Science.gov

Sample records for common embryologic basis

  1. Congenital anomalies of the IVC—embryological perspective and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Ghandour, Abed; Partovi, Sasan; Karuppasamy, Karunakaravel

    2016-01-01

    With the increased use of cross-sectional imaging, systemic venous anomalies are more frequently being recognized in asymptomatic patients. Accurate characterization of systemic venous anomalies plays a major role in the appropriate selection of a surgical approach or interventional procedure. In this article, we review common and uncommon inferior vena cava (IVC) anomalies. We describe the embryological basis and clinical implications of these anomalies, particularly from an interventional radiology perspective. We also discuss the complications and treatments of these anomalies. PMID:28123970

  2. Acid-shock, aluminium, and presence of Sphagnum aurantiacum: effect on embryological development in the common frog, Rana temporaria and the moor frog, Rana arvalis

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, M.; Hogstrand, C.; Dahlberg, A.; Berglind, S.A.

    1987-07-01

    During the last two decades, several effects of acidification have been shown, e.g., enhanced leaching of metals from sediments and soil. Furthermore, an increased growth of Sphagnum aurantiacum frequently occurs in acidified waters. The aim of the present study is to investigate some effects of acidification on the embryological development on two Anurans. The toxicity of aluminium is thought to vary with pH. The highest toxicity of aluminium in the hydroxyl form have been found at pH 5. In the present study a laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the toxicity of Al to frog embryos in water with pH 5.0. In acidified waters Sphagnum and especially S. aurantiacum, is competitive and quickly become established. It has been indicated that frog spawn deposited on Sphagnum show an unusually high mortality and questions have been raised if Sphagnum reinforces the detrimental effects of acidification on Anuran reproduction.

  3. A common biological basis of obesity and nicotine addiction.

    PubMed

    Thorgeirsson, T E; Gudbjartsson, D F; Sulem, P; Besenbacher, S; Styrkarsdottir, U; Thorleifsson, G; Walters, G B; Furberg, H; Sullivan, P F; Marchini, J; McCarthy, M I; Steinthorsdottir, V; Thorsteinsdottir, U; Stefansson, K

    2013-10-01

    Smoking influences body weight such that smokers weigh less than non-smokers and smoking cessation often leads to weight increase. The relationship between body weight and smoking is partly explained by the effect of nicotine on appetite and metabolism. However, the brain reward system is involved in the control of the intake of both food and tobacco. We evaluated the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting body mass index (BMI) on smoking behavior, and tested the 32 SNPs identified in a meta-analysis for association with two smoking phenotypes, smoking initiation (SI) and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in an Icelandic sample (N=34,216 smokers). Combined according to their effect on BMI, the SNPs correlate with both SI (r=0.019, P=0.00054) and CPD (r=0.032, P=8.0 × 10(-7)). These findings replicate in a second large data set (N=127,274, thereof 76,242 smokers) for both SI (P=1.2 × 10(-5)) and CPD (P=9.3 × 10(-5)). Notably, the variant most strongly associated with BMI (rs1558902-A in FTO) did not associate with smoking behavior. The association with smoking behavior is not due to the effect of the SNPs on BMI. Our results strongly point to a common biological basis of the regulation of our appetite for tobacco and food, and thus the vulnerability to nicotine addiction and obesity.

  4. Embryology in Holy Bible.

    PubMed

    Subhaktha, P K

    1996-01-01

    The knowledge of Embryology and its existence dates back to the remote antiquity of mankind. The theory of maternal impressions on Embryo has its sanction in the Holy Bible. Apart from this it is remarkable to find artificial incubation of the eggs of birds practised 'probably' as far back as about 3000 B.C. Other than these, the existence of midwives, cases of premature births, deliveries of the women of advanced age and the obstetric chair etc. are the expositions of the science of medicine in the Holy Bible.

  5. Embryological development of Caiman latirostris (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae).

    PubMed

    Iungman, Josefina; Piña, Carlos I; Siroski, Pablo

    2008-08-01

    A standard development embryological series is the primary basis to organize information of any embryological study and is also used to determine the age of eggs and embryos in field conditions. In this article, we calibrate developmental series of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris, against an established series for Alligator mississippiensis. Morphometric measures and extend of the opaque-shell banding were also related to embryo age. In earlier stages, external morphological features alone can account for embryo age, but we suggest that morphometric measurements should be introduced later in the development. Unlike morphologic and morphometric attributes, the opaque patch was not a useful age predictor. As expected, a close correlation between embryonic development of C. latirostris and A. mississippiensis was observed.

  6. Is there a common neuronal basis for autism and catatonia?

    PubMed

    Dhossche, Dirk Marcel; Carroll, Brendan T; Carroll, Tressa D

    2006-01-01

    Neuronal bases for autism and catatonia are unknown although integrative theories may soon become feasible as research in autism and catatonia advances. Catatonia and autism may both qualify as neurobiological syndromes in their own right. There is emerging evidence that catatonia may be a common syndrome in autism. Although the relation between autism and catatonia is unclear, coexpression of autism and catatonia may be due to abnormalities in common neuronal circuitries. This possibility constitutes another level of complexity to neurobiological inquiry, but also provides an opportunity to advance our understanding of both disorders. There is a great potential benefit in studying the relation between catatonia and autism in order to focus future research on subtype-specific causes and treatments. Future research avenues are outlined.

  7. Is there a Common Genetic Basis for Autoimmune Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Gómez, LuisMiguel; Castiblanco, John

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) represent a diverse collection of diseases in terms of their demographic profile and primary clinical manifestations. The commonality between them however, is the damage to tissues and organs that arises from the response to self-antigens. The presence of shared pathophysiological mechanisms within ADs has stimulated searches for common genetic roots to these diseases. Two approaches have been undertaken to sustain the “common genetic origin” theory of ADs. Firstly, a clinical genetic analysis showed that autoimmunity aggregates within families of probands diagnosed with primary Sjögren's (pSS) syndrome or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). A literature review supported the establishment of a familiar cluster of ADs depending upon the proband's disease phenotype. Secondly, in a same and well-defined population, a large genetic association study indicated that a number of polymorphic genes (i.e. HLA-DRB1, TNF and PTPN22) influence the susceptibility for acquiring different ADs. Likewise, association and linkage studies in different populations have revealed that several susceptibility loci overlap in ADs, and clinical studies have shown that frequent clustering of several ADs occurs. Thus, the genetic factors for ADs consist of two types: those which are common to many ADs (acting in epistatic pleitropy) and those that are specific to a given disorder. Their identification and functional characterization will allow us to predict their effect as well as to indicate potential new therapeutic interventions. Both autoimmunity family history and the co-occurrence of ADs in affected probands should be considered when performing genetic association and linkage studies. PMID:17162361

  8. Penile embryology and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Yiee, Jenny H; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-06-29

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7th and 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  9. Objective basis of the common law of population.

    PubMed

    Ma, S

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between social production and population growth in China's Marxist society. Marxist population theory states that the mode of social production determines the law of population. The law of population is peculiar to that society and is a natural law. Population cannot be studied apart from the specific production mode. Social production also determines the common law of population since the common law exists in the specific law peculiar to a society. Population phenomena, population growth, and relations between population and social economy have common characteristics in different societies. Material production determines population production, and only within the socialist society are the 2 conditions of public ownership of production means and scientific, technological, and medical development present so that population growth is planned. Marx's historical materialism describes the relationship between production relations and productive forces, and may be applied to other social forms. Only through study of historical materialism can people see capitalism's historical limitations and socialism's superiority. Capitalism oppresses and exploits laboring people. The capitalist law of population surplus stems from the capitalist mode of production, and is a special manifestation of the law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production; it results in anarchic competition and periodic economic crises. The law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production does not exist objectively and in different societies cannot be measured by the same rule. This law is the scientific abstraction of the particular laws of all societies; it acts as a particular law only with given modes of social production. In any society, lack of conformity between 2 kinds of production cannot last. In capitalistic societies, the ruling class changes the production relations of some of the superstructure to alleviate the nonconformity between the 2 kinds of

  10. Embryological Staging of the Zebra Finch, Taeniopygia guttata

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jessica R; Varian-Ramos, Claire W; Welch, Zoe S; Saha, Margaret S

    2013-01-01

    Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are the most commonly used laboratory songbird species, yet their embryological development has been poorly characterized. Most studies to date apply Hamburger and Hamilton stages derived from chicken development; however, significant differences in development between precocial and altricial species suggest that they may not be directly comparable. We provide the first detailed description of embryological development in the Zebra Finch under standard artificial incubation. These descriptions confirm that some of the features used to classify chicken embryos into stages are not applicable in an altricial bird such as the Zebra Finch. This staging protocol will help to standardize future studies of embryological development in the Zebra Finch. J. Morphol. 274:1090–1110, 2013. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Morphology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23813920

  11. Fanconi anemia with concurrent thumb polydactyly and dorsal dimelia: a case report with discussion of embryology.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, M M

    2013-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is known to be associated with radial ray deficiency (thumb and radius hypoplasia), and its embryological basis remains to be poorly understood. We describe a rare case of Fanconi anemia with concurrent thumb polydactyly and dorsal dimelia. The embryological basis of limb abnormalities in Fanconi anemia patients is thought to be based on the complex interactions between the apical ectodermal ridge (where Fanconi anemia genes are expressed) and both the mesoderm (where Spalt-like 4 (SALL4) and Sonic hedgehog (SHH) are located and which are responsible for radial ray deficiency, thumb polydactyly, and triphalangism) and the dorsoventral axis (an error in that axis leads to dorsal dimelia).

  12. Genetic-basis analysis of heterotic loci in Dongxiang common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Jin; Xin, Xiao-Yun; Yang, Jin-Shui

    2012-04-01

    Heterosis is widely used in genetic crop improvement; however, the genetic basis of heterosis is incompletely understood. The use of whole-genome segregating populations poses a problem for establishing the genetic basis of heterosis, in that interactions often mask the effects of individual loci. However, introgression line (IL) populations permit the partitioning of heterosis into defined genomic regions, eliminating a major part of the genome-wide epistasis. In our previous study, based on mid-parental heterosis (HMP) value with single-point analysis, 42 heterotic loci (HLs) associated with six yield-related traits were detected in wild and cultivated rice using a set of 265 ILs of Dongxiang common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.). In this study, the genetic effects of HLs were determined as the combined effects of both additive and dominant gene actions, estimated from the performance values of testcross F1s and the dominance effects estimated from the HMP values of testcross F1s. We characterized the gene action type at each HL. Thirty-eight of the 42 HLs were over-dominant, and in the absence of epistasis, four HLs were dominant. Therefore, we favour that over-dominance is a major genetic basis of 'wild-cultivar' crosses at the single functional Mendelian locus level.

  13. Exploring the common molecular basis for the universal DNA mutation bias: Revival of Loewdin mutation model

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Liang-Yu; Wang, Guang-Zhong; Ma, Bin-Guang; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} There exists a universal G:C {yields} A:T mutation bias in three domains of life. {yields} This universal mutation bias has not been sufficiently explained. {yields} A DNA mutation model proposed by Loewdin 40 years ago offers a common explanation. -- Abstract: Recently, numerous genome analyses revealed the existence of a universal G:C {yields} A:T mutation bias in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. To explore the molecular basis for this mutation bias, we examined the three well-known DNA mutation models, i.e., oxidative damage model, UV-radiation damage model and CpG hypermutation model. It was revealed that these models cannot provide a sufficient explanation to the universal mutation bias. Therefore, we resorted to a DNA mutation model proposed by Loewdin 40 years ago, which was based on inter-base double proton transfers (DPT). Since DPT is a fundamental and spontaneous chemical process and occurs much more frequently within GC pairs than AT pairs, Loewdin model offers a common explanation for the observed universal mutation bias and thus has broad biological implications.

  14. Physical basis behind achondroplasia, the most common form of human dwarfism.

    PubMed

    He, Lijuan; Horton, William; Hristova, Kalina

    2010-09-24

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in long bone development. The G380R mutation in FGFR3 transmembrane domain is known as the genetic cause for achondroplasia, the most common form of human dwarfism. Despite many studies, there is no consensus about the exact mechanism underlying the pathology. To gain further understanding into the physical basis behind the disorder, here we measure the activation of wild-type and mutant FGFR3 in mammalian cells using Western blots, and we analyze the activation within the frame of a physical-chemical model describing dimerization, ligand binding, and phosphorylation probabilities within the dimers. The data analysis presented here suggests that the mutation does not increase FGFR3 dimerization, as proposed previously. Instead, FGFR3 activity in achondroplasia is increased due to increased probability for phosphorylation of the unliganded mutant dimers. This finding has implications for the design of targeted molecular treatments for achondroplasia.

  15. Some problems challenging the UK's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority.

    PubMed

    Pattinson, Shaun D

    2005-06-01

    The UK's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (hereafter the HFEA) is a regulatory body facing growing pressures and difficulties. Like any regulatory body, it faces the challenge of regulating with sufficient expertise, legitimacy, and contemporaneity. This challenge is, however, exacerbated by the fact that it seeks to regulate some of the most controversial and rapidly changing technologies of our time. Its decisions and jurisdictional assumptions face increasing challenge. In addition to the multitude of cases brought against it, the HFEA's actions recently led a House of Commons Select Committee to pointedly declare that "democracy is not served by unelected quangos (quasi-autonomous non-governmental organizations) taking decisions on behalf of Parliament". While endorsing the general need to review the legislation under which the HFEA operates (the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990), this paper will argue that the HFEA was correct in interpreting its jurisdiction to encompass the technique used to produce Dolly the sheep. This paper thereby defends the key feature of the approach of the House of Lords in the recent case of R (Bruno Quintavalle on behalf of the ProLife Alliance) v Secretary of State for Health [2003] UKHL 13.

  16. Developing germplasm resources to identify the genetic basis of resistance to common scab in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common scab, caused mainly by the soil-borne bacterium Streptomyces scabies, produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing tuber quality and profitability. Methods to manage common scab are often expensive, impractical, and can be ineffective. Therefore, creating cultivars that are resistant to common...

  17. Embryological Consideration of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    The topographical distribution of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) was analyzed based on the embryological anatomy of the dural membrane. Sixty-six consecutive cases of intracranial and spinal DAVFs were analyzed based on the angiography, and each shunt point was identified according to the embryological bony structures. The area of dural membranes was categorized into three different groups: a ventral group located on the endochondral bone (VE group), a dorsal group located on the membranous bone (DM group) and a falcotentorial group (FT group) located in the falx cerebri, tentorium cerebelli, falx cerebelli, and diaphragm sellae. The FT group was designated when the dural membrane was formed only with the dura propria (meningeal layer of the dura mater) and not from the endosteal dura. Cavernous sinus, sigmoid sinus, and anterior condylar confluence was categorized to VE group, which had a female predominance, more benign clinical presentations, and a lower rate of cortical and spinal venous reflux. Transverse sinus, confluence, and superior sagittal sinus belonged to the DM group. Olfactory groove, falx, tent of the cerebellum, and nerve sleeve of spinal cord were categorized to the FT group, which presented later in life and which had a male predominance, more aggressive clinical presentations, and significant cortical and spinal venous reflux. The DAVFs was associated with the layers of the dural membrane characterized by the two different embryological bony structures. The FT group was formed only with the dura propria as an independent risk factor for aggressive clinical course and hemorrhage of DAVFs. PMID:27250699

  18. Absence of Posterior Triangle: Clinical and Embryological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shikha; Loh, Hitendra Kumar; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and Trapezius (TM) muscle present in the cervical region serves as an important landmark in forming boundaries of posterior triangle of neck. This case reports a continuous muscle sheet obscuring the left posterior triangle in the neck of a 60-year-old Indian male cadaver. An unfamiliar oval gap was observed in its posterosuperior portion. Description of such a variant in anatomical literature is rare and is scarcely reported. An attempt has been made to portray its embryological and phylogenetic basis. In addition authors have endeavoured to discuss its clinical implications. Awareness of such anatomical variations is relevant for the operating surgeons in their endeavour to perform various reconstruction surgeries of head and neck, radiologists while concluding various levels in Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of the region and to the anaesthetists in their search for nerves and vessels while attempting various anaesthetic procedures. PMID:28384846

  19. Common-Cause Failure Treatment in Event Assessment: Basis for a Proposed New Model

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Song-Hua Shen; Gary DeMoss; Kevin Coyne; Don Marksberry

    2010-06-01

    Event assessment is an application of probabilistic risk assessment in which observed equipment failures and outages are mapped into the risk model to obtain a numerical estimate of the event’s risk significance. In this paper, we focus on retrospective assessments to estimate the risk significance of degraded conditions such as equipment failure accompanied by a deficiency in a process such as maintenance practices. In modeling such events, the basic events in the risk model that are associated with observed failures and other off-normal situations are typically configured to be failed, while those associated with observed successes and unchallenged components are assumed capable of failing, typically with their baseline probabilities. This is referred to as the failure memory approach to event assessment. The conditioning of common-cause failure probabilities for the common cause component group associated with the observed component failure is particularly important, as it is insufficient to simply leave these probabilities at their baseline values, and doing so may result in a significant underestimate of risk significance for the event. Past work in this area has focused on the mathematics of the adjustment. In this paper, we review the Basic Parameter Model for common-cause failure, which underlies most current risk modelling, discuss the limitations of this model with respect to event assessment, and introduce a proposed new framework for common-cause failure, which uses a Bayesian network to model underlying causes of failure, and which has the potential to overcome the limitations of the Basic Parameter Model with respect to event assessment.

  20. Progress and promise in understanding the genetic basis of common diseases

    PubMed Central

    Price, Alkes L.; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Donnelly, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility to common human diseases is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The explosive growth of genetic data, and the knowledge that it is generating, are transforming our biological understanding of these diseases. In this review, we describe the technological and analytical advances that have enabled genome-wide association studies to be successful in identifying a large number of genetic variants robustly associated with common disease. We examine the biological insights that these genetic associations are beginning to produce, from functional mechanisms involving individual genes to biological pathways linking associated genes, and the identification of functional annotations, some of which are cell-type-specific, enriched in disease associations. Although most efforts have focused on identifying and interpreting genetic variants that are irrefutably associated with disease, it is increasingly clear that—even at large sample sizes—these represent only the tip of the iceberg of genetic signal, motivating polygenic analyses that consider the effects of genetic variants throughout the genome, including modest effects that are not individually statistically significant. As data from an increasingly large number of diseases and traits are analysed, pleiotropic effects (defined as genetic loci affecting multiple phenotypes) can help integrate our biological understanding. Looking forward, the next generation of population-scale data resources, linking genomic information with health outcomes, will lead to another step-change in our ability to understand, and treat, common diseases. PMID:26702037

  1. A QTL model to map the common genetic basis for correlative phenotypic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Lyu, Yafei; Xu, Fang; Bo, Wenhao; Zhai, Yi; Zhang, Jian; Pang, Xiaoming; Zheng, Bingsong; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    As an important mechanism for adaptation to heterogeneous environment, plastic responses of correlated traits to environmental alteration may also be genetically correlated, but less is known about the underlying genetic basis. We describe a statistical model for mapping specific quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control the interrelationship of phenotypic plasticity between different traits. The model is constructed by a bivariate mixture setting, implemented with the EM algorithm to estimate the genetic effects of QTLs on correlative plastic response. We provide a series of procedure that test (1) how a QTL controls the phenotypic plasticity of a single trait; and (2) how the QTL determines the correlation of environment-induced changes of different traits. The model is readily extended to test how epistatic interactions among QTLs play a part in the correlations of different plastic traits. The model was validated through computer simulation and used to analyse multi-environment data of genetic mapping in winter wheat, showing its utilization in practice.

  2. Is there a common basis between hiatal hernia and hemorrhoidal disease?

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Zeynep; Uzel, Mehmet; Filik, Levent

    2015-05-01

    In this letter-to-editor, we hypothesize that there is a link between hemorrhoidal disease and hiatal hernia. We underline common risk factors for both and present a cross-sectional patient data. Therefore, we emphasize the necessity of new studies to clarify this coincidence. Clinical benefit of establishment of this link is to delay or prevent development of hiatal hernia as a result of appropriate preventive measures. Accordingly, postoperative period of hiatal hernia operations may also be relieved or recurrence risk may also be decreased with this precautions.

  3. Microbes on building materials--evaluation of DNA extraction protocols as common basis for molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Ettenauer, Jörg D; Piñar, Guadalupe; Lopandic, Ksenija; Spangl, Bernhard; Ellersdorfer, Günther; Voitl, Christian; Sterflinger, Katja

    2012-11-15

    The study of microbial life in building materials is an emerging topic concerning biodeterioration of materials as well as health risks in houses and at working places. Biodegradation and potential health implications associated with microbial growth in our residues claim for more precise methods for quantification and identification. To date, cultivation experiments are commonly used to gain insight into the microbial diversity. Nowadays, molecular techniques for the identification of microorganisms provide efficient methods that can be applied in this field. The efficiency of DNA extraction is decisive in order to perform a reliable and reproducible quantification of the microorganisms by qPCR or to characterize the structure of the microbial community. In this study we tested thirteen DNA extraction methods and evaluated their efficiency for identifying (1) the quantity of DNA, (2) the quality and purity of DNA and (3) the ability of the DNA to be amplified in a PCR reaction using three universal primer sets for the ITS region of fungi as well as one primer pair targeting the 16S rRNA of bacteria with three typical building materials - common plaster, red brick and gypsum cardboard. DNA concentration measurements showed strong variations among the tested methods and materials. Measurement of the DNA yield showed up to three orders of magnitude variation from the same samples, whereas A260/A280 ratios often prognosticated biases in the PCR amplifications. Visualization of the crude DNA extracts and the comparison of DGGE fingerprints showed additional drawbacks of some methods. The FastDNA Spin kit for soil showed to be the best DNA extraction method and could provide positive results for all tests with the three building materials. Therefore, we suggest this method as a gold standard for quantification of indoor fungi and bacteria in building materials.

  4. Large variation among photoreceptors as the basis of visual flexibility in the common backswimmer.

    PubMed

    Immonen, Esa-Ville; Ignatova, Irina; Gislen, Anna; Warrant, Eric; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko; Weckström, Matti; Frolov, Roman

    2014-11-22

    The common backswimmer, Notonecta glauca, uses vision by day and night for functions such as underwater prey animal capture and flight in search of new habitats. Although previous studies have identified some of the physiological mechanisms facilitating such flexibility in the animal's vision, neither the biophysics of Notonecta photoreceptors nor possible cellular adaptations are known. Here, we studied Notonecta photoreceptors using patch-clamp and intracellular recording methods. Photoreceptor size (approximated by capacitance) was positively correlated with absolute sensitivity and acceptance angles. Information rate measurements indicated that large and more sensitive photoreceptors performed better than small ones. Our results suggest that backswimmers are adapted for vision in both dim and well-illuminated environments by having open-rhabdom eyes with large intrinsic variation in absolute sensitivity among photoreceptors, exceeding those found in purely diurnal or nocturnal species. Both electrophysiology and microscopic analysis of retinal structure suggest two retinal subsystems: the largest peripheral photoreceptors provide vision in dim light and the smaller peripheral and central photoreceptors function primarily in sunlight, with light-dependent pigment screening further contributing to adaptation in this system by dynamically recruiting photoreceptors with varying sensitivity into the operational pool.

  5. Global neural pattern similarity as a common basis for categorization and recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Davis, Tyler; Xue, Gui; Love, Bradley C; Preston, Alison R; Poldrack, Russell A

    2014-05-28

    Familiarity, or memory strength, is a central construct in models of cognition. In previous categorization and long-term memory research, correlations have been found between psychological measures of memory strength and activation in the medial temporal lobes (MTLs), which suggests a common neural locus for memory strength. However, activation alone is insufficient for determining whether the same mechanisms underlie neural function across domains. Guided by mathematical models of categorization and long-term memory, we develop a theory and a method to test whether memory strength arises from the global similarity among neural representations. In human subjects, we find significant correlations between global similarity among activation patterns in the MTLs and both subsequent memory confidence in a recognition memory task and model-based measures of memory strength in a category learning task. Our work bridges formal cognitive theories and neuroscientific models by illustrating that the same global similarity computations underlie processing in multiple cognitive domains. Moreover, by establishing a link between neural similarity and psychological memory strength, our findings suggest that there may be an isomorphism between psychological and neural representational spaces that can be exploited to test cognitive theories at both the neural and behavioral levels.

  6. Large variation among photoreceptors as the basis of visual flexibility in the common backswimmer

    PubMed Central

    Immonen, Esa-Ville; Ignatova, Irina; Gislen, Anna; Warrant, Eric; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko; Weckström, Matti; Frolov, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The common backswimmer, Notonecta glauca, uses vision by day and night for functions such as underwater prey animal capture and flight in search of new habitats. Although previous studies have identified some of the physiological mechanisms facilitating such flexibility in the animal's vision, neither the biophysics of Notonecta photoreceptors nor possible cellular adaptations are known. Here, we studied Notonecta photoreceptors using patch-clamp and intracellular recording methods. Photoreceptor size (approximated by capacitance) was positively correlated with absolute sensitivity and acceptance angles. Information rate measurements indicated that large and more sensitive photoreceptors performed better than small ones. Our results suggest that backswimmers are adapted for vision in both dim and well-illuminated environments by having open-rhabdom eyes with large intrinsic variation in absolute sensitivity among photoreceptors, exceeding those found in purely diurnal or nocturnal species. Both electrophysiology and microscopic analysis of retinal structure suggest two retinal subsystems: the largest peripheral photoreceptors provide vision in dim light and the smaller peripheral and central photoreceptors function primarily in sunlight, with light-dependent pigment screening further contributing to adaptation in this system by dynamically recruiting photoreceptors with varying sensitivity into the operational pool. PMID:25274359

  7. Technical Basis for Evaluating Software-Related Common-Cause Failures

    SciTech Connect

    Muhlheim, Michael David; Wood, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The instrumentation and control (I&C) system architecture at a nuclear power plant (NPP) incorporates protections against common-cause failures (CCFs) through the use of diversity and defense-in-depth. Even for well-established analog-based I&C system designs, the potential for CCFs of multiple systems (or redundancies within a system) constitutes a credible threat to defeating the defense-in-depth provisions within the I&C system architectures. The integration of digital technologies into the I&C systems provides many advantages compared to the aging analog systems with respect to reliability, maintenance, operability, and cost effectiveness. However, maintaining the diversity and defense-in-depth for both the hardware and software within the digital system is challenging. In fact, the introduction of digital technologies may actually increase the potential for CCF vulnerabilities because of the introduction of undetected systematic faults. These systematic faults are defined as a “design fault located in a software component” and at a high level, are predominately the result of (1) errors in the requirement specification, (2) inadequate provisions to account for design limits (e.g., environmental stress), or (3) technical faults incorporated in the internal system (or architectural) design or implementation. Other technology-neutral CCF concerns include hardware design errors, equipment qualification deficiencies, installation or maintenance errors, instrument loop scaling and setpoint mistakes.

  8. Evaluating trihalomethane content in drinking water on the basis of common monitoring parameters: regression models.

    PubMed

    Espigares, Miguel; Lardelli, Pablo; Ortega, Pedro

    2003-10-01

    The presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in potable-water sources is an issue of great interest because of the negative impact THMs have on human health. The objective of this study was to correlate the presence of trihalomethanes with more routinely monitored parameters of water quality, in order to facilitate THM control. Water samples taken at various stages of treatment from a water treatment plant were analyzed for the presence of trihalomethanes with the Fujiwara method. The data collected from these determinations were compared with the values obtained for free-residual-chlorine and combined-residual-chlorine levels as well as standard physico-chemical and microbiological indicators such as chemical oxygen demand (by the KMnO4 method), total chlorophyll, conductivity, pH, alkalinity, turbidity, chlorides, sulfates, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, ammonia, calcium, magnesium, heterotrophic bacteria count, Pseudomonas spp., total and fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci. The data from these determinations were compiled, and statistical analysis was performed to determine which variables correlate best with the presence and quantity of trihalomethanes in the samples. Levels of THMs in water seem to correlate directly with levels of combined residual chlorine and nitrates, and inversely with the level of free residual chlorine. Statistical analysis with multiple linear regression was conducted to determine the best-fitting models. The models chosen incorporate between two and four independent variables and include chemical oxygen demand, nitrites, and ammonia. These indicators, which are commonly determined during the water treatment process, demonstrate the strongest correlation with the levels of trihalomethanes in water and offer great utility as an accessible method for THM detection and control.

  9. The molecular basis of variable phenotypic severity among common missense mutations causing Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kyla; Selfridge, Jim; Lagger, Sabine; Connelly, John; De Sousa, Dina; Kerr, Alastair; Webb, Shaun; Guy, Jacky; Merusi, Cara; Koerner, Martha V; Bird, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Rett syndrome is caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene, which encodes a chromosomal protein that binds to methylated DNA. Mouse models mirror the human disorder and therefore allow investigation of phenotypes at a molecular level. We describe an Mecp2 allelic series representing the three most common missense Rett syndrome (RTT) mutations, including first reports of Mecp2[R133C] and Mecp2[T158M] knock-in mice, in addition to Mecp2[R306C] mutant mice. Together these three alleles comprise ∼25% of all RTT mutations in humans, but they vary significantly in average severity. This spectrum is mimicked in the mouse models; R133C being least severe, T158M most severe and R306C of intermediate severity. Both R133C and T158M mutations cause compound phenotypes at the molecular level, combining compromised DNA binding with reduced stability, the destabilizing effect of T158M being more severe. Our findings contradict the hypothesis that the R133C mutation exclusively abolishes binding to hydroxymethylated DNA, as interactions with DNA containing methyl-CG, methyl-CA and hydroxymethyl-CA are all reduced in vivo. We find that MeCP2[T158M] is significantly less stable than MeCP2[R133C], which may account for the divergent clinical impact of the mutations. Overall, this allelic series recapitulates human RTT severity, reveals compound molecular aetiologies and provides a valuable resource in the search for personalized therapeutic interventions.

  10. Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: Embryological Consideration

    PubMed Central

    TOMA, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    There are considerable variations in the anatomy of the human ophthalmic artery (OphA), such as anomalous origins of the OphA and anastomoses between the OphA and the adjacent arteries. These anatomical variations seem to attribute to complex embryology of the OphA. In human embryos and fetuses, primitive dorsal and ventral ophthalmic arteries (PDOphA and PVOphA) form the ocular branches, and the supraorbital division of the stapedial artery forms the orbital branches of the OphA, and then numerous anastomoses between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) systems emerge in connection with the OphA. These developmental processes can produce anatomical variations of the OphA, and we should notice these variations for neurosurgical and neurointerventional procedures. PMID:27298261

  11. For the Classroom: The Sea Urchin Fertilization and Embryology Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevoort, Douglas

    1984-01-01

    The sea urchin provides an ideal embryology laboratory because it is visually representative of the fertilization process in higher animals. Procedures for conducting such a laboratory (including methods for securing specimens) are provided. (JN)

  12. Commonality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E., Jr.

    Commonality analysis is an attempt to understand the relative predictive power of the regressor variables, both individually and in combination. The squared multiple correlation is broken up into elements assigned to each individual regressor and to each possible combination of regressors. The elements have the property that the appropriate sums…

  13. The adolescent female: Breast and reproductive embryology and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Lemaine, Valerie; Simmons, Patricia S

    2013-01-01

    Congenital breast and genital tract anomalies are seen frequently in the care of children and adolescents. Breast and internal gynecologic anomalies more often present in adolescence than in early childhood. Management is best delivered through a multidisciplinary team approach. Carefully timed surgical intervention is of importance to optimize psychological, aesthetic and functional outcomes. An understanding of the female breast and genital tract embryology and anatomy is important for a meticulous clinical examination and appropriate surgical treatment. This article will review the normal embryology and anatomy of the adolescent female breast and genital tract.

  14. Push it to the limit: Characterizing the convergence of common sequences of basis sets for intermolecular interactions as described by density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Witte, Jonathon; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-05-21

    With the aim of systematically characterizing the convergence of common families of basis sets such that general recommendations for basis sets can be made, we have tested a wide variety of basis sets against complete-basis binding energies across the S22 set of intermolecular interactions-noncovalent interactions of small and medium-sized molecules consisting of first- and second-row atoms-with three distinct density functional approximations: SPW92, a form of local-density approximation; B3LYP, a global hybrid generalized gradient approximation; and B97M-V, a meta-generalized gradient approximation with nonlocal correlation. We have found that it is remarkably difficult to reach the basis set limit; for the methods and systems examined, the most complete basis is Jensen's pc-4. The Dunning correlation-consistent sequence of basis sets converges slowly relative to the Jensen sequence. The Karlsruhe basis sets are quite cost effective, particularly when a correction for basis set superposition error is applied: counterpoise-corrected def2-SVPD binding energies are better than corresponding energies computed in comparably sized Dunning and Jensen bases, and on par with uncorrected results in basis sets 3-4 times larger. These trends are exhibited regardless of the level of density functional approximation employed. A sense of the magnitude of the intrinsic incompleteness error of each basis set not only provides a foundation for guiding basis set choice in future studies but also facilitates quantitative comparison of existing studies on similar types of systems.

  15. Light Use Efficiency and Photochemical Reflectance Index: do we have a common basis defining them? Implications for productivity estimation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, A. A.; Gamon, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    There are at least three commonly used definitions of photosynthetic Light Use Efficiency (LUE) based on: (a) incident radiation (LUEinc); (b) total absorbed light (LUEtotal); and (c) radiation absorbed by photosynthetically active vegetation (LUEps). Consequently, LUE values reported do not have a common basis, bringing confusion and limiting the utility of reported LUE values for comparative analyses. Not surprisingly, the value of LUE reported in literature varies by a factor of three. Similarly, the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) has different operational definitions, resulting in a wide range of reported values for comparable conditions. The objectives of this paper are to investigate (a) temporal behavior of each definition of LUE; and (b) factors affecting PRI, often used as a surrogate of LUE at leaf and canopy levels. We focused on annual and winter-deciduous vegetation where total chlorophyll content is closely tied to the seasonal dynamics of GPP. In these conditions, LUEinc is closely related to total plant chlorophyll (Chl) content. LUEtotal oscillates around a constant value during the vegetative stage, depending mainly on plant physiological status, PAR composition and magnitude, while in reproductive and senescence stages it relates closely to Chl content. LUEps may vary 2- to 3-fold during the growing season with no clear seasonal pattern, and does not seem to be related to any biophysical characteristic studied; rather, it depends on the physiological status of vegetation, PAR composition and magnitude as well as air temperature and soil moisture. At the leaf level, PRI depends greatly on pigment content and composition and relates closely to the ratio of Chl to carotenoid content. At the canopy and stand levels, both total plant Chl content and green LAI are responsible for more than 95% of PRI variation, demonstrating that PRI is confounded by pigment pool sizes and canopy structure in these conditions. Importantly, the close relationship

  16. Genetic basis and fitness correlates of dynamic carotenoid-based ornamental coloration in male and female common kestrels Falco tinnunculus.

    PubMed

    Vergara, P; Fargallo, J A; Martínez-Padilla, J

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the genetic basis of sexual ornaments is essential to understand their evolution through sexual selection. Although carotenoid-based ornaments have been instrumental in the study of sexual selection, given the inability of animals to synthesize carotenoids de novo, they are generally assumed to be influenced solely by environmental variation. However, very few studies have directly estimated the role of genes and the environment in shaping variation in carotenoid-based traits. Using long-term individual-based data, we here explore the evolutionary potential of a dynamic, carotenoid-based ornament (namely skin coloration), in male and female common kestrels. We first estimate the amount of genetic variation underlying variation in hue, chroma and brightness. After correcting for sex differences, the chroma of the orange-yellow eye ring coloration was significantly heritable (h2±SE=0.40±0.17), whereas neither hue (h2=0) nor brightness (h2=0.02) was heritable. Second, we estimate the strength and shape of selection acting upon chromatic (hue and chroma) and achromatic (brightness) variation and show positive and negative directional selection on female but not male chroma and hue, respectively, whereas brightness was unrelated to fitness in both sexes. This suggests that different components of carotenoid-based signals traits may show different evolutionary dynamics. Overall, we show that carotenoid-based coloration is a complex and multifaceted trait. If we are to gain a better understanding of the processes responsible for the generation and maintenance of variation in carotenoid-based coloration, these complexities need to be taken into account.

  17. Early development and embryology of the platypus.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, R L; Hall, L S

    1998-01-01

    Information on the pre-hatching development of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, is reliant on a small number of specimens, whose precise age is unknown. Material collected for J. P. Hill and now housed in the Hubrecht International Embryological Laboratory, Utrecht, contributes a major source of specimens. This paper presents new observations on developmental stages from the Hill collection, which allow for a more complete description of pre-hatching development. A feature of the pre-embryonic development of the platypus is the incomplete meroblastic cleavage. A column of fine yolk spheres extends from beneath the embryonic blastodisc towards the centre of a yolky vitellus, as seen in birds. The major expansion of extra-embryonic membranes occurs after the formation of the primitive streak. The primitive streak develops within an embryonal area as part of the superficial wall of the yolk-sac, a feature also shared with marsupials, birds and reptiles. The full-term, subspheroidal, intrauterine egg of the platypus has a major axis of about 17 mm and contains a flat, 19-20 somite, neurula-stage embryo which has prominent trigeminal ganglion primordia. The embryo at this stage is in a period of rapid modelling of the major early organ primordia of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, excretory system, and somite-derived components of the body wall. Soon after laying, five primary brain vesicles are present, the trigeminal ganglia CN5 as well as CN7, CN8, CN9, CN10, CN11 and CN12 are well developed. The alimentary system has an expanded stomach, pancreatic primordia and a gall bladder. Mesonephric tubules are associated with patent mesonephric ducts, which empty laterally into the cloaca. Extra-embryonic membranes at this stage show an extensive chorioamniotic connection that extends through the greater part of the caudal half of fused amniotic folds. The vascularized yolk-sac consists of a superficial yolk-sac omphalopleura and a deep yolk

  18. The future of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority.

    PubMed

    English, Veronica

    2013-04-01

    The UK Government has proposed that the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) should be abolished and its functions transferred to the Care Quality Commission. This commentary explores the problems with this proposal and suggests that an independent review of how the HFEA carries out its functions and a subsequent reform of some of its practices represent a better option for the UK.

  19. Embryology, sternal clefts, ectopia cordis, and Cantrell's pentalogy.

    PubMed

    Engum, Scott A

    2008-08-01

    Sternal clefts, ectopia cordis, and Cantrell's pentalogy continue to be very rare congenital anomalies in pediatric surgery. Unfortunately, these conditions present as neonatal emergencies and demand early surgical intervention. This article reviews the embryological development of the chest wall, specific sternal defect anomalies, along with available methods of treatment.

  20. Embryology and Anatomy of the Jaw and Dentition.

    PubMed

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Poon, Colin S; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Radiologists should possess working knowledge of the embryological development and anatomy of the jaw and dentition in order to aid in the diagnosis of both simple and complex disorders that affect them. Here, we review the elaborate process of odontogenesis, as well as describe in detail the anatomy of a tooth and its surrounding structures.

  1. A Functional Perspective on the Embryology and Anatomy of the Cerebral Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Menshawi, Khaled; Mohr, Jay P

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the arterial system supplying blood to the brain can influence the development of arterial disease such as aneurysms, dolichoectasia and atherosclerosis. As the arteries supplying blood to the brain develop during embryogenesis, variation in their anatomy may occur and this variation may influence the development of arterial disease. Angiogenesis, which occurs mainly by sprouting of parent arteries, is the first stage at which variations can occur. At day 24 of embryological life, the internal carotid artery is the first artery to form and it provides all the blood required by the primitive brain. As the occipital region, brain stem and cerebellum enlarge; the internal carotid supply becomes insufficient, triggering the development of the posterior circulation. At this stage, the posterior circulation consists of a primitive mesh of arterial networks that originate from projection of penetrators from the distal carotid artery and more proximally from carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. These anastomoses regress when the basilar artery and the vertebral arteries become independent from the internal carotid artery, but their persistence is not uncommon in adults (e.g., persistent trigeminal artery). Other common remnants of embryological development include fenestration or duplication (most commonly of the basilar artery), hypoplasia (typically of the posterior communicating artery) or agenesis (typically of the anterior communicating artery). Learning more about the hemodynamic consequence that these variants may have on the brain territories they supply may help understand better the underlying physiopathology of cerebral arterial remodeling and stroke in patients with these variants. PMID:26060802

  2. Female pelvic congenital malformations. Part I: embryology, anatomy and surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Laterza, Rosa M; De Gennaro, Mario; Tubaro, Andrea; Koelbl, Heinz

    2011-11-01

    This review covers the most important female congenital pelvic malformations. The first part focuses on the embryological development of the urogenital and anorectal apparatus, morphological features, and the diagnostic and surgical approach to abnormalities. Comprehension of the embryological development of the urogenital and anorectal apparatus is essential to understand the morphology of congenital pelvic abnormalities and their surgical treatment. Congenital pelvic malformations are characterized by specific common features; the severity of which often subverts the pelvic morphology completely and makes it difficult to comprehend before surgery. The development of imaging, mainly magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, in the investigation of pelvic floor disorders has recently become a fundamental tool for surgeons to achieve better understanding of the anatomy. Forty years ago, the primary aim of clinicians was to save the lives of such patients and to achieve anatomical normality. However, nowadays, functional reconstruction and recovery are essential parts of surgical management. Introduction of minimally invasive surgery has allowed the improvement of cosmetic results that is so important in paediatric or adolescent patients after reconstructive surgery. The option of sharing the complexity of pelvic congenital diseases by entrusting specific competencies to subspecialists (paediatric urologists, urogynaecologists, neurourologists, paediatric endocrinologists and neonatologists) has improved the quality of care for patients. However, at the same time, active interaction between various specialists remains fundamental. The exchange of knowledge and expertise, not only during the diagnostic-therapeutic process but also during follow-up, is crucial to obtain the best anatomical and functional results throughout the life of the patient.

  3. Abnormal Congenital Location of Stapes' Superstructure: Clinical and Embryological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Teles, Rafaela; Sousa, Ana; Estevão, Roberto; Rodrigues, Jorge; Gomes, Alexandra; Silva, Francisco; Fernandes, Ângelo; Fernandes, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Congenital middle ear malformations are rare. Most part of them are usually associated with other malformations, such as aural atresia, microtia, and dysmorphic craniofacial features. A clinical case of a 24-year-old male with a right-sided conductive hearing loss since his childhood, without craniofacial malformation, is presented. He was proposed for exploratory tympanotomy under the suspicious diagnosis of otosclerosis. The surgery revealed an abnormal location of stapes' superstructure, which was attached to the promontory and had an isolated and mobile osseous footplate in the oval window. A stapes prosthesis was inserted and resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 25 dB. A review of the literature was also performed using MEDLINE. Two theories diverge on the embryologic origin of the stapes. Our findings seem to be in favour of the theory that defines two different embryologic origins to the stapes. PMID:27648330

  4. Dorsoscapularis triangularis: embryological and phylogenetic characterization of a rare variation of trapezius

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Anita; Raheja, Shashi

    2016-01-01

    The muscle trapezius shows considerable morphological diversity. Variations include an anomalous origin and complete or partial absence of the muscle. The present study reported, a hitherto undocumented complete bilateral absence of the cervical part of trapezius. Based on its peculiar origin and insertion, it was named dorsoscapularis triangularis. The embryological, phylogenetic and molecular basis of the anomaly was elucidated. Failure of cranial migration of the trapezius component of the branchial musculature anlage to gain attachment on the occipital bone, cervical spinous processes, ligamentum nuchae between 11 mm and 16 mm stage of the embryo, resulted in this anomaly. A surgeon operating on the head and neck region or a radiologist analyzing a magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical region would find the knowledge of this morphological variation of trapezius useful in making clinical decisions. PMID:27722016

  5. Foreseeing fates: a commentary on Manton (1928) 'On the embryology of a mysid crustacean, Hemimysis lamornae'.

    PubMed

    Akam, Michael

    2015-04-19

    Sidnie Manton became best known for her work on arthropod locomotion, and for proposing radical views on the evolution of arthropods that were accepted for a generation. However, her early training was as an embryologist, and the work that she carried out at the beginning of her career still stands as one of the major twentieth century contributions to the study of crustacean embryology. Here, I review her first major paper, largely completed while she was a graduate student, describing embryonic development in Hemimysis lamornae, a small shrimp-like animal found in the seas around the UK. The clarity of her writing and the quality of her figures set a standard that laid the basis for subsequent work, and although not all of her conclusions have stood the test of time, they remain a standard reference for work today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  6. SymRK defines a common genetic basis for plant root endosymbioses with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi, rhizobia, and Frankiabacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gherbi, Hassen; Markmann, Katharina; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Estevan, Joan; Autran, Daphné; Giczey, Gabor; Auguy, Florence; Péret, Benjamin; Laplaze, Laurent; Franche, Claudine; Parniske, Martin; Bogusz, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Root endosymbioses vitally contribute to plant nutrition and fitness worldwide. Nitrogen-fixing root nodulation, confined to four plant orders, encompasses two distinct types of associations, the interaction of legumes (Fabales) with rhizobia bacteria and actinorhizal symbioses, where the bacterial symbionts are actinomycetes of the genus Frankia. Although several genetic components of the host–symbiont interaction have been identified in legumes, the genetic basis of actinorhiza formation is unknown. Here, we show that the receptor-like kinase gene SymRK, which is required for nodulation in legumes, is also necessary for actinorhiza formation in the tree Casuarina glauca. This indicates that both types of nodulation symbiosis share genetic components. Like several other legume genes involved in the interaction with rhizobia, SymRK is also required for the interaction with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi. We show that SymRK is involved in AM formation in C. glauca as well and can restore both nodulation and AM symbioses in a Lotus japonicus symrk mutant. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SymRK functions as a vital component of the genetic basis for both plant–fungal and plant–bacterial endosymbioses and is conserved between legumes and actinorhiza-forming Fagales. PMID:18316735

  7. Human Brain Basis of Musical Rhythm Perception: Common and Distinct Neural Substrates for Meter, Tempo, and Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Thaut, Michael H.; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Parsons, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET) as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a) pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b) pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus). Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas). These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure. PMID:24961770

  8. Human brain basis of musical rhythm perception: common and distinct neural substrates for meter, tempo, and pattern.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Parsons, Lawrence M

    2014-06-17

    Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET) as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a) pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b) pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus). Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas). These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure.

  9. [The mark of envy: metaphysics and embryology according to Descartes].

    PubMed

    Gaudemard, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction between medicine and metaphysics in modern natural philosophy and especially in Descartes' philosophy. I argue that Descartes hypothetical account of birthmarks in connection with his embryology provides an argumentative proof of the metaphysical necessity of a substantial union between mind and body, which however does not threaten his doctrine of the real distinction between these two substances. It would appear that his argument relies on a temporal conception of alethic modalities and provides a new answer to Henricus Regius who in 1641 claimed that, for Descartes, the human being is an ensper accidens.

  10. The Use of "Kryptolebias marmoratus" Eggs as an Educational Tool for Embryology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genade, Tyrone

    2016-01-01

    Plastic embryological models lack the excitement of seeing real, live embryos. Chick embryos are often used to demonstrate embryological development and blood circulation to students but this necessitates the death of the organism. "Kryptolebias marmoratus" embryos are large and can be viewed by means of a light microscope without need…

  11. Holoprosencephaly: a survey of the entity, with embryology and fetal imaging.

    PubMed

    Winter, Thomas C; Kennedy, Anne M; Woodward, Paula J

    2015-01-01

    Structural malformations of the brain are an important cause of childhood mortality and morbidity, with the latter having long-term financial and psychosocial implications for the affected child and family. Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a severe brain malformation characterized by abnormal cleavage of the prosencephalon in the 5th gestational week. Aprosencephaly and atelencephaly occur earlier because of failure in the formation of the prosencephalon and telencephalon, respectively. The HPE holoprosencephaly spectrum classically includes alobar, semilobar, and lobar forms, although there are no clear-cut defining features. The middle interhemispheric variant (MIH), also known as syntelencephaly, is classified as a variant of HPE holoprosencephaly with midline interhemispheric fusion. Other conditions sometimes included in the spectrum of HPE holoprosencephaly include septo-optic dysplasia (SOD); "minimal" HPE holoprosencephaly , which is associated with subtle craniofacial malformations and mild developmental delay; and microform HPE holoprosencephaly , which by definition excludes brain involvement. The focus of this article will be on the spectrum of findings visible in fetal manifestation of the HPE holoprosencephaly spectrum. Brain embryology; the imaging characteristics, epidemiology, and embryology of HPE; and the more common associated anomalies, particularly those of the face ("the face predicts the brain") are reviewed. Recognition of these anomalies is important for accurate parental counseling, since the prognosis is poor but not invariably lethal; children with the milder forms may live well into their teens with severe developmental delays, endocrine dysfunction, and disrupted homeostasis. Available data on outcome in surviving children are summarized. Illustrative fetal ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance images are presented with clinical, autopsy, and postnatal imaging correlation.

  12. Lens epithelial cell apoptosis appears to be a common cellular basis for non-congenital cataract development in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Cataract is a major ocular disease that causes blindness in many developing countries of the world. It is well established that various factors such as oxidative stress, UV, and other toxic agents can induce both in vivo and in vitro cataract formation. However, a common cellular basis for this induction has not been previously recognized. The present study of lens epithelial cell viability suggests such a general mechanism. When lens epithelial cells from a group of 20 cataract patients 12 to 94 years old were analyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) labeling and DNA fragmentation assays, it was found that all of these patients had apoptotic epithelial cells ranging from 4.4 to 41.8%. By contrast, in eight normal human lenses of comparable age, very few apoptotic epithelial cells were observed. We suggest that cataract patients may have deficient defense systems against factors such as oxidative stress and UV at the onset of the disease. Such stress can trigger lens epithelial cell apoptosis that then may initiate cataract development. To test this hypothesis, it is also demonstrated here that hydrogen peroxide at concentrations previously found in some cataract patients induces both lens epithelial cell apoptosis and cortical opacity. Moreover, the temporal and spatial distribution of induced apoptotic lens epithelial cells precedes development of lens opacification. These results suggest that lens epithelial cell apoptosis may be a common cellular basis for initiation of noncongenital cataract formation. PMID:7790371

  13. Craniopagus twins: surgical anatomy and embryology and their implications.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, J E

    1976-01-01

    Craniopagus is of two types, partial and total. In the partial form the union is of limited extent, particularly as regards its depth, and separation can be expected to be followed by the survival of both children to lead normal lives. In the total form, of which three varieties can be recognized, the two brains can be regarded as lying within a single cranium and a series of gross intracranial abnormalities develops. These include deformity of the skull base, deformity and displacement of the cerebrum, and a gross circulatory abnormality. It is considered that these and other abnormalities, unlike the primary defect, which is defined, are secondary ones; explanations for them, based on anatomy and embryology, are put forward. The implications of the various anomalies are discussed and the ethical aspects of attempted separation in these major unions considered. Images PMID:1255206

  14. Trifurcation of superficial brachial artery: a rare case with its clinico-embryological implications.

    PubMed

    Gupta, N; Anshu, A; Dada, R

    2014-01-01

    Literatures on vasculature of upper limbs are crammed with reports of distinctly deviant version of normally prevalent vessels having modified origins, altered branching and odd courses. A unique anatomical variation in vascular pattern was observed during routine dissection of right upper limb in gross anatomy laboratory, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. The brachial artery was placed superficial to median nerve in the arm and therefore it was called superficial brachial artery. In the cubital fossa, 2.8 cm distal to intercondylar line of elbow joint, this superficial brachial artery terminated by trifurcation into radial, common interosseous and ulnar branches. Strikingly the ulnar branch, after its origin ran superficially over the median nerve and epitrochlear superficial flexor group of muscles of forearm in succession for the initial third of its course in the forearm, consequently it was addressed as superficial ulnar artery. The existence of superficial brachial artery in place of normal brachial artery, its termination by trifurcation into radial, common interosseous and superficial ulnar arteries with remarkably different courses, leads to confusing disposition of structures in the arm, cubital fossa and in the forearm and collectively makes this myriad of anatomical variations even rarer. The clinico-embryological revelations for combination of these unconventional observations, apprises and guides the specialized medical personnel attempting blind and invasive procedures in brachium and ante-brachium. This case report depicts the anatomical perspective and clinical implications on confronting a rare variant vasculature architecture pattern of upper limb.

  15. Isolated Anomalous Origin of Left Pulmonary Artery From the Descending Aorta: An Embryologic Ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Gnanappa, Ganesh Kumar; Laohachai, Karina; Orr, Yishay; Ayer, Julian

    2016-11-01

    Anomalous origin of a branch pulmonary artery from the aorta is a rare malformation, accounting for 0.12% of all congenital heart defects. Anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the aorta (ALPA) constitutes a small proportion of these cases. ALPA has been reported to arise from the ascending aorta with various embryologic postulates. We report a case of isolated ALPA arising from the descending aorta in association with a patent ductus arteriosus, to emphasize its embryologic ambiguity.

  16. A burgeoning science of embryological genetics demands a modern ethics.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R G

    2007-09-01

    This brief article discusses the nature of recent scientific advances in reproductive biomedicine and genetics, their moral implications and their effects on society. The pace of research has amplified exponentially, leading society into situations incomprehended by our ancestors. Early studies on reproductive biology in animals, and clinical methods such as artificial insemination by donor spermatozoa, were introduced several centuries ago and led to prolonged ethical disagreements. The 20th century witnessed the introduction of controlled ovulation in laboratory animals, the fertilization of the oocyte and preimplantation embryology in mammalian species. The second half of this century produced an avalanche of knowledge on genetics, developmental biology, the fertilization of the human oocyte in vitro, test-tube babies, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, designer babies, stem cells and a deeper understanding of molecular differentiation in the human embryo. The ethical and legal aspects of these items have led to intense debates on their rights and wrongs. The future may have even more bizarre possibilities such as producing medicines in cow's milk or trees and delaying death for many years.

  17. Embryological and molecular development of the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ian L; Louw, Graham J

    2015-03-01

    In this mini review, the embryological and functional development of the adrenal glands is presented from a molecular perspective. While acknowledging that this is a highly complex series of events, the processes are described in simple and broad strokes in a single text for the reader who is interested in this field but is not an active researcher. The origin of the adrenal glands is in the mesodermal ridge as early as the fourth week of gestation. Between the eighth and ninth weeks of gestation, the adrenal glands are encapsulated and this results in the presence of a distinct organ. There have been great strides in deciphering the very complicated molecular aspects of adrenal gland development in which multiple transcription factors have been identified, directing the adrenogonadal primordium into the adrenal cortex, kidney, or bipotential gonad. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone is critical for early development of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. Several mutations in transcription factors, responsible for normal adrenal gland development have been found to induce the familial syndrome of congenital adrenal hypoplasia or neoplasia.

  18. Reproductive medicine involving genome editing: clinical uncertainties and embryological needs.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing based on site-directed nucleases facilitated efficient and versatile genetic modifications in human cells. However, recent reports, demonstrating CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in human embryos have raised profound concerns worldwide. This commentary explores the clinical justification and feasibility of reproductive medicine using germline genome editing. Despite the perceived utility of reproductive medicine for treating intractable infertility, it is difficult to justify germline genome editing from the perspective of the prospective child. As suggested by the UK legalization regarding mitochondrial donation, the prevention of genetic disease in offspring by genome editing might be acceptable in limited cases of serious or life-threatening conditions, where no alternative medicine is available. Nonetheless, the mosaicism underlying human embryos as well as the off-target effect by artificial nucleases will likely hamper preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to embryo transfer. Such considerations suggest that this type of reproductive medicine should not be developed toward a clinical application. However, the clinical uncertainties underscore the need for embryology that can address fundamental questions regarding germline aneuploidy and mosaicism using genome editing.

  19. Embryologic and Fetal Development of the Human Eyelid

    PubMed Central

    Abdulhafez, Mohamed H.; Fouad, Yousef A.; Dutton, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To review the recent data about eyelid morphogenesis, and outline a timeline for eyelid development from the very early stages during embryonic life till final maturation of the eyelid late in fetal life. Methods: The authors extensively review major studies detailing human embryologic and fetal eyelid morphogenesis. These studies span almost a century and include some more recent cadaver studies. Numerous studies in the murine model have helped to better understand the molecular signals that govern eyelid embryogenesis. The authors summarize the current findings in molecular biology, and highlight the most significant studies in mice regarding the multiple and interacting signaling pathways involved in regulating normal eyelid morphogenesis. Results: Eyelid morphogenesis involves a succession of subtle yet strictly regulated morphogenetic episodes of tissue folding, proliferation, contraction, and even migration, which may occur simultaneously or in succession. Conclusions: Understanding the extraordinary process of building eyelid tissue in embryonic life, and deciphering its underlying signaling machinery has far reaching clinical implications beyond understanding the developmental abnormalities involving the eyelids, and may pave the way for achieving scar-reducing therapies in adult mammalian wounds, or control the spread of malignancies. PMID:27124372

  20. Folding into being: early embryology and the epistemology of rhythm.

    PubMed

    Wellmann, Janina

    2015-03-01

    Historians have often described embryology and concepts of development in the period around 1800 in terms of "temporalization" or "dynamization". This paper, in contrast, argues that a central epistemological category in the period was "rhythm", which played a major role in the establishment of the emerging discipline of biology. I show that Caspar Friedrich Wolff's epigenetic theory of development was based on a rhythmical notion, namely the hypothesis that organic development occurs as a series of ordered rhythmical repetitions and variations. Presenting Christian Heinrich Pander's and Karl Ernst von Baer's theory of germ layers, I argue that Pander and Baer regarded folding as an organizing principle of ontogenesis, and that the principle's explanatory power stems from their understanding of folding as a rhythmical figuration. In a brief discussion of the notion of rhythm in contemporary music theory, I identify an underlying physiological epistemology in the new musical concept of rhythm around 1800. The paper closes with a more general discussion of the relationship between the rhythmic episteme, conceptions of life, and aesthetic theory at the end of the eighteenth century.

  1. Foreseeing fates: a commentary on Manton (1928) ‘On the embryology of a mysid crustacean, Hemimysis lamornae’

    PubMed Central

    Akam, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sidnie Manton became best known for her work on arthropod locomotion, and for proposing radical views on the evolution of arthropods that were accepted for a generation. However, her early training was as an embryologist, and the work that she carried out at the beginning of her career still stands as one of the major twentieth century contributions to the study of crustacean embryology. Here, I review her first major paper, largely completed while she was a graduate student, describing embryonic development in Hemimysis lamornae, a small shrimp-like animal found in the seas around the UK. The clarity of her writing and the quality of her figures set a standard that laid the basis for subsequent work, and although not all of her conclusions have stood the test of time, they remain a standard reference for work today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750244

  2. Quality changes and predictive models of radial basis function neural networks for brined common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Kong, Chunli; Wang, Huiyi; Li, Dapeng; Zhang, Yuemei; Pan, Jinfeng; Zhu, Beiwei; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-06-15

    To investigate and predict quality of 2% brined common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets during frozen storage, free fatty acids (FFA), salt extractable protein (SEP), total sulfhydryl (SH) content, and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity were determined at 261 K, 253 K, and 245 K, respectively. There was a dramatic increase (P<0.05) in FFA and a sharp decrease (P<0.05) in SH at 261 K during the first 3 weeks. SEP decreased to 67.31% after 17 weeks at 245 K, whereas it took about 7 weeks and 13 weeks to decrease to the same extent at 261 K and 253 K, respectively. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity kept decreasing to 18.28% after 7 weeks at 261 K. Furthermore, radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs) were developed to predict quality (FFA, SEP, SH, and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity) of brined carp fillets during frozen storage with relative errors all within ±5%. Thus, RBFNN is a promising method to predict quality of carp fillets during storage at 245-261 K.

  3. On recent advances in human engineering Provocative trends in embryology, genetics, and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Anton, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Advances in embryology, genetics, and regenerative medicine regularly attract attention from scientists, scholars, journalists, and policymakers, yet implications of these advances may be broader than commonly supposed. Laboratories culturing human embryos, editing human genes, and creating human-animal chimeras have been working along lines that are now becoming intertwined. Embryogenic methods are weaving traditional in vivo and in vitro distinctions into a new "in vivitro" (in life in glass) fabric. These and other methods known to be in use or thought to be in development promise soon to bring society to startling choices and discomfiting predicaments, all in a global effort to supply reliably rejuvenating stem cells, to grow immunologically non-provocative replacement organs, and to prevent, treat, cure, or even someday eradicate diseases having genetic or epigenetic mechanisms. With humanity's human-engineering era now begun, procedural prohibitions, funding restrictions, institutional controls, and transparency rules are proving ineffective, and business incentives are migrating into the most basic life-sciences inquiries, wherein lie huge biomedical potentials and bioethical risks. Rights, health, and heritage are coming into play with bioethical presumptions and formal protections urgently needing reassessment.

  4. [Embryology and "official science": the contribution of the anatomical school of José Escolar to embryology during the first Francoism (1939-1959)].

    PubMed

    Velasco Morgado, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the contribution of the anatomical school of José Escolar (1913-1998) to embryology during the first two decades of the Francoist dictatorship. Special attention is paid to the process by which the Spanish group, with the support of the new Superior National Research Council, made contact with the German morphology being developed by Hugo Spatz (1888-1979) at the Max Planck-Institut für Hirnforschung. Our study reveals the numerous influences that finally led to the anatomy and embryology of Escolar. In Spain, we found a direct influence of the Gegenbaurian morphology of Gumersindo Sánchez Guisande (1894-1976) and the neuroanatomy of Juan José Barcia Goyanes (1901-2003), full of references to studies by Braus. International contacts of the "Escolarian group", first with North America and then with Germany, created a homogeneous group with a single anatomy (functional and ontophylogenetic) but with so many research interests that subspecialisations had to be developed. An important embryological work resulted from an intense relationship with the German anatomical community during the 1950s. Escolar worked in this field on the development of the amygdala and allocortex, Fernando Reinoso studied the embryology of the diencephalon and Smith Victor Agreda, along with the German scientist Rudolf Diepen, made some important discoveries on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary system.

  5. The Incredible, Embryological Egg: Calcium and Strontium Isotopes Recapitulate Ontogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, G. W.; Skulan, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Embryological development reflects evolutionary history. Understanding the processes of fetal growth is important for curing human birth defects and predicting damage to ecosystems from environmental insults. Tracing enzymatic and hormonal gradients during development, and correlating them to genetic cues dominate modern embryology. Previous work done tracing the mass transfer of elements has generally been limited to isotope spikes in vitro. Natural mass-dependent Ca and Sr isotopic ratios and radiogenic Sr isotopes have the potential to reveal both source and biochemical mechanism information about processes in vivo, but have not previously been extensively explored. The process when a hen lays a fertilized egg that becomes a chick includes formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate (bone) and calcium carbonate (shell). Skulan and DePaolo (1999) showed that chickens have 2% δ44/42Ca between a hen's bones and an egg white; this span represents more than 80% of the entire range of natural Ca isotope variation and illustrates there is significant variation to investigate. A striking feature of archosaurian development that also occurs in many mammals, including humans, is mass transfer of calcium from mother to embryo. The yolk of the domestic hen matures over 7-9 days, but the albumen, shell membranes and shell form in less than 20 hours. Domestic laying hens are at the physiological limit of egg production and selective breeding is no longer an effective method of increasing egg production. 60-75% of the shell's ~1.5 g of calcium comes from dietary sources, while 25-40% comes from the hen's medullary bone. Medullary bone is spicules formed in the marrow of long bones, and is a store of dietary calcium rapidly available for eggshell secretion. During in ovo development, the embryo's skeleton is formed from calcium in the yolk and by bulk dissolution of the eggshell's inner aspect via carbonic anhydrase in a process that has an effect on bone density similar to

  6. Exposure to high ambient temperatures alters embryology in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, M. L.; Argente, M. J.

    2017-03-01

    High ambient temperatures are a determining factor in the deterioration of embryo quality and survival in mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat stress on embryo development, embryonic size and size of the embryonic coats in rabbits. A total of 310 embryos from 33 females in thermal comfort zone and 264 embryos of 28 females in heat stress conditions were used in the experiment. The traits studied were ovulation rate, percentage of total embryos, percentage of normal embryos, embryo area, zona pellucida thickness and mucin coat thickness. Traits were measured at 24 and 48 h post-coitum (hpc); mucin coat thickness was only measured at 48 hpc. The embryos were classified as zygotes or two-cell embryos at 24 hpc, and 16-cells or early morulae at 48 hpc. The ovulation rate was one oocyte lower in heat stress conditions than in thermal comfort. Percentage of normal embryos was lower in heat stress conditions at 24 hpc (17.2%) and 48 hpc (13.2%). No differences in percentage of zygotes or two-cell embryos were found at 24 hpc. The embryo development and area was affected by heat stress at 48 hpc (10% higher percentage of 16-cells and 883 μm2 smaller, respectively). Zona pellucida was thicker under thermal stress at 24 hpc (1.2 μm) and 48 hpc (1.5 μm). No differences in mucin coat thickness were found. In conclusion, heat stress appears to alter embryology in rabbits.

  7. Fabricating a face: the essence of embryology in the dental curriculum.

    PubMed

    Sperber, G H

    2003-03-01

    The current explosive growth in developmental biology, fuelled by the almost completed sequencing of the human genome, is bound to have a profound impact upon the practice of medicine and dentistry in the twenty-first century. No other discipline more accurately reflects this impact than embryology, which combines the basic and clinical sciences of genetics, ontogeny, phylogeny, teratology, and syndromology into the essence of modern medical and dental practice. The advent of in vitro fertilization, chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis, prenatal ultrasonography, intrauterine surgery, and stem cell therapy has vaulted the previously esoteric subject of embryology into clinical consciousness. All these aforementioned procedures require an intimate knowledge of the different stages of development. The alphabet soup of acronyms that now peppers papers proclaiming the genetics and characteristics of various growth factors and cytokines (e.g., FGF, TGFalpha) are all based upon an understanding of the developmental mechanisms occurring in the embryo and subsequently in wound healing and oncology. Congenital abnormalities ranging from lethal syndromes to dental malocclusions cannot be diagnosed, treated, cured, or prognosticated upon without a sound conceptualization of embryology. Computer technology has revolutionized the understanding and teaching of embryology by portraying developmental phenomena as three-dimensional model images in sequential depictions of changes proceeding in the fourth dimension of time. Embryology must now form the essential core of the basic sciences in medical and dental curricula. Future dental practice will become rooted in the genetics and morphogenesis of facial fabrication.

  8. Embryology and histology education in North American dental schools: the Basic Science Survey Series.

    PubMed

    Burk, Dorothy T; Lee, Lisa M J; Lambert, H Wayne

    2013-06-01

    As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Anatomical Sciences Section surveyed faculty members teaching embryology and histology courses at North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, curriculum content, utilization of laboratories, use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and recent curricular changes. Responses were received from fifty-nine (88.1 percent) of the sixty-seven U.S. and Canadian dental schools. Findings suggest the following: 1) a trend toward combining courses is evident, though the integration was predominantly discipline-based; 2) embryology is rarely taught as a stand-alone course, as content is often covered in gross anatomy, oral histology, and/or in an integrated curriculum; 3) the number of contact hours in histology is decreasing; 4) a trend toward reduction in formal laboratory sessions, particularly in embryology, is ongoing; and 5) use of CAI tools, including virtual microscopy, in both embryology and histology has increased. Additionally, embryology and histology content topic emphasis is identified within this study. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to new instructors, curriculum and test construction committees, and colleagues in the anatomical sciences, especially when determining a foundational knowledge base.

  9. Embryological Features of Tofieldia glutinosa and Their Bearing on the Early Diversification of Monocotyledonous Plants

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Samuel J.; Friedman, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Although much is known about the vegetative traits associated with early monocot evolution, less is known about the reproductive features of early monocotyledonous lineages. A study was made of the embryology of Tofieldia glutinosa, a member of an early divergent monocot clade (Tofieldiaceae), and aspects of its development were compared with the development of other early divergent monocots in order to gain insight into defining reproductive features of early monocots. Methods Field-collected developing gynoecial tissues of Tofieldia glutinosa were prepared for histological examination. Over 600 ovules were sectioned and studied using brightfield, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. High-resolution digital imaging was used to document important stages of megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis and early endosperm development. Key Results Development of the female gametophyte in T. glutinosa is of a modified Polygonum-type. At maturity the female gametophyte is seven-celled and 11-nucleate with a standard three-celled egg apparatus, a binucleate central cell (where ultimately, the two polar nuclei will fuse into a diploid secondary nucleus) and three binucleate antipodal cells. The antipodal nuclei persist past fertilization, and the process of double fertilization appears to yield a diploid zygote and triploid primary endosperm cell, as is characteristic of plants with Polygonum-type female gametophytes. Endosperm development is helobial, and free-nuclear growth initially proceeds at equal rates in both the micropylar and chalazal endosperm chambers. Conclusions The analysis suggests that the shared common ancestor of monocots possessed persistent and proliferating antipodals similar to those found in T. glutinosa and other early-divergent monocots (e.g. Acorus and members of the Araceae). Helobial endosperm among monocots evolved once in the common ancestor of all monocots excluding Acorus. Thus, the analysis further

  10. The mandible and its foramen: anatomy, anthropology, embryology and resulting clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Lipski, M; Tomaszewska, I M; Lipska, W; Lis, G J; Tomaszewski, K A

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarise the knowledge about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen and also to highlight the most important clinical implications of the current studies regarding anaesthesia performed in the region of the mandible. An electronic journal search was undertaken to identify all the relevant studies published in English. The search included MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and years from 1950 to 2012. The subject search used a combination of controlled vocabulary and free text based on the search strategy for MEDLINE using key words: 'mandible', 'mandibular', 'foramen', 'anatomy', 'embryology', 'anthropology', and 'mental'. The reference lists of all the relevant studies and existing reviews were screened for additional relevant publications. Basing on relevant manuscripts, this short review about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen was written.

  11. A Retrospective Look at Replacing Face-to-Face Embryology Instruction with Online Lectures in a Human Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Elmus G.; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Lee, Vaughan H.

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology…

  12. Contemporary issues in the regulation of artificial reproduction and embryology in the UK.

    PubMed

    Garwood-Gowers, Austen

    2004-01-01

    The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 was one of the most comprehensive and flexible vehicles for regulation of artificial reproduction and embryology of its area. However, its serviceability has recently been brought into question by both the materialisation of unforeseen dilemmas and the response of legal actors to these dilemma's which has often been ethically and democratically deficient. Nowhere is this better demonstrated than in the reproach of the regulatory authority and judiciary to the use pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and cloning by cell nuclear replacement.

  13. Congenital basis of posterior fossa anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Cotes, Claudia; Bonfante, Eliana; Lazor, Jillian; Jadhav, Siddharth; Caldas, Maria; Swischuk, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    The classification of posterior fossa congenital anomalies has been a controversial topic. Advances in genetics and imaging have allowed a better understanding of the embryologic development of these abnormalities. A new classification schema correlates the embryologic, morphologic, and genetic bases of these anomalies in order to better distinguish and describe them. Although they provide a better understanding of the clinical aspects and genetics of these disorders, it is crucial for the radiologist to be able to diagnose the congenital posterior fossa anomalies based on their morphology, since neuroimaging is usually the initial step when these disorders are suspected. We divide the most common posterior fossa congenital anomalies into two groups: 1) hindbrain malformations, including diseases with cerebellar or vermian agenesis, aplasia or hypoplasia and cystic posterior fossa anomalies; and 2) cranial vault malformations. In addition, we will review the embryologic development of the posterior fossa and, from the perspective of embryonic development, will describe the imaging appearance of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. Knowledge of the developmental bases of these malformations facilitates detection of the morphological changes identified on imaging, allowing accurate differentiation and diagnosis of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. PMID:26246090

  14. Comparative embryology without a microscope: using genomic approaches to understand the evolution of development

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, David A; Wray, Gregory A

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, understanding developmental conservation and change has relied on embryological comparisons and analyses of single genes. Several studies, including one recently published in BMC Biology, have now taken a genomic approach to this classical problem, providing insights into how selection operates differentially across the life cycle. PMID:19664180

  15. Harmonic Vibrational Frequencies: Approximate Global Scaling Factors for TPSS, M06, and M11 Functional Families Using Several Common Basis Sets.

    PubMed

    Kashinski, D O; Chase, G M; Nelson, R G; Di Nallo, O E; Scales, A N; VanderLey, D L; Byrd, E F C

    2017-03-23

    We propose new approximate global multiplicative scaling factors for the DFT calculation of ground state harmonic vibrational frequencies using functionals from the TPSS, M06, and M11 functional families with standard correlation consistent cc-pVxZ and aug-cc-pVxZ (x = D, T, and Q), 6-311G split valence family, Sadlej and Sapporo polarized triple-ζ basis sets. Results for B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, B3PW91, PBE, and PBE0 functionals with these basis sets are also reported. A total of 99 harmonic frequencies were calculated for 26 gas-phase organic and nonorganic molecules typically found in detonated solid propellant residue. Our proposed approximate multiplicative scaling factors are determined using a least-squares approach comparing the computed harmonic frequencies to experimental counterparts well established in the scientific literature. A comparison of our work to previously published global scaling factors is made to verify method reliability and the applicability of our molecular test set.

  16. A Review of the Relevant Embryology, Pathohistology, and Anatomy of the Left Atrial Appendage for the Invasive Cardiac Electrophysiologist

    PubMed Central

    DeSimone, Christopher V.; Gaba, Prakriti; Tri, Jason; Syed, Faisal; Noheria, Amit; Asirvatham, Samuel J.

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of the left atrial appendage provides the substrate for thrombus generation, and is a harbinger for embolic material due to its direct connection to the left-sided circulation. Appreciating the development of the appendage from mesodermal layer to its adult form provides the basis to improve exclusion from the atrial circulation, and thereby can lead to a significant reduction in stroke risk. This process also provides insight into the role of the left atrial appendage as an endocrine organ, its involvement in fluid homeostasis, and its connection to the autonomic nervous system. Knowledge of the surrounding structural arrangement is critical to identify landmarks from both an endocardial and epicardial perspective to improve targeted device placement. Furthermore, correlation of the left atrial appendage body, neck, and ostium to the surrounding anatomy can also improve both procedural efficacy and safety. In addition, a working knowledge of the regional anatomy adds a prudent degree of awareness for procedural complications, and allows for early identification and timely intervention as these situations arise. A detailed understanding of the left atrial appendage embryology, histology, and gross anatomy is imperative to identify the correct device and approach for each individual patient. In addition, this increased awareness can identify areas that are in need of further innovation, and thus provide the ability to adapt and refine existing technologies to overcome pitfalls currently facing catheter-based approaches. PMID:27087889

  17. [Activities and responsibilities of workers in embryologic and andrologic laboratories in assisted reproduction centers].

    PubMed

    Záková, J; Trávník, P; Malenovská, A; Hűttelová, R

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the current status and rules for the laboratory staff activities and their competences in the centers of assisted reproduction. The rules were processed by the members of the Association of Reproductive Embryology (ARE) committee under the current legislation. Committee members of the Czech Sterility and Assisted Reproduction Society and Czech Gynecology and Obstetric Society approved these rules as obligatory for assisted reproduction centres in Czech Republic.

  18. Duplication of the superficial femoral artery: comprehensive review of imaging literature and insight into embryology

    PubMed Central

    Hapugoda, Sachintha; Kwan, Gigi Nga Chi; Watkins, Trevor William; Rophael, John A

    2016-01-01

    An extremely rare case of duplicated superficial femoral artery (SFA) was incidentally observed on computed tomography angiogram (CTA) of the lower limbs for presurgical planning for an osteomyocutaneous fibula flap in a patient with T4a oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case in the imaging literature. We performed a comprehensive review of the English literature and discuss the underlying embryological origin underpinning this rare anatomical variant. PMID:27504194

  19. Analysis of Extracellular Nucleotide Metabolism in Adult Zebrafish After Embryological Exposure to Valproic Acid.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Fernanda Francine; Gaspary, Karina Vidarte; Siebel, Anna Maria; Leite, Carlos Eduardo; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2016-05-17

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms related to stereotyped movements, deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, anxiety, hyperactivity, and the presence of restricted interests. Evidence indicates an important role of extracellular ATP and adenosine as signaling molecules in autism. ATP hydrolysis by ectonucleotidases is an important source of adenosine, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) contributes to the control of the nucleoside concentrations. Considering zebrafish is an animal model that may contribute towards to understanding the mechanisms that underlie social behavior, we investigated the purinergic signaling in a model of embryological exposure to valproic acid (VPA) that induces social interaction deficit in adult zebrafish. We demonstrated embryological exposure to VPA did not change ATP and ADP hydrolysis in zebrafish at 120 dpf, and the cytosolic (soluble) ADA activity was not altered. However, we observed an increase of AMP hydrolysis (12.5 %) whereas the ecto-ADA activity was decreased (19.2 %) in adult zebrafish submitted to embryological exposure to VPA. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis showed changes on ntpd8, ADA 2.1, and A2a1 mRNA transcript levels. Brain ATP metabolism showed a rapid catabolism of ATP and ADP, whereas the extracellular metabolism of AMP and adenosine (ADO) occurred slowly. We demonstrated that embryological exposure to VPA altered biochemical and molecular parameters related to purinergic system in adult zebrafish. These findings indicate that the enzyme activities involved in the control of ATP and adenosine levels may be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases related to the impairment of social interaction, such as autism.

  20. Computational Embryology and Predictive Toxicology of Hypospadias (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypospadias, one of the most common birth defects in human male infants, is a condition in which the urethral opening is misplaced along ventral aspect of the penis. We developed an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework and computer simulation that describes the pathogenesis of...

  1. Cranial dural arteriovenous shunts. Part 1. Anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins.

    PubMed

    Baltsavias, Gerasimos; Parthasarathi, Venkatraman; Aydin, Emre; Al Schameri, Rahman A; Roth, Peter; Valavanis, Anton

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins aiming to elucidate aspects related to the cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae. Data from relevant articles on the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins were identified using one electronic database, supplemented by data from selected reference texts. Persisting fetal pial-arachnoidal veins correspond to the adult bridging veins. Relevant embryologic descriptions are based on the classic scheme of five divisions of the brain (telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon). Variation in their exact position and the number of bridging veins is the rule and certain locations, particularly that of the anterior cranial fossa and lower posterior cranial fossa are often neglected in prior descriptions. The distal segment of a bridging vein is part of the dural system and can be primarily involved in cranial dural arteriovenous lesions by constituting the actual site of the shunt. The veins in the lamina cribriformis exhibit a bridging-emissary vein pattern similar to the spinal configuration. The emissary veins connect the dural venous system with the extracranial venous system and are often involved in dural arteriovenous lesions. Cranial dural shunts may develop in three distinct areas of the cranial venous system: the dural sinuses and their interfaces with bridging veins and emissary veins. The exact site of the lesion may dictate the arterial feeders and original venous drainage pattern.

  2. Evidence for a common biological basis of the Absorption trait, hallucinogen effects, and positive symptoms: epistasis between 5-HT2a and COMT polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Ott, Ulrich; Reuter, Martin; Hennig, Juergen; Vaitl, Dieter

    2005-08-05

    Absorption represents a disposition to experience altered states of consciousness characterized by intensively focused attention. It is correlated with hypnotic susceptibility and includes phenomena ranging from vivid perceptions and imaginations to mystical experiences. Based on the assumption that drug-induced and naturally occurring mystical experiences share common neural mechanisms, we hypothesized that Absorption is influenced by the T102C polymorphism affecting the 5-HT2a receptor, which is known to be an important target site of hallucinogens like LSD. Based on the pivotal role ascribed to the prefrontal executive control network for absorbed attention and positive symptoms in schizophrenia, it was further hypothesized that Absorption is associated with the VAL158MET polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affecting the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system. The Tellegen Absorption Scale was administered to 336 subjects (95 male, 241 female). Statistical analysis revealed that the group with the T/T genotype of the T102C polymorphism, implying a stronger binding potential of the 5-HT2a receptor, indeed had significantly higher Absorption scores (F = 10.00, P = 0.002), while no main effect was found for the COMT polymorphism. However, the interaction between T102C and COMT genotypes yielded significance (F = 3.89; P = 0.049), underlining the known functional interaction between the 5-HT and the dopaminergic system. These findings point to biological foundations of the personality trait of Absorption.

  3. Superficial brachioradial artery (radial artery originating from the axillary artery): a case-report and its embryological background.

    PubMed

    Konarik, M; Knize, J; Baca, V; Kachlik, D

    2009-08-01

    A case of anomalous terminal branching of the axillary artery, concerning the variant called superficial brachioradial artery (arteria brachioradialis superficialis) was described, with special regard to its embryological origin. The left upper limb of a male cadaver was dissected in successive steps from the axillary fossa distally to the palmar region. A variant artery, stemming from the end of the third segment of the axillary artery, followed a superficial course distally. It skipped the cubital fossa, ran on the lateral side of the forearm, crossed ventrally to the palm, and terminated in the deep palmar arch. This vessel is a case of so-called "brachioradial artery" (inexactly called a "radial artery with a high origin"). The origin of the brachioradial artery directly from the axillary artery belongs to the rare variants of the arterial pattern of the upper limb. Its incidence is approximately 3%. Moreover, this vascular variant was associated with another one concerning the brachial plexus. The medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm joined the median nerve in the middle third of the arm and ran further distally as a common trunk, as the normal median nerve does. Anatomical knowledge of the axillary region is crucial for radiodiagnostic and surgical procedures, especially in cases of trauma. The superficially located artery brings an elevated risk of bleeding complications in unexpected situations.

  4. Fetus in Fetu: Case Report and Brief Review of Literature on Embryologic Origin, Clinical Presentation, Imaging and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sitharama, Suhas Aithal; Jindal, Bibekanand; Vuriti, Mrudula Kumari; Naredi, Bikash Kumar; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Subramania, Deepak Barathi

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Fetus in fetu (FIF) is a rare entity in which a malformed diamniotic monochorionic parasitic fetal twin develops inside a normal co-twin’s body, most commonly in the abdominal cavity. FIF is differentiated from the teratoma by the presence of vertebral column often with an appropriate arrangement of other organs or limbs around it. Case Report A two-and-a-half-year-old girl presented with a painless abdominal swelling in the right hypochondrium. On imaging, a heterogenous soft tissue mass with internal calcific densities was noted in the retroperitoneum. The mass had vertebral organization, limb and pelvic bones. The presence of a fetiform teratoma was suspected and surgery revealed an encapsulated mass with an anencephalic head, spine, upper and lower limb buds. Histopathology confirmed the presence of a fetus in fetu. The postoperative period was uneventful with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusions FIF is a pediatric rarity. Cross-sectional imaging helps in differentiating it from a teratoma, meconium peritonitis and abdominal ectopic pregnancy. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for this benign condition, which requires a follow-up only in certain cases. This case report describes a retroperitoneal fetus in fetu and discusses its clinical presentation, differential diagnosis and embryologic origin. PMID:28217238

  5. Planarian embryology in the era of comparative developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Martín-Durán, José M; Monjo, Francisco; Romero, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade, the field of evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) has emerged as a major research discipline in modern biology and an essential approach to understanding evolutionary relationships in the animal kingdom. At the same time, planarians have become a useful and important model with which to address basic questions regarding the molecular and cellular basis of regeneration, tissue repair and stem cells in adult organisms. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to their embryonic development, even though this provides a unique opportunity for studying how molecular developmental mechanisms are re-deployed during adult regeneration or the independent losses of spiral cleavage that took place in different lophotrochozoan lineages. In this paper, we review the most relevant works on planarian embryos from a historical point of view. In doing so, we highlight the questions that have recurrently intrigued researchers, most of which remain unanswered. Finally, we present a comprehensive scenario for planarian embryogenesis in an attempt to provide a testable hypothesis that will help to bridge the gap between this divergent mode of development, the ancestral canonical spiral cleavage, and adult planarian regeneration.

  6. A retrospective look at replacing face-to-face embryology instruction with online lectures in a human anatomy course.

    PubMed

    Beale, Elmus G; Tarwater, Patrick M; Lee, Vaughan H

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology instruction model with four face-to-face classes that supplemented online recorded lectures was used. One instructor delivered the lectures face-to-face in 2007 and by online videos in 2008-2009, while a second instructor provided the supplemental face-to-face classes in 2008-2009. The same embryology learning objectives and selected examination questions were used for each of the three years. This allowed direct comparison of learning outcomes, as measured by examination performance, for students receiving only face-to-face embryology instruction versus the hybrid approach. Comparison of the face-to-face lectures to the hybrid approach showed no difference in overall class performance on embryology questions that were used all three years. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the delivery method on the examination scores for bottom quartile students. Students completed an end-of-course survey to assess their opinions. They rated the two forms of delivery similarly on a six-point Likert scale and reported that face-to-face lectures have the advantage of allowing them to interact with the instructor, whereas online lectures could be paused, replayed, and viewed at any time. These experiences suggest the need for well-designed prospective studies to determine whether online lectures can be used to enhance the efficacy of embryology instruction.

  7. The perceptual basis of common photographic practice

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Emily A.; Piazza, Elise A.; Banks, Martin S.

    2012-01-01

    Photographers, cinematographers, and computer-graphics engineers use certain techniques to create striking pictorial effects. By using lenses of different focal lengths, they can make a scene look compressed or expanded in depth, make a familiar object look natural or distorted, or make a person look smarter, more attractive, or more neurotic. We asked why pictures taken with a certain focal length look natural, while those taken with other focal lengths look distorted. We found that people's preferred viewing distance when looking at pictures leads them to view long-focal-length pictures from too near and short-focal-length pictures from too far. Perceptual distortions occur because people do not take their incorrect viewing distances into account. By following the rule of thumb of using a 50-mm lens, photographers greatly increase the odds of a viewer looking at a photograph from the correct distance, where the percept will be undistorted. Our theory leads to new guidelines for creating pictorial effects that are more effective than conventional guidelines. PMID:22637709

  8. Embryology of a planktonic tunicate reveals traces of sessility.

    PubMed

    Stach, Thomas; Winter, Jonas; Bouquet, Jean-Marie; Chourrout, Daniel; Schnabel, Ralf

    2008-05-20

    A key problem in understanding deuterostome evolution has been the origin of the chordate body plan. A biphasic life cycle with a sessile adult and a free-swimming larva is traditionally considered ancestral in chordates with subsequent neotenic loss of the sessile adult stage. Molecular phylogenies challenged this view, suggesting that the primitive life cycle in chordates was entirely free-living as in modern day larvaceans. Here, we report the precise cell lineage and fate map in the normal embryo of the larvacean Oikopleura dioica, using 4D microscopy technique and transmission electron microscopy. We document the extraordinary rapidity of cleavage and morphogenetic events until hatching and demonstrate that--compared with ascidians--fate restriction occurs considerably earlier in O. dioica and that clonal organization of the cell lineage is more tightly coupled to tissue fate. We show that epidermal cells in the trunk migrate through 90 degrees, reminiscent of events in ascidian metamorphosis and that the axis of bilateral symmetry in the tail rotates in relation to the trunk. We argue that part of the tail muscle cells are ectomesodermal, because they are more closely associated with prospective epidermis than with other tissues in the cell lineage. Cladistic comparison with other deuterostomes suggests that these traits are derived within tunicates strengthening the hypothesis that the last common ancestor of tunicates had a sessile adult and thus support traditional morphology-derived scenarios. Our results allow hypothesizing that molecular developmental mechanisms known from ascidian models are restricted to fewer, yet identifiable, cells in O. dioica.

  9. A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology

    PubMed Central

    HOPWOOD, NICK

    2006-01-01

    Developmental biology is today unimaginable without the normal stages that define standard divisions of development. This history of normal stages, and the related normal plates and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist Franz Keibel (16 volumes, 1897–1938). These were a major response to problems in the relations between ontogeny and phylogeny that amounted in practical terms to a crisis in staging embryos, not just between, but (for some) also within species. Keibel’s design adapted a plate by Wilhelm His and tables by Albert Oppel in order to go beyond the already controversial comparative plates of the Darwinist propagandist Ernst Haeckel. The project responded to local pressures, including intense concern with individual variation, but recruited internationally and mapped an embryological empire. Though theoretically inconclusive, the plates became standard laboratory tools and forged a network within which the Institut International d’Embryologie (today the International Society of Developmental Biologists) was founded in 1911. After World War I, experimentalists, led by Ross Harrison and Viktor Hamburger, and human embryologists, especially George Streeter at the Carnegie Department of Embryology, transformed Keibel’s complex, bulky tomes to suit their own contrasting demands. In developmental biology after World War II, normal stages—reduced to a few journal pages—helped domesticate model organisms. Staging systems had emerged from discussions that questioned the very possibility of assigning an embryo to a stage. The historical issues resonate today as developmental biologists work to improve and extend stage series, to make results from different laboratories easier to compare and to take individual variation into account. PMID:17183461

  10. The anatomic basis of parathyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, C

    1976-03-01

    A study of 645 normal adult parathyroid glands in 160 cadavers revealed that there is a definite pattern of anatomic distribution on the basis of the embryologic development of the parathyroid, thyroid, and thymic glands. The sites of predilection of the upper gland (Parathyroid IV) are, in order of frequency, the cricothyroid junction; the dorsum of the upper pole of the thyroid; and the retropharyngeal space. Those of the lower gland (Parathyroid III) are at the lower pole of the thyroid and the thymic tongue; rarely in the upper, the lateral neck, or the mediastinum. An understanding of the developmental relationship of the parathyroid glands to the thyroid and the thymus is fundamental in the delineation of the embryologic origin of the parathyroid glands. The parathyroid gland, located within the surgical capsule of the thyroid (subcapsular), when diseased, remains in place locally. A gland outside of the capsule (extracapsular) is often displaced into the posterior or anterior mediastinum. A collective assessment of the size, weight, color, shape, and consistency of the parathyroid gland is mandatory in the determination of its normalcy. Frozen section examination for stromal and intracellular fatty content is an added assurance of normalcy. That parathyroid glands sink in saline solution, and fat globules float, may aid in differentiating the two types of tissue. Supernumerary, fused, and intrathyroidal parathyroids, albeit rare, are of surgical importance.

  11. The concept of crosstalk-directed embryological target mining and its application to essential hypertension treatment failures.

    PubMed

    Sag, Alan Alper; Sal, Oguzhan; Kilic, Yagmur; Onal, Emine Meltem; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2017-02-21

    This review aims to introduce the novel concept of embryological target mining applied to interorgan crosstalk network genesis, and applies embryological target mining to multidrug-resistant essential hypertension (a prototype, complex, undertreated, multiorgan systemic syndrome) to uncover new treatment targets and critique why existing strategies fail. Briefly, interorgan crosstalk pathways represent the next frontier for target mining in molecular medicine. This is because stereotyped stepwise organogenesis presents a unique opportunity to infer interorgan crosstalk pathways that may be crucial to discovering novel treatment targets. Insights gained from this review will be applied to patient management in a clinician-directed fashion.

  12. R (on the application of Quintavalle) v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Court Decision: 2 All England Law Reports 105; 2002 December 20 (date of decision). The Queen's Bench Division held that testing an embryo to determine compatibility with potential donees fell under the statutory definition of the use of an embyro. A pro-life organization brought suit against the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority following its announcement that it would authorize tissue typing of embryos. Tissue typing involves the removal of embryonic cells and the pre-implantation genetic screening of them. This process can lead to a genetic diagnosis to determine compatibility with an older sibling who is suffering from a serious genetic disorder. Despite the fact that the embryo was not itself analyzed, tissue typing constituted the "use" of the embryo because analyzing the cells necessarily leads to a diagnosis of the embryo. Furthermore, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 allowed the "use" of an embryo only for the purpose of providing "treatment services" which was construed by the court to mean "assisting women to carry children". Because tissue typing is not necessary for gestation, it is not allowed by the Act.

  13. Desperately seeking donors: the 'saviour sibling' decision in Quintavalle v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (UK).

    PubMed

    Hocking, Barbara Ann; Guy, Scott

    2005-08-01

    The recent House of Lords decision in Quintavalle v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority has raised difficult and complex issues regarding the extent to which embryo selection and reproductive technology can be used as a means of rectifying genetic disorders and treating critically ill children. This comment outlines the facts of Quintavalle and explores how the House of Lords approached the legal, ethical and policy issues that arose out of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority's (UK) decision to allow reproductive and embryo technology to be used to produce a 'saviour sibling' whose tissue could be used to save the life of a critically ill child. Particular attention will be given to the implications of the decision in Quintavalle for Australian family and medical law and policy. As part of this focus, the comment explores the current Australian legislative and policy framework regarding the use of genetic and reproductive technology as a mechanism through which to assist critically ill siblings. It is argued that the present Australian framework would appear to impose significant limits on the medical uses of genetic technology and, in this context, would seem to reflect many of the principles that were articulated by the House of Lords in Quintavalle.

  14. Pre-modern Islamic medical ethics and Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryology.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, Mohammed

    2014-02-01

    This article examines the, hitherto comparatively unexplored, reception of Greek embryology by medieval Muslim jurists. The article elaborates on the views attributed to Hippocrates (d. ca. 375 BC), which received attention from both Muslim physicians, such as Avicenna (d. 1037), and their Jewish peers living in the Muslim world including Ibn Jumay' (d. ca. 1198) and Moses Maimonides (d. 1204). The religio-ethical implications of these Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryological views were fathomed out by the two medieval Muslim jurists Shihāb al-Dīn al-Qarāfī (d. 1285) and Ibn al-Qayyim (d. 1350). By putting these medieval religio-ethical discussions into the limelight, the article aims to argue for a two-pronged thesis. Firstly, pre-modern medical ethics did exist in the Islamic tradition and available evidence shows that this field had a multidisciplinary character where the Islamic scriptures and the Graeco-Islamic-Jewish medical legacy were highly intertwined. This information problematizes the postulate claiming that medieval Muslim jurists were hostile to the so-called 'ancient sciences'. Secondly, these medieval religio-ethical discussions remain playing a significant role in shaping the nascent field of contemporary Islamic bioethics. However, examining the exact character and scope of this role still requires further academic ventures.

  15. Embryology and anatomy of the vulva: the female orgasm and women's sexual health.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Sexual health is vital to overall well-being. Orgasm is a normal psycho-physiological function of human beings and every woman has the right to feel sexual pleasure. The anatomy of the vulva and of the female erectile organs (trigger of orgasm) is described in human anatomy textbooks. Female sexual physiology was first described in Dickinson's textbook in 1949 and subsequently by Masters and Johnson in 1966. During women's sexual response, changes occur in the congestive structures that are essential to the understanding of women's sexual response and specifically of their orgasm. Female and male external genital organs arise from the same embryologic structures, i.e. phallus, urogenital folds, urogenital sinus and labioscrotal swellings. The vulva is formed by the labia majora and vestibule, with its erectile apparatus: clitoris (glans, body, crura), labia minora, vestibular bulbs and corpus spongiosum. Grafenberg, in 1950, discovered no "G-spot" and did not report an orgasm of the intraurethral glands. The hypothetical area named "G-spot" should not be defined with Grafenberg's name. The female orgasm should be a normal phase of the sexual response cycle, which is possible to achieve by all healthy women with effective sexual stimulation. Knowledge of the embryology, anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs are important in the field of women's sexual health.

  16. A multimedia approach for teaching human embryology: Development and evaluation of a methodology.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Suzana Guimarães; Pereira, Luis Antonio Violin

    2010-12-20

    Human embryology requires students to understand the simultaneous changes in embryos, but students find it difficult to grasp the concepts presented and to visualise the related processes in three dimensions. The aims of this study have been to develop and evaluate new educational materials and a teaching methodology based on multimedia approaches to improve the comprehension of human development. The materials developed at the State University of Campinas include clinical histories, movies, animations, and ultrasound, as well as autopsy images from embryos and foetuses. The series of embryology lectures were divided into two parts. The first part of the series addressed the development of the body's structures, while in the second part, clinical history and the corresponding materials were shown to the students, who were encouraged to discuss the malformations. The teaching materials were made available on software used by the students in classes. At the end of the discipline, the material and methodology were evaluated with an attitudinal instrument, interviews, and knowledge examination. The response rate to the attitudinal instrument was 95.35%, and the response rate to the interview was 46%. The students approved of the materials and the teaching methodology (reliability of the attitudinal instrument was 0.9057). The exams showed that most students scored above 6.0. A multimedia approach proved useful for solving an important problem associated with teaching methods in many medical institutions: the lack of integration between basic sciences and clinical disciplines.

  17. Development of the coronary arteries in staged human embryos (the Paris Embryological Collection revisited).

    PubMed

    Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C A

    1990-03-01

    Twenty seven human embryos from stages 15 to 23 (postsomitic period), belonging to the collection of the "UFR Biomédicale des Saints-Pères, Université René Descartes Paris V", were studied. Details of the aorticopulmonary cleavage were analysed specially aortic valve development and origin of the coronary artery. At stage 18 the aortic valve was clearly distinguished (cup-shaped) presenting semilunar valves and aortic sinus (Valsalvae); at this stage the left coronary artery was detected in 66.7 per cent of the cases as an endothelial epicardial invagination. At stage 19, the left and right coronary arteries were detected simultaneously in 100 per cent of the cases. At stage 20, the coronary arteries showed greater structural complexity with a coat of mesenchymal cells. These results agree with previous data from different embryological collections. These findings suggest that the left coronary artery has a tendency to develop earlier than the right. We found no evidence of the coronary origin from the aortic lumen. This work provides additional information about the embryological development of the heart, obtained from the analyses of a French collection of human embryos.

  18. Embryological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.

    1989-01-01

    To integrate a research/discovery component into one course, an experiment using the sea urchin embryo system is introduced because the teacher manages only one organism and students provide the variables. The materials, handling methods, and experimental methods of the experiment are described. (YP)

  19. Reptile embryology.

    PubMed

    Vickaryous, Matthew K; McLean, Katherine E

    2011-01-01

    Reptiles (lizards, snakes, turtles and crocodylians) are becoming increasing popular as models for developmental investigations. In this review the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, is presented as a reptilian model for embryonic studies. We provide details of husbandry, breeding and modifications to two popular histological techniques (whole-mount histochemistry and immunohistochemistry). In addition, we provide a summary of basic reptilian husbandry requirements and discuss important details of embryonic nutrition, egg anatomy and sex determination.

  20. Some embryological aspects of cholinergic innervation in the cardiovascular system--a close association with the subintestinal circulatory channel.

    PubMed

    Shigei, Tatsuro; Tsuru, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Naohisa; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    A series of our studies on the dog venous system revealed that cholinergic excitatory innervation was localized in a group of veins: the portal, mesenteric, and hepatic veins and the middle segment of the inferior vena cava. Our studies on pharmacological responsiveness of dog veins also revealed that they could be divided into two groups: the visceral and somatic parts, and the cholinergic excitatory innervation localized to the visceral part. Considering these results and some relevant literature, a hypothesis is proposed on the classification of muscles of the cardiovascular system and some embryological aspects of the parasympathetic cholinergic innervation in the circulatory system are discussed. The embryonic circulatory system of vertebrates can be divided into two parts: somatic and visceral. The body of an embryo is regarded as a double tube and vessels of the visceral part and the heart belong to the inner tube. The muscle of these vessels and the heart are derived from visceral mesoderm, either the coelomic epithelium or mesenchymal cells, in common with muscle of the digestive tube; and thus the parasympathetic cholinergic nerves innervating the muscle of the digestive tube also distribute to these vessels and the heart. The heart and vascular muscles in the visceral part are structures developed early in the course of evolution in invertebrates. Their primary function is to propel the body fluid, and the chief structure containing them is the subintestinal circulatory channel (ventral aorta - heart - subintestinal vein). They exhibit spontaneous, rhythmic activity, showing characteristics of a single unit muscle, and receive parasympathetic cholinergic innervation. On the other hand, the vascular muscles in the somatic part are endothelium-associated muscles developed anew in the vertebrate; do not contract spontaneously, being classified as a multiunit muscle; and lack parasympathetic cholinergic innervation.

  1. Learning about Heredity and Embryology. Superific Science Book II. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Designed to provide teachers with low cost laboratory exercises, project ideas, and classroom activities for individuals and groups, this document focuses on the concepts of heredity and embryology. The materials address the topics of: (1) cell division; (2) the identification of the human embryo; (3) chromosomes; (4) DNA; (5) differences in the…

  2. An Eight-Year Study of Online Lecture Use in a Medical Gross Anatomy and Embryology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieder, Gary L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Online lectures have been used in lieu of live lectures in our gross anatomy and embryology course for the past eight years. We examined patterns of online lecture use by our students and related that use to academic entry measures, gender and examination performance. Detailed access records identified by student were available from server logs.…

  3. Pictures of evolution and charges of fraud: Ernst Haeckel's embryological illustrations.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Nick

    2006-06-01

    Comparative illustrations of vertebrate embryos by the leading nineteenth-century Darwinist Ernst Haeckel have been both highly contested and canonical. Though the target of repeated fraud charges since 1868, the pictures were widely reproduced in textbooks through the twentieth century. Concentrating on their first ten years, this essay uses the accusations to shed light on the novelty of Haeckel's visual argumentation and to explore how images come to count as proper representations or illegitimate schematics as they cross between the esoteric and exoteric circles of science. It exploits previously unused manuscripts to reconstruct the drawing, printing, and publishing of the illustrations that attracted the first and most influential attack, compares these procedures to standard practice, and highlights their originality. It then explains why, though Haeckel was soon accused, controversy ignited only seven years later, after he aligned a disciplinary struggle over embryology with a major confrontation between liberal nationalism--and Catholicism--and why the contested pictures nevertheless survived.

  4. ATLAS-plus: Multimedia Instruction in Embryology, Gross Anatomy, and Histology

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, CM; Miller, JG; Bush, LC; Bruenger, JA; Wysor, WJ; Meininger, ET; Wolf, FM; Fischer, TV; Beaudoin, AR; Burkel, WE; MacCallum, DK; Fisher, DL; Carlson, BM

    1992-01-01

    ATLAS-plus [Advanced Tools for Learning Anatomical Structure] is a multimedia program used to assist in the teaching of anatomy at the University of Michigan Medical School. ATLAS-plus contains three courses: Histology, Embryology, and Gross Anatomy. In addition to the three courses, a glossary containing terms from the three courses is available. All three courses and the glossary are accessible in the ATLAS-plus environment. The ATLAS-plus environment provides a consistent set of tools and options so that the user can navigate easily and intelligently in and between the various courses and modules in the ATLAS-plus world. The program is a collaboration between anatomy and cell biology faculty, medical students, graphic artists, systems analysts, and instructional designers. PMID:1482964

  5. [Disciplinar thematic integration in medicine: a proposal from histology and embryology].

    PubMed

    Bassan, N D; D'Ottavio, A E

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to clarify a concept with multiple meanings and a complex reality. It starts providing varied histological and embryological examples apt to contribute the stimulation of teacher and student imaginations in favor of a crucial skill, as thematic integration is, into the present and changing curricula in Medicine in particular and Health Sciences in general. In this sense, it offers linear and branched sequences as well as consolidation graphics which focusing in both disciplines may also include other basic ones, key for clinic diagnosis, among the competences to be developed. After registering some preliminary results revealing the need of its continuous and progressive training along the complete medical career, its own integrative value and the integrative one for their teachers due to its natural link with other basic ones is outlined, its relevance for undergraduate is reaffirmed and possible future variations for them are previewed, considering the present exponential growth of science and technology.

  6. Unilateral Existence of Chondro-epitrochlearis: Its Embryological Perspectives and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Padavinangadi, Abhinitha; Rao, Mohandas KG; Nayak, Satheesha B

    2016-01-01

    Chondroepitrochlearis (CET) is an anomalous muscular slip that originates from the pectoralis major muscle and inserts into epicondyle of the humerus. The morphology of this variant form of pectoralis major can vary from slender to strong musculo-tendinous. In its course, it usually crosses the neurovascular structures of arm; their compression is a major complication that could be manifested by its persistence. In the present case, potentially anomalous CET muscle with the slender slip of origin, but strong tendinous insertion to the medial epicondyle of the humerus was found unilaterally. This musculo-tendinous structure was found to be compressing the brachial artery and median nerve in the arm. Detailed embryological and clinical perspective of such variant muscular slip helps the physiotherapists, orthopaedicians in their treatment strategy in complain of restricted shoulder movement. It may also help the neurologists, radiologists in their diagnostic approach of ulnar neuropathy. PMID:27630831

  7. Molecular basis of vertebrate limb patterning.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Cheryll

    2002-10-15

    Mechanisms of limb development are common to all higher vertebrates. The current understanding of how vertebrate limbs develop comes mainly from studies on chick embryos, which are classical models for experimental manipulation, and mouse embryos, which can be genetically manipulated. Work on chick and mouse embryos is often complementary and has direct implications for human limb development. Analysis has moved to the molecular level, which allows direct links to genetics. Even though genes involved in limb development have been discovered by basic scientists through different routes to that taken by clinical geneticists, many of the same genes have been identified. Thus, the fields of embryology and clinical medicine increasingly converge. The next challenge will be to go back to animal models to begin to dissect how particular gene mutations lead to specific limb phenotypes.

  8. [Scientific revolution and embryology: rejection or transformation of antiquity? A comparison between the procreation teachings of Cesare Cremonini, William Harvey und René Descartes].

    PubMed

    Lo Presti, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I address the issue of the theoretical and epistemological status of embryology at the rise of the so-called "Scientific Revolution" (also in the first half of the seventeenth-century) and raise the question, in what sense and to what extent the historiographical concept of "Scientific Revolution" is applicable to the domain of embryology. To achieve this aim I compare the theories of three protagonists of the medical, scientific and philosophical debate of that age, namely Cesare Cremonini, William Harvey and René Descartes, who had very different views on the world structure and human nature and a very different concept of science, but who shared, as concerns embryological issues, an epigenetic conception of the development of the embryo. Their theories are discussed and compared in light of following questions: 1) What do Cremonini's, Harvey's and Descartes's embryological theories exactly aim to?; 2) In developing their theories, do these thinkers deal explicitly or implicitly with the Aristotelian and the Galenic embryological paradigm?; 3)Do they refer polemically to the Aristotelian and the Galenic tradition and what theoretical and/or rhetorical function have these polemical references?; 4) Do the embryological theories of Cremonini, Harvey and Descartes reflect the century-long dispute between "(Aristotelian) philosophers" and "(Galenic) doctors"?; 5) How is represented embryology as a 'scientific' and/or 'theoretical' domain? And what relationship between concepts of 'truth', 'research', 'tradition' and 'scientific progress' is implied or proposed in the embryological works of these three thinkers? What kind of use do Cremonini, Harvey and Descartes make of the argumenta ex ratione and of those ex experientia?

  9. Graphic and movie illustrations of human prenatal development and their application to embryological education based on the human embryo specimens in the Kyoto collection.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Nakatsu-Komatsu, Tomoko; Minekura, Yutaka; Iwakura, Masaji; Motoki, Tamaki; Nishimiya, Kazuhiko; Iiyama, Masaaki; Kakusho, Koh; Minoh, Michihiko; Mizuta, Shinobu; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Kose, Katsumi; Fujii, Shingo; Shiota, Kohei

    2006-02-01

    Morphogenesis in the developing embryo takes place in three dimensions, and in addition, the dimension of time is another important factor in development. Therefore, the presentation of sequential morphological changes occurring in the embryo (4D visualization) is essential for understanding the complex morphogenetic events and the underlying mechanisms. Until recently, 3D visualization of embryonic structures was possible only by reconstruction from serial histological sections, which was tedious and time-consuming. During the past two decades, 3D imaging techniques have made significant advances thanks to the progress in imaging and computer technologies, computer graphics, and other related techniques. Such novel tools have enabled precise visualization of the 3D topology of embryonic structures and to demonstrate spatiotemporal 4D sequences of organogenesis. Here, we describe a project in which staged human embryos are imaged by the magnetic resonance (MR) microscope, and 3D images of embryos and their organs at each developmental stage were reconstructed based on the MR data, with the aid of computer graphics techniques. On the basis of the 3D models of staged human embryos, we constructed a data set of 3D images of human embryos and made movies to illustrate the sequential process of human morphogenesis. Furthermore, a computer-based self-learning program of human embryology is being developed for educational purposes, using the photographs, histological sections, MR images, and 3D models of staged human embryos.

  10. Dural Venous System in the Cavernous Sinus: A Literature Review and Embryological, Functional, and Endovascular Clinical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    MITSUHASHI, Yutaka; HAYASAKI, Koji; KAWAKAMI, Taichiro; NAGATA, Takashi; KANESHIRO, Yuta; UMABA, Ryoko; OHATA, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The cavernous sinus (CS) is one of the cranial dural venous sinuses. It differs from other dural sinuses due to its many afferent and efferent venous connections with adjacent structures. It is important to know well about its complex venous anatomy to conduct safe and effective endovascular interventions for the CS. Thus, we reviewed previous literatures concerning the morphological and functional venous anatomy and the embryology of the CS. The CS is a complex of venous channels from embryologically different origins. These venous channels have more or less retained their distinct original roles of venous drainage, even after alterations through the embryological developmental process, and can be categorized into three longitudinal venous axes based on their topological and functional features. Venous channels medial to the internal carotid artery “medial venous axis” carry venous drainage from the skull base, chondrocranium and the hypophysis, with no direct participation in cerebral drainage. Venous channels lateral to the cranial nerves “lateral venous axis” are exclusively for cerebral venous drainage. Venous channels between the internal carotid artery and cranial nerves “intermediate venous axis” contribute to all the venous drainage from adjacent structures, directly from the orbit and membranous skull, indirectly through medial and lateral venous axes from the chondrocranium, the hypophysis, and the brain. This concept of longitudinal venous axes in the CS may be useful during endovascular interventions for the CS considering our better understandings of its functions in venous drainage. PMID:27063146

  11. Pancreas divisum: a common developmental variant that deserves attention in preclinical medical education.

    PubMed

    White, Jessica J; Roberts, Zoey N; Gest, Thomas R; Beale, Elmus G

    2014-10-01

    Clinical literature indicates that pancreas divisum (PD) is present in 3-22% of the population and may be associated with an increased risk of pancreatitis. PD is a developmental variant wherein the duct systems derived from the dorsal and ventral pancreatic buds are not fused. Hence secretions from the head, neck, body, and tail, which develop from the dorsal bud, must pass through the minor duodenal papilla. The smaller uncinate process, derived from the ventral bud, drains through the major duodenal papilla. The purpose of this study was: (1) to do a cadaveric dissection to confirm whether PD is common in donors who had not been selected because they had pancreatitis and (2) to determine the frequency of PD descriptions in anatomy, embryology, pathology, and surgery books in our libraries. For our anatomical study, pancreata of eight human donors were dissected. Dye was injected into the ducts so that any communications between main and accessory ducts could be easily located. For our literature review, 22 anatomy, 14 embryology, 11 pathology, and 26 surgery books were examined for mention of PD. PD was unambiguously identified in two donor cadavers. However, only 14% of the anatomy plus embryology books compared to 70% of the surgery plus pathology books describe PD. Cadaveric dissection confirms that PD is indeed prevalent. The prevalence of PD with its increased risk of pancreatitis merits inclusion of this topic in textbooks of anatomy and embryology.

  12. Assessing child welfare under the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008: a case study in medicalisation?

    PubMed

    Lee, Ellie; Macvarish, Jan; Sheldon, Sally

    2014-05-01

    This article reports on a study with staff working in assisted conception clinics in the UK about making welfare of the child (WOC) assessments pre-conception. This aspect of infertility treatment is obligatory under section 13(5) of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act, which was amended in 2008. The aim of the study was to find out how this change to the law had impacted on practice. In describing what we found, we also make a contribution to scholarship about the medicalisation of reproduction. S13(5) has often been discussed as a prime example of medicalisation, giving clinics power to grant or deny access to treatment on child welfare grounds, encompassing far more than purely clinical considerations. Yet, while such medicalisation may be entrenched in the law, our findings suggest this power is used with a very light touch. Further, while our interviewees offered near-universal support for the need to consider child welfare, this is now justified by concerns that address not only family form (e.g. the need for a father figure) but also the quality of interactions between parents and children. In this light we suggest that the concept of medicalisation may offer a rather blunt tool for understanding a far more complex reality.

  13. Self-organizing potential and morphogenetic potential (comparing current embryological and Atlan's views).

    PubMed

    Bernier, R

    1986-01-01

    The concept of self-organizing potential proposed by Atlan, conceived within the framework of information theory, attempts to explain the emergence of the structures and functions of the organism, as well as the concept of morphogenetic potential, conceived in the embryological laboratories. Are the two theses diverging or converging and/or complementary to each other? The paper indicates, first, the context of Atlan's thesis and the meaning of his concepts of self-organization and self-organizing potential in evolutionary systems as well as in individual systems. It then develops an in-depth analysis of these individual systems and attempts to discern, in Atlan's thesis, the respective roles of the genetic factors (first at the initial stage of the system and then in the course of its development) and of the epigenetic factors in the formation of the individual, particularly during morphogenesis. This analysis reveals some difficulties inherent in the theory and induces the author to propose a few additional distinctions. Finally, the paper underlines the analogies and divergences between the concepts of self-organizing potential and morphogenetic potential.

  14. The embryological development of primary visual centres in the turtle Emys orbicularis.

    PubMed Central

    Hergueta, S; Lemire, M; Pieau, C; Ward, R; Repérant, J

    1993-01-01

    The development of the primary visual centres was studied in a series of embryos of the turtle, Emys orbicularis, incubated at 25 degrees C. The differentiation of both visual and nonvisual diencephalic and mesencephalic structures takes place entirely within the 2nd quarter of the period of incubation; this finding appears to be consistent with previous descriptions of the embryology of 2 other chelonian species, Lepidochelys and Chelydra. Two successive waves of migration, each dividing into internal and external sheaves, are involved in the formation of the structures of the diencephalon and mesencephalon. The primary visual centres, which comprise 2 hypothalamic, 5 thalamic and 5 pretectal zones of retinal projections, together with the 2 superficial layers of the tectum and a single tegmental projection zone, all have their origin in the external sheaf of the 1st wave of migration. The finding that the adult nucleus geniculatus lateralis dorsalis, pars ventralis arises from one of the migrations of the dorsal thalamus is discussed in the context of the debate over the possible homologues of the mammalian geniculostriate visual pathway. Images Fig. 1 (cont.) Fig. 1 Fig. 2 (cont.) Fig. 2 Fig. 3 (cont.) Fig. 3 Fig. 4 (cont.) Fig. 4 Fig. 5 (cont.) Fig. 5 Fig. 6 (cont.) Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 (cont.) Fig. 8 Fig. 9 (cont.) Fig. 9 Fig. 10 (cont.) Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:8300423

  15. Multiple variations of the arterial pattern in upper extremities: a case report and embryological pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Klimek-Piotrowska, Wiesława; Pacholczak, Renata; Walocha, Jerzy

    2013-11-01

    During a routine dissection at the Department of Anatomy, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, one cadaver was found to have multiple variations of the arteries of the upper limbs. The variations pertained to the course of the brachial artery as well as to its distribution. An unusual formation of the superficial palmar arch was observed in both upper limbs. The anatomical peculiarities encountered included: in the left upper limb-the brachioradial artery, which formed the superficial palmar arch by turning to the palmar side of the hand and connecting with the ulnar artery and in the right upper limb-a subscapular-circumflex humeral-deep brachial trunk that correlated with a high division of the brachial artery (in the upper third of the biceps brachii muscle), a large anastomosis between the radial and the ulnar artery, the presence of a persistent median artery, and the unusual formation of the superficial palmar arch, which was created by the median, ulnar, and radial arteries. In this report, we will trace the path of the axillary artery and its branches in detail and emphasize its embryological significance.

  16. Divided nevus of the eyelid: review of embryology, pathology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Desai, Shaun C; Walen, Scott; Holds, John B; Branham, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Divided nevus, which is also known as "kissing nevus," "split ocular nevus" and "panda nevus" is a rare congenital dermatological abnormality that occurs on opposing margins of upper and lower eyelids. There is a paucity of literature on this rare anomaly, with most knowledge from this disease process derived from isolated case reports and series. The purpose of this study is to report a new case of divided nevus of the eyelid and to discuss the unique embryology, pathology, and potential treatment options for this rare entity. A systematic review of literature was performed of the English literature on PubMed and Medline with just under 150 cases reported in the literature. The vast majority of the divided nevi seen in this review were medium sized and of the melanocytic intradermal type. There were no described cases of malignant transformation in any of the documented cases. Numerous methods for reconstruction were described including the entire reconstructive ladder with both one and two staged approaches. In this review, we present basic guidelines to the reconstruction of these complicated defects, although ultimate treatment should be individualized and dependent on surgeon comfort.

  17. Preliminary studies of enhanced contrast radiography in anatomy and embryology of insects with Elettra synchrotron light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Foerster, L. A.; Navarro-Silva, M. A.; Menk, R.-H.; Rigon, L.; Cusatis, C.

    2005-08-01

    Enhanced contrast X-ray imaging is achieved by exploiting the real part of the refraction index, which is responsible for the phase shifts, in addition to the imaginary part, which is responsible for the absorption. Such techniques are called X-ray phase contrast imaging. An analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast imaging set-up with Diffraction Enhanced Imaging processing (DEI) were used for preliminary studies in anatomy and embryology of insects. Parasitized stinkbug and moth eggs used as control agents of pests in vegetables and adult stinkbugs and mosquitoes ( Aedes aegypti) were used as samples. The experimental setup was mounted in the SYRMEP beamline at ELETTRA. Images were obtained using a high spatial resolution CCD detector (pixel size 14×14 μm 2) coupled with magnifying optics. Analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast images (PCI) and edge detection images show contrast and details not observed with conventional synchrotron radiography and open the possibility for future study in the embryonic development of insects.

  18. Supernumerary renal arteries and their embryological and clinical correlation: a cadaveric study from north India.

    PubMed

    Budhiraja, Virendra; Rastogi, Rakhi; Anjankar, Vaibhav; Babu, C S Ramesh; Goel, Prabhat

    2013-01-01

    Background. Classically, each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery originating from abdominal aorta. The present study aimed at its variations and their embryological and clinical correlation. Material and Methods. The formalin-fixed thirty-seven cadavers from north India constituted the material for the study. During routine abdominal dissection conducted for medical undergraduates at the department of anatomy, the kidneys along with their arteries were explored and the morphological variations of renal arteries were noted. Results. We observed supernumerary renal arteries in 23/37 (62.2%) cases (48.6% of aortic origin and 13.5% of renal origin) on the right side and 21/37 (56.8%) cases (45.9% of aortic origin and 10.8% of renal origin) on the left side. Supernumerary renal arteries entered the kidney through hilum, superior pole, and inferior pole. Conclusion. Awareness of variations of renal artery is necessary for surgical management during renal transplantation, repair of abdominal aorta aneurysm, and urological procedures and for angiographic interventions.

  19. The dawn of chelonian research: turtles between comparative anatomy and embryology in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    MacCord, Kate; Caniglia, Guido; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Burke, Ann C

    2015-05-01

    Many evo-devo studies of the turtle's shell draw hypotheses and support from historical sources. The groundbreaking works of Cuvier, Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Carus, Rathke, Owen, and others are being revived in modern research, and their centuries-old understanding of the turtle's shell reconsidered. In the works of these eminent biologists of the 19th century, comparative anatomy and embryology of turtle morphology set the stage for future studies in developmental biology, histology, and paleontology. Given the impact that these works still make on modern research, it is important to develop a thorough appreciation of previous authors, regarding how they arrived at their conclusions (i.e., what counted as evidence?), whether there was debate amongst these authors about shell development (i.e., what counted as an adequate explanation?), and even why these men, some of the most powerful and influential thinkers and anatomists of their day, were concerned with turtles. By tracing and exposing the context and content of turtle shell studies in history, our aim is to inform modern debates about the evolution and development of the turtle's shell.

  20. Embryology of Early Jurassic dinosaur from China with evidence of preserved organic remains.

    PubMed

    Reisz, Robert R; Huang, Timothy D; Roberts, Eric M; Peng, ShinRung; Sullivan, Corwin; Stein, Koen; LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Shieh, DarBin; Chang, RongSeng; Chiang, ChengCheng; Yang, Chuanwei; Zhong, Shiming

    2013-04-11

    Fossil dinosaur embryos are surprisingly rare, being almost entirely restricted to Upper Cretaceous strata that record the late stages of non-avian dinosaur evolution. Notable exceptions are the oldest known embryos from the Early Jurassic South African sauropodomorph Massospondylus and Late Jurassic embryos of a theropod from Portugal. The fact that dinosaur embryos are rare and typically enclosed in eggshells limits their availability for tissue and cellular level investigations of development. Consequently, little is known about growth patterns in dinosaur embryos, even though post-hatching ontogeny has been studied in several taxa. Here we report the discovery of an embryonic dinosaur bone bed from the Lower Jurassic of China, the oldest such occurrence in the fossil record. The embryos are similar in geological age to those of Massospondylus and are also assignable to a sauropodomorph dinosaur, probably Lufengosaurus. The preservation of numerous disarticulated skeletal elements and eggshells in this monotaxic bone bed, representing different stages of incubation and therefore derived from different nests, provides opportunities for new investigations of dinosaur embryology in a clade noted for gigantism. For example, comparisons among embryonic femora of different sizes and developmental stages reveal a consistently rapid rate of growth throughout development, possibly indicating that short incubation times were characteristic of sauropodomorphs. In addition, asymmetric radial growth of the femoral shaft and rapid expansion of the fourth trochanter suggest that embryonic muscle activation played an important role in the pre-hatching ontogeny of these dinosaurs. This discovery also provides the oldest evidence of in situ preservation of complex organic remains in a terrestrial vertebrate.

  1. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  2. Embryological outcomes in cycles with human oocytes containing large tubular smooth endoplasmic reticulum clusters after conventional in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Itoi, Fumiaki; Asano, Yukiko; Shimizu, Masashi; Honnma, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    There have been no studies analyzing the effect of large aggregates of tubular smooth endoplasmic reticulum (aSERT) after conventional in vitro fertilization (cIVF). The aim of this study was to investigate whether aSERT can be identified after cIVF and the association between the embryological outcomes of oocytes in cycles with aSERT. This is a retrospective study examining embryological data from cIVF cycles showing the presence of aSERT in oocytes 5-6 h after cIVF. To evaluate embryo quality, cIVF cycles with at least one aSERT-metaphase II (MII) oocyte observed (cycles with aSERT) were compared to cycles with normal-MII oocytes (control cycles). Among the 4098 MII oocytes observed in 579 cycles, aSERT was detected in 100 MII oocytes in 51 cycles (8.8%). The fertilization rate, the rate of embryo development on day 3 and day 5-6 did not significantly differ between cycles with aSERT and control group. However, aSERT-MII oocytes had lower rates for both blastocysts and good quality blastocysts (p < 0.05). aSERT can be detected in the cytoplasm by removing the cumulus cell 5 h after cIVF. However, aSERT-MII oocytes do not affect other normal-MII oocytes in cycles with aSERT.

  3. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  4. Genomic basis of broad host range and environmental adaptability of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 which are used in inoculants for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are α-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. Results Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym) that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. Conclusions Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical rhizobia with common bean

  5. Could Revision of the Embryology Influence Our Cesarean Delivery Technique: Towards an Optimized Cesarean Delivery for Universal Use.

    PubMed

    Stark, Michael; Mynbaev, Ospan; Vassilevski, Yuri; Rozenberg, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Until today, there is no standardized Cesarean Section method and many variations exist. The main variations concern the type of abdominal incision, usage of abdominal packs, suturing the uterus in one or two layers, and suturing the peritoneal layers or leaving them open. One of the questions is the optimal location of opening the uterus. Recently, omission of the bladder flap was recommended. The anatomy and histology as results from the embryological knowledge might help to solve this question. The working thesis is that the higher the incision is done, the more damage to muscle tissue can take place contrary to incision in the lower segment, where fibrous tissue prevails. In this perspective, a call for participation in a two-armed prospective study is included, which could result in an optimal, evidence-based Cesarean Section for universal use.

  6. [Local species, the market, and transportation in embryological research: the study of polyembryony in armadillos in the early twentieth century].

    PubMed

    García, Susana V

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the general affirmation that communication networks and mobility are important to science by examining how these factors played a relevant role in one specific case, that is, research on the embryology of certain species of armadillos in the early twentieth century. As we show, access to pregnant females of the species and transport time from the wild to the laboratory were significant issues in the early days of such research. The strategies used to obtain field samples, the temporality of certain phenomena, the commercial circuits of which the organisms under study were a part, and the transformations they underwent in the laboratory all afford a glimpse at some aspects of how these scientists approached their work and what problems they faced in producing new knowledge.

  7. Could Revision of the Embryology Influence Our Cesarean Delivery Technique: Towards an Optimized Cesarean Delivery for Universal Use

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Michael; Mynbaev, Ospan; Vassilevski, Yuri; Rozenberg, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Until today, there is no standardized Cesarean Section method and many variations exist. The main variations concern the type of abdominal incision, usage of abdominal packs, suturing the uterus in one or two layers, and suturing the peritoneal layers or leaving them open. One of the questions is the optimal location of opening the uterus. Recently, omission of the bladder flap was recommended. The anatomy and histology as results from the embryological knowledge might help to solve this question. The working thesis is that the higher the incision is done, the more damage to muscle tissue can take place contrary to incision in the lower segment, where fibrous tissue prevails. In this perspective, a call for participation in a two-armed prospective study is included, which could result in an optimal, evidence-based Cesarean Section for universal use. PMID:28078171

  8. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  9. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  10. QCI Common

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  11. Chemoconvulsant-induced seizure susceptibility: toward a common genetic basis?

    PubMed

    Chaix, Yohan; Ferraro, Thomas N; Lapouble, Eve; Martin, Benoît

    2007-01-01

    Despite the efforts employed, understanding the genetic architecture underlying epilepsy remains difficult. To reach this aim, convulsive epilepsies are classically modeled in mice, where genetic studies are less constricting than in humans. Pharmacogenetic approaches are one major source of investigation where kainic acid, pentylenetetrazol, and the ss-carboline family represent compounds that are used extensively. Several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influencing the convulsant effects of these drugs have been mapped using either recombinant inbred strains (RIS) or segregating F2 populations (or both). In our laboratory, we have recently mapped two QTLs for methyl 6, 7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-ss-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM), and seizure response using an F2 method. One is located on the distal part of Chromosome 1, a region implicated in a number of other studies. Here, we address the general importance of this chromosomal fragment for influencing seizure susceptibility.

  12. Perceived vulnerability as a common basis of moral emotions.

    PubMed

    Dijker, Anton J M

    2010-06-01

    It is theorized that many moral emotions are triggered when a mechanism for (parental) care is activated by perceived vulnerability, and changes in the care object's well-being are subsequently evaluated and causally attributed. Participants reported different moral emotions (tenderness, concern, sympathy, guilt, and moral anger) in relation to different photographs of males and females widely differing in age. Using variation between emotion objects, it was shown that emotional reactions were highly intercorrelated and strongly related to perceived vulnerability and aroused protective tendency; with children and elderly arousing the strongest, and adult males the weakest, emotions. Moreover, these intercorrelations largely disappeared when vulnerability and protective tendency were statistically controlled. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  13. Unusual Variation in the Branching Pattern of the Celiac Trunk and Its Embryological and Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pangtey, Babita; Vasudeva, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of variations in the branching pattern of Celiac Trunk (CT) is important for surgeries of stomach, duodenum, pancreas and hepatobiliary region, for abdominal aortic aneurysm, for liver transplant and chaemoembolization of hepatic tumours. An unusual variation in the branching pattern of CT was observed in 50-year-old male cadaver of Indian origin. CT divided into six branches out of which right & left inferior phrenic arteries originated as first two branches and left gastric artery as the third branch. CT ended into three terminal branches as common hepatic artery, splenic artery & dorsal pancreatic artery. Right gastric artery originated from left hepatic artery instead of common hepatic artery. A variant hepatic artery to the left lobe of liver was also observed which originated from right gastric artery. Anatomical variations in the branching pattern of CT are due to developmental changes in ventral splanchnic artery. PMID:27504274

  14. Curving and looping of the internal carotid artery in relation to the pharynx: frequency, embryology and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    PAULSEN, FRIEDRICH; TILLMANN, BERNHARD; CHRISTOFIDES, CHRISTOS; RICHTER, WALBURGA; KOEBKE, JÜRGEN

    2000-01-01

    Variations of the course of the internal carotid artery in the parapharyngeal space and their frequency were studied in order to determine possible risks for acute haemorrhage during pharyngeal surgery and traumatic events, as well as their possible relevance to cerebrovascular disease. The course of the internal carotid artery showed no curvature in 191 cases, but in 74 cases it had a medial, lateral or ventrocaudal curve, and 17 preparations showed kinking (12) or coiling (5) out of a total of 265 dissected carotid sheaths and 17 corrosion vascular casts. In 6 cases of kinking and 2 of coiling, the internal carotid artery was located in direct contact with the tonsillar fossa. No significant sex differences were found. Variations of the internal carotid artery leading to direct contact with the pharyngeal wall are likely to be of great clinical relevance in view of the large number of routine procedures performed. Whereas coiling is ascribed to embryological causes, curving is related to ageing and kinking is thought to be exacerbated by arteriosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia with advancing age and may therefore be of significance in relation to the occurrence of cerebrovascular symptoms. PMID:11117624

  15. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  16. Review of Prostate Anatomy and Embryology and the Etiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Aaron, LaTayia; Franco, Omar E; Hayward, Simon W

    2016-08-01

    Prostate development follows a common pattern between species and depends on the actions of androgens to induce and support ductal branching morphogenesis of buds emerging from the urogenital sinus. The human prostate has a compact zonal anatomy immediately surrounding the urethra and below the urinary bladder. Rodents have a lobular prostate with lobes radiating away from the urethra. The human prostate is the site of benign hyperplasia, prostate cancer, and prostatitis. The rodent prostate has little naturally occurring disease. Rodents can be used to model aspects of human benign hyperplasia, but care should be taken in data interpretation and extrapolation to the human condition.

  17. Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome: Embryology, Genetics and Clinical and Surgical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sturlese, Emanuele; Retto, Giovanni; Retto, Annalisa; De Dominici, Rosanna; Puzzolo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a pathological condition characterized by primary amenorrhea and infertility and by congenital aplasia of the uterus and of the upper vagina. The development of secondary sexual characters is normal as well as that the karyotype (46,XX). Etiologically, this syndrome may be caused by the lack of development of the Müllerian ducts between the fifth and the sixth weeks of gestation. To explain this condition, it has been suggested that in patients with MRKH syndrome, there is a very strong hyperincretion of Müllerian-inhibiting factor (MIF), which would provoke the lack of development of the Müllerian ducts from primitive structures (as what normally occurs in male phenotype). These alterations are commonly associated with renal agenesis or ectopia. Specific mutations of several genes such as WT1, PAX2, HOXA7-HOXA13, PBX1, and WNT4 involved in the earliest stages of embryonic development could play a key role in the etiopathogenesis of this syndrome. Besides, it seems that the other two genes, TCF2 (HNF1B) and LHX1, are involved in the determinism of this pathology. Currently, the most widely nonsurgical used techniques include the “Frank's dilators method,” while the surgical ones most commonly used are those developed by McIndoe, Williams, Vecchietti, Davydov, and Baldwin. PMID:23431465

  18. Study of Genetics and Embryology of Polyembryonic Mutant of Autotetraploid Rice Induced by N+ Beam Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ximei; Huang, Qunce; Li, Guoping; Hu, Xiuming; Qin, Guangyong; Yu, Zengliang

    2006-11-01

    In the present study autotetraploid rice IR36-4X was treated by an ion implantation technique with nitrogen ion beams. A polyembryonic mutant (named IR36-Shuang) was identified in the M2 generation. The mutant line and its offspring were systematically investigated in regard to their major agronomic properties and the rate of polyembryonic seedling in the M3-M6 generation. The abnormal phenomena in the embryo sac development and the cytological mechanism of the initiation of additional embryo in IR36-Shuang were observed by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy. The results were as follows. 1) The plant height, the panicle length and 1000 grain weight of IR36-Shuang were lower than that of its control by 35.41%, 5.08% and 15.72% respectively, Moreover, the setting percentage decreased 12.39% compared with that in normal IR36-4X plants. 2) The polyembryonic trait of IR36-Shuang was genetically stable and the frequency of the polyembryonic seedlings in the IR36-Shuang line was also relatively stable. 3) The rate of abnormal embryo sacs in IR36-Shuang was significantly higher than that in the control IR36-4X. 4) The additional embryo in IR36-Shuang might arise from the double set of embryo sacs in a single ovary, antipodal cells or endosperm cells. These results suggest that IR36-Shuang is a polyembryonic mutant and a new apomixis rice line induced by low energy ion implantation. The prospects for the application in production of the IR36-Shuang line are also discussed. The present study may provide a basis for future investigations of apomixis rice breeding via the ion implantation biotechnology.

  19. Sex identification using the ZFX and ZFY genes in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Takabayashi, Shuji; Katoh, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated sex determination via the ZFX and ZFY genes using PCR-RFLP in the common marmoset. We designed a novel primer set to detect ZFX and ZFY. A 483-bp band from the ZFX gene and a 471-bp band from the ZFY gene were amplified. Sequencing data of the products amplified from ZFX and ZFY showed the recognition sites of two restriction enzymes, DdeI and MseI, respectively. After digestion of the products using each enzyme, we found that the band patterns between females and males were different. PCR-based sex identification might provide a tool for further breeding studies and experimental embryological studies using marmosets.

  20. Congenital web of the common bile duct in association with cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Papaziogas, Basilios; Lazaridis, Charalampos; Pavlidis, Theodoros; Galanis, Ioannis; Paraskevas, George; Papaziogas, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Congenital web formations are extremely rare anomalies of the extrahepatic biliary tree. The age at presentation and the clinical symptomatology of these anomalies depend on the grade of the biliary obstruction. We report a case of a common bile duct septum in association with cholelithiasis in a 30-year-old woman. The diagnosis was made on preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and confirmed with intraoperative cholangiography. Because all known causes of acquired web formation were excluded, a congenital origin of the web was assumed. The patient was treated with a hepaticoduodenostomy above the level of the septum. The embryological aspects of this rare anomaly are described.

  1. Preduodenal portal vein with preduodenal common bile duct: an extremely rare anomaly.

    PubMed

    Shah, Omar J; Robbani, Irfan; Khuroo, Mohammad S

    2009-04-01

    Preduodenal portal vein (PDPV) may occur as an isolated event and result in no symptoms, or it may found at autopsy as an incidental finding; associated preduodenal common bile duct (PDCBD) is an extremely rare event. To the 8 reported cases of PDPV with PDCBD, we add this rare case. Such a discovery is often incidental and of little import; however, it takes on major importance for hepatobiliary surgeons because the accidental damage of PDPV with PDCBD can lead to serious consequences. In addition to describing and illustrating this case, we discuss its relevant anatomy, embryology and associated malformations.

  2. Perspectives on the use of the baboon in embryology and teratology research.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, A G; Peterson, P E

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the developmental stages of the baboon during the period of organ formation and provides comparative information for other primates, including the human. Special attention is directed to the early development of the nervous system, eye, ear and nose/palate. The similarity in development of these structures with humans indicates that the baboon is a suitable model for studies of normal and abnormal neurological development. Spontaneous prenatal loss rates in the baboon (2.4-11.2%) are slightly lower than those reported in rhesus and cynomologus monkeys. The baboon, in addition to the cynomologus monkey and macaque, has been used as a model in teratology research to assess the potential risk of thalidomide, sex steroids, Bendectin and rubella virus, as well as to study the pathogenesis of malformations associated with the corticosteroid triamcinolone acetonide. The rate of spontaneous malformations (<1%) in baboons, similar to that reported for other commonly used primates, supports their continued use as a teratological model. In this regard, a sample protocol is provided for the safety evaluation of biotechnology products using nonhuman primates, which are the most appropriate model for those compounds which are bioactive in species closely related to humans.

  3. The Basis System

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, P.F.

    1989-05-16

    This paper discusses the basis system. Basis is a program development system for scientific programs. It has been developed over the last five years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), where it is now used in about twenty major programming efforts. The Basis System includes two major components, a program development system and a run-time package. The run-time package provides the Basis Language interpreter, through which the user does input, output, plotting, and control of the program's subroutines and functions. Variables in the scientific packages are known to this interpreter, so that the user may arbitrarily print, plot, and calculate with, any major program variables. Also provided are facilities for dynamic memory management, terminal logs, error recovery, text-file i/o, and the attachment of non-Basis-developed packages.

  4. 47 CFR 27.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.1 Basis and purpose. This section contains the statutory basis... rules for miscellaneous wireless communications services (WCS) in this part are promulgated under...

  5. 47 CFR 27.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.1 Basis and purpose. This section contains the statutory basis... rules for miscellaneous wireless communications services (WCS) in this part are promulgated under...

  6. 47 CFR 27.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.1 Basis and purpose. This section contains the statutory basis... rules for miscellaneous wireless communications services (WCS) in this part are promulgated under...

  7. 47 CFR 27.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.1 Basis and purpose. This section contains the statutory basis... rules for miscellaneous wireless communications services (WCS) in this part are promulgated under...

  8. Safety Basis Report

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-14

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities.

  9. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  10. Complete Basis Set Model Chemistries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochterski, Joseph Wallace

    1994-01-01

    The major source of error in most ab initio calculations of molecular energies is the truncation of the one-electron basis set. Extrapolation to the complete basis set second -order (CBS2) limit using the N^{-1 } asymptotic convergence of N-configuration pair natural orbital (PNO) expansions can be combined with the use of relatively small basis sets for the higher-order correlation energy to develop cost effective computational models. Following this strategy, four new computational models denoted CBS-4, CBS-q, CBS-Q, and CBS-QCI/APNO are introduced. The mean absolute deviations (MAD) from experiment for the 125 energies of the G2 test set are 2.0, 1.7, 1.0 and 0.5 kcal/mol, respectively. The error distributions for all six models are indistinguishable from Gaussian distribution functions. Calculations on the cyclopropenyl radical and cyclopropenylidene provide new dissociation energies which are in accord with an interpretation of the thermochemistry emphasizing aromaticity. Several levels of theory are examined as candidates for the routine calculation of molecular geometries. The very simple UHF/3-21G* model gives bond lengths to an accuracy of +/-0.027 A compared with experiment for a test set of 69 small molecules. The commonly used MP2/6-31G* model (RMS error 0.025 A) offers virtually no improvement and use of the considerably more expensive QCISD calculations with the same basis set provides only a modest reduction to 0.020 A. However, spin projected MP3 calculations with a modified basis set including f -functions on Si, P, S, and Cl, reduce the RMS error to 0.010 A. This PMP3/6-31Gdf* model is recommended as a general scheme of geometry optimization for small molecules. The equilibrium structure and binding energy of the water dimer have been determined for several levels of ab initio theory. The basis set convergence of the SCF energy, the intramolecular and intermolecular MP2 energy, and higher-order effects, are examined separately and realistic error

  11. Congenital coronary artery anomalies: a bridge from embryology to anatomy and pathophysiology--a position statement of the development, anatomy, and pathology ESC Working Group.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pomares, José María; de la Pompa, José Luis; Franco, Diego; Henderson, Deborah; Ho, Siew Yen; Houyel, Lucile; Kelly, Robert G; Sedmera, David; Sheppard, Mary; Sperling, Silke; Thiene, Gaetano; van den Hoff, Maurice; Basso, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Congenital coronary artery anomalies are of major significance in clinical cardiology and cardiac surgery due to their association with myocardial ischaemia and sudden death. Such anomalies are detectable by imaging modalities and, according to various definitions, their prevalence ranges from 0.21 to 5.79%. This consensus document from the Development, Anatomy and Pathology Working Group of the European Society of Cardiology aims to provide: (i) a definition of normality that refers to essential anatomical and embryological features of coronary vessels, based on the integrated analysis of studies of normal and abnormal coronary embryogenesis and pathophysiology; (ii) an animal model-based systematic survey of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate coronary blood vessel development; (iii) an organization of the wide spectrum of coronary artery anomalies, according to a comprehensive anatomical and embryological classification scheme; (iv) current knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying symptoms and signs of coronary artery anomalies, with diagnostic and therapeutic implications. This document identifies the mosaic-like embryonic development of the coronary vascular system, as coronary cell types differentiate from multiple cell sources through an intricate network of molecular signals and haemodynamic cues, as the necessary framework for understanding the complex spectrum of coronary artery anomalies observed in human patients.

  12. Common Geometry Module

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  13. Neuromechanical Basis of Kinesiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enoka, Roger M.

    This textbook provides a scientific basis for the study of human motion. The eight chapters are organized under three major sections. Part One--The Force-Motion Relationship--contains chapters on (1) motion; (2) force; (3) types of movement analysis. In Part Two--The Simple Joint System--chapters concern (4) simple joint system components; (5)…

  14. TMT common software update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Kim; Brighton, Allan; Buur, Hanne

    2016-08-01

    TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their functional roles in the software system. TMT CSW has recently passed its preliminary design review. The unique features of CSW include its use of multiple, open-source products as the basis for services, and an approach that works to reduce the amount of CSW-provided infrastructure code. Considerable prototyping was completed during this phase to mitigate risk with results that demonstrate the validity of this design approach and the selected service implementation products. This paper describes the latest design of TMT CSW, key features, and results from the prototyping effort.

  15. 47 CFR 51.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 51.1 Section 51.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION General Information § 51.1 Basis and purpose. (a) Basis. These rules are issued pursuant to...

  16. 47 CFR 51.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 51.1 Section 51.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION General Information § 51.1 Basis and purpose. (a) Basis. These rules are issued pursuant to...

  17. 47 CFR 51.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 51.1 Section 51.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION General Information § 51.1 Basis and purpose. (a) Basis. These rules are issued pursuant to...

  18. 47 CFR 51.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 51.1 Section 51.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION General Information § 51.1 Basis and purpose. (a) Basis. These rules are issued pursuant to...

  19. 47 CFR 51.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 51.1 Section 51.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION General Information § 51.1 Basis and purpose. (a) Basis. These rules are issued pursuant to...

  20. 47 CFR 64.2001 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.2001 Section 64.2001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2001 Basis and...

  1. 47 CFR 64.2001 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.2001 Section 64.2001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2001 Basis and...

  2. 47 CFR 64.2001 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.2001 Section 64.2001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2001 Basis and...

  3. 47 CFR 64.2001 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.2001 Section 64.2001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2001 Basis and...

  4. 47 CFR 64.2001 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.2001 Section 64.2001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2001 Basis and...

  5. Embryological Results of Couples Undergoing ICSI-ET Treatments with Males Carrying the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs175080 of the MLH3 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Anifandis, George; Markandona, Ourania; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos; Messini, Christina; Tsezou, Aspasia; Dimitraki, Marina; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Daponte, Alexandros; Messinis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Human MLH3 (hMLH3) gene has been suggested to play a role in the DNA mismatch repair mechanism, while it may also be associated with abnormal spermatogenesis and subsequently male infertility. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible relationships between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs175080 in the MLH3 gene of males and the embryological results in couples undergoing intracytoplasmatic sperm injection-embryo transfer (ICSI-ET) treatments. A total of 132 men volunteered for the study and gave written informed consent. All couples were subjected to ICSI-ET treatments in the years 2010 to 2012. The couples were divided into three groups according to the genotype of their husbands: the wild type GG (n = 28), the heterozygotic type GA (n = 72) and the mutant type AA (n = 32). Significantly lower sperm concentration and progressive motility were observed in the AA group as compared to the other two groups (Concentration: 14.57 ± 4.9 mil/mL in AA, 38.3 ± 5.4 mil/mL in GA and 41.03 ± 6.8 mil/mL in GG, p < 0.05, mean ± standard error of the mean—SEM). However, significantly better embryological results (mean score of embryo quality–MSEQ) were found in the AA (8.12 ± 0.5) and the GA group (7.36 ± 0.4) as compared to the GG group (5.82 ± 0.7), (p < 0.05). Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the AA genotype group (43.8%) and the GA group (30.6%) than in the GG group (14.3%), (p < 0.05). Live birth rate was not different. It is suggested for the first time that the deteriorating effect of the mutant type on sperm characteristics does not impact on embryo development after fertilization in vitro. PMID:28157160

  6. Embryological Results of Couples Undergoing ICSI-ET Treatments with Males Carrying the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs175080 of the MLH3 Gene.

    PubMed

    Anifandis, George; Markandona, Ourania; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos; Messini, Christina; Tsezou, Aspasia; Dimitraki, Marina; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Daponte, Alexandros; Messinis, Ioannis

    2017-02-02

    Human MLH3 (hMLH3) gene has been suggested to play a role in the DNA mismatch repair mechanism, while it may also be associated with abnormal spermatogenesis and subsequently male infertility. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible relationships between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs175080 in the MLH3 gene of males and the embryological results in couples undergoing intracytoplasmatic sperm injection-embryo transfer (ICSI-ET) treatments. A total of 132 men volunteered for the study and gave written informed consent. All couples were subjected to ICSI-ET treatments in the years 2010 to 2012. The couples were divided into three groups according to the genotype of their husbands: the wild type GG (n = 28), the heterozygotic type GA (n = 72) and the mutant type AA (n = 32). Significantly lower sperm concentration and progressive motility were observed in the AA group as compared to the other two groups (Concentration: 14.57 ± 4.9 mil/mL in AA, 38.3 ± 5.4 mil/mL in GA and 41.03 ± 6.8 mil/mL in GG, p < 0.05, mean ± standard error of the mean-SEM). However, significantly better embryological results (mean score of embryo quality-MSEQ) were found in the AA (8.12 ± 0.5) and the GA group (7.36 ± 0.4) as compared to the GG group (5.82 ± 0.7), (p < 0.05). Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the AA genotype group (43.8%) and the GA group (30.6%) than in the GG group (14.3%), (p < 0.05). Live birth rate was not different. It is suggested for the first time that the deteriorating effect of the mutant type on sperm characteristics does not impact on embryo development after fertilization in vitro.

  7. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  8. An extremely rare inversion of the preduodenal portal vein and common bile duct associated with multiple malformations. Report of an adult cadaver case with a brief review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yi, S-Q; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, A; Shimokawa, T; Ru, F; Nakatani, T

    2004-05-01

    A preduodenal position of the portal vein (PDPV) is a very rare congenital anomaly; even rarer is its association with a preduodenal position of the common bile duct (PDCBD). To the seven cases of PDCBD mentioned in the literature, we add this particularly rare case which is associated with multiple abnormalities such as situs inversus totalis, intestinal malrotation, short pancreas, bilobed spleen, accessory spleen, and abnormal ramification of the celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery and renal arteries. Besides describing and illustrating this case, we also discuss the anatomy and embryology of these structures and briefly review the patterns of previously reported cases that we found. We performed an immunohistochemical examination of the pancreas to demonstrate the ventro-dorsal pancreas in our case. For the explanation of the embryology of the PDCBD, the ventro-dorsal pancreas and PDPV malformation, we emphasized the reverse rotation of the ventral pancreas and duodenum.

  9. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  10. Environmental Basis of Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Floreani, Annarosa; Leung, Patrick S C; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-06-01

    The three common themes that underlie the induction and perpetuation of autoimmunity are genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and immune regulation. Environmental factors have gained much attention for their role in triggering autoimmunity, with increasing evidence of their influence as demonstrated by epidemiological studies, laboratory research, and animal studies. Environmental factors known to trigger and perpetuate autoimmunity include infections, gut microbiota, as well as physical and environmental agents. To address these issues, we will review major potential mechanisms that underlie autoimmunity including molecular mimicry, epitope spreading, bystander activation, polyclonal activation of B and T cells, infections, and autoinflammatory activation of innate immunity. The association of the gut microbiota on autoimmunity will be particularly highlighted by their interaction with pharmaceutical agents that may lead to organ-specific autoimmunity. Nonetheless, and we will emphasize this point, the precise mechanism of environmental influence on disease pathogenesis remains elusive.

  11. Common NICU Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... care unit (NICU) > Common NICU equipment Common NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... understand how they can help your baby. What equipment is commonly used in the NICU? Providers use ...

  12. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  13. The need for interaction between assisted reproduction technology and genetics: recommendations of the European Societies of Human Genetics and Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    PubMed

    2006-08-01

    Infertility and reproductive genetic risk are both increasing in our societies because of lifestyle changes and possibly environmental factors. Owing to the magnitude of the problem, they have implications not only at the individual and family levels but also at the community level. This leads to an increasing demand for access to assisted reproduction technology (ART) and genetic services, especially when the cause of infertility may be genetic in origin. The increasing application of genetics in reproductive medicine and vice versa requires closer collaboration between the two disciplines. ART and genetics are rapidly evolving fields where new technologies are currently introduced without sufficient knowledge of their potential long-term effects. As for any medical procedures, there are possible unexpected effects which need to be envisaged to make sure that the balance between benefits and risks is clearly on the benefit side. The development of ART and genetics as scientific activities is creating an opportunity to understand the early stages of human development, which is leading to new and challenging findings/knowledge. However, there are opinions against investigating the early stages of development in humans who deserve respect and attention. For all these reasons, these two societies, European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), have joined efforts to explore the issues at stake and to set up recommendations to maximize the benefit for the couples in need and for the community.

  14. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  15. CMAC with General Basis Functions.

    PubMed

    Chun-Shin, Lin; Ching-Tsan, Chiang

    1996-10-01

    The cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) is often used in learning control. It can be viewed as a basis function network (BFN). The conventional CMAC uses local constant basis functions. A disadvantage is that its output is constant within each quantized state and the derivative information is not preserved. If the constant basis functions are replaced by non-constant differentiable basis functions, the derivative information will be able to be stored into the structure as well. In this paper, the generalized scheme that uses general basis functions is investigated. The conventional CMAC is a special case of the generalized technique. The mathematical foundation for the modified scheme is derived and the convergence of learning is proved. Simulations for the CMAC with Gaussian basis functions (GBFs) are performed to demonstrate the improvement of accuracy in modeling, and the capability in providing derivative information. Copyright 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

  16. Common Tests for Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Tests for Arrhythmia Updated:Dec 21,2016 Several tests can help ... View an animation of arrhythmia . Common Tests for Arrhythmia Holter monitor (continuous ambulatory electrocardiographic monitor) Suspected arrhythmias ...

  17. Finding Common Ground with the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisan, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the Common Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The process raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…

  18. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  19. Canonical Commonality Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, K. Dawn

    Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor…

  20. Knowledge representation for commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1990-01-01

    Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.

  1. Perspectives on Basis Sets Beautiful: Seasonal Plantings of Diffuse Basis Functions.

    PubMed

    Papajak, Ewa; Zheng, Jingjing; Xu, Xuefei; Leverentz, Hannah R; Truhlar, Donald G

    2011-10-11

    We present a perspective on the use of diffuse basis functions for electronic structure calculations by density functional theory and wave function theory. We especially emphasize minimally augmented basis sets and calendar basis sets. We base our conclusions on our previous experience with commonly computed quantities, such as bond energies, barrier heights, electron affinities, noncovalent (van der Waals and hydrogen bond) interaction energies, and ionization potentials, on Stephens et al.'s results for optical rotation and on our own new calculations (presented here) of polarizabilities and of potential energy curves of van der Waals complexes. We emphasize the benefits of partial augmentation of the higher-zeta basis sets in preference to full augmentation at a lower ζ level. Benefits and limitations of the use of fully, partially, and minimally augmented basis sets are reviewed for different electronic structure methods and molecular properties. We have found that minimal augmentation is almost always enough for density functional theory (DFT) when applied to ionization potentials, electron affinities, atomization energies, barrier heights, and hydrogen-bond energies. For electric dipole polarizabilities, we find that augmentation beyond minimal has an average effect of 8% at the polarized triple-ζ level and 5% at the polarized quadruple-ζ level. The effects are larger for potential energy curves of van der Waals complexes. The effects are also larger for wave function theory (WFT). Even for WFT though, full augmentation is not needed for most purposes, and a level of augmentation between minimal and full is optimal for most problems. The calendar basis sets named after the months provide a convergent sequence of partially augmented basis sets that can be used for such calculations. The jun-cc-pV(T+d)Z basis set is very useful for MP2-F12 calculations of barrier heights and hydrogen bond strengths.

  2. The Common Geometry Module (CGM).

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy James

    2004-12-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also includes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  3. Campus Common Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Gordon Morris

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

  4. Conceptualizing an Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology-management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service-delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment. (Author)

  5. Common Eye Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye,” is the most common cause of vision impairment in children. Amblyopia is the medical term used ... the most common cause of permanent one-eye vision impairment among children and young and middle-aged adults. ...

  6. Communication and common interest.

    PubMed

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Martínez, Manolo

    2013-01-01

    Explaining the maintenance of communicative behavior in the face of incentives to deceive, conceal information, or exaggerate is an important problem in behavioral biology. When the interests of agents diverge, some form of signal cost is often seen as essential to maintaining honesty. Here, novel computational methods are used to investigate the role of common interest between the sender and receiver of messages in maintaining cost-free informative signaling in a signaling game. Two measures of common interest are defined. These quantify the divergence between sender and receiver in their preference orderings over acts the receiver might perform in each state of the world. Sampling from a large space of signaling games finds that informative signaling is possible at equilibrium with zero common interest in both senses. Games of this kind are rare, however, and the proportion of games that include at least one equilibrium in which informative signals are used increases monotonically with common interest. Common interest as a predictor of informative signaling also interacts with the extent to which agents' preferences vary with the state of the world. Our findings provide a quantitative description of the relation between common interest and informative signaling, employing exact measures of common interest, information use, and contingency of payoff under environmental variation that may be applied to a wide range of models and empirical systems.

  7. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  8. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  9. How Common Is PTSD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... Public, Family, & Friends How Common Is PTSD? Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur after you have been ...

  10. Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

  11. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  12. Common Causes of Stillbirth

    MedlinePlus

    ... one of the most common placental problems. The placenta separates (partially or completely) from the uterine wall ... or abnormal placement of the cord into the placenta. This can deprive the baby of oxygen. Infectious ...

  13. Commonly Consumed Food Commodities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.

  14. Common Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  15. Common peroneal nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - common peroneal nerve; Peroneal nerve injury; Peroneal nerve palsy ... type of peripheral neuropathy (damage to nerves outside the brain ... nerve injuries. Damage to the nerve disrupts the myelin sheath ...

  16. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  17. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  18. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  19. A Molecular Basis of Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the molecular basis of cancer, focusing on genetics of the disease. Indicates that human cancers are initiated by oncogenes (altered versions of normal genes) and that in one case the critical alteration is a single point mutation that changes one amino acid in the protein encoded by the gene. (JN)

  20. GASB's Basis of Accounting Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovlak, Daniel L.

    1986-01-01

    In July 1984, the Governmental Accounting Standards Board began its "Measurement Focus/Basis of Accounting" project, which addresses measurement issues and revenue and expenditure recognition problems involving governmental funds. This article explains the project's background, alternatives discussed by the board, and tentative…

  1. Predictive Models and Computational Embryology

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s ‘virtual embryo’ project is building an integrative systems biology framework for predictive models of developmental toxicity. One schema involves a knowledge-driven adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework utilizing information from public databases, standardized ontologies...

  2. EMBRYOLOGY OF AUTISM. (R824758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Embryology of myelomeningocele and anencephaly.

    PubMed

    Dias, Mark S; Partington, Michael

    2004-02-15

    The authors review current views on of the embryogenesis of the neural tube defects (NTDs) myelomeningocele and anencephaly. In this context, the following four approaches to the study of NTDs are discussed: normal morphogenesis and timing of early human neural development from conception to the ascent of the conus medullaris; mechanical and molecular biology of neural tube closure derived from experimental and animal models; morphological and biomechanical features of the NTDs myelomeningocele and anencephaly; and the experimental evidence for the importance of both genetic and environmental influences on human NTDs. Although considerable insight into both normal neural tube closure and the factor(s) by which this process may be disrupted has been reported in recent years, the exact mechanism(s) by which human myelomeningoceles and anencephaly arise remain elusive.

  4. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  5. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  6. Perceptual basis for reactive teleoperation.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y. S.; Ewing, T. F.; Boyle, J. M.; Yule, T. J.

    2001-08-28

    To enhance task performance in partially structured environment, enhancement of teleoperation was proposed by introducing autonomous behaviors. Such autonomy is implemented based on reactive robotic architecture, where reactive motor agents that directly couples sensory inputs and motor actions become the building blocks. To this end, presented in this paper is a perceptual basis for the motor agents. The perceptual basis consists of perceptual agents that extracts environmental information from a structured light vision system and provide action oriented perception for the corresponding motor agents. Rather than performing general scene reconstruction, a perceptual agent directly provides the motion reference for the motor behavior. Various sensory mechanisms--sensor fission, fusion, and fashion--becomes basic building blocks of the perception process. Since perception is a process deeply intertwined with the motor actions, active perception may also incorporate motor behaviors as an integral perceptual process.

  7. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  8. Perceptual basis for reactive teleoperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young S.; Ewing, Thomas F.; Boyle, James M.; Yule, Thomas J.

    2001-10-01

    To improve task performance in partially structured environments, enhancements to teleoperation have been proposed by introducing autonomous behaviors. Such autonomy is implemented based on a reactive robotic architecture, where reactive motor agents that directly couple sensory inputs and motor actions become the building blocks. To this end, a perceptual basis for the motor agents is presented in this paper. The perceptual basis consists of perceptual agents that extract environmental information from a structured light vision system and provide action-oriented perception for the corresponding motor agents. Rather than performing general scene reconstruction, a perceptual agent directly provides the motion reference for the motor behavior. Various sensory mechanisms - sensor fission, fusion, and fashion - become basic building blocks of the perception process. Since perception is a process deeply intertwined with the motor actions, active perception may also incorporate motor behaviors as an integral perceptual process.

  9. TCAP Aluminium Dissolution Flowsheet Basis

    SciTech Connect

    PIERCE, ROBERTA.

    2004-03-01

    The Actinide Technology Section has proposed the use of an nitric acid HNO3 and potassium fluoride KF flowsheet for stripping palladium Pd from palladium-coated kieselguhr Pd/K and removing aluminum (Al) metal foam from the TCAP coils. The basis for the HNO3-KF flowsheet is drawn from many sources. A brief review of the sources will be presented. The basic flowsheet involves three process steps, each with its own chemistry.

  10. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  11. Performance Basis for Airborne Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging applications of Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) technologies make possible new and powerful methods in Air Traffic Management (ATM) that may significantly improve the system-level performance of operations in the future ATM system. These applications typically involve the aircraft managing certain components of its Four Dimensional (4D) trajectory within the degrees of freedom defined by a set of operational constraints negotiated with the Air Navigation Service Provider. It is hypothesized that reliable individual performance by many aircraft will translate into higher total system-level performance. To actually realize this improvement, the new capabilities must be attracted to high demand and complexity regions where high ATM performance is critical. Operational approval for use in such environments will require participating aircraft to be certified to rigorous and appropriate performance standards. Currently, no formal basis exists for defining these standards. This paper provides a context for defining the performance basis for 4D-ASAS operations. The trajectory constraints to be met by the aircraft are defined, categorized, and assessed for performance requirements. A proposed extension of the existing Required Navigation Performance (RNP) construct into a dynamic standard (Dynamic RNP) is outlined. Sample data is presented from an ongoing high-fidelity batch simulation series that is characterizing the performance of an advanced 4D-ASAS application. Data of this type will contribute to the evaluation and validation of the proposed performance basis.

  12. Finding the Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dawn

    1980-01-01

    Describes an attempt to combine secondary English instruction emphasizing United States literature with science and history by finding "common ground" between these disciplines in (1) the separation of truth from falsehood and (2) logical thinking. Biographies combined history and literature, and science fiction combined science and English;…

  13. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  14. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  15. Information Commons to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Marc Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

  16. Commonalities across Effective Collaboratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jill F.; Flynn, Richard B.

    2000-01-01

    Examined effective collaborations involving schools and colleges of education and other organizations, identifying commonly voiced reasons for collaboration and factors perceived as important in collaboration. Data come from research, case descriptions, survey responses, and input from collaborators. Willingness to listen, mutual respect,…

  17. The Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the conflicting principles revealed respectively by those who argue for the common school and by those who seek to promote a system of schools that, though maintained by the state, might reflect the different religious beliefs within the community. The philosopher, John Dewey, is appealed to in defence of the common…

  18. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  19. Pleasure: the common currency.

    PubMed

    Cabanac, M

    1992-03-21

    At present as physiologists studying various homeostatic behaviors, such as thermoregulatory behavior and food and fluid intake, we have no common currency that allows us to equate the strength of the motivational drive that accompanies each regulatory need, in terms of how an animal or a person will choose to satisfy his needs when there is a conflict between two or more of them. Yet the behaving organism must rank his priorities and needs a common currency to achieve the ranking (McFarland & Sibly, 1975, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 270 Biol 265-293). A theory is proposed here according to which pleasure is this common currency. The perception of pleasure, as measured operationally and quantitatively by choice behavior (in the case of animals), or by the rating of the intensity of pleasure or displeasure (in the case of humans) can serve as such a common currency. The tradeoffs between various motivations would thus be accomplished by simple maximization of pleasure. In what follows, the scientific work arising recently on this subject, with be reviewed briefly and our recent experimental findings will be presented. This will serve as the support for the theoretical position formulated in this essay.

  20. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  1. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  2. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  3. Human Commonalities and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

  4. Does Common Enrollment Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Clayton, Grant

    2016-01-01

    In this article, researchers Dick M. Carpenter II and Grant Clayton explore common enrollment systems (CESs)--how they work and what school leaders can learn from districts that have implemented CESs. Denver, New Orleans, and Newark (New Jersey) have rolled out this centralized enrollment process for all district-run and charter schools in their…

  5. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  6. Common File Formats.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  7. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  8. Math, Literacy, & Common Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

  9. A Review of Vascular Anomalies: Genetics and Common Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Killion, Elizabeth; Mohan, Kriti; Lee, Edward I.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular tumors and malformations are unique in that affected cells exhibit disrupted angiogenesis. The current treatment options often yield suboptimal results. New insight into the genetics and molecular basis of vascular anomalies may pave the way for potential development of targeted therapy. The authors review the genetic and molecular basis of vascular anomalies and common associated syndromes. PMID:25045331

  10. The entropic basis of collective behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Richard P.; Garnett, Roman

    2015-01-01

    We identify a unique viewpoint on the collective behaviour of intelligent agents. We first develop a highly general abstract model for the possible future lives these agents may encounter as a result of their decisions. In the context of these possibilities, we show that the causal entropic principle, whereby agents follow behavioural rules that maximize their entropy over all paths through the future, predicts many of the observed features of social interactions among both human and animal groups. Our results indicate that agents are often able to maximize their future path entropy by remaining cohesive as a group and that this cohesion leads to collectively intelligent outcomes that depend strongly on the distribution of the number of possible future paths. We derive social interaction rules that are consistent with maximum entropy group behaviour for both discrete and continuous decision spaces. Our analysis further predicts that social interactions are likely to be fundamentally based on Weber's law of response to proportional stimuli, supporting many studies that find a neurological basis for this stimulus–response mechanism and providing a novel basis for the common assumption of linearly additive ‘social forces’ in simulation studies of collective behaviour. PMID:25833243

  11. Flat parlog: a basis for comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Taylor, S.

    1987-04-01

    Three similar parallel logic programming languages have been proposed; Parlog, Flat Concurrent Prolog, and Guarded Horn Clauses. Quantitative comparison of the languages has not previously been possible since they employ different execution models and implementation techniques. In order to uncover the effects of semantic differences on efficiency, a common basis is required for experimentation. This paper presents a subset of the language Parlog called Flat Parlog which provides a basis for quantitative comparison. The language combines the directional semantics of Parlog with the simple execution model of Flat Concurrent Prolog. A performance comparison between Flat Parlog and Flat Concurrent Prolog based on new implementations of both languages is presented. These new implementations are identical except for optimizations that are possible by virtue of semantic differences. Benchmark results indicate that Flat Parlog is more efficient; experiments have been able to quantify and explain this performance differential. A detailed description of the abstract machine for Flat Parlog is presented to illustrate the simplicity of the language.

  12. Genetic basis of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Tsimourtou, Vaïa; Kountra, Persa Maria; Paterakis, Konstantinos N; Kapsalaki, Eftychia Z; Fountas, Kostas N; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years, considerable progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms of Parkinson disease (PD). Mutations in certain genes are found to cause monogenic forms of the disorder, with autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive inheritance. These genes include alpha-synuclein, parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, LRRK2, and ATP13A2. The monogenic variants are important tools in identifying cellular pathways that shed light on the pathogenesis of this disease. Certain common genetic variants are also likely to modulate the risk of PD. International collaborative studies and meta-analyses have identified common variants as genetic susceptibility risk/protective factors for sporadic PD.

  13. A Basis for Determining the Adequacy of Evaluation Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, James R.; Nafziger, Dean N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of evaluation plans or, as they are commonly called, evaluation designs. The authors assume that using the procedures suggested in this paper to determine the adequacy of evaluation designs in advance of actually conducting evaluations will lead to better evaluation designs,…

  14. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. Here, we report the transcriptional respo...

  15. Genetic defects in common variable immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kopecký, O; Lukešová, Š

    2007-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent clinically manifested primary immunodeficiency. According to clinical and laboratory findings, CVID is a heterogeneous group of diseases. Recently, the defects of molecules regulating activation and terminal differentiation of B lymphocytes have been described in some patients with CVID. In this study, we show the overview of deficiencies of inducible costimulator, transmembrane activator and calcium-modulator and cytophilin ligand interactor, CD19 molecules, their genetic basis, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. PMID:17627754

  16. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  17. Common medical pains

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Pain in infancy and childhood is extremely common. Sources of pain include illness, injury, and medical and dental procedures. Over the past two decades, tremendous progress has been made in the assessment, prevention and treatment of pain. It is important for the paediatric health care provider to be aware of the implications and consequences of pain in childhood. A multitude of interventions are available to reduce or alleviate pain in children of all ages, including neonates. These include behavioural and psychological methods, as well as a host of pharmacological preparations, which are safe and effective when used as indicated. Many complementary and alternative treatments appear to be promising in treating and relieving pain, although further research is required. The present article reviews the most common sources of pain in childhood and infancy, as well as current treatment strategies and options. PMID:19030348

  18. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  19. Common Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincent C.

    1992-01-01

    Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9 PMID:21221380

  20. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  1. Common neuropathic itch syndromes.

    PubMed

    Oaklander, Anne Louise

    2012-03-01

    Patients with chronic itch are diagnosed and treated by dermatologists. However, itch is a neural sensation and some forms of chronic itch are the presenting symptoms of neurological diseases. Dermatologists need some familiarity with the most common neuropathic itch syndromes to initiate diagnostic testing and to know when to refer to a neurologist. This review summarizes current knowledge, admittedly incomplete, on neuropathic itch caused by diseases of the brain, spinal cord, cranial or spinal nerve-roots, and peripheral nerves.

  2. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  3. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  4. Molecular Basis of Olfactory Chemoreception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Nannan

    2017-01-01

    As one of the most notorious ectoparasites, bed bugs rely heavily on human or animal blood sources for survival, mating and reproduction. Chemoreception, mediated by the odorant receptors on the membrane of olfactory sensory neurons, plays a vital role in their host seeking and risk aversion processes. We investigated the responses of odorant receptors to a large spectrum of semiochemicals, including human odorants and plant-released volatiles and found that strong responses were sparse; aldehydes/ketones were the most efficient stimuli, while carboxylic acids and aliphatics/aromatics were comparatively less effective in eliciting responses from bed bug odorant receptors. In bed bugs, both the odorant identity and concentrations play important roles in determining the strength of these responses. The odor space constructed based on the responses from all the odorant receptors tested revealed that odorants within the same chemical group are widely dispersed while odorants from different groups are intermingled, suggesting the complexity of odorant encoding in the bed bug odorant receptors. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the olfactory coding mechanisms of bed bugs that will ultimately contribute to the design and development of novel olfactory-based strategies to reduce both the biting nuisance and disease transmission from bed bugs. PMID:28383033

  5. Molecular Basis of Olfactory Chemoreception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Nannan

    2017-04-06

    As one of the most notorious ectoparasites, bed bugs rely heavily on human or animal blood sources for survival, mating and reproduction. Chemoreception, mediated by the odorant receptors on the membrane of olfactory sensory neurons, plays a vital role in their host seeking and risk aversion processes. We investigated the responses of odorant receptors to a large spectrum of semiochemicals, including human odorants and plant-released volatiles and found that strong responses were sparse; aldehydes/ketones were the most efficient stimuli, while carboxylic acids and aliphatics/aromatics were comparatively less effective in eliciting responses from bed bug odorant receptors. In bed bugs, both the odorant identity and concentrations play important roles in determining the strength of these responses. The odor space constructed based on the responses from all the odorant receptors tested revealed that odorants within the same chemical group are widely dispersed while odorants from different groups are intermingled, suggesting the complexity of odorant encoding in the bed bug odorant receptors. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the olfactory coding mechanisms of bed bugs that will ultimately contribute to the design and development of novel olfactory-based strategies to reduce both the biting nuisance and disease transmission from bed bugs.

  6. Superpriming of synaptic vesicles as a common basis for intersynapse variability and modulation of synaptic strength

    PubMed Central

    Taschenberger, Holger; Woehler, Andrew; Neher, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Glutamatergic synapses show large variations in strength and short-term plasticity (STP). We show here that synapses displaying an increased strength either after posttetanic potentiation (PTP) or through activation of the phospholipase-C–diacylglycerol pathway share characteristic properties with intrinsically strong synapses, such as (i) pronounced short-term depression (STD) during high-frequency stimulation; (ii) a conversion of that STD into a sequence of facilitation followed by STD after a few conditioning stimuli at low frequency; (iii) an equalizing effect of such conditioning stimulation, which reduces differences among synapses and abolishes potentiation; and (iv) a requirement of long periods of rest for reconstitution of the original STP pattern. These phenomena are quantitatively described by assuming that a small fraction of “superprimed” synaptic vesicles are in a state of elevated release probability (p ∼ 0.5). This fraction is variable in size among synapses (typically about 30%), but increases after application of phorbol ester or during PTP. The majority of vesicles, released during repetitive stimulation, have low release probability (p ∼ 0.1), are relatively uniform in number across synapses, and are rapidly recruited. In contrast, superprimed vesicles need several seconds to be regenerated. They mediate enhanced synaptic strength at the onset of burst-like activity, the impact of which is subject to modulation by slow modulatory transmitter systems. PMID:27432975

  7. Commonalities among the Creative Arts Therapies as a Basis for Research Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Argues that poetry therapy is similar to the other creative arts therapies in its use of creative processes and products, and in its intrinsic positiveness, gentle indirectness, and breadth of appeal and application. Suggests that collaborative research efforts among creative arts therapists can lead to new understandings of the processes and…

  8. "Edigey" as the Common Heritage of the Turkic People: Historical Basis of the Epos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assanov, Zhubanazar A.; Pangereyev, Abat Sh.; Baltymova, Mira R.; Borash, Bayan T.; Idrissova, Elmira T.

    2016-01-01

    Today we know that the heroic epos "Edigey" remained among the Turkic people living in the south from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan to Siberia, as well as in foreign countries: Turkey and Romania. "Edigey" epos has more than 40 versions, some of which consist of fifteen or sixteen thousand lines. Therefore, a narrow study is not…

  9. A Possible Common Neurophysiologic Basis for MDD, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizophrenia: Lessons from Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahaf, Goded

    2016-01-01

    There is ample electrophysiological evidence of attention dysfunction in the EEG/ERP signal of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. The reduced attention-related ERP waves show much similarity between MDD, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, raising the question whether there are similarities in the neurophysiologic process that underlies attention dysfunction in these pathologies. The present work suggests that there is such a unified underlying neurophysiologic process, which results in reduced attention in the three pathologies. Naturally, as these pathologies involve different clinical manifestations, we expect differences in their underlying neurophysiology. These differences and their subtle manifestation in the ERP marker for attention are also discussed. MDD, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are just three of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, which involve changes in the EEG/ERP manifestations of attention. Further work should expand the basic model presented here to offer comprehensive modeling of these multiple disorders and to emphasize similarities and dissimilarities of the underlying neurophysiologic processes. PMID:27313546

  10. Genetic Basis for Red Coloration in Birds.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ricardo J; Johnson, James D; Toomey, Matthew B; Ferreira, Mafalda S; Araujo, Pedro M; Melo-Ferreira, José; Andersson, Leif; Hill, Geoffrey E; Corbo, Joseph C; Carneiro, Miguel

    2016-06-06

    The yellow and red feather pigmentation of many bird species [1] plays pivotal roles in social signaling and mate choice [2, 3]. To produce red pigments, birds ingest yellow carotenoids and endogenously convert them into red ketocarotenoids via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a previously unknown ketolase [4-6]. We investigated the genetic basis for red coloration in birds using whole-genome sequencing of red siskins (Spinus cucullata), common canaries (Serinus canaria), and "red factor" canaries, which are the hybrid product of crossing red siskins with common canaries [7]. We identified two genomic regions introgressed from red siskins into red factor canaries that are required for red coloration. One of these regions contains a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2J19. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that CYP2J19 is significantly upregulated in the skin and liver of red factor canaries, strongly implicating CYP2J19 as the ketolase that mediates red coloration in birds. Interestingly, a second introgressed region required for red feathers resides within the epidermal differentiation complex, a cluster of genes involved in development of the integument. Lastly, we present evidence that CYP2J19 is involved in ketocarotenoid formation in the retina. The discovery of the carotenoid ketolase has important implications for understanding sensory function and signaling mediated by carotenoid pigmentation.

  11. Molecular Basis of Essential Thrombocytosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    IIIa fibrinogen receptor, the final common mediator of platelet aggregation. Recent meta - analysis on efficacy of GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute...Sciences of the United States of America 2005;102(50):18135-40. 34. Collaborative meta - analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for...IIIa inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes: a meta - analysis of all major randomised clinical trials. Lancet 2002;359(9302):189-98. 37. Esmon CT

  12. 14 CFR 400.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis. 400.1 Section 400.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL BASIS AND SCOPE § 400.1 Basis. The basis for the regulations in this chapter is the...

  13. 14 CFR 400.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Basis. 400.1 Section 400.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL BASIS AND SCOPE § 400.1 Basis. The basis for the regulations in this chapter is the...

  14. 14 CFR 400.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basis. 400.1 Section 400.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL BASIS AND SCOPE § 400.1 Basis. The basis for the regulations in this chapter is the...

  15. 14 CFR 400.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Basis. 400.1 Section 400.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL BASIS AND SCOPE § 400.1 Basis. The basis for the regulations in this chapter is the...

  16. 14 CFR 400.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Basis. 400.1 Section 400.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL BASIS AND SCOPE § 400.1 Basis. The basis for the regulations in this chapter is the...

  17. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor... in the safety basis any changes, conditions, or hazard controls directed by DOE....

  18. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor... in the safety basis any changes, conditions, or hazard controls directed by DOE....

  19. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor... in the safety basis any changes, conditions, or hazard controls directed by DOE....

  20. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor... in the safety basis any changes, conditions, or hazard controls directed by DOE....

  1. Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Biman; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency of young adolescents and adults which also affects the children. The disease remains largely under-diagnosed in India and Southeast Asian countries. Although in majority of cases it is sporadic, disease may be inherited in a autosomal recessive pattern and rarely, in autosomal dominant pattern. Patients, in addition to frequent sino-pulmonary infections, are also susceptible to various autoimmune diseases and malignancy, predominantly lymphoma and leukemia. Other characteristic lesions include lymphocytic and granulomatous interstitial lung disease, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gut. Diagnosis requires reduced levels of at least two immunoglobulin isotypes: IgG with IgA and/or IgM and impaired specific antibody response to vaccines. A number of gene mutations have been described in CVID; however, these genetic alterations account for less than 20% of cases of CVID. Flow cytometry aptly demonstrates a disturbed B cell homeostasis with reduced or absent memory B cells and increased CD21(low) B cells and transitional B cell populations. Approximately one-third of patients with CVID also display T cell functional defects. Immunoglobulin therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Immunologists and other clinicians in India and other South East Asian countries need to be aware of CVID so that early diagnosis can be made, as currently, majority of these patients still go undiagnosed.

  2. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  3. Ethical theory, "common morality," and professional obligations.

    PubMed

    Alexandra, Andrew; Miller, Seumas

    2009-01-01

    We have two aims in this paper. The first is negative: to demonstrate the problems in Bernard Gert's account of common morality, in particular as it applies to professional morality. The second is positive: to suggest a more satisfactory explanation of the moral basis of professional role morality, albeit one that is broadly consistent with Gert's notion of common morality, but corrects and supplements Gert's theory. The paper is in three sections. In the first, we sketch the main features of Gert's account of common morality in general. In the second, we outline Gert's explanation of the source of professional moral rules and demonstrate its inadequacy. In the third section, we provide an account of our own collectivist needs-based view of the source of the role-moral obligations of many professional roles, including those of health care professionals.

  4. Cellular basis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bali, Jitin; Halima, Saoussen Ben; Felmy, Boas; Goodger, Zoe; Zurbriggen, Sebastian; Rajendran, Lawrence

    2010-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease. A characteristic feature of the disease is the presence of amyloid-β (Aβ) which either in its soluble oligomeric form or in the plaque-associated form is causally linked to neurodegeneration. Aβ peptide is liberated from the membrane-spanning -amyloid precursor protein by sequential proteolytic processing employing β- and γ-secretases. All these proteins involved in the production of Aβ peptide are membrane associated and hence, membrane trafficking and cellular compartmentalization play important roles. In this review, we summarize the key cellular events that lead to the progression of AD.

  5. The molecular basis of defective lens development in the Iberian mole

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, F David; Jiménez, Rafael; Collinson, J Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background Fossorial mammals face natural selection pressures that differ from those acting on surface dwelling animals, and these may lead to reduced visual system development. We have studied eye development in a species of true mole, the Iberian mole Talpa occidentalis, and present the molecular basis of abnormal lens development. This is the first embryological developmental study of the eyes of any fossorial mammal at the molecular level. Results Lens fibre differentiation is not completed in the Iberian mole. Although eye development starts normally (similar to other model species), defects are seen after closure of the lens vesicle. PAX6 is not down-regulated in developing lens fibre nuclei, as it is in other species, and there is ectopic expression of FOXE3, a putative downstream effector of PAX6, in some, but not all lens fibres. FOXE3-positive lens fibres continue to proliferate within the posterior compartment of the embryonic lens, but unlike in the mouse, no proliferation was detected anywhere in the postnatal mole lens. The undifferentiated status of the anterior epithelial cells was compromised, and most of them undergo apoptosis. Furthermore, β-crystallin and PROX1 expression patterns are abnormal and our data suggest that genes encoding β-crystallins are not directly regulated by PAX6, c-MAF and PROX1 in the Iberian mole, as they are in other model vertebrates. Conclusion In other model vertebrates, genetic pathways controlling lens development robustly compartmentalise the lens into a simple, undifferentiated, proliferative anterior epithelium, and quiescent, anuclear, terminally differentiated posterior lens fibres. These pathways are not as robust in the mole, and lead to loss of the anterior epithelial phenotype and only partial differentiation of the lens fibres, which continue to express 'epithelial' genes. Paradigms of genetic regulatory networks developed in other vertebrates appear not to hold true for the Iberian mole. PMID:18939978

  6. Common hair loss disorders.

    PubMed

    Springer, Karyn; Brown, Matthew; Stulberg, Daniel L

    2003-07-01

    Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, dose attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a specific pattern of temporal-frontal loss in men and central thinning in women. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved topical minoxidil to treat men and women, with the addition of finasteride for men. Telogen effluvium is characterized by the loss of "handfuls" of hair, often following emotional or physical stressors. Alopecia areata, trichotillomania, traction alopecia, and tinea capitis have unique features on examination that aid in diagnosis. Treatment for these disorders and telogen effluvium focuses on resolution of the underlying cause.

  7. [Common anemias in neonatology].

    PubMed

    Humbert, J; Wacker, P

    1999-01-28

    We describe the four most common groups of neonatal anemia and their treatments, with particular emphasis on erythropoietin therapy. The hemolytic anemias include the ABO incompatibility (much more frequent, nowadays, than the Rh incompatibility, which has nearly disappeared following the use of anti-D immunoglobulin in postpartum Rh-negative mothers), hereditary spherocytosis and G-6-PD deficiency. Among hypoplastic anemias, that caused by Parvovirus B19 predominates, by far, over Diamond-Blackfan anemia, alpha-thalassemia and the rare sideroblastic anemias. "Hemorrhagic" anemias occur during twin-to-twin transfusions, or during feto-maternal transfusions. Finally, the multifactorial anemia of prematurity develops principally as a result of the rapid expansion of the blood volume in this group of patients. Erythropoietin therapy, often at doses much higher than those used in the adult, should be seriously considered in most cases of non-hypoplastic neonatal anemias, to minimise maximally the use of transfusions.

  8. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  9. Structural basis of spectrin elasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, B.W.; Stevens, F.J.; Luthi, U.; Goldin, S.B.

    1991-10-17

    A new model of human erythrocyte {alpha}-spectrin is proposed. The secondary structure of human erythrocyte {alpha}-spectrin and its folding into a condensed structure that can convert reversibly in situ, into an elongated configuration is predicted from its deduced protein sequence. Results from conformational and amphipathicity analyses suggest that {alpha}-spectrin consists mainly of short amphipathicity helices interconnected by flexible turns and/or coils. The distribution of charges and amphipathicity of the helices can facilitate their folding into stable domains of 4 and 3 helices surrounding a hydrophobic core. The association between adjacent four- and three-helix domains further organize them into recurring seven-helix motifs that might constitute the basic structural units of the extended {alpha}-spectrin. The elongated spectrin molecule packs, in a sinusoidal fashion, through interactions between neighboring motifs into a compact structure. We suggest that the reversible extension and contraction of this sigmoidally packed structure is the molecular basis of the mechanism by which spectrin contributes to the elasticity of the red cell membrane.

  10. Structural basis for selectin mechanochemistry.

    PubMed

    Springer, Timothy A

    2009-01-06

    Selectins are adhesion molecules that resist large tensile forces applied by hydrodynamic forces to leukocytes binding to vessel walls. In crystals, the liganded (high-affinity) and unliganded (low-affinity) conformations differ in orientation between their tandem lectin and EGF domains. I examine how tensile force exerted on a selectin-ligand complex in vivo could favor the more extended, high-affinity conformation. Allostery is transmitted from the EGF-lectin domain interface to the ligand-binding interface on the lectin domain, 30 A away. Trp-1 of the lectin domain and the long axis of the EGF domain form an L-shaped prybar that is welded together by hydrogen bonds to the Trp-1 alpha-amino group. Pivoting of the prybar induced by force demolishes an interface between the Trp-1 side chain and the lectin domain at a switch1 region. These changes are transmitted by rigid body movement of the switch2 region to rearrangements in the switch3 region at the ligand binding site. Another switch region corresponds to a single residue in the EGF domain with large effects on ligand binding and rolling adhesion. Allostery in selectins, and the alignment of tensile force on a selectin-ligand complex with the transition pathway for conformational change, explain much of the structural basis for selectin mechanochemistry.

  11. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  12. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  13. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  14. BASIS Set Exchange (BSE): Chemistry Basis Sets from the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) Basis Set Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Feller, D; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun

    The Basis Set Exchange (BSE) provides a web-based user interface for downloading and uploading Gaussian-type (GTO) basis sets, including effective core potentials (ECPs), from the EMSL Basis Set Library. It provides an improved user interface and capabilities over its predecessor, the EMSL Basis Set Order Form, for exploring the contents of the EMSL Basis Set Library. The popular Basis Set Order Form and underlying Basis Set Library were originally developed by Dr. David Feller and have been available from the EMSL webpages since 1994. BSE not only allows downloading of the more than 500 Basis sets in various formats; it allows users to annotate existing sets and to upload new sets. (Specialized Interface)

  15. Common Law Rights for Private University Students: Beyond the State Action Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Paul G.; Hoffman, Peter M.

    1974-01-01

    Reexamines the common law precedent on student expulsions and suspensions and seeks to formulate a comprehensive doctrinal basis for common law judicial intervention that will realistically protect the rights of public and private university students alike. (Author)

  16. Cellular basis for QT dispersion.

    PubMed

    Antzelevitch, C; Shimizu, W; Yan, G X; Sicouri, S

    1998-01-01

    The cellular basis for the dispersion of the QT interval recorded at the body surface is incompletely understood. Contributing to QT dispersion are heterogeneities of repolarization time in the three-dimensional structure of the ventricular myocardium, which are secondary to regional differences in action potential duration (APD) and activation time. While differences in APD occur along the apicobasal and anteroposterior axes in both epicardium and endocardium of many species, transitions are usually gradual. Recent studies have also demonstrated important APD gradients along the transmural axis. Because transmural heterogeneities in repolarization time are more abrupt than those recorded along the surfaces of the heart, they may represent a more onerous substrate for the development of arrhythmias, and their quantitation may provide a valuable tool for evaluation of arrhythmia risk. Our data, derived from the arterially perfused canine left ventricular wedge preparation, suggest that transmural gradients of voltage during repolarization contribute importantly to the inscription of the T wave. The start of the T wave is caused by a more rapid decline of the plateau, or phase 2 of the epicardial action potential, creating a voltage gradient across the wall. The gradient increases as the epicardial action potential continues to repolarize, reaching a maximum with full repolarization of epicardium; this juncture marks the peak of the T wave. The next region to repolarize is endocardium, giving rise to the initial descending limb of the upright T wave. The last region to repolarize is the M region, contributing to the final segment of the T wave. Full repolarization of the M region marks the end of the T wave. The time interval between the peak and the end of the T wave therefore represents the transmural dispersion of repolarization. Conditions known to augment QTc dispersion, including acquired long QT syndrome (class IA or III antiarrhythmics) lead to augmentation

  17. Molecular basis for erythrocyte shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgsaeter, A.; Mikkelsen, A.

    1991-05-01

    The isolated plasma membrane of the human erythrocytes displays the same shape and shape transformations as the intact cells. It is therefore generally believed that the plasma membrane plays a dominant role in determining erythrocyte shape. The plasma membrane consists of a fluid lipid bilayer to the surface of which is attached a protein skeleton. The two halves of the lipid bilayer and the protein network (gel) are tighly coupled, but at the same time elastically deformable and can slide relative to one another in the plane of the cell membrane. The equilibrium shape of such a structure is determined by the combined mechano-chemical properties of the individual layers and equals the cell shape that for the given cell volume corresponds to the lowest total elastic free energy. The elastic free energy of the lipid bilayer is mainly associated with bending and change in surface area for each of the two lipid monolayer. For the protein membrane skeleton the elastic free energy mainly equals the sum of the local contributions due to shear deformation and surface change. When the mechano-chemical properties of each of the layers are known, calculation of the equilibrium shape is in principle just an exercise in standard continuum mechanics. The elastic properties of pure lipid monolayers have long been qualitatively fairly well known. The changes in lipid bilayer elastic properties resulting from the presence of integral membrane proteins have just recently become better understood. The detailed molecular basis for the elastic properties of the protein membrane skeleton remains unresolved despite many attempts to elucidate the problem. It is widely agreed that the elastic properties are largely accounted for by the highly elongated spectrin molecules, but whether the membrane skelton elasticity is mainly of entropic or entalphic origin is still unsettled.

  18. No ownership of common factors.

    PubMed

    Tryon, Warren W; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2011-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy," by J. Shedler (see record 2010-02208-012). Shedler's informative article raised several issues worthy of comment. His choice of the word distinctive (p. 98) in describing aspects of psychodynamic technique is open to at least two interpretations. On the one hand, distinctive can have a qualitative meaning and indicate the presence of a characteristic that is not shared. For example, a sign in the Bronx Zoo distinguishes birds from all other creatures as follows: "If it has feathers it's a bird, if it doesn't, it isn't." On the other hand, distinctive can have a quantitative meaning and indicate that one practice has more of a common element than another practice. Careful reading of Shedler's article and the article by Blagys and Hilsenroth (2000) that forms the basis of the "seven features [that] reliably distinguished psychodynamic therapies from other therapies" (Shedler, 2010, p. 98) shows that Shedler subscribes to the latter, quantitative, definition of distinctive. In other words, the seven features he presented are present in both psychodynamic therapies and the cognitive-behavioral therapies to which he compares them. For example, although Shedler did not mention it, dialectical behavior therapy explicitly focuses on six of the seven features, namely, "focus on affect and expression of emotion," "exploration of attempts to avoid distressing thoughts and feelings," "identification of recurring themes and patterns," "discussion of past experience," "focus on interpersonal relations," and "focus on the therapy relationship" (Shedler, 2010, p. 99). However, in the articles that Blagys and Hilsenroth reviewed, psychodyamic therapists engaged in more of these behaviors than did cognitive-behavioral therapists.

  19. The neural basis of tactile motion perception.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yu-Cheng; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2014-12-15

    The manipulation of objects commonly involves motion between object and skin. In this review, we discuss the neural basis of tactile motion perception and its similarities with its visual counterpart. First, much like in vision, the perception of tactile motion relies on the processing of spatiotemporal patterns of activation across populations of sensory receptors. Second, many neurons in primary somatosensory cortex are highly sensitive to motion direction, and the response properties of these neurons draw strong analogies to those of direction-selective neurons in visual cortex. Third, tactile speed may be encoded in the strength of the response of cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents and of a subpopulation of speed-sensitive neurons in cortex. However, both afferent and cortical responses are strongly dependent on texture as well, so it is unclear how texture and speed signals are disambiguated. Fourth, motion signals from multiple fingers must often be integrated during the exploration of objects, but the way these signals are combined is complex and remains to be elucidated. Finally, visual and tactile motion perception interact powerfully, an integration process that is likely mediated by visual association cortex.

  20. The neural basis of tactile motion perception

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The manipulation of objects commonly involves motion between object and skin. In this review, we discuss the neural basis of tactile motion perception and its similarities with its visual counterpart. First, much like in vision, the perception of tactile motion relies on the processing of spatiotemporal patterns of activation across populations of sensory receptors. Second, many neurons in primary somatosensory cortex are highly sensitive to motion direction, and the response properties of these neurons draw strong analogies to those of direction-selective neurons in visual cortex. Third, tactile speed may be encoded in the strength of the response of cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents and of a subpopulation of speed-sensitive neurons in cortex. However, both afferent and cortical responses are strongly dependent on texture as well, so it is unclear how texture and speed signals are disambiguated. Fourth, motion signals from multiple fingers must often be integrated during the exploration of objects, but the way these signals are combined is complex and remains to be elucidated. Finally, visual and tactile motion perception interact powerfully, an integration process that is likely mediated by visual association cortex. PMID:25253479

  1. The genetic basis of music ability.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F; Wilson, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge.

  2. Genetic and Developmental Basis of Cardiovascular Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Mohamad; Ware, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) are the most common birth defect, occurring in 1–5% of all live births. Genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors all influence the development of CVMs, and an improved understanding of causation of CVMs is a prerequisite for prevention. Cardiac development is a complex, multi-step process of morphogenesis that is under genetic regulation. Multiple developmental pathways act independently or in combination to effect proper cardiac lineage specification, differentiation, and structure. Because of this complexity, there are numerous potential mechanisms by which genetic variation can impact both fetal cardiac development and latent cardiac disease. Although the genetic contribution to CVMs is well recognized, the genetic causes of human CVMs are still identified relatively infrequently. Mouse models are important tools to investigate the molecular mechanisms underpinning cardiac development as well as the complex genetics that characterize human CVMs. In this review we provide an overview of the key genetic concepts characterizing human CVMs, review their developmental basis, and provide examples to illustrate the critical developmental and genetic concepts underlying the pathogenesis of CVMs. PMID:26876120

  3. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety...

  4. Derivation of a continuous myogenic cell culture from an embryo of common killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Gignac, Sarah J; Vo, Nguyen T K; Mikhaeil, Michael S; Alexander, J Andrew N; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Schulte, Patricia M; Lee, Lucy E J

    2014-09-01

    The common killifish or mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) is an estuarine teleost increasingly used in comparative physiology, toxicology and embryology. Their ability to withstand extreme environmental conditions and ease of maintenance has made them popular aquatic research organisms. Scientific advances with most popular model organisms have been assisted with the availability of continuous cell lines; however, cell lines from F. heteroclitus appear to be unavailable. The development of a killifish cell line, KFE-5, derived from the mid trunk region of a late stage embryo is described here. KFE-5 grows well in Leibovitz's L-15 media with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). This cell line has been passaged over 60 times in a span of three years, and cells at various passages have been successfully cryopreserved and thawed. The cells are mostly fibroblastic but contain myogenic cells that differentiate into mono-, bi- and multi-nucleated striated myocytes. Immunofluorescence detection of muscle specific antigens such as α-actinin, desmin, and myosin confirms KFE-5 as a myogenic cell line. KFE-5 has a temperature preference for 26-28°C and has been shown to withstand temperatures up to 37°C. The cell line responds to chemical signals including growth factors, hormones and extracellular matrix components. KFE-5 could thus be useful not only for mummichog's thermobiology but also for studies in fish muscle physiology and development.

  5. The Molecular Basis of Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Kacser, Henrik; Burns, James A.

    1981-01-01

    The best known genes of microbes, mice and men are those that specify enzymes. Wild type, mutant and heterozygote for variants of such genes differ in the catalytic activity at the step in the enzyme network specified by the gene in question. The effect on the respective phenotypes of such changes in catalytic activity, however, is not defined by the enzyme change as estimated by in vitro determination of the activities obtained from the extracts of the three types. In vivo enzymes do not act in isolation, but are kinetically linked to other enzymes via their substrates and products. These interactions modify the effect of enzyme variation on the phenotype, depending on the nature and quantity of the other enzymes present. An output of such a system, say a flux, is therefore a systemic property, and its response to variation at one locus must be measured in the whole system. This response is best described by the sensitivity coefficient, Z, which is defined by the fractional change in flux over the fractional change in enzyme activity.(see PDF)Its magnitude determines the extent to which a particular enzyme "controls" a particular flux or phenotype and, implicitly, determines the values that the three phenotypes will have. There are as many sensitivity coefficients for a given flux as there are enzymes in the system. It can be shown that the sum of all such coefficients equals unity.(see PDF)Since n, the number of enzymes, is large, this summation property results in the individual coefficients being small. The effect of making a large change in enzyme activity therefore usually results in only a negligible change in flux. A reduction to 50% activity in the heterozygote, a common feature for many mutants, is therefore not expected to be detectable in the phenotype. The mutant would therefore be described as "recessive". The widespread occurrence of recessive mutants is thus seen to be the inevitable consequence of the kinetic structure of enzyme networks. The ad

  6. Cofunctional Subpathways Were Regulated by Transcription Factor with Common Motif, Common Family, or Common Tissue.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Shang, Desi; Xu, Yanjun; Feng, Li; Yang, Haixiu; Liu, Baoquan; Su, Shengyang; Chen, Lina; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Dissecting the characteristics of the transcription factor (TF) regulatory subpathway is helpful for understanding the TF underlying regulatory function in complex biological systems. To gain insight into the influence of TFs on their regulatory subpathways, we constructed a global TF-subpathways network (TSN) to analyze systematically the regulatory effect of common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs on subpathways. We performed cluster analysis to show that the common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs that regulated the same pathway classes tended to cluster together and contribute to the same biological function that led to disease initiation and progression. We analyzed the Jaccard coefficient to show that the functional consistency of subpathways regulated by the TF pairs with common motif, common family, or common tissue was significantly greater than the random TF pairs at the subpathway level, pathway level, and pathway class level. For example, HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha) and NR1I3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3) were a pair of TFs with common motif, common family, and common tissue. They were involved in drug metabolism pathways and were liver-specific factors required for physiological transcription. In short, we inferred that the cofunctional subpathways were regulated by common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs.

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  8. Common Core State Standards 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent the first time that nearly every state has set common expectations for what students should know and be able to do. In the past, each state set its own standards, and the results varied widely. And while states collectively developed these common standards, decisions about the curriculum and…

  9. The genetic basis of music ability

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E.; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  10. Enzymatic Basis for N-Glycan Sialylation

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lu; Forouhar, Farhad; Thieker, David; Gao, Zhongwei; Ramiah, Annapoorani; Moniz, Heather; Xiang, Yong; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Milaninia, Sahand; Su, Min; Bridger, Robert; Veillon, Lucas; Azadi, Parastoo; Kornhaber, Gregory; Wells, Lance; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Woods, Robert J.; Tong, Liang; Moremen, Kelley W.

    2013-01-01

    Glycan structures on glycoproteins and glycolipids play critical roles in biological recognition, targeting, and modulation of functions in animal systems. Many classes of glycan structures are capped with terminal sialic acid residues, which contribute to biological functions by either forming or masking glycan recognition sites on the cell surface or secreted glycoconjugates. Sialylated glycans are synthesized in mammals by a single conserved family of sialyltransferases that have diverse linkage and acceptor specificities. We examined the enzymatic basis for glycan sialylation in animal systems by determining the crystal structures of rat ST6GAL1, an enzyme that creates terminal α2,6-sialic acid linkages on complex-type N-glycans, at 2.4 Å resolution. Crystals were obtained from enzyme preparations generated in mammalian cells. The resulting structure revealed an overall protein fold broadly resembling the previously determined structure of pig ST3GAL1, including a CMP-sialic acid-binding site assembled from conserved sialylmotif sequence elements. Significant differences in structure and disulfide bonding patterns were found outside the sialylmotif sequences, including differences in residues predicted to interact with the glycan acceptor. Computational substrate docking and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to predict and evaluate the CMP-sialic acid donor and glycan acceptor interactions, and the results were compared with kinetic analysis of active site mutants. Comparisons of the structure with pig ST3GAL1 and a bacterial sialyltransferase revealed a similar positioning of donor, acceptor, and catalytic residues that provide a common structural framework for catalysis by the mammalian and bacterial sialyltransferases. PMID:24155237

  11. Variationally optimized basis orbitals for biological molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, T.; Kino, H.

    2004-12-01

    Numerical atomic basis orbitals are variationally optimized for biological molecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, and deoxyribonucleic acid within a density functional theory. Based on a statistical treatment of results of a fully variational optimization of basis orbitals ( full optimized basis orbitals) for 43 biological model molecules, simple sets of preoptimized basis orbitals classified under the local chemical environment (simple preoptimized basis orbitals) are constructed for hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, and sulfur atoms, each of which contains double valence plus polarization basis function. For a wide variety of molecules we show that the simple preoptimized orbitals provide well convergent energy and physical quantities comparable to those calculated by the full optimized orbitals, which demonstrates that the simple preoptimized orbitals possess substantial transferability for biological molecules.

  12. System requirements and design description for the document basis database interface (DocBasis)

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, W.J.

    1997-09-30

    This document describes system requirements and the design description for the Document Basis Database Interface (DocBasis). The DocBasis application is used to manage procedures used within the tank farms. The application maintains information in a small database to track the document basis for a procedure, as well as the current version/modification level and the basis for the procedure. The basis for each procedure is substantiated by Administrative, Technical, Procedural, and Regulatory requirements. The DocBasis user interface was developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC).

  13. From conception to birth: ancient library sources of embryology and women anatomy kept in the Biblioteca Biomedica of the Università degli Studi di Firenze (Biomedical Library of Florence University).

    PubMed

    Vannucci, Laura; Frigenti, Lucia; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta

    2011-01-01

    The Biomedical Library of the University of Florence boasts a prestigious group of books collected at first in 1679 at the hospital "Santa Maria Nuova" and then continuously enriched in the course of time up today. The "Antique Collection" consists of 13 incunabola, hundreds of 16th-century books, more than one thousand books on medical subject from the 1600's, about six thousand 18th-century volumes and several large, valuable anatomical atlases. In this paper the most important, curious and fascinating books dealing with human ontogeny (from embryo generation to birth) and with female anatomy (mostly concerning pregnancy and childbirth) are reported in chronological order starting from the work of Hippocrates. Among the ancient sources useful for the reconstruction of the opinions about obstetrics there are also outstanding handbooks specifically edited for midwives. Many of these antique books are especially precious because they embed a great number of didactic pictures, some of which may compete against any modern book of anatomy, embryology and obstetric. Selected images from these books are shown.

  14. Authorization basis for the 209-E Building

    SciTech Connect

    TIFFANY, M.S.

    1999-02-23

    This Authorization Basis document is one of three documents that constitute the Authorization Basis for the 209-E Building. Per the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) letter 98-WSD-074, this document, the 209-E Building Preliminary Hazards Analysis (WHC-SD-WM-TI-789), and the 209-E Building Safety Evaluation Report (97-WSD-074) constitute the Authorization Basis for the 209-E Building. This Authorization Basis and the associated controls and safety programs will remain in place until safety documentation addressing deactivation of the 209-E Building is developed by the contractor and approved by RL.

  15. Development of new auxiliary basis functions of the Karlsruhe segmented contracted basis sets including diffuse basis functions (def2-SVPD, def2-TZVPPD, and def2-QVPPD) for RI-MP2 and RI-CC calculations.

    PubMed

    Hellweg, Arnim; Rappoport, Dmitrij

    2015-01-14

    We report optimized auxiliary basis sets for use with the Karlsruhe segmented contracted basis sets including moderately diffuse basis functions (Rappoport and Furche, J. Chem. Phys., 2010, 133, 134105) in resolution-of-the-identity (RI) post-self-consistent field (post-SCF) computations for the elements H-Rn (except lanthanides). The errors of the RI approximation using optimized auxiliary basis sets are analyzed on a comprehensive test set of molecules containing the most common oxidation states of each element and do not exceed those of the corresponding unaugmented basis sets. During these studies an unsatisfying performance of the def2-SVP and def2-QZVPP auxiliary basis sets for Barium was found and improved sets are provided. We establish the versatility of the def2-SVPD, def2-TZVPPD, and def2-QZVPPD basis sets for RI-MP2 and RI-CC (coupled-cluster) energy and property calculations. The influence of diffuse basis functions on correlation energy, basis set superposition error, atomic electron affinity, dipole moments, and computational timings is evaluated at different levels of theory using benchmark sets and showcase examples.

  16. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  17. Leading the Common Core State Standards: From Common Sense to Common Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkle, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Many educators agree that we already know how to foster student success, so what is keeping common sense from becoming common practice? The author provides step-by-step guidance for overcoming the barriers to adopting the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and achieving equity and excellence for all students. As an experienced teacher and…

  18. ARTMAP and orthonormal basis function neural networks for pattern classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, Byron Mitchell

    This dissertation investigates neural network approaches to pattern classification. One application considered is the classification of land use change in the Nile River delta between 1984 and 1993 from ten Landsat Thematic Mapper (Landsat TM) images acquired during this period. Other applications, including image segmentation, letter recognition, and prediction of variables from census data, are represented by the standardized DELVE (Data for Evaluating Learning in Valid Experiments) machine learning database. An ARTMAP (Adaptive Resonance Theory Map) neural network system is developed for the land use change classification task. Cross-validation is used to enable design decisions and to enable model fitting to be done without regard to data in test partitions. The training of voting ARTMAP systems on brightness-greenness-wetness (BGW) data for multiple dates and location data results in performance competitive with previously used expert systems. Orthonormal basis function classification methods are extended to make them appropriate for multidimensional problems. These methods share the multilayer perceptron architecture common to many neural networks. A layer of basis functions transforms the data prior to classification. Stopping rules are used to determine which basis functions to include in a model to minimize the expected mean integrated squared error (MISE). To perform stopping when using the discriminant function of Devroye et al. (1996), an appropriate MISE estimator is developed. Linear transformations to rotate data and improve multiple classification results are investigated using development benchmarks from the DELVE suite. Orthonormal basis function neural network classifiers using these principles are developed and tested along with standard pattern classification techniques on the DELVE suite. Orthonormal basis function systems appear to be well suited for some multidimensional problems. These systems, along with benchmark classifiers, are also

  19. 42 CFR 440.300 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis. 440.300 Section 440.300 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL....300 Basis. This subpart implements section 1937 of the Act, which authorizes States to provide...

  20. 42 CFR 433.300 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis. 433.300 Section 433.300 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... Providers § 433.300 Basis. This subpart implements— (a) Section 1903(d)(2)(A) of the Act, which directs...

  1. 42 CFR 433.300 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis. 433.300 Section 433.300 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... Providers § 433.300 Basis. This subpart implements— (a) Section 1903(d)(2)(A) of the Act, which directs...

  2. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  3. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  4. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  5. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  6. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  7. 42 CFR 488.800 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Statutory basis. 488.800 Section 488.800 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Health Agencies With Deficiencies § 488.800 Statutory basis. Section 1891(e) through (f) of the...

  8. 42 CFR 488.800 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Statutory basis. 488.800 Section 488.800 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Health Agencies With Deficiencies § 488.800 Statutory basis. Section 1891(e) through (f) of the...

  9. 29 CFR 541.602 - Salary basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary basis. 541.602 Section 541.602 Labor Regulations... Salary Requirements § 541.602 Salary basis. (a) General rule. An employee will be considered to be paid on a “salary basis” within the meaning of these regulations if the employee regularly receives...

  10. 29 CFR 541.602 - Salary basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salary basis. 541.602 Section 541.602 Labor Regulations... Salary Requirements § 541.602 Salary basis. (a) General rule. An employee will be considered to be paid on a “salary basis” within the meaning of these regulations if the employee regularly receives...

  11. 29 CFR 541.602 - Salary basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salary basis. 541.602 Section 541.602 Labor Regulations... Salary Requirements § 541.602 Salary basis. (a) General rule. An employee will be considered to be paid on a “salary basis” within the meaning of these regulations if the employee regularly receives...

  12. 29 CFR 541.602 - Salary basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salary basis. 541.602 Section 541.602 Labor Regulations... Salary Requirements § 541.602 Salary basis. (a) General rule. An employee will be considered to be paid on a “salary basis” within the meaning of these regulations if the employee regularly receives...

  13. 29 CFR 541.602 - Salary basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salary basis. 541.602 Section 541.602 Labor Regulations... Salary Requirements § 541.602 Salary basis. (a) General rule. An employee will be considered to be paid on a “salary basis” within the meaning of these regulations if the employee regularly receives...

  14. 42 CFR 418.1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory basis. 418.1 Section 418.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE General Provision and Definitions § 418.1 Statutory basis. This part...

  15. 47 CFR 10.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis. 10.1 Section 10.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS General Information § 10.1 Basis. The... Network Act, Title VI of the Security and Accountability for Every Port Act of 2006, Public Law...

  16. 47 CFR 10.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis. 10.1 Section 10.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS General Information § 10.1 Basis. The... Network Act, Title VI of the Security and Accountability for Every Port Act of 2006, Public Law...

  17. 41 CFR 105-70.001 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Basis. 105-70.001...-IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 105-70.001 Basis. This part implements the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986, Pub. L. No. 99-509, 6101-6104, 100 Stat. 1874 (October 21,...

  18. 20 CFR 900.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis. 900.1 Section 900.1 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION § 900.1 Basis. This statement is issued by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries (the Joint Board) pursuant to...

  19. Stimulus Overselectivity: Empirical Basis and Diagnostic Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the empirical basis for the phenomena known as stimulus overselectivity. Stimulus overselectivity involves responding on the basis of a restricted range of elements or features that are discriminative for reinforcement. The manner in which such a response pattern impedes the skill acquisition in children is identified. A…

  20. Breeding Common Bean for resistance to Common Blight: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common blight {caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli Smith (Dye) is a major bacterial disease causing >40% seed yield and quality losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. Use of resistant cultivars is crucial for its effective, economical, and environment friendly integarated...

  1. Unwinding the Molecular Basis of Interval and Circadian Timing

    PubMed Central

    Agostino, Patricia V.; Golombek, Diego A.; Meck, Warren H.

    2011-01-01

    Neural timing mechanisms range from the millisecond to diurnal, and possibly annual, frequencies. Two of the main processes under study are the interval timer (seconds-to-minute range) and the circadian clock. The molecular basis of these two mechanisms is the subject of intense research, as well as their possible relationship. This article summarizes data from studies investigating a possible interaction between interval and circadian timing and reviews the molecular basis of both mechanisms, including the discussion of the contribution from studies of genetically modified animal models. While there is currently no common neurochemical substrate for timing mechanisms in the brain, circadian modulation of interval timing suggests an interaction of different frequencies in cerebral temporal processes. PMID:22022309

  2. Experimental investigations on the basis for intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    Fast, Anne A; Olson, Kristina R; Mandel, Gregory N

    2016-08-01

    Lay people routinely misunderstand or do not obey laws protecting intellectual property (IP), leading to a variety of (largely unsuccessful) efforts by policymakers, IP owners, and researchers to change those beliefs and behaviors. The current work tests a new approach, inquiring whether lay people's views about IP protection can be modified by arguments concerning the basis for IP rights. Across 2 experiments, 572 adults (recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk) read 1 of 6 arguments about the basis for IP protection (incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, plagiarism, commons, or no argument). Participants then reported their general support for IP protection. Participants also reported their evaluations of 2 scenarios that involved infringement of IP rights, including cases in which there were mitigating experiences (e.g., the copier acknowledged the original source), and completed several demographic questions. Three primary findings emerged: (a) exposure to the importance of the public commons (and to a lesser extent, exposure to the argument that plagiarism is the basis of IP protection) led participants to become less supportive of IP protection than the incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, and control conditions; (b) people believed that infringement was more acceptable if the infringer acknowledged the original creator of the work; and (c) older adults and women were especially likely to see infringement as problematic. These findings illustrate several ways in which lay beliefs are at odds with legal doctrine, and suggest that people's views about IP protection can be shaped in certain ways by learning the basis for IP rights. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Maximal coherence in a generic basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Ge, Li; Li, Mo; Sun, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    Since quantum coherence is an undoubted characteristic trait of quantum physics, the quantification and application of quantum coherence has been one of the long-standing central topics in quantum information science. Within the framework of a resource theory of quantum coherence proposed recently, a fiducial basis should be preselected for characterizing the quantum coherence in specific circumstances, namely, the quantum coherence is a basis-dependent quantity. Therefore, a natural question is raised: what are the maximum and minimum coherences contained in a certain quantum state with respect to a generic basis? While the minimum case is trivial, it is not so intuitive to verify in which basis the quantum coherence is maximal. Based on the coherence measure of relative entropy, we indicate the particular basis in which the quantum coherence is maximal for a given state, where the Fourier matrix (or more generally, complex Hadamard matrices) plays a critical role in determining the basis. Intriguingly, though we can prove that the basis associated with the Fourier matrix is a stationary point for optimizing the l1 norm of coherence, numerical simulation shows that it is not a global optimal choice.

  4. Remedies for Common Cold Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Penny F.

    1991-01-01

    Individuals suffering from intolerable symptoms of the common cold can now be advised of safe and effective products for symptomatic relief. This article describes and discusses four categories of drugs used to treat the common cold. To simplify the product selection process for family physicians, suggestions are included for possible ingredients for treatments of specific cold symptoms. PMID:21234087

  5. Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.

    PubMed

    Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

    2013-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed.

  6. Common Infant and Newborn Problems

    MedlinePlus

    It is hard when your baby is sick. Common health problems in babies include colds, coughs, fevers, and vomiting. Babies also commonly have skin problems, like diaper rash or cradle cap. Many of these problems are ... are worried about your baby, call your health care provider right away.

  7. Common Pyraloidea species of Dominica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-six adult crambid moths of the superfamily Pyraloidea from Dominica are illustrated and identified. These images are a tool for the identification of large, common species in the Caribbean. The Caribbean is a common entry and pathway of invasive species to southeastern United States....

  8. Learning Words with Common Rimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    An extensive research review by M. Adams (1990) led her to the conclusion that providing instruction and reinforcement in learning common rimes is highly beneficial in fostering growth in learning to read. While substantial amounts of reading, either independent or with partners, is critical in learning words with common rimes, focused study is…

  9. The Tragedy of the Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons is one of the principal tenets of ecology. Recent developments in experiential computer-based simulation of the tragedy of the commons are described. A virtual learning environment is developed using the popular video game "Minecraft". The virtual learning environment is used to experience first-hand depletion…

  10. The Common Denominator of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Hubert C.

    1976-01-01

    The common denominator of learning is conceived as a guideline in organizing the learning material in support of learning continuity. As to its effect, the common denominator is thought of as a habit-forming element in realizing learning as a (continuous) sequence of relative rather than absolute experiences. (Author/HB)

  11. OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarik, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

  12. Personal Finance. Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document provides the common curriculum goals for the state of Oregon in personal finance, an area of study that relates basic economic concepts and practices to the financial concerns of consumers. These goals were designed to define what should be taught in all public school settings. The common curriculum goals in personal finance are…

  13. The molecular basis of susceptibility to infection in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Tapia, Norberto C; Torre-Delgadillo, Aldo; Tellez-Avila, Felix I; Uribe, Misael

    2007-01-01

    There is much clinical evidence of a relationship between infectious disease and chronic liver disease. The consequences of this adverse association have been described and advances in the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious disease have had an important effect on the management of patients with chronic liver disease. The association between infectious disease and chronic liver disease involves altered cytokine production, cellular immunity, and vascular response. However, there is little information on the mechanisms underlying these phenomena. In this report, we review the mechanistic basis of this common association.

  14. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and to implement a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point...

  15. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    PubMed

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  16. Wavelets, Fractals, and Radial Basis Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of Signal Processing. San Diego, CA: Aca- demic, 1998. [13] G. Strang and T. Q. Nguyen, Wavelets and Filter Banks . Cambridge, MA: Wellesley-Cambridge...localization, multiresolution, radial basis functions, re- finement filter , scaling functions, self-similarity, splines, tempered distributions, two-scale...one linear constraint per basis function, and the corresponding linear system of equations is invertible under relatively mild conditions [11]. The

  17. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common vegetables.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yi-Fang; Sun, Jie; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2002-11-06

    Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables containing high levels of phytochemicals has been recommended to prevent chronic diseases related to oxidative stress in the human body. In this study, 10 common vegetables were selected on the basis of consumption per capita data in the United States. A more complete profile of phenolic distributions, including both free and bound phenolics in these vegetables, is reported here using new and modified methods. Broccoli possessed the highest total phenolic content, followed by spinach, yellow onion, red pepper, carrot, cabbage, potato, lettuce, celery, and cucumber. Red pepper had the highest total antioxidant activity, followed by broccoli, carrot, spinach, cabbage, yellow onion, celery, potato, lettuce, and cucumber. The phenolics antioxidant index (PAI) was proposed to evaluate the quality/quantity of phenolic contents in these vegetables and was calculated from the corrected total antioxidant activities by eliminating vitamin C contributions. Antiproliferative activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver cancer cells. Spinach showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by cabbage, red pepper, onion, and broccoli. On the basis of these results, the bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a simple reference for consumers to choose vegetables in accordance with their beneficial activities. The BI could be a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  19. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  1. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  2. Genomic Data Commons launches - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  3. Common Difficulties with Probabilistic Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Jack A.; Kelly, Ivan W.

    1983-01-01

    Several common errors reflecting difficulties in probabilistic reasoning are identified, relating to ambiguity, previous outcomes, sampling, unusual events, and estimating. Knowledge of these mistakes and interpretations may help mathematics teachers understand the thought processes of their students. (MNS)

  4. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:Apr 7,2017 Knowing the facts ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  5. Autoimmunity in Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shradha; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common clinically significant primary immune defect. Although the hallmark of CVID is hypogammaglobulinemia, the intrinsic dysregulation of the immune system leads to defective T-cell activation and proliferation, as well as dendritic cell and cytokine defects. Although 70% to 80% of patients have had recurrent sinopulmonary infections, auto-immunity and inflammatory complications are also common. The most common autoimmune conditions are immune thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic anemia, but other autoimmune complications arise, including rheumatoid arthritis, pernicious anemia, primary biliary cirrhosis, thyroiditis, sicca syndrome, systemic lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment of autoimmunity includes high-dose immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, selected immunosuppressants, and other immune modulators. This review focuses on autoimmune conditions associated with CVID, potential mechanisms of immune dysregulation, and therapeutic strategies. PMID:19671377

  6. Common Effects Methodology for Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is exploring how to build on the substantial high quality science developed under both OPP programs to develop additional tools and approaches to support a consistent and common set of effects characterization methods using best available information.

  7. Unifying General and Segmented Contracted Basis Sets. Segmented Polarization Consistent Basis Sets.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Frank

    2014-03-11

    We propose a method, denoted P-orthogonalization, for converting a general contracted basis set to a computationally more efficient segmented contracted basis set, while inheriting the full accuracy of the general contracted basis set. The procedure can be used for any general contracted basis set to remove the redundancies between general contracted functions in terms of primitive functions. The P-orthogonalization procedure is used to construct a segmented contracted version of the polarization consistent basis sets, which are optimized for density functional theory calculations. Benchmark calculations show that the new pcs-n basis sets provide uniform error control of the basis set incompleteness for molecular systems composed of atoms from the first three rows in the periodic table (H-Kr) and for different exchange-correlation functionals. The basis set errors at a given zeta quality level are lower than other existing basis sets, and the pcs-n basis sets are furthermore shown to be among the computationally most efficient. The pcs-n basis sets are available in qualities ranging from (unpolarized) double-zeta to pentuple zeta quality and should therefore be well suited for both routine and benchmark calculations using density functional theory methods in general.

  8. Nanoplasmonics simulations at the basis set limit through completeness-optimized, local numerical basis sets

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Tuomas P. Sakko, Arto; Puska, Martti J.; Lehtola, Susi; Nieminen, Risto M.

    2015-03-07

    We present an approach for generating local numerical basis sets of improving accuracy for first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations within time-dependent density functional theory. The method is demonstrated for copper, silver, and gold nanoparticles that are of experimental interest but computationally demanding due to the semi-core d-electrons that affect their plasmonic response. The basis sets are constructed by augmenting numerical atomic orbital basis sets by truncated Gaussian-type orbitals generated by the completeness-optimization scheme, which is applied to the photoabsorption spectra of homoatomic metal atom dimers. We obtain basis sets of improving accuracy up to the complete basis set limit and demonstrate that the performance of the basis sets transfers to simulations of larger nanoparticles and nanoalloys as well as to calculations with various exchange-correlation functionals. This work promotes the use of the local basis set approach of controllable accuracy in first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations and beyond.

  9. Nanoplasmonics simulations at the basis set limit through completeness-optimized, local numerical basis sets.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Tuomas P; Lehtola, Susi; Sakko, Arto; Puska, Martti J; Nieminen, Risto M

    2015-03-07

    We present an approach for generating local numerical basis sets of improving accuracy for first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations within time-dependent density functional theory. The method is demonstrated for copper, silver, and gold nanoparticles that are of experimental interest but computationally demanding due to the semi-core d-electrons that affect their plasmonic response. The basis sets are constructed by augmenting numerical atomic orbital basis sets by truncated Gaussian-type orbitals generated by the completeness-optimization scheme, which is applied to the photoabsorption spectra of homoatomic metal atom dimers. We obtain basis sets of improving accuracy up to the complete basis set limit and demonstrate that the performance of the basis sets transfers to simulations of larger nanoparticles and nanoalloys as well as to calculations with various exchange-correlation functionals. This work promotes the use of the local basis set approach of controllable accuracy in first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations and beyond.

  10. Casuistry as common law morality.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    This article elaborates on the relation between ethical casuistry and common law reasoning. Despite the frequent talk of casuistry as common law morality, remarks on this issue largely remain at the purely metaphorical level. The article outlines and scrutinizes Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin's version of casuistry and its basic elements. Drawing lessons for casuistry from common law reasoning, it is argued that one generally has to be faithful to ethical paradigms. There are, however, limitations for the binding force of paradigms. The most important limitations--the possibilities of overruling and distinguishing paradigm norms--are similar in common law and in casuistry, or so it is argued. These limitations explain why casuistry is not necessarily overly conservative and conventional, which is one line of criticism to which casuists can now better respond. Another line of criticism has it that the very reasoning from case to case is extremely unclear in casuistry. I suggest a certain model of analogical reasoning to address this critique. All my suggestions to understand and to enhance casuistry make use of common law reasoning whilst remaining faithful to Jonsen and Toulmin's main ideas and commitments. Further developed along these lines, casuistry can appropriately be called "common law morality."

  11. Neural basis of interpersonal traits in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Marc; Stanley, Christine M; Wilson, Stephen M; Gyurak, Anett; Beckman, Victoria; Growdon, Matthew; Jang, Jung; Weiner, Michael W; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P

    2009-11-01

    Several functional and structural imaging studies have investigated the neural basis of personality in healthy adults, but human lesions studies are scarce. Personality changes are a common symptom in patients with neurodegenerative diseases like frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and semantic dementia (SD), allowing a unique window into the neural basis of personality. In this study, we used the Interpersonal Adjective Scales to investigate the structural basis of eight interpersonal traits (dominance, arrogance, coldness, introversion, submissiveness, ingenuousness, warmth, and extraversion) in 257 subjects: 214 patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as FTD, SD, progressive nonfluent aphasia, Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, corticobasal degeneration, and progressive supranuclear palsy and 43 healthy elderly people. Measures of interpersonal traits were correlated with regional atrophy pattern using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of structural MR images. Interpersonal traits mapped onto distinct brain regions depending on the degree to which they involved agency and affiliation. Interpersonal traits high in agency related to left dorsolateral prefrontal and left lateral frontopolar regions, whereas interpersonal traits high in affiliation related to right ventromedial prefrontal and right anteromedial temporal regions. Consistent with the existing literature on neural networks underlying social cognition, these results indicate that brain regions related to externally focused, executive control-related processes underlie agentic interpersonal traits such as dominance, whereas brain regions related to internally focused, emotion- and reward-related processes underlie affiliative interpersonal traits such as warmth. In addition, these findings indicate that interpersonal traits are subserved by complex neural networks rather than discrete anatomic areas.

  12. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-11-11

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions

  13. Creative Commons and Why It Should Be More Commonly Understood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug

    2009-01-01

    Authors, videographers, musicians, photographers, and almost anyone who creates materials and makes them publicly available has an alternative to standard copyright licensing: Creative Commons (CC). It is a tool that helps the creator display a licensing mark. The creator can assign a variety of rights for others to use his work--rights that are…

  14. Common Ground: Finding Commonalities in Diverse Musical Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching commonalities in diverse musical genres. Teachers need to relate the musical activities performed in class to music that students experience in the world around them since they understand music in relation to history and culture. A key to selecting high-quality musical examples is to find music pieces that contain…

  15. Sharing Common Ground: Texas and the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasinda, Sheri; Grote-Garcia, Stephanie; Durham, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    When browsing through professional catalogs or attending national conferences, one cannot help but notice the growing emphasis on the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). So, what does this mean for Texas teachers? As part of a special four-part series in our Texas Journal of Literacy Education, a special task force from the TALE Board will share…

  16. Surveying the Commons: Current Implementation of Information Commons Web sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeder, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the content of 72 academic library Information Commons (IC) Web sites using content analysis, quantitative assessment and qualitative surveys of site administrators to analyze current implementation by the academic library community. Results show that IC Web sites vary widely in content, design and functionality, with few…

  17. Boiling water reactor licensing basis transient

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H. S.; Lu, M. S.; Shier, W. G.; Diamond, D. J.; Levine, M. M.; Odar, F.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the licensing basis transient for a boiling water reactor where a turbine trip occurs without steam bypass. The analysis was performed by means of the two-dimensional (R,Z) core dynamics code BNL-TWIGL in conjunction with the system transient code RELAP-3B. Two plant models were used and produced similar results for the analysis of the Peach Bottom turbine trip tests. The models differed in the representation of the steam separator. The analysis of the licensing basis transient produced somewhat different results. The results of sensitivity studies to help explain the differences are presented as well as an analysis of the licensing basis transient with recirculation pump trip. 2 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Minimally invasive transabdominal collection of preimplantation embryos from the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Hanazawa, K; Mueller, T; Becker, T; Heistermann, M; Behr, R; Sasaki, E

    2012-09-01

    A novel, minimally invasive, transabdominal embryo collection method (transabdominal method) was developed as an alternative to a standard abdominal incision for embryo collection in the common marmoset. The abdominal incision method was used for 304 flushes using 36 female animals, whereas the transabdominal method was used for 488 flushes using 48 females; successful embryo collection rates were 48.0% and 48.4% (P > 0.05), respectively. These techniques were successfully duplicated at another institute (German Primate Center, DPZ). At that institution, successful embryo collection rates were 88.9% and 77.8% for the abdominal incision and transabdominal methods, respectively (P > 0.05), whereas the average numbers of preimplantation embryos obtained per flush were (mean ± SD) 1.91 ± 0.35 and 1.71 ± 0.14 (P > 0.05). The transabdominal method reduced animal stress, did not require incisional wound healing, and enabled successive embryo recoveries to be done much sooner. More embryos in early developmental stages (zygotes/morulae) were recovered using the transabdominal method (76.1%) than the abdominal incision method (52.6%, P < 0.01). In contrast, recovery of arrested or abnormal embryos was not significantly different between these two methods (9.8% and 8.3%). To verify developmental ability of embryos recovered by the transabdominal method, transfer of 28 normal embryos to 14 surrogate mothers yielded a nidation rate of 57%. Five females sustained term pregnancies and eight neonates were born. This novel transabdominal method will facilitate progress in marmoset developmental biology and embryology.

  19. Finding Nested Common Intervals Efficiently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blin, Guillaume; Stoye, Jens

    In this paper, we study the problem of efficiently finding gene clusters formalized by nested common intervals between two genomes represented either as permutations or as sequences. Considering permutations, we give several algorithms whose running time depends on the size of the actual output rather than the output in the worst case. Indeed, we first provide a straightforward O(n 3) time algorithm for finding all nested common intervals. We reduce this complexity by providing an O(n 2) time algorithm computing an irredundant output. Finally, we show, by providing a third algorithm, that finding only the maximal nested common intervals can be done in linear time. Considering sequences, we provide solutions (modifications of previously defined algorithms and a new algorithm) for different variants of the problem, depending on the treatment one wants to apply to duplicated genes.

  20. The last common bilaterian ancestor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Douglas H.; Davidson, Eric H.

    2002-01-01

    Many regulatory genes appear to be utilized in at least superficially similar ways in the development of particular body parts in Drosophila and in chordates. These similarities have been widely interpreted as functional homologies, producing the conventional view of the last common protostome-deuterostome ancestor (PDA) as a complex organism that possessed some of the same body parts as modern bilaterians. Here we discuss an alternative view, in which the last common PDA had a less complex body plan than is frequently conceived. This reconstruction alters expectations for Neoproterozoic fossil remains that could illustrate the pathways of bilaterian evolution.

  1. Common Environmental Terms: A Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studdard, Gloria J.

    This glossary is designed fo r students learning and writing about environmental conditions, problems, and solutions. Not primarily intended for use by scientists and technicians, the glossary contains over 400 common terms that are helpful in understanding the environmental literature of today. (MA)

  2. Technology: Technology and Common Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2004-01-01

    The absence of common sense in the world of technology continues to amaze the author. Things that seem so logical to just aren nott for many people. The installation of Voice-over IP (VoIP, with IP standing for Internet Protocol) in many school districts is a good example. Schools have always had trouble with telephones. Many districts don't even…

  3. SARS and Common Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Jill K.; Mark, Jennifer; Gavali, Shilpa S.; Yagi, Shigeo; Espinosa, Alex; Schnurr, David P.; Cossen, Cynthia K.; Isaacson, Erin R.; Glaser, Carol A.; Fischer, Marc; Reingold, Arthur L.; Vugia, Duc J.

    2004-01-01

    In California, molecular testing was useful in decreasing suspicion for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), by detecting common respiratory pathogens (influenza A/B, human metapneumovirus, picornavirus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia spp., parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus) in 23 (45%) of 51 patients with suspected SARS and 9 (47%) of 19 patients with probable SARS. PMID:15207072

  4. Common Ground: Expanding Our Horizons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Michele J.

    In "Common Ground: Dialogue, Understanding, and the Teaching of Composition," Kurt Spellmeyer seeks to familiarize students and teachers with the linguistic and cultural no-man's-land separating them. Reinstating the value of two writing conventions often used by traditional students--expressive and commonplaces--can help expand on the…

  5. Autism: many genes, common pathways?

    PubMed

    Geschwind, Daniel H

    2008-10-31

    Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental syndrome with a complex genetic etiology. It is still not clear whether autism comprises a vast collection of different disorders akin to intellectual disability or a few disorders sharing common aberrant pathways. Unifying principles among cases of autism are likely to be at the level of brain circuitry in addition to molecular pathways.

  6. Common Core: Victory Is Yours!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Jennifer L. W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to implement the Common Core State Standards in the classroom. She presents examples and activities that will leave teachers feeling "rosy" about tackling the new standards. She breaks down important benchmarks and shows how other teachers are doing the Core--and loving it!

  7. Common Chemicals around the House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, David A., Comp.; O'Brien, Thomas, Comp.

    1991-01-01

    Lists 46 household chemicals readily available at local stores by common name, chemical name, chemical formula, and typical commercial source. Suggests that school budgetary constraints can be eased by this practice and that students can become more chemically literate as consumers. (JJK)

  8. Objectification in Common Sense Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In epistemologies of both scientific and common sense thinking "objectification" characterizes the formation of knowledge and concepts, yet in each case its meaning is different. In the former, objectification in acquiring knowledge refers to the individual's rationalistic reification of an object or of another person and to disengagement or…

  9. Community Commons Program Development Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Kieta Osteen

    Community Commons (CC) is a collaborative partnership among Brevard Community College (BCC) (Florida) and over 40 social service organizations and agencies in Florida dedicated to providing education, job training, social services, recreation, and a drug free environment to communities of low income families. The project specifically seeks to…

  10. Common Core: Solve Math Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Erich

    2012-01-01

    The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…

  11. Common Core: Fact vs. Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Despite students' interest in informational text, it has played second fiddle in literacy instruction for years. Now, though, nonfiction is getting its turn in the spotlight. The Common Core State Standards require that students become thoughtful consumers of complex, informative texts--taking them beyond the realm of dry textbooks and…

  12. "Common Core Implementation Best Practices"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    This document presents the testimony of Carmel Martin, Executive Vice President for Policy at the Center for American Progress, delivered at the New York State Office of the Governor Common Core Implementation Panel on Wednesday, February 19, 2014. In this statement, Martin began by saying that The Center for American Progress believes that this…

  13. Health Education. Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This guide presents the common curriculm goals for health education developed by the Oregon State Department of Education. Four content strands--safe living, stressor/risk-taking management, physical fitness, and nutrition--are a synthesis of the traditional health education and health promotion objectives. Knowledge and skills objectives are…

  14. Common Core: Rx for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paige

    2012-01-01

    When David Coleman, one of the authors of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), spoke to New York educators, he stated that over the last forty years 8th grade reading scores have been flat. Despite doubling expenditures on classroom instruction, there has been little growth. Most educators are aware that what worked for the students of the…

  15. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  16. Common and Intraverbal Bidirectional Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2016-01-01

    "Naming" has been defined as a generalized operant that combines speaker and listener behaviors within the individual. The purpose of this paper is to reintroduce the concept of naming and its subtypes, "common" and "intraverbal", distinguish it from other terms such as the tact relation, and discuss the role of…

  17. The neural basis of phantom limb pain.

    PubMed

    Flor, Herta; Diers, Martin; Andoh, Jamila

    2013-07-01

    A recent study suggests that brain changes in amputees may be pain-induced, questioning maladaptive plasticity as a neural basis of phantom pain. These findings add valuable information on cortical reorganization after amputation. We suggest further lines of research to clarify the mechanisms that underlie phantom pain.

  18. 14 CFR 1203.100 - Legal basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Legal basis. 1203.100 Section 1203.100 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Scope § 1203... that NASA has responsibility for safeguarding. (c) The National Aeronautics and Space Act. (1)...

  19. 14 CFR 1203.100 - Legal basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Legal basis. 1203.100 Section 1203.100 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Scope § 1203... that NASA has responsibility for safeguarding. (c) The National Aeronautics and Space Act. (1)...

  20. 42 CFR 409.1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory basis. 409.1 Section 409.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM... sets forth the rules for individuals who have end-stage renal disease (ESRD), for organ donors, and...

  1. 42 CFR 411.200 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICARE AND LIMITATIONS ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Special Rules: Disabled Beneficiaries Who Are Also Covered Under Large Group Health Plans § 411.200 Basis. (a) This subpart is based on...

  2. 42 CFR 411.200 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICARE AND LIMITATIONS ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Special Rules: Disabled Beneficiaries Who Are Also Covered Under Large Group Health Plans § 411.200 Basis. (a) This subpart is based on...

  3. 29 CFR 541.605 - Fee basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...” within the meaning of these regulations if the employee is paid an agreed sum for a single job regardless... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fee basis. 541.605 Section 541.605 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS DEFINING...

  4. The Biochemical Basis of Minimal Brain Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaywitz, Sally E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Available from: C. V. Mosby Company 11830 Westline Industrial Drive St. Louis, Missouri 63141 The research review examines evidence suggesting a biochemical basis for minimal brain dysfunction (MBD), which includes both a relationship between MBD and metabolic abnormalities and a significant genetic influence on the disorder in children. (IM)

  5. 41 CFR 105-70.001 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basis. 105-70.001 Section 105-70.001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration...

  6. 42 CFR 406.1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory basis. 406.1 Section 406.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM..., 226A, 1818 and 1818A of the Social Security Act and section 103 of Public Law 89-97 establish...

  7. 45 CFR 160.201 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... this subpart implement section 1178 of the Act, section 262 of Public Law 104-191, section 264(c) of Public Law 104-191, and section 13421(a) of Public Law 111-5. ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Statutory basis. 160.201 Section 160.201...

  8. 45 CFR 164.102 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... specifications under part C of title XI of the Act, section 264 of Public Law 104-191, and section 13402 of Public Law 111-5. ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Statutory basis. 164.102 Section 164.102...

  9. 45 CFR 160.201 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... this subpart implement section 1178 of the Act, section 262 of Public Law 104-191, section 264(c) of Public Law 104-191, and section 13421(a) of Public Law 111-5. ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Statutory basis. 160.201 Section 160.201...

  10. 42 CFR 488.400 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Statutory basis. 488.400 Section 488.400 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... remedies are in addition to any other available under State or Federal law, and, except, for civil...

  11. 45 CFR 164.102 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... specifications under part C of title XI of the Act, section 264 of Public Law 104-191, and section 13402 of Public Law 111-5. ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory basis. 164.102 Section 164.102...

  12. 42 CFR 406.1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Statutory basis. 406.1 Section 406.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM..., 226A, 1818 and 1818A of the Social Security Act and section 103 of Public Law 89-97 establish...

  13. 45 CFR 144.200 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-term care insurance policies, and shall specify the type and format of the data to be reported and the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis. 144.200 Section 144.200 Public Welfare... Social Security Act, (Act) which requires the issuer of a long-term care insurance policy issued under...

  14. THE METABOLIC BASIS OF ARSENIC TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metabolic Basis of Arsenic Toxicity

    David J. Thomas, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC

    Methylati...

  15. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  16. The Emotional and Moral Basis of Rationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boostrom, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the basis of rationality, arguing that critical thinking tends to be taught in schools as a set of skills because of the failure to recognize that choosing to think critically depends on the prior development of stable sentiments or moral habits that nourish a rational self. Primary among these stable sentiments are the…

  17. The Biological Basis of Learning and Individuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Eric R.; Hawkins, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the biological basis of learning and individuality. Presents an overview of recent discoveries that suggest learning engages a simple set of rules that modify the strength of connection between neurons in the brain. The changes are cited as playing an important role in making each individual unique. (MCO)

  18. Analysis of radial basis function interpolation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, You-Long; Hu, Fa-Long; Zhou, Can-Can; Li, Chao-Liu; Dunn, Keh-Jim

    2013-12-01

    The radial basis function (RBF) interpolation approach proposed by Freedman is used to solve inverse problems encountered in well-logging and other petrophysical issues. The approach is to predict petrophysical properties in the laboratory on the basis of physical rock datasets, which include the formation factor, viscosity, permeability, and molecular composition. However, this approach does not consider the effect of spatial distribution of the calibration data on the interpolation result. This study proposes a new RBF interpolation approach based on the Freedman's RBF interpolation approach, by which the unit basis functions are uniformly populated in the space domain. The inverse results of the two approaches are comparatively analyzed by using our datasets. We determine that although the interpolation effects of the two approaches are equivalent, the new approach is more flexible and beneficial for reducing the number of basis functions when the database is large, resulting in simplification of the interpolation function expression. However, the predicted results of the central data are not sufficiently satisfied when the data clusters are far apart.

  19. PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF MGR DESIGN BASIS EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Kappes

    1999-09-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify the preliminary design basis events (DBEs) for consideration in the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). For external events and natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake), the objective is to identify those initiating events that the MGR will be designed to withstand. Design criteria will ensure that radiological release scenarios resulting from these initiating events are beyond design basis (i.e., have a scenario frequency less than once per million years). For internal (i.e., human-induced and random equipment failures) events, the objective is to identify credible event sequences that result in bounding radiological releases. These sequences will be used to establish the design basis criteria for MGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs) design basis criteria in order to prevent or mitigate radiological releases. The safety strategy presented in this analysis for preventing or mitigating DBEs is based on the preclosure safety strategy outlined in ''Strategy to Mitigate Preclosure Offsite Exposure'' (CRWMS M&O 1998f). DBE analysis is necessary to provide feedback and requirements to the design process, and also to demonstrate compliance with proposed 10 CFR 63 (Dyer 1999b) requirements. DBE analysis is also required to identify and classify the SSCs that are important to safety (ITS).

  20. The molecular basis of peanut allergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures, and discusses how modif...

  1. On the optimization of Gaussian basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, George A.; Zhong, Shijun; Montgomery, John A.; Frisch, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A new procedure for the optimization of the exponents, αj, of Gaussian basis functions, Ylm(ϑ,φ)rle-αjr2, is proposed and evaluated. The direct optimization of the exponents is hindered by the very strong coupling between these nonlinear variational parameters. However, expansion of the logarithms of the exponents in the orthonormal Legendre polynomials, Pk, of the index, j: ln αj=∑k=0kmaxAkPk((2j-2)/(Nprim-1)-1), yields a new set of well-conditioned parameters, Ak, and a complete sequence of well-conditioned exponent optimizations proceeding from the even-tempered basis set (kmax=1) to a fully optimized basis set (kmax=Nprim-1). The error relative to the exact numerical self-consistent field limit for a six-term expansion is consistently no more than 25% larger than the error for the completely optimized basis set. Thus, there is no need to optimize more than six well-conditioned variational parameters, even for the largest sets of Gaussian primitives.

  2. Humanities--The Basis of University Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepanskaya, T. M.; Chernyaeva, I. V.; Naumova, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the role of humanities in forming the worldview of modern person in the system of higher education. It emphasizes the idea that a graduate of the higher education institute, and especially the university, should not only be an expert (a professional), but above all, a person of culture. Humanities as the basis of university…

  3. The Scientific Basis of Generalist Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruessner, Harold T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    One reason medical students favor specialization over generalist medicine (primary care) is a perception of generalist medicine as nonrigorous. Chaos science, a new field, reveals an intellectual basis for generalist medicine. The history, strengths, and limits of reductionist thinking in medicine and aspects of chaos theory illuminate this…

  4. 42 CFR 483.100 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis. 483.100 Section 483.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Preadmission Screening...

  5. 42 CFR 483.200 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory basis. 483.200 Section 483.200 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED..., Transfers, and Preadmission Screening and Annual Resident Review (PASARR) Determinations § 483.200...

  6. 42 CFR 483.200 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Statutory basis. 483.200 Section 483.200 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED..., Transfers, and Preadmission Screening and Annual Resident Review (PASARR) Determinations § 483.200...

  7. 42 CFR 483.100 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis. 483.100 Section 483.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Preadmission Screening...

  8. Developing a basis for moral thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowell, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Writing from the standpoint of mother and teacher, the author asks from where we can start to find a basis of moral education. She rejects simply exchanging one basis for another. We need to agree upon principles which would enable us to judge what constitutes a right basis, rather than concentrating on the content of particular beliefs. She identifies four qualities that children need to be equipped with in order to act reasonably in situations where moral choice is required: recognition of the validity of others as equals; requisite emotional insight; factual knowledge; and a capacity to make, and act upon, principles formulated by using the above equipment. These "high-level" principles should take precedence over any creed — sacred or secular; to make this shift has become crucial on a national and international level. The general preconditions and practical possibilities for the implementation of moral education are then specified. Finally, the author questions why so few researchers and teachers are working on this basis — concluding that what hinders us is our tendency to see morality as derived from authority, instead of being "a form of thought in its own right'.

  9. 42 CFR 418.1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE General Provision and Definitions § 418.1 Statutory basis. This part... services covered as hospice care and the conditions that a hospice program must meet in order to... for, inpatient hospice care. The following sections of the Act are also pertinent: (a) Sections...

  10. 42 CFR 418.1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE General Provision and Definitions § 418.1 Statutory basis. This part... services covered as hospice care and the conditions that a hospice program must meet in order to... for, inpatient hospice care. The following sections of the Act are also pertinent: (a) Sections...

  11. 42 CFR 418.1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE General Provision and Definitions § 418.1 Statutory basis. This part... services covered as hospice care and the conditions that a hospice program must meet in order to... for, inpatient hospice care. The following sections of the Act are also pertinent: (a) Sections...

  12. 42 CFR 418.1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE General Provision and Definitions § 418.1 Statutory basis. This part implements... covered as hospice care and the conditions that a hospice program must meet in order to participate in the... hospice care. The following sections of the Act are also pertinent: (a) Sections 1812(a) (4) and (d)...

  13. Conceptual Basis of Educational Service Resource Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledyankina, Olga V.; Akimova, Olga B.; Fomin, Evgenii P.

    2016-01-01

    Topicality of the issue researched is preconditioned by the need to describe the conceptual basis and significance of educational service resource support of at the current development stage of Russian vocational education, classification of its main components as well as significance of the need to transform resource support from the factor that…

  14. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    SciTech Connect

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  15. Common sense and the common morality in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Daly, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The unfinished nature of Beauchamp and Childress's account of the common morality after 34 years and seven editions raises questions about what is lacking, specifically in the way they carry out their project, more generally in the presuppositions of the classical liberal tradition on which they rely. Their wide-ranging review of ethical theories has not provided a method by which to move beyond a hypothetical approach to justification or, on a practical level regarding values conflict, beyond a questionable appeal to consensus. My major purpose in this paper is to introduce the thought of Bernard Lonergan as offering a way toward such a methodological breakthrough. In the first section, I consider Beauchamp and Childress's defense of their theory of the common morality. In the second, I relate a persisting vacillation in their argument regarding the relative importance of reason and experience to a similar tension in classical liberal theory. In the third, I consider aspects of Lonergan's generalized empirical method as a way to address problems that surface in the first two sections of the paper: (1) the structural relation of reason and experience in human action; and (2) the importance of theory for practice in terms of what Lonergan calls "common sense" and "general bias."

  16. Lipedema: A Relatively Common Disease with Extremely Common Misconceptions

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Lipedema, or adiposis dolorosa, is a common adipose tissue disorder that is believed to affect nearly 11% of adult women worldwide. It is characterized most commonly by disproportionate adipocyte hypertrophy of the lower extremities, significant tenderness to palpation, and a failure to respond to extreme weight loss modalities. Women with lipedema report a rapid growth of the lipedema subcutaneous adipose tissue in the setting of stress, surgery, and/or hormonal changes. Women with later stages of lipedema have a classic “column leg” appearance, with masses of nodular fat, easy bruising, and pain. Despite this relatively common disease, there are few physicians who are aware of it. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed with lifestyle-induced obesity, and/or lymphedema, and subjected to unnecessary medical interventions and fat-shaming. Diagnosis is largely clinical and based on criteria initially established in 1951. Treatment of lipedema is effective and includes lymphatic support, such as complete decongestive therapy, and specialized suction lipectomy to spare injury to lymphatic channels and remove the diseased lipedema fat. With an incidence that may affect nearly 1 in 9 adult women, it is important to generate appropriate awareness, conduct additional research, and identify better diagnostic and treatment modalities for lipedema so these women can obtain the care that they need and deserve. PMID:27757353

  17. System Design and the Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, Darrel

    2008-05-06

    The objective of this paper is to present the Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) Lessons Learned for system design as it relates to safety basis documentation. BJC has had to reconcile incomplete or outdated system description information with current facility safety basis for a number of situations in recent months. This paper has relevance in multiple topical areas including documented safety analysis, decontamination & decommissioning (D&D), safety basis (SB) implementation, safety and design integration, potential inadequacy of the safety analysis (PISA), technical safety requirements (TSR), and unreviewed safety questions. BJC learned that nuclear safety compliance relies on adequate and well documented system design information. A number of PIS As and TSR violations occurred due to inadequate or erroneous system design information. As a corrective action, BJC assessed the occurrences caused by systems design-safety basis interface problems. Safety systems reviewed included the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Fluorination System, K-1065 fire alarm system, and the K-25 Radiation Criticality Accident Alarm System. The conclusion was that an inadequate knowledge of system design could result in continuous non-compliance issues relating to nuclear safety. This was especially true with older facilities that lacked current as-built drawings coupled with the loss of 'historical knowledge' as personnel retired or moved on in their careers. Walkdown of systems and the updating of drawings are imperative for nuclear safety compliance. System design integration with safety basis has relevance in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the BJC Lessons Learned in this area. It will be of benefit to DOE contractors that manage and operate an aging population of nuclear facilities.

  18. Common/Dependent-Pressure-Vessel Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    The term "common/dependent pressure vessel" (C/DPV) denotes a proposed alternative configuration for a nickelhydrogen battery. The C/DPV configuration is so named because it is a hybrid of two prior configurations called "common pressure vessel" (CPV) and "dependent pressure vessel" (DPV). The C/DPV configuration has been proposed as a basis for designing highly reliable, long-life Ni/H2-batteries and cells for anticipated special applications in which it is expected that small charge capacities will suffice and sizes and weights must be minimized.

  19. The prevalence and molecular basis of hemoglobinopathies in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Carnley, Benedict P; Prior, John F; Gilbert, Anne; Lim, Erna; Devenish, Robyn; Sing, Heng; Sarin, Eng; Guhadasan, Rathi; Sullivan, Sheena G; Wise, Cheryl A; Bittles, Alan H; Chan, Kaimin; Wong, Man-Sim; Chan, Vivian; Erber, Wendy N

    2006-01-01

    Blood counts, hemoglobin (Hb) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and DNA analyses were performed on 260 children, aged 5 months to 16 years, at Siem Reap to assess the prevalence of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies in regional Cambodia. Hemoglobinopathies were present in 134 children (51.5%) with 20 abnormal genotypes identified. alpha-Thalassemia (thal) (35.4%) was the most prevalent disorder and the -alpha3.7 gene deletion was the most common alpha-globin gene abnormality. The - -SEA deletion and nondeletional forms of alpha-thal, Hb Constant Spring [Hb CS, alpha142, Term-->Gln, TAA-->CAA (alpha2)], Hb Paksé [alpha142, Term-->Tyr, TAA-->TAT (alpha2)] and triplicated alpha genes, were also present but at low frequencies. Hb E [beta26(B8)Glu-->Lys, GAG-->AAG] (28.8%) was the most common beta-globin gene abnormality, whilst beta-thal was only detected in two children (0.8% of cases). Although hemoglobinopathies were common, the majority of abnormalities detected (heterozygous -alpha3.7 and Hb E) were not clinically significant. On the basis of these findings, and with the majority of abnormalities being mild, it seems improbable that thalassemia represents a major health burden in this region of Cambodia.

  20. 75 FR 6166 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts, 1, 31, and 301 RIN 1545-Bl66 Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock Correction In proposed rule document E9-29855 beginning on...

  1. 75 FR 3666 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI66 Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to...

  2. 75 FR 75896 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR 1 RIN 1545-BI66 Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock Correction In rule document 2010-25504 beginning on page 64072 in the issue of...

  3. The Molecular Basis of Communication between Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Solomon H.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical messengers mediate long-range hormonal communication and short-range neural communication between cells. Background information on peptides, steroids, neuropeptides, and specialized enzymes is given. Investigations reveal that the two systems have many common intercellular messenger molecules. (DH)

  4. Group Component Analysis for Multiblock Data: Common and Individual Feature Extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoxu; Cichocki, Andrzej; Zhang, Yu; Mandic, Danilo P

    2016-11-01

    Real-world data are often acquired as a collection of matrices rather than as a single matrix. Such multiblock data are naturally linked and typically share some common features while at the same time exhibiting their own individual features, reflecting the underlying data generation mechanisms. To exploit the linked nature of data, we propose a new framework for common and individual feature extraction (CIFE) which identifies and separates the common and individual features from the multiblock data. Two efficient algorithms termed common orthogonal basis extraction (COBE) are proposed to extract common basis is shared by all data, independent on whether the number of common components is known beforehand. Feature extraction is then performed on the common and individual subspaces separately, by incorporating dimensionality reduction and blind source separation techniques. Comprehensive experimental results on both the synthetic and real-world data demonstrate significant advantages of the proposed CIFE method in comparison with the state-of-the-art.

  5. Common Mapping System Media Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    CMS standiard, including mission plaMing, intelligence, and avionics systems . The distribution media types supported by CMS will significantly iumat...the utility and cost of CMS for these systems . This paper presents the results of an investigation into the attributes of candidate distribution media...Common Mapping System ( CMS ) defines data formats and standard distribution media for the storage, interchange, and retrieval of MCG&I data. A variety of

  6. The Problem of Common Terminology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    vocabulary .9 This trend is exemplified by, for example, the terms: n transaction strategy n competitive edge n competitive space n leveraging n...commanders and their subordinates, but also a common vocabulary . Indeed, doctrinal documents are the most important means of educating and training...Studienglossary Englisch , vol. 2/3 (Bonn: Bundessprachenamt, January 1993), 1060; “Schwerpunkt,” Hermann Franke, ed., Handbuch der neuzeitlichen

  7. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  8. Sustainability of common pool resources

    PubMed Central

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as “capitalism,” affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies. PMID:28212426

  9. George Combe and common sense.

    PubMed

    Dyde, Sean

    2015-06-01

    This article examines the history of two fields of enquiry in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scotland: the rise and fall of the common sense school of philosophy and phrenology as presented in the works of George Combe. Although many previous historians have construed these histories as separate, indeed sometimes incommensurate, I propose that their paths were intertwined to a greater extent than has previously been given credit. The philosophy of common sense was a response to problems raised by Enlightenment thinkers, particularly David Hume, and spurred a theory of the mind and its mode of study. In order to succeed, or even to be considered a rival of these established understandings, phrenologists adapted their arguments for the sake of engaging in philosophical dispute. I argue that this debate contributed to the relative success of these groups: phrenology as a well-known historical subject, common sense now largely forgotten. Moreover, this history seeks to question the place of phrenology within the sciences of mind in nineteenth-century Britain.

  10. The molecular basis of human keratin disorders.

    PubMed

    Arin, Meral Julia

    2009-05-01

    Keratins are cytoskeletal proteins that provide structural support to epithelial cells and tissues. Perturbation causes cell and tissue fragility and accounts for a large number of genetic disorders in humans. In humans, 54 functional keratin genes exist and 21 different keratin genes including hair keratins and hair follicle-specific epithelial keratins have been associated with hereditary disorders. Moreover, keratins have been implicated in more complex traits such as liver disease and inflammatory bowel disease. Understanding the molecular basis of keratin disorders has been the basis for improved diagnosis with prognostic implications, genetic counseling and prenatal testing for severe disorders. Besides their mechanical role, keratins have newly identified functions in apoptosis, cell growth, tissue polarity, wound healing and tissue remodeling. Improved understanding of the regulatory functions of keratins may offer novel approaches to overcome current treatment limitations.

  11. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  12. The biochemical basis of hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Bouteldja, Nadia; Timson, David J

    2010-04-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare, but potentially lethal, inherited disorder of fructose metabolism, caused by mutation of the aldolase B gene. Treatment currently relies solely on dietary restriction of problematic sugars. Biochemical study of defective aldolase B enzymes is key to revealing the molecular basis of the disease and providing a stronger basis for improved treatment and diagnosis. Such studies have revealed changes in enzyme activity, stability and oligomerisation. However, linking these changes to disease phenotypes has not always been straightforward. This review gives a general overview of the features of hereditary fructose intolerance, then concentrates on the biochemistry of the AP variant (Ala149Pro variant of aldolase B) and molecular pathological consequences of mutation of the aldolase B gene.

  13. Component-Based Reduced Basis for Eigenproblems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-17

    contributions consider several port economizations (or interface reduction strategies ): an eigenmode expansion (with subsequent truncation) for the port...loss in accuracy of the method. However, we can obtain better results by tailoring the port basis functions to a specific class of problems. A strategy ...for the construction of such empirical port modes is presented in [10]. We briefly describe this strategy here and refer the reader to [10] for further

  14. Minimal Basis for Gauge Theory Amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Damgaard, Poul H.; Vanhove, Pierre

    2009-10-16

    Identities based on monodromy for integrations in string theory are used to derive relations between different color-ordered tree-level amplitudes in both bosonic and supersymmetric string theory. These relations imply that the color-ordered tree-level n-point gauge theory amplitudes can be expanded in a minimal basis of (n-3)exclamation amplitudes. This result holds for any choice of polarizations of the external states and in any number of dimensions.

  15. [Basis of art phonetics in biomedical engineering].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Li, Gelin; Ouyang, Kai; Liu, Yongxiang

    2002-01-01

    Art phonetics' medicine, a new branch of traditional medicine, has not been developed perfectly, especially in the aspects of objective and scientific study. In this paper, the acoustical and anatiomical basis of art phonetics in viewpoint of biomedical engineering is explored, and then our work of quantitative measurement and analysis of art phonetic is introduced. The experiment data show further that quantitative measurement and analysis plays an important role in art phonetic medicine.

  16. Neurodegenerative diseases: a common etiology and a common therapy.

    PubMed

    Pierpaoli, Walter

    2005-12-01

    The variety of names of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) does not indicate that there is a wide variety of causes and a multiple number of cures. In fact NDDs derive from a common and repetitive, almost monotonous multicausal origin. NDDs are initiated invariably by a sudden or silent insidious decrease in immunologic resistance of the T cell-dependent or delayed type, produced by a large variety of psychological-emotional and/or environmental "stressors" (e.g., social, family-domestic, economic, alimentary, traumatic, and professional). These stressors increase the vulnerability of tissues (in this case, a section of the central or peripheral nervous system) to attack by a common virus (e.g., adenoviruses and herpesviruses). This attack creates a vicious circle leading to emergence of virus-generated tissue autoantigens and then to formation of autoantibodies. Use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs dramatically worsen and "eternalize" the diseases with further immunosuppression. Invariably, onset of NDDs is anticipated by a clear-cut alteration of the hormonal cyclicity, which closely controls immunity. My experience with patients in the last five years indicates a new approach to prevent and cure NDDs, based on a system totally divergent from present therapies. In fact "resetting the hormonal cyclicity clock" results in restoration of hormone-dependent antiviral immunity, arrest of disease progression, and at least partial recovery of neural functions, whatever the origin, anatomic location, and course of pathology.

  17. Basis-neutral Hilbert-space analyzers

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lane; Mardani, Davood; Kondakci, H. Esat; Larson, Walker D.; Shabahang, Soroush; Jahromi, Ali K.; Malhotra, Tanya; Vamivakas, A. Nick; Atia, George K.; Abouraddy, Ayman F.

    2017-01-01

    Interferometry is one of the central organizing principles of optics. Key to interferometry is the concept of optical delay, which facilitates spectral analysis in terms of time-harmonics. In contrast, when analyzing a beam in a Hilbert space spanned by spatial modes – a critical task for spatial-mode multiplexing and quantum communication – basis-specific principles are invoked that are altogether distinct from that of ‘delay’. Here, we extend the traditional concept of temporal delay to the spatial domain, thereby enabling the analysis of a beam in an arbitrary spatial-mode basis – exemplified using Hermite-Gaussian and radial Laguerre-Gaussian modes. Such generalized delays correspond to optical implementations of fractional transforms; for example, the fractional Hankel transform is the generalized delay associated with the space of Laguerre-Gaussian modes, and an interferometer incorporating such a ‘delay’ obtains modal weights in the associated Hilbert space. By implementing an inherently stable, reconfigurable spatial-light-modulator-based polarization-interferometer, we have constructed a ‘Hilbert-space analyzer’ capable of projecting optical beams onto any modal basis. PMID:28344331

  18. The genetic basis of pachyonychia congenita.

    PubMed

    Smith, Frances J D; Liao, Haihui; Cassidy, Andrew J; Stewart, Arlene; Hamill, Kevin J; Wood, Pamela; Joval, Iris; van Steensel, Maurice A M; Björck, Erik; Callif-Daley, Faith; Pals, Gerald; Collins, Paul; Leachman, Sancy A; Munro, Colin S; McLean, W H Irwin

    2005-10-01

    In 1994, the molecular basis of pachyonychia congenita (PC) was elucidated. Four keratin genes are associated with the major subtypes of PC: K6a or K16 defects cause PC-1; and mutations in K6b or K17 cause PC-2. Mutations in keratins, the epithelial-specific intermediate filament proteins, result in aberrant cytoskeletal networks which present clinically as a variety of epithelial fragility phenotypes. To date, mutations in 20 keratin genes are associated with human disorders. Here, we review the genetic basis of PC and report 30 new PC mutations. Of these, 25 mutations were found in PC-1 families and five mutations were identified in PC-2 kindreds. All mutations identified were heterozygous amino acid substitutions or small in-frame deletion mutations with the exception of an unusual mutation in a sporadic case of PC-1. The latter carried a 117 bp duplication resulting in a 39 amino acid insertion in the 2B domain of K6a. Also of note was mutation L388P in K17, which is the first genetic defect identified in the helix termination motif of this protein. Understanding the genetic basis of these disorders allows better counseling for patients and paves the way for therapy development.

  19. Biological basis for protection of the environment.

    PubMed

    Larsson, C-M

    2012-01-01

    The approach to protection of the environment may vary considerably depending on ethical basis, methodological approach, and identification of endpoints and protective targets. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reviewed these issues in Publication 91, 'A framework for assessing the impact of ionising radiation on non-human species', published in 2003. At the same time, ICRP proposed that a possible future ICRP system addressing environmental assessment and protection would focus on biota, that the system should be effect-based so that any reasoning about adequate protection would be derived from firm understanding of harm at different exposure levels, and that the system should be based on data sets for Reference Animals and Plants. ICRP has thus chosen to approach environmental protection on the basis of biology, and further developed the approach in Publications 103, 108 and 114. This paper explores the biological basis for the ICRP system of environmental protection from the viewpoints of: the effects endpoints of concern; the hierarchy of biological organisation; adequate and appropriate protective targets; and the derivation of benchmark dose (rates) to guide protective efforts.

  20. Accurate basis set truncation for wavefunction embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Taylor A.; Goodpaster, Jason D.; Manby, Frederick R.; Miller, Thomas F.

    2013-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides a formally exact framework for performing embedded subsystem electronic structure calculations, including DFT-in-DFT and wavefunction theory-in-DFT descriptions. In the interest of efficiency, it is desirable to truncate the atomic orbital basis set in which the subsystem calculation is performed, thus avoiding high-order scaling with respect to the size of the MO virtual space. In this study, we extend a recently introduced projection-based embedding method [F. R. Manby, M. Stella, J. D. Goodpaster, and T. F. Miller III, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2564 (2012)], 10.1021/ct300544e to allow for the systematic and accurate truncation of the embedded subsystem basis set. The approach is applied to both covalently and non-covalently bound test cases, including water clusters and polypeptide chains, and it is demonstrated that errors associated with basis set truncation are controllable to well within chemical accuracy. Furthermore, we show that this approach allows for switching between accurate projection-based embedding and DFT embedding with approximate kinetic energy (KE) functionals; in this sense, the approach provides a means of systematically improving upon the use of approximate KE functionals in DFT embedding.

  1. Common modeling system for digital simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, Rick

    1994-01-01

    The Joint Modeling and Simulation System is a tri-service investigation into a common modeling framework for the development digital models. The basis for the success of this framework is an X-window-based, open systems architecture, object-based/oriented methodology, standard interface approach to digital model construction, configuration, execution, and post processing. For years Department of Defense (DOD) agencies have produced various weapon systems/technologies and typically digital representations of the systems/technologies. These digital representations (models) have also been developed for other reasons such as studies and analysis, Cost Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) tradeoffs, etc. Unfortunately, there have been no Modeling and Simulation (M&S) standards, guidelines, or efforts towards commonality in DOD M&S. The typical scenario is an organization hires a contractor to build hardware and in doing so an digital model may be constructed. Until recently, this model was not even obtained by the organization. Even if it was procured, it was on a unique platform, in a unique language, with unique interfaces, and, with the result being UNIQUE maintenance required. Additionally, the constructors of the model expended more effort in writing the 'infrastructure' of the model/simulation (e.g. user interface, database/database management system, data journalizing/archiving, graphical presentations, environment characteristics, other components in the simulation, etc.) than in producing the model of the desired system. Other side effects include: duplication of efforts; varying assumptions; lack of credibility/validation; and decentralization in policy and execution. J-MASS provides the infrastructure, standards, toolset, and architecture to permit M&S developers and analysts to concentrate on the their area of interest.

  2. Labor Dystocia: A Common Approach to Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Neal, Jeremy L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Holley, Sharon L; Ryan, Sharon L; Buxton, Margaret; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary labor and birth population norms should be the basis for evaluating labor progression and determining slow progress that may benefit from intervention. The aim of this article is to present guidelines for a common, evidence-based approach for determination of active labor onset and diagnosis of labor dystocia based on a synthesis of existing professional guidelines and relevant contemporary publications. A 3-point approach for diagnosing active labor onset and classifying labor dystocia-related labor aberrations into well-defined, mutually exclusive categories that can be used clinically and validated by researchers is proposed. The approach comprises identification of 1) an objective point that strictly defines active labor onset (point of active labor determination); 2) an objective point that identifies when labor progress becomes atypical, beyond which interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia may be justified (point of protraction diagnosis); and 3) an objective point that identifies when interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia, if used, can first be determined to be unsuccessful, beyond which assisted vaginal or cesarean birth may be justified (earliest point of arrest diagnosis). Widespread adoption of a common approach for diagnosing labor dystocia will facilitate consistent evaluation of labor progress, improve communications between clinicians and laboring women, indicate when intervention aimed at speeding labor progress or facilitating birth may be appropriate, and allow for more efficient translation of safe and effective management strategies into clinical practice. Correct application of the diagnosis of labor dystocia may lead to a decrease in the rate of cesarean birth, decreased health care costs, and improved health of childbearing women and neonates.

  3. Conceptions of Prenatal Development: Behavioral Embryology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Gilbert

    1976-01-01

    Describes recent progress in research on prenatal behavioral development and in a systematic fashion the various ways in which prenatal experience can affect the development of behavior in the neonate as well as in the embryo and fetus. (Author/RK)

  4. Embryology of Maldives clownfish, Amphiprion nigripes (Amphiprioninae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Swagat; Kumar, Thipramalai Thankappanpillai Ajith; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the embryonic development of Maldives clownfish Amphiprion nigripes under natural conditions (28-30°C) at a lagoon of Agatti Island, Lakshadweep, India. The newly deposited fish egg was capsule-shaped and orange-red, with a (0.73 ± 0.04) mm3 yolk containing 5-10 fat globules. The embryonic development of fertilized eggs was divided into 26 stages and the time elapsing for each stage was recorded. Results showed that the cleavage was rapid, with the first division observed 1 h 20 min after fertilization. Blastulation occurred 4 h later, followed by gastrulation 12 h after fertilization, with a yolk volume of (0.61 ± 0.06) mm3. The organogenesis process started 22 h after fertilization when the blastopores closed and notochord formation began. The embryonic stage was recorded 24 h later, with the appearance of forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, melanophores on yolk-sac and 22 somites, and a decreased yolk volume of (0.54 ± 0.08) mm3. Other organs developed well 31 h after fertilization, whereas the heart started beating and blood circulation began 78 h later. Red pigmentation (erytrophores) appeared 96 h after fertilization, with a small yolk volume of (0.22 ± 0.02) mm3. Mouth developed well and eyes were noticeable 120 h later, with head, pectoral fin and tail frequently moving 144 h after fertilization. The embryo reached the pre-hatching stage 168 h later and started to hatch after 170-180 h incubation. This study first detailed the embryonic development and yolk absorption of A. nigripes under natural conditions.

  5. Ceratocricoid muscle: an embryological and anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Maranillo, Eva; Vázquez, Teresa; Mirapeix, Rosa; León, Xavier; McHanwell, Stephen; Quer, Miquel; Sañudo, José Ramón

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to document the prevalence and morphology of the ceratocricoid muscle in a large sample of fetuses and adults and to explain its possible origin in a sample of embryos. Forty-five embryos, thirty-four fetuses, and ninety human larynges from adults with no known laryngeal pathology were studied. The muscle was observed in 23% of the fetal sample and in 14% of the adult sample. No significant differences were observed in the laterality in any of the groups. The ceratocricoid muscle is attached between the cricoid lamina and the inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage and also into the capsule of the cricothyroid joint. The muscle is innervated by several branches (between one and three) from the anterior division of the recurrent laryngeal nerve as it courses behind the cricothyroid joint. The ceratocricoid muscle develops from tissue within the mesenchymal bridge which connects the external and internal laryngeal sphincters or rings from embryonic stages 15-20. The close relationship of the ceratocricoid muscle to the recurrent laryngeal nerve could mean that it can exert pressure on this nerve. This may be a possible explanation for the causation of certain idiopathic recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies.

  6. Neural basis of nonanalytical reasoning expertise during clinical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Durning, Steven J; Costanzo, Michelle E; Artino, Anthony R; Graner, John; van der Vleuten, Cees; Beckman, Thomas J; Wittich, Christopher M; Roy, Michael J; Holmboe, Eric S; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding clinical reasoning is essential for patient care and medical education. Dual-processing theory suggests that nonanalytic reasoning is an essential aspect of expertise; however, assessing nonanalytic reasoning is challenging because it is believed to occur on the subconscious level. This assumption makes concurrent verbal protocols less reliable assessment tools. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to explore the neural basis of nonanalytic reasoning in internal medicine interns (novices) and board-certified staff internists (experts) while completing United States Medical Licensing Examination and American Board of Internal Medicine multiple-choice questions. Results The results demonstrated that novices and experts share a common neural network in addition to nonoverlapping neural resources. However, experts manifested greater neural processing efficiency in regions such as the prefrontal cortex during nonanalytical reasoning. Conclusions These findings reveal a multinetwork system that supports the dual-process mode of expert clinical reasoning during medical evaluation. PMID:25798328

  7. Structural basis for precursor protein-directed ribosomal peptide macrocyclization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kunhua; Condurso, Heather L.; Li, Gengnan; Ding, Yousong; Bruner, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Macrocyclization is a common feature of natural product biosynthetic pathways including the diverse family of ribosomal peptides. Microviridins are architecturally complex cyanobacterial ribosomal peptides whose members target proteases with potent reversible inhibition. The product structure is constructed by three macrocyclizations catalyzed sequentially by two members of the ATP-grasp family, a unique strategy for ribosomal peptide macrocyclization. Here, we describe the detailed structural basis for the enzyme-catalyzed macrocyclizations in the microviridin J pathway of Microcystis aeruginosa. The macrocyclases, MdnC and MdnB, interact with a conserved α-helix of the precursor peptide using a novel precursor peptide recognition mechanism. The results provide insight into the unique protein/protein interactions key to the chemistry, suggest an origin of the natural combinatorial synthesis of microviridin peptides and provide a framework for future engineering efforts to generate designed compounds. PMID:27669417

  8. Structural basis for precursor protein-directed ribosomal peptide macrocyclization

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kunhua; Condurso, Heather L.; Li, Gengnan; Ding, Yousong; Bruner, Steven D.

    2016-11-11

    Macrocyclization is a common feature of natural product biosynthetic pathways including the diverse family of ribosomal peptides. Microviridins are architecturally complex cyanobacterial ribosomal peptides that target proteases with potent reversible inhibition. The product structure is constructed via three macrocyclizations catalyzed sequentially by two members of the ATP-grasp family, a unique strategy for ribosomal peptide macrocyclization. Here we describe in detail the structural basis for the enzyme-catalyzed macrocyclizations in the microviridin J pathway of Microcystis aeruginosa. The macrocyclases MdnC and MdnB interact with a conserved α-helix of the precursor peptide using a novel precursor-peptide recognition mechanism. The results provide insight into the unique protein–protein interactions that are key to the chemistry, suggest an origin for the natural combinatorial synthesis of microviridin peptides, and provide a framework for future engineering efforts to generate designed compounds.

  9. Individual Basis for Collective Behaviour in the Termite, Cornitermes cumulans

    PubMed Central

    Miramontes, Octavio; DeSouza, Og

    2008-01-01

    Interactions among individuals in social groups lead to the emergence of collective behaviour at large scales by means of multiplicative non-linear effects. Group foraging, nest building and task allocation are just some well-known examples present in social insects. However the precise mechanisms at the individual level that trigger and amplify social phenomena are not fully understood. Here we show evidence of complex dynamics in groups of the termite, Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar) (Isoptera: Termitidae), of different sizes and qualitatively compare the behaviour observed with that exhibited by agent-based computer models. It is then concluded that certain aspects of social behaviour in insects have a universal basis common to interconnected systems and that this may be useful for understanding the temporal dynamics of systems displaying social behaviour in general. PMID:20233076

  10. Structural basis for precursor protein-directed ribosomal peptide macrocyclization.

    PubMed

    Li, Kunhua; Condurso, Heather L; Li, Gengnan; Ding, Yousong; Bruner, Steven D

    2016-11-01

    Macrocyclization is a common feature of natural product biosynthetic pathways including the diverse family of ribosomal peptides. Microviridins are architecturally complex cyanobacterial ribosomal peptides that target proteases with potent reversible inhibition. The product structure is constructed via three macrocyclizations catalyzed sequentially by two members of the ATP-grasp family, a unique strategy for ribosomal peptide macrocyclization. Here we describe in detail the structural basis for the enzyme-catalyzed macrocyclizations in the microviridin J pathway of Microcystis aeruginosa. The macrocyclases MdnC and MdnB interact with a conserved α-helix of the precursor peptide using a novel precursor-peptide recognition mechanism. The results provide insight into the unique protein-protein interactions that are key to the chemistry, suggest an origin for the natural combinatorial synthesis of microviridin peptides, and provide a framework for future engineering efforts to generate designed compounds.

  11. Basis for selecting optimum antibiotic regimens for secondary peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Maseda, Emilio; Gimenez, Maria-Jose; Gilsanz, Fernando; Aguilar, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Adequate management of severely ill patients with secondary peritonitis requires supportive therapy of organ dysfunction, source control of infection and antimicrobial therapy. Since secondary peritonitis is polymicrobial, appropriate empiric therapy requires combination therapy in order to achieve the needed coverage for both common and more unusual organisms. This article reviews etiological agents, resistance mechanisms and their prevalence, how and when to cover them and guidelines for treatment in the literature. Local surveillances are the basis for the selection of compounds in antibiotic regimens, which should be further adapted to the increasing number of patients with risk factors for resistance (clinical setting, comorbidities, previous antibiotic treatments, previous colonization, severity…). Inadequate antimicrobial regimens are strongly associated with unfavorable outcomes. Awareness of resistance epidemiology and of clinical consequences of inadequate therapy against resistant bacteria is crucial for clinicians treating secondary peritonitis, with delicate balance between optimization of empirical therapy (improving outcomes) and antimicrobial overuse (increasing resistance emergence).

  12. The genetic basis of laboratory adaptation in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Marks, Melissa E; Castro-Rojas, Cyd Marie; Teiling, Clotilde; Du, Lei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Walunas, Theresa L; Crosson, Sean

    2010-07-01

    The dimorphic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus has evolved marked phenotypic changes during its 50-year history of culture in the laboratory environment, providing an excellent system for the study of natural selection and phenotypic microevolution in prokaryotes. Combining whole-genome sequencing with classical molecular genetic tools, we have comprehensively mapped a set of polymorphisms underlying multiple derived phenotypes, several of which arose independently in separate strain lineages. The genetic basis of phenotypic differences in growth rate, mucoidy, adhesion, sedimentation, phage susceptibility, and stationary-phase survival between C. crescentus strain CB15 and its derivative NA1000 is determined by coding, regulatory, and insertion/deletion polymorphisms at five chromosomal loci. This study evidences multiple genetic mechanisms of bacterial evolution as driven by selection for growth and survival in a new selective environment and identifies a common polymorphic locus, zwf, between lab-adapted C. crescentus and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that have adapted to a human host during chronic infection.

  13. Sampled Longest Common Prefix Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirén, Jouni

    When augmented with the longest common prefix (LCP) array and some other structures, the suffix array can solve many string processing problems in optimal time and space. A compressed representation of the LCP array is also one of the main building blocks in many compressed suffix tree proposals. In this paper, we describe a new compressed LCP representation: the sampled LCP array. We show that when used with a compressed suffix array (CSA), the sampled LCP array often offers better time/space trade-offs than the existing alternatives. We also show how to construct the compressed representations of the LCP array directly from a CSA.

  14. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  15. Epigenetics and Common Ophthalmic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wendy; Liu, Ji; Galvin, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    The study of ocular diseases and epigenetic dysregulation is an emerging area of research. The knowledge from the epigenetic mechanisms of DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNAs regarding the pathogenesis of ocular diseases will be helpful for improved treatment modalities for our patients. In particular, we focus upon the how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms impact five common ocular diseases: age related macular degeneration, age-related cataract, pterygium, retinoblastoma, and uveal melanoma. Hence, the foundation of this research paves the way for future specific therapeutic targets to treat and prevent vision loss. PMID:28018148

  16. Vibrios Commonly Possess Two Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kazuhisa; Iida, Tetsuya; Kita-Tsukamoto, Kumiko; Honda, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of the two-chromosome configuration was investigated in 34 species of vibrios and closely related species. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of undigested genomic DNA suggested that vibrios commonly have two chromosomes. The size of the large chromosome is predominantly within a narrow range (3.0 to 3.3 Mb), whereas the size of the small chromosome varies considerably among the vibrios (0.8 to 2.4 Mb). This fact suggests that the structure of the small chromosome is more flexible than that of the large chromosome during the evolution of vibrios. PMID:15629946

  17. Toward a Scientifically Rigorous Basis for Developing Mapped Ecological Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Gerard; Wiken, Ed B.; Gauthier, David A.

    2004-04-01

    Despite the wide use of ecological regions in conservation and resource-management evaluations and assessments, a commonly accepted theoretical basis for ecological regionalization does not exist. This fact, along with the paucity of focus on ecological regionalization by professional associations, journals, and faculties, has inhibited the advancement of a broadly acceptable scientific basis for the development, use, and verification of ecological regions. The central contention of this article is that ecological regions should improve our understanding of geographic and ecological phenomena associated with biotic and abiotic processes occurring in individual regions and also of processes characteristic of interactions and dependencies among multiple regions. Research associated with any ecoregional framework should facilitate development of hypotheses about ecological phenomena and dominant landscape elements associated with these phenomena, how these phenomena are structured in space, and how they function in a hierarchy. Success in addressing the research recommendations outlined in this article cannot occur within an ad hoc, largely uncoordinated research environment. Successful implementation of this plan will require activities—coordination, funding, and education—that are both scientific and administrative in nature. Perhaps the most important element of an infrastructure to support the scientific work of ecoregionalization would be a national or international authority similar to the Water and Science Technology Board of the National Academy of Sciences.

  18. Toward a scientifically rigorous basis for developing mapped ecological regions.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, G.; Wiken, E.B.; Gauthier, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the wide use of ecological regions in conservation and resource-management evaluations and assessments, a commonly accepted theoretical basis for ecological regionalization does not exist. This fact, along with the paucity of focus on ecological regionalization by professional associations, journals, and faculties, has inhibited the advancement of a broadly acceptable scientific basis for the development, use, and verification of ecological regions. The central contention of this article is that ecological regions should improve our understanding of geographic and ecological phenomena associated with biotic and abiotic processes occurring in individual regions and also of processes characteristic of interactions and dependencies among multiple regions. Research associated with any ecoregional framework should facilitate development of hypotheses about ecological phenomena and dominant landscape elements associated with these phenomena, how these phenomena are structured in space, and how they function in a hierarchy. Success in addressing the research recommendations outlined in this article cannot occur within an ad hoc, largely uncoordinated research environment. Successful implementation of this plan will require activities--coordination, funding, and education--that are both scientific and administrative in nature. Perhaps the most important element of an infrastructure to support the scientific work of ecoregionalization would be a national or international authority similar to the Water and Science Technology Board of the National Academy of Sciences.

  19. Common data link (CDL) interference model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerasoli, Caramen; Zhao, Wiley; Santapietro, John J.; McAlinden, R. E.; Smith, B. F.; Jacyk, P. A.

    2002-07-01

    The increasing use of airwaves for military communication and surveillance and commercial applications places burdens on spectrum use. This crowding of the spectrum presents two broad problem categories. The first is "co-site interference" where numerous transmitters and receivers are physically located in a small area and share a given portion of the spectrum. Under these conditions, a receiver can be "victim" to a co-located transmitter. The second category involves numerous transmitters (typically airborne) well separated from each other but communicating to receivers placed in a relatively small area. The Common Data Link (CDL) refers to a standard protocol for military data delivery and communication. Surveillance platforms such as Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (TUAV), JSTARS, U2's, Global Hawks will stream high rate surveillance data (radar, visual and/or infrared imagery, etc.) down to ground terminals. As such, bandwidths are wide (100's MHz) and the potential exists for ground receivers to be victim to signals from airborne transmitters other than its desired source. MITRE has developed a CDL Interference Model to assess potential problems in realistic tactical surveillance scenarios. This paper documents the physical basis of the CDL Interference Model as well as the visualization software architecture that integrates the model with ModSAF/OneSAF.

  20. Dopamine system dysregulation by the ventral subiculum as the common pathophysiological basis for schizophrenia psychosis, psychostimulant abuse, and stress.

    PubMed

    Grace, Anthony A

    2010-11-01

    The dopamine system is under multiple forms of regulation, and in turn provides effective modulation of system responses. Dopamine neurons are known to exist in several states of activity. The population activity, or the proportion of dopamine neurons firing spontaneously, is controlled by the ventral subiculum of the hippocampus. In contrast, burst firing, which is proposed to be the behaviorally salient output of the dopamine system, is driven by the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg). When an animal is exposed to a behaviorally salient stimulus, the PPTg elicits a burst of action potentials in the dopamine neurons. However, this bursting only occurs in the portion of the dopamine neuron population that is firing spontaneously. This proportion is regulated by the ventral subiculum. Therefore, the ventral subiculum provides the gain, or the amplification factor, for the behaviorally salient stimulus. The ventral subiculum itself is proposed to carry information related to the environmental context. Thus, the ventral subiculum will adjust the responsivity of the dopamine system based on the needs of the organism and the characteristics of the environment. However, this finely tuned system can be disrupted in disease states. In schizophrenia, a disruption of interneuronal regulation of the ventral subiculum is proposed to lead to an overdrive of the dopamine system, rendering the system in a constant hypervigilant state. Moreover, amphetamine sensitization and stressors also appear to cause an abnormal dopaminergic drive. Such an interaction could underlie the risk factors of drug abuse and stress in the precipitation of a psychotic event. On the other hand, this could point to the ventral subiculum as an effective site of therapeutic intervention in the treatment or even the prevention of schizophrenia.

  1. 26 CFR 1.1502-31 - Stock basis after a group structure change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...(f)(1) for the definition of group structure change. For example, if P owns all of the stock of... transaction, P's basis in S's stock is reduced by the fair market value of the asset. (2) Allocable share—(i... redetermination equals the percentage (by fair market value) of the former common parent's stock subject to...

  2. An Isotonic Partial Credit Model for Ordering Subjects on the Basis of Their Sum Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligtvoet, Rudy

    2012-01-01

    In practice, the sum of the item scores is often used as a basis for comparing subjects. For items that have more than two ordered score categories, only the partial credit model (PCM) and special cases of this model imply that the subjects are stochastically ordered on the common latent variable. However, the PCM is very restrictive with respect…

  3. Mycoflora of seed of common teasel (Dipsacus fullonum) in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of standing common teasel (Dipsacus fullonum) were harvested in January 2007 in Pullman, Washington, and divided into two categories, symptomatic versus asymptomatic, on the basis of signs of fungal colonization at 10-50X magnification. The most common signs were pseudothecia of Davidiella ta...

  4. The Rise and Fall of Boot Camps: A Case Study in Common-Sense Corrections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Francis T.; Blevins, Kristie R.; Trager, Jennifer S.; Gendreau, Paul

    2005-01-01

    "Common sense" is often used as a powerful rationale for implementing correctional programs that have no basis in criminology and virtually no hope of reducing recidivism. Within this context, we undertake a case study in "common-sense' corrections by showing how the rise of boot camps, although having multiple causes, was ultimately legitimized…

  5. Evolution of a common controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, D.; Barbour, D.; Gilbreath, G.

    2012-06-01

    Precedent has shown common controllers must strike a balance between the desire for an integrated user interface design by human factors engineers and support of project-specific data requirements. A common user-interface requires the project-specific data to conform to an internal representation, but project-specific customization is impeded by the implicit rules introduced by the internal data representation. Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) developed the latest version of the Multi-robot Operator Control Unit (MOCU) to address interoperability, standardization, and customization issues by using a modular, extensible, and flexible architecture built upon a sharedworld model. MOCU version 3 provides an open and extensible operator-control interface that allows additional functionality to be seamlessly added with software modules while providing the means to fully integrate the information into a layered game-like user interface. MOCU's design allows it to completely decouple the human interface from the core management modules, while still enabling modules to render overlapping regions of the screen without interference or a priori knowledge of other display elements, thus allowing more flexibility in project-specific customization.

  6. Common ecology quantifies human insurgency.

    PubMed

    Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Gourley, Sean; Dixon, Alexander R; Spagat, Michael; Johnson, Neil F

    2009-12-17

    Many collective human activities, including violence, have been shown to exhibit universal patterns. The size distributions of casualties both in whole wars from 1816 to 1980 and terrorist attacks have separately been shown to follow approximate power-law distributions. However, the possibility of universal patterns ranging across wars in the size distribution or timing of within-conflict events has barely been explored. Here we show that the sizes and timing of violent events within different insurgent conflicts exhibit remarkable similarities. We propose a unified model of human insurgency that reproduces these commonalities, and explains conflict-specific variations quantitatively in terms of underlying rules of engagement. Our model treats each insurgent population as an ecology of dynamically evolving, self-organized groups following common decision-making processes. Our model is consistent with several recent hypotheses about modern insurgency, is robust to many generalizations, and establishes a quantitative connection between human insurgency, global terrorism and ecology. Its similarity to financial market models provides a surprising link between violent and non-violent forms of human behaviour.

  7. Vomiting and common paediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Busoni, P; Crescioli, M; Agostino, R; Sestini, G

    2000-01-01

    Postoperative vomiting is a common and unpleasant complication. The purpose of the present study was to verify if dexamethasone reduces the incidence of vomiting when injected IV in children anaesthetized with halothane for common paediatric operations. We also studied the incidence of vomiting when sevoflurane was used instead. Five hundred and 69 boys, aged 2-12 years (ASA physical status I, II), scheduled for inguinal field surgery were randomly assigned to receive halothane, halothane and dexamethasone and sevoflurane in three groups: halothane (n=180), halothane and IV dexamethasone (n=188) and sevoflurane (n=201). Anaesthesia was induced by inhalation of halothane or sevoflurane in oxygen and nitrous oxide and was maintained at minimum alveolar concentration of each agent throughout the surgery. For intra- and postoperative pain control iliac crest block was used in all the boys. Vomiting was defined as any expulsion of liquid gastric contents. The incidence of postoperative vomiting was 23% in the halothane group, which was significantly greater than that in the other groups (halothane and dexamethasone group, 9%; sevoflurane group, 13%). In conclusion, dexamethasone reduces the incidence and frequency of multiple emetic episodes when administered intravenously after halothane anaesthesia; sevoflurane reduces the overall incidence of vomiting, but not multiple emetic episodes.

  8. A Neural Basis for Developmental Topographic Disorientation

    PubMed Central

    Aminoff, Elissa M.; Kastner, Sabine; Behrmann, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Developmental topographic disorientation (DTD) is a life-long condition in which affected individuals are severely impaired in navigating around their environment. Individuals with DTD have no apparent structural brain damage on conventional imaging and the neural mechanisms underlying DTD are currently unknown. Using functional and diffusion tensor imaging, we present a comprehensive neuroimaging study of an individual, J.N., with well defined DTD. J.N. has intact scene-selective responses in the parahippocampal place area (PPA), transverse occipital sulcus, and retrosplenial cortex (RSC), key regions associated with scene perception and navigation. However, detailed fMRI studies probing selective tuning properties of these regions, as well as functional connectivity, suggest that J.N.'s RSC has an atypical response profile and an atypical functional coupling to PPA compared with human controls. This deviant functional profile of RSC is not due to compromised structural connectivity. This comprehensive examination suggests that the RSC may play a key role in navigation-related processing and that an alteration of the RSC's functional properties may serve as the neural basis for DTD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Individuals with developmental topographic disorientation (DTD) have a life-long impairment in spatial navigation in the absence of brain damage, neurological conditions, or basic perceptual or memory deficits. Although progress has been made in identifying brain regions that subserve normal navigation, the neural basis of DTD is unknown. Using functional and structural neuroimaging and detailed statistical analyses, we investigated the brain regions typically involved in navigation and scene processing in a representative DTD individual, J.N. Although scene-selective regions were identified, closer scrutiny indicated that these areas, specifically the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), were functionally disrupted in J.N. This comprehensive examination of a

  9. Genetic Basis for Colorectal Cancer Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Nayani, Rahul; Ashktorab, Hassan; Brim, Hassan; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.

    2015-01-01

    African Americans suffer the highest burden from colorectal cancer (CRC) in the USA. Studies have suggested that healthcare access and poorer utilization of preventive services may be playing more of a role in this disparity. However, African Americans also tend to develop CRC at younger ages and are more likely to have proximal cancers. This raises the possibility of higher genetic predisposition to CRC among African Americans and this has not been well studied. In this article, we reviewed possible genetic basis underpinning biological differences in CRC burden in the USA. PMID:26997937

  10. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products (/sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and /sup 59/Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs.

  11. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ({sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 59}Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs.

  12. Chopped random-basis quantum optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Caneva, Tommaso; Calarco, Tommaso; Montangero, Simone

    2011-08-15

    In this work, we describe in detail the chopped random basis (CRAB) optimal control technique recently introduced to optimize time-dependent density matrix renormalization group simulations [P. Doria, T. Calarco, and S. Montangero, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 190501 (2011)]. Here, we study the efficiency of this control technique in optimizing different quantum processes and we show that in the considered cases we obtain results equivalent to those obtained via different optimal control methods while using less resources. We propose the CRAB optimization as a general and versatile optimal control technique.

  13. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, F.G.

    1995-05-15

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste.

  14. Neurobiological Basis of Language Learning Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Saloni; Watkins, Kate E; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we highlight why there is a need to examine subcortical learning systems in children with language impairment and dyslexia, rather than focusing solely on cortical areas relevant for language. First, behavioural studies find that children with these neurodevelopmental disorders perform less well than peers on procedural learning tasks that depend on corticostriatal learning circuits. Second, fMRI studies in neurotypical adults implicate corticostriatal and hippocampal systems in language learning. Finally, structural and functional abnormalities are seen in the striatum in children with language disorders. Studying corticostriatal networks in developmental language disorders could offer us insights into their neurobiological basis and elucidate possible modes of compensation for intervention.

  15. Genomic basis of evolutionary change: evolving immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Bregje

    2015-01-01

    Complex traits are manifestations of intricate gene interaction networks. Evolution of complex traits revolves around the genetic variation in such networks. Genomics has increased our ability to investigate the complex gene interaction networks, and characterize the extent of genetic variation in these networks. Immunity is a complex trait, for which the ecological drivers and molecular networks are fairly well understood in Drosophila. By characterizing the natural variation in immunity, and mapping how the genome changes during the evolution of immunity in Drosophila, we can integrate our knowledge on the complex genetic architecture of traits and the molecular basis of evolutionary processes. PMID:26150830

  16. Towards a Theoretical Basis for Energy Economics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    34: . . < . (4.84) To prove this assLme a contradictory subcase that all 7. were below a. This would imply Z S > 3 and a= according to capacitiy assumption, which...Efficiencies, Engineering, Vol 130, 1930, pp 283-285 Dasgupta, P S , Heal, G M, Economic Theory and ExhaustibleResources, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge...A.70-.. 1 6826 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA F/ S 5/3 TOWARDS A THEORETICAL BASIS FOR ENERGY ECONOMICS. (U) AUG GO R V GRUBBSTROM ae c~rf nCf

  17. Graph-state basis for Pauli channels

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xiaoyu; Jiang Lizhen

    2011-05-15

    Quantum capacities of Pauli channels are not additive, a degenerate quantum code may improve the hashing bound of the capacity. The difficulty in approaching the capacity is how to calculate the coherent information of a generic degenerate quantum code. Using graph state basis, we greatly reduce the problem for the input of quantum error-correcting code. We show that for a graph diagonal state passing through a Pauli channel the output state is diagonalizable and the joint output state of the system and ancilla is block diagonalizable. When the input state is an equal probable mixture of codewords of a stabilizer code, the coherent information can be analytically obtained.

  18. Reduced Basis Method for Nanodevices Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Pau, George Shu Heng

    2008-05-23

    Ballistic transport simulation in nanodevices, which involves self-consistently solving a coupled Schrodinger-Poisson system of equations, is usually computationally intensive. Here, we propose coupling the reduced basis method with the subband decomposition method to improve the overall efficiency of the simulation. By exploiting a posteriori error estimation procedure and greedy sampling algorithm, we are able to design an algorithm where the computational cost is reduced significantly. In addition, the computational cost only grows marginally with the number of grid points in the confined direction.

  19. Identifying genetics and genomics nursing competencies common among published recommendations.

    PubMed

    Greco, Karen E; Salveson, Catherine

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify published recommendations for genetics and genomics competencies or curriculum for nurses in the United States and to summarize genetic and genomic nursing competencies based on common themes among these documents. A review of the literature between January 1998 and June 2008 was conducted. Efforts were also made to access the gray literature. Five consensus documents describing recommendations for genetics and genomics competencies for nurses meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed. Twelve genetics and genomics competencies were created based on common themes among the recommendations. These competencies include: demonstrate an understanding of basic genetic and genomic concepts, provide and explain genetic and genomic information, refer to appropriate genetics professionals and services, and identify the limits of one's own genetics and genomics expertise. The competencies represent fundamental genetics and genomics competencies for nurses on the basis of common themes among several consensus recommendations identified in the literature.

  20. Common sense in nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyle, F.; Hoyle, G.

    1980-01-01

    Public concern about energy resource exhaustion is noted to have developed only after the means (nuclear power) for avoiding this disaster became available and the negative implications of a nuclear society became a focus for anxiety. Ironically, collapse of conventional energy supplies could lead to the nuclear confrontation which anti-nuclear forces claim as the inevitable outcome of nuclear power. A review of the risks, environmental impacts, and political implications of the major energy sources concludes that emotion, not common sense, has made nuclear energy an unpopular option. While the problems of proliferation, radiation protection, waste management, and accident prevention are far from trivial, they will respond to technological improvements and responsible control policies. An historical tradition of fearing new, poorly understood technologies is seen in the reaction to railroads during the early 19th Century. (DCK)

  1. [Mental time travel - the neurocognitive basis of future thinking].

    PubMed

    Weiler, Julia A; Daum, Irene

    2008-09-01

    The ability to travel in time mentally, i. e. the re-experiencing of personal past events as well as the ability to mentally simulate potential future events, forms part of the "episodic memory" concept. Evidence for the notion that episodic memory and episodic future thinking share a common neural basis stems from different lines of research, namely functional neuroimaging, assessment of clinical groups, behavioral investigations of the phenomenological characteristics of mental time travel, and developmental research. The present article summarises the evidence from these lines of research which indicate a common neural network underlying episodic memory and episodic future thinking, consisting of medial prefrontal, medial temporal, medial parietal, lateral parieto-occipital, as well as lateral temporal regions. Both abilities, episodic memory and future thinking, seem to develop around the age of four years, feature similar phenomenological characteristics, and are impaired to a similar extent by brain lesions and brain dysfunction. These findings yielded different hypotheses concerning the function and evolutional significance of the mental time travel network, which will also be addressed.

  2. Modelling erosion on a daily basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikha Shrestha, Dhruba; Jetten, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Effect of soil erosion causing negative impact on ecosystem services and food security is well known. To assess annual erosion rates various empirical models have been extensively used in all the climatic regions. While these models are simple to operate and do not require lot of input data, the effect of extreme rain is not taken into account in the annual estimations. For analysing the effects of extreme rain the event- based models become handy. These models can simulate detail erosional processes including particle detachment, transportation and deposition of sediments during a storm. But they are not applicable for estimating annual erosion rates. Moreover storm event data may not be available everywhere which prohibits their extensive use. In this paper we describe a method by adapting the revised MMF model to assess erosion on daily basis so that the effects of extreme rains are taken into account. We couple it to a simple surface soil moisture balance on a daily basis and include estimation of daily vegetation cover changes. Annual soil loss is calculated by adding daily erosion rates. We compare the obtained results with that obtained from applying the revised MMF model in a case study in the Mamora plateau in northwest Morocco which is affected by severe gully formation. The results show clearly the effects of exceptional rain in erosional processes which cannot be captured in an annual model.

  3. Molecular Basis of Actin Nucleation Factor Cooperativity

    PubMed Central

    Zeth, Kornelius; Pechlivanis, Markos; Samol, Annette; Pleiser, Sandra; Vonrhein, Clemens; Kerkhoff, Eugen

    2011-01-01

    The distinct actin nucleation factors of the Spir and formin subgroup families cooperate in actin nucleation. The Spir/formin cooperativity has been identified to direct two essential steps in mammalian oocyte maturation, the asymmetric spindle positioning and polar body extrusion during meiosis. Understanding the nature and regulation of the Spir/Fmn cooperation is an important requirement to comprehend mammalian reproduction. Recently we dissected the structural elements of the Spir and Fmn family proteins, which physically link the two actin nucleation factors. The trans-regulatory interaction is mediated by the Spir kinase non-catalytic C-lobe domain (KIND) and the C-terminal formin Spir interaction motif (FSI). The interaction inhibits formin nucleation activity and enhances the Spir activity. To get insights into the molecular mechanism of the Spir/Fmn interaction, we determined the crystal structure of the KIND domain alone and in complex with the C-terminal Fmn-2 FSI peptide. Together they confirm the proposed structural homology of the KIND domain to the protein kinase fold and reveal the basis of the Spir/formin interaction. The complex structure showed a large interface with conserved and positively charged residues of the Fmn FSI peptide mediating major contacts to an acidic groove on the surface of KIND. Protein interaction studies verified the electrostatic nature of the interaction. The data presented here provide the molecular basis of the Spir/formin interaction and give a first structural view into the mechanisms of actin nucleation factor cooperativity. PMID:21705804

  4. The genetic basis of white tigers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Dong, Gui-Xin; Hu, Xue-Song; Miao, Lin; Zhang, Xue-Li; Zhang, De-Lu; Yang, Han-Dong; Zhang, Tian-You; Zou, Zheng-Ting; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhuang, Yan; Bhak, Jong; Cho, Yun Sung; Dai, Wen-Tao; Jiang, Tai-Jiao; Xie, Can; Li, Ruiqiang; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2013-06-03

    The white tiger, an elusive Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) variant with white fur and dark stripes, has fascinated humans for centuries ever since its discovery in the jungles of India. Many white tigers in captivity are inbred in order to maintain this autosomal recessive trait and consequently suffer some health problems, leading to the controversial speculation that the white tiger mutation is perhaps a genetic defect. However, the genetic basis of this phenotype remains unknown. Here, we conducted genome-wide association mapping with restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) in a pedigree of 16 captive tigers segregating at the putative white locus, followed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the three parents. Validation in 130 unrelated tigers identified the causative mutation to be an amino acid change (A477V) in the transporter protein SLC45A2. Three-dimensional homology modeling suggests that the substitution may partially block the transporter channel cavity and thus affect melanogenesis. We demonstrate the feasibility of combining RAD-seq and WGS to rapidly map exotic variants in nonmodel organisms. Our results identify the basis of the longstanding white tiger mystery as the same gene underlying color variation in human, horse, and chicken and highlight its significance as part of the species' natural polymorphism that is viable in the wild.

  5. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  6. The Molecular Basis of α-Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    The globin gene disorders including the thalassemias are among the most common human genetic diseases with more than 300,000 severely affected individuals born throughout the world every year. Because of the easy accessibility of purified, highly specialized, mature erythroid cells from peripheral blood, the hemoglobinopathies were among the first tractable human molecular diseases. From the 1970s onward, the analysis of the large repertoire of mutations underlying these conditions has elucidated many of the principles by which mutations occur and cause human genetic diseases. This work will summarize our current knowledge of the α-thalassemias, illustrating how detailed analysis of this group of diseases has contributed to our understanding of the general molecular mechanisms underlying many orphan and common diseases. PMID:23284078

  7. Common cutaneous disorders in athletes.

    PubMed

    Conklin, R J

    1990-02-01

    Athletic activity may cause or aggravate skin disorders, which in turn may diminish athletic performance. Since many sporting activities necessitate prolonged exposure to the sun, athletes must avoid painful sunburn which will adversely affect their performance. Drugs and chemicals also may cause photoallergic and/or phototoxic reactions, including polymorphous light eruption and athletes should thus avoid photosensitising drugs and chemicals. The effects of chronic ultraviolet exposure include ageing, pigmentation and skin cancers. The most effective protection against excessive exposure to sunlight is the use of sunscreens, although inadequate application and poor protection in the UVA spectrum may diminish their effectiveness and contact allergies may create other problems. Viral, bacterial and fungal infections are common in athletes due to heat, friction and contact with others. Herpes simplex may be treated with any drying agents (e.g. alcohol) as they are as effective as more expensive topical agents such as acyclovir. Molluscum contagiosum may be spread by close contact or water contact and is treated by superficial incision, cryotherapy or standard wart varnishes. Plantar wart infection is transmitted by swimming pool decks, changing rooms and hand-to-hand from weights in gymnasiums. Plantar warts presenting with pain may be aggressively treated, by blunt dissection, but painless ones are best treated conservatively. Impetigo and folliculitis often develop after trauma. Antibiotics are effective against mild infections while abrasions and lacerations should be cleansed and dressed with occlusive dressings. Diphtheroid bacteria in moist footwear may produce pitted keratolysis and erythrasma. Tinea pedis is common in athletes and probably originates in swimming pools, gymnasium floors and locker rooms. Interdigital, dry-moccasin and pustular-midsole forms can be distinguished. The latter two forms respond to topical antifungal agents, while the interdigital

  8. 26 CFR 1.737-3 - Basis adjustments; Recovery rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Basis adjustments; Recovery rules. 1.737-3...; Recovery rules. (a) Distributee partner's adjusted tax basis in the partnership interest. The distributee...) Recovery of increase to adjusted tax basis. Any increase to the adjusted tax basis of partnership...

  9. 26 CFR 1.737-3 - Basis adjustments; Recovery rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis adjustments; Recovery rules. 1.737-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions by A Partnership § 1.737-3 Basis adjustments; Recovery...) Recovery of increase to adjusted tax basis. Any increase to the adjusted tax basis of partnership...

  10. Managing the wildlife tourism commons.

    PubMed

    Pirotta, Enrico; Lusseau, David

    2015-04-01

    The nonlethal effects of wildlife tourism can threaten the conservation status of targeted animal populations. In turn, such resource depletion can compromise the economic viability of the industry. Therefore, wildlife tourism exploits resources that can become common pool and that should be managed accordingly. We used a simulation approach to test whether different management regimes (tax, tax and subsidy, cap, cap and trade) could provide socioecologically sustainable solutions. Such schemes are sensitive to errors in estimated management targets. We determined the sensitivity of each scenario to various realistic uncertainties in management implementation and in our knowledge of the population. Scenarios where time quotas were enforced using a tax and subsidy approach, or they were traded between operators were more likely to be sustainable. Importantly, sustainability could be achieved even when operators were assumed to make simple rational economic decisions. We suggest that a combination of the two regimes might offer a robust solution, especially on a small spatial scale and under the control of a self-organized, operator-level institution. Our simulation platform could be parameterized to mimic local conditions and provide a test bed for experimenting different governance solutions in specific case studies.

  11. Common problems in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Cosca, David D; Navazio, Franco

    2007-07-15

    Endurance athletes alternate periods of intensive physical training with periods of rest and recovery to improve performance. An imbalance caused by overly intensive training and inadequate recovery leads to a breakdown in tissue reparative mechanisms and eventually to overuse injuries. Tendon overuse injury is degenerative rather than inflammatory. Tendinopathy is often slow to resolve and responds inconsistently to anti-inflammatory agents. Common overuse injuries in runners and other endurance athletes include patellofemoral pain syndrome, iliotibial band friction syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, and lower extremity stress fractures. These injuries are treated with relative rest, usually accompanied by a rehabilitative exercise program. Cyclists may benefit from evaluation on their bicycles and subsequent adjustment of seat height, cycling position, or pedal system. Endurance athletes also are susceptible to exercise-associated medical conditions, including exercise-induced asthma, exercise-associated collapse, and overtraining syndrome. These conditions are treatable or preventable with appropriate medical intervention. Dilutional hyponatremia is increasingly encountered in athletes participating in marathons and triathlons. This condition is related to overhydration with hypotonic fluids and may be preventable with guidance on appropriate fluid intake during competition.

  12. Common abdominal emergencies in children.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, James

    2002-02-01

    Because young children often present to EDs with abdominal complaints, emergency physicians must have a high index of suspicion for the common abdominal emergencies that have serious sequelae. At the same time, they must realize that less serious causes of abdominal symptoms (e.g., constipation or gastroenteritis) are also seen. A gentle yet thorough and complete history and physical examination are the most important diagnostic tools for the emergency physician. Repeated examinations and observation are useful tools. Physicians should listen carefully to parents and their children, respect their concerns, and honor their complaints. Ancillary tests are inconsistent in their value in assessing these complaints. Abdominal radiographs can be normal in children with intussusception and even malrotation and early volvulus. Unlike the classic symptoms seen in adults, young children can display only lethargy or poor feeding in cases of appendicitis or can appear happy and playful between paroxysmal bouts of intussusception. The emergency physician therefore, must maintain a high index of suspicion for serious pathology in pediatric patients with abdominal complaints. Eventually, all significant abdominal emergencies reveal their true nature, and if one can be patient with the child and repeat the examinations when the child is quiet, one will be rewarded with the correct diagnosis.

  13. Comparison of Common Tonsillectomy Methods.

    PubMed

    Sattar, M A; Sultana, T

    2016-01-01

    This prospective randomized study was done to compare operative time, intra-operative blood loss, post operative pain, secondary haemorrhage in common tonsillectomy methods. Thirty two (32) paediatric population of age 7-12 years from each group randomly selected, operative techniques adopted consecutively and this study was conducted in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Islami Bank Hospital, Dhaka, and Desh Medical Services, Chittagong, from January 2011 to December 2013. Surgery was performed by single midlevel surgeon. Postoperatively one month was followed the entire patient. Total 96 pediatrics population (32 for each group) was studied. Mean operating time and mean intra-operative blood loss was in cold dissection method 22 min and 15 ml, in bipolar dissection tonsillectomy 18 min and 10 ml & in laser tonsillectomy 17 min and 9 ml. Differences of operating time and variation of blood loss in various methods are not statistically significant. Laser and bipolar electro dissection tonsillectomy are popularized due to its relative less bleeding and quicker methods than that of cold dissection tonsillectomy; there is no significant difference among them.

  14. Common Bolted Joint Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imtiaz, Kauser

    2011-01-01

    Common Bolted Joint Analysis Tool (comBAT) is an Excel/VB-based bolted joint analysis/optimization program that lays out a systematic foundation for an inexperienced or seasoned analyst to determine fastener size, material, and assembly torque for a given design. Analysts are able to perform numerous what-if scenarios within minutes to arrive at an optimal solution. The program evaluates input design parameters, performs joint assembly checks, and steps through numerous calculations to arrive at several key margins of safety for each member in a joint. It also checks for joint gapping, provides fatigue calculations, and generates joint diagrams for a visual reference. Optimum fastener size and material, as well as correct torque, can then be provided. Analysis methodology, equations, and guidelines are provided throughout the solution sequence so that this program does not become a "black box:" for the analyst. There are built-in databases that reduce the legwork required by the analyst. Each step is clearly identified and results are provided in number format, as well as color-coded spelled-out words to draw user attention. The three key features of the software are robust technical content, innovative and user friendly I/O, and a large database. The program addresses every aspect of bolted joint analysis and proves to be an instructional tool at the same time. It saves analysis time, has intelligent messaging features, and catches operator errors in real time.

  15. Common hyperspectral image database design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lixun; Liao, Ningfang; Chai, Ali

    2009-11-01

    This paper is to introduce Common hyperspectral image database with a demand-oriented Database design method (CHIDB), which comprehensively set ground-based spectra, standardized hyperspectral cube, spectral analysis together to meet some applications. The paper presents an integrated approach to retrieving spectral and spatial patterns from remotely sensed imagery using state-of-the-art data mining and advanced database technologies, some data mining ideas and functions were associated into CHIDB to make it more suitable to serve in agriculture, geological and environmental areas. A broad range of data from multiple regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is supported, including ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, thermal infrared, and fluorescence. CHIDB is based on dotnet framework and designed by MVC architecture including five main functional modules: Data importer/exporter, Image/spectrum Viewer, Data Processor, Parameter Extractor, and On-line Analyzer. The original data were all stored in SQL server2008 for efficient search, query and update, and some advance Spectral image data Processing technology are used such as Parallel processing in C#; Finally an application case is presented in agricultural disease detecting area.

  16. Physiologic basis for understanding quantitative dehydration assessment.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Charkoudian, Nisha; Sawka, Michael N

    2013-03-01

    Dehydration (body water deficit) is a physiologic state that can have profound implications for human health and performance. Unfortunately, dehydration can be difficult to assess, and there is no single, universal gold standard for decision making. In this article, we review the physiologic basis for understanding quantitative dehydration assessment. We highlight how phenomenologic interpretations of dehydration depend critically on the type (dehydration compared with volume depletion) and magnitude (moderate compared with severe) of dehydration, which in turn influence the osmotic (plasma osmolality) and blood volume-dependent compensatory thresholds for antidiuretic and thirst responses. In particular, we review new findings regarding the biological variation in osmotic responses to dehydration and discuss how this variation can help provide a quantitative and clinically relevant link between the physiology and phenomenology of dehydration. Practical measures with empirical thresholds are provided as a starting point for improving the practice of dehydration assessment.

  17. Quantum Fourier transform in computational basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, S. S.; Loke, T.; Izaac, J. A.; Wang, J. B.

    2017-03-01

    The quantum Fourier transform, with exponential speed-up compared to the classical fast Fourier transform, has played an important role in quantum computation as a vital part of many quantum algorithms (most prominently, Shor's factoring algorithm). However, situations arise where it is not sufficient to encode the Fourier coefficients within the quantum amplitudes, for example in the implementation of control operations that depend on Fourier coefficients. In this paper, we detail a new quantum scheme to encode Fourier coefficients in the computational basis, with fidelity 1 - δ and digit accuracy ɛ for each Fourier coefficient. Its time complexity depends polynomially on log (N), where N is the problem size, and linearly on 1/δ and 1/ɛ . We also discuss an application of potential practical importance, namely the simulation of circulant Hamiltonians.

  18. Framing effects: behavioral dynamics and neural basis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongming; Wang, X T; Zhu, Liqi

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the neural basis of framing effects using life-death decision problems framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large group and small group contexts. Using functional MRI we found differential brain activations to the verbal and social cues embedded in the choice problems. In large group contexts, framing effects were significant where participants were more risk seeking under the negative (loss) framing than under the positive (gain) framing. This behavioral difference in risk preference was mainly regulated by the activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, including the homologue of the Broca's area. In contrast, framing effects diminished in small group contexts while the insula and parietal lobe in the right hemisphere were distinctively activated, suggesting an important role of emotion in switching choice preference from an indecisive mode to a more consistent risk-taking inclination, governed by a kith-and-kin decision rationality.

  19. Configuration management after design basis reconstitution

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, J.J. ); Livingston, B.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Over the last few years, Fort Calhoun station (FCS) has implemented a number of programs to enhance plant operability and readiness. The design basis document (DBD) reconstitution project was the cornerstone of this effort. Vendor manual upgrade, operating procedures upgrade, plant equipment data-base verification, equipment labeling, and warehousing improvements were also implemented as part of this improvement program. With the completion of these programs, plant documentation was current to the baselines established by each program, and a configuration management program (CMP) was established to maintain this level of accuracy throughout the remaining life of FCS. Change control throughout the organization has been reviewed and upgraded to ensure that all changes are evaluated for impact to the design bases.

  20. The Immunological Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Francesca A. R.; Rodrigues, Bruno L.; Ayrizono, Maria de Lourdes S.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic ailments, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis being the most important. These diseases present an inflammatory profile and they differ according to pathophysiology, the affected area in the gastrointestinal tract, and the depth of the inflammation in the intestinal wall. The immune characteristics of IBD arise from abnormal responses of the innate and adaptive immune system. The number of Th17 cells increases in the peripheral blood of IBD patients, while Treg cells decrease, suggesting that the Th17/Treg proportion plays an important role in the development and maintenance of inflammation. The purpose of this review was to determine the current state of knowledge on the immunological basis of IBD. Many studies have shown the need for further explanation of the development and maintenance of the inflammatory process. PMID:28070181