTR expression in morphoeic basal cell carcinoma favours a concept of this tumour as a more primitive follicular lesion with the characteristics of a carcinoma and not a hamartoma. We suggest including p75NTR as a tool in the differential diagnosis between morphoeic basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.

  19. Cellular and molecular basis of cerebellar development

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Salvador; Andreu, Abraham; Mecklenburg, Nora; Echevarria, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cerebellar development were investigated through structural descriptions and studying spontaneous mutations in animal models and humans. Advances in experimental embryology, genetic engineering, and neuroimaging techniques render today the possibility to approach the analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying histogenesis and morphogenesis of the cerebellum by experimental designs. Several genes and molecules were identified to be involved in the cerebellar plate regionalization, specification, and differentiation of cerebellar neurons, as well as the establishment of cellular migratory routes and the subsequent neuronal connectivity. Indeed, pattern formation of the cerebellum requires the adequate orchestration of both key morphogenetic signals, arising from distinct brain regions, and local expression of specific transcription factors. Thus, the present review wants to revisit and discuss these morphogenetic and molecular mechanisms taking place during cerebellar development in order to understand causal processes regulating cerebellar cytoarchitecture, its highly topographically ordered circuitry and its role in brain function. PMID:23805080

  20. Finding Common Ground with the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisan, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the Common Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The process raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…

  1. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  2. Finding Common Ground with the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisan, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the Common Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The process raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…

  3. Common diseases as determinants of menopausal age.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingmei; Eriksson, Mikael; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A

    2016-12-01

    .08-0.50) and 0.91 (0.85-0.98), respectively). None of the other diseases examined were significantly associated with ANM. Information from the questionnaire was self-reported, making recall possible, but it is unlikely that any bias was different in the strata of different factors considered. Misclassification could also have occurred in cases where the diagnoses of common diseases were close to age at last follow-up. In addition, observational studies cannot establish that the associations identified represent cause-and-effect relationships. Our study is the first in examining multiple common diseases simultaneously as determinants of ANM. Contrary to previous reports, we did not find any significant accelerating effect of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and diabetes on ANM. KARMA was financed by the Märit and Hans Rausing's Initiative Against Breast Cancer. K.R.W. is supported by the Swedish Society of Medicine and by Stockholm County Council. J.L. is a recipient of an Alex and Eva Wallström Foundation award. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Canonical Commonality Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, K. Dawn

    Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor…

  5. Knowledge representation for commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1990-01-01

    Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.

  6. The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis: an electronic guideline implementability appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines are intended to improve healthcare. However, even if guidelines are excellent, their implementation is not assured. In subfertility care, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) guidelines have been inventoried, and their methodological quality has been assessed. To improve the impact of the ESHRE guidelines and to improve European subfertility care, it is important to optimise the implementability of guidelines. We therefore investigated the implementation barriers of the ESHRE guideline with the best methodological quality and evaluated the used instrument for usability and feasibility. Methods We reviewed the ESHRE guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis to assess its implementability. We used an electronic version of the guideline implementability appraisal (eGLIA) instrument. This eGLIA tool consists of 31 questions grouped into 10 dimensions. Seven items address the guideline as a whole, and 24 items assess the individual recommendations in the guideline. The eGLIA instrument identifies factors that influence the implementability of the guideline recommendations. These factors can be divided into facilitators that promote implementation and barriers that oppose implementation. A panel of 10 experts from three European countries appraised all 36 recommendations of the guideline. They discussed discrepancies in a teleconference and completed a questionnaire to evaluate the ease of use and overall utility of the eGLIA instrument. Results Two of the 36 guideline recommendations were straightforward to implement. Five recommendations were considered simply statements because they contained no actions. The remaining 29 recommendations were implementable with some adjustments. We found facilitators of the guideline implementability in the quality of decidability, presentation and formatting, apparent validity, and novelty or innovation of the recommendations. Vaguely defined actions, lack of

  7. Predictive Models and Computational Embryology

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s ‘virtual embryo’ project is building an integrative systems biology framework for predictive models of developmental toxicity. One schema involves a knowledge-driven adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework utilizing information from public databases, standardized ontologies...

  8. [Comparative embryology and mammalian cloning].

    PubMed

    Sakharova, N Iu; Chaĭlakhian, L M

    2010-01-01

    A hypothesis has been advanced that logically combines "contradictory" facts concerning the early mammalian development and shows a natural relationship between the embryos developing from a fertilized ovum and from cells of the inner cell mass of blastocyst. When studying the theoretical questions of cloning, it is necessary to take into consideration the peculiarities of prenatal mammalian ontogenesis, which make themselves evident upon comparison with other animals. The absence of yolk in the mammalian ovum defines sharp differences in the early development between mammals and other Amniota. The whole asynchronic cleavage results in the formation of the morula followed by the blastocyst, which hatches from zona pellucida and is implanted into the uterus tissue. This fact allows us to consider the blastocyst as a mammalian larva, which is fed thanks to maternal organism. It is known that, in the body of a larva (blastocyst), a new embryo develops from some somatic cells. This process is known as a polyembryony, which is typical for the development of some parasitic insects. The polyembryony in turn is a variant of somatic embryogenesis, which is a form of asexual reproduction. Thus, two different embryos, "conceptus" and "embryo proper", have different origin: the first forms by the sexual way and the second, by the asexual. The investigation of the mechanisms of somatic embryogenesis in mammals will help us to find conditions necessary for the full reprograming of donor somatic nuclei and provide the successful development of reconstructed embryos.

  9. EMBRYOLOGY OF AUTISM. (R824758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Predictive Models and Computational Embryology

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s ‘virtual embryo’ project is building an integrative systems biology framework for predictive models of developmental toxicity. One schema involves a knowledge-driven adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework utilizing information from public databases, standardized ontologies...

  11. EMBRYOLOGY OF AUTISM. (R824758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. Embryology of myelomeningocele and anencephaly.

    PubMed

    Dias, Mark S; Partington, Michael

    2004-02-15

    The authors review current views on of the embryogenesis of the neural tube defects (NTDs) myelomeningocele and anencephaly. In this context, the following four approaches to the study of NTDs are discussed: normal morphogenesis and timing of early human neural development from conception to the ascent of the conus medullaris; mechanical and molecular biology of neural tube closure derived from experimental and animal models; morphological and biomechanical features of the NTDs myelomeningocele and anencephaly; and the experimental evidence for the importance of both genetic and environmental influences on human NTDs. Although considerable insight into both normal neural tube closure and the factor(s) by which this process may be disrupted has been reported in recent years, the exact mechanism(s) by which human myelomeningoceles and anencephaly arise remain elusive.

  13. The Academic Common Market. 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    The Academic Common Market is an interstate agreement among Southern states for sharing academic programs. Participating states are able to make arrangements for their residents who qualify for admission to enroll in specific programs in other states on an in-state tuition basis. The initial arrangements have been limited to unusual graduate…

  14. GASB's Basis of Accounting Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovlak, Daniel L.

    1986-01-01

    In July 1984, the Governmental Accounting Standards Board began its "Measurement Focus/Basis of Accounting" project, which addresses measurement issues and revenue and expenditure recognition problems involving governmental funds. This article explains the project's background, alternatives discussed by the board, and tentative…

  15. A Molecular Basis of Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the molecular basis of cancer, focusing on genetics of the disease. Indicates that human cancers are initiated by oncogenes (altered versions of normal genes) and that in one case the critical alteration is a single point mutation that changes one amino acid in the protein encoded by the gene. (JN)

  16. Grobner Basis Representations of Sudoku

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taalman, Laura; Arnold, Elizabeth; Lucas, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses Grobner bases to explore the inherent structure of Sudoku puzzles and boards. In particular, we develop three different ways of representing the constraints of Sudoku puzzles with a system of polynomial equations. In one case, we explicitly show how a Grobner basis can be used to obtain a more meaningful representation of the…

  17. A Molecular Basis of Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the molecular basis of cancer, focusing on genetics of the disease. Indicates that human cancers are initiated by oncogenes (altered versions of normal genes) and that in one case the critical alteration is a single point mutation that changes one amino acid in the protein encoded by the gene. (JN)

  18. Localized basis sets for unbound electrons in nanoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Soriano, D; Jacob, D; Palacios, J J

    2008-02-21

    It is shown how unbound electron wave functions can be expanded in a suitably chosen localized basis sets for any desired range of energies. In particular, we focus on the use of Gaussian basis sets, commonly used in first-principles codes. The possible usefulness of these basis sets in a first-principles description of field emission or scanning tunneling microscopy at large bias is illustrated by studying a simpler related phenomenon: The lifetime of an electron in a H atom subjected to a strong electric field.

  19. The Common Geometry Module (CGM).

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy James

    2004-12-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also includes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  20. Differential Forms Basis Functions for Better Conditioned Integral Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Fasenfest, B; White, D; Stowell, M; Rieben, R; Sharpe, R; Madsen, N; Rockway, J D; Champagne, N J; Jandhyala, V; Pingenot, J

    2005-01-13

    Differential forms offer a convenient way to classify physical quantities and set up computational problems. By observing the dimensionality and type of derivatives (divergence,curl,gradient) applied to a quantity, an appropriate differential form can be chosen for that quantity. To use these differential forms in a simulation, the forms must be discretized using basis functions. The 0-form through 2-form basis functions are formed for surfaces. Twisted 1-form and 2-form bases will be presented in this paper. Twisted 1-form (1-forms) basis functions ({Lambda}) are divergence-conforming edge basis functions with units m{sup -1}. They are appropriate for representing vector quantities with continuous normal components, and they belong to the same function space as the commonly used RWG bases [1]. They are used here to formulate the frequency-domain EFIE with Galerkin testing. The 2-form basis functions (f) are scalar basis functions with units m{sup -2} and with no enforced continuity between elements. At lowest order, the 2-form basis functions are similar to pulse basis functions. They are used here to formulate an electrostatic integral equation. It should be noted that the derivative of an n-form differential form basis function is an (n+1)-form, i.e. the derivative of a 1-form basis function is a 2-form. Because the basis functions are constructed such that they have spatial units, the spatial units are removed from the degrees of freedom, leading to a better-conditioned system matrix. In this conference paper, we look at the performance of these differential forms and bases by examining the conditioning of matrix systems for electrostatics and the EFIE. The meshes used were refined across the object to consider the behavior of these basis transforms for elements of different sizes.

  1. Comparison of embryological and clinical outcome in GnRH antagonist vs. GnRH agonist protocols for in vitro fertilization in PCOS non-obese patients. A prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Kurzawa, Rafal; Baczkowski, Tomasz; Safranow, Krzysztof; Brelik, Pawel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Embryological and clinical efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist and agonist stimulation protocols in non-obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) were compared. Methods A prospective randomized study. Setting: Medical University Hospital. Patients: 70 infertile PCOS patients; 33 in GnRH antagonist and 37 in GnRH agonist group. Results Similar mature metaphase II oocyte rate (76% vs. 76%) was observed in both protocols. Optimal pronuclear morphology zygotes dominated in both groups (64% vs. 66%). Transferred embryo quality did not differ in both protocols. No significant differences between both protocols were found in delivery rate (p = 0.481), pregnancy rate (p = 0.810), multiple pregnancy rate (p = 0.501), miscarriage rate (p = 0.154), fertilization rate (p = 0.388) and implantation rate (p = 1.000). Duration of stimulation and total follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) dose were significantly lower in GnRH antagonist protocol (p = 0.0005). Conclusions GnRH antagonist and agonist protocols in non-obese PCOS patients yield similar embryological and clinical outcomes. Shorter duration of treatment and lower FSH requirement in GnRH antagonist group may be financially beneficial and therefore attractive for patients. PMID:18802744

  2. Common Pine Shoot Beetle

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack; Daniel Kucera; Steven Passoa

    1993-01-01

    The common (or larger) pine shoot beetle, Tomicus (=Blastophagus) piniperda (L.), was discovered near Cleveland, Ohio in July 1992. As of this writing, it is now in six states: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Adults of the common pine shoot beetle are cylindrical and range from 3 to 5 mm in length (about the size of a match head). Their...

  3. Conceptualizing an Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology-management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service-delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment. (Author)

  4. Campus Common Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Gordon Morris

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

  5. Common Carrier Access to Cable Communications: Regulatory and Economic Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestenbaum, Lionel

    The implications of cable television (CATV) common carrier access and economic and regulatory issues associated with it are examined in this paper. The first section provides a discussion of the feasibility and legal basis of common carrier access; the next section contrasts common carrier access with existing over-the-air television broadcasting…

  6. Perceptual basis for reactive teleoperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young S.; Ewing, Thomas F.; Boyle, James M.; Yule, Thomas J.

    2001-10-01

    To improve task performance in partially structured environments, enhancements to teleoperation have been proposed by introducing autonomous behaviors. Such autonomy is implemented based on a reactive robotic architecture, where reactive motor agents that directly couple sensory inputs and motor actions become the building blocks. To this end, a perceptual basis for the motor agents is presented in this paper. The perceptual basis consists of perceptual agents that extract environmental information from a structured light vision system and provide action-oriented perception for the corresponding motor agents. Rather than performing general scene reconstruction, a perceptual agent directly provides the motion reference for the motor behavior. Various sensory mechanisms - sensor fission, fusion, and fashion - become basic building blocks of the perception process. Since perception is a process deeply intertwined with the motor actions, active perception may also incorporate motor behaviors as an integral perceptual process.

  7. Perceptual basis for reactive teleoperation.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y. S.; Ewing, T. F.; Boyle, J. M.; Yule, T. J.

    2001-08-28

    To enhance task performance in partially structured environment, enhancement of teleoperation was proposed by introducing autonomous behaviors. Such autonomy is implemented based on reactive robotic architecture, where reactive motor agents that directly couples sensory inputs and motor actions become the building blocks. To this end, presented in this paper is a perceptual basis for the motor agents. The perceptual basis consists of perceptual agents that extracts environmental information from a structured light vision system and provide action oriented perception for the corresponding motor agents. Rather than performing general scene reconstruction, a perceptual agent directly provides the motion reference for the motor behavior. Various sensory mechanisms--sensor fission, fusion, and fashion--becomes basic building blocks of the perception process. Since perception is a process deeply intertwined with the motor actions, active perception may also incorporate motor behaviors as an integral perceptual process.

  8. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  9. TCAP Aluminium Dissolution Flowsheet Basis

    SciTech Connect

    PIERCE, ROBERTA.

    2004-03-01

    The Actinide Technology Section has proposed the use of an nitric acid HNO3 and potassium fluoride KF flowsheet for stripping palladium Pd from palladium-coated kieselguhr Pd/K and removing aluminum (Al) metal foam from the TCAP coils. The basis for the HNO3-KF flowsheet is drawn from many sources. A brief review of the sources will be presented. The basic flowsheet involves three process steps, each with its own chemistry.

  10. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  11. Performance Basis for Airborne Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging applications of Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) technologies make possible new and powerful methods in Air Traffic Management (ATM) that may significantly improve the system-level performance of operations in the future ATM system. These applications typically involve the aircraft managing certain components of its Four Dimensional (4D) trajectory within the degrees of freedom defined by a set of operational constraints negotiated with the Air Navigation Service Provider. It is hypothesized that reliable individual performance by many aircraft will translate into higher total system-level performance. To actually realize this improvement, the new capabilities must be attracted to high demand and complexity regions where high ATM performance is critical. Operational approval for use in such environments will require participating aircraft to be certified to rigorous and appropriate performance standards. Currently, no formal basis exists for defining these standards. This paper provides a context for defining the performance basis for 4D-ASAS operations. The trajectory constraints to be met by the aircraft are defined, categorized, and assessed for performance requirements. A proposed extension of the existing Required Navigation Performance (RNP) construct into a dynamic standard (Dynamic RNP) is outlined. Sample data is presented from an ongoing high-fidelity batch simulation series that is characterizing the performance of an advanced 4D-ASAS application. Data of this type will contribute to the evaluation and validation of the proposed performance basis.

  12. Communication and common interest.

    PubMed

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Martínez, Manolo

    2013-01-01

    Explaining the maintenance of communicative behavior in the face of incentives to deceive, conceal information, or exaggerate is an important problem in behavioral biology. When the interests of agents diverge, some form of signal cost is often seen as essential to maintaining honesty. Here, novel computational methods are used to investigate the role of common interest between the sender and receiver of messages in maintaining cost-free informative signaling in a signaling game. Two measures of common interest are defined. These quantify the divergence between sender and receiver in their preference orderings over acts the receiver might perform in each state of the world. Sampling from a large space of signaling games finds that informative signaling is possible at equilibrium with zero common interest in both senses. Games of this kind are rare, however, and the proportion of games that include at least one equilibrium in which informative signals are used increases monotonically with common interest. Common interest as a predictor of informative signaling also interacts with the extent to which agents' preferences vary with the state of the world. Our findings provide a quantitative description of the relation between common interest and informative signaling, employing exact measures of common interest, information use, and contingency of payoff under environmental variation that may be applied to a wide range of models and empirical systems.

  13. In pursuit (and discovery) of a genetic basis for congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weese-Mayer, Debra E; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M; Marazita, Mary L

    2005-11-15

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) typically presents in the newborn period with a phenotype including alveolar hypoventilation, symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysregulation, and in a subset of cases Hirschsprung disease and later tumors of neural crest origin. Study of genes related to the autonomic dysregulation and the embryologic origin of the neural crest has led to identification of the genetic basis for CCHS, the mode of inheritance, and the presence of mosaicism in a subset of parents. Polyalanine expansion mutations in PHOX2B have been identified to be the disease-defining mutation in CCHS, with a small subset of patients having other mutations in PHOX2B. Further, the size of the polyalanine repeat mutation in PHOX2B is correlated with the severity of the phenotype in CCHS, and non-polyalanine repeat mutations appear to, in general, result in CCHS phenotypes at the severe end of the spectrum. These studies highlight the utility of PHOX2B genetic testing for confirmation of the CCHS diagnosis, for prenatal diagnosis, and for identification of previously undiagnosed adults with unexplained hypercarbia or control of breathing deficits. This diagnostic approach may be a consideration for other complex, seemingly undecipherable diseases that affect infants and children. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of current research into the genetic basis for CCHS, an explanation for how these studies evolved, recent studies that begin to explain the mechanisms through which mutations in PHOX2B exert their effects, and clinical application of the genetic testing.

  14. Attachment theory: a biological basis for psychotherapy?

    PubMed

    Holmes, J

    1993-10-01

    John Bowlby bemoaned the separation between the biological and psychological approaches in psychiatry, and hoped that attachment theory, which brings together psychoanalysis and the science of ethology, would help bridge the rift between them. Recent findings in developmental psychology have delineated features of parent-infant interaction, especially responsiveness, attunement, and modulation of affect, which lead to either secure or insecure attachment. Similar principles can be applied to the relationship between psychotherapist and patient--the provision of a secure base, the emergence of a shared narrative ('autobiographical competence'), the processing of affect, coping with loss--these are common to most effective psychotherapies and provide the basis for a new interpersonal paradigm within psychotherapy. Attachment theory suggests they rest on a sound ethological and hence biological foundation.

  15. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  16. Common Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  17. Commonly Consumed Food Commodities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.

  18. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  19. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  20. Student Commons Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Rhonda

    2001-01-01

    Explores the new philosophy, lighting arrangements, and planning considerations behind the next generation of school common area design. Designs that enhance safety and security, and that can be flexible for other school functions are also discussed. (GR)

  1. Common Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  2. Common Causes of Stillbirth

    MedlinePlus

    ... one of the most common placental problems. The placenta separates (partially or completely) from the uterine wall ... or abnormal placement of the cord into the placenta. This can deprive the baby of oxygen. Infectious ...

  3. Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

  4. Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

  5. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  6. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  7. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  8. Flat parlog: a basis for comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Taylor, S.

    1987-04-01

    Three similar parallel logic programming languages have been proposed; Parlog, Flat Concurrent Prolog, and Guarded Horn Clauses. Quantitative comparison of the languages has not previously been possible since they employ different execution models and implementation techniques. In order to uncover the effects of semantic differences on efficiency, a common basis is required for experimentation. This paper presents a subset of the language Parlog called Flat Parlog which provides a basis for quantitative comparison. The language combines the directional semantics of Parlog with the simple execution model of Flat Concurrent Prolog. A performance comparison between Flat Parlog and Flat Concurrent Prolog based on new implementations of both languages is presented. These new implementations are identical except for optimizations that are possible by virtue of semantic differences. Benchmark results indicate that Flat Parlog is more efficient; experiments have been able to quantify and explain this performance differential. A detailed description of the abstract machine for Flat Parlog is presented to illustrate the simplicity of the language.

  9. The entropic basis of collective behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Richard P.; Garnett, Roman

    2015-01-01

    We identify a unique viewpoint on the collective behaviour of intelligent agents. We first develop a highly general abstract model for the possible future lives these agents may encounter as a result of their decisions. In the context of these possibilities, we show that the causal entropic principle, whereby agents follow behavioural rules that maximize their entropy over all paths through the future, predicts many of the observed features of social interactions among both human and animal groups. Our results indicate that agents are often able to maximize their future path entropy by remaining cohesive as a group and that this cohesion leads to collectively intelligent outcomes that depend strongly on the distribution of the number of possible future paths. We derive social interaction rules that are consistent with maximum entropy group behaviour for both discrete and continuous decision spaces. Our analysis further predicts that social interactions are likely to be fundamentally based on Weber's law of response to proportional stimuli, supporting many studies that find a neurological basis for this stimulus–response mechanism and providing a novel basis for the common assumption of linearly additive ‘social forces’ in simulation studies of collective behaviour. PMID:25833243

  10. A Neural Basis for Contagious Yawning.

    PubMed

    Brown, Beverley J; Kim, Soyoung; Saunders, Hannah; Bachmann, Clarissa; Thompson, Jessica; Ropar, Danielle; Jackson, Stephen R; Jackson, Georgina M

    2017-09-11

    Contagious yawning, in which yawning is triggered involuntarily when we observe another person yawn, is a common form of echophenomena-the automatic imitation of another's words (echolalia) or actions (echopraxia) [1]. The neural basis for echophenomena is unknown; however, it has been proposed that it is linked to disinhibition of the human mirror-neuron system [1-4] and hyper-excitability of cortical motor areas [1]. We investigated the neural basis for contagious yawning using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Thirty-six adults viewed video clips that showed another individual yawning and, in separate blocks, were instructed to either resist yawning or allow themselves to yawn. Participants were videoed throughout and their yawns or stifled yawns were counted. We used TMS to quantify motor cortical excitability and physiological inhibition for each participant, and these measures were then used to predict the propensity for contagious yawning across participants. We demonstrate that instructions to resist yawning increase the urge to yawn and alter how yawns are expressed (i.e., full versus stifled yawns) but do not alter the individual propensity for contagious yawning. By contrast, TMS measures of cortical excitability and physiological inhibition were significant predictors of contagious yawning and accounted for approximately 50% of the variability in contagious yawning. These data demonstrate that individual variability in the propensity for contagious yawning is determined by cortical excitability and physiological inhibition in the primary motor cortex. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic basis of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Tsimourtou, Vaïa; Kountra, Persa Maria; Paterakis, Konstantinos N; Kapsalaki, Eftychia Z; Fountas, Kostas N; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years, considerable progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms of Parkinson disease (PD). Mutations in certain genes are found to cause monogenic forms of the disorder, with autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive inheritance. These genes include alpha-synuclein, parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, LRRK2, and ATP13A2. The monogenic variants are important tools in identifying cellular pathways that shed light on the pathogenesis of this disease. Certain common genetic variants are also likely to modulate the risk of PD. International collaborative studies and meta-analyses have identified common variants as genetic susceptibility risk/protective factors for sporadic PD.

  12. Rare and Common Variants: Twenty arguments

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have greatly improved our understanding of the genetic basis of disease risk. The fact that they tend not to identify more than a fraction of the specific causal loci has led to divergence of opinion over whether most of the variance is hidden as numerous rare variants of large effect, or common variants of very small effect. Here I review 20 arguments for and against each of these models of the genetic basis of complex traits, and conclude that both classes of effect can be reconciled readily. PMID:22251874

  13. A Basis for Determining the Adequacy of Evaluation Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, James R.; Nafziger, Dean N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of evaluation plans or, as they are commonly called, evaluation designs. The authors assume that using the procedures suggested in this paper to determine the adequacy of evaluation designs in advance of actually conducting evaluations will lead to better evaluation designs,…

  14. The common cold.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Terho; Järvinen, Asko

    2003-01-04

    Despite great advances in medicine, the common cold continues to be a great burden on society in terms of human suffering and economic losses. Of the several viruses that cause the disease, the role of rhinoviruses is most prominent. About a quarter of all colds are still without proven cause, and the recent discovery of human metapneumovirus suggests that other viruses could remain undiscovered. Research into the inflammatory mechanisms of the common cold has elucidated the complexity of the virus-host relation. Increasing evidence is also available for the central role of viruses in predisposing to complications. New antivirals for the treatment of colds are being developed, but optimum use of these agents would require rapid detection of the specific virus causing the infection. Although vaccines against many respiratory viruses could also become available, the ultimate prevention of the common cold seems to remain a distant aim.

  15. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  16. Genetic Basis for Red Coloration in Birds.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ricardo J; Johnson, James D; Toomey, Matthew B; Ferreira, Mafalda S; Araujo, Pedro M; Melo-Ferreira, José; Andersson, Leif; Hill, Geoffrey E; Corbo, Joseph C; Carneiro, Miguel

    2016-06-06

    The yellow and red feather pigmentation of many bird species [1] plays pivotal roles in social signaling and mate choice [2, 3]. To produce red pigments, birds ingest yellow carotenoids and endogenously convert them into red ketocarotenoids via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a previously unknown ketolase [4-6]. We investigated the genetic basis for red coloration in birds using whole-genome sequencing of red siskins (Spinus cucullata), common canaries (Serinus canaria), and "red factor" canaries, which are the hybrid product of crossing red siskins with common canaries [7]. We identified two genomic regions introgressed from red siskins into red factor canaries that are required for red coloration. One of these regions contains a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2J19. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that CYP2J19 is significantly upregulated in the skin and liver of red factor canaries, strongly implicating CYP2J19 as the ketolase that mediates red coloration in birds. Interestingly, a second introgressed region required for red feathers resides within the epidermal differentiation complex, a cluster of genes involved in development of the integument. Lastly, we present evidence that CYP2J19 is involved in ketocarotenoid formation in the retina. The discovery of the carotenoid ketolase has important implications for understanding sensory function and signaling mediated by carotenoid pigmentation.

  17. A Review of Vascular Anomalies: Genetics and Common Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Killion, Elizabeth; Mohan, Kriti; Lee, Edward I.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular tumors and malformations are unique in that affected cells exhibit disrupted angiogenesis. The current treatment options often yield suboptimal results. New insight into the genetics and molecular basis of vascular anomalies may pave the way for potential development of targeted therapy. The authors review the genetic and molecular basis of vascular anomalies and common associated syndromes. PMID:25045331

  18. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  19. 14 CFR 400.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis. 400.1 Section 400.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL BASIS AND SCOPE § 400.1 Basis. The basis for the regulations in this chapter is the...

  20. 14 CFR 400.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Basis. 400.1 Section 400.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL BASIS AND SCOPE § 400.1 Basis. The basis for the regulations in this chapter is the...

  1. 14 CFR 400.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basis. 400.1 Section 400.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL BASIS AND SCOPE § 400.1 Basis. The basis for the regulations in this chapter is the...

  2. 14 CFR 400.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Basis. 400.1 Section 400.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL BASIS AND SCOPE § 400.1 Basis. The basis for the regulations in this chapter is the...

  3. 14 CFR 400.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Basis. 400.1 Section 400.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL BASIS AND SCOPE § 400.1 Basis. The basis for the regulations in this chapter is the...

  4. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety basis...

  5. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety basis...

  6. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety basis...

  7. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor... in the safety basis any changes, conditions, or hazard controls directed by DOE....

  8. Molecular Basis of Essential Thrombocytosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    IIIa fibrinogen receptor, the final common mediator of platelet aggregation. Recent meta - analysis on efficacy of GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute...Sciences of the United States of America 2005;102(50):18135-40. 34. Collaborative meta - analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for...IIIa inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes: a meta - analysis of all major randomised clinical trials. Lancet 2002;359(9302):189-98. 37. Esmon CT

  9. [Natural science basis of individuality].

    PubMed

    Simonov, P V

    1981-01-01

    Results of experiments on animals with ablation of different parts of the brain and analysis of published data suggest that the neurophysiological basis of temperaments, according to Hippocrates, of nervous system types, according to Pavlov, and of extra-introversion consists in individual peculiarities of interaction of four structures: the frontal neocortex, the hippocampus, the amygdala and the hypothalamus. Pathological disturbance of this interaction produces the basic varieties of neuroses: hysteria, neurasthenia, psychasthenia and obsessive states. The significance is discussed of individual features of sets and hierarchy of basal human needs: material-biological, social, ideal (with their variants: retention and development, "for oneself" and "for others") needs of overcoming (will) and of "fitness" - for the formation of individuality.

  10. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  11. Molecular basis of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Saiz-Rodriguez, A

    2001-01-01

    In this article we try to analyze the current knowledge on the molecular basis of the carcinogenesis and their application in the oral cancer. Molecular Biology, has contributed in a great manner, with the etiology of cancer, because it has allowed to explain the genetic mechanisms by which a cell becomes and acquires a malignant phenotype. In the chromosome of a cell exist genes (protooncogenes), that promote phenomes of growth, maturation and normal cellular proliferation. Sometimes, these protooncogenes can suffer mutations that cause an alteration in their normal function. These genes are called oncogenes. We described the most important protein products of oncogenes, as well as, the tumor-suppressor genes, with special attention in the p53 gene.

  12. The Chemical Basis of Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Molecular biology now dominates pharmacology so thoroughly that it is difficult to recall that only a generation ago the field was very different. To understand drug action today, we characterize the targets through which they act and new drug leads are discovered on the basis of target structure and function. Until the mid-1980s the information often flowed in reverse: investigators began with organic molecules and sought targets, relating receptors not by sequence or structure but by their ligands. Recently, investigators have returned to this chemical view of biology, bringing to it systematic and quantitative methods of relating targets by their ligands. This has allowed the discovery of new targets for established drugs, suggested the bases for their side effects, and predicted the molecular targets underlying phenotypic screens. The bases for these new methods, some of their successes and liabilities, and new opportunities for their use are described. PMID:21058655

  13. An Overview of PCTE: A Basis for a Portable Common Tool Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    1 303 938 5005 Mark V Systems Umited 16400 Ventura Blvd Suite 303 Encino , CA. 91436 tel. +1 818 995 7671 IPSYS Software 28 Green Street Newbury, Ma...1113 Spruce Street, Suite 500 Boulder, CO 80302 USA fax. +1 303 938 5005 Mark V Systems Umited 16400 Ventura Blvd Suite 303 Encino , CA. 91436 USA tel

  14. A Possible Common Neurophysiologic Basis for MDD, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizophrenia: Lessons from Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahaf, Goded

    2016-01-01

    There is ample electrophysiological evidence of attention dysfunction in the EEG/ERP signal of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. The reduced attention-related ERP waves show much similarity between MDD, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, raising the question whether there are similarities in the neurophysiologic process that underlies attention dysfunction in these pathologies. The present work suggests that there is such a unified underlying neurophysiologic process, which results in reduced attention in the three pathologies. Naturally, as these pathologies involve different clinical manifestations, we expect differences in their underlying neurophysiology. These differences and their subtle manifestation in the ERP marker for attention are also discussed. MDD, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are just three of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, which involve changes in the EEG/ERP manifestations of attention. Further work should expand the basic model presented here to offer comprehensive modeling of these multiple disorders and to emphasize similarities and dissimilarities of the underlying neurophysiologic processes. PMID:27313546

  15. Molecular Basis of Olfactory Chemoreception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Nannan

    2017-04-06

    As one of the most notorious ectoparasites, bed bugs rely heavily on human or animal blood sources for survival, mating and reproduction. Chemoreception, mediated by the odorant receptors on the membrane of olfactory sensory neurons, plays a vital role in their host seeking and risk aversion processes. We investigated the responses of odorant receptors to a large spectrum of semiochemicals, including human odorants and plant-released volatiles and found that strong responses were sparse; aldehydes/ketones were the most efficient stimuli, while carboxylic acids and aliphatics/aromatics were comparatively less effective in eliciting responses from bed bug odorant receptors. In bed bugs, both the odorant identity and concentrations play important roles in determining the strength of these responses. The odor space constructed based on the responses from all the odorant receptors tested revealed that odorants within the same chemical group are widely dispersed while odorants from different groups are intermingled, suggesting the complexity of odorant encoding in the bed bug odorant receptors. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the olfactory coding mechanisms of bed bugs that will ultimately contribute to the design and development of novel olfactory-based strategies to reduce both the biting nuisance and disease transmission from bed bugs.

  16. Children's judgments about ownership rights and body rights: Evidence for a common basis.

    PubMed

    Van de Vondervoort, Julia W; Meinz, Paul; Friedman, Ori

    2017-03-01

    We report two experiments supporting the theory that children's understanding of ownership rights is related to their notions of body rights. Experiment 1 investigated 4- to 7-year-olds' (N=123) developing sensitivity to physical contact in their judgments about the acceptability of behaving in relation to owned objects and body parts. Experiment 2 used a simpler design to investigate this in 3- and 4-year-olds (N=112). Findings confirmed two predictions of the theory. First, in both experiments, children's judgments about ownership and body rights were similarly affected by physical contact. Second, judgments about both kinds of rights were yoked in development; age-related changes in judgments about ownership rights were paralleled by changes in judgments about body rights. Our findings have additional import for theories of ownership rights because they suggest that physical contact may be a crucial factor in whether behaviors targeting property are judged to be permissible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. "Edigey" as the Common Heritage of the Turkic People: Historical Basis of the Epos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assanov, Zhubanazar A.; Pangereyev, Abat Sh.; Baltymova, Mira R.; Borash, Bayan T.; Idrissova, Elmira T.

    2016-01-01

    Today we know that the heroic epos "Edigey" remained among the Turkic people living in the south from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan to Siberia, as well as in foreign countries: Turkey and Romania. "Edigey" epos has more than 40 versions, some of which consist of fifteen or sixteen thousand lines. Therefore, a narrow study is not…

  18. Commonalities among the Creative Arts Therapies as a Basis for Research Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Argues that poetry therapy is similar to the other creative arts therapies in its use of creative processes and products, and in its intrinsic positiveness, gentle indirectness, and breadth of appeal and application. Suggests that collaborative research efforts among creative arts therapists can lead to new understandings of the processes and…

  19. Superpriming of synaptic vesicles as a common basis for intersynapse variability and modulation of synaptic strength

    PubMed Central

    Taschenberger, Holger; Woehler, Andrew; Neher, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Glutamatergic synapses show large variations in strength and short-term plasticity (STP). We show here that synapses displaying an increased strength either after posttetanic potentiation (PTP) or through activation of the phospholipase-C–diacylglycerol pathway share characteristic properties with intrinsically strong synapses, such as (i) pronounced short-term depression (STD) during high-frequency stimulation; (ii) a conversion of that STD into a sequence of facilitation followed by STD after a few conditioning stimuli at low frequency; (iii) an equalizing effect of such conditioning stimulation, which reduces differences among synapses and abolishes potentiation; and (iv) a requirement of long periods of rest for reconstitution of the original STP pattern. These phenomena are quantitatively described by assuming that a small fraction of “superprimed” synaptic vesicles are in a state of elevated release probability (p ∼ 0.5). This fraction is variable in size among synapses (typically about 30%), but increases after application of phorbol ester or during PTP. The majority of vesicles, released during repetitive stimulation, have low release probability (p ∼ 0.1), are relatively uniform in number across synapses, and are rapidly recruited. In contrast, superprimed vesicles need several seconds to be regenerated. They mediate enhanced synaptic strength at the onset of burst-like activity, the impact of which is subject to modulation by slow modulatory transmitter systems. PMID:27432975

  20. Molecular Basis of Olfactory Chemoreception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Nannan

    2017-01-01

    As one of the most notorious ectoparasites, bed bugs rely heavily on human or animal blood sources for survival, mating and reproduction. Chemoreception, mediated by the odorant receptors on the membrane of olfactory sensory neurons, plays a vital role in their host seeking and risk aversion processes. We investigated the responses of odorant receptors to a large spectrum of semiochemicals, including human odorants and plant-released volatiles and found that strong responses were sparse; aldehydes/ketones were the most efficient stimuli, while carboxylic acids and aliphatics/aromatics were comparatively less effective in eliciting responses from bed bug odorant receptors. In bed bugs, both the odorant identity and concentrations play important roles in determining the strength of these responses. The odor space constructed based on the responses from all the odorant receptors tested revealed that odorants within the same chemical group are widely dispersed while odorants from different groups are intermingled, suggesting the complexity of odorant encoding in the bed bug odorant receptors. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the olfactory coding mechanisms of bed bugs that will ultimately contribute to the design and development of novel olfactory-based strategies to reduce both the biting nuisance and disease transmission from bed bugs. PMID:28383033

  1. Finding the Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dawn

    1980-01-01

    Describes an attempt to combine secondary English instruction emphasizing United States literature with science and history by finding "common ground" between these disciplines in (1) the separation of truth from falsehood and (2) logical thinking. Biographies combined history and literature, and science fiction combined science and English;…

  2. Does Common Enrollment Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Clayton, Grant

    2016-01-01

    In this article, researchers Dick M. Carpenter II and Grant Clayton explore common enrollment systems (CESs)--how they work and what school leaders can learn from districts that have implemented CESs. Denver, New Orleans, and Newark (New Jersey) have rolled out this centralized enrollment process for all district-run and charter schools in their…

  3. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  4. Common File Formats.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  5. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  6. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  7. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  8. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  9. Human Commonalities and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

  10. Pleasure: the common currency.

    PubMed

    Cabanac, M

    1992-03-21

    At present as physiologists studying various homeostatic behaviors, such as thermoregulatory behavior and food and fluid intake, we have no common currency that allows us to equate the strength of the motivational drive that accompanies each regulatory need, in terms of how an animal or a person will choose to satisfy his needs when there is a conflict between two or more of them. Yet the behaving organism must rank his priorities and needs a common currency to achieve the ranking (McFarland & Sibly, 1975, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 270 Biol 265-293). A theory is proposed here according to which pleasure is this common currency. The perception of pleasure, as measured operationally and quantitatively by choice behavior (in the case of animals), or by the rating of the intensity of pleasure or displeasure (in the case of humans) can serve as such a common currency. The tradeoffs between various motivations would thus be accomplished by simple maximization of pleasure. In what follows, the scientific work arising recently on this subject, with be reviewed briefly and our recent experimental findings will be presented. This will serve as the support for the theoretical position formulated in this essay.

  11. Commonalities across Effective Collaboratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jill F.; Flynn, Richard B.

    2000-01-01

    Examined effective collaborations involving schools and colleges of education and other organizations, identifying commonly voiced reasons for collaboration and factors perceived as important in collaboration. Data come from research, case descriptions, survey responses, and input from collaborators. Willingness to listen, mutual respect,…

  12. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  13. Math, Literacy, & Common Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

  14. Human Commonalities and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

  15. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  16. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  17. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  18. The Academic Common Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    Opportunities available to residents of Southern states through the Academic Common Market are listed in this book. The Market is an interstate agreement among Southern states for sharing uncommon programs. Participating states are able to make arrangements for their residents who qualify for admission to enroll in specific programs in other…

  19. The Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the conflicting principles revealed respectively by those who argue for the common school and by those who seek to promote a system of schools that, though maintained by the state, might reflect the different religious beliefs within the community. The philosopher, John Dewey, is appealed to in defence of the common…

  20. Information Commons to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Marc Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

  1. A Language in Common.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1963

    This collection of articles reprinted from the "London Times Literary Supplement" indicates the flexibility of English as a common literary language in its widespread use outside the United States and England. Major articles present the thesis that English provides an artistic medium which is enriched through colloquial idioms in the West Indies…

  2. Math, Literacy, & Common Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

  3. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  4. Information Commons to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Marc Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

  5. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. Here, we report the transcriptional respo...

  6. Embryologically based radical hysterectomy as peritoneal mesometrial resection (PMMR) with pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy for loco-regional tumor control in endometrial cancer: first evidence for efficacy.

    PubMed

    Kimmig, Rainer; Iannaccone, Antonella; Aktas, Bahriye; Buderath, Paul; Heubner, Martin

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of embryologically based compartmental surgery for locoregional tumor control in intermediate and high risk endometrial cancer: peritoneal mesometrial resection with therapeutic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy by robotically assisted laparoscopy. 75 consecutive surgically treated patients with uterine malignancies have been analyzed. 68 patients with histologically proven endometrial cancer and complete robotically assisted surgery have been included in this study on morbidity and oncological outcome. 56 % of the patients were at intermediate/high risk with either stage IAG3 or IB (n = 22) or stage II-IV (n = 16). Adjuvant EBRT was offered to three patients only (4 %), whereas five received isolated vaginal brachytherapy (7 %). Indocyanine-green (ICG) fluorescence lymphography is demonstrated being useful for additional intraoperative visualization of the compartment borders and lymphatic drainage to the postponed lymph compartments. After a mean follow-up of 32 months, there were only two loco-regional recurrences (2.9 %). Both recurrences were apparently cured by salvage therapy. 9 patients died; 6 (8.8 %) from metastatic disease (5) or unknown cause (1), 3 (4.4 %) from intercurrent disease without evidence of disease. One patient (1.4 %) experienced a peritoneal carcinosis and is alive. There were 8/68 perioperative complications (12 %). No perioperative mortality was observed. Embryologically defined compartmental surgery by robotically assisted laparoscopy seems to be feasible and safe in endometrial cancer. The low loco-regional recurrence rate of 2.9 % in spite of a very low percentage of adjuvant radiotherapy and 56 % of intermediate/high risk tumors should stimulate to initiate a multicentre trial to evaluate the value of compartmental surgery for prevention of locoregional recurrence in endometrial cancer.

  7. Genetic defects in common variable immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kopecký, O; Lukešová, Š

    2007-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent clinically manifested primary immunodeficiency. According to clinical and laboratory findings, CVID is a heterogeneous group of diseases. Recently, the defects of molecules regulating activation and terminal differentiation of B lymphocytes have been described in some patients with CVID. In this study, we show the overview of deficiencies of inducible costimulator, transmembrane activator and calcium-modulator and cytophilin ligand interactor, CD19 molecules, their genetic basis, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. PMID:17627754

  8. Molecular basis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Al-Mansouri, Layla J; Alokail, Majed S

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women and represents the second leading cause of cancer death among women after lung cancer. A common phenotypic abnormality of breast cancer cells is dysregulation of cell cycle control. The transformation of normal cell to a cancer cell appears to depend on mutation in genes that normally control cell cycle progression, thus leading to loss of the regulatory cell growth. We summarize here the molecular regulation of mammary carcinoma with regards to the most prominent oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and their outcome in terms of cellular prognosis, and tumor development.

  9. Cellular basis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bali, Jitin; Halima, Saoussen Ben; Felmy, Boas; Goodger, Zoe; Zurbriggen, Sebastian; Rajendran, Lawrence

    2010-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease. A characteristic feature of the disease is the presence of amyloid-β (Aβ) which either in its soluble oligomeric form or in the plaque-associated form is causally linked to neurodegeneration. Aβ peptide is liberated from the membrane-spanning -amyloid precursor protein by sequential proteolytic processing employing β- and γ-secretases. All these proteins involved in the production of Aβ peptide are membrane associated and hence, membrane trafficking and cellular compartmentalization play important roles. In this review, we summarize the key cellular events that lead to the progression of AD.

  10. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  11. Common medical pains

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Pain in infancy and childhood is extremely common. Sources of pain include illness, injury, and medical and dental procedures. Over the past two decades, tremendous progress has been made in the assessment, prevention and treatment of pain. It is important for the paediatric health care provider to be aware of the implications and consequences of pain in childhood. A multitude of interventions are available to reduce or alleviate pain in children of all ages, including neonates. These include behavioural and psychological methods, as well as a host of pharmacological preparations, which are safe and effective when used as indicated. Many complementary and alternative treatments appear to be promising in treating and relieving pain, although further research is required. The present article reviews the most common sources of pain in childhood and infancy, as well as current treatment strategies and options. PMID:19030348

  12. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  13. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  14. Common neuropathic itch syndromes.

    PubMed

    Oaklander, Anne Louise

    2012-03-01

    Patients with chronic itch are diagnosed and treated by dermatologists. However, itch is a neural sensation and some forms of chronic itch are the presenting symptoms of neurological diseases. Dermatologists need some familiarity with the most common neuropathic itch syndromes to initiate diagnostic testing and to know when to refer to a neurologist. This review summarizes current knowledge, admittedly incomplete, on neuropathic itch caused by diseases of the brain, spinal cord, cranial or spinal nerve-roots, and peripheral nerves.

  15. Common procedures in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jennifer

    2006-05-01

    Rabbits are popular companion animals that present to veterinary clinics for routine and emergency care. Clinics equipped for treat-ing dogs and cats may be easily adapted to accommodate rabbits. This article reviews common procedures performed by the clinician specific to rabbits. Topics include handling and restraint, triage and patient assessment, sample collection, and supportive care techniques. Miscellaneous procedures, including anesthetic delivery, nasolacrimal duct flushing, and ear cleaning, are also discussed.

  16. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  17. Commonly used endocrine drugs.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Mário Miguel; Dias, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine drugs are agents directed to a malfunctioning endocrine path. Several agents are secreted in or target the nervous system, and are thus more prone to cause neurologic adverse events (AEs). This chapter focuses on commonly used endocrine agents directed to the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, thyroid, and antidiabetic agents. The therapeutic agents are discussed in terms of indication, mechanism of action, description, and frequency of AEs, and risk factors for occurrence where available. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  19. Common Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincent C.

    1992-01-01

    Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9 PMID:21221380

  20. 'Historicising common sense'.

    PubMed

    Millstone, Noah

    2012-12-01

    This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought.

  1. Common HEP UNIX Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddei, Arnaud

    After it had been decided to design a common user environment for UNIX platforms among HEP laboratories, a joint project between DESY and CERN had been started. The project consists in 2 phases: 1. Provide a common user environment at shell level, 2. Provide a common user environment at graphical level (X11). Phase 1 is in production at DESY and at CERN as well as at PISA and RAL. It has been developed around the scripts originally designed at DESY Zeuthen improved and extended with a 2 months project at CERN with a contribution from DESY Hamburg. It consists of a set of files which are customizing the environment for the 6 main shells (sh, csh, ksh, bash, tcsh, zsh) on the main platforms (AIX, HP-UX, IRIX, SunOS, Solaris 2, OSF/1, ULTRIX, etc.) and it is divided at several "sociological" levels: HEP, site, machine, cluster, group of users and user with some levels which are optional. The second phase is under design and a first proposal has been published. A first version of the phase 2 exists already for AIX and Solaris, and it should be available for all other platforms, by the time of the conference. This is a major collective work between several HEP laboratories involved in the HEPiX-scripts and HEPiX-X11 working-groups.

  2. BASIS Set Exchange (BSE): Chemistry Basis Sets from the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) Basis Set Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Feller, D; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun

    The Basis Set Exchange (BSE) provides a web-based user interface for downloading and uploading Gaussian-type (GTO) basis sets, including effective core potentials (ECPs), from the EMSL Basis Set Library. It provides an improved user interface and capabilities over its predecessor, the EMSL Basis Set Order Form, for exploring the contents of the EMSL Basis Set Library. The popular Basis Set Order Form and underlying Basis Set Library were originally developed by Dr. David Feller and have been available from the EMSL webpages since 1994. BSE not only allows downloading of the more than 500 Basis sets in various formats; it allows users to annotate existing sets and to upload new sets. (Specialized Interface)

  3. Structural basis of spectrin elasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, B.W.; Stevens, F.J.; Luthi, U.; Goldin, S.B.

    1991-10-17

    A new model of human erythrocyte {alpha}-spectrin is proposed. The secondary structure of human erythrocyte {alpha}-spectrin and its folding into a condensed structure that can convert reversibly in situ, into an elongated configuration is predicted from its deduced protein sequence. Results from conformational and amphipathicity analyses suggest that {alpha}-spectrin consists mainly of short amphipathicity helices interconnected by flexible turns and/or coils. The distribution of charges and amphipathicity of the helices can facilitate their folding into stable domains of 4 and 3 helices surrounding a hydrophobic core. The association between adjacent four- and three-helix domains further organize them into recurring seven-helix motifs that might constitute the basic structural units of the extended {alpha}-spectrin. The elongated spectrin molecule packs, in a sinusoidal fashion, through interactions between neighboring motifs into a compact structure. We suggest that the reversible extension and contraction of this sigmoidally packed structure is the molecular basis of the mechanism by which spectrin contributes to the elasticity of the red cell membrane.

  4. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  5. Structural basis for selectin mechanochemistry.

    PubMed

    Springer, Timothy A

    2009-01-06

    Selectins are adhesion molecules that resist large tensile forces applied by hydrodynamic forces to leukocytes binding to vessel walls. In crystals, the liganded (high-affinity) and unliganded (low-affinity) conformations differ in orientation between their tandem lectin and EGF domains. I examine how tensile force exerted on a selectin-ligand complex in vivo could favor the more extended, high-affinity conformation. Allostery is transmitted from the EGF-lectin domain interface to the ligand-binding interface on the lectin domain, 30 A away. Trp-1 of the lectin domain and the long axis of the EGF domain form an L-shaped prybar that is welded together by hydrogen bonds to the Trp-1 alpha-amino group. Pivoting of the prybar induced by force demolishes an interface between the Trp-1 side chain and the lectin domain at a switch1 region. These changes are transmitted by rigid body movement of the switch2 region to rearrangements in the switch3 region at the ligand binding site. Another switch region corresponds to a single residue in the EGF domain with large effects on ligand binding and rolling adhesion. Allostery in selectins, and the alignment of tensile force on a selectin-ligand complex with the transition pathway for conformational change, explain much of the structural basis for selectin mechanochemistry.

  6. Basis Document for Sludge Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2001-06-18

    DOE-RL recently issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER) amendments to the PFP Final Safety Analysis Report, HNF-SD-CP-SAR-021 Rev. 2. The Justification for Continued Operations for 2736-ZB and plutonium oxides in BTCs Safety Basis change (letter DOE-RL ABD-074) was approved by one of the SERs. Also approved by SER was the revised accident analysis for Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process (MHPP) gloveboxes HC-230C-3 and HC-230C-5 containing increased glovebox inventories and corresponding increases in seismic release consequence. Numerous implementing documents require revision and issuance to implement the SER approvals. The SER authorizing plutonium oxides into BTCs specifically limited the SER authorization scope to ''pure or clean oxides, i.e., 85 wt% or grater Pu, in this feed change'' (SER Section 3.0 Base Information paragraph 4 [page 11]). Comprehensive USQ Evaluation PFP-2001-12 addressed the packaging of Pu alloy metals into BTCs, and the packaging of Pu alloy oxides (powders) into food pack cans and determined that the activities did not represent an USQ. The same information used to make the PFP-2001-12 negative USQ determination is applicable to packaging Pu alloy powders (DOES NOT INCLUDE STABILIZED MHPP MATERIALS OR OXIDES OF MOLYBDATES) into BTCs. Information from USQ Evaluation PFP-2001-12 is included in this USQ Evaluation for packaging of relatively pure Pu oxides and Pu alloy oxides into BTCs.

  7. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  8. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  9. The molecular basis of myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, A; Darley, R L; Padua, R

    1997-01-01

    The myelodysplastic syndromes comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplastic disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis with an increased tendency to evolve to acute leukemia. Clinically, the common manifestations include peripheral blood cytopenias of one or more lineages and a normal to hyperplastic marrow. MDS has been defined on the basis of morphological criteria, namely the percentage of blast cells in the bone marrow, by the French-American-British study group. Scoring systems have been developed to include such factors as hemoglobin, leukocyte count and age in the evaluation of MDS prognosis. Although useful in the prediction of clinical course and design of therapy regimens, our understanding of the basis of MDS has come from recent advances in molecular analysis of these disorders. This review describes some of the established and recent contributions to our understanding of the molecular basis of the myelodysplastic syndromes. The authors of the present review have been working in the field of myelodysplastic syndromes for several years and have contributed original papers on the molecular pathogenesis of these disorders. In addition, in the present review they have critically examined articles and abstracts published in journals covered by the Science Citation Index and Medline. Cytogenetic anomalies and proto-oncogene abnormalities point to new understanding of the pathogenesis of MDS as a sequence of DNA lesions leading to the evolution of the pre-malignant clone. The prognostic significance of these factors in predicting leukemic transformation and survival remains controversial. Characterization of MDS cells in vitro in response to combinations of exogenous growth factors have not only provided valuable information regarding ineffective hematopoiesis in MDS but have provided a new insight into treatment of MDS. One major development in our understanding of MDS is the possible explanation for the apparent paradox of a cellular marrow in

  10. The molecular basis of defective lens development in the Iberian mole

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, F David; Jiménez, Rafael; Collinson, J Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background Fossorial mammals face natural selection pressures that differ from those acting on surface dwelling animals, and these may lead to reduced visual system development. We have studied eye development in a species of true mole, the Iberian mole Talpa occidentalis, and present the molecular basis of abnormal lens development. This is the first embryological developmental study of the eyes of any fossorial mammal at the molecular level. Results Lens fibre differentiation is not completed in the Iberian mole. Although eye development starts normally (similar to other model species), defects are seen after closure of the lens vesicle. PAX6 is not down-regulated in developing lens fibre nuclei, as it is in other species, and there is ectopic expression of FOXE3, a putative downstream effector of PAX6, in some, but not all lens fibres. FOXE3-positive lens fibres continue to proliferate within the posterior compartment of the embryonic lens, but unlike in the mouse, no proliferation was detected anywhere in the postnatal mole lens. The undifferentiated status of the anterior epithelial cells was compromised, and most of them undergo apoptosis. Furthermore, β-crystallin and PROX1 expression patterns are abnormal and our data suggest that genes encoding β-crystallins are not directly regulated by PAX6, c-MAF and PROX1 in the Iberian mole, as they are in other model vertebrates. Conclusion In other model vertebrates, genetic pathways controlling lens development robustly compartmentalise the lens into a simple, undifferentiated, proliferative anterior epithelium, and quiescent, anuclear, terminally differentiated posterior lens fibres. These pathways are not as robust in the mole, and lead to loss of the anterior epithelial phenotype and only partial differentiation of the lens fibres, which continue to express 'epithelial' genes. Paradigms of genetic regulatory networks developed in other vertebrates appear not to hold true for the Iberian mole. PMID:18939978

  11. Cellular basis for QT dispersion.

    PubMed

    Antzelevitch, C; Shimizu, W; Yan, G X; Sicouri, S

    1998-01-01

    The cellular basis for the dispersion of the QT interval recorded at the body surface is incompletely understood. Contributing to QT dispersion are heterogeneities of repolarization time in the three-dimensional structure of the ventricular myocardium, which are secondary to regional differences in action potential duration (APD) and activation time. While differences in APD occur along the apicobasal and anteroposterior axes in both epicardium and endocardium of many species, transitions are usually gradual. Recent studies have also demonstrated important APD gradients along the transmural axis. Because transmural heterogeneities in repolarization time are more abrupt than those recorded along the surfaces of the heart, they may represent a more onerous substrate for the development of arrhythmias, and their quantitation may provide a valuable tool for evaluation of arrhythmia risk. Our data, derived from the arterially perfused canine left ventricular wedge preparation, suggest that transmural gradients of voltage during repolarization contribute importantly to the inscription of the T wave. The start of the T wave is caused by a more rapid decline of the plateau, or phase 2 of the epicardial action potential, creating a voltage gradient across the wall. The gradient increases as the epicardial action potential continues to repolarize, reaching a maximum with full repolarization of epicardium; this juncture marks the peak of the T wave. The next region to repolarize is endocardium, giving rise to the initial descending limb of the upright T wave. The last region to repolarize is the M region, contributing to the final segment of the T wave. Full repolarization of the M region marks the end of the T wave. The time interval between the peak and the end of the T wave therefore represents the transmural dispersion of repolarization. Conditions known to augment QTc dispersion, including acquired long QT syndrome (class IA or III antiarrhythmics) lead to augmentation

  12. [Common vulvar dermatologic conditions].

    PubMed

    Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Jeskanen, Leila

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of cutaneous diseases can affect genital area. Some of these dermatoses are predominantly present in vulvar area while others primarily occur in extra-genital skin areas. Genital area is susceptible to maceration and the combination of moisture and warmth together with the increased penetration of topical agents make the region vulnerable for mechanical and chemical irritation. Lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) is a secondary condition precipitated by chronic itching and scratching. Scratching may be caused by some dermatoses or candida infection. Chronic systemic dermatoses most commonly affecting vulval area are various eczemas, psoriasis, lichen sclerorus and lichen planus.

  13. Common Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Congenital anomalies account for a substantial proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality. They have become proportionately larger because of the decline of such other categories as infections or birth trauma. Approximately 3% of newborns have a serious handicapping or potentially lethal condition; in longterm studies the frequency is much higher. There is no good evidence to suggest that the rates of congenital anomalies are increasing, although this is a common perception. This article discusses diagnosis and management (especially genetic implications) of heart defects, neural tube defects, orofacial clefting, dislocated hip, clubfoot, and hypospadias. PMID:21274150

  14. Molecular basis for erythrocyte shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgsaeter, A.; Mikkelsen, A.

    1991-05-01

    The isolated plasma membrane of the human erythrocytes displays the same shape and shape transformations as the intact cells. It is therefore generally believed that the plasma membrane plays a dominant role in determining erythrocyte shape. The plasma membrane consists of a fluid lipid bilayer to the surface of which is attached a protein skeleton. The two halves of the lipid bilayer and the protein network (gel) are tighly coupled, but at the same time elastically deformable and can slide relative to one another in the plane of the cell membrane. The equilibrium shape of such a structure is determined by the combined mechano-chemical properties of the individual layers and equals the cell shape that for the given cell volume corresponds to the lowest total elastic free energy. The elastic free energy of the lipid bilayer is mainly associated with bending and change in surface area for each of the two lipid monolayer. For the protein membrane skeleton the elastic free energy mainly equals the sum of the local contributions due to shear deformation and surface change. When the mechano-chemical properties of each of the layers are known, calculation of the equilibrium shape is in principle just an exercise in standard continuum mechanics. The elastic properties of pure lipid monolayers have long been qualitatively fairly well known. The changes in lipid bilayer elastic properties resulting from the presence of integral membrane proteins have just recently become better understood. The detailed molecular basis for the elastic properties of the protein membrane skeleton remains unresolved despite many attempts to elucidate the problem. It is widely agreed that the elastic properties are largely accounted for by the highly elongated spectrin molecules, but whether the membrane skelton elasticity is mainly of entropic or entalphic origin is still unsettled.

  15. Functional Brain Basis of Hypnotizability

    PubMed Central

    Hoeft, Fumiko; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Haas, Brian W.; Bammer, Roland; Menon, Vinod; Spiegel, David

    2015-01-01

    Context Focused hypnotic concentration is a model for brain control over sensation and behavior. Pain and anxiety can be effectively alleviated by hypnotic suggestion, which modulates activity in brain regions associated with focused attention, but the specific neural network underlying this phenomenon is not known. Objective The main goal of the study was to investigate the brain basis of hypnotizability. Design Cross sectional, in-vivo neuroimaging study. Setting Academic medical center at Stanford University School of Medicine. Patients 12 adults with high and 12 adults with low hypnotizability. Main Outcome Measures (1) functional MRI (fMRI) to measure functional connectivity networks at rest including default-mode, salience and executive-control networks, (2) structural T1 MRI to measure regional grey and white matter volumes, and (3) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure white matter microstructural integrity. Results High-compared to low-hypnotizable individuals showed greater functional connectivity between left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), an executive-control region of the brain, and the salience network composed of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), anterior insula, amygdala, and ventral striatum, involved in detecting, integrating, and filtering relevant somatic, autonomic, and emotional information, using independent component analysis (ICA). Seed based analysis confirmed elevated functional coupling between the dACC and the DLPFC in high, compared to low, hypnotizables. These functional differences were not due to variation in brain structure in these regions, including regional grey and white matter volumes and white matter microstructure. Conclusions Our results provide novel evidence that altered functional connectivity in DLPFC and dACC may underlie hypnotizability. Future studies focusing on how these functional networks change and interact during hypnosis are warranted. PMID:23026956

  16. Positive basis for surface skein algebras

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Dylan Paul

    2014-01-01

    We show that the twisted SL2 skein algebra of a surface has a natural basis (the bracelets basis) that is positive, in the sense that the structure constants for multiplication are positive integers. PMID:24982193

  17. Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Biman; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency of young adolescents and adults which also affects the children. The disease remains largely under-diagnosed in India and Southeast Asian countries. Although in majority of cases it is sporadic, disease may be inherited in a autosomal recessive pattern and rarely, in autosomal dominant pattern. Patients, in addition to frequent sino-pulmonary infections, are also susceptible to various autoimmune diseases and malignancy, predominantly lymphoma and leukemia. Other characteristic lesions include lymphocytic and granulomatous interstitial lung disease, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gut. Diagnosis requires reduced levels of at least two immunoglobulin isotypes: IgG with IgA and/or IgM and impaired specific antibody response to vaccines. A number of gene mutations have been described in CVID; however, these genetic alterations account for less than 20% of cases of CVID. Flow cytometry aptly demonstrates a disturbed B cell homeostasis with reduced or absent memory B cells and increased CD21(low) B cells and transitional B cell populations. Approximately one-third of patients with CVID also display T cell functional defects. Immunoglobulin therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Immunologists and other clinicians in India and other South East Asian countries need to be aware of CVID so that early diagnosis can be made, as currently, majority of these patients still go undiagnosed.

  18. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety...

  19. Ethical theory, "common morality," and professional obligations.

    PubMed

    Alexandra, Andrew; Miller, Seumas

    2009-01-01

    We have two aims in this paper. The first is negative: to demonstrate the problems in Bernard Gert's account of common morality, in particular as it applies to professional morality. The second is positive: to suggest a more satisfactory explanation of the moral basis of professional role morality, albeit one that is broadly consistent with Gert's notion of common morality, but corrects and supplements Gert's theory. The paper is in three sections. In the first, we sketch the main features of Gert's account of common morality in general. In the second, we outline Gert's explanation of the source of professional moral rules and demonstrate its inadequacy. In the third section, we provide an account of our own collectivist needs-based view of the source of the role-moral obligations of many professional roles, including those of health care professionals.

  20. Genetic and Developmental Basis of Cardiovascular Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Mohamad; Ware, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) are the most common birth defect, occurring in 1–5% of all live births. Genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors all influence the development of CVMs, and an improved understanding of causation of CVMs is a prerequisite for prevention. Cardiac development is a complex, multi-step process of morphogenesis that is under genetic regulation. Multiple developmental pathways act independently or in combination to effect proper cardiac lineage specification, differentiation, and structure. Because of this complexity, there are numerous potential mechanisms by which genetic variation can impact both fetal cardiac development and latent cardiac disease. Although the genetic contribution to CVMs is well recognized, the genetic causes of human CVMs are still identified relatively infrequently. Mouse models are important tools to investigate the molecular mechanisms underpinning cardiac development as well as the complex genetics that characterize human CVMs. In this review we provide an overview of the key genetic concepts characterizing human CVMs, review their developmental basis, and provide examples to illustrate the critical developmental and genetic concepts underlying the pathogenesis of CVMs. PMID:26876120

  1. Biological Basis For Computer Vision: Some Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Madan M.

    1990-03-01

    Using biology as a basis for the development of sensors, devices and computer vision systems is a challenge to systems and vision scientists. It is also a field of promising research for engineering applications. Biological sensory systems, such as vision, touch and hearing, sense different physical phenomena from our environment, yet they possess some common mathematical functions. These mathematical functions are cast into the neural layers which are distributed throughout our sensory regions, sensory information transmission channels and in the cortex, the centre of perception. In this paper, we are concerned with the study of the biological vision system and the emulation of some of its mathematical functions, both retinal and visual cortex, for the development of a robust computer vision system. This field of research is not only intriguing, but offers a great challenge to systems scientists in the development of functional algorithms. These functional algorithms can be generalized for further studies in such fields as signal processing, control systems and image processing. Our studies are heavily dependent on the the use of fuzzy - neural layers and generalized receptive fields. Building blocks of such neural layers and receptive fields may lead to the design of better sensors and better computer vision systems. It is hoped that these studies will lead to the development of better artificial vision systems with various applications to vision prosthesis for the blind, robotic vision, medical imaging, medical sensors, industrial automation, remote sensing, space stations and ocean exploration.

  2. The neural basis of tactile motion perception.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yu-Cheng; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2014-12-15

    The manipulation of objects commonly involves motion between object and skin. In this review, we discuss the neural basis of tactile motion perception and its similarities with its visual counterpart. First, much like in vision, the perception of tactile motion relies on the processing of spatiotemporal patterns of activation across populations of sensory receptors. Second, many neurons in primary somatosensory cortex are highly sensitive to motion direction, and the response properties of these neurons draw strong analogies to those of direction-selective neurons in visual cortex. Third, tactile speed may be encoded in the strength of the response of cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents and of a subpopulation of speed-sensitive neurons in cortex. However, both afferent and cortical responses are strongly dependent on texture as well, so it is unclear how texture and speed signals are disambiguated. Fourth, motion signals from multiple fingers must often be integrated during the exploration of objects, but the way these signals are combined is complex and remains to be elucidated. Finally, visual and tactile motion perception interact powerfully, an integration process that is likely mediated by visual association cortex.

  3. The neural basis of tactile motion perception

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The manipulation of objects commonly involves motion between object and skin. In this review, we discuss the neural basis of tactile motion perception and its similarities with its visual counterpart. First, much like in vision, the perception of tactile motion relies on the processing of spatiotemporal patterns of activation across populations of sensory receptors. Second, many neurons in primary somatosensory cortex are highly sensitive to motion direction, and the response properties of these neurons draw strong analogies to those of direction-selective neurons in visual cortex. Third, tactile speed may be encoded in the strength of the response of cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents and of a subpopulation of speed-sensitive neurons in cortex. However, both afferent and cortical responses are strongly dependent on texture as well, so it is unclear how texture and speed signals are disambiguated. Fourth, motion signals from multiple fingers must often be integrated during the exploration of objects, but the way these signals are combined is complex and remains to be elucidated. Finally, visual and tactile motion perception interact powerfully, an integration process that is likely mediated by visual association cortex. PMID:25253479

  4. The genetic basis of music ability.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F; Wilson, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge.

  5. Human Papillomaviruses: Genetic Basis of Carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Burk, Robert D.; Chen, Zigui; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad

    2009-01-01

    Persistent infection by specific oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is established as the necessary cause of cervix cancer. DNA sequence differences between HPV genomes determine whether an HPV has the potential to cause cancer. Of the more than 100 HPV genotypes characterized at the genetic level, at least 15 are associated, to varying degrees, with cervical cancer. Classification based on nucleotide similarity places nearly all HPVs that infect the cervicovaginal area within the α-PV genus. Within this genus, phylogenetic trees inferred from the entire viral genome cluster all cancer-causing types together, suggesting the existence of a common ancestor for the oncogenic HPVs. However, in separate trees built from the early open reading frames (ORFs; i.e. E1, E2, E6, E7) or the late ORFs (i.e. L1, L2), the carcinogenic potential sorts with the early region of the genome, but not the late region. Thus, genetic differences within the early region specify the pathogenic potential of α-HPV infections. Since the HPV genomes are monophyletic and sites are highly correlated across the genome, diagnosis of oncogenic types and non-oncogenic types can be accomplished using any region across the genome. Here we review our current understanding of the evolutionary history of the oncogenic HPVs, in particular, we focus on the importance of viral genome heterogeneity and discuss the genetic basis for the oncogenic phenotype in some but not all α-PVs. PMID:19684441

  6. Best Basis Selection Method Using Learning Weights for Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonju; Cheon, Minkyu; Hyun, Chang-Ho; Park, Mignon

    2013-01-01

    In the face recognition field, principal component analysis is essential to the reduction of the image dimension. In spite of frequent use of this analysis, it is commonly believed that the basis faces with large eigenvalues are chosen as the best subset in the nearest neighbor classifiers. We propose an alternative that can predict the classification error during the training steps and find the useful basis faces for the similarity metrics of the classical pattern algorithms. In addition, we also show the need for the eye-aligned dataset to have the pure face. The experiments using face images verify that our method reduces the negative effect on the misaligned face images and decreases the weights of the useful basis faces in order to improve the classification accuracy. PMID:24072026

  7. Point Set Denoising Using Bootstrap-Based Radial Basis Function.

    PubMed

    Liew, Khang Jie; Ramli, Ahmad; Abd Majid, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the application of a bootstrap test error estimation of radial basis functions, specifically thin-plate spline fitting, in surface smoothing. The presence of noisy data is a common issue of the point set model that is generated from 3D scanning devices, and hence, point set denoising is one of the main concerns in point set modelling. Bootstrap test error estimation, which is applied when searching for the smoothing parameters of radial basis functions, is revisited. The main contribution of this paper is a smoothing algorithm that relies on a bootstrap-based radial basis function. The proposed method incorporates a k-nearest neighbour search and then projects the point set to the approximated thin-plate spline surface. Therefore, the denoising process is achieved, and the features are well preserved. A comparison of the proposed method with other smoothing methods is also carried out in this study.

  8. Wealth inequality: The physics basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, A.; Errera, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    "Inequality" is a common observation about us, as members of society. In this article, we unify physics with economics by showing that the distribution of wealth is related proportionally to the movement of all the streams of a live society. The hierarchical distribution of wealth on the earth happens naturally. Hierarchy is unavoidable, with staying power, and difficult to efface. We illustrate this with two architectures, river basins and the movement of freight. The physical flow architecture that emerges is hierarchical on the surface of the earth and in everything that flows inside the live human bodies, the movement of humans and their belongings, and the engines that drive the movement. The nonuniform distribution of wealth becomes more accentuated as the economy becomes more developed, i.e., as its flow architecture becomes more complex for the purpose of covering smaller and smaller interstices of the overall (fixed) territory. It takes a relatively modest complexity for the nonuniformity in the distribution of wealth to be evident. This theory also predicts the Lorenz-type distribution of income inequality, which was adopted empirically for a century.

  9. [Common anemias in neonatology].

    PubMed

    Humbert, J; Wacker, P

    1999-01-28

    We describe the four most common groups of neonatal anemia and their treatments, with particular emphasis on erythropoietin therapy. The hemolytic anemias include the ABO incompatibility (much more frequent, nowadays, than the Rh incompatibility, which has nearly disappeared following the use of anti-D immunoglobulin in postpartum Rh-negative mothers), hereditary spherocytosis and G-6-PD deficiency. Among hypoplastic anemias, that caused by Parvovirus B19 predominates, by far, over Diamond-Blackfan anemia, alpha-thalassemia and the rare sideroblastic anemias. "Hemorrhagic" anemias occur during twin-to-twin transfusions, or during feto-maternal transfusions. Finally, the multifactorial anemia of prematurity develops principally as a result of the rapid expansion of the blood volume in this group of patients. Erythropoietin therapy, often at doses much higher than those used in the adult, should be seriously considered in most cases of non-hypoplastic neonatal anemias, to minimise maximally the use of transfusions.

  10. Common hair loss disorders.

    PubMed

    Springer, Karyn; Brown, Matthew; Stulberg, Daniel L

    2003-07-01

    Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, dose attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a specific pattern of temporal-frontal loss in men and central thinning in women. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved topical minoxidil to treat men and women, with the addition of finasteride for men. Telogen effluvium is characterized by the loss of "handfuls" of hair, often following emotional or physical stressors. Alopecia areata, trichotillomania, traction alopecia, and tinea capitis have unique features on examination that aid in diagnosis. Treatment for these disorders and telogen effluvium focuses on resolution of the underlying cause.

  11. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  12. Infinite occupation number basis of bosons: Solving a numerical challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geißler, Andreas; Hofstetter, Walter

    2017-06-01

    In any bosonic lattice system, which is not dominated by local interactions and thus "frozen" in a Mott-type state, numerical methods have to cope with the infinite size of the corresponding Hilbert space even for finite lattice sizes. While it is common practice to restrict the local occupation number basis to Nc lowest occupied states, the presence of a finite condensate fraction requires the complete number basis for an exact representation of the many-body ground state. In this work we present a truncation scheme to account for contributions from higher number states. By simply adding a single coherent-tail state to this common truncation, we demonstrate increased numerical accuracy and the possible increase in numerical efficiency of this method for the Gutzwiller variational wave function and within dynamical mean-field theory.

  13. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  14. Common Law Rights for Private University Students: Beyond the State Action Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Paul G.; Hoffman, Peter M.

    1974-01-01

    Reexamines the common law precedent on student expulsions and suspensions and seeks to formulate a comprehensive doctrinal basis for common law judicial intervention that will realistically protect the rights of public and private university students alike. (Author)

  15. Common pigmentation disorders.

    PubMed

    Plensdorf, Scott; Martinez, Joy

    2009-01-15

    Common causes of hyperpigmentation include postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigines, ephelides (freckles), and café-au-lait macules. Although most hyperpigmented lesions are benign and the diagnosis is straightforward, it is important to exclude melanoma and its precursors and to identify skin manifestations of systemic disease. Treatment options for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigines, and ephelides include the use of topical agents, chemical peels, cryotherapy, or laser therapy. Caf&-au-lait macules are amenable to surgical excision or laser treatment. Disorders of hypopigmentation may also pose diagnostic challenges, although those associated with health risks are uncommon and are usually congenital (e.g., albinism, piebaldism, tuberous sclerosis, hypomelanosis of Ito). Acquired disorders may include vitiligo, pityriasis alba, tinea versicolor, and postinflammatory hypopigmentation. Treatment of patients with widespread or generalized vitiligo may include cosmetic coverage, psoralen ultraviolet A-range therapy (with or without psoralens), or narrow-band ultraviolet-B therapy; whereas those with stable, limited disease may be candidates for surgical grafting techniques. Patients with extensive disease may be candidates for depigmentation therapy. Other acquired disorders may improve or resolve with treatment of the underlying condition.

  16. No ownership of common factors.

    PubMed

    Tryon, Warren W; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2011-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy," by J. Shedler (see record 2010-02208-012). Shedler's informative article raised several issues worthy of comment. His choice of the word distinctive (p. 98) in describing aspects of psychodynamic technique is open to at least two interpretations. On the one hand, distinctive can have a qualitative meaning and indicate the presence of a characteristic that is not shared. For example, a sign in the Bronx Zoo distinguishes birds from all other creatures as follows: "If it has feathers it's a bird, if it doesn't, it isn't." On the other hand, distinctive can have a quantitative meaning and indicate that one practice has more of a common element than another practice. Careful reading of Shedler's article and the article by Blagys and Hilsenroth (2000) that forms the basis of the "seven features [that] reliably distinguished psychodynamic therapies from other therapies" (Shedler, 2010, p. 98) shows that Shedler subscribes to the latter, quantitative, definition of distinctive. In other words, the seven features he presented are present in both psychodynamic therapies and the cognitive-behavioral therapies to which he compares them. For example, although Shedler did not mention it, dialectical behavior therapy explicitly focuses on six of the seven features, namely, "focus on affect and expression of emotion," "exploration of attempts to avoid distressing thoughts and feelings," "identification of recurring themes and patterns," "discussion of past experience," "focus on interpersonal relations," and "focus on the therapy relationship" (Shedler, 2010, p. 99). However, in the articles that Blagys and Hilsenroth reviewed, psychodyamic therapists engaged in more of these behaviors than did cognitive-behavioral therapists.

  17. Diseases: the more common the less studied.

    PubMed

    de Melker, R A

    1995-03-01

    Due to large gaps in our knowledge of so-called 'common' diseases a scientific basis for their treatment is lacking. Patient care on a scientific basis and research are complementary. Present-day bureaucracy and policy on subsidies hamper the development of an adequate research policy. Trainees in general practice should be taught to think methodically and scientifically during their 3-year vocational training. A similar scientific attitude is essential within the GP networks with which departments of general practice co-operate and should be the point of departure in every GP's daily observations. The NHG (Dutch College of General Practitioners) should see to it that research shall become one of the basic tasks in general practice.

  18. Threads of common knowledge.

    PubMed

    Icamina, P

    1993-04-01

    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information

  19. Common cancers in centenarians.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shamfa C; Delcastilo, Estevan; Loukas, Marios; Osiro, Steven

    2014-01-08

    A Centenarian is a person who attains and lives beyond the age of 100. Four percent of centenarians die from cancer. It is therefore important to understand which cancers affect them in order to devise better methods to prevent and treat them. The aim of this study was to investigate the top cancers that affect centenarians. We identified 1385 cases with the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Result (SEER) database. Our study included centenarians age 100-115 years diagnosed with the 5 most common cancers between 1973 and 2007 in the United States. Observed survival (OS) was calculated for each cancer type. The Kaplan-Meier (KM) method was used to calculate OS at 1-month intervals for the first 40 months after diagnosis using SEER*Stat version 7.04. A log rank test was performed on KM survival output and a Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate hazard ratios. All statistical analyses were performed with 95% confidence intervals with significance determined at P<0.05. Cox proportional hazard analysis was done using GraphPad Prism version 5.04. There were 879 (63.47%) females and 506 (36.53%) males. There were 1118 (80.72%) whites, 159 (11.48%) blacks, and 108 (7.80%) other. The top cancers were 405 (29.24%) breast, 267 (19.28%) colorectal, 254 (18.34%) prostate, 247 (17.83%) lung and bronchus, and 212 (15.31%) urinary and kidney cancer cases. As the prevalence of centenarians increases, it is becoming increasingly important to become aware of the cancers that affect them in order to better manage them.

  20. System requirements and design description for the document basis database interface (DocBasis)

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, W.J.

    1997-09-30

    This document describes system requirements and the design description for the Document Basis Database Interface (DocBasis). The DocBasis application is used to manage procedures used within the tank farms. The application maintains information in a small database to track the document basis for a procedure, as well as the current version/modification level and the basis for the procedure. The basis for each procedure is substantiated by Administrative, Technical, Procedural, and Regulatory requirements. The DocBasis user interface was developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC).

  1. The genetic basis of music ability

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E.; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  2. Enzymatic Basis for N-Glycan Sialylation

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lu; Forouhar, Farhad; Thieker, David; Gao, Zhongwei; Ramiah, Annapoorani; Moniz, Heather; Xiang, Yong; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Milaninia, Sahand; Su, Min; Bridger, Robert; Veillon, Lucas; Azadi, Parastoo; Kornhaber, Gregory; Wells, Lance; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Woods, Robert J.; Tong, Liang; Moremen, Kelley W.

    2013-01-01

    Glycan structures on glycoproteins and glycolipids play critical roles in biological recognition, targeting, and modulation of functions in animal systems. Many classes of glycan structures are capped with terminal sialic acid residues, which contribute to biological functions by either forming or masking glycan recognition sites on the cell surface or secreted glycoconjugates. Sialylated glycans are synthesized in mammals by a single conserved family of sialyltransferases that have diverse linkage and acceptor specificities. We examined the enzymatic basis for glycan sialylation in animal systems by determining the crystal structures of rat ST6GAL1, an enzyme that creates terminal α2,6-sialic acid linkages on complex-type N-glycans, at 2.4 Å resolution. Crystals were obtained from enzyme preparations generated in mammalian cells. The resulting structure revealed an overall protein fold broadly resembling the previously determined structure of pig ST3GAL1, including a CMP-sialic acid-binding site assembled from conserved sialylmotif sequence elements. Significant differences in structure and disulfide bonding patterns were found outside the sialylmotif sequences, including differences in residues predicted to interact with the glycan acceptor. Computational substrate docking and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to predict and evaluate the CMP-sialic acid donor and glycan acceptor interactions, and the results were compared with kinetic analysis of active site mutants. Comparisons of the structure with pig ST3GAL1 and a bacterial sialyltransferase revealed a similar positioning of donor, acceptor, and catalytic residues that provide a common structural framework for catalysis by the mammalian and bacterial sialyltransferases. PMID:24155237

  3. Authorization basis for the 209-E Building

    SciTech Connect

    TIFFANY, M.S.

    1999-02-23

    This Authorization Basis document is one of three documents that constitute the Authorization Basis for the 209-E Building. Per the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) letter 98-WSD-074, this document, the 209-E Building Preliminary Hazards Analysis (WHC-SD-WM-TI-789), and the 209-E Building Safety Evaluation Report (97-WSD-074) constitute the Authorization Basis for the 209-E Building. This Authorization Basis and the associated controls and safety programs will remain in place until safety documentation addressing deactivation of the 209-E Building is developed by the contractor and approved by RL.

  4. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  5. Development of new auxiliary basis functions of the Karlsruhe segmented contracted basis sets including diffuse basis functions (def2-SVPD, def2-TZVPPD, and def2-QVPPD) for RI-MP2 and RI-CC calculations.

    PubMed

    Hellweg, Arnim; Rappoport, Dmitrij

    2015-01-14

    We report optimized auxiliary basis sets for use with the Karlsruhe segmented contracted basis sets including moderately diffuse basis functions (Rappoport and Furche, J. Chem. Phys., 2010, 133, 134105) in resolution-of-the-identity (RI) post-self-consistent field (post-SCF) computations for the elements H-Rn (except lanthanides). The errors of the RI approximation using optimized auxiliary basis sets are analyzed on a comprehensive test set of molecules containing the most common oxidation states of each element and do not exceed those of the corresponding unaugmented basis sets. During these studies an unsatisfying performance of the def2-SVP and def2-QZVPP auxiliary basis sets for Barium was found and improved sets are provided. We establish the versatility of the def2-SVPD, def2-TZVPPD, and def2-QZVPPD basis sets for RI-MP2 and RI-CC (coupled-cluster) energy and property calculations. The influence of diffuse basis functions on correlation energy, basis set superposition error, atomic electron affinity, dipole moments, and computational timings is evaluated at different levels of theory using benchmark sets and showcase examples.

  6. Heated, humidified air for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Singh, Manvi

    2013-06-04

    Heated, humidified air has long been used by sufferers of the common cold. The theoretical basis is that steam may help congested mucus drain better and heat may destroy the cold virus as it does in vitro. To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour (steam) in the treatment of the common cold by comparing symptoms, viral shedding and nasal resistance. In this updated review we searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 2, MEDLINE (1966 to February week 4, 2013), EMBASE (1990 to March 2013) and Current Contents (1994 to March 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using heated water vapour in participants with the common cold or participants with experimentally induced common cold. The two review authors independently reviewed all retrieved articles and excluded any articles, editorials and abstracts with inadequate outcome descriptions. The studies we included were subjected to a methodological assessment. We included six trials (394 trial participants). Three trials in which patient data could be pooled found benefits of steam for symptom relief for the common cold (odds ratio (OR) 0.31; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16 to 0.60). However, results on symptom indices were equivocal. No studies demonstrated an exacerbation of clinical symptom scores. One study conducted in the USA demonstrated worsened nasal resistance, while an earlier Israeli study showed improvement. One study examined viral shedding and antibody titres in nasal washings; there was no change in either between treatment and placebo groups. Minor side effects (including discomfort or irritation of the nose) were reported in some studies. Steam inhalation has not shown any consistent benefits in the treatment of the common cold, hence is not recommended in the routine treatment of common cold symptoms until more double-blind, randomised trials with a standardised treatment modality are conducted.

  7. Heated, humidified air for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Singh, Manvi

    2011-05-11

    Heated, humidified air has long been used by sufferers of the common cold. The theoretical basis is that steam may help congested mucus drain better and heat may destroy the cold virus as it does in vitro. To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour (steam) in the treatment of the common cold by comparing symptoms, viral shedding and nasal resistance. In this updated review we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to July Week 1, 2010), EMBASE (1990 to July 2010) and Current Contents (1994 to July 2010). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using heated water vapour in participants with the common cold or participants with experimentally-induced common cold. We reviewed all retrieved articles and excluded any articles, editorials and abstracts with inadequate outcome descriptions. The studies we included were subjected to a methodological assessment. Six trials (394 trial participants) were included. Three trials in which patient data could be pooled found benefits of steam for symptom relief for the common cold (odds ratio (OR) 0.31; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16 to 0.60). However, results on symptom indices were equivocal. No studies demonstrated an exacerbation of clinical symptom scores. One study conducted in the USA demonstrated worsened nasal resistance, while an earlier Israeli study showed improvement. One study examined viral shedding and antibody titres in nasal washings; there was no change in either between treatment and placebo groups. Minor side effects (including discomfort or irritation of the nose) were reported in some studies. Steam inhalation has not shown any consistent benefits in the treatment of the common cold, hence is not recommended in the routine treatment of common cold symptoms until more double-blind, randomized trials with a standardised treatment

  8. From conception to birth: ancient library sources of embryology and women anatomy kept in the Biblioteca Biomedica of the Università degli Studi di Firenze (Biomedical Library of Florence University).

    PubMed

    Vannucci, Laura; Frigenti, Lucia; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta

    2011-01-01

    The Biomedical Library of the University of Florence boasts a prestigious group of books collected at first in 1679 at the hospital "Santa Maria Nuova" and then continuously enriched in the course of time up today. The "Antique Collection" consists of 13 incunabola, hundreds of 16th-century books, more than one thousand books on medical subject from the 1600's, about six thousand 18th-century volumes and several large, valuable anatomical atlases. In this paper the most important, curious and fascinating books dealing with human ontogeny (from embryo generation to birth) and with female anatomy (mostly concerning pregnancy and childbirth) are reported in chronological order starting from the work of Hippocrates. Among the ancient sources useful for the reconstruction of the opinions about obstetrics there are also outstanding handbooks specifically edited for midwives. Many of these antique books are especially precious because they embed a great number of didactic pictures, some of which may compete against any modern book of anatomy, embryology and obstetric. Selected images from these books are shown.

  9. Derivation of a continuous myogenic cell culture from an embryo of common killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Gignac, Sarah J; Vo, Nguyen T K; Mikhaeil, Michael S; Alexander, J Andrew N; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Schulte, Patricia M; Lee, Lucy E J

    2014-09-01

    The common killifish or mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) is an estuarine teleost increasingly used in comparative physiology, toxicology and embryology. Their ability to withstand extreme environmental conditions and ease of maintenance has made them popular aquatic research organisms. Scientific advances with most popular model organisms have been assisted with the availability of continuous cell lines; however, cell lines from F. heteroclitus appear to be unavailable. The development of a killifish cell line, KFE-5, derived from the mid trunk region of a late stage embryo is described here. KFE-5 grows well in Leibovitz's L-15 media with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). This cell line has been passaged over 60 times in a span of three years, and cells at various passages have been successfully cryopreserved and thawed. The cells are mostly fibroblastic but contain myogenic cells that differentiate into mono-, bi- and multi-nucleated striated myocytes. Immunofluorescence detection of muscle specific antigens such as α-actinin, desmin, and myosin confirms KFE-5 as a myogenic cell line. KFE-5 has a temperature preference for 26-28°C and has been shown to withstand temperatures up to 37°C. The cell line responds to chemical signals including growth factors, hormones and extracellular matrix components. KFE-5 could thus be useful not only for mummichog's thermobiology but also for studies in fish muscle physiology and development.

  10. Association of common variants in ERBB4 with congenital left ventricular outflow tract obstruction defects.

    PubMed

    McBride, Kim L; Zender, Gloria A; Fitzgerald-Butt, Sara M; Seagraves, Nikki J; Fernbach, Susan D; Zapata, Gladys; Lewin, Mark; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Belmont, John W

    2011-03-01

    The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) defects aortic valve stenosis (AVS), coarctation of the aorta (COA), and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) represent an embryologically related group of congenital cardiovascular malformations. They are common and cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Prior evidence suggests a strong genetic component in their causation. We selected NRG1, ERBB3, and ERBB4 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway as candidate genes for investigation of association with LVOT defects based on the importance of this pathway in cardiac development and the phenotypes in knockout mouse models. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed on 343 affected case-parent trios of European ancestry. We identified a specific haplotype in intron 3 of ERBB4 that was positively associated with the combined LVOT defects phenotype (p=0.0005) and in each anatomic defect AVS, COA, and HLHS separately. Mutation screening of individuals with an LVOT defect failed to identify a coding sequence or splice site change in ERBB4. RT-PCR on lymphoblastoid cells from LVOT subjects did not show altered splice variant ratios among those homozygous for the associated haplotype. These results suggest ERBB4 is associated with LVOT defects. Further replication will be required in separate cohorts to confirm the consistency of the observed association. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. ARTMAP and orthonormal basis function neural networks for pattern classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, Byron Mitchell

    This dissertation investigates neural network approaches to pattern classification. One application considered is the classification of land use change in the Nile River delta between 1984 and 1993 from ten Landsat Thematic Mapper (Landsat TM) images acquired during this period. Other applications, including image segmentation, letter recognition, and prediction of variables from census data, are represented by the standardized DELVE (Data for Evaluating Learning in Valid Experiments) machine learning database. An ARTMAP (Adaptive Resonance Theory Map) neural network system is developed for the land use change classification task. Cross-validation is used to enable design decisions and to enable model fitting to be done without regard to data in test partitions. The training of voting ARTMAP systems on brightness-greenness-wetness (BGW) data for multiple dates and location data results in performance competitive with previously used expert systems. Orthonormal basis function classification methods are extended to make them appropriate for multidimensional problems. These methods share the multilayer perceptron architecture common to many neural networks. A layer of basis functions transforms the data prior to classification. Stopping rules are used to determine which basis functions to include in a model to minimize the expected mean integrated squared error (MISE). To perform stopping when using the discriminant function of Devroye et al. (1996), an appropriate MISE estimator is developed. Linear transformations to rotate data and improve multiple classification results are investigated using development benchmarks from the DELVE suite. Orthonormal basis function neural network classifiers using these principles are developed and tested along with standard pattern classification techniques on the DELVE suite. Orthonormal basis function systems appear to be well suited for some multidimensional problems. These systems, along with benchmark classifiers, are also

  12. 29 CFR 552.5 - Casual basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Casual basis. 552.5 Section 552.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE General Regulations § 552.5 Casual basis. As used...

  13. 29 CFR 552.5 - Casual basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Casual basis. 552.5 Section 552.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE General Regulations § 552.5 Casual basis. As used...

  14. 42 CFR 418.1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory basis. 418.1 Section 418.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE General Provision and Definitions § 418.1 Statutory basis. This part...

  15. 20 CFR 900.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis. 900.1 Section 900.1 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION § 900.1 Basis. This statement is issued by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries (the Joint Board) pursuant to...

  16. 47 CFR 10.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis. 10.1 Section 10.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS General Information § 10.1 Basis. The... Network Act, Title VI of the Security and Accountability for Every Port Act of 2006, Public Law...

  17. 47 CFR 10.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis. 10.1 Section 10.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS General Information § 10.1 Basis. The... Network Act, Title VI of the Security and Accountability for Every Port Act of 2006, Public Law...

  18. 42 CFR 488.800 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Statutory basis. 488.800 Section 488.800 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Health Agencies With Deficiencies § 488.800 Statutory basis. Section 1891(e) through (f) of the...

  19. 42 CFR 488.800 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Statutory basis. 488.800 Section 488.800 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Health Agencies With Deficiencies § 488.800 Statutory basis. Section 1891(e) through (f) of the...

  20. 41 CFR 105-70.001 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Basis. 105-70.001...-IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 105-70.001 Basis. This part implements the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986, Pub. L. No. 99-509, 6101-6104, 100 Stat. 1874 (October 21,...

  1. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  2. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  3. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  4. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  5. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  6. 22 CFR 9.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Basis. 9.1 Section 9.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.1 Basis. These regulations, taken together with the Information Security Oversight Office Directive No. 1 dated September 22, 2003, and Volume 5 of the Department's Foreign Affairs Manual,...

  7. 22 CFR 9.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Basis. 9.1 Section 9.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.1 Basis. These regulations, taken together with the Information Security Oversight Office Directive No. 1 dated September 22, 2003, and Volume 5 of the Department's Foreign Affairs Manual,...

  8. 22 CFR 9.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Basis. 9.1 Section 9.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.1 Basis. These regulations, taken together with the Information Security Oversight Office Directive No. 1 dated September 22, 2003, and Volume 5 of the Department's Foreign Affairs Manual,...

  9. 22 CFR 9.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Basis. 9.1 Section 9.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.1 Basis. These regulations, taken together with the Information Security Oversight Office Directive No. 1 dated September 22, 2003, and Volume 5 of the Department's Foreign Affairs Manual,...

  10. Stimulus Overselectivity: Empirical Basis and Diagnostic Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the empirical basis for the phenomena known as stimulus overselectivity. Stimulus overselectivity involves responding on the basis of a restricted range of elements or features that are discriminative for reinforcement. The manner in which such a response pattern impedes the skill acquisition in children is identified. A…

  11. 42 CFR 440.300 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis. 440.300 Section 440.300 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL....300 Basis. This subpart implements section 1937 of the Act, which authorizes States to provide...

  12. 42 CFR 433.300 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis. 433.300 Section 433.300 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... Providers § 433.300 Basis. This subpart implements— (a) Section 1903(d)(2)(A) of the Act, which directs...

  13. 42 CFR 433.300 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis. 433.300 Section 433.300 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... Providers § 433.300 Basis. This subpart implements— (a) Section 1903(d)(2)(A) of the Act, which directs...

  14. Cofunctional Subpathways Were Regulated by Transcription Factor with Common Motif, Common Family, or Common Tissue.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Shang, Desi; Xu, Yanjun; Feng, Li; Yang, Haixiu; Liu, Baoquan; Su, Shengyang; Chen, Lina; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Dissecting the characteristics of the transcription factor (TF) regulatory subpathway is helpful for understanding the TF underlying regulatory function in complex biological systems. To gain insight into the influence of TFs on their regulatory subpathways, we constructed a global TF-subpathways network (TSN) to analyze systematically the regulatory effect of common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs on subpathways. We performed cluster analysis to show that the common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs that regulated the same pathway classes tended to cluster together and contribute to the same biological function that led to disease initiation and progression. We analyzed the Jaccard coefficient to show that the functional consistency of subpathways regulated by the TF pairs with common motif, common family, or common tissue was significantly greater than the random TF pairs at the subpathway level, pathway level, and pathway class level. For example, HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha) and NR1I3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3) were a pair of TFs with common motif, common family, and common tissue. They were involved in drug metabolism pathways and were liver-specific factors required for physiological transcription. In short, we inferred that the cofunctional subpathways were regulated by common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs.

  15. Advanced Test Reactor Safety Basis Upgrade Lessons Learned Relative to Design Basis Verification and Safety Basis Management

    SciTech Connect

    G. L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

    2004-05-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The reactor also provides other irradiation services such as radioisotope production. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An audit conducted by the Department of Energy's Office of Independent Oversight and Performance Assurance (DOE OA) raised concerns that design conditions at the ATR were not adequately analyzed in the safety analysis and that legacy design basis management practices had the potential to further impact safe operation of the facility.1 The concerns identified by the audit team, and issues raised during additional reviews performed by ATR safety analysts, were evaluated through the unreviewed safety question process resulting in shutdown of the ATR for more than three months while these concerns were resolved. Past management of the ATR safety basis, relative to facility design basis management and change control, led to concerns that discrepancies in the safety basis may have developed. Although not required by DOE orders or regulations, not performing design basis verification in conjunction with development of the 10 CFR 830 Subpart B upgraded safety basis allowed these potential weaknesses to be carried forward. Configuration management and a clear definition of the existing facility design basis have a direct relation to developing and maintaining a high quality safety basis which properly identifies and mitigates all hazards and postulated accident conditions. These relations and the impact of past safety basis management practices have been reviewed in order to identify lessons learned from the safety basis upgrade process and appropriate actions to resolve possible concerns with respect to the current ATR safety

  16. Accurate Coulomb-fitting basis sets for H to Rn.

    PubMed

    Weigend, Florian

    2006-03-07

    A series of auxiliary basis sets to fit Coulomb potentials for the elements H to Rn (except lanthanides) is presented. For each element only one auxiliary basis set is needed to approximate Coulomb energies in conjunction with orbital basis sets of split valence, triple zeta valence and quadruple zeta valence quality with errors of typically below ca. 0.15 kJ mol(-1) per atom; this was demonstrated in conjunction with the recently developed orbital basis sets of types def2-SV(P), def2-TZVP and def2-QZVPP for a large set of small molecules representing (nearly) each element in all of its common oxidation states. These auxiliary bases are slightly more than three times larger than orbital bases of split valence quality. Compared to non-approximated treatments, computation times for the Coulomb part are reduced by a factor of ca. 8 for def2-SV(P) orbital bases, ca. 25 for def2-TZVP and ca. 100 for def2-QZVPP orbital bases.

  17. Facts about the Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Influenza Facts About The Common Cold What Is a Cold? Colds are minor infections ... for 10 to 40 percent of colds. Other common cold viruses include coronavirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) . ...

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  19. Heated, humidified air for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, M

    2006-07-19

    Heated, humidified air has long been used by common cold sufferers. The theoretical basis is that steam may help congested mucus drain better and heat may destroy cold virus as it does in vitro. To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour (steam), in the treatment of the common cold by comparing symptoms, viral shedding and nasal resistance. In this updated review we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library issue 4, 2005); MEDLINE (2003 to December Week 2 2005); EMBASE (July 2003 to September 2005); and Current Contents (current five years). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using heated water vapor in patients with the common cold or volunteers with experimentally induced common cold. All the articles retrieved were initially subjected to a review for inclusion or exclusion criteria. Review articles, editorials and abstracts with inadequate outcome descriptions were excluded. Studies selected for inclusion were subjected to a methodological assessment. Six trials were included. Three found benefits of steam for symptom relief with the common cold (odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31; 0.16 to 0.60; relative risk (RR) 0.56; 95% CI 0.4 to 0.79). Results on symptom indices were equivocal. No studies demonstrated an exacerbation of clinical symptom scores. One USA study demonstrated worsened nasal resistance, while an earlier Israeli one showed improvement. One study examined viral shedding and antibody titres in nasal washings: there was no change of either between treatment and placebo groups. Minor side effects (including discomfort or irritation of the nose) were reported in some studies. Steam inhalation are not recommended in the routine treatment of common cold symptoms until more double-blind RCT trials are conducted.

  20. Committee Handbook for Common Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Sharon; And Others

    This manual on general education and common learning was prepared by and for the Dallas County Community College District's (DCCCD's) Committees for Common Learning (CCL's), which have been charged with reviewing the DCCCD's general education curriculum and degree requirements and making recommendations concerning common learning requirements and…

  1. Common Core State Standards 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent the first time that nearly every state has set common expectations for what students should know and be able to do. In the past, each state set its own standards, and the results varied widely. And while states collectively developed these common standards, decisions about the curriculum and…

  2. Hippophae rhamnoides L.: common seabuckthorn

    Treesearch

    Richard T. Busing; Paul E. Slabaugh

    2008-01-01

    Common seabuckthorn - Hippophae rhamnoides L. - is native to northwestern Europe through central Asia to the Altai Mountains, western and northern China, and the northern Himalayas. Of the 2 species in the genus, only common seabuckthorn is widely cultivated (Rehder 1940). A very hardy deciduous shrub or a small tree, common seabuckthorn is used primarily for...

  3. Common Core State Standards 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent the first time that nearly every state has set common expectations for what students should know and be able to do. In the past, each state set its own standards, and the results varied widely. And while states collectively developed these common standards, decisions about the curriculum and…

  4. Maximal coherence in a generic basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Ge, Li; Li, Mo; Sun, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    Since quantum coherence is an undoubted characteristic trait of quantum physics, the quantification and application of quantum coherence has been one of the long-standing central topics in quantum information science. Within the framework of a resource theory of quantum coherence proposed recently, a fiducial basis should be preselected for characterizing the quantum coherence in specific circumstances, namely, the quantum coherence is a basis-dependent quantity. Therefore, a natural question is raised: what are the maximum and minimum coherences contained in a certain quantum state with respect to a generic basis? While the minimum case is trivial, it is not so intuitive to verify in which basis the quantum coherence is maximal. Based on the coherence measure of relative entropy, we indicate the particular basis in which the quantum coherence is maximal for a given state, where the Fourier matrix (or more generally, complex Hadamard matrices) plays a critical role in determining the basis. Intriguingly, though we can prove that the basis associated with the Fourier matrix is a stationary point for optimizing the l1 norm of coherence, numerical simulation shows that it is not a global optimal choice.

  5. Unwinding the Molecular Basis of Interval and Circadian Timing

    PubMed Central

    Agostino, Patricia V.; Golombek, Diego A.; Meck, Warren H.

    2011-01-01

    Neural timing mechanisms range from the millisecond to diurnal, and possibly annual, frequencies. Two of the main processes under study are the interval timer (seconds-to-minute range) and the circadian clock. The molecular basis of these two mechanisms is the subject of intense research, as well as their possible relationship. This article summarizes data from studies investigating a possible interaction between interval and circadian timing and reviews the molecular basis of both mechanisms, including the discussion of the contribution from studies of genetically modified animal models. While there is currently no common neurochemical substrate for timing mechanisms in the brain, circadian modulation of interval timing suggests an interaction of different frequencies in cerebral temporal processes. PMID:22022309

  6. Experimental investigations on the basis for intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    Fast, Anne A; Olson, Kristina R; Mandel, Gregory N

    2016-08-01

    Lay people routinely misunderstand or do not obey laws protecting intellectual property (IP), leading to a variety of (largely unsuccessful) efforts by policymakers, IP owners, and researchers to change those beliefs and behaviors. The current work tests a new approach, inquiring whether lay people's views about IP protection can be modified by arguments concerning the basis for IP rights. Across 2 experiments, 572 adults (recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk) read 1 of 6 arguments about the basis for IP protection (incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, plagiarism, commons, or no argument). Participants then reported their general support for IP protection. Participants also reported their evaluations of 2 scenarios that involved infringement of IP rights, including cases in which there were mitigating experiences (e.g., the copier acknowledged the original source), and completed several demographic questions. Three primary findings emerged: (a) exposure to the importance of the public commons (and to a lesser extent, exposure to the argument that plagiarism is the basis of IP protection) led participants to become less supportive of IP protection than the incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, and control conditions; (b) people believed that infringement was more acceptable if the infringer acknowledged the original creator of the work; and (c) older adults and women were especially likely to see infringement as problematic. These findings illustrate several ways in which lay beliefs are at odds with legal doctrine, and suggest that people's views about IP protection can be shaped in certain ways by learning the basis for IP rights. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and to implement a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point...

  8. Leading the Common Core State Standards: From Common Sense to Common Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkle, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Many educators agree that we already know how to foster student success, so what is keeping common sense from becoming common practice? The author provides step-by-step guidance for overcoming the barriers to adopting the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and achieving equity and excellence for all students. As an experienced teacher and…

  9. Wavelets, Fractals, and Radial Basis Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of Signal Processing. San Diego, CA: Aca- demic, 1998. [13] G. Strang and T. Q. Nguyen, Wavelets and Filter Banks . Cambridge, MA: Wellesley-Cambridge...localization, multiresolution, radial basis functions, re- finement filter , scaling functions, self-similarity, splines, tempered distributions, two-scale...one linear constraint per basis function, and the corresponding linear system of equations is invertible under relatively mild conditions [11]. The

  10. The molecular basis of susceptibility to infection in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Tapia, Norberto C; Torre-Delgadillo, Aldo; Tellez-Avila, Felix I; Uribe, Misael

    2007-01-01

    There is much clinical evidence of a relationship between infectious disease and chronic liver disease. The consequences of this adverse association have been described and advances in the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious disease have had an important effect on the management of patients with chronic liver disease. The association between infectious disease and chronic liver disease involves altered cytokine production, cellular immunity, and vascular response. However, there is little information on the mechanisms underlying these phenomena. In this report, we review the mechanistic basis of this common association.

  11. [Comparison of human chorionic gonadotropin (Pregnyl 10 000 IU i.m.) versus GnRH agonist (triptorelin 0,2 mg s.c.) for final oocytes maturation in the same egg donors--clinical and embryological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Streda, R; Mardesic, T; Sobotka, V; Koryntová, D; Hybnerová, L; Jindra, M; Paseková, V; Slámová, J; Stevíková, M; Voboril, J; Jelínková, L; Vilímová, S; Ichová, J; Mádrová, J; Tersová, H; Masata, M; Sobotková, J

    2011-04-01

    To compare clinical and embryological characteristics in donor cycles triggered for final oocytes maturation with Pregnyl 10 000 IU i.m. versus triptorelin 0.2 mg s.c. in the same patients in two sequential stimulation cycles. The aim of the study is to decrease the risk of the development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) at high response donors by the replacement of Pregnyl 10 000 IU i.m. vs. triptorelin 0.2 mg s.c. The administration of a single dose of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (triptorelin 0.2 mg s.c.) induces release of LH from the pituitary gland similarly to a spontaneous LH surge. Prospective cross-over trial. Sanatorium Pronatal, Praha. From August 2009 to July 2010 we analysed 24 stimulation cycles in 12 egg donors treated with GnRH antagonist protocol with recombinant FSH (follitropin beta). We identified patients with more than 15 follicles during examination by transvaginal ultrasound. When at least 3 leading follicles reached 17 mm in diameter we administrated Pregnyl 10 000 IU i.m. for final oocytes maturation and triptorelin 0.2 mg s.c in the subsequent treatment cycle. The primary outcome measure was number of oocytes, proportion mature oocytes and fertilized oocytes. The secondary outcome were duration of FSH stimulation, total dose of gonadotropins and mean daily dose of gonadotropins. Data was analysed by paired t-test. We retrieved 17.2 +/- 8.6 vs. 15.8 +/- 5.3 (ns) oocytes, 12.6 +/- 7.3 vs. 13.0 +/- 5.4 (ns) metaphase II oocytes, proportion of metaphase II oocytes (%) was 73 vs. 83 (ns), number of fertilized oocytes 11.5 +/- 6.7 vs. 11.7 +/- 4.5 (ns), fertilization rate (%) 91 vs. 90 (ns) in Pregnyl's vs. triptorelin's group, resp. Duration of FSH stimulation (days) 12.2 +/- 0.8 vs. 12.4 +/- 0.7 (ns), total dose of gonadotropins (IU) 1744 +/- 277 vs. 1740 +/- 276 (ns), mean daily dose of gonadotropins (IU) 238 +/- 43 vs. 221 +/- 36 (ns), were not statistically different in both groups. Number of mature oocytes and

  12. Nanoplasmonics simulations at the basis set limit through completeness-optimized, local numerical basis sets

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Tuomas P. Sakko, Arto; Puska, Martti J.; Lehtola, Susi; Nieminen, Risto M.

    2015-03-07

    We present an approach for generating local numerical basis sets of improving accuracy for first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations within time-dependent density functional theory. The method is demonstrated for copper, silver, and gold nanoparticles that are of experimental interest but computationally demanding due to the semi-core d-electrons that affect their plasmonic response. The basis sets are constructed by augmenting numerical atomic orbital basis sets by truncated Gaussian-type orbitals generated by the completeness-optimization scheme, which is applied to the photoabsorption spectra of homoatomic metal atom dimers. We obtain basis sets of improving accuracy up to the complete basis set limit and demonstrate that the performance of the basis sets transfers to simulations of larger nanoparticles and nanoalloys as well as to calculations with various exchange-correlation functionals. This work promotes the use of the local basis set approach of controllable accuracy in first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations and beyond.

  13. Breeding Common Bean for resistance to Common Blight: A review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common blight {caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli Smith (Dye) is a major bacterial disease causing >40% seed yield and quality losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. Use of resistant cultivars is crucial for its effective, economical, and environment friendly integarated...

  14. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    PubMed

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  15. Lunar and Martian hardware commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Hubert P.; Johnson, Robert E.; Phillips, Paul G.; Spear, Donald S.; Stump, William R.; Williams, Franklin U.

    1986-01-01

    A number of different hardware elements were examined for possible Moon/Mars program commonality. These include manned landers; cargo landers, a trans-Mars injection (TMI) stage, traverse vehicles, unmanned surface rovers, habitation modules, and power supplies. Preliminary analysis indicates that it is possible to build a common two-stage manned lander. A single-stage, reusable lander may be practical for the lunar cast, but much less so for the Martian case, and commonality may therefore exist only at the subsystem level. A modified orbit transfer vehicle was examined as a potential cargo lander. Potential cargoes to various destinations were calculated for a Shuttle external tank sized TMI stage. A nuclear powered, long range traverse vehicle was conceptually designed and commonality is considered feasible. Short range, unmanned rovers can be made common without great effort. A surface habitation module may be difficult to make common due to difficulties in landing certain shapes on the Martian surface with aerobraking landers. Common nuclear power sources appear feasible. High temperature radiators appear easy to make common. Low temperature radiators may be difficult to make common. In most of these cases, Martian requirements determine the design.

  16. Profiling of Discrete Gynecological Cancers Reveals Novel Transcriptional Modules and Common Features Shared by Other Cancer Types and Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Amariglio, Ninette; Vlachos, George D.; Loutradis, Dimitrios; Anagnou, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on individual types of gynecological cancers (GCs), utilizing novel expression technologies, have revealed specific pathogenetic patterns and gene markers for cervical (CC), endometrial (EC) and vulvar cancer (VC). Although the clinical phenotypes of the three types of gynecological cancers are discrete, the fact they originate from a common embryological origin, has led to the hypothesis that they might share common features reflecting regression to early embryogenesis. To address this question, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of their profiles. Our data identified both common features (pathways and networks) and novel distinct modules controlling the same deregulated biological processes in all three types. Specifically, four novel transcriptional modules were discovered regulating cell cycle and apoptosis. Integration and comparison of our data with other databases, led to the identification of common features among cancer types, embryonic stem (ES) cells and the newly discovered cell population of squamocolumnar (SC) junction of the cervix, considered to host the early cancer events. Conclusively, these data lead us to propose the presence of common features among gynecological cancers, other types of cancers, ES cells and the pre-malignant SC junction cells, where the novel E2F/NFY and MAX/CEBP modules play an important role for the pathogenesis of gynecological carcinomas. PMID:26559525

  17. Neural basis of interpersonal traits in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Marc; Stanley, Christine M; Wilson, Stephen M; Gyurak, Anett; Beckman, Victoria; Growdon, Matthew; Jang, Jung; Weiner, Michael W; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P

    2009-11-01

    Several functional and structural imaging studies have investigated the neural basis of personality in healthy adults, but human lesions studies are scarce. Personality changes are a common symptom in patients with neurodegenerative diseases like frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and semantic dementia (SD), allowing a unique window into the neural basis of personality. In this study, we used the Interpersonal Adjective Scales to investigate the structural basis of eight interpersonal traits (dominance, arrogance, coldness, introversion, submissiveness, ingenuousness, warmth, and extraversion) in 257 subjects: 214 patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as FTD, SD, progressive nonfluent aphasia, Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, corticobasal degeneration, and progressive supranuclear palsy and 43 healthy elderly people. Measures of interpersonal traits were correlated with regional atrophy pattern using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of structural MR images. Interpersonal traits mapped onto distinct brain regions depending on the degree to which they involved agency and affiliation. Interpersonal traits high in agency related to left dorsolateral prefrontal and left lateral frontopolar regions, whereas interpersonal traits high in affiliation related to right ventromedial prefrontal and right anteromedial temporal regions. Consistent with the existing literature on neural networks underlying social cognition, these results indicate that brain regions related to externally focused, executive control-related processes underlie agentic interpersonal traits such as dominance, whereas brain regions related to internally focused, emotion- and reward-related processes underlie affiliative interpersonal traits such as warmth. In addition, these findings indicate that interpersonal traits are subserved by complex neural networks rather than discrete anatomic areas.

  18. Rooting common and cat greenbrier

    Treesearch

    Franz L. Pogge; John D. Gill; Bradford C. Bearce

    1974-01-01

    Because reliable methods for propagating greenbriers are needed for wildlife-habitat purposes, we tested stem and rhizome cuttings of common and cat greenbrier and tubers of the latter species. Common greenbrier is the better species for most wildlife habitat uses. It proved fairly easy to propagate from either stem or rhizome cuttings. Similar cuttings from cat...

  19. The Tragedy of the Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons is one of the principal tenets of ecology. Recent developments in experiential computer-based simulation of the tragedy of the commons are described. A virtual learning environment is developed using the popular video game "Minecraft". The virtual learning environment is used to experience first-hand depletion…

  20. The Common Denominator of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Hubert C.

    1976-01-01

    The common denominator of learning is conceived as a guideline in organizing the learning material in support of learning continuity. As to its effect, the common denominator is thought of as a habit-forming element in realizing learning as a (continuous) sequence of relative rather than absolute experiences. (Author/HB)