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Sample records for common focus point

  1. Circular common-path point diffraction interferometer.

    PubMed

    Du, Yongzhao; Feng, Guoying; Li, Hongru; Vargas, J; Zhou, Shouhuan

    2012-10-01

    A simple and compact point-diffraction interferometer with circular common-path geometry configuration is developed. The interferometer is constructed by a beam-splitter, two reflection mirrors, and a telescope system composed by two lenses. The signal and reference waves travel along the same path. Furthermore, an opaque mask containing a reference pinhole and a test object holder or test window is positioned in the common focal plane of the telescope system. The object wave is divided into two beams that take opposite paths along the interferometer. The reference wave is filtered by the reference pinhole, while the signal wave is transmitted through the object holder. The reference and signal waves are combined again in the beam-splitter and their interference is imaged in the CCD. The new design is compact, vibration insensitive, and suitable for the measurement of moving objects or dynamic processes.

  2. General focus point in the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, A.; Quiros, M.; Wagner, C. E. M.

    2014-04-01

    The minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (SM) is a well motivated scenario for physics beyond the SM, which allows a perturbative description of the theory up to scales of the order of the Grand Unification scale, where gauge couplings unify. The Higgs mass parameter is insensitive to the ultraviolet physics and is only sensitive to the scale of soft supersymmetry breaking parameters. Present collider bounds suggest that the characteristic values of these parameters may be significantly larger than the weak scale. Large values of the soft breaking parameters, however, induce large radiative corrections to the Higgs mass parameter and therefore the proper electroweak scale may only be obtained by a fine tuned cancellation between the square of the holomorphic μ parameter and the Higgs supersymmetry breaking square mass parameter. This can only be avoided if there is a correlation between the scalar and gaugino mass parameters, such that the Higgs supersymmetry breaking parameter remains of the order of the weak scale. The scale at which this happens is dubbed as focus point. In this article, we define the general conditions required for this to happen, for different values of the messenger scale at which supersymmetry breaking is transmitted to the observable sector, and for arbitrary boundary conditions of the sfermion, gaugino, and Higgs mass parameters. Specific supersymmetry breaking scenarios in which these correlations may occur are also discussed.

  3. Common path point diffraction interferometer using liquid crystal phase shifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A common path point diffraction interferometer uses dyed, parallel nematic liquid crystals which surround an optically transparent microsphere. Coherent, collimated and polarized light is focused on the microsphere at a diameter larger than that of the microsphere. A portion of the focused light passes through the microsphere to form a spherical wavefront reference beam and the rest of the light is attenuated by the dyed liquid crystals to form an object beam. The two beams form an interferogram which is imaged by a lens onto an electronic array sensor and into a computer which determines the wavefront of the object beam. The computer phase shifts the interferogram by stepping up an AC voltage applied across the liquid crystals without affecting the reference beam.

  4. Focus in Grade 1: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuson, Karen; Clements, Douglas; Beckmann, Sybilla

    2010-01-01

    "Focus in Grade 1: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points" describes and illustrates learning paths for the mathematical concepts and skills of each grade 1 Focal Point as presented in Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten through Grade 8 Mathematics. It includes representational supports for teaching and learning that can facilitate…

  5. HELIOS modelling of point-focusing solar concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, J. W.; Mulholland, G. P.

    The modifications to the optical code HELIOS which are required in order to model point-focusing concentrators is presented. HELIOS simulates the optical behavior of reflecting heliostats and was written to model central receiver facilities, specifically that of the Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This paper discusses the necessary changes to the HELIOS code and to its input files such that it can successfully model point-focusing concentrators while retaining its computational power. A point-focusing concentrator located at the Solar Thermal Test Facility is presented as a sample case.

  6. Rapid Measurement of Individual Cone Photoreceptor Pointing using Focus Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Hugh J.; Codona, Johanan L.; Blanco, Leonardo; Doble, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    A novel method is presented to rapidly measure the pointing direction of individual human cone photoreceptors using adaptive optics (AO) retinal imaging. For a fixed entrance pupil position, the focal plane is rapidly modulated to image the guided light in various axial planes. For cones with different pointing directions, this focus diversity will cause a shift in their apparent position, allowing for their relative pointing to be determined. For four normal human subjects, retinal images were acquired, registered and the positions of individual cones tracked throughout the dataset. Variation in cone tilt was 0.02 radians, agreeing with other objective measurements on the same subjects at the same retinal locations. PMID:26368692

  7. Low-cost point-focus solar concentrator, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. V.; Derbidge, T. C.; Erskine, D.; Maraschin, R. A.; Niemeyer, W. A.; Matsushita, M. J.; Overly, P. T.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the preliminary design study for the low cost point focus solar concentrator (LCPFSC) development program are presented. A summary description of the preliminary design is given. The design philosophy used to achieve a cost effective design for mass production is described. The concentrator meets all design requirements specified and is based on practical design solutions in every possible way.

  8. Thermal performance trade-offs for point focusing solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, L.

    1978-01-01

    Solar thermal conversion performance is assessed in this paper for representative point focusing distributed systems. Trade-off comparisons are made in terms of concentrator quality, solar receiver operating temperature, and power conversion efficiency. Normalized system performance is presented on a unit concentrator area basis for integrated annual electric energy production.

  9. Use of ceramics in point-focus solar receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoak, R. H.; Kudirka, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    One of the research and development efforts in the Solar Thermal Energy Systems Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been focused on application of ceramic components for advanced point-focus solar receivers. The impetus for this effort is a need for high efficiency, low cost solar receivers which operate in a temperature regime where use of metal components is impractical. The current status of the work on evaluation of ceramic components at JPL and elsewhere is outlined and areas where lack of knowledge is currently slowing application of ceramics are discussed. Future developments of ceramic processing technology and reliability assurance methodology should open up applications for the point-focus solar concentrator system in fuels and chemicals production, in thermochemical energy transport and storage, in detoxification of hazardous materials and in high temperature process heat as well as for electric power generation.

  10. Multidirectional hybrid algorithm for the split common fixed point problem and application to the split common null point problem.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Guo, Meifang; Su, Yongfu

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a new multidirectional monotone hybrid iteration algorithm for finding a solution to the split common fixed point problem is presented for two countable families of quasi-nonexpansive mappings in Banach spaces. Strong convergence theorems are proved. The application of the result is to consider the split common null point problem of maximal monotone operators in Banach spaces. Strong convergence theorems for finding a solution of the split common null point problem are derived. This iteration algorithm can accelerate the convergence speed of iterative sequence. The results of this paper improve and extend the recent results of Takahashi and Yao (Fixed Point Theory Appl 2015:87, 2015) and many others .

  11. Solder fatigue reduction in point focus photovoltaic concentrator modules

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.D.; Burchett, S.N.

    1991-01-01

    Solder fatigue tests have been conducted on point focus photovoltaic concentration cell assemblies to identify a baseline fatigue life and to quantify the fatigue life improvements that result using a copper-molybdenum-copper low-expansion insert between the solar cell and copper heat spreader. Solder microstructural changes and fatigue crack growth were identified using cross sections and ultrasonic scans of the fatigue solder joints. The Coffin-Manson and Total Strain fatigue models for low-cycle fatigue were evaluated for use in fatigue life predictions. Since both of these models require strain calculations, two strain calculation methods were compared: hand-calculated shear strain and a finite element method shear strain. At present, the available theoretical models for low-cycle solder fatigue are limited in their ability to predict failure; consequently, extensive thermal cycling is continuing to define the fatigue life for point focus photovoltaic cell assemblies. 9 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. G130V, a common FRDA point mutation, appears to have arisen from a common founder.

    PubMed

    Delatycki, M B; Knight, M; Koenig, M; Cossée, M; Williamson, R; Forrest, S M

    1999-10-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is the most common inherited ataxia. About 98% of mutant alleles have an expansion of a GAA trinucleotide repeat in intron 1 of the affected gene, FRDA. The other 2% are point mutations. Of the 17 point mutations so far described, three appear to be more common. One of these is the G130V mutation in exon 4 of FRDA. G130V, when present with an expanded GAA repeat on the other allele, is associated with an atypical FRDA phenotype. Haplotype analysis was undertaken on the four families who have been described with this mutation. The results suggest a common founder for this mutation. Although marked differences in extragenic marker haplotypes were seen in one family, similar intragenic haplotyping suggests the same mutation founder for this family with the differences explicable by two recombination events.

  13. Transmittance-optimized, point-focus Fresnel lens solar concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Oneill, M.J.; Goldberg, V.R.; Muzzy, D.B.

    1982-07-01

    The development of a point-focus Fresnel lens solar concentrator for high-temperature solar thermal energy system applications is discussed. The concentrator utilizes a transmittance-optimized, short-focal-length, dome-shaped refractive Fresnel lens as the optical element. This concentrator combines both good optical performance and a large tolerance for manufacturing, deflection, and tracking errors. The conceptual design of an 11-meter diameter concentrator which should provide an overall collector efficiency of about 70% at an 815 C (1500 F) receiver operating temperature and a 1500X geometric concentration ratio (lens aperture area/receiver aperture area) was completed. Results of optical and thermal analyses of the collector, a discussion of manufacturing methods for making the large lens, and an update on the current status and future plans of the development program are included.

  14. Transmittance-optimized, point-focus Fresnel lens solar concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Oneill, M.J.

    1984-03-01

    The development of a point-focus Fresnel lens solar concentrator for high-temperature solar thermal energy system applications is discussed. The concentrator utilizes a transmittance-optimized, short-focal-length, dome-shaped refractive Fresnel lens as the optical element. This concentrator combines both good optical performance and a large tolerance for manufacturing, deflection, and tracking errors. The conceptual design of an 11-meter diameter concentrator which should provide an overall collector efficiency of about 70% at an 815 C (1500 F) receiver operating temperature and a 1500X geometric concentration ratio (lens aperture area/receiver aperture area) was completed. Results of optical and thermal analyses of the collector, a discussion of manufacturing methods for making the large lens, and an update on the current status and future plans of the development program are included.

  15. Low cost point focus solar concentrator, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Design concepts and plans for mass-production facilities and equipment, field installation, and maintenance were developed and used for cost analysis of a pneumatically stabilized plastic film point focus solar concentrator which has potential application in conjunction with Brayton cycle engines or supply of thermal energy. A sub-scale reflector was fabricated and optically tested by laser ray tracing to determine focal deviations of the surface slope and best focal plane. These test data were then used for comparisons with theoretical concentrator performance modeling and predictions of full-scale design performance. Results of the economic study indicate the concentrator design will have low cost when mass-produced and has cost/performance parameters that fall within current Jet Propulsion Laboratory goals.

  16. Categorization in Infancy: Labeling Induces a Persisting Focus on Commonalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althaus, Nadja; Plunkett, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies with infants and adults demonstrate a facilitative role of labels in object categorization. A common interpretation is that labels highlight commonalities between objects. However, direct evidence for such a mechanism is lacking. Using a novel object category with spatially separate features that are either of low or high…

  17. Connecting Online Learners with Diverse Local Practices: The Design of Effective Common Reference Points for Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend Wise, Alyssa; Padmanabhan, Poornima; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-methods study probed the effectiveness of three kinds of objects (video, theory, metaphor) as common reference points for conversations between online learners (student teachers). Individuals' degree of detail-focus was examined as a potentially interacting covariate and the outcome measure was learners' level of tacit knowledge related…

  18. Behavior as a common focus of toxicology and nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, B.

    1980-01-01

    Behavior as an index of toxicity parallels its role as an index of nutritional impairment, just as toxicology and nutrition share other common themes. Intersections among the three disciplines arise because foodstuffs serve as one of the major routes of toxic exposure and also because food elements modify toxicity. With this perspective, the safety of our food supply is examined in the contexts of essential nutrients, toxins, toxic metals, manufactured contaminants, self-administered toxicants, and food additives.

  19. Focus in Grade 8: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schielack, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This book describes and illustrates learning paths for the mathematical concepts and skills of each grade 8 Focal Point as presented in Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten through Grade 8 Mathematics. It includes representational supports for teaching and learning that can facilitate understanding, stimulate productive discussions about…

  20. Rigorous theory on elliptical mirror focusing for point scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Tan, Jiubin; Wilson, Tony; Zhong, Cien

    2012-03-12

    A rigorous elliptical mirror focusing formula based on spherical wave transformation is derived as a kind of imaging technique with high NA for potential applications in molecule imaging, spectroscopy and industrial artifact microscopy. An apodization factor is given and used to compare the energy conversation rules in lens transmission and parabolic and elliptical mirror reflections. Simulation results indicate that the axial HFWHM of elliptical and parabolic mirrors is about 80% of the corresponding HFWHM of lens in case of NA = 1 and φs = 0, and the side lobe noise is also slightly lower than that of lens, but the transverse HFWHM of mirrors is comparatively wider despite the width of main lobe is still smaller. In comparison with parabolic mirror based system, an elliptical mirror based system is potentially promising in aberration control of incident beam when the aperture of mirror is enlarged to adapt a large stage or specimen container at a small beam shading ratio.

  1. 47 CFR 73.57 - Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Remote reading antenna and common point... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.57 Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters. Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters may be used without further...

  2. 47 CFR 73.57 - Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Remote reading antenna and common point... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.57 Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters. Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters may be used without further...

  3. 47 CFR 73.57 - Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote reading antenna and common point... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.57 Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters. Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters may be used without further...

  4. Disconnecting Consciousness: Is There a Common Anesthetic End Point?

    PubMed

    Hudetz, Anthony G; Mashour, George A

    2016-11-01

    A quest for a systems-level neuroscientific basis of anesthetic-induced loss and return of consciousness has been in the forefront of research for the past 2 decades. Recent advances toward the discovery of underlying mechanisms have been achieved using experimental electrophysiology, multichannel electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging. By the careful dosing of various volatile and IV anesthetic agents to the level of behavioral unresponsiveness, both specific and common changes in functional and effective connectivity across large-scale brain networks have been discovered and interpreted in the context of how the synthesis of neural information might be affected during anesthesia. The results of most investigations to date converge toward the conclusion that a common neural correlate of anesthetic-induced unresponsiveness is a consistent depression or functional disconnection of lateral frontoparietal networks, which are thought to be critical for consciousness of the environment. A reduction in the repertoire of brain states may contribute to the anesthetic disruption of large-scale information integration leading to unconsciousness. In future investigations, a systematic delineation of connectivity changes with multiple anesthetics using the same experimental design, and the same analytical method will be desirable. The critical neural events that account for the transition between responsive and unresponsive states should be assessed at similar anesthetic doses just below and above the loss or return of responsiveness. There will also be a need to identify a robust, sensitive, and reliable measure of information transfer. Ultimately, finding a behavior-independent measure of subjective experience that can track covert cognition in unresponsive subjects and a delineation of causal factors versus correlated events will be essential to understand the neuronal basis of human consciousness and unconsciousness.

  5. Existence of common fixed point and best proximity point for generalized nonexpansive type maps in convex metric space.

    PubMed

    Rathee, Savita; Dhingra, Kusum; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Here, we extend the notion of (E.A.) property in a convex metric space defined by Kumar and Rathee (Fixed Point Theory Appl 1-14, 2014) by introducing a new class of self-maps which satisfies the common property (E.A.) in the context of convex metric space and ensure the existence of common fixed point for this newly introduced class of self-maps. Also, we guarantee the existence of common best proximity points for this class of maps satisfying generalized non-expansive type condition. We furnish an example in support of the proved results.

  6. Design of high-performance fixed-point transforms using the common factor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinds, Arianne T.

    2010-08-01

    Fixed-point implementations of transforms such as the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) remain as fundamental building blocks of state-of-the-art video coding technologies. Recently, the 16x16 DCT has received focus as a transform suitable for the high efficiency video coding project currently underway in the Joint Collaboration Team - Video Coding. By its definition, the 16x16 DCT is inherently more complex than transforms of traditional sizes such as 4x4 or 8x8 DCTs. However, scaled architectures such as the one employed in the design of the 8x8 DCTs specified in ISO/IEC 23002-2 can also be utilized to mitigate the complexity of fixed-point approximations of higher-order transforms such as the 16x16 DCT. This paper demonstrates the application of the Common Factor method to design two scaled implementations of the 16x16 DCT. One implementation can be characterized by its exceptionally low complexity, while the other can be characterized by its relatively high precision. We review the Common Factor method as a method to arrive at fixed-point implementations that are optimized in terms of complexity and precision for such high performance transforms.

  7. Common fixed point theorems of Gregus type for weakly compatible mappings satisfying generalized contractive conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliouche, A.

    2008-05-01

    We prove a common fixed point theorem of Gregus type for four mappings satisfying a generalized contractive condition in metric spaces using the concept of weak compatibility which generalizes theorems of [I. Altun, D. Turkoglu, B.E. Rhoades, Fixed points of weakly compatible mappings satisfying a general contractive condition of integral type, Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2007 (2007), article ID 17301; A. Djoudi, L. Nisse, Gregus type fixed points for weakly compatible mappings, Bull. Belg. Math. Soc. 10 (2003) 369-378; A. Djoudi, A. Aliouche, Common fixed point theorems of Gregus type for weakly compatible mappings satisfying contractive conditions of integral type, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 329 (1) (2007) 31-45; P. Vijayaraju, B.E. Rhoades, R. Mohanraj, A fixed point theorem for a pair of maps satisfying a general contractive condition of integral type, Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 15 (2005) 2359-2364; X. Zhang, Common fixed point theorems for some new generalized contractive type mappings, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 333 (2) (2007) 780-786]. We prove also a common fixed point theorem which generalizes Theorem 3.5 of [H.KE Pathak, M.S. Khan, T. Rakesh, A common fixed point theorem and its application to nonlinear integral equations, Comput. Math. Appl. 53 (2007) 961-971] and common fixed point theorems of Gregus type using a strict generalized contractive condition, a property (E.A) and a common property (E.A).

  8. Asymptotic behavior of two algorithms for solving common fixed point problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavski, Alexander J.

    2017-04-01

    The common fixed point problem is to find a common fixed point of a finite family of mappings. In the present paper our goal is to obtain its approximate solution using two perturbed algorithms. The first algorithm is an iterative method for problems in a metric space while the second one is a dynamic string-averaging algorithms for problems in a Hilbert space.

  9. Solar thermal power systems point-focusing thermal and electric applications projects. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PETEA) project for the fiscal year 1979 are summarized. The main thrust of the PFTEA Project, the small community solar thermal power experiment, was completed. Concept definition studies included a small central receiver approach, a point-focusing distributed receiver system with central power generation, and a point-focusing distributed receiver concept with distributed power generation. The first experiment in the Isolated Application Series was initiated. Planning for the third engineering experiment series, which addresses the industrial market sector, was also initiated. In addition to the experiment-related activities, several contracts to industry were let and studies were conducted to explore the market potential for point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. System analysis studies were completed that looked at PFDR technology relative to other small power system technology candidates for the utility market sector.

  10. A preliminary assessment of small steam Rankine and Brayton point-focusing solar modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roschke, E. J.; Wen, L.; Steele, H.; Elgabalawi, N.; Wang, J.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of three conceptual point-focusing distributed solar modules is presented. The basic power conversion units consist of small Brayton or Rankine engines individually coupled to two-axis, tracking, point-focusing solar collectors. An array of such modules can be linked together, via electric transport, to form a small power station. Each module also can be utilized on a stand-alone basis, as an individual power source.

  11. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer focus-aid enhanced mask

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    A phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer system (PS/PDI) employing a PS/PDI mask that includes a PDI focus aid is provided. The PDI focus aid mask includes a large or secondary reference pinhole that is slightly displaced from the true or primary reference pinhole. The secondary pinhole provides a larger capture tolerance for interferometrically performing fine focus. With the focus-aid enhanced mask, conventional methods such as the knife-edge test can be used to perform an initial (or rough) focus and the secondary (large) pinhole is used to perform interferometric fine focus. Once the system is well focused, high accuracy interferometry can be performed using the primary (small) pinhole.

  12. Isoelectric point determination of live polioviruses by capillary isoelectric focusing with whole column imaging detection.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Yvonne E; van Eikenhorst, Gerco; van der Pol, Leo A; Bakker, Wilfried A M

    2013-06-18

    Using a capillary isoelectric focusing-whole column imaging detection (CIEF-WCID) method, the isoelectric points (pI) of complete intact polioviruses were determined. The polioviruses that were analyzed are the commonly used viruses for the production of inactivated polio vaccines (IPV)-Mahoney (type 1), MEF (type 2), and Saukett (type 3)-as well as for attenuated oral polio vaccines (OPV) and Sabin types 1, 2, and 3. A method for analyzing biological hazardous components (biological safety level 2) was set up for the CIEF-WCID analyzer used. This method is based on closed circuits. The determined pI's were 6.2 for Mahoney, 6.7 for MEF-1, and 5.8 for Saukett. The pI's of Sabin types 1, 2, and 3 viruses were 7.4, 7.2, and 6.3, respectively. Resolution of the virus peaks was shown to be reproducible. Using this adjusted CIEF-WCID technique, the pI of biologically hazardous components like toxins or viruses can be determined, which is beneficial for the development of vaccine production methods among others.

  13. Design and development of injection molded Fresnel lenses for point-focus photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grendol, C.L.

    1987-05-01

    A summary of work performed on a method of injection molding an 80% efficient point-focus Fresnel lens is presented. A current optical design for compression molded lenses yields a 68.5% efficiency when translated directly to injection molding. An optical design optimized for injection molding, with a mold and process developed for high efficiency Fresnel lenses, yields an 82% efficiency.

  14. A point focusing collector for an integrated water/power complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zewen, H.; Schmidt, G.; Moustafa, S.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization potential of the point focusing parabolic dish is identified. Its main design parameters are summarized. Performance tests and the utilization of the collector as primary energy source in a food-water-power complex are described. Process heat, heat storage, heat transfer, and cogeneration are discussed.

  15. Performance prediction evaluation of ceramic materials in point-focusing solar receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewing, J.; Zwissler, J.

    1979-01-01

    A performance prediction was adapted to evaluate the use of ceramic materials in solar receivers for point focusing distributed applications. System requirements were determined including the receiver operating environment and system operating parameters for various engine types. Preliminary receiver designs were evolved from these system requirements. Specific receiver designs were then evaluated to determine material functional requirements.

  16. Time reversal ultrasound focusing to a point away from the beacon location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinelnikov, Yegor; Sutin, Alexander; Gandhi, Gaurav; Sarvazyan, Armen

    2012-10-01

    In percutaneous procedures there is often a need to focus therapeutic ultrasound to a predefined area without affecting surrounding tissues. Focusing based on Time Reversal Acoustics (TRA) principles constitutes a promising approach for generating high intensity ultrasound field tailored to the shape of the predefined area. Conventional TRA technique enables ultrasound focusing only at a site, where there is an ultrasound beacon, e.g. piezo-transducer mounted at the tip of a catheter. We developed a method of steering the focus away from the beacon location. The method is based on the measurements of impulse response (IR) in several reference points and calculating virtual IRs for the points outside the reference beacon location. The IR for the point away from the beacon is constructed based on mathematical extrapolation of the measured reference IRs frequency spectra, particularly phases. The effectiveness of extrapolated TRA focusing is explored experimentally and by computer simulation. Potential applications include ultrasounda-ssisted drug delivery, artery recanalization and tumor ablation.

  17. Common fixed points in best approximation for Banach operator pairs with Ciric type I-contractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, N.

    2008-02-01

    The common fixed point theorems, similar to those of Ciric [Lj.B. Ciric, On a common fixed point theorem of a Gregus type, Publ. Inst. Math. (Beograd) (N.S.) 49 (1991) 174-178; Lj.B. Ciric, On Diviccaro, Fisher and Sessa open questions, Arch. Math. (Brno) 29 (1993) 145-152; Lj.B. Ciric, On a generalization of Gregus fixed point theorem, Czechoslovak Math. J. 50 (2000) 449-458], Fisher and Sessa [B. Fisher, S. Sessa, On a fixed point theorem of Gregus, Internat. J. Math. Math. Sci. 9 (1986) 23-28], Jungck [G. Jungck, On a fixed point theorem of Fisher and Sessa, Internat. J. Math. Math. Sci. 13 (1990) 497-500] and Mukherjee and Verma [R.N. Mukherjee, V. Verma, A note on fixed point theorem of Gregus, Math. Japon. 33 (1988) 745-749], are proved for a Banach operator pair. As applications, common fixed point and approximation results for Banach operator pair satisfying Ciric type contractive conditions are obtained without the assumption of linearity or affinity of either T or I. Our results unify and generalize various known results to a more general class of noncommuting mappings.

  18. Common Coupled Fixed Point Theorems for Two Hybrid Pairs of Mappings under φ-ψ Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Amrish

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the concept of (EA) property and occasional w-compatibility for hybrid pair F : X × X → 2X and f : X → X. We also introduce common (EA) property for two hybrid pairs F, G : X → 2X and f, g : X → X. We establish some common coupled fixed point theorems for two hybrid pairs of mappings under φ-ψ contraction on noncomplete metric spaces. An example is also given to validate our results. We improve, extend and generalize several known results. The results of this paper generalize the common fixed point theorems for hybrid pairs of mappings and essentially contain fixed point theorems for hybrid pair of mappings. PMID:27340688

  19. Simulation of the shape from focus method using polychromatic point spread function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamarová, I.; Šmíd, P.; Horváth, P.

    2016-12-01

    Design of a model of a sensor based on the Shape from focus method is presented. The model uses polychromatic point spread functions of a generalized aperture function of lens and their convolution with an ideal image. The model approaches the reality and allows one to employ parameters of real components of the corresponding sensor, e.g. a spectrum of a light source, a dispersion function of a real imaging optical system and spectral sensitivity of a real light sensitive sensor. The model enables to study accuracy and reliability of the determination of the object's surface topography by means of the Shape from focus method.

  20. Jacquelines of all trades or masters of some? Negative implications of focusing on common factors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Douglas C

    2012-07-01

    The emphasis on common factors initially grew out of increasingly frustrating findings from randomized clinical trials that head-to-head comparison of different treatments rarely found one to be superior (Luborsky et al., 2002; Luborsky, Singer, & Luborsky, 1975). In this regard, Cameron and Keenan (2010) have done well calling attention to a fundamental problem we deal with in researching, practicing, and teaching. As an instructor, it is difficult to teach practice- minded MSW students about empirically supported treatments when, with few exceptions, most theoretically distinct treatments that have been contrasted are not so different in terms of outcomes. This beckons us to teach students to think critically and understand the limits of current research on empirically supported treatments. However, I have argued here that there are benefits to teaching students about specific ESTs. It is plausible that providing extensive training in specific ESTs could be a platform for teaching about common factors, rather than focusing on developing generalist skills and later learning specific techniques that are needed in certain practice areas. Doing so gives students some useful techniques, which are associated with clinical improvement and can be adapted to other practice settings. It is unclear if the same can be said for teaching a common factors approach, which is already the dominant training model in social work. Of course, empirical research is needed to determine whether varying degrees of training emphasis on common factors or specific ESTs affect clinical skill development or adoption of ESTs. With regard to the issue of common factors in clinical research, health services researchers are already being encouraged to propose novel techniques for how we might affect common factors. Although it is clear that such mechanisms are not always unique to particular treatments, such research is typically being done incrementally by studying in-session processes operating

  1. Thermal power systems point-focusing distributed receiver technology project. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal or electrical power from the sun's radiated energy through Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver Technology is the goal of this project. The energy thus produced must be technically, as well as economically, competitive with other energy sources. This project is to support the industrial development of the required technology to achieve the above stated goal. Solar energy is concentrated by either a reflecting surface or a lense to a receiver where it is transferred to a working liquid or gas. Receiver temperatures are in the 1000 - 2000 F range. Conceptual design studies are expected to identify power conversion units with a viable place in the solar energy future. Rankine and Brayton cycle engines are under investigation. This report details the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's accomplishments with point-focusing technology in Fy 1978.

  2. Design and development of a laminated Fresnel lens for point focus pv systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, R.B. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a laminated Fresnel lens for point focus photovoltaic concentrators systems is described. The lens consists of a glass superstrate to which a thin 6.7 inch square Fresnel lens is bonded. A key aim of the program was to investigate the technical feasibility of injection molding acceptable quality Fresnel lenses. Significant progress was made in demonstrating this feasibility and is reported.

  3. Design and development of a laminated glass-plastic Fresnel lens for point focus photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Matalon, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The design and development of a laminated glass-plastic Fresnel lens for point focus photovoltaic systems use is described. The objective of this development was to examine the feasibility of producing lenses with a cost effectiveness superior to that of lenses made by casting of acrylic. The procedure used in executing this development, the method used in cost effectiveness evaluation, results obtained and recommendations for further work are presented.

  4. Re-evaluation of an improved efficiency polymeric web point-focus Fresnel lens

    SciTech Connect

    Stillwell, C.B.

    1988-08-01

    The optical efficiency of the lens developed by 3M and reported in Development and Evaluation of an Improved Efficiency Polymeric Web Point-Focus Fresnel Lens was measured by Sandia and reported to be 82%. Subsequent to publication of that report, additional lens tests at Sandia showed a lens efficiency of only 79%. This report presents the results of a study to determine why the lens efficiency is now lower than originally observed. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Making a semi-convex Focus area in a Focus+Glue+Context map, considering map visibility and transport access points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirako, Y.; Yamamoto, D.; Takahashi, N.

    2016-04-01

    We previously implemented the Focus+Glue+Context map system EMMA that provides local detailed data in Focus, global context data in Context, and connection data between both in the same view. Introducing the Glue area between Focus and Context makes it possible to provide uniform scaling for the two latter areas. This paper enhances EMMA through the implementation of a Focus creation function that considers transportation access points, such as stations and bus stops. The enhanced EMMA searches a route from the current location to the transportation access point, and allows users to identify the spatial relationship between the various locations in a small-scale Context, and view the route from the current location to the transportation access points in a large-scale Focus. However, if Focus is too large because of unnecessary areas used to identify the route, some parts of Context might be hidden by Focus. The proposed system solves this problem by implementing the following functions: (1) it searches stations that are adjacent to the current location and makes a semiconvex Focus that includes the current location and those stations in order for Focus to include really necessary areas. (2) It reduces Focus distortion by setting a fixed point as the center of the Focus area. (3) It smoothens the Focus shape in order to improve visibility in the Glue area. We developed a prototype of the proposed system that implements these functions.

  6. Reviving common standards in point-count surveys for broad inference across studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsuoka, Steven M.; Mahon, C. Lisa; Handel, Colleen M.; Solymos, Peter; Bayne, Erin M.; Fontaine, Patricia C.; Ralph, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the common standards recommended by Ralph et al. (1993, 1995a) for conducting point-count surveys to assess the relative abundance of landbirds breeding in North America. The standards originated from discussions among ornithologists in 1991 and were developed so that point-count survey data could be broadly compared and jointly analyzed by national data centers with the goals of monitoring populations and managing habitat. Twenty years later, we revisit these standards because (1) they have not been universally followed and (2) new methods allow estimation of absolute abundance from point counts, but these methods generally require data beyond the original standards to account for imperfect detection. Lack of standardization and the complications it introduces for analysis become apparent from aggregated data. For example, only 3% of 196,000 point counts conducted during the period 1992-2011 across Alaska and Canada followed the standards recommended for the count period and count radius. Ten-minute, unlimited-count-radius surveys increased the number of birds detected by >300% over 3-minute, 50-m-radius surveys. This effect size, which could be eliminated by standardized sampling, was ≥10 times the published effect sizes of observers, time of day, and date of the surveys. We suggest that the recommendations by Ralph et al. (1995a) continue to form the common standards when conducting point counts. This protocol is inexpensive and easy to follow but still allows the surveys to be adjusted for detection probabilities. Investigators might optionally collect additional information so that they can analyze their data with more flexible forms of removal and time-of-detection models, distance sampling, multiple-observer methods, repeated counts, or combinations of these methods. Maintaining the common standards as a base protocol, even as these study-specific modifications are added, will maximize the value of point-count data, allowing compilation and

  7. Solar thermal power systems point-focusing distributed receiver technology project. Volume 2: Detailed report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The accomplishments of the Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver Technology Project during fiscal year 1979 are detailed. Present studies involve designs of modular units that collect and concentrate solar energy via highly reflective, parabolic-shaped dishes. The concentrated energy is then converted to heat in a working fluid, such as hot gas. In modules designed to produce heat for industrial applications, a flexible line conveys the heated fluid from the module to a heat transfer network. In modules designed to produce electricity the fluid carries the heat directly to an engine in a power conversion unit located at the focus of the concentrator. The engine is mechanically linked to an electric generator. A Brayton-cycle engine is currently being developed as the most promising electrical energy converter to meet near-future needs.

  8. Point Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications Project. Volume 2: Workshop proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, K. E. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Point focus distributed receiver solar thermal technology for the production of electric power and of industrial process heat is discussed. Thermal power systems are described. Emphasis is on the development of cost effective systems which will accelerate the commercialization and industrialization of plants, using parabolic dish collectors. The characteristics of PFDR systems and the cost targets for major subsystems hardware are identified. Markets for this technology and their size are identified, and expected levelized bus bar energy costs as a function of yearly production level are presented. The present status of the technology development effort is discussed.

  9. Thermal power systems, point-focusing distributed receiver technology project. Volume 2: Detailed report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal or electrical power from the sun's radiated energy through Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver technology is the goal of this Project. The energy thus produced must be economically competitive with other sources. The Project supports the industrial development of technology and hardware for extracting energy from solar power to achieve the stated goal. Present studies are working to concentrate the solar energy through mirrors or lenses, to a working fluid or gas, and through a power converter change to an energy source useful to man. Rankine-cycle and Brayton-cycle engines are currently being developed as the most promising energy converters for our near future needs.

  10. Efficiency degradation due to tracking errors for point focusing solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. O.

    1978-01-01

    An important parameter in the design of point focusing solar collectors is the intercept factor which is a measure of efficiency and of energy available for use in the receiver. Using statistical methods, an expression of the expected value of the intercept factor is derived for various configurations and control law implementations. The analysis assumes that a radially symmetric flux distribution (not necessarily Gaussian) is generated at the focal plane due to the sun's finite image and various reflector errors. The time-varying tracking errors are assumed to be uniformly distributed within the threshold limits and allows the expected value calculation.

  11. Design and development of a laminated Fresnel lens for point-focus PV systems. Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, R.C.

    1982-12-01

    A laminated glass-plastic lens parquet using injection molded point focus Fresnel lenses is described. The second phase of a program aimed at investigating the cost effectiveness of a glass-plastic concentrator lens assembly is reported. The first phase dealt with the development of a first generation lens design, the selection of the preferred glass coverplate and glass-to-lens adhesive and initial injection molding lens molding trials. The second phase has dealt with the development of an improved lens design, a full size parquet lamination process, and a second group of injection molding lens molding trials.

  12. A transmittance-optimized, point-focus Fresnel lens solar concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, M. J.; Goldberg, V. R.; Muzzy, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a point-focus Fresnel lens solar concentrator for high-temperature solar thermal energy system applications is discussed. The concentrator utilizes a transmittance-optimized, short-focal-length, dome-shaped refractive Fresnel lens as the optical element. This concentrator combines both good optical performance and a large tolerance for manufacturing, deflection, and tracking errors. The conceptual design of an 11-meter diameter concentrator which should provide an overall collector efficiency of about 70% at an 815 C (1500 F) receiver operating temperature and a 1500X geometric concentration ratio (lens aperture area/receiver aperture area) was completed. Results of optical and thermal analyses of the collector, a discussion of manufacturing methods for making the large lens, and an update on the current status and future plans of the development program are included.

  13. Focused Acute Medicine Ultrasound (FAMUS) - point of care ultrasound for the Acute Medical Unit.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Nicholas; Dachsel, Martin; Matsa, Ramprasad; Tabiowo, Eugene; Walden, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Point of care ultrasound (POCU) is becoming increasingly popular as an extension to clinical examination techniques. Specific POCU training pathways have been developed in specialties such as Emergency and Intensive Care Medicine (CORE Emergency Ultrasound and Core UltraSound Intensive Care, for example), but until this time there has not been a curriculum for the acutely unwell medical patient outside of Critical Care. We describe the development of Focused Acute Medicine Ultrasound (FAMUS), a curriculum designed specifically for the Acute Physician to learn ultrasound techniques to aid in the management of the unwell adult patient. We detail both the outline of the curriculum and the process involved for a candidate to achieve FAMUS accreditation. It is anticipated this will appeal to both Acute Medical Unit (AMU) clinicians and general physicians who deal with the unwell or deteriorating medical or surgical patient. In time, the aspiration is for FAMUS to become a core part of the AIM curriculum.

  14. A Transmittance-optimized, Point-focus Fresnel Lens Solar Concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a point-focus Fresnel lens solar concentrator for high-temperature solar thermal energy system applications is discussed. The concentrator utilizes a transmittance-optimized, short-focal-length, dome-shaped refractive Fresnel lens as the optical element. This concentrator combines both good optical performance and a large tolerance for manufacturing, deflection, and tracking errors. The conceptual design of an 11-meter diameter concentrator which should provide an overall collector efficiency of about 70% at an 815 C (1500 F) receiver operating temperature and a 1500X geometric concentration ratio (lens aperture area/receiver aperture area) was completed. Results of optical and thermal analyses of the collector, a discussion of manufacturing methods for making the large lens, and an update on the current status and future plans of the development program are included.

  15. Point focusing using loudspeaker arrays from the perspective of optimal beamforming.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mingsian R; Hsieh, Yu-Hao

    2015-06-01

    Sound focusing is to create a concentrated acoustic field in the region surrounded by a loudspeaker array. This problem was tackled in the previous research via the Helmholtz integral approach, brightness control, acoustic contrast control, etc. In this paper, the same problem was revisited from the perspective of beamforming. A source array model is reformulated in terms of the steering matrix between the source and the field points, which lends itself to the use of beamforming algorithms such as minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) and linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) originally intended for sensor arrays. The beamforming methods are compared with the conventional methods in terms of beam pattern, directional index, and control effort. Objective tests are conducted to assess the audio quality by using perceptual evaluation of audio quality (PEAQ). Experiments of produced sound field and listening tests are conducted in a listening room, with results processed using analysis of variance and regression analysis. In contrast to the conventional energy-based methods, the results have shown that the proposed methods are phase-sensitive in light of the distortionless constraint in formulating the array filters, which helps enhance audio quality and focusing performance.

  16. Charge-based characterisation of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from common wheat by capillary isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Langner, Monika; Franaszek, Sławomir

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) method for the separation and charge characterisation of the heterogeneity of high molecular-weight-glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using linear polyacrylamide (LPA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coated capillaries was developed. Particularly good repeatability and well-resolved charge isoform profiles were obtained by introducing a mixture of carrier ampholytes (pH 3-10 and pH 5-8), a high concentration of urea (6M) and SB3-12 as detergent in a sample solution during separation in a PVA-coated capillary. One major and one or two minor isoforms were observed for the individual HMW-GS. These isoforms were satisfactorily separated using a pH gradient into two groups: y-type isoforms and x-type isoforms encoded by the Glu-B1 locus with shorter migration times and remaining x-type isoforms with longer times. The method produced from eight to twelve isoforms of wheat HMW-GS with pI points in the range of 4.72-6.98. Generally, the minor isoforms were more acidic compared with the major isoform. The y-type subunits had an approximately neutral character (pI 6.70-6.98); however, x-types showed a weakly acidic character (pI 4.72-5.23), with the exception of subunits encoded by the Glu-B1 locus. The isoelectric point peak profiles were compared with capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) electropherograms. Generally, the number of detected isoforms for the particular HMW-GS detected using both methods were similar.

  17. Bistable isoelectric point photoswitching in green fluorescent proteins observed by dynamic immunoprobed isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Alex J; Tentori, Augusto M; Herr, Amy E

    2012-10-24

    We describe a novel isoelectric point photoswitching phenomenon in both wild-type Aequorea victoria (av) GFP and the amino acid 222 E-to-G mutant Aequorea coerulescens (ac) GFP. A combination of time-resolved microfluidic isoelectric focusing (IEF) and in situ antibody blotting IEF was employed to monitor dark (nonfluorescent) and bright (fluorescent) GFP populations. Through IEF, each population was observed to exhibit distinct isoelectric points (pI) and, thus, distinct formal electrostatic charges. Experimentally observed interconversion between the dark, higher pI and bright, lower pI GFP populations is tightly controlled by differential UV and blue light exposure. The stoichiometry and kinetics of charge transfer tied to this reversible photobleaching process are deduced. In concert with a reaction-transport model of bistable reversible charge and fluorescence photoswitching, the on-chip measurements of population interconversion rates suggest the potential for both rheostatic and discrete switch-like modulation of the electrostatic charge of GFPs depending on the illumination profile. We estimate that 3-4 formal charges distinguish the bright and dark populations of avGFP, as compared to one charge for those of acGFP. Given the proposed role of E222 as a bridge between internal and exit hydrogen-bond clusters within the GFP β-barrel, the difference in charge switching magnitude between the two mutants provides intriguing evidence for the proton wire hypothesis of proton transport within the GFP structure, and of proton exchange with the bulk solvent. Our facile dynamic and probed IEF assays should find widespread use in analytical screening and quantitative kinetic analysis of photoswitching and other charge switching processes in response to stimuli including light, temperature, or binding/cleavage events.

  18. Common reflection point stacking: A macro model driven approach to dip moveout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderschoot, Adriaan

    Dip Moveout (DMO) is a valuable tool in processing schemes. A depth-oriented approach to DMO, called Common Reflection Point (CRP) stacking is presented. The CRP operator design is based on a macro model of the subsurface, in which ray tracing is performed. Lateral as well as vertical velocity variations are allowed. To obtain an exact (with respect to travel times) CRP operator for the inhomogeneous media, offset ray tracing for all offsets are needed. The multi-offset ray tracing is approximated by efficient zero-offset ray tracing, in combination with a simple mathematical relation. The CRP scheme is compared with conventional DMO schemes. Attention is paid to the evaluation of CRP stacking and prestack migration on synthetic and real data. The theory presented is developed for two dimensional media and indications of how the CRP concept can be extended to three dimensional media are given.

  19. Shifted focus point of the Higgs mass parameter from the minimal mixed mediation of supersymmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyae, Bumseok

    2015-07-01

    We employ both the minimal gravity- and the minimal gauge mediations of supersymmetry breaking at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale in a single supergravity framework, assuming the gaugino masses are generated dominantly by the minimal gauge mediation effects. In such a "minimal mixed mediation model," a "focus point" of the soft Higgs mass parameter, mhu 2 emerges at 3-4 TeV energy scale, which is exactly the stop mass scale needed for explaining the 126 GeV Higgs boson mass without the "A -term" at the three-loop level. As a result, mhu2 can be quite insensitive to various trial stop masses at low energy, reducing the fine-tuning measures to be much smaller than 100 even for a 3-4 TeV low energy stop mass and -0.5

  20. Development and evaluation of an improved efficiency polymeric web point-focus Fresnel lens

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, S. Jr.

    1987-04-01

    The feasibility of producing parquets of point-focus Fresnel lenses with a 2/sup 0/ draft angle on the riser in a continuous polymeric web is described. The parquet produced consisted of 14 square lenses, each 8.16 in. on a side, in a 2 by 7 format. The primary aim was to show that an increased efficiency was possible over that reported in SAND83-7023 by decreasing the draft angle. A secondary aim was also to produce a web of sufficient thickness to be used without lamination to a thick superstrate. The results demonstrated that increased efficiency was realized for both the thin and thick caliper material, with performance nearly equal to a direct-cut control lens. The results also show that a bowing or sagging problem exists in the laminated lenses. They also show that the thicker, non-laminated lenses may not be stiff enough to lie flat and may buckle, causing these lenses to be potentially unacceptable.

  1. Turning point temperature and competition between relativistic and ponderomotive effects in self-focusing of laser beam in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bokaei, B.; Niknam, A. R.; Jafari Milani, M. R.

    2013-10-15

    The propagation characters of Gaussian laser beam in collisionless plasma are investigated by considering the ponderomotive and relativistic nonlinearities. The second-order differential equation of dimensionless beam width parameter is solved numerically, taking into account the effect of electron temperature. The results show that the ponderomotive force does not facilitate the relativistic self-focusing in all intensity ranges. In fact, there exists a certain intensity value that, if below this value, the ponderomotive nonlinearity can contribute to the relativistic self-focusing, or obstruct it, if above. It is also indicated that there is a temperature interval in which self-focusing can occur, while the beam diverges outside of this region. In addition, the results represent the existence of a “turning point temperature” in the mentioned interval that the self-focusing has the strongest power. The value of the turning point is dependent on laser intensity in which higher intensities result in higher turning point.

  2. Using PowerPoint as a Lens to Focus on Linearity in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchin, Ian M.; Chadha, Deesha; Kokotailo, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    As university lecturers select and sequence materials for their teaching, a linear structure emerges by default. Such a structure is made explicit within PowerPoint presentations and may even be amplified as PowerPoint invites the lecturer to reduce content to a bulleted format. Such linear sequences have been related to passive, surface…

  3. The Speech Focus Position Effect on Jaw-Finger Coordination in a Pointing Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochet-Capellan, Amelie; Laboissiere, Rafael; Galvan, Arturo; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates jaw-finger coordination in a task involving pointing to a target while naming it with a 'CVCV (e.g., /'papa/) versus CV'CV (e.g., /pa'pa/) word. According to the authors' working hypothesis, the pointing apex (gesture extremum) would be synchronized with the apex of the jaw-opening gesture corresponding to the…

  4. Commonality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E., Jr.

    Commonality analysis is an attempt to understand the relative predictive power of the regressor variables, both individually and in combination. The squared multiple correlation is broken up into elements assigned to each individual regressor and to each possible combination of regressors. The elements have the property that the appropriate sums…

  5. A Review of the Effects on IRT Item Parameter Estimates with a Focus on Misbehaving Common Items in Test Equating

    PubMed Central

    Michaelides, Michalis P.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the topic of change or drift in item parameter estimates in the context of item response theory (IRT). Content effects, such as instructional variation and curricular emphasis, as well as context effects, such as the wording, position, or exposure of an item have been found to impact item parameter estimates. The issue becomes more critical when items with estimates exhibiting differential behavior across test administrations are used as common for deriving equating transformations. This paper reviews the types of effects on IRT item parameter estimates and focuses on the impact of misbehaving or aberrant common items on equating transformations. Implications relating to test validity and the judgmental nature of the decision to keep or discard aberrant common items are discussed, with recommendations for future research into more informed and formal ways of dealing with misbehaving common items. PMID:21833230

  6. Numerical focusing methods for full field OCT: a comparison based on a common signal model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhishek; Drexler, Wolfgang; Leitgeb, Rainer A

    2014-06-30

    In this paper a theoretical model of the full field swept source (FF SS) OCT signal is presented based on the angular spectrum wave propagation approach which accounts for the defocus error with imaging depth. It is shown that using the same theoretical model of the signal, numerical defocus correction methods based on a simple forward model (FM) and inverse scattering (IS), the latter being similar to interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM), can be derived. Both FM and IS are compared quantitatively with sub-aperture based digital adaptive optics (DAO). FM has the least numerical complexity, and is the fastest in terms of computational speed among the three. SNR improvement of more than 10 dB is shown for all the three methods over a sample depth of 1.5 mm. For a sample with non-uniform refractive index with depth, FM and IS both improved the depth of focus (DOF) by a factor of 7x for an imaging NA of 0.1. DAO performs the best in case of non-uniform refractive index with respect to DOF improvement by 11x.

  7. Common conversion point stacking of receiver functions versus passive source reverse time migration and wavefield regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xuefeng; de Hoop, Maarten V.; van der Hilst, Robert D.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate with synthetic and field data that with sufficiently dense sampling wave-equation based methods such as reverse time migration (RTM), implicitly forming array receiver functions (ARFs), perform better resolution-wise than migration of common conversion point (CCP) stacks of traditional receiver functions. However, even with modern array deployments the sampling requirement is typically not met for teleseismic (earthquake) data. To enable RTM imaging with sparsely (and irregularly) sampled wavefields at the surface we use an intermediate reconstruction based on sparsity promoting optimization using a curvelet (or wave packet) representation of the data, as an important and necessary preprocessing step. To suppress artifacts, the curvelet coefficients are constrained to represent the range of known directions present in the data. We show that our proposed preprocessing procedure (which may be viewed as generating 'missing' traces) can produce artifact-free data for RTM even if only 20% of the necessary data is available in the original data set. With synthetic data we also demonstrate that if sampling criteria are not met, CCP can produce results that are superior over wave-equation methods such as RTM. As a proof-of-concept with field data we image the structure of the crust beneath the Himalayas with passive-source RTM of teleseismic data from the Hi-CLIMB project (Nábělek et al., 2005). For Hi-CLIMB data the CCP and RTM results are similar because sampling is still too sparse for RTM and because the structure is simple enough for successful CCP. Both results are both improved by wavefield regularization and reveal that the Moho is continuous beneath most of the array, and not fragmented as suggested by some earlier studies.

  8. Engineering students at typically invisible transition points: A focus on admissions and the sophomore year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Elizabeth M.

    As of 2012, women are approximately 19% of all engineering undergraduate students nationally (American Society for Engineering Education, 2012). Women's representation in engineering has not changed significantly over the last 20 years, despite increased attention, increased funding, and increased programmatic activities intended to encourage more women to become engineers. Research around the world continues to seek identification of the reasons for the underrepresentation of women in engineering. This prior work has focused primarily on two broad areas: recruiting, that is, preparation, socialization, exposure, and experiences prior to college; and retention, that is, experiences in higher education. Retention studies and programmatic responses to those studies mostly have been confined to the collegiate first year, a time of historically high attrition. Little attention has been paid to the university admissions process, one of the gateways to engineering studies. Little attention also has been paid to the experiences of college sophomores, whose attrition rates approach those of first-year college students. The first section of this dissertation presents a statistical analysis that indicated a bias in favor of men in the admission process. Success factor modeling suggested a different set of admission criteria could mitigate this bias. After recommendations to change admission criteria were implemented, the percent of female enrollment in engineering increased and statistical analysis confirmed that bias was substantially neutralized. The second section of this dissertation presents three frameworks for understanding how sophomores may be defined. The processes of conceptualizing and operationalizing what it means to be a sophomore impact the types of issues that can be investigated about student attrition, the findings that result from those investigations, and the ability to make cross institutional or programmatic comparisons using a clearly stated

  9. Thermal Power Systems (TPS); Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PFTEA). Volume 2: Detailed report, fiscal year 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the development of systems which employ point focusing distributed receiver technology is reported. Emphasis is placed on the first engineering experiment, the Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment. Procurement activities for the Military Module Power Experiment the first of a series of experiments planned as part of the Isolated Load Series are included.

  10. Optimization of a point-focusing, distributed receiver solar thermal electric system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pons, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to optimization of a solar concept which employs solar-to-electric power conversion at the focus of parabolic dish concentrators. The optimization procedure is presented through a series of trade studies, which include the results of optical/thermal analyses and individual subsystem trades. Alternate closed-cycle and open-cycle Brayton engines and organic Rankine engines are considered to show the influence of the optimization process, and various storage techniques are evaluated, including batteries, flywheels, and hybrid-engine operation.

  11. Features of Effective Medical Knowledge Resources to Support Point of Care Learning: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, David A.; Sorensen, Kristi J.; Hersh, William; Berger, Richard A.; Wilkinson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Health care professionals access various information sources to quickly answer questions that arise in clinical practice. The features that favorably influence the selection and use of knowledge resources remain unclear. We sought to better understand how clinicians select among the various knowledge resources available to them, and from this to derive a model for an effective knowledge resource. Methods We conducted 11 focus groups at an academic medical center and outlying community sites. We included a purposive sample of 50 primary care and subspecialist internal medicine and family medicine physicians. We transcribed focus group discussions and analyzed these using a constant comparative approach to inductively identify features that influence the selection of knowledge resources. Results We identified nine features that influence users' selection of knowledge resources, namely efficiency (with sub-features of comprehensiveness, searchability, and brevity), integration with clinical workflow, credibility, user familiarity, capacity to identify a human expert, reflection of local care processes, optimization for the clinical question (e.g., diagnosis, treatment options, drug side effect), currency, and ability to support patient education. No single existing resource exemplifies all of these features. Conclusion The influential features identified in this study will inform the development of knowledge resources, and could serve as a framework for future research in this field. PMID:24282535

  12. Exploration & development: US Rockies gas focus points up need for access, risk takers, infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomasson, M.R.; Belanger, P.E.; Cook, L.

    2004-01-01

    The last 20 yr of the Rocky Mountains oil and gas exploration and production business have been turbulent. Most of the major companies have left; they have been replaced with, independents and small to larger private and public companies. Natural gas become the primary focus of exploration. A discussion covers the shift of interest from drilling for oil to gas exploration and development in the Rockies since 1980; resource pyramid, showing relative volumes, reserves, resources, and undiscovered gas; the Wyoming fields that boost US gas supply, i.e., Jonah (6-12 tcf), Pinedale Anticline (10-20 tcf); Big Piney-LaBarge (15-25 tcf), Madden (3-5 tcf), and Powder river (24-27 tcf); and the future.

  13. Reciprocal Continuity and Common Fixed Point for two Pairs of Self-Maps Satisfying a Generalized Inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phaneendra, T.; Swatmaram

    2012-10-01

    We obtain a common fixed point for two pairs of self-maps on a complete metric space, one of which is reciprocally continuous and compatible, while the other weakly compatible, where all the four maps satisfy a generalized inequality. Our result is a significant generalization of that of Singh and Mishra.

  14. Structural alignment of proteins by a novel TOPOFIT method, as a superimposition of common volumes at a topomax point

    PubMed Central

    Ilyin, Valentin A.; Abyzov, Alexej; Leslin, Chesley M.

    2004-01-01

    Similarity of protein structures has been analyzed using three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation patterns derived from the backbone representation. It has been found that structurally related proteins have a common spatial invariant part, a set of tetrahedrons, mathematically described as a common spatial subgraph volume of the three-dimensional contact graph derived from Delaunay tessellation (DT). Based on this property of protein structures, we present a novel common volume superimposition (TOPOFIT) method to produce structural alignments. Structural alignments usually evaluated by a number of equivalent (aligned) positions (Ne) with corresponding root mean square deviation (RMSD). The superimposition of the DT patterns allows one to uniquely identify a maximal common number of equivalent residues in the structural alignment. In other words, TOPOFIT identifies a feature point on the RMSD Ne curve, a topomax point, until which the topologies of two structures correspond to each other, including backbone and interresidue contacts, whereas the growing number of mismatches between the DT patterns occurs at larger RMSD (Ne) after the topomax point. It has been found that the topomax point is present in all alignments from different protein structural classes; therefore, the TOPOFIT method identifies common, invariant structural parts between proteins. The alignments produced by the TOPOFIT method have a good correlation with alignments produced by other current methods. This novel method opens new opportunities for the comparative analysis of protein structures and for more detailed studies on understanding the molecular principles of tertiary structure organization and functionality. The TOPOFIT method also helps to detect conformational changes, topological differences in variable parts, which are particularly important for studies of variations in active/ binding sites and protein classification. PMID:15215530

  15. Positive fragile X microsatellite associations point to a common mechanism of dynamic mutation evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.T.; Zhong, N.; Dobkin, C.

    1996-03-01

    We recently reported that the size of fragile X gene (FMR1) triplet repeats and two nearby microsatellites show positive allele-size associations. The larger alleles of microsatellite DXS548, located {approximately}150 kb proximal to the FMR1 CGG repeat, and of FRAXAC1 (AC1), located 7 kb proximal to the FMR1 CGG repeat, tend to occur together, and smaller alleles also tend to occur together. Also, fragile X chromosomes are more commonly found on the larger combined microsatellite-allele haplotypes. We now have extended these observations to include two other nearby repeats, FRAXAC2 (AC2), a complex three-part polymorphism located 12 kb distal, and the FRAXE triplet repeat, located 600 kb distal. We divided the chromosomes into controls with FMR1 repeats of <60 and fragile X chromosomes with repeats {>=}60, since FMR1 alleles with repeats {>=}60 show high intergenerational instability. In the 133 controls, previously analyzed for AGG interspersions, and in 119 fragile X chromosomes, we found that these repeats show nonrandom size associations. To describe this numerically, we calculated correlation coefficients for the repeat lengths. These repeats showed significantly positive correlations with each other. Although FRAXE alleles showed no correlation with the control repeats, they did have positive correlations with fragile X chromosome microsatellites (AC1 and AC2 but not DXS548), which may reflect the larger recombinational distances involved and the possibly more recent origin of the fragile X mutations. The correlations tended to be higher for the number of 3{prime} pure CGGs than for total FMR1 repeats in controls. These findings strengthen our hypothesis that there may be a common underlying mutational mechanism that simultaneously affects these repeat loci. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Approximating common fixed points of asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mappings by a k+1-step iterative scheme with error terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jian-Zhong; Sun, Jing; Huang, Xuan

    2010-02-01

    In this paper a k+1-step iterative scheme with error terms involving k+1 asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mappings is studied. In usual Banach spaces, some sufficient and necessary conditions are given for the iterative scheme to approximate a common fixed point. In uniformly convex Banach spaces, power equicontinuity for a mapping is introduced and a series of new convergence theorems are established. Several known results in the current literature are extended and refined.

  17. Support for a ban on tobacco powerwalls and other point-of-sale displays: findings from focus groups.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Carol L; Allen, Jane A; Kosa, Katherine M; Curry, Laurel E

    2015-02-01

    This study uses focus group data to document consumer perceptions of powerwall and other point-of-sale (POS) tobacco displays, and support for a ban on tobacco displays. Four focus groups were conducted in 2012 by a trained moderator. The study comprised 34 adult residents of New York State, approximately half with children under age 18 years living at home. Measures used in the study were awareness and perceptions of powerwall and other POS displays, and level of support for a ban on tobacco displays. Analysis focused on perceptions of powerwall and other POS displays, level of support for a ban on tobacco displays and reasons participants oppose a display ban. This study documents a general lack of concern about tobacco use in the community, which does not appear to be associated with support for a ban on POS tobacco displays. Although all participants had seen tobacco powerwalls and most considered them to be a form of advertising, participants were divided as to whether they played a role in youth smoking. Additional research is warranted to determine what factors individuals weigh in assigning value to a ban on POS tobacco displays and other tobacco control policies and how educational efforts can influence those assessments.

  18. Low-cost manufacturing of the point focus concentrating module and its key component, the Fresnel lens

    SciTech Connect

    Saifee, T.; Konnerth, A. III )

    1991-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) has been developing point-focus concentrating PV modules since 1986. SKI is currently in position to manufacture between 200 to 600 kilowatts annually of the current design by a combination of manual and semi-automated methods. This report reviews the current status of module manufacture and specifies the required approach to achieve a high-volume manufacturing capability and low cost. The approach taken will include process development concurrent with module design for automated manufacturing. The current effort reviews the major manufacturing costs and identifies components and processes whose improvements would produce the greatest effect on manufacturability and cost reduction. The Fresnel lens is one such key component. Investigating specific alternative manufacturing methods and sources has substantially reduced the lens costs and has exceeded the DOE cost-reduction goals. 15 refs.

  19. The Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications Project - A progress report. [small solar power systems applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A. T.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications Project which encompasses three primary activities: (1) applications analysis and development, in which potential markets for small power systems (less than 10 MWe) are identified and characterized in order to provide requirements for design and information for activities relating to market development; (2) systems engineering and development, for analyses that will define the most appropriate small power system designs based on specific user requirements; and (3) experiment implementation and test, which deals with the design and placement of engineering experiments in various applications environments in order to test the readiness of the selected technology in an operational setting. Progress to date and/or key results are discussed throughout the text.

  20. A multivariate approach for the determination of isoelectric point of human carbonic anhydrase isoforms by capillary isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Lecoeur, Marie; Goossens, Jean-François; Vaccher, Claude; Bonte, Jean-Paul; Foulon, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) IX and XII are isoenzymes which are highly overexpressed in many cancer types. Recently, it has been shown that hCA IX contributes to the acidification of the tumor environment leading to chemoresistance with basic antitumoral drugs. The development of selective hCA inhibitors constitutes a new therapeutic axis. In order to elucidate the specific interactions between hCA and inhibitors, physico-chemical properties of hCA must be evaluated. This work reports the determination of the isoelectric point (pI) of a series of hCA isoforms by capillary isoelectric focusing. First, the method was optimized with synthetic UV-detectable pI markers using a central composite design. The separation was performed in a fused-silica capillary chemically derivatized with hydroxypropylcellulose and using a glycerol-water medium as the anticonvective gel. Three main factors (ampholyte content, focusing time and mobilization pressure) were optimized in order to obtain the best resolution, detection threshold and precision on the pI determination. Then, the model was validated through the analysis of standard proteins mixture having known pI values, before investigating the pI of hCA isoforms.

  1. Entanglement of particles as a result of their coupling through the common background zero-point radiation field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Peña, L.; Valdés-Hernández, A.; Cetto, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is intended to disclose a possible physical mechanism underlying entanglement, by allowing an (otherwise classical) system of two non-interacting particles to interact with the stochastic background zero-point radiation field. The present analysis is made in the framework of linear stochastic electrodynamics (LSED), a theory that has been shown to recover the corresponding matrix formulation of quantum mechanics when applied to a one-particle (or atomic) system. We start by briefly recalling the basic elements of LSED and then extend the theory to consider the system formed of two particles. It is found that when both particles resonate to at least one common frequency of the background field, a new class of non-factorizable states emerge that correspond just to the entangled states of quantum mechanics. In the particular case of two equal particles the ensuing states are those of maximum entanglement.

  2. Design of mobile phone lens with extended depth of field based on point-spread function focus invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Yang, Sidney S.; Chang, Horng

    2008-08-01

    Due to the application of mobile phone lens, the clear image for the different object distance from infinity to close-up creates a new bargaining. We found that wave-front coding applied to extend the depth of field may solve this problem. By means of using cubic phase mask (CPM), the blurred point-spread function (PSF) is substantially invariant to defocus. Thus, the ideal hyperfocal distance condition can be satisfied as long as the constant blurred image can eventually be recovered by a simple digital signal processing. In this paper, we propose a different design method of computational imaging lens for mobile phone up to ideal depth of field based on PSF focus invariance. Because of the difficulty for comparing the similarity to different PSFs, we define a new metric, of correlation, to evaluate and optimize the PSF similarity. Besides, by means of adding the anti-symmetric free form phase plate at aperture stop and using the correlation and Strehl ratio as the two major optimization operands, we can get the optimum phase plate surface to achieve the required extended depth of field (EDoF). The resulted PSF on focal plane is significantly invariant to object distance varying from infinity to 10cm.

  3. Adaptive localization of focus point regions via random patch probabilistic density from whole-slide, Ki-67-stained brain tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Yazan M; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Norul Huda; MdZin, Reena Rahayu; Omar, Khairuddin

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of whole-slide tissue for digital pathology images has been clinically approved to provide a second opinion to pathologists. Localization of focus points from Ki-67-stained histopathology whole-slide tissue microscopic images is considered the first step in the process of proliferation rate estimation. Pathologists use eye pooling or eagle-view techniques to localize the highly stained cell-concentrated regions from the whole slide under microscope, which is called focus-point regions. This procedure leads to a high variety of interpersonal observations and time consuming, tedious work and causes inaccurate findings. The localization of focus-point regions can be addressed as a clustering problem. This paper aims to automate the localization of focus-point regions from whole-slide images using the random patch probabilistic density method. Unlike other clustering methods, random patch probabilistic density method can adaptively localize focus-point regions without predetermining the number of clusters. The proposed method was compared with the k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering methods. Our proposed method achieves a good performance, when the results were evaluated by three expert pathologists. The proposed method achieves an average false-positive rate of 0.84% for the focus-point region localization error. Moreover, regarding RPPD used to localize tissue from whole-slide images, 228 whole-slide images have been tested; 97.3% localization accuracy was achieved.

  4. Adaptive Localization of Focus Point Regions via Random Patch Probabilistic Density from Whole-Slide, Ki-67-Stained Brain Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Alomari, Yazan M.; MdZin, Reena Rahayu

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of whole-slide tissue for digital pathology images has been clinically approved to provide a second opinion to pathologists. Localization of focus points from Ki-67-stained histopathology whole-slide tissue microscopic images is considered the first step in the process of proliferation rate estimation. Pathologists use eye pooling or eagle-view techniques to localize the highly stained cell-concentrated regions from the whole slide under microscope, which is called focus-point regions. This procedure leads to a high variety of interpersonal observations and time consuming, tedious work and causes inaccurate findings. The localization of focus-point regions can be addressed as a clustering problem. This paper aims to automate the localization of focus-point regions from whole-slide images using the random patch probabilistic density method. Unlike other clustering methods, random patch probabilistic density method can adaptively localize focus-point regions without predetermining the number of clusters. The proposed method was compared with the k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering methods. Our proposed method achieves a good performance, when the results were evaluated by three expert pathologists. The proposed method achieves an average false-positive rate of 0.84% for the focus-point region localization error. Moreover, regarding RPPD used to localize tissue from whole-slide images, 228 whole-slide images have been tested; 97.3% localization accuracy was achieved. PMID:25793010

  5. Paraxial analysis of zoom lens composed of three tunable-focus elements with fixed position of image-space focal point and object-image distance.

    PubMed

    Miks, Antonin; Novak, Jiri

    2014-11-03

    This work performs a paraxial analysis of three-component zoom lens with a fixed position of image-space focal point and a distance between object and image points, which is composed of three tunable-focus elements. Formulas for the calculation of paraxial parameters of such optical systems are derived and the calculation is presented on examples.

  6. Intensity of Focus, Richness of Content: Crafting Tier 2 Response to Intervention in an Era of the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a Tier 2 intervention program for fourth graders that is well suited to supporting implementation of the Common Core State Standards. Screening assessments and miscue analyses were used to clarify students' strengths and challenges. Students then attended only classes that were suited to their particular literacy needs,…

  7. Focused, phased-array plane piston and spherically-shaped concave piston transducers: comparison for the same aperture and focal point.

    PubMed

    Warriner, Renée K; Cobbold, Richard S C

    2012-04-01

    It has sometimes been assumed that the phased-array plane piston transducer and the spherically-shaped concave piston transducer are equivalent structures when both have the same aperture and focal point. This assumption has not been previously examined, nor has an expression for the on-axis impulse response of the focused, phased-array plane piston transducer been derived. It is shown in this paper how such an expression can be obtained. Comparisons of the impulse response for both structures show similarities, as well as some differences that could be significant as the observation point approaches the focal point. Comparisons are also performed for wide-band pulses close to the focus as well as for sinusoidal excitation. A physical explanation for the cause of the impulse response discrepancy is shown to be due to the nature of the piston focusing delay and its effect on the Rayleigh integral.

  8. Fluorescence-labeled peptides as isoelectric point (pI) markers in capillary isoelectric focusing with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Shimura, K; Kasai, K

    1995-08-01

    Commercially available peptides, mostly angiotensin derivatives, were labeled at their N-terminal amino group with 5-carboxytetramethylrhodamine succinimidyl ester, to obtain fluorescent pI markers for capillary isoelectric focusing with fluorescence detection. The labeled peptides were purified by reversed-phase chromatography. They were well separated on isoelectric focusing in a polyacrylamide gel slab and their pIs were determined by comigration with protein-pI markers. The fluorescent markers could be detected as sharp peaks in capillary isoelectric focusing with laser-induced fluorescence detection (He-Ne laser, 1 mW, 543.5 nm). The detection limit was found to be around 3 x 10(-12) M (0.8 amol). Tetramethylrhodamine-labeled pea lectin (3 pg) was subjected to capillary isoelectric focusing and the pIs of the fluorescent derivatives of the lectin were determined by using the fluorescence-labeled peptides as pI markers.

  9. The Rules of Evidence: Focus on Key Points to Develop the Best Strategy to Evaluate Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Gathering evidence on the outcomes of any professional learning experience can be a challenging and complicated task. It involves consideration of a wide variety of perceptual and contextual issues, some obvious to education leaders and others not. Those who want to succeed in this process may find the following points helpful: (1) Always begin…

  10. Mitochondria-focused gene expression profile reveals common pathways and CPT1B dysregulation in both rodent stress model and human subjects with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Li, H; Hu, X; Benedek, D M; Fullerton, C S; Forsten, R D; Naifeh, J A; Li, X; Wu, H; Benevides, K N; Le, T; Smerin, S; Russell, D W; Ursano, R J

    2015-06-16

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a trauma-related mental disorder, is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain. However, the biologic approach to identifying the mitochondria-focused genes underlying the pathogenesis of PTSD is still in its infancy. Previous research, using a human mitochondria-focused cDNA microarray (hMitChip3) found dysregulated mitochondria-focused genes present in postmortem brains of PTSD patients, indicating that those genes might be PTSD-related biomarkers. To further test this idea, this research examines profiles of mitochondria-focused gene expression in the stressed-rodent model (inescapable tail shock in rats), which shows characteristics of PTSD-like behaviors and also in the blood of subjects with PTSD. This study found that 34 mitochondria-focused genes being upregulated in stressed-rat amygdala. Ten common pathways, including fatty acid metabolism and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) pathways were dysregulated in the amygdala of the stressed rats. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B), an enzyme in the fatty acid metabolism and PPAR pathways, was significantly over-expressed in the amygdala (P < 0.007) and in the blood (P < 0.01) of stressed rats compared with non-stressed controls. In human subjects with (n = 28) or without PTSD (n = 31), significant over-expression of CPT1B in PTSD was also observed in the two common dysregulated pathways: fatty acid metabolism (P = 0.0027, false discovery rate (FDR) = 0.043) and PPAR (P = 0.006, FDR = 0.08). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction validated the microarray findings and the CPT1B result. These findings indicate that blood can be used as a specimen in the search for PTSD biomarkers in fatty acid metabolism and PPAR pathways, and, in addition, that CPT1B may contribute to the pathology of PTSD.

  11. Separation of polypeptides by isoelectric point focusing in electrospray-friendly solution using a multiple-junction capillary fractionator.

    PubMed

    Chingin, Konstantin; Astorga-Wells, Juan; Pirmoradian Najafabadi, Mohammad; Lavold, Thorleif; Zubarev, Roman A

    2012-08-07

    We introduce an online multiple-junction capillary isoelectric focusing fractionator (OMJ-CIEF) for separation of biological molecules in solution by pI. In OMJ-CIEF, the separation capillary is divided into seven equal sections joined with each other via tubular Nafion membrane insertions. Each junction is communicated with its own external electrolytic buffer which is used both to supply electrical contact and for solvent exchange. The performance of the fractionator was explored using protein and peptide samples covering broad pI range. Separation was achieved in ionic and ampholytic buffers, including ammonium formate, ammonium hydroxide, histidine, and arginine. By maintaining electric potential across upstream segments of the capillary after the focusing stage, selective release of downstream analyte fractions could be achieved. The selective release mode circumvents the problem of peak broadening during mobilization and enables convenient comprehensive sampling for orthogonal separation methods. Using single-component ampholyte buffers with well-defined pI cutoff values, controlled separation of protein mixture into basic and acidic fractions was demonstrated. The device is cheap and easy to fabricate in-house, simple in operation, and straightforward in interfacing to hyphened analytical platforms. OMJ-CIEF has a potential of becoming a practical add-on unit in a wide range of bioanalytical setups, in particular as a first-dimension separation in mass spectrometry based proteomics or as a preparative tool for analyte purification, fractionation, and preconcentration.

  12. Comparative genomics-based investigation of resequencing targets in Vibrio fischeri: Focus on point miscalls and artefactual expansions

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Mark J; Stabb, Eric V; Ruby, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Background Sequence closure often represents the end-point of a genome project, without a system in place for subsequent improvement and refinement. Building on the genome project of Vibrio fischeri ES114, we used a comparative approach to identify and investigate genes that had a high likelihood of sequence error. Results Comparison of the V. fischeri ES114 genome with that of conspecific strain MJ11 identified 82 target loci in ES114 as containing likely errors, and thus of high-priority for resequencing. Analysis of the targets identified 75 loci in which an error had occurred, resulting in the correction of 10,457 base pairs to generate the new ES114 genomic sequence. A majority of the inaccurate loci involved frameshift errors, correction of which fused adjacent ORFs. Although insertions/deletions are thought to be rare in microbial genome assemblies, fourteen of the loci contained extraneous sequence of over 300 bp, likely due to imperfect contig ends that were misassembled in tandem rather than as overlapping segments. Additionally we updated the entire genome annotation with 113 new features including previously uncalled protein-coding genes, regulatory RNA genes and operon leader peptides, and we analyzed the transcriptional apparatus encoded by ES114. Conclusion We demonstrate that errors in microbial genome sequences, thought to largely be confined to point mutations, may also consist of other prevalent large-scale rearrangements such as insertions. Ongoing genome quality control and annotation programs are necessary to accompany technological advancements in data generation. These updates further advance V. fischeri as an important model for understanding intercellular communication and colonization of animal tissue. PMID:18366731

  13. Strong Convergence Theorems for a Common Fixed Point of a Finite Family of Bregman Weak Relativity Nonexpansive Mappings in Reflexive Banach Spaces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We introduce an iterative process for finding an element of a common fixed point of a finite family of Bregman weak relatively nonexpansive mappings. Our theorems improve and unify most of the results that have been proved for this important class of nonlinear operators. PMID:24757423

  14. Strong convergence theorems for a common fixed point of a finite family of Bregman weak relativity nonexpansive mappings in reflexive Banach spaces.

    PubMed

    Zegeye, Habtu; Shahzad, Naseer

    2014-01-01

    We introduce an iterative process for finding an element of a common fixed point of a finite family of Bregman weak relatively nonexpansive mappings. Our theorems improve and unify most of the results that have been proved for this important class of nonlinear operators.

  15. Transformer failure and common-mode loss of instrument power at Nine Mile Point Unit 2 on August 13, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    On August 13, 1991, at Nine Mile Point Unit 2 nuclear power plant, located near Scriba, New York, on Lake Ontario, the main transformer experienced an internal failure that resulted in degraded voltage which caused the simultaneous loss of five uninterruptible power supplies, which in turn caused the loss of several nonsafety systems, including reactor control rod position indication, some reactor power and water indication, control room annunciators, the plant communications system, the plant process computer, and lighting at some locations. The reactor was subsequently brought to a safe shutdown. Following this event, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission dispatched an Incident Investigation Team to the site to determine what happened, to identify the probable causes, and to make appropriate findings and conclusions. This report describes the incident, the methodology used by the team in its investigation, and presents and the team's findings and conclusions. 59 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. Reference point indentation is insufficient for detecting alterations in traditional mechanical properties of bone under common experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Krege, John B; Aref, Mohammad W; McNerny, Erin; Wallace, Joseph M; Organ, Jason M; Allen, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    Reference point indentation (RPI) was developed as a novel method to assess mechanical properties of bone in vivo, yet it remains unclear what aspects of bone dictate changes/differences in RPI-based parameters. The main RPI parameter, indentation distance increase (IDI), has been proposed to be inversely related to the ability of bone to form/tolerate damage. The goal of this work was to explore the relationshipre-intervention RPI measurebetween RPI parameters and traditional mechanical properties under varying experimental conditions (drying and ashing bones to increase brittleness, demineralizing bones and soaking in raloxifene to decrease brittleness). Beams were machined from cadaveric bone, pre-tested with RPI, subjected to experimental manipulation, post-tested with RPI, and then subjected to four-point bending to failure. Drying and ashing significantly reduced RPI's IDI, as well as ultimate load (UL), and energy absorption measured from bending tests. Demineralization increased IDI with minimal change to bending properties. Ex vivo soaking in raloxifene had no effect on IDI but tended to enhance post-yield behavior at the structural level. These data challenge the paradigm of an inverse relationship between IDI and bone toughness, both through correlation analyses and in the individual experiments where divergent patterns of altered IDI and mechanical properties were noted. Based on these results, we conclude that RPI measurements alone, as compared to bending tests, are insufficient to reach conclusions regarding mechanical properties of bone. This proves problematic for the potential clinical use of RPI measurements in determining fracture risk for a single patient, as it is not currently clear that there is an IDI, or even a trend of IDI, that can determine clinically relevant changes in tissue properties that may contribute to whole bone fracture resistance.

  17. Existence of unique common solution to the system of non-linear integral equations via fixed point results in incomplete metric spaces.

    PubMed

    Bahadur Zada, Mian; Sarwar, Muhammad; Radenović, Stojan

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we apply common fixed point results in incomplete metric spaces to examine the existence of a unique common solution for the following systems of Urysohn integral equations and Volterra-Hammerstein integral equations, respectively: [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], u, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], are real-valued measurable functions both in s and r on [Formula: see text].

  18. Electrolysis and isoelectric focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Lui, Roger; Yu, Xun

    1994-01-01

    This paper consists of two parts. In the first part, the authors prove the existence of steady-state solutions for a three-species electrolyte. The species are subject to both dissociation-association reactions inside the electrolyte and electrochemical reactions at the boundary electrodes. This is a common occurrence in electrolysis. In the second part, the authors investigate how to use this model to describe isoelectric focusing, which is a common technique used to separate large protein molecules. In particular, the isoelectric focusing point for a particular type of protein molecule is calculated using formal perturbation analysis.

  19. Identification of cut-points in commonly used hip osteoarthritis-related outcome measures that define the patient acceptable symptom state (PASS).

    PubMed

    Emerson Kavchak, Alicia J; Cook, Chad; Hegedus, Eric J; Wright, Alexis A

    2013-11-01

    To determine patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) estimates in outcome measures commonly used in hip osteoarthritis (OA). Identification of cut-points on commonly used outcome measures associated with patient satisfaction with their current state of health. As part of a randomized controlled trial, 70 patients with a clinical diagnosis of hip OA undergoing a 9-session physiotherapy treatment program completed four physical performance measures and three self-report measures at 9 weeks and 1 year. Upon completion of treatment, patients assessed their current health status according to the PASS question. Cut-points were estimated using receiver operating characteristic curves (anchor-based method), based on the patient's response to the PASS question. At 9 weeks and 1 year, identified cut-points were, respectively, ≤10 and ≤11 for the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale; ≤35 and ≤40 on the WOMAC physical function subscale; ≥+5 and ≥+6 on the global rating of change score; ≤6.05 and ≤5.30 s for the timed-up-and-go; ≤28.3 and ≤24.9 for the 40-m self-paced walk test; ≥11 and ≥12 repetitions for the 30-s chair stand test; and ≥46 repetitions for the 20-cm step test. Initial target cut-points signaling patient satisfaction with their current symptom state following physiotherapy in patients with hip osteoarthritis were determined for seven outcome measures over 1 year.

  20. New method of a "point-like" neutron source creation based on sharp focusing of high-current deuteron beam onto deuterium-saturated target for neutron tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubev, S.; Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Sidorov, A.

    2017-02-01

    A possibility of a compact powerful point-like neutron source creation is discussed. Neutron yield of the source based on deuterium-deuterium (D-D) reaction is estimated at the level of 1011 s‑1 (1013 s‑1 for deuterium-tritium reaction). The fusion takes place due to bombardment of deuterium- (or tritium) loaded target by high-current focused deuterium ion beam with energy of 100 keV. The ion beam is formed by means of high-current quasi-gasdynamic ion source of a new generation based on an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge in an open magnetic trap sustained by powerful microwave radiation. The prospects of proposed generator for neutron tomography are discussed. Suggested method is compared to the point-like neutron sources based on a spark produced by powerful femtosecond laser pulses.

  1. Work-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy and individual job support to increase work participation in common mental disorders: a randomised controlled multicentre trial

    PubMed Central

    Reme, Silje Endresen; Grasdal, Astrid Louise; Løvvik, Camilla; Lie, Stein Atle; Øverland, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Common mental disorders (CMDs) are a major cause of rising disability benefit expenditures. We urgently need evidence on programmes that can increase work participation in CMDs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of work-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and individual job support for people struggling with work participation due to CMDs. Methods A randomised controlled multicentre trial (RCT) including 1193 participants was conducted. Participants were on sick leave, at risk of going on sick leave or on long-term benefits. The intervention integrated work-focused CBT with individual job support. The control group received usual care. The main outcome was objectively ascertained work participation at 12 months follow-up, with changes in mental health and health-related quality of life as secondary outcomes. Results A larger proportion of participants in the intervention group had increased or maintained their work participation at follow-up compared to the control group (44.2% vs 37.2%, p=0.015). The difference remained significant after 18 months (difference 7.8%, p=0.018), and was even stronger for those on long-term benefits (difference 12.2%, p=0.007). The intervention also reduced depression (t=3.23, p≤0.001) and anxiety symptoms (t=2.52, p=0.012) and increased health-related quality of life (t=2.24, p=0.026) more than usual care. Conclusions A work-focused CBT and individual job support was more effective than usual care in increasing or maintaining work participation for people with CMDs. The effects were profound for people on long-term benefits. This is the first large-scale RCT to demonstrate an effect of a behavioural intervention on work participation for the large group of workers with CMDs. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number: NCT01146730. PMID:26251065

  2. Common Sticking Points about Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Imbeau, Marcia B.

    2012-01-01

    A typical classroom today is a jigsaw puzzle of learners. It is not unusual for a teacher to have in one class students from multiple cultures, bringing with them varied degrees of proficiency with English and an impressive array of learning exceptionalities (both identified and not identified), as well as a broad array of economic backgrounds.…

  3. Low-cost manufacturing of the point focus concentrating module and its key component, the Fresnel lens. Final subcontract report, 31 January 1991--6 May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Saifee, T.; Konnerth, A. III

    1991-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) has been developing point-focus concentrating PV modules since 1986. SKI is currently in position to manufacture between 200 to 600 kilowatts annually of the current design by a combination of manual and semi-automated methods. This report reviews the current status of module manufacture and specifies the required approach to achieve a high-volume manufacturing capability and low cost. The approach taken will include process development concurrent with module design for automated manufacturing. The current effort reviews the major manufacturing costs and identifies components and processes whose improvements would produce the greatest effect on manufacturability and cost reduction. The Fresnel lens is one such key component. Investigating specific alternative manufacturing methods and sources has substantially reduced the lens costs and has exceeded the DOE cost-reduction goals. 15 refs.

  4. Myofascial trigger point-focused head and neck massage for recurrent tension-type headache: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Moraska, Albert F.; Stenerson, Lea; Butryn, Nathan; Krutsch, Jason P.; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Mann, J. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Objective Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are focal disruptions in skeletal muscle that can refer pain to the head and reproduce the pain patterns of tension-type headache (TTH). The present study applied massage focused on MTrPs of subjects with TTH in a placebo-controlled, clinical trial to assess efficacy on reducing headache pain. Methods Fifty-six subjects with TTH were randomized to receive 12 massage or placebo (detuned ultrasound) sessions over six weeks, or to wait-list. Trigger point release (TPR) massage focused on MTrPs in cervical musculature. Headache pain (frequency, intensity and duration) was recorded in a daily headache diary. Additional outcome measures included self-report of perceived clinical change in headache pain and pressure-pain threshold (PPT) at MTrPs in the upper trapezius and sub-occipital muscles. Results From diary recordings, group differences across time were detected in headache frequency (p=0.026), but not for intensity or duration. Post hoc analysis indicated headache frequency decreased from baseline for both massage (p<0.0003) and placebo (p=0.013), but no difference was detected between massage and placebo. Subject report of perceived clinical change was a greater reduction in headache pain for massage than placebo or wait-list groups (p=0.002). PPT improved in all muscles tested for massage only (all p's<0.002). Discussion Two findings from this study are apparent: 1) MTrPs are important components in the treatment of TTH, and 2) TTH, like other chronic conditions, is responsive to placebo. Clinical trials on headache that do not include a placebo group are at risk for overestimating the specific contribution from the active intervention. PMID:25329141

  5. Ewing Sarcoma With ERG Gene Rearrangements: A Molecular Study Focusing on the Prevalence of FUS-ERG and Common Pitfalls in Detecting EWSR1-ERG Fusions by FISH

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sonja; Deniz, Kemal; Sung, Yun-Shao; Zhang, Lei; Dry, Sarah; Antonescu, Cristina R.

    2016-01-01

    The genetics of Ewing sarcoma (ES) are characterized by a canonical fusion involving EWSR1 gene and a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, such as FLI1 and ERG. In fact, ERG gene rearrangements represent the second most common molecular alteration, with EWSR1-ERG being identified in 5–10% of cases, while only a handful of reports document a FUS-ERG fusion. In this study, we focus on ES with ERG gene abnormalities, specifically to investigate the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of FUS-ERG fusions in a large cohort of small blue round cell tumors (SBRCTs) and compare to the eight reported FUS-positive ES. Among the 85 SBRCTs tested, seven (8.2%) cases harbored FUS gene rearrangements; six fused to ERG and one with FEV. During this investigation we came across a number of ERG-rearranged ES lacking both EWSR1 and FUS abnormalities by FISH. In one case, RNA sequencing identified an EWSR1-ERG transcript despite the negative EWSR1 rearrangements by FISH. Additional 3-color FISH fusion assay demonstrated the fusion of EWSR1 and ERG signals in all four cases negative for break-apart EWSR1 FISH. These results emphasize a potential pitfall of relying on EWSR1 FISH assay alone for diagnosis of ES. In cases with classic morphology and/or strong CD99 and ERG immunoreactivity, additional molecular testing should be applied, such as ERG FISH or RT-PCR/next generation sequencing, for a more definitive diagnosis. Although our study group is small, there were no differences noted between the clinical, morphologic features and immunoprofile of the different subsets of ERG-rearranged SBRCTs. PMID:26690869

  6. A Common Genetic Variant Risk Score is Associated with Drug-Induced QT Prolongation and Torsade de Pointes Risk: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Strauss, David G; Vicente, Jose; Johannesen, Lars; Blinova, Ksenia; Mason, Jay W; Weeke, Peter; Behr, Elijah R; Roden, Dan M; Woosley, Raymond; Kosova, Gulum; Rosenberg, Michael A; Newton-Cheh, Christopher

    2017-02-17

    Background -Drug-induced QT interval prolongation, a risk factor for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, is a potential side effect of many marketed and withdrawn medications. The contribution of common genetic variants previously associated with baseline QT interval to drug-induced QT prolongation and arrhythmias is not known. Methods -We tested the hypothesis that a weighted combination of common genetic variants contributing to QT interval at baseline, identified through genome-wide association studies, can predict individual response to multiple QT-prolonging drugs. Genetic analysis of 22 subjects was performed in a secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of 3 QT-prolonging drugs with 15 time-matched QT and plasma drug concentration measurements. Subjects received single doses of dofetilide, quinidine, ranolazine and placebo. The outcome was the correlation between a genetic QT score comprising 61 common genetic variants and the slope of an individual subject's drug-induced increase in heart rate corrected QT (QTc) vs. drug concentration. Results -The genetic QT score was correlated with drug-induced QTc prolongation. Among white subjects, genetic QT score explained 30% of the variability in response to dofetilide (r = 0.55 [95% CI, 0.09-0.81], P = 0.02), 23% in response to quinidine (r = 0.48 [95% CI, -0.03 to 0.79], P = 0.06) and 27% in response to ranolazine (r = 0.52 [95% CI, 0.05 to 0.80], P = 0.03). Furthermore, the genetic QT score was a significant predictor of drug-induced torsade de pointes in an independent sample of 216 cases compared to 771 controls (r(2) = 12%, P = 1x10(-7)). Conclusions -We demonstrate that a genetic QT score comprising 61 common genetic variants explains a significant proportion of the variability in drug-induced QT prolongation and is a significant predictor of drug-induced torsade de pointes. These findings highlight an opportunity for recent genetic discoveries to improve

  7. Multijunction Capillary Isoelectric Focusing Device Combined with Online Membrane-Assisted Buffer Exchanger Enables Isoelectric Point Fractionation of Intact Human Plasma Proteins for Biomarker Discovery.

    PubMed

    Pirmoradian, Mohammad; Astorga-Wells, Juan; Zubarev, Roman A

    2015-12-01

    Prefractionation of proteins is often employed to improve analysis specificity in proteomics. Prefractionation based on the isoelectric point (pI) is particularly attractive because pI is a well-defined parameter and it is orthogonal to hydrophobicity on which reversed-phase chromatography is based. However, direct capillary electrophoresis of blood proteins is challenging due to its high content of salts and charged small molecules. Here, we couple an online desalinator device to our multijunction capillary isoelectric focusing (MJ-CIEF) instrument and perform direct isoelectric separation of human blood plasma. In a proof-of-principle experiment, pooled samples of patients with progressive mild cognitive impairment and corresponding healthy controls were investigated. Injection of 3 μL of plasma containing over 100 μg of proteins into the desalinator was followed by pI fractionation with MJ-CIEF in less than 1 h. Shotgun proteomics of 12 collected fractions from each of the 5 replicates of pooled samples resulted in the identification and accurate quantification (median CV between the replicates is <4%) of nearly 365 protein groups from 4030 unique peptides (with <1% FDR for both peptides and proteins). The obtained results include several proteins previously reported as AD markers. The isoelectric point of each quantified protein was calculated using a set of 7 synthetic peptides spiked into the samples. Several proteins with a significant pI shift between their isoforms in the patient and control samples were identified. The presented method is straightforward, robust, and scalable; therefore, it can be used in both biological and clinical applications.

  8. Continuous on-chip fluorescence labelling, free-flow isoelectric focusing and marker-free isoelectric point determination of proteins and peptides.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Christin; Poehler, Elisabeth; Peretzki, Andrea J; Borisov, Sergey M; Aigner, Daniel; Mayr, Torsten; Nagl, Stefan

    2016-04-26

    We present a microfluidic platform that contains a micro flow reactor for on-chip biomolecule labelling that is directly followed by a separation bed for continuous free-flow electrophoresis and has an integrated hydrogel-based near-infrared fluorescent pH sensor layer. Using this assembly, labelling of protein and peptide mixtures, their separation via free-flow isoelectric focusing and the determination of the isoelectric point (pI) of the separated products via the integrated sensor layer could be carried out within typically around 5 minutes. Spatially-resolved immobilization of fluidic and sensing structures was carried out via multistep photolithography. The assembly was characterized and optimized with respect to their fluidic and pH sensing properties and applied in the IEF of model proteins, peptides and a tryptic digest from physalaemine. We have therefore realized continuous sample preparation and preparative separation, analyte detection, process observation and analyte assignment capability based on pI on a single platform the size of a microscope slide.

  9. A point-focusing small angle x-ray scattering camera using a doubly curved monochromator of a W/Si multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasanuma, Yuji; Law, Robert V.; Kobayashi, Yuji

    1996-03-01

    A point-focusing small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) camera using a doubly curved monochromator of a W/Si multilayer has been designed, constructed, and tested. The two radii of curvature of the monochromator are 20 400 and 7.6 mm. The reflectivity of its first-order Bragg reflection for CuKα radiation was calculated to be 0.82, being comparable to that (0.81) of its total reflection. By only 10 s x-ray exposure, scattering from a high-density polyethylene film was detected on an imaging plate (IP). A rotating-anode x-ray generator operated at 40 kV and 30 mA was used. Diffraction from rat-tail collagen has shown that the optical arrangement gives the Bragg spacing up to, at least, 30 nm for CuKα radiation. Combined with IPs, the camera may permit us to carry out time-resolved SAXS measurements for phase behaviors of liquid crystals, lipids, polymer alloys, etc., on conventional x-ray generators available in laboratories.

  10. Kinase inhibitor-responsive genotypes in EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinomas: moving past common point mutations or indels into uncommon kinase domain duplications and rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The most frequent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations found by traditional or comprehensive molecular profiling of lung adenocarcinomas include indels of exon 19 (the exon 19 deletion delE746_A750 being the most common) and the exon 21 L858R point mutation. The current approval labels for first line palliative gefitinib 250 mg/day, erlotinib 150 mg/day and afatinib 40 mg/day for advanced lung cancers require the presence of the aforementioned classical/sensitizing EGFR mutations. Other gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib sensitizing mutations include exon 18 indels, G719X, exon 19 insertions, A763_Y764insFQEA, S768I and L861Q; for which off-label EGFR kinase inhibitor use is generally agreed upon by thoracic oncologists. The main biological mechanism of resistance to approved first line EGFR inhibitors is the selection/acquisition of EGFR-T790M that in itself can be inhibited by osimertinib 80 mg/day, a 3rd generation EGFR inhibitor that is bypassed by EGFR-C797X mutations. Another class of de novo inhibitor insensitive mutation includes EGFR exon 20 insertions. More recently, the dichotomy of only point mutations or indels explaining aberrant kinase activation of EGFR plus inhibitor response has been shattered by the discovery of uncommon (<0.5% of all EGFR mutations) genomic events involving exon 18–25 kinase domain duplications (KDD) and rearrangements (EGFR-RAD51 or EGFR-PURB). The latter lead to oncogene addiction, enhanced sensitivity to kinase inhibitors in vitro and clinical responses to approved EGFR inhibitors. The enhanced landscape of EGFR inhibitor-responsive genotypes highlights that comprehensive molecular profiling may be necessary to maximize the identification of all cases that can benefit from precision oncology. PMID:27413714

  11. Kinase inhibitor-responsive genotypes in EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinomas: moving past common point mutations or indels into uncommon kinase domain duplications and rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniel B

    2016-06-01

    The most frequent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations found by traditional or comprehensive molecular profiling of lung adenocarcinomas include indels of exon 19 (the exon 19 deletion delE746_A750 being the most common) and the exon 21 L858R point mutation. The current approval labels for first line palliative gefitinib 250 mg/day, erlotinib 150 mg/day and afatinib 40 mg/day for advanced lung cancers require the presence of the aforementioned classical/sensitizing EGFR mutations. Other gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib sensitizing mutations include exon 18 indels, G719X, exon 19 insertions, A763_Y764insFQEA, S768I and L861Q; for which off-label EGFR kinase inhibitor use is generally agreed upon by thoracic oncologists. The main biological mechanism of resistance to approved first line EGFR inhibitors is the selection/acquisition of EGFR-T790M that in itself can be inhibited by osimertinib 80 mg/day, a 3(rd) generation EGFR inhibitor that is bypassed by EGFR-C797X mutations. Another class of de novo inhibitor insensitive mutation includes EGFR exon 20 insertions. More recently, the dichotomy of only point mutations or indels explaining aberrant kinase activation of EGFR plus inhibitor response has been shattered by the discovery of uncommon (<0.5% of all EGFR mutations) genomic events involving exon 18-25 kinase domain duplications (KDD) and rearrangements (EGFR-RAD51 or EGFR-PURB). The latter lead to oncogene addiction, enhanced sensitivity to kinase inhibitors in vitro and clinical responses to approved EGFR inhibitors. The enhanced landscape of EGFR inhibitor-responsive genotypes highlights that comprehensive molecular profiling may be necessary to maximize the identification of all cases that can benefit from precision oncology.

  12. Separation and quantitation of milk whey proteins of close isoelectric points by on-line capillary isoelectric focusing--electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in glycerol-water media.

    PubMed

    Lecoeur, Marie; Gareil, Pierre; Varenne, Anne

    2010-11-12

    On-line coupling between CIEF and ESI/MS based on the use of bare fused-silica capillaries and glycerol-water media, recently developed in our laboratory, has been investigated for the separation of milk whey proteins that present close pI values. First, a new rinsing procedure, compatible with MS detection, has been developed to desorb these rather hydrophobic proteins (α-casein (α-CN), bovine serum albumin (BSA), lactoferrin (LF)) from the inner capillary wall and to avoid capillary blockages. Common hydrochloric acid washing solution was replaced by a multi-step sequence based on the use of TFA, ammonia and ethanol. To achieve the separation of major whey proteins (β-lactoglobulin A (β-LG A), β-lactoglobulin B (β-LG B), α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and BSA, which possess close pI values (4.5-5.35), CIEF parameters i.e. carrier ampholyte nature, capillary partial filling length with ampholyte/protein mixture and focusing time, have been optimized with respect to total analysis time, sensitivity and precision on pI determination. After optimization of sheath liquid composition (80:20 (v/v) methanol-water+1% HCOOH), quantitation of β-LG A, β-LG B, α-LA and BSA was performed. The limits of detection obtained from extracted ion current (EIC) and single ion monitoring (SIM) modes were in the 57-136 nM and 11-68 nM range, respectively. Finally, first results obtained from biological samples demonstrated the suitability of CIEF-MS as a potential alternative methodology to 2D-PAGE to diagnose milk protein allergies.

  13. Advances in the Breeding and Genetics of Heat Tolerance to Alleviate the Effects of Climate Change, with a Focus on Common Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop plants are broadly sensitive to high ambient temperatures during reproductive development while breeding efforts are helping to alleviate the impact of heat stress. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., is sensitive to moderately high ambient temperature, where temperatures greater than 25C have ...

  14. SEERISK concept: Dealing with climate change related hazards in southeast Europe: A common methodology for risk assessment and mapping focusing on floods, drought, winds, heat wave and wildfire.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathoma-Koehle, Maria; Promper, Catrin; Glade, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Southeast Europe is a region that suffers often from natural hazards and has experienced significant losses in the recent past due to extreme weather conditions and their side-effects (cold and heat waves, extreme precipitation leading to floods / flash floods, thunderstorms, extreme winds, drought and wildfires). SEERISK ("Joint Disaster Management Risk Assessment and Preparedness in the Danube macro-region") is a European funded SEE (Southeast Europe) project that aims at the harmonisation and consistency among risk assessment practices undertaken by the partner countries at various levels regarding climate change related disasters. A common methodology for risk assessment has been developed that offers alternatives in order to tackle the problem of limited data. The methodology proposes alternative steps for hazard and vulnerability assessment that, according to the data availability, range from detailed modelling to expert judgement. In the present study the common methodology has been adapted for five hazard types (floods, drought, winds, heat wave and wildfire) that are expected to be affected by climate change in the future and are relevant for the specific study areas. The last step will be the application of the methodology in six different case studies in Hungary, Romania, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Slovakia and Serbia followed by field exercises.

  15. Future PMPs Estimation in Korea under AR5 RCP 8.5 Climate Change Scenario: Focus on Dew Point Temperature Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okjeong, Lee; Sangdan, Kim

    2016-04-01

    According to future climate change scenarios, future temperature is expected to increase gradually. Therefore, it is necessary to reflect the effects of these climate changes to predict Probable Maximum Precipitations (PMPs). In this presentation, PMPs will be estimated with future dew point temperature change. After selecting 174 major storm events from 1981 to 2005, new PMPs will be proposed with respect to storm areas (25, 100, 225, 400, 900, 2,025, 4,900, 10,000 and 19,600 km2) and storm durations (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, 48 and 72 hours) using the Korea hydro-meteorological method. Also, orographic transposition factor will be applied in place of the conventional terrain impact factor which has been used in previous Korean PMPs estimation reports. After estimating dew point temperature using future temperature and representative humidity information under the Korea Meteorological Administration AR5 RCP 8.5, changes in the PMPs under dew point temperature change will be investigated by comparison with present and future PMPs. This research was supported by a grant(14AWMP-B082564-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  16. Review Team Focused Modeling Analysis of Radial Collector Well Operation on the Hypersaline Groundwater Plume beneath the Turkey Point Site near Homestead, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Martinus; Vail, Lance W.

    2016-08-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory served as members of a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission review team for the Florida Power & Light Company’s application for two combined construction permits and operating licenses (combined licenses or COLs) for two proposed new reactor units—Turkey Point Units 6 and 7. The review team evaluated the environmental impacts of the proposed action based on the October 29, 2014 revision of the COL application, including the Environmental Report, responses to requests for additional information, and supplemental information. As part of this effort, team members tasked with assessing the environmental effects of proposed construction and operation of Units 6 and 7 at the Turkey Point site reviewed two separate modeling studies that analyzed the interaction between surface water and groundwater that would be altered by the operation of radial collector wells (RCWs) at the site. To further confirm their understanding of the groundwater hydrodynamics and to consider whether certain actions, proposed after the two earlier modeling studies were completed, would alter the earlier conclusions documented by the review team in their draft environmental impact statement (EIS; NRC 2015), a third modeling analysis was performed. The third modeling analysis is discussed in this report.

  17. Rapid detection of six common Mediterranean and three non-Mediterranean alpha-thalassemia point mutations by reverse dot blot analysis.

    PubMed

    Foglietta, Enrica; Bianco, Ida; Maggio, Aurelio; Giambona, Antonino

    2003-11-01

    We describe the implementation of reverse dot blot (RDB) hybridization as a rapid nonradioactive method for the identification of six frequent globin gene point mutations in the Mediterranean population: alpha(Hph)alpha: alpha2 IVS I donor site GGTGAGG --> GG-----; alpha(NcoI)alpha: alpha2 initiation codon ATG --> ACG; alpha(TSaudi)alpha: alpha2Poly A signal AATAA --> AATAAG; alpha(Icaria)alpha: alpha2 termination codon TAA --> AAA (Ter --> LYS); alpha(CS)alpha: alpha2 termination codon TAA --> CAA (Ter --> gly); alphaalpha(NcoI): alpha1 initiation codon ATG --> GTG; and three alpha2 globin gene point mutations found in immigrants in Italy: alpha(T-Quongsze)alpha: alpha2 codon 12 CTG --> CCG (Leu --> Pro); alpha(Seal Rock)alpha: alpha2 termination codon TAA --> GAA (TER --> GLU); and alpha(Koyadora)alpha: alpha2 termination codon TAA --> TCA (TER --> SER). The method uses the principle of allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization, but it is a nonradioactive method and permits rapid and simultaneous typing of point mutations and small deletions.

  18. Label-free microfluidic free-flow isoelectric focusing, pH gradient sensing and near real-time isoelectric point determination of biomolecules and blood plasma fractions.

    PubMed

    Poehler, Elisabeth; Herzog, Christin; Lotter, Carsten; Pfeiffer, Simon A; Aigner, Daniel; Mayr, Torsten; Nagl, Stefan

    2015-11-21

    We demonstrate the fabrication, characterization and application of microfluidic chips capable of continuous electrophoretic separation via free flow isoelectric focussing (FFIEF). By integration of a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent pH sensor layer under the whole separation bed, on-line observation of the pH gradient and determination of biomolecular isoelectric points (pI) was achieved within a few seconds. Using an optical setup for imaging of the intrinsic fluorescence of biomolecules at 266 nm excitation, labelling steps could be avoided and the native biomolecules could be separated, collected and analysed for their pI. The fabricated microchip was successfully used for the monitoring of the separation and simultaneous observation of the pH gradient during the isoelectric focussing of the proteins α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, blood plasma proteins and the antibiotics ampicillin and ofloxacin. The obtained pIs are in good agreement with literature data, demonstrating the applicability of the system. Mass spectra from the separated antibiotics taken after 15 minutes of continuous separation from different fractions at the end of the microchip validated the separation via microfluidic isoelectric focussing and indicate the possibility of further on- or off-chip processing steps.

  19. Isoelectric Point Separations of Peptides and Proteins.

    PubMed

    Pergande, Melissa R; Cologna, Stephanie M

    2017-01-25

    The separation of ampholytic components according to isoelectric point has played an important role in isolating, reducing complexity and improving peptide and protein detection. This brief review outlines the basics of isoelectric focusing, including a summary of the historical achievements and considerations in experimental design. Derivative methodologies of isoelectric focusing are also discussed including common detection methods used. Applications in a variety of fields using isoelectric point based separations are provided as well as an outlook on the field for future studies.

  20. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2011

    2011-01-01

    For over a decade, research studies of mathematics education in high-performing countries have pointed to the conclusion that the mathematics curriculum in the United States must become substantially more focused and coherent in order to improve mathematics achievement in this country. To deliver on the promise of common standards, the standards…

  1. Phase 1 of the First Solar Small Power System Experiment (experimental System No. 1). Volume 1: Technical Studies for Solar Point-focusing, Distributed Collector System, with Energy Conversion at the Collector, Category C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. B. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of a solar electric power plant for a small community is evaluated and specific system designs for development and demonstration are selected. All systems investigated are defined as point focusing, distributed receiver concepts, with energy conversion at the collector. The preferred system is comprised of multiple parabolic dish concentrators employing Stirling cycle engines for power conversion. The engine, AC generator, cavity receiver, and integral sodium pool boiler/heat transport system are combined in a single package and mounted at the focus of each concentrator. The output of each concentrator is collected by a conventional electrical distribution system which permits grid-connected or stand-alone operation, depending on the storage system selected.

  2. Deep-Focusing Time-Distance Helioseismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Jensen, J. M.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Birch, A. C.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Much progress has been made by measuring the travel times of solar acoustic waves from a central surface location to points at equal arc distance away. Depth information is obtained from the range of arc distances examined, with the larger distances revealing the deeper layers. This method we will call surface-focusing, as the common point, or focus, is at the surface. To obtain a clearer picture of the subsurface region, it would, no doubt, be better to focus on points below the surface. Our first attempt to do this used the ray theory to pick surface location pairs that would focus on a particular subsurface point. This is not the ideal procedure, as Born approximation kernels suggest that this focus should have zero sensitivity to sound speed inhomogeneities. However, the sensitivity is concentrated below the surface in a much better way than the old surface-focusing method, and so we expect the deep-focusing method to be more sensitive. A large sunspot group was studied by both methods. Inversions based on both methods will be compared.

  3. Final focus nomenclature

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  4. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  5. Restricted genetic variation in populations of Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica outside of East Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands points to the Indian Ocean Islands as the earliest known common source.

    PubMed

    Fontanilla, Ian Kendrich C; Sta Maria, Inna Mikaella P; Garcia, James Rainier M; Ghate, Hemant; Naggs, Fred; Wade, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    The Giant African Land Snail, Achatina ( =  Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822, is a tropical crop pest species with a widespread distribution across East Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, the Caribbean, and North and South America. Its current distribution is attributed primarily to the introduction of the snail to new areas by Man within the last 200 years. This study determined the extent of genetic diversity in global A. fulica populations using the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. A total of 560 individuals were evaluated from 39 global populations obtained from 26 territories. Results reveal 18 distinct A. fulica haplotypes; 14 are found in East Africa and the Indian Ocean islands, but only two haplotypes from the Indian Ocean islands emerged from this region, the C haplotype, now distributed across the tropics, and the D haplotype in Ecuador and Bolivia. Haplotype E from the Philippines, F from New Caledonia and Barbados, O from India and Q from Ecuador are variants of the emergent C haplotype. For the non-native populations, the lack of genetic variation points to founder effects due to the lack of multiple introductions from the native range. Our current data could only point with certainty to the Indian Ocean islands as the earliest known common source of A. fulica across the globe, which necessitates further sampling in East Africa to determine the source populations of the emergent haplotypes.

  6. Ion focusing

    DOEpatents

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2017-01-17

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  7. Ion focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2015-11-10

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  8. Isoelectric Point Separations of Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pergande, Melissa R.; Cologna, Stephanie M.

    2017-01-01

    The separation of ampholytic components according to isoelectric point has played an important role in isolating, reducing complexity and improving peptide and protein detection. This brief review outlines the basics of isoelectric focusing, including a summary of the historical achievements and considerations in experimental design. Derivative methodologies of isoelectric focusing are also discussed including common detection methods used. Applications in a variety of fields using isoelectric point based separations are provided as well as an outlook on the field for future studies. PMID:28248255

  9. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  10. Sagittal focusing Laue monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Zhong; Zhong , Hanson; Jonathan , Hastings; Jerome , Kao; Chi-Chang , Lenhard; Anthony , Siddons; David Peter , Zhong; Hui

    2009-03-24

    An x-ray focusing device generally includes a slide pivotable about a pivot point defined at a forward end thereof, a rail unit fixed with respect to the pivotable slide, a forward crystal for focusing x-rays disposed at the forward end of the pivotable slide and a rearward crystal for focusing x-rays movably coupled to the pivotable slide and the fixed rail unit at a distance rearward from the forward crystal. The forward and rearward crystals define reciprocal angles of incidence with respect to the pivot point, wherein pivoting of the slide about the pivot point changes the incidence angles of the forward and rearward crystals while simultaneously changing the distance between the forward and rearward crystals.

  11. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  12. Activating point mutations in the common beta subunit of the human GM-CSF, IL-3 and IL-5 receptors suggest the involvement of beta subunit dimerization and cell type-specific molecules in signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, B J; D'Andrea, R; Gonda, T J

    1995-01-01

    We have combined retroviral expression cloning with random mutagenesis to identify two activating point mutations in the common signal-transducing subunit (h beta c) of the receptors for human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-3 and IL-5 by virtue of their ability to confer factor independence on the haemopoietic cell line, FDC-P1. One mutation (V449E) is located within the transmembrane domain and, by analogy with a similar mutation in the neu oncogene, may act by inducing dimerization of h beta c. The other mutation (I374N) lies in the extracellular, membrane-proximal portion of h beta c. Neither of these mutants, nor a previously described mutant of h beta c (FI delta, which has a small duplication in the extracellular region), was capable of inducing factor independence in CTLL-2 cells, while only V449E could induce factor independence in BAF-B03 cells. These results imply that the extracellular and transmembrane mutations act by different mechanisms. Furthermore, they imply that the mutants, and hence also wild-type h beta c, interact with cell type-specific signalling molecules. Models are presented which illustrate how these mutations may act and predict some of the characteristics of the putative receptor-associated signalling molecules. Images PMID:7556069

  13. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  14. Focusing on the Invisible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to answer the question of whether or not the design and development of an educational laboratory really changes when the focus is on nanotechnology. It explores current laboratory building trends and the added considerations for building a nanotechnology laboratory. The author leaves the reader with additional points to consider…

  15. Policy Update. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on the drastic revision of the Texas education code undertaken during the 1995 state legislative session. "Education Policy Reform: Key Points for Districts" (Albert Cortez, Mikki Symonds) outlines critical issues in the legislation that have an impact on educational quality: charter schools exempt from state…

  16. Electrophoretic Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    Electrophoretic focusing is a new method of continuous flow electrophoresis that introduces precision flow control to achieve high resolution separations. The electric field is applied perpendicular to an incoming sample lamina and buffer but also perpendicular to the broad faces of the thin rectangular chamber. A uniform fluid cross-flow then enters and exits the separation chamber through the same broad faces which are porous. A balance is achieved by adjusting either the electric field or the cross-flow so the desired sample fraction with its specific migration velocity encounters an opposing flow of the same velocity. Applying an electric field transverse to the incoming sample lamina and opposing this field with a carefully configured buffer flow, a sample constituent can be selected and focused into a narrow stream for subsequent analysis. Monotonically changing either electric field or buffer cross-flow will yield a scan of all constituents of the sample. Stopping the scan increases the collection time for minor constituents to improve their analysis. Using the high voltage gradients and/or cross-flow to rapidly deflect extraneous sample through the porous screens and into either of the side (purge) chambers, the selected sample is focused in the center plane of the separation chamber and collected without contact or interaction with the separation chamber walls. Results will be presented on the separation of a range of materials including dyes, proteins, and monodisperse polystyrene latexes. Sources of sample dispersion inherent in other electrokinetic techniques will be shown to be negligible for a variety of sample concentrations, buffer properties and operating conditions.

  17. Understanding and Accommodating Online Social Communities: A Common Sense Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Online social networks such as Facebook have changed the context and definitions of socialization. Focusing on teacher use, this article considers the size and impact of these forums and the importance many young professionals feel toward them. Themed as a common sense approach, the author uses anecdotal points and discussions with…

  18. QCI Common

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  19. Inertial Focusing in Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Joseph M.; Toner, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    When Segré and Silberberg in 1961 witnessed particles in a laminar pipe flow congregating at an annulus in the pipe, scientists were perplexed and spent decades learning why such behavior occurred, finally understanding that it was caused by previously unknown forces on particles in an inertial flow. The advent of microfluidics opened a new realm of possibilities for inertial focusing in the processing of biological fluids and cellular suspensions and created a field that is now rapidly expanding. Over the past five years, inertial focusing has enabled high-throughput, simple, and precise manipulation of bodily fluids for a myriad of applications in point-of-care and clinical diagnostics. This review describes the theoretical developments that have made the field of inertial focusing what it is today and presents the key applications that will make inertial focusing a mainstream technology in the future. PMID:24905880

  20. Inertial focusing in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Martel, Joseph M; Toner, Mehmet

    2014-07-11

    When Segré and Silberberg in 1961 witnessed particles in a laminar pipe flow congregating at an annulus in the pipe, scientists were perplexed and spent decades learning why such behavior occurred, finally understanding that it was caused by previously unknown forces on particles in an inertial flow. The advent of microfluidics opened a new realm of possibilities for inertial focusing in the processing of biological fluids and cellular suspensions and created a field that is now rapidly expanding. Over the past five years, inertial focusing has enabled high-throughput, simple, and precise manipulation of bodily fluids for a myriad of applications in point-of-care and clinical diagnostics. This review describes the theoretical developments that have made the field of inertial focusing what it is today and presents the key applications that will make inertial focusing a mainstream technology in the future.

  1. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Ronald H

    2016-01-01

    The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via ciliodestruction), tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. PMID:27757007

  2. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Ronald H

    2016-01-01

    The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via ciliodestruction), tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities.

  3. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  4. Plutonium focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  5. Focusing of bistatic SAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bia, Pietro; Ricci, Nicola; Zonno, Mariantonietta; Nico, Giovanni; Catalao, Joao; Tesauro, Manlio

    2014-10-01

    The problems of simulation of bistatic SAR raw data and focusing are studied. A discrete target simulator is described. The simulator introduces the scene topography and compute the integration time of general bistatic configurations providing a means to derived maps of the range and azimuth spatial resolutions. The problem of focusing of bistatic SAR data acquired in a translational-invariant bistatic configuration is studied by deriving the bistatic Point Target Reference spectrum and presenting an analytical solution for its stationary points.

  6. The structure of common-envelope remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Philip D.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the structure and evolution of the remnants of common-envelope evolution in binary star systems. In a common-envelope phase, two stars become engulfed in a gaseous envelope and, under the influence of drag forces, spiral to smaller separations. They may merge to form a single star or the envelope may be ejected to leave the stars in a shorter period orbit. This process explains the short orbital periods of many observed binary systems, such as cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binary systems. Despite the importance of these systems, and of common-envelope evolution to their formation, it remains poorly understood. Specifically, we are unable to confidently predict the outcome of a common-envelope phase from the properties at its onset. After presenting a review of work on stellar evolution, binary systems, common-envelope evolution and the computer programs used, we describe the results of three computational projects on common-envelope evolution. Our work specifically relates to the methods and prescriptions which are used for predicting the outcome. We use the Cambridge stellar-evolution code STARS to produce detailed models of the structure and evolution of remnants of common-envelope evolution. We compare different assumptions about the uncertain end-of-common envelope structure and envelope mass of remnants which successfully eject their common envelopes. In the first project, we use detailed remnant models to investigate whether planetary nebulae are predicted after common-envelope phases initiated by low-mass red giants. We focus on the requirement that a remnant evolves rapidly enough to photoionize the nebula and compare the predictions for different ideas about the structure at the end of a common-envelope phase. We find that planetary nebulae are possible for some prescriptions for the end-of-common envelope structure. In our second contribution, we compute a large set of single-star models and fit new formulae to the core radii of

  7. Point-to-Point Multicast Communications Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Gregory T.; Nakano, Russell; Delagi, Bruce A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a protocol to support point-to-point interprocessor communications with multicast. Dynamic, cut-through routing with local flow control is used to provide a high-throughput, low-latency communications path between processors. In addition multicast transmissions are available, in which copies of a packet are sent to multiple destinations using common resources as much as possible. Special packet terminators and selective buffering are introduced to avoid a deadlock during multicasts. A simulated implementation of the protocol is also described.

  8. Focused Bessel beams

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P V

    2000-04-30

    The diffraction broadening of a focused beam with a Bessel amplitude distribution is examined. Calculations are reported not only of the traditional differential characteristics (radial distributions of the electric-energy densities and of the axial total electromagnetic energy flux in the beam), but also of integral quantities characterising the degree of transverse localisation of the radiation in a tube of specified radius within the beam. It is shown that in a large-aperture Bessel beam only a very small fraction of the total beam power is concentrated in its central core and that a focal point is also observed on intense focusing of the Bessel beam. This spot is not in the geometric-optical focal plane but is displaced from the latter by a certain distance. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  9. Neocortical focus: experimental view.

    PubMed

    Timofeev, Igor; Chauvette, Sylvain; Soltani, Sara

    2014-01-01

    All brain normal or pathological activities occur in one of the states of vigilance: wake, slow-wave sleep, or REM sleep. Neocortical seizures preferentially occur during slow-wave sleep. We provide a description of neuronal behavior and mechanisms mediating such a behavior within neocortex taking place in natural states of vigilance as well as during seizures pointing to similarities and differences exhibited during sleep and seizures. A concept of epileptic focus is described using a model of cortical undercut, because in that model, the borders of the focus are well defined. In this model, as in other models of acquired epilepsy, the main factor altering excitability is deafferentation, which upregulates neuronal excitability that promotes generation of seizures. Periods of disfacilitation recorded during slow-wave sleep further upregulate neuronal excitability. It appears that the state of neurons and neuronal network in the epileptic focus produced by deafferentation are such that seizures cannot be generated there. Instead, seizures always start around the perimeter of the undercut cortex. Therefore, we define these areas as the seizure focus. In this zone, neuronal connectivity and excitability are moderately enhanced, lowering the threshold for seizure generation.

  10. What's the Point? The Benefits of Grading without Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brilleslyper, Mike; Ghrist, Michelle; Holcomb, Trae; Schaubroeck, Beth; Warner, Bradley; Williams, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Most instructors desire to create a learning environment conducive to deep learning. However, in courses where grades are based upon the accumulation of points, students may focus on collecting points rather than on learning and achieving the course objectives. We discuss an alternative points-free course design based on the development of clear…

  11. New SMU Gallium Fixed-Point Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranostaj, Juraj; Ďuriš, Stanislav; Knorová, Renáta; Kaskötö, Mariana; Vyskočilová, Irena

    2011-08-01

    In the framework of the European research project EURAMET 732, the Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU) built three primary gallium fixed-point cells of different designs. The cells are designed for the calibration of the long-stem SPRT. In regard to the procedure commonly used at SMU when realizing the gallium point, the cells are designed for use in a stirred liquid bath. This article provides information about the cell designs, materials used, method of filling, and results of the performed experiments. The experiments were focused on the study of the cells' metrological characteristics, some effects that could influence the melting-point temperature and the effect of the melted metal fraction on the immersion profile. New cells were compared with the SMU reference gallium cell.

  12. Cutaneous Manifestations of Common Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Sunil; Jindal, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Skin functions as a window to our overall health and a number of systemic diseases result in various cutaneous changes. Knowledge of these manifestations helps in suspecting an underlying systemic illness. Cutaneous abnormalities are quite common in patients with liver diseases and this article aims to focus on these dermatoses. Cutaneous manifestations seen in patients with liver disease though common are nonspecific. They can also be seen in patients without liver diseases and generally do not indicate about a specific underlying hepatic disorder. The presence of a constellation of signs and symptoms is more useful in pointing toward an underlying hepatobiliary condition. The commonest symptom in patients with liver disease is pruritus which is often protracted and disabling. Other common features include spider angiomas, palmar erythema, paper money skin, xanthelasmas, pigmentary changes, and nutritional deficiencies. In this article, first the common cutaneous manifestations that may be associated with liver disorders are discussed and then common liver diseases with their specific cutaneous findings are discussed. Cutaneous abnormalities may be the first clue to the underlying liver disease. Identifying them is crucial for early diagnosis and better management. PMID:25755383

  13. Learning Words with Common Rimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    An extensive research review by M. Adams (1990) led her to the conclusion that providing instruction and reinforcement in learning common rimes is highly beneficial in fostering growth in learning to read. While substantial amounts of reading, either independent or with partners, is critical in learning words with common rimes, focused study is…

  14. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  15. Automated detection of ocular focus.

    PubMed

    Hunter, David G; Nusz, Kevin J; Gandhi, Nainesh K; Quraishi, Imran H; Gramatikov, Boris I; Guyton, David L

    2004-01-01

    We characterize objectively the state of focus of the human eye, utilizing a bull's eye photodetector to detect the double-pass blur produced from a point source of light. A point fixation source of light illuminates the eye. Fundus-reflected light is focused by the optical system of the eye onto a bull's eye photodetector [consisting of an annulus (A) and a center (C) of approximately equal active area]. To generate focus curves, C/A is measured with a range of trial lenses in the light path. Three human eyes and a model eye are studied. In the model eye, the focus curve showed a sharp peak with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of +/-0.25 D. In human eyes, the ratio C/A was >4 at best focus in all cases, with a FWHM of +/-1 D. The optical apparatus detects ocular focus (as opposed to refractive error) in real time. A device that can assess focus rapidly and objectively will make it possible to perform low-cost, mass screening for focusing problems such as may exist in children at risk for amblyopia.

  16. Boiling Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    The author recounts his experiences he helped to investigate the accident which destroyed the Space Shuttle Challenger. The focus was on how he used novel approaches to investigate heat transfer in the shuttle's hydrogen tank, after an expert he sought for advice proved unhelpful.

  17. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  18. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markuszewski, Michał J.; Bujak, Renata; Daghir, Emilia

    Capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) is a widespread technique for the analysis of peptides and proteins in biological samples. CIEF is used to separate mixtures of compounds on the basis of differences in their isoelectric point. Aspects of sample preparation, capillary selection, zone mobilization procedures as well as various detection modes used have been described and discussed. Moreover CIEF, coupled to various types of detection techniques (MALDI or LIF), has increasingly been applied to the analysis of variety different high-molecular compounds. CIEF is considered as a highly specific analytical method which may be routinely used in the separation of rare hemoglobin variants. In addition, the application of CIEF in proteomic field have been discussed on the examples of analyses of glycoproteins and immunoglobins due to the meaning in clinical diagnostic.

  19. Focus on psychosis.

    PubMed

    Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zielasek, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    The concept of psychosis has been shaped by traditions in the concepts of mental disorders during the last 170 years. The term "psychosis" still lacks a unified definition, but denotes a clinical construct composed of several symptoms. Delusions, hallucinations, and thought disorders are the core clinical features. The search for a common denominator of psychotic symptoms points toward combinations of neuropsychological mechanisms resulting in reality distortion. To advance the elucidation of the causes and the pathophysiology of the symptoms of psychosis, a deconstruction of the term into its component symptoms is therefore warranted. Current research is dealing with the delineation from "normality", the genetic underpinnings, and the causes and pathophysiology of the symptoms of psychosis.

  20. Isoelectric focusing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.; Egen, N. B.; Mosher, R. A.; Twitty, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of space electrophoresis is conditioned by the fact that all electrophoretic techniques require the suppression of gravity-caused convection. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a powerful variant of electrophoresis, in which amphoteric substances are separated in a pH gradient according to their isoelectric points. A new apparatus for large scale IEF, utilizing a recycling principle, has been developed. In the ground-based prototype, laminar flow is provided by a series of parallel filter elements. The operation of the apparatus is monitored by an automated array of pH and ultraviolet absorption sensors under control of a desk-top computer. The apparatus has proven to be useful for the purification of a variety of enzymes, snake venom proteins, peptide hormones, and other biologicals, including interferon produced by genetic engineering techniques. In planning for a possible space apparatus, a crucial question regarding electroosmosis needs to be addressed To solve this problem, simple focusing test modules are planned for inclusion in an early Shuttle flight.

  1. Brief therapy: focused solution development.

    PubMed

    De Shazer, S; Berg, I K; Lipchik, E; Nunnally, E; Molnar, A; Gingerich, W; Weiner-Davis, M

    1986-06-01

    This article describes the form of brief therapy developed at the Brief Family Therapy Center. We have chosen a title similar to Weakland, Fisch, Watzlawick, and Bodin's classic paper, "Brief Therapy: Focused Problem Resolution" (20) to emphasize our view that there is a conceptual relationship and a developmental connection between the points of view expressed in the two papers.

  2. Lyme disease in Canada: Focus on children.

    PubMed

    Onyett, Heather

    2014-08-01

    Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne infection in Canada and much of the United States, is caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi. Peak incidence for Lyme disease is among children five to nine years of age and older adults (55 to 59 years of age). The bacteria are transmitted through the bite of infected black-legged ticks of the Ixodes species. The primary hosts of black-legged ticks are mice and other rodents, small mammals, birds (which are reservoirs for B burgdorferi) and white-tailed deer. Geographical distribution of Ixodes ticks is expanding in Canada and an increasing number of cases of Lyme disease are being reported. The present practice point reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and prevention of Lyme disease, with a focus on children.

  3. Lyme disease in Canada: Focus on children

    PubMed Central

    Onyett, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne infection in Canada and much of the United States, is caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi. Peak incidence for Lyme disease is among children five to nine years of age and older adults (55 to 59 years of age). The bacteria are transmitted through the bite of infected black-legged ticks of the Ixodes species. The primary hosts of black-legged ticks are mice and other rodents, small mammals, birds (which are reservoirs for B burgdorferi) and white-tailed deer. Geographical distribution of Ixodes ticks is expanding in Canada and an increasing number of cases of Lyme disease are being reported. The present practice point reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and prevention of Lyme disease, with a focus on children. PMID:25332678

  4. Solar receiver performance of point focusing collector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y. C.; Wen, L. C.

    1978-01-01

    The solar receiver performance of cavity receivers and external receivers used in dispersed solar power systems was evaluated for the temperature range 300-1300 C. Several parameters of receiver and concentrator are examined. It was found that cavity receivers are generally more efficient than external receivers, especially at high temperatures which require a large heat transfer area. The effects of variation in the ratio of receiver area to aperture area are considered.

  5. Characterization of point focusing test bed concentrators at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starkey, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    The characterization data were measured using both a flux mapper and a cold water calorimeter. The flux mapper uses a Kendall Radiometer as the sensing device. It is mounted on an x, y, z motor-driven positioning mechanism that allows the sensor to take an x-y flux raster at several Z planes in the vicinity of the concentrators nominal focal plane. Various concepts were tried to protect the concentrator structure from being damaged by the Sun's energy during sun acquisition and deacquisition. A description of both the passive and active protective systems is presented.

  6. Threshold Concepts: A Point of Focus for Practitioner Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Naomi; Carmichael, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Participants with teaching and research experience across eight disciplinary areas were introduced to the idea of "threshold concepts" and were then invited to identify potential threshold concepts in their own disciplines through small-scale research activities. Participants conceptualized their involvement in different ways: for some it provided…

  7. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  8. Point clouds in BIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antova, Gergana; Kunchev, Ivan; Mickrenska-Cherneva, Christina

    2016-10-01

    The representation of physical buildings in Building Information Models (BIM) has been a subject of research since four decades in the fields of Construction Informatics and GeoInformatics. The early digital representations of buildings mainly appeared as 3D drawings constructed by CAD software, and the 3D representation of the buildings was only geometric, while semantics and topology were out of modelling focus. On the other hand, less detailed building representations, with often focus on ‘outside’ representations were also found in form of 2D /2,5D GeoInformation models. Point clouds from 3D laser scanning data give a full and exact representation of the building geometry. The article presents different aspects and the benefits of using point clouds in BIM in the different stages of a lifecycle of a building.

  9. "Only" and Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallduvi, Enric

    The relationship of the word "only," one of a class of words known as scalar particles, focus adverbs, focus inducers, or focus-sensitive particles, with the "focus" of the sentence is examined. It is suggested, based on analysis of discourse structure, that this "association with focus" is not an inherent property of…

  10. A Common Core in Science? Two Points of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Mary; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents one viewpoint supporting the adoption of a core curriculum in science based upon social, egalitarian ideas and concerns for the basics, and another viewpoint opposing a core curriculum based upon the inability of classical sciences as taught to meet general societal and industrial needs. (DC)

  11. Wolter Optics for Neutron Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildner, D. F. R.; Gubarev, M. V.

    2010-01-01

    Focusing optics based on Wolter optical geometries developed for x-ray grazing incidence beams can be designed for neutron beams. Wolter optics are formed by grazing incidence reflections from two concentric conic sections (for example, a paraboloid and a hyperboloid). This has transformed observational X-ray astronomy by increasing the sensitivity by many orders of magnitude for research in astrophysics and cosmology. To increase the collection area, many reflecting mirrors of different diameters are nested with a common focal plane. These mirrors are fabricated using nickel-electroformed replication techniques. We apply these ideas to neutron focusing using nickel mirrors. We show an initial test of a conical mirror using a beam of cold neutrons. key words: electroformed nickel replication, focusing optics, grazing angle incidence, mirror reflection, neutron focusing, Wolter optics

  12. Common Ground: Finding Commonalities in Diverse Musical Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching commonalities in diverse musical genres. Teachers need to relate the musical activities performed in class to music that students experience in the world around them since they understand music in relation to history and culture. A key to selecting high-quality musical examples is to find music pieces that contain…

  13. Common hair loss disorders.

    PubMed

    Springer, Karyn; Brown, Matthew; Stulberg, Daniel L

    2003-07-01

    Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, dose attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a specific pattern of temporal-frontal loss in men and central thinning in women. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved topical minoxidil to treat men and women, with the addition of finasteride for men. Telogen effluvium is characterized by the loss of "handfuls" of hair, often following emotional or physical stressors. Alopecia areata, trichotillomania, traction alopecia, and tinea capitis have unique features on examination that aid in diagnosis. Treatment for these disorders and telogen effluvium focuses on resolution of the underlying cause.

  14. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  15. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field in optics dealing with the so-called surface plasmons whose extraordinary properties are being both analyzed from a fundamental point of view and exploited for numerous technological applications. Surface plasmons associated with surface electron density oscillations decorating metal-dielectric interfaces were discovered by Rufus Ritchie in the 1950s. Since the seventies, the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields as well as their enhancement inherent to the surface plasmon excitation has been widely used for spectroscopic purposes. Recent advances in nano-fabrication, characterization and modelling techniques have allowed unique properties of these surface electromagnetic modes to be explored with respect to subwavelength field localization and waveguiding, opening the path to truly nanoscale plasmonic optical devices. This area of investigation also has interesting links with research on photonic band gap materials and the field of optical metamaterials. Nowadays, plasmonics can be seen as a mature interdisciplinary area of research in which scientists coming from different backgrounds (chemistry, physics, optics and engineering) strive to discover and exploit new and exciting phenomena associated with surface plasmons. The already made and forthcoming discoveries will have impacts in many fields of science and technology, including not only photonics and materials science but also computation, biology and medicine, among others. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended to cover all the aforementioned capabilities of surface plasmons by presenting a current overview of state-of-the-art advances achieved by the leading groups in this field of research. The below list of articles represents the first contributions to the collection and further additions will appear soon. Focus on Plasmonics Contents Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes Reuben M Bakker, Vladimir P Drachev

  16. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  17. Focus Curriculum Manual; A Focus Dissemination Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resource Associates, Inc., Hastings, Minn.

    This training manual is for use in preparing staff members to use the Focus Model, which is a "school within a school" for disaffected high school students. The material is designed to be used as a resource aid following participation in an in-service workshop. Information is presented to help implement a contracting system to establish…

  18. Focus Intonation in Bengali

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Md. Kamrul

    2015-01-01

    This work attempts to investigate the role of prosody in the syntax of focus in Bangla. The aim of this study is to show the intonation pattern of Bangla in emphasis and focus. In order to do that, the author has looked at the pattern of focus without-i/o as well as with the same. Do they really pose any different focus intonation pattern from…

  19. Alternating phase focused linacs

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Donald A.

    1980-01-01

    A heavy particle linear accelerator employing rf fields for transverse and ongitudinal focusing as well as acceleration. Drift tube length and gap positions in a standing wave drift tube loaded structure are arranged so that particles are subject to acceleration and succession of focusing and defocusing forces which contain the beam without additional magnetic or electric focusing fields.

  20. Autoimmunity in Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shradha; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common clinically significant primary immune defect. Although the hallmark of CVID is hypogammaglobulinemia, the intrinsic dysregulation of the immune system leads to defective T-cell activation and proliferation, as well as dendritic cell and cytokine defects. Although 70% to 80% of patients have had recurrent sinopulmonary infections, auto-immunity and inflammatory complications are also common. The most common autoimmune conditions are immune thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic anemia, but other autoimmune complications arise, including rheumatoid arthritis, pernicious anemia, primary biliary cirrhosis, thyroiditis, sicca syndrome, systemic lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment of autoimmunity includes high-dose immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, selected immunosuppressants, and other immune modulators. This review focuses on autoimmune conditions associated with CVID, potential mechanisms of immune dysregulation, and therapeutic strategies. PMID:19671377

  1. Common NICU Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... care unit (NICU) > Common NICU equipment Common NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... understand how they can help your baby. What equipment is commonly used in the NICU? Providers use ...

  2. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  3. Optimal ultrasonic array focusing in attenuative media.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, A; Gao, R X; Liang, K; Jundt, J

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a parametric study on the efficiency of ultrasound focusing in an attenuative medium, using phased arrays. Specifically, an analytical model of ultrasound wave focusing in a homogeneous, isotropic and attenuative fluid with point sources is presented. Calculations based on the model have shown that in an attenuative medium, an optimum frequency exists for the best focusing performance for a particular size of aperture and focal distance. The effect of different f numbers on the focusing performance in the attenuative medium is further investigated. The information obtained from the analytical model provides insights into the design and installation of a phased transducer array for energy efficient wave focusing.

  4. Acoustic focusing by metal circular ring structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian-Ping; Sun, Hong-Xiang

    2015-02-01

    We report an exotic acoustic focusing effect through a simple brass circular ring structure immersed in water. The acoustic waves can be focused on a prefect point at the centre of the ring structure. This exotic acoustic focusing phenomenon arises from the intrinsic modes in the ring structure at some special eigenfrequencies, which is essentially distinct from the previous studies originating from the negative refraction. The focusing effect is closely related to the size and shape of the ring structure. Interesting applications of the focusing mechanism in black box detectors in the sea and medical ultrasound treatment are further discussed.

  5. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  6. Focus on treatment complications and optimal management surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Jeroen M.; Lauwers, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Thoracic surgery comprises major procedures which may be challenging, not only from a technical point of view but also regarding anesthetic and postoperative management. Complications are common occurrences which are also related to the comorbidity of the patients. After major lung resections pulmonary and pleural complications are often encountered. In this overview more surgically related complications are discussed, focusing on postpneumonectomy pulmonary edema, thromboembolic disease including pulmonary embolism, prolonged air leak, lobar torsion, persistent pleural space, empyema and bronchopleural fistula. Prevention, timely recognition, and early adequate treatment are key points as complications initially considered to be minor, may suddenly turn into life-threatening events. To this end multidisciplinary cooperation is necessary. Preoperative smoking cessation, adequate pain control, attention to nutritional status, incentive spirometry and early mobilization are important factors to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications. PMID:25806298

  7. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  8. Inclusive Focus Particles in English and Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sang-gu

    2011-01-01

    When discussing focus particles, it has been common practice to rely on the dichotomy of inclusive vs. exclusive particles, "a la" Konig (1991). Inclusive focus particles are often further divided into scalar particles, such as "also", "too", and "either", and non-scalar particles, such as "even". In this thesis, I advance a comparative analysis…

  9. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection. PMID:21969825

  10. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    DOEpatents

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  11. FOCUS: Sustainable Mathematics Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mireles, Selina V.; Acee, Taylor W.; Gerber, Lindsey N.

    2014-01-01

    The FOCUS (Fundamentals of Conceptual Understanding and Success) Co-Requisite Model Intervention (FOCUS Intervention) for College Algebra was developed as part of the Developmental Education Demonstration Projects (DEDP) in Texas. The program was designed to use multiple services, courses, and best practices to support student completion of a…

  12. Focus, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus, 2001

    2001-01-01

    These three issues of 2000-2001 "Focus" present a collection of papers focusing on issues related to poverty. The first issue discusses child support enforcement policy and low-income families, highlighting such issues as fragile families and child wellbeing; low-income families and the child support enforcement system; child support…

  13. Objective, comparative assessment of the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy for imaging various organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, Christopher J.; Bruns, Oliver T.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; So, Peter T. C.

    2015-06-01

    Temporal focusing is a technique for performing axially resolved widefield multiphoton microscopy with a large field of view. Despite significant advantages over conventional point-scanning multiphoton microscopy in terms of imaging speed, the need to collect the whole image simultaneously means that it is expected to achieve a lower penetration depth in common biological samples compared to point-scanning. We assess the penetration depth using a rigorous objective criterion based on the modulation transfer function, comparing it to point-scanning multiphoton microscopy. Measurements are performed in a variety of mouse organs in order to provide practical guidance as to the achievable penetration depth for both imaging techniques. It is found that two-photon scanning microscopy has approximately twice the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy, and that penetration depth is organ-specific; the heart has the lowest penetration depth, followed by the liver, lungs, and kidneys, then the spleen, and finally white adipose tissue.

  14. Objective, comparative assessment of the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy for imaging various organs

    PubMed Central

    Rowlands, Christopher J.; Bruns, Oliver T.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; So, Peter T. C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Temporal focusing is a technique for performing axially resolved widefield multiphoton microscopy with a large field of view. Despite significant advantages over conventional point-scanning multiphoton microscopy in terms of imaging speed, the need to collect the whole image simultaneously means that it is expected to achieve a lower penetration depth in common biological samples compared to point-scanning. We assess the penetration depth using a rigorous objective criterion based on the modulation transfer function, comparing it to point-scanning multiphoton microscopy. Measurements are performed in a variety of mouse organs in order to provide practical guidance as to the achievable penetration depth for both imaging techniques. It is found that two-photon scanning microscopy has approximately twice the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy, and that penetration depth is organ-specific; the heart has the lowest penetration depth, followed by the liver, lungs, and kidneys, then the spleen, and finally white adipose tissue. PMID:25844509

  15. Problem focused knowledge navigation: implementing the problem focused medical record and the O-HEAP note.

    PubMed

    Meyers, K C; Miller, H J; Naeymi-Rad, F

    1998-01-01

    The current organization of most Computerized Medical Records (CMR) is based on the Problem Oriented Medical Record (POMR) and the SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan) note. The organizational structure of the POMR and especially the SOAP note, does not allow for optimal use of computer capabilities in the follow up note. Since follow up visits are the most common office visit by far, this is a major flaw in the CMR. The authors propose a Problem Focused Medical Record and the OHEAP (Orientation, History, Exam, Assessment and Plan) note to resolve this problem. OHEAP starts with a powerful orientation structure that brings forward the timeline, last Assessment and Plan, and Plan Results for each problem along with the patient's historical tables as the starting point of every follow up visit. The Assessment and Plan portion brings problem specific differential diagnoses and their workups along with other relevant tables such as expert systems, treatments, instructions, medical literature or pathways. This leads to Problem Focused Knowledge Navigation that brings powerful efficiencies to the CMR. By recognizing the true workflow in the longitudinal diagnosis and management of any medical problem, the efficiency of the CMR is maximized. OHEAP allows for optimal use of both personal and external data elements in the medical record. Its powerful orientation attributes minimize the time spent in analyzing the current status of the problem while its connections to problem specific databases help resolve the problem.

  16. Flat Focusing Mirror

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y. C.; Kicas, S.; Trull, J.; Peckus, M.; Cojocaru, C.; Vilaseca, R.; Drazdys, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  17. Common Tests for Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Tests for Arrhythmia Updated:Dec 21,2016 Several tests can help ... View an animation of arrhythmia . Common Tests for Arrhythmia Holter monitor (continuous ambulatory electrocardiographic monitor) Suspected arrhythmias ...

  18. Finding Common Ground with the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisan, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the Common Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The process raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…

  19. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  20. Applications of isoelectric focusing in forensic serology.

    PubMed

    Murch, R S; Budowle, B

    1986-07-01

    The typing of certain polymorphic proteins present in human body fluids is an important aspect of the analysis of serological evidence. This is particularly true when dealing with evidence related to violent criminal activity such as homocide, assault, or rape. Until recently, the routine analysis of the genetic polymorphisms of interest relied upon conventional electrophoretic techniques such as horizontal starch or agarose slab gel or both, cellulose acetate, and vertical polyacrylamide gradient gel methods. These techniques adequately separate a limited number of common variants. In some cases, these methods are still those of choice. However, as a result of the nature of the conventional approach, problems with time required for analysis, resolution, diffusion of bands, sensitivity of protein detection, and cost are often encountered. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) offers an effective alternative to conventional electrophoresis for genetic marker typing. This method exploits the isoelectric point of allelic products rather than charge-to-mass ratio in a particular pH environment. The advantages of employing IEF include: reduction of time of analysis, increased resolution of protein bands, the possibility of subtyping existing phenotypes, increased sensitivity of detection, the counteraction of diffusion effects, and reduced cost per sample.

  1. A Personal Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Describes how to teach students about art concepts during a photography lesson. Explains that students learn about concepts such as: how to take a sharp picture, how to fill the frame and leading lines, and how to focus on point of view in photographs. Includes learning objectives for the lesson. (CMK)

  2. Canonical Commonality Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, K. Dawn

    Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor…

  3. Knowledge representation for commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1990-01-01

    Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.

  4. Point set registration: coherent point drift.

    PubMed

    Myronenko, Andriy; Song, Xubo

    2010-12-01

    Point set registration is a key component in many computer vision tasks. The goal of point set registration is to assign correspondences between two sets of points and to recover the transformation that maps one point set to the other. Multiple factors, including an unknown nonrigid spatial transformation, large dimensionality of point set, noise, and outliers, make the point set registration a challenging problem. We introduce a probabilistic method, called the Coherent Point Drift (CPD) algorithm, for both rigid and nonrigid point set registration. We consider the alignment of two point sets as a probability density estimation problem. We fit the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) centroids (representing the first point set) to the data (the second point set) by maximizing the likelihood. We force the GMM centroids to move coherently as a group to preserve the topological structure of the point sets. In the rigid case, we impose the coherence constraint by reparameterization of GMM centroid locations with rigid parameters and derive a closed form solution of the maximization step of the EM algorithm in arbitrary dimensions. In the nonrigid case, we impose the coherence constraint by regularizing the displacement field and using the variational calculus to derive the optimal transformation. We also introduce a fast algorithm that reduces the method computation complexity to linear. We test the CPD algorithm for both rigid and nonrigid transformations in the presence of noise, outliers, and missing points, where CPD shows accurate results and outperforms current state-of-the-art methods.

  5. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  6. Focusing corner cube

    DOEpatents

    Monjes, J.A.

    1985-09-12

    This invention retortreflects and focuses a beam of light. The invention comprises a modified corner cube reflector wherein one reflective surface is planar, a second reflective surface is spherical, and the third reflective surface may be planar or convex cylindrical.

  7. Final focus test beam

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  8. Algorithms for Labeling Focus Regions.

    PubMed

    Fink, M; Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Schulz, A; Spoerhase, J; Wolff, A

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of labeling point sites in focus regions of maps or diagrams. This problem occurs, for example, when the user of a mapping service wants to see the names of restaurants or other POIs in a crowded downtown area but keep the overview over a larger area. Our approach is to place the labels at the boundary of the focus region and connect each site with its label by a linear connection, which is called a leader. In this way, we move labels from the focus region to the less valuable context region surrounding it. In order to make the leader layout well readable, we present algorithms that rule out crossings between leaders and optimize other characteristics such as total leader length and distance between labels. This yields a new variant of the boundary labeling problem, which has been studied in the literature. Other than in traditional boundary labeling, where leaders are usually schematized polylines, we focus on leaders that are either straight-line segments or Bezier curves. Further, we present algorithms that, given the sites, find a position of the focus region that optimizes the above characteristics. We also consider a variant of the problem where we have more sites than space for labels. In this situation, we assume that the sites are prioritized by the user. Alternatively, we take a new facility-location perspective which yields a clustering of the sites. We label one representative of each cluster. If the user wishes, we apply our approach to the sites within a cluster, giving details on demand.

  9. Microfluidic high-resolution free-flow isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Eijkel, Jan C T; Schlautmann, Stefan; van den Berg, Albert; Schasfoort, Richard B M

    2007-11-01

    A microfluidic free-flow isoelectric focusing glass chip for separation of proteins is described. Free-flow isoelectric focusing is demonstrated with a set of fluorescent standards covering a wide range of isoelectric points from pH 3 to 10 as well as the protein HSA. With respect to an earlier developed device, an improved microfluidic FFE chip was developed. The improvements included the usage of multiple sheath flows and the introduction of preseparated ampholytes. Preseparated ampholytes are commonly used in large-scale conventional free-flow isoelectric focusing instruments but have not been used in micromachined devices yet. Furthermore, the channel depth was further decreased. These adaptations led to a higher separation resolution and peak capacity, which were not achieved with previously published free-flow isoelectric focusing chips. An almost linear pH gradient ranging from pH 2.5 to 11.5 between 1.2 and 2 mm wide was generated. Seven isoelectric focusing markers were successfully and clearly separated within a residence time of 2.5 s and an electrical field of 20 V mm-1. Experiments with pI markers proved that the device is fully capable of separating analytes with a minimum difference in isoelectric point of Delta(pI) = 0.4. Furthermore, the results indicate that even a better resolution can be achieved. The theoretical minimum difference in isoelectric point is Delta(pI) = 0.23 resulting in a peak capacity of 29 peaks within 1.8 mm. This is an 8-fold increase in peak capacity to previously published results. The focusing of pI markers led to an increase in concentration by factor 20 and higher. Further improvement in terms of resolution seems possible, for which we envisage that the influence of electroosmotic flow has to be further reduced. The performance of the microfluidic free-flow isoelectric focusing device will enable new applications, as this device might be used in clinical analysis where often low sample volumes are available and fast

  10. Electron beam focusing system

    SciTech Connect

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  11. High harmonics focusing undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  12. New NLC Final Focus

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, P.

    2004-10-11

    A novel design of the Final Focus has recently been proposed [1] and has been adopted now for the Next Linear Collider [2]. This new design has fewer optical elements and is much shorter, nonetheless achieving better chromatic properties. In this paper, the new final focus system is briefly discussed stressing one particular characteristic of the new design--its multi TeV energy reach.

  13. Two Circles and Their Common Tangents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2002-01-01

    Given two circles C 1 and C 2 in a plane such that neither one of the two circles is contained in the other, there are either four common tangents when the circles do not intersect at all or the circles have three common tangents when they touch each other externally or only two common tangents when the circles intersect exactly at two points. The…

  14. Leverage points for sustainability transformation.

    PubMed

    Abson, David J; Fischer, Joern; Leventon, Julia; Newig, Jens; Schomerus, Thomas; Vilsmaier, Ulli; von Wehrden, Henrik; Abernethy, Paivi; Ives, Christopher D; Jager, Nicolas W; Lang, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    Despite substantial focus on sustainability issues in both science and politics, humanity remains on largely unsustainable development trajectories. Partly, this is due to the failure of sustainability science to engage with the root causes of unsustainability. Drawing on ideas by Donella Meadows, we argue that many sustainability interventions target highly tangible, but essentially weak, leverage points (i.e. using interventions that are easy, but have limited potential for transformational change). Thus, there is an urgent need to focus on less obvious but potentially far more powerful areas of intervention. We propose a research agenda inspired by systems thinking that focuses on transformational 'sustainability interventions', centred on three realms of leverage: reconnecting people to nature, restructuring institutions and rethinking how knowledge is created and used in pursuit of sustainability. The notion of leverage points has the potential to act as a boundary object for genuinely transformational sustainability science.

  15. Just the Facts: Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Cheryl Scott

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the Common Core State Standards and what they mean to teachers and their students. The Common Core State Standards Initiative provides an opportunity for classroom practitioners across the nation to hone their skills, focus on student learning, and ensure that all the students they serve will be working…

  16. The Info Commons Concept: Assessing User Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldo, Tara Tobin; Freund, LeiLani; Ocha, Marilyn N.; Salcedo, Marina

    2006-01-01

    The University of Florida Libraries took the opportunity of remodeling its Humanities and Social Sciences library to conceptualize the design of an info commons area for the new building. An Info Commons Concept Team was formed and charged with this task. The team used site visits, surveys, focus groups, and interviews to determine the needs of…

  17. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Vann, C.S.

    1993-08-31

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a Cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the Cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the Cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a Cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  18. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    1993-01-01

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  19. Generation of Focused Shock Waves in Water for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukeš, Petr; Šunka, Pavel; Hoffer, Petr; Stelmashuk, Vitaliy; Beneš, Jiří; Poučková, Pavla; Zadinová, Marie; Zeman, Jan

    The physical characteristics of focused two-successive (tandem) shock waves (FTSW) in water and their biological effects are presented. FTSW were ­generated by underwater multichannel electrical discharges in a highly conductive saline solution using two porous ceramic-coated cylindrical electrodes of different diameter and surface area. The primary cylindrical pressure wave generated at each composite electrode was focused by a metallic parabolic reflector to a common focal point to form two strong shock waves with a variable time delay between the waves. The pressure field and interaction between the first and the second shock waves at the focus were investigated using schlieren photography and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) shock gauge sensors. The largest interaction was obtained for a time delay of 8-15 μs between the waves, producing an amplitude of the negative pressure phase of the second shock wave down to -80 MPa and a large number of cavitations at the focus. The biological effects of FTSW were demonstrated in vitro on damage to B16 melanoma cells, in vivo on targeted lesions in the thigh muscles of rabbits and on the growth delay of sarcoma tumors in Lewis rats treated in vivo by FTSW, compared to untreated controls.

  20. Remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe

    DOEpatents

    Schmucker, John E.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Archer, William B.

    1999-01-01

    A remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe allows for analyzing Raman scattered light from a point of interest external probe. An environmental barrier including at least one window separates the probe from the point of interest. An optical tube is disposed adjacent to the environmental barrier and includes a long working length compound lens objective next to the window. A beam splitter and a mirror are at the other end. A mechanical means is used to translated the prove body in the X, Y, and Z directions resulting in a variable focus optical apparatus. Laser light is reflected by the beam splitter and directed toward the compound lens objective, then through the window and focused on the point of interest. Raman scattered light is then collected by the compound lens objective and directed through the beam splitter to a mirror. A device for analyzing the light, such as a monochrometer, is coupled to the mirror.

  1. Remote Adjustable focus Raman Spectroscopy Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Schmucker, John E.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Archer, William B.

    1998-07-28

    A remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe allows for analyzing Raman scattered light from a point of interest external to the probe. An environmental barrier including at least one window separates the probe from the point of interest. An optical tube is disposed adjacent to the environmental barrier and includes along working length compound lens objective next to the window. A beam splitter and a mirror are at the other end. A mechanical means is used to translate the probe body in the X, Y, and Z directions resulting in a variable focus optical apparatus. Laser light is reflected by the beam splitter and directed toward the compound lens objective, then through the window and focused on the point of interest. Raman scattered light is then collected by the compound lens objective and directed through the beam splitter to a mirror. A device for analyzing the light, such as a monochrometer, is coupled to the mirror.

  2. The Whole-Hand Point: The Structure and Function of Pointing From a Comparative Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Leavens, David A.; Hopkins, William D.

    2007-01-01

    Pointing by monkeys, apes, and human infants is reviewed and compared. Pointing with the index finger is a species-typical human gesture, although human infants exhibit more whole-hand pointing than is commonly appreciated. Captive monkeys and feral apes have been reported to only rarely “spontaneously” point, although apes in captivity frequently acquire pointing, both with the index finger and with the whole hand, without explicit training. Captive apes exhibit relatively more gaze alternation while pointing than do human infants about 1 year old. Human infants are relatively more vocal while pointing than are captive apes, consistent with paralinguistic use of pointing. PMID:10608565

  3. Relative Critical Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Debra

    2013-05-01

    Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual) of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures - symplectic, Poisson, or variational - generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (co)adjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems - the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids - and generalizations of these systems.

  4. NICMOS focus monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Glenn

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is used to determine and monitor the optimal focus and tilt settings for all three NICMOS cameras. It is derived from SM2/NIC 7041, but is structurally quite a bit different. This proposal is built to run NIC1/2 focus sweeps on a weekly basis, and NIC3 focus sweeps twice a week during SMOV {following the "interim" runs of the 7150}. 7043 will run for as long as it is deemed necessary to keep track of the camera focii and to monitor the dewar anomaly. After the discussion on 20/3/96, this proposal is written to run 4 complete 1-week iterations starting 3 days after the last run of the 7150 {NICMOS COARSE OPTICAL ALIGNMENT, PART 2}.

  5. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  6. [Focused musculoskeletal sonography].

    PubMed

    Horn, Rudolf

    2015-09-16

    Even in emergent situations, focused musculoskeletal sonography must not be overlooked. It has a place in traumatology no less valuable than its place in internal medicine. It can be used to identify traumatic joint effusions, occult fractures and fissures, joint inflammation, muscle and tendon rupture; it can differentiate soft tissue swelling, locate a foreign body, or identify the location of fractures. Focused ultrasound should be performed by the attending physician directly at the patient’s bedside, in order to answer these specific questions.

  7. Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient superconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance.

  8. Focused Ion Beam Technology,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    research work in the field is now being done in "apan. All of the major integrated circuit manufacturers in Sapan have mounted research efforts, and a...and in Sapan , only YEOL in Japan can be considered in a production mode. YEOL has delivered a total of 15 machines, all domestically. At this point the

  9. Matching Diabetes and Alcoholism: Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Neurogenesis Are Commonly Involved

    PubMed Central

    Barcia, Jorge M.; Muriach, Maria; Sancho-Pelluz, Javier; Lopez-Malo, Daniel; Urdaneta, Alba C.; Martinez-Gil, Natalia; Atienzar-Aroca, Sandra; Romero, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and alcohol misuse are two of the major challenges in health systems worldwide. These two diseases finally affect several organs and systems including the central nervous system. Hippocampus is one of the most relevant structures due to neurogenesis and memory-related processing among other functions. The present review focuses on the common profile of diabetes and ethanol exposure in terms of oxidative stress and proinflammatory and prosurvival recruiting transcription factors affecting hippocampal neurogenesis. Some aspects around antioxidant strategies are also included. As a global conclusion, the present review points out some common hits on both diseases giving support to the relations between alcohol intake and diabetes. PMID:26063976

  10. Matching Diabetes and Alcoholism: Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Neurogenesis Are Commonly Involved.

    PubMed

    Barcia, Jorge M; Flores-Bellver, Miguel; Muriach, Maria; Sancho-Pelluz, Javier; Lopez-Malo, Daniel; Urdaneta, Alba C; Martinez-Gil, Natalia; Atienzar-Aroca, Sandra; Romero, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and alcohol misuse are two of the major challenges in health systems worldwide. These two diseases finally affect several organs and systems including the central nervous system. Hippocampus is one of the most relevant structures due to neurogenesis and memory-related processing among other functions. The present review focuses on the common profile of diabetes and ethanol exposure in terms of oxidative stress and proinflammatory and prosurvival recruiting transcription factors affecting hippocampal neurogenesis. Some aspects around antioxidant strategies are also included. As a global conclusion, the present review points out some common hits on both diseases giving support to the relations between alcohol intake and diabetes.

  11. Focus on Bilingual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Donald S., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    This collection of essays focuses on issues in bilingual education. First, Elizabeth Flynn examines different kinds of bilingual programs; efforts made towards cultural pluralism in a number of countries; national benefits to be derived from bilingualism; the needs of American ethnic groups, new immigrants, and foreign students; and the pros and…

  12. Focus on First Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Shari S.

    The result of a collaboration between the El Paso, Texas, school district and community agencies, the Focus on First Graders program provides early intervention and prevention using a comprehensive approach to providing a variety of services at the school to at-risk first graders from low income families. Teachers and parents were surveyed to…

  13. ENC Focus Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Annette, Ed.

    The mission of the Eisenhower National Clearinghouse (ENC) is to identify effective curriculum resources, create high-quality professional development materials, and disseminate useful information and products to improve K-12 mathematics and science teaching and learning. This issue of "ENC Focus" contains articles related to mathematics teaching…

  14. Homework. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahal, Michelle Layer

    2010-01-01

    Homework has been an integral part of the educational system for over 100 years. What likely began as simple memorization tasks has evolved into complex projects and sparked an increasingly heated debate over the purpose and value of homework assignments. This "Focus On" examines the purpose of homework, how to create homework that has value,…

  15. Focus on Basics, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus on Basics, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Together, these four newsletters contain 36 articles devoted to adult literacy research and practice and the relationship between them. The following articles are included: "A Productive Partnership" (Richard J. Murnane, Bob Bickerton); "Welcome to 'Focus on Basics'" (Barbara Garner); "Applying Research on the Last Frontier" (Karen Backlund, Kathy…

  16. Focus on Grandparents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Linda; Della Corte, Suzanne

    1990-01-01

    Following the birth of a handicapped child, both parent and grandparent experience similar feelings of consternation, shock, and grief. The grandparents' reaction is double, however, as they suffer not only for the newborn but for their own child's pain as well. This article focuses on dealing with grief and its stages, including numbness, denial,…

  17. Focus on Phase Electives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Victor H., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    In this thematic issue, articles focus on the use of phase electives in the English classroom. Discussions include "Death in the Classroom,""Soapbox Operas in the English Classroom,""Language and History in Phase-Elective Programs,""Phase Electives and the Problem of Composition," and "Phase Electives and College Preparation.""Phase Electives Are…

  18. Focus on Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenzky, Janet; Maitland, Christine

    2001-01-01

    As a followup to a survey of distance education faculty, the National Education Association conducted two 3-hour focus groups with 12 higher education faculty members in June 2000. The purpose of the groups was to gain more understanding of the complexity of feelings and opinions expressed in a telephone survey conducted in March 2000. The…

  19. Focus: International Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Gerald J.; Watts, Michael W.; Wentworth, Donald R.

    The "Focus" series, part of the National Council on Economic Education's (NCEE) EconomicsAmerica program, uses economics to enhance learning in subjects such as history, geography, civics, and personal finance, as well as economics. Activities are interactive, reflecting the belief that students learn best through active, highly…

  20. Young Children. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational, cognitive, and brain research with implications for early childhood educators, including those who work with limited-English-proficient, minority, and economically disadvantaged children. "Coming to Grips with Reading Instruction at the Early Grades" (Christie L. Goodman)…

  1. Focus on Godard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Royal S., Ed.

    This Film Focus series presents selected information about the respected and controversial French filmmaker Jean-Luc Godard and his films. Information is documented through reports of interviews, reviews, essays, and commentaries. Included are filmographies of Godard's films, beginning in 1954 and continuing through 1972. Also, there is a selected…

  2. A FOCUS On Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Susan

    1998-01-01

    William McKinley Middle School in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, has a parent volunteer program called FOCUS that targets average students who are not doing well academically. Program goals are to improve students' organizational skills, help them complete homework assignments, and reteach and preview lessons to increase understanding, so that students will…

  3. Focusing laser scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callen, W. R.; Weaver, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Economical laser scanner assembled from commercially available components, modulates and scans focused laser beam over area up to 5.1 by 5.1 cm. Scanner gives resolution comparable to that of conventional television. Device is highly applicable to area of analog and digital storage and retrieval.

  4. Focus on Refugees. Transcript.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandel, Sarah; And Others

    This is the transcript of the "Focus on Refugees," proqram conducted by the Overseas Development Council. Remarks from the following participants are included: (1) Sarah Brandel, Associate Fellow at the Overseas Development Council; (2) Gary Perkins, Chief of Mission of the Washington Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees…

  5. Youth Leadership. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on motivating young people to learn by providing leadership opportunities in school. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program: Assessing Progress" (Josie Danini Supik) examines the program's success. This program, which trains high-risk middle and high school students as tutors of younger children, has dramatically…

  6. Equity. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on equity in children's literature, public funding for private schools, women in educational fields, female dropouts, and the relationship between school violence and family and community violence. "Violence in Our Schools" (Bradley Scott) explores reasons for school violence (media violence, isolation from…

  7. Focusing educational initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, George K.

    1990-01-01

    The United States will soon be facing a critical shortage of aerospace scientists and engineers. To address this problem, Space Grant Colleges can assist in focusing interest in existing educational initiatives and in creating new educational opportunities, particularly for women and underrepresented minorities.

  8. Education Policy. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational policy in the Texas legislature in relation to student retention, Internet access, and sexual harassment. "1999 Texas Legislative Session--End of an Era?" (Albert Cortez, Maria Robledo Montecel) examines educational equity issues facing legislators: school funding,…

  9. School Reform. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue addresses school reform, focusing on accountability, attrition, public-supported private education, equitable education, and schoolwide reform. "School-Student Performance and Accountability" (Jose A. Cardenas) discusses what constitutes good performance in school; the shifting emphasis among the input, output, and…

  10. Bilingual Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on instructional practices, evaluation, and the state of bilingual education. "Effective Implementation of Bilingual Programs: Reflections from the Field" (Abelardo Villarreal, Adela Solis) describes the key characteristics of successful bilingual programs: vision and goals; program leadership; linkage to central…

  11. Instructional Technology. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on implementing instructional technology in ways that benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Cruising the Web with English Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green) presents three scenarios using the World…

  12. Theme: Focus on Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, James J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes "The More Things Change..." (Connors); "Students--Bored of Education?" (Earle); "Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow" (Wesch et al.); "Attitude and the Value of Environment" (Foster); "Fins, Feathers and Fur" (Crank); "Greenhouse as a Focus for Agriscience" (Hurst); and "Agricultural and Environmental Education at Milton Hershey School"…

  13. Immigrant Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter includes five articles on immigrant education that focus on successful school programs and educational policy issues. In "Immigrant Education from the Administrators' Perspective" (Pam McCollum, Juanita Garcia), three principals of south Texas secondary schools with successful immigrant programs discuss their views on the…

  14. Lifelong Learning. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on the need for adult literacy programs, as well as recent innovations in literacy education. "Adult Literacy and Leadership: Current Innovations" (Aurelio M. Montemayor) describes an adult literacy outreach program in Texas, and discusses the importance of family literacy for parents' involvement in their…

  15. [Focus: Family Communication].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Richard E., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the "Journal of the Wisconsin Communication Association" focuses on family communication and contains the following articles: "Marital Typologies: An Alternative Approach to the Study of Communication in Enduring Relations" by Mary Anne Fitzpatrick, "Intimate Communication and the Family" by Marilyn D. LaCourt, and "A Study in…

  16. Focus on the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 1996

    1996-01-01

    In an interview, the incoming president of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO), Thomas L. Lewis, discusses his goals for the association, the challenges facing optometric education in the next decade, cooperation between ASCO and other professional organizations in optometry, his mentors in the profession, his focus as a…

  17. Focus on the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    An interview with the new president of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, John Schoessler, considers issues the president wishes to focus on during his presidency, changes in optometry students over the years, people who influenced his educational ideas, and research currently being conducted at Ohio State University College of…

  18. Focus on Inhalants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challenge: Safe, Disciplines, and Drug-Free Schools, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The use of inhalants is a major health concern among the school-age population. Information presented in this publication dispels the myths about inhalant use and presents common warning signs that alert teachers to a student's use. The short- and long-term effects of inhalant use are described to shed light on the health risks involved. Lesson…

  19. Focus on 15%

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartan, Conn

    2011-01-01

    When reforming practices to help all students succeed, secondary school leaders face the unique challenge of aligning the efforts of educators from different disciplines. In addition, they know that few common measures capture student growth across these disciplines. If a school has a history of success, a deep examination of its practices may not…

  20. Epigenetics and Common Ophthalmic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wendy; Liu, Ji; Galvin, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    The study of ocular diseases and epigenetic dysregulation is an emerging area of research. The knowledge from the epigenetic mechanisms of DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNAs regarding the pathogenesis of ocular diseases will be helpful for improved treatment modalities for our patients. In particular, we focus upon the how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms impact five common ocular diseases: age related macular degeneration, age-related cataract, pterygium, retinoblastoma, and uveal melanoma. Hence, the foundation of this research paves the way for future specific therapeutic targets to treat and prevent vision loss. PMID:28018148

  1. Reevaluating Common Kodaly Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deVries, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Describes Kodaly-based music programs. Focuses on three problems with this instruction method: (1) when one or more beliefs are focused upon to the detriment of the program as a whole; (2) the Kodaly program was created in a different culture and time; and (3) the program's emphasis on specific musical skills is limiting. (CMK)

  2. Campus Common Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Gordon Morris

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

  3. Conceptualizing an Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology-management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service-delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment. (Author)

  4. Common Eye Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye,” is the most common cause of vision impairment in children. Amblyopia is the medical term used ... the most common cause of permanent one-eye vision impairment among children and young and middle-aged adults. ...

  5. Clustering instability of focused swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauga, Eric; Nadal, Francois

    2016-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of active matter is its rich nonlinear dynamics and instabilities. Recent numerical simulations of phototactic algae showed that a thin jet of swimmers, obtained from hydrodynamic focusing inside a Poiseuille flow, was unstable to longitudinal perturbations with swimmers dynamically clustering (Jibuti L. et al., Phys. Rev. E, 90, (2014) 063019). As a simple starting point to understand these instabilities, we consider in this paper an initially homogeneous one-dimensional line of aligned swimmers moving along the same direction, and characterise its instability using both a continuum framework and a discrete approach. In both cases, we show that hydrodynamic interactions between the swimmers lead to instabilities in density for which we compute the growth rate analytically. Lines of pusher-type swimmers are predicted to remain stable while lines of pullers (such as flagellated algae) are predicted to always be unstable.

  6. Controllable Planar Optical Focusing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbabi, Amir (Inventor); Faraon, Andrei (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An optical device has a first metasurface disposed over a substrate. A high-contrast pattern of the first metasurface is operable for modifying, over a first phase profile, a phase front of an incident light beam. A second metasurface, is disposed over a plane parallel to the first metasurface with a second high-contrast pattern and operable for shaping, over a second phase profile, the modified phase front of the incident light beam into a converging spherical phase front. A spacer layer, in which the modified phase front of the incident light beam diffracts, is disposed in a controllably changeable separation between the first and second metasurfaces. Controllably changing the separation between the first and the second metasurfaces by a first distance correspondingly changes the position of the focus point of the converging spherical phase front by a second distance significantly greater than the first distance.

  7. Quantum focusing conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Fisher, Zachary; Leichenauer, Stefan; Wall, Aron C.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a universal inequality that unifies the Bousso bound with the classical focusing theorem. Given a surface σ that need not lie on a horizon, we define a finite generalized entropy Sgen as the area of σ in Planck units, plus the von Neumann entropy of its exterior. Given a null congruence N orthogonal to σ , the rate of change of Sgen per unit area defines a quantum expansion. We conjecture that the quantum expansion cannot increase along N . This extends the notion of universal focusing to cases where quantum matter may violate the null energy condition. Integrating the conjecture yields a precise version of the Strominger-Thompson quantum Bousso bound. Applied to locally parallel light-rays, the conjecture implies a novel inequality, the quantum null energy condition, a lower bound on the stress tensor in terms of the second derivative of the von Neumann entropy. We sketch a proof of the latter relation in quantum field theory.

  8. Focused ion beam system

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  9. Focused ion beam system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Gough, Richard A.; Ji, Qing; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette

    1999-01-01

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 .mu.m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 .mu.m or less.

  10. Focused on Robert E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, shows a geological feature dubbed 'Robert E.' Light from the top is illuminating the feature, which is located within the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Several images, each showing a different part of 'Robert E' in good focus, were merged to produce this view. The area in this image, taken on Sol 15 of the Opportunity mission, is 2.2 centimeters (0.8 inches) across.

  11. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Jungman, Gerard; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  12. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  13. Asking questions with focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yi

    2004-05-01

    This study investigates how different interrogative meanings interact with focus in determining the overall F0 profile of a question. We recorded eight native speakers of Mandarin producing statements, yes-no questions with and without a question particle, wh questions, incredulous questions, and confirmation questions. In each sentence, either the initial, medial, final, or no word was focused. The tonal components of the sentences are all high, all rising, all low, or all falling. F0 contours were extracted by measuring every complete vocal period in the initial, medial, and final disyllabic words in each sentence. Preliminary results show that in both statements and questions, the pitch range of the focused words is expanded and that of the postfocus words suppressed (compressed and lowered). However, postfocus pitch-range suppression seems less extensive in questions than in statements, and in some question types than in others. Finally, an extra F0 rise is often observed in the final syllable of a question unless the syllable is the question particle which has the neutral tone. This is indicative of a high or rising boundary tone associated with the interrogative meaning, which seems to be superimposed on the tone of the sentence-final syllable. [Work supported by NIDCD DC03902.

  14. Communication and common interest.

    PubMed

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Martínez, Manolo

    2013-01-01

    Explaining the maintenance of communicative behavior in the face of incentives to deceive, conceal information, or exaggerate is an important problem in behavioral biology. When the interests of agents diverge, some form of signal cost is often seen as essential to maintaining honesty. Here, novel computational methods are used to investigate the role of common interest between the sender and receiver of messages in maintaining cost-free informative signaling in a signaling game. Two measures of common interest are defined. These quantify the divergence between sender and receiver in their preference orderings over acts the receiver might perform in each state of the world. Sampling from a large space of signaling games finds that informative signaling is possible at equilibrium with zero common interest in both senses. Games of this kind are rare, however, and the proportion of games that include at least one equilibrium in which informative signals are used increases monotonically with common interest. Common interest as a predictor of informative signaling also interacts with the extent to which agents' preferences vary with the state of the world. Our findings provide a quantitative description of the relation between common interest and informative signaling, employing exact measures of common interest, information use, and contingency of payoff under environmental variation that may be applied to a wide range of models and empirical systems.

  15. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.A.

    1987-11-01

    The final focus system of a linear collider must perform two primary functions, it must focus the two opposing beams so that their transverse dimensions at the interaction point are small enough to yield acceptable luminosity, and it must steer the beams together to maintain collisions. In addition, the final focus system must transport the outgoing beams to a location where they can be recycled or safely dumped. Elementary optical considerations for linear collider final focus systems are discussed, followed by chromatic aberrations. The design of the final focus system of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is described. Tuning and diagnostics and steering to collision are discussed. Most of the examples illustrating the concepts covered are drawn from the SLC, but the principles and conclusions are said to be generally applicable to other linear collider designs as well. 26 refs., 17 figs. (LEW)

  16. Tuning Knobs for the NLC Final Focus

    SciTech Connect

    Nosochkov, Yuri

    2002-06-18

    Compensation of optics errors at the Interaction Point (IP) is essential for maintaining maximum luminosity at the NLC. Several correction systems (knobs) using the Final Focus sextupoles have been designed to provide orthogonal compensation of linear and the second order optics aberrations at IP. Tuning effects of these knobs on the 250 GeV beam were verified using tracking simulations.

  17. Focus on quantum Einstein gravity Focus on quantum Einstein gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The gravitational asymptotic safety program summarizes the attempts to construct a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity within Wilson's generalized framework of renormalization. Its key ingredient is a non-Gaussian fixed point of the renormalization group flow which controls the behavior of the theory at trans-Planckian energies and renders gravity safe from unphysical divergences. Provided that the fixed point comes with a finite number of ultraviolet-attractive (relevant) directions, this construction gives rise to a consistent quantum field theory which is as predictive as an ordinary, perturbatively renormalizable one. This opens up the exciting possibility of establishing quantum Einstein gravity as a fundamental theory of gravity, without introducing supersymmetry or extra dimensions, and solely based on quantization techniques that are known to work well for the other fundamental forces of nature. While the idea of gravity being asymptotically safe was proposed by Steven Weinberg more than 30 years ago [1], the technical tools for investigating this scenario only emerged during the last decade. Here a key role is played by the exact functional renormalization group equation for gravity, which allows the construction of non-perturbative approximate solutions for the RG-flow of the gravitational couplings. Most remarkably, all solutions constructed to date exhibit a suitable non-Gaussian fixed point, lending strong support to the asymptotic safety conjecture. Moreover, the functional renormalization group also provides indications that the central idea of a non-Gaussian fixed point providing a safe ultraviolet completion also carries over to more realistic scenarios where gravity is coupled to a suitable matter sector like the standard model. These theoretical successes also triggered a wealth of studies focusing on the consequences of asymptotic safety in a wide range of phenomenological applications covering the physics of black holes, early

  18. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... child may seem overweight according to the growth charts, but our entire family is ‘big boned.’ So ... focus on the growth and body mass index charts. If your child’s weight exceeds the normal range ...

  19. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  20. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  1. How Common Is PTSD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... Public, Family, & Friends How Common Is PTSD? Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur after you have been ...

  2. Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

  3. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  4. Common Causes of Stillbirth

    MedlinePlus

    ... one of the most common placental problems. The placenta separates (partially or completely) from the uterine wall ... or abnormal placement of the cord into the placenta. This can deprive the baby of oxygen. Infectious ...

  5. Commonly Consumed Food Commodities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.

  6. Common Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  7. Common peroneal nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - common peroneal nerve; Peroneal nerve injury; Peroneal nerve palsy ... type of peripheral neuropathy (damage to nerves outside the brain ... nerve injuries. Damage to the nerve disrupts the myelin sheath ...

  8. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  9. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  10. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  11. A modified iterative closest point algorithm for shape registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tihonkih, Dmitrii; Makovetskii, Artyom; Kuznetsov, Vladislav

    2016-09-01

    The iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm is one of the most popular approaches to shape registration. The algorithm starts with two point clouds and an initial guess for a relative rigid-body transformation between them. Then it iteratively refines the transformation by generating pairs of corresponding points in the clouds and by minimizing a chosen error metric. In this work, we focus on accuracy of the ICP algorithm. An important stage of the ICP algorithm is the searching of nearest neighbors. We propose to utilize for this purpose geometrically similar groups of points. Groups of points of the first cloud, that have no similar groups in the second cloud, are not considered in further error minimization. To minimize errors, the class of affine transformations is used. The transformations are not rigid in contrast to the classical approach. This approach allows us to get a precise solution for transformations such as rotation, translation vector and scaling. With the help of computer simulation, the proposed method is compared with common nearest neighbor search algorithms for shape registration.

  12. Focus on 'Rue Legendre'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated image of PIA04196 Focus on 'Rue Legendre'

    Spirit used its microscopic imager to take this mosaic of the rock 'Haussmann' on martian day, or sol, 563 (August 3, 2005). The specific target is nicknamed 'Rue Legendre.' The rounded nature of the pebbles indicates that they were eroded on the surface before being embedded into the Haussmann rock. The size of the larger of the two pebbles is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches). The rock probably formed from impact ejecta, consistent with other rocks Spirit discovered during its climb to the summit of 'Husband Hill.'

  13. Dielectrophoretic columnar focusing device

    DOEpatents

    James, Conrad D.; Galambos, Paul C.; Derzon, Mark S.

    2010-05-11

    A dielectrophoretic columnar focusing device uses interdigitated microelectrodes to provide a spatially non-uniform electric field in a fluid that generates a dipole within particles in the fluid. The electric field causes the particles to either be attracted to or repelled from regions where the electric field gradient is large, depending on whether the particles are more or less polarizable than the fluid. The particles can thereby be forced into well defined stable paths along the interdigitated microelectrodes. The device can be used for flow cytometry, particle control, and other process applications, including cell counting or other types of particle counting, and for separations in material control.

  14. Transverse field focused system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1986-01-01

    A transverse field focused (TFF) system for transport or acceleration of an intense sheet beam of negative ions in which a serial arrangement of a plurality of pairs of concentric cylindrical-arc electrodes is provided. Acceleration of the sheet beam can be achieved by progressively increasing the mean electrode voltage of successive electrode pairs. Because the beam is curved by the electrodes, the system can be designed to transport the beam through a maze passage which is baffled to prevent line of sight therethrough. Edge containment of the beam can be achieved by shaping the side edges of the electrodes to produce an electric force vector directed inwardly from the electrode edges.

  15. Focused crossed Andreev reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, H.; Brataas, A.; Waintal, X.; Bauer, G. E. W.

    2011-03-01

    We consider non-local transport mediated by Andreev reflection in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) connected to one superconducting and two normal metal terminals. A robust scheme is presented for observing crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) between the normal metal terminals based on electron focusing by weak perpendicular magnetic fields. At slightly elevated temperatures the CAR signature can be easily distinguished from a background of quantum interference fluctuations. The CAR-induced entanglement between electrons can be switched on and off over large distances by the magnetic field.

  16. SPS antenna pointing control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The pointing control of a microwave antenna of the Satellite Power System was investigated emphasizing: (1) the SPS antenna pointing error sensing method; (2) a rigid body pointing control design; and (3) approaches for modeling the flexible body characteristics of the solar collector. Accuracy requirements for the antenna pointing control consist of a mechanical pointing control accuracy of three arc-minutes and an electronic phased array pointing accuracy of three arc-seconds. Results based on the factors considered in current analysis, show that the three arc-minute overall pointing control accuracy can be achieved in practice.

  17. Focused Logistics: Putting Agility in Agile Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    envisioned an agile and adaptable logstics system built around common situational understanding.5 The Focused Logistics concept specified the requirement to...the tracking of resources moving through the TD network. As a result, 112 Ibid, 20. 113 Ibid, 18-20. 39 distribution centers tagged inbound

  18. Organisational Change: A Solution-Focused Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a solution-focused approach to organisational change. Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hope (PATH) is an intervention more commonly applied to individuals. In this study the intervention is used with groups of people working in educational organisations to help manage the change process. The approach…

  19. Antenna pointing systematic error model derivations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guiar, C. N.; Lansing, F. L.; Riggs, R.

    1987-01-01

    The pointing model used to represent and correct systematic errors for the Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas is presented. Analytical expressions are given in both azimuth-elevation (az-el) and hour angle-declination (ha-dec) mounts for RF axis collimation error, encoder offset, nonorthogonality of axes, axis plane tilt, and structural flexure due to gravity loading. While the residual pointing errors (rms) after correction appear to be within the ten percent of the half-power beamwidth criterion commonly set for good pointing accuracy, the DSN has embarked on an extensive pointing improvement and modeling program aiming toward an order of magnitude higher pointing precision.

  20. NSDC Policy Points. Volume 1, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Staff Development Council, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "NSDC Policy Points" is a newsletter published by the National Staff Development Council (NSDC). This issue of "NSDC Policy Points" focuses on NSDC's advocacy for a powerful new definition of professional development. Based on a model of continuous improvement, the new definition engages educators in a cycle of analyzing data, determining student…

  1. Benchmarks to Becoming a Turning Points School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Jordan

    2002-01-01

    Turning Points is a national design for middle school change, coordinated by the Center for Collaborative Education in Boston, Massachusetts, which serves as the National Turning Points Center. The design focuses on restructuring middle schools to improve learning, teaching, and assessment for all students. It is based on the seminal "Turning…

  2. Implementation of Steiner point of fuzzy set.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiuzhen; Wang, Dejiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the implementation of Steiner point of fuzzy set. Some definitions and properties of Steiner point are investigated and extended to fuzzy set. This paper focuses on establishing efficient methods to compute Steiner point of fuzzy set. Two strategies of computing Steiner point of fuzzy set are proposed. One is called linear combination of Steiner points computed by a series of crisp α-cut sets of the fuzzy set. The other is an approximate method, which is trying to find the optimal α-cut set approaching the fuzzy set. Stability analysis of Steiner point of fuzzy set is also studied. Some experiments on image processing are given, in which the two methods are applied for implementing Steiner point of fuzzy image, and both strategies show their own advantages in computing Steiner point of fuzzy set.

  3. Leverage points in a computer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janošek, Michal

    2016-06-01

    This article is focused on the analysis of the leverage points (developed by D. Meadows) in a computer model. The goal is to find out if there is a possibility to find these points of leverage in a computer model (on the example of a predator-prey model) and to determine how the particular parameters, their ranges and monitored variables of the model are associated with the concept of leverage points.

  4. Point Relay Scanner Utilizing Ellipsoidal Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manhart, Paul K. (Inventor); Pagano, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A scanning system uses a polygonal mirror assembly with each facet of the polygon having an ellipsoidal mirror located thereon. One focal point of each ellipsoidal mirror is located at a common point on the axis of rotation of the polygonal mirror assembly. As the mirror assembly rotates. a second focal point of the ellipsoidal mirrors traces out a scan line. The scanner can be utilized for scanned output display of information or for scanning information to be detected.

  5. Alliance-focused training.

    PubMed

    Eubanks-Carter, Catherine; Muran, J Christopher; Safran, Jeremy D

    2015-06-01

    Alliance-focused training (AFT) aims to increase therapists' ability to recognize, tolerate, and negotiate alliance ruptures by increasing the therapeutic skills of self-awareness, affect regulation, and interpersonal sensitivity. In AFT, therapists are encouraged to draw on these skills when metacommunicating about ruptures with patients. In this article, we present the 3 main supervisory tasks of AFT: videotape analysis of rupture moments, awareness-oriented role-plays, and mindfulness training. We describe the theoretical and empirical support for each supervisory task, provide examples based on actual supervision sessions, and present feedback about the usefulness of the techniques from trainees in our program. We also note some of the challenges involved in conducting AFT and the importance of maintaining a strong supervisory alliance when using this training approach.

  6. Focus on granular segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Karen E.; Schröter, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    Ordinary fluids mix themselves through thermal motions, or can be even more efficiently mixed by stirring. In contrast, granular materials such as sand often unmix when they are stirred, shaken or sheared. This granular segregation is both a practical means to separate materials in industry, and a persistent challenge to uniformly mixing them. While segregation phenomena are ubiquitous, a large number of different mechanisms have been identified and the underlying physics remains the subject of much inquiry. Particle size, shape, density and even surface roughness can play significant roles. The aim of this focus issue is to provide a snapshot of the current state of the science, covering a wide range of packing densities and driving mechanisms, from thermal-like dilute systems to dense flows.

  7. Focus awards 2002.

    PubMed

    Davis, Naomi

    2003-03-22

    The dental team at Zetland House Clinic are a particularly innovative group. As a result of their parent hospital being the first to complete a whole organization clinical governance programme run by the NHS Modernization Agency, they were consequently the first dental team to do so. Now the clinic is a better place to work where the staff are proud of their clinic and the work that they do. The changes that resulted through their experiences of the program have benefited the patients and staff alike, and was such a success story that they have been taken as an example for the Modernisation Agency website to illustrate good practice in clinical governance. These changes and the way they approached their involvement in the program also earned the Zetland House team a place on the finalist list of the 2002 Focus Awards.

  8. Focusing on customer service.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  9. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  10. No ownership of common factors.

    PubMed

    Tryon, Warren W; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2011-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy," by J. Shedler (see record 2010-02208-012). Shedler's informative article raised several issues worthy of comment. His choice of the word distinctive (p. 98) in describing aspects of psychodynamic technique is open to at least two interpretations. On the one hand, distinctive can have a qualitative meaning and indicate the presence of a characteristic that is not shared. For example, a sign in the Bronx Zoo distinguishes birds from all other creatures as follows: "If it has feathers it's a bird, if it doesn't, it isn't." On the other hand, distinctive can have a quantitative meaning and indicate that one practice has more of a common element than another practice. Careful reading of Shedler's article and the article by Blagys and Hilsenroth (2000) that forms the basis of the "seven features [that] reliably distinguished psychodynamic therapies from other therapies" (Shedler, 2010, p. 98) shows that Shedler subscribes to the latter, quantitative, definition of distinctive. In other words, the seven features he presented are present in both psychodynamic therapies and the cognitive-behavioral therapies to which he compares them. For example, although Shedler did not mention it, dialectical behavior therapy explicitly focuses on six of the seven features, namely, "focus on affect and expression of emotion," "exploration of attempts to avoid distressing thoughts and feelings," "identification of recurring themes and patterns," "discussion of past experience," "focus on interpersonal relations," and "focus on the therapy relationship" (Shedler, 2010, p. 99). However, in the articles that Blagys and Hilsenroth reviewed, psychodyamic therapists engaged in more of these behaviors than did cognitive-behavioral therapists.

  11. Coral Point Count with Excel extensions (CPCe): A Visual Basic program for the determination of coral and substrate coverage using random point count methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Kevin E.; Gill, Shaun M.

    2006-11-01

    Photographic and video methods are frequently used to increase the efficiency of coral reef monitoring efforts. The random point count method is commonly used on still images or frame-grabbed video to estimate the community statistics of benthos. A matrix of randomly distributed points is overlaid on an image, and the species or substrate-type lying beneath each point is visually identified. Coral Point Count with Excel extensions (CPCe) is a standalone Visual Basic program which automates, facilitates, and speeds the random point count analysis process. CPCe includes automatic frame-image sequencing, single-click species/substrate labeling, auto-advancement of data point focus, zoom in/out, zoom hold, and specification of random point number, distribution type, and frame border location. Customization options include user-specified coral/substrate codes and data point shape, size, and color. CPCe can also perform image calibration and planar area and length calculation of benthic features. The ability to automatically generate analysis spreadsheets in Microsoft Excel based upon the supplied species/substrate codes is a significant feature. Data from individual frames can be combined to produce both inter- and intra-site comparisons. Spreadsheet contents include header information, statistical parameters of each species/substrate type (relative abundance, mean, standard deviation, standard error) and the calculation of the Shannon-Weaver diversity index for each species. Additional information can be found at http://www.nova.edu/ocean/cpce/.

  12. Finding the Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dawn

    1980-01-01

    Describes an attempt to combine secondary English instruction emphasizing United States literature with science and history by finding "common ground" between these disciplines in (1) the separation of truth from falsehood and (2) logical thinking. Biographies combined history and literature, and science fiction combined science and English;…

  13. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  14. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  15. Information Commons to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Marc Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

  16. Commonalities across Effective Collaboratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jill F.; Flynn, Richard B.

    2000-01-01

    Examined effective collaborations involving schools and colleges of education and other organizations, identifying commonly voiced reasons for collaboration and factors perceived as important in collaboration. Data come from research, case descriptions, survey responses, and input from collaborators. Willingness to listen, mutual respect,…

  17. The Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the conflicting principles revealed respectively by those who argue for the common school and by those who seek to promote a system of schools that, though maintained by the state, might reflect the different religious beliefs within the community. The philosopher, John Dewey, is appealed to in defence of the common…

  18. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  19. Pleasure: the common currency.

    PubMed

    Cabanac, M

    1992-03-21

    At present as physiologists studying various homeostatic behaviors, such as thermoregulatory behavior and food and fluid intake, we have no common currency that allows us to equate the strength of the motivational drive that accompanies each regulatory need, in terms of how an animal or a person will choose to satisfy his needs when there is a conflict between two or more of them. Yet the behaving organism must rank his priorities and needs a common currency to achieve the ranking (McFarland & Sibly, 1975, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 270 Biol 265-293). A theory is proposed here according to which pleasure is this common currency. The perception of pleasure, as measured operationally and quantitatively by choice behavior (in the case of animals), or by the rating of the intensity of pleasure or displeasure (in the case of humans) can serve as such a common currency. The tradeoffs between various motivations would thus be accomplished by simple maximization of pleasure. In what follows, the scientific work arising recently on this subject, with be reviewed briefly and our recent experimental findings will be presented. This will serve as the support for the theoretical position formulated in this essay.

  20. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  1. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  2. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  3. Human Commonalities and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

  4. Does Common Enrollment Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Clayton, Grant

    2016-01-01

    In this article, researchers Dick M. Carpenter II and Grant Clayton explore common enrollment systems (CESs)--how they work and what school leaders can learn from districts that have implemented CESs. Denver, New Orleans, and Newark (New Jersey) have rolled out this centralized enrollment process for all district-run and charter schools in their…

  5. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  6. Common File Formats.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  7. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  8. Math, Literacy, & Common Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

  9. Trigger Points: An Anatomical Substratum

    PubMed Central

    Akamatsu, Flávia Emi; Ayres, Bernardo Rodrigues; Saleh, Samir Omar; Hojaij, Flávio; Andrade, Mauro; Hsing, Wu Tu; Jacomo, Alfredo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to bring the trapezius muscle knowledge of the locations where the accessory nerve branches enter the muscle belly to reach the motor endplates and find myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). Although anatomoclinical correlations represent a major feature of MTrP, no previous reports describing the distribution of the accessory nerve branches and their anatomical relationship with MTrP are found in the literature. Both trapezius muscles from twelve adult cadavers were carefully dissected by the authors (anatomy professors and medical graduate students) to observe the exact point where the branches of the spinal accessory nerve entered the muscle belly. Dissection was performed through stratigraphic layers to preserve the motor innervation of the trapezius muscle, which is located deep in the muscle. Seven points are described, four of which are motor points: in all cases, these locations corresponded to clinically described MTrPs. The four points were common in these twelve cadavers. This type of clinical correlation between spinal accessory nerve branching and MTrP is useful to achieve a better understanding of the anatomical correlation of MTrP and the physiopathology of these disorders and may provide a scientific basis for their treatment, rendering useful additional information to therapists to achieve better diagnoses and improve therapeutic approaches. PMID:25811029

  10. Volume 2 - Point Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Point source emission reference materials from the Emissions Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP). Provides point source guidance on planning, emissions estimation, data collection, inventory documentation and reporting, and quality assurance/quality contr

  11. Focusing on flu

    PubMed Central

    Short, Mary B; Middleman, Amy B

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To describe adolescents' perspectives regarding the use of school-located immunization programs (SLIP) for influenza vaccination. More importantly, adolescents were asked what factors would make them more or less likely to use a SLIP offering influenza vaccine. Results: Participants were generally found to be knowledgeable about influenza and to have positive attitudes toward receiving the vaccine via SLIP. Students were more willing to participate in a SLIP if it were low cost or free, less time-consuming than going to a doctor, and if they felt they could trust vaccinators. Overall, high school and middle school students ranked the benefits of SLIP similarly to each other. Methods: Focus groups using nominal group method were conducted with middle and high school students in a large, urban school district. Responses were recorded by each school, and then, responses were ranked across all participating schools for each question. Conclusions: A wide range of issues are important to middle and high school students when considering participation in SLIPs including convenience, public health benefits, trust in the program, program safety, and sanitary issues. Further research will be needed regarding the generalizability of these findings to larger populations of students. PMID:24018398

  12. White Light Focusing Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Eric; Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Sullivan, Michael; Chance, Mark; Abel, Don; Toomey, John; Hulbert, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The NSLS X28C white-light beamline is being outfitted with a focusing mirror in order to increase, as well as control, the x-ray intensity at the sample position. The new mirror is a 50 mm × 100 mm × 1100 mm single crystal silicon cylindrical 43.1mm radius substrate bendable to a toroid from infinite to 1200 m radius. The unique feature of this mirror system is the dual use of Indalloy 51 as both a mechanism for heat transfer and a buoyant support to negate the effects of gravity. The benefit of the liquid metal support is the ability to correct for minor slope errors that take the form of a parabola. A bobber mechanism is employed to displace the fluid under the mirror +/- 1.5 mm. This allows RMS slope error correction on the order of 2 urad. The unique mounting of the mirror ensures the contributions to slope error from errant mechanical stresses due to machining tolerances are virtually non-existent. After correction, the surface figure error (measured minus ideal) is <= 0.5 urad rms.

  13. Country focus: Lesotho.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Since Lesotho was reached relatively late by the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the reported number of AIDS cases remains relatively low. Levels of awareness about the disease also remain low. With its high level of migrant labor, however, and very unequal gender relations, Lesotho has conditions which are highly conducive to the development of a major epidemic. The increasing incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases affirm the existence of high risk of HIV transmission in the country. By the end of 1995, 936 AIDS cases had been reported in Lesotho, including 68 pediatric cases. The head of the government's disease control division instead estimates that more than 4400 AIDS-related deaths had already occurred by the end of 1995 in a total population of a little more than 2 million. Women are dying at a 54.5:45.5 ratio to men, with female incidence being particularly high in the 20-39 year old age group. Having sex with multiple sex partners is the main risk factor for HIV transmission among adults in Lesotho. The most common presenting symptoms are described and the early stage impact of the epidemic discussed.

  14. Comparing Point Clouds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    Point clouds are one of the most primitive and fundamental surface representations. A popular source of point clouds are three dimensional shape...acquisition devices such as laser range scanners. Another important field where point clouds are found is in the representation of high-dimensional...framework for comparing manifolds given by point clouds is presented in this paper. The underlying theory is based on Gromov-Hausdorff distances, leading

  15. Exploring Function Transformations Using the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Becky; Giacin, Rich

    2013-01-01

    When examining transformations of the plane in geometry, teachers typically have students experiment with transformations of polygons. Students are usually quick to notice patterns with ordered pairs. The Common Core State Standard, Geometry, Congruence 2 (G-CO.2), requires students to describe transformations as functions that take points in the…

  16. Common-Reliability Cumulative-Binomial Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuer, Ernest, M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CROSSER, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CROSSER, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and NEWTONP (NPO-17556), used independently of one another. Point of equality between reliability of system and common reliability of components found. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Program written in C.

  17. Common sense in nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyle, F.; Hoyle, G.

    1980-01-01

    Public concern about energy resource exhaustion is noted to have developed only after the means (nuclear power) for avoiding this disaster became available and the negative implications of a nuclear society became a focus for anxiety. Ironically, collapse of conventional energy supplies could lead to the nuclear confrontation which anti-nuclear forces claim as the inevitable outcome of nuclear power. A review of the risks, environmental impacts, and political implications of the major energy sources concludes that emotion, not common sense, has made nuclear energy an unpopular option. While the problems of proliferation, radiation protection, waste management, and accident prevention are far from trivial, they will respond to technological improvements and responsible control policies. An historical tradition of fearing new, poorly understood technologies is seen in the reaction to railroads during the early 19th Century. (DCK)

  18. EDITORIAL: Focus on Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, N. M. R.; Ribeiro, Ricardo M.

    2009-09-01

    Graphene physics is currently one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. Countless theoretical and experimental studies have already been performed, targeting electronic, magnetic, thermal, optical, structural and vibrational properties. Also, studies that modify pristine graphene, aiming at finding new physics and possible new applications, have been considered. These include patterning nanoribbons and quantum dots, exposing graphene's surface to different chemical species, studying multilayer systems, and inducing strain and curvature (modifying in this way graphene's electronic properties). This focus issue includes many of the latest developments on graphene research. Focus on Graphene Contents Electronic properties of graphene and graphene nanoribbons with 'pseudo-Rashba' spin-orbit coupling Tobias Stauber and John Schliemann Strained graphene: tight-binding and density functional calculations R M Ribeiro, Vitor M Pereira, N M R Peres, P R Briddon and A H Castro Neto The effect of sublattice symmetry breaking on the electronic properties of doped graphene A Qaiumzadeh and R Asgari Interfaces within graphene nanoribbons J Wurm, M Wimmer, I Adagideli, K Richter and H U Baranger Weak localization and transport gap in graphene antidot lattices J Eroms and D Weiss Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices J A Fürst, J G Pedersen, C Flindt, N A Mortensen, M Brandbyge, T G Pedersen and A-P Jauho Splitting of critical energies in the n=0 Landau level of graphene Ana L C Pereira Double-gated graphene-based devices S Russo, M F Craciun, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha and A F Morpurgo Pinning and switching of magnetic moments in bilayer graphene Eduardo V Castro, M P López-Sancho and M A H Vozmediano Electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons Katsunori Wakabayashi, Yositake Takane, Masayuki Yamamoto and Manfred Sigrist Many-body effects on out-of-plane phonons in graphene J González and E Perfetto Graphene zigzag ribbons, square

  19. Prostate Focused Ultrasound Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier; Crouzet, Sébastien; Gelet, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous progress in engineering and computing power coupled with ultrasound transducer technology and imaging modalities over the past 20 years have encouraged a revival of clinical interest in ultrasound therapy, mainly in High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). So far, the most extensive results from HIFU obtained in urology involve transrectal prostate ablation, which appears to be an effective therapeutic alternative for patients with malignant prostate tumors. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men. Several treatment options with different therapeutic approaches exist, including HIFU for localized PCa that has been in use for over 15 years. Since the early 2000s, two systems have been marketed for this application, and other devices are currently in clinical trials. HIFU treatment can be used either alone or in combination with (before- or after-) external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (before or after HIFU) and can be repeated multiple times. HIFU treatment is performed under real-time monitoring with ultrasound or guided by MRI. Two indications are validated today: Primary care treatment and EBRT failure. The results of HIFU for primary care treatment are similar to standard conformal EBRT, even though no randomized comparative studies have been performed and no 10-year follow up data is yet available for HIFU. Salvage HIFU after EBRT failure is increasing with oncological outcomes, similar to those achieved with surgery but with the advantage of fewer adverse effects. HIFU is an evolving technology perfectly adapted for focal treatment. Thus, HIFU focal therapy is another pathway that must be explored when considering the accuracy and reliability for PCa mapping techniques. HIFU would be particularly suited for such a therapy since it is clear that HIFU outcomes and toxicity are relative to the volume of prostate treated.

  20. Stress wave focusing transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  1. Focusing ultrasound with an acoustic metamaterial network.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Yin, Leilei; Fang, Nicholas

    2009-05-15

    We present the first experimental demonstration of focusing ultrasound waves through a flat acoustic metamaterial lens composed of a planar network of subwavelength Helmholtz resonators. We observed a tight focus of half-wavelength in width at 60.5 kHz by imaging a point source. This result is in excellent agreement with the numerical simulation by transmission line model in which we derived the effective mass density and compressibility. This metamaterial lens also displays variable focal length at different frequencies. Our experiment shows the promise of designing compact and lightweight ultrasound imaging elements.

  2. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  3. Common medical pains

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Pain in infancy and childhood is extremely common. Sources of pain include illness, injury, and medical and dental procedures. Over the past two decades, tremendous progress has been made in the assessment, prevention and treatment of pain. It is important for the paediatric health care provider to be aware of the implications and consequences of pain in childhood. A multitude of interventions are available to reduce or alleviate pain in children of all ages, including neonates. These include behavioural and psychological methods, as well as a host of pharmacological preparations, which are safe and effective when used as indicated. Many complementary and alternative treatments appear to be promising in treating and relieving pain, although further research is required. The present article reviews the most common sources of pain in childhood and infancy, as well as current treatment strategies and options. PMID:19030348

  4. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  5. Common Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincent C.

    1992-01-01

    Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9 PMID:21221380

  6. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  7. Common neuropathic itch syndromes.

    PubMed

    Oaklander, Anne Louise

    2012-03-01

    Patients with chronic itch are diagnosed and treated by dermatologists. However, itch is a neural sensation and some forms of chronic itch are the presenting symptoms of neurological diseases. Dermatologists need some familiarity with the most common neuropathic itch syndromes to initiate diagnostic testing and to know when to refer to a neurologist. This review summarizes current knowledge, admittedly incomplete, on neuropathic itch caused by diseases of the brain, spinal cord, cranial or spinal nerve-roots, and peripheral nerves.

  8. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  9. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  10. Common Geometry Module

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  11. On constraining pilot point calibration with regularization in PEST

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, M.N.; Muffels, C.T.; Hunt, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water model calibration has made great advances in recent years with practical tools such as PEST being instrumental for making the latest techniques available to practitioners. As models and calibration tools get more sophisticated, however, the power of these tools can be misapplied, resulting in poor parameter estimates and/or nonoptimally calibrated models that do not suit their intended purpose. Here, we focus on an increasingly common technique for calibrating highly parameterized numerical models - pilot point parameterization with Tikhonov regularization. Pilot points are a popular method for spatially parameterizing complex hydrogeologic systems; however, additional flexibility offered by pilot points can become problematic if not constrained by Tikhonov regularization. The objective of this work is to explain and illustrate the specific roles played by control variables in the PEST software for Tikhonov regularization applied to pilot points. A recent study encountered difficulties implementing this approach, but through examination of that analysis, insight into underlying sources of potential misapplication can be gained and some guidelines for overcoming them developed. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  12. A Cognitive Core for Common State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate cognitive challenges introduced by Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (2010) with regard to conceptualizing fractions. We focus on a strand of standards that appear across grades three through five, which is best represented in grade four, by standard 4.NF.4a: "[Students should] understand a…

  13. Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the data analysis stage of phenomenographic research, elucidating what is involved in terms of both commonality and variation in accepted practice. The analysis stage of phenomenographic research is often not well understood. This paper helps to clarify the process, initially by collecting together in one location the more…

  14. Common Core State Standards and Adaptive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamil, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the issues of how Common Core State Standards (CCSS) will impact adaptive teaching. It focuses on 2 of the major differences between conventional standards and CCSS: the increased complexity of text and the addition of disciplinary literacy standards to reading instruction. The article argues that adaptive teaching under CCSS…

  15. What Should Common Core Assessments Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Kayla; Fortune, Nicholas; Lovett, Jennifer N.; Scherrer, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for mathematics promote ideals about learning mathematics by providing specific standards focused on conceptual understanding and incorporating practices in which students must participate to develop conceptual understanding. Thus, how we define learning is pivotal because our current definition isn't aligned with…

  16. Internet 2 Commons: A Collaborative Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of Internet 2, a partnership in educational efforts, focuses on the Internet 2 Commons which is a collaborative framework for the advancement of research and pedagogical activities. Discusses the use of videoconferencing to improve communication and to create an environment for group collaboration; networking and collaboration; video…

  17. SPECFOCUS: An IRAF task for focusing spectrographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdes, F.

    1992-01-01

    An IRAF task for measuring the point-spread function (PSF) along the dispersion and wavelength shifts across the dispersion in two dimensional arc spectra is described. In typical use, a set of spectra are obtained with various spectrograph focusing and alignment adjustments and the PSF information and shift information is derived and presented in tabular and graphical forms. Within each image the spectra may be divided into a number of samples along the dispersion and across the dispersion to investigate variations at different points in the detector at fixed focus settings. With many spectra and many samples interpreting the measurements is challenging. The task provides an interactive graphical interface to display the measurements in a number of interesting ways. The underlying algorithm for measuring the PSF and shifts in the auto/cross-correlation of spectral are samples.

  18. Common embezzlement myths.

    PubMed

    Harris, David

    2013-01-01

    With published statistics suggesting that embezzlement strikes three in five doctors at some point in their careers, this topic is of interest to every professional owning a medical or dental office, and tackles some of the biggest areas of misunderstanding concerning embezzlement in professional offices. Many readers will be surprised to learn that many of the steps that are frequently advocated to control embezzlement are, in fact, ineffective. This article suggests an approach that is quite different from what is normally recommended, and yet is far easier to implement than conventional embezzlement-control strategies.

  19. Multiple Kernel Point Set Registration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Minh; Wu, Q M Jonathan

    2015-12-22

    The finite Gaussian mixture model with kernel correlation is a flexible tool that has recently received attention for point set registration. While there are many algorithms for point set registration presented in the literature, an important issue arising from these studies concerns the mapping of data with nonlinear relationships and the ability to select a suitable kernel. Kernel selection is crucial for effective point set registration. We focus here on multiple kernel point set registration. We make several contributions in this paper. First, each observation is modeled using the Student's t-distribution, which is heavily tailed and more robust than the Gaussian distribution. Second, by automatically adjusting the kernel weights, the proposed method allows us to prune the ineffective kernels. This makes the choice of kernels less crucial. After parameter learning, the kernel saliencies of the irrelevant kernels go to zero. Thus, the choice of kernels is less crucial and it is easy to include other kinds of kernels. Finally, we show empirically that our model outperforms state-of-the-art methods recently proposed in the literature.

  20. Multiple Kernel Point Set Registration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Minh; Wu, Q M Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    The finite Gaussian mixture model with kernel correlation is a flexible tool that has recently received attention for point set registration. While there are many algorithms for point set registration presented in the literature, an important issue arising from these studies concerns the mapping of data with nonlinear relationships and the ability to select a suitable kernel. Kernel selection is crucial for effective point set registration. We focus here on multiple kernel point set registration. We make several contributions in this paper. First, each observation is modeled using the Student's t-distribution, which is heavily tailed and more robust than the Gaussian distribution. Second, by automatically adjusting the kernel weights, the proposed method allows us to prune the ineffective kernels. This makes the choice of kernels less crucial. After parameter learning, the kernel saliencies of the irrelevant kernels go to zero. Thus, the choice of kernels is less crucial and it is easy to include other kinds of kernels. Finally, we show empirically that our model outperforms state-of-the-art methods recently proposed in the literature.

  1. Focus-tunable multi-view holographic 3D display using a 4k LCD panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qiaojuan; Sang, Xinzhu; Chen, Zhidong; Yan, Binbin; Yu, Chongxiu; Wang, Peng; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    A focus-tunable multi-view holographic three-dimensional (3D) display system with a 10.1 inch 4K liquid crystal device (LCD) panel is presented. In the proposed synthesizing method, computer-generated hologram (CGH) does not require calculations of light diffraction. When multiple rays pass through one point of a 3D image and enter the pupil simultaneously, the eyes can focus on the point according to the depth cue. Benefiting from the holograms, the dense multiple perspective viewpoints of the 3D object are recorded and combined into the CGH in a dense-super-view way, which make two or more rays emitted from the same point in reconstructed light field into the pupil simultaneously. In general, a wavefront is converged to a viewpoint with the amplitude distribution of multi-view images on the hologram plane, and the phase distribution of a spherical wave is converged to the viewpoint. Here, the wavefronts are calculated according to all the multi-view images and then they are summed up to obtain the object wave on the hologram plane. Moreover, the reference light (converging light) is adopted to converge the central diffraction wave from the liquid crystal display (LCD) into a common area in a short view distance. Experimental results shows that the proposed holographic display can regenerate the 3D objects with focus cues: accommodation and retinal blur.

  2. The Common Core: Insights into the K-5 Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Maureen; Overturf, Brenda J.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the Common Core English Language Arts Standards in grades K-5 literacy instruction is the focus of the article. The authors begin by raising four questions: (1) What is the essential philosophy of the Common Core State Standards?; (2) What do educators need to know to use the College and Career Readiness Standards and Common Core State…

  3. Campus and Community Connections: The Evolving IUPUI Common Theme Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, IUPUI launched the Common Theme Project, designed to "promote campus unity, conversation, and collaboration on timely issues that connect IUPUI to central Indiana and the world." This paper briefly discusses the evolution of the Common Theme Project, from its roots as a freshman common reader to the current campus focus on…

  4. Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Biman; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency of young adolescents and adults which also affects the children. The disease remains largely under-diagnosed in India and Southeast Asian countries. Although in majority of cases it is sporadic, disease may be inherited in a autosomal recessive pattern and rarely, in autosomal dominant pattern. Patients, in addition to frequent sino-pulmonary infections, are also susceptible to various autoimmune diseases and malignancy, predominantly lymphoma and leukemia. Other characteristic lesions include lymphocytic and granulomatous interstitial lung disease, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gut. Diagnosis requires reduced levels of at least two immunoglobulin isotypes: IgG with IgA and/or IgM and impaired specific antibody response to vaccines. A number of gene mutations have been described in CVID; however, these genetic alterations account for less than 20% of cases of CVID. Flow cytometry aptly demonstrates a disturbed B cell homeostasis with reduced or absent memory B cells and increased CD21(low) B cells and transitional B cell populations. Approximately one-third of patients with CVID also display T cell functional defects. Immunoglobulin therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Immunologists and other clinicians in India and other South East Asian countries need to be aware of CVID so that early diagnosis can be made, as currently, majority of these patients still go undiagnosed.

  5. Presentational Focus in Heritage and Monolingual Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoot, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    In Spanish, it is most commonly claimed that constituents in narrow presentational focus appear rightmost, where they also get main stress (1a), while stress in situ (1b) is infelicitous. (1) [Context: Who bought a car?]. a. Compró un carro mi [mamá][subscript F]. bought a car my mom. b. Mi [mamá ][subscript F] compró un carro. However, some…

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloud Physics FOCUS ON CLOUD PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkovich, Gregory; Malinowski, Szymon P.

    2008-07-01

    Cloud physics has for a long time been an important segment of atmospheric science. It is common knowledge that clouds are crucial for our understanding of weather and climate. Clouds are also interesting by themselves (not to mention that they are beautiful). Complexity is hidden behind the common picture of these beautiful and interesting objects. The typical school textbook definition that a cloud is 'a set of droplets or particles suspended in the atmosphere' is not adequate. Clouds are complicated phenomena in which dynamics, turbulence, microphysics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer interact on a wide range of scales, from sub-micron to kilometres. Some of these interactions are subtle and others are more straightforward. Large and small-scale motions lead to activation of cloud condensation nuclei, condensational growth and collisions; small changes in composition and concentration of atmospheric aerosol lead to significant differences in radiative properties of the clouds and influence rainfall formation. It is justified to look at a cloud as a composite, nonlinear system which involves many interactions and feedback. This system is actively linked into a web of atmospheric, oceanic and even cosmic interactions. Due to the complexity of the cloud system, present-day descriptions of clouds suffer from simplifications, inadequate parameterizations, and omissions. Sometimes the most fundamental physics hidden behind these simplifications and parameterizations is not known, and a wide scope of view can sometimes prevent a 'microscopic', deep insight into the detail. Only the expertise offered by scientists focused on particular elementary processes involved in this complicated pattern of interactions allows us to shape elements of the puzzle from which a general picture of clouds can be created. To be useful, every element of the puzzle must be shaped precisely. This often creates problems in communication between the sciences responsible for shaping

  7. Dual focus diffractive optical element with extended depth of focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Katsuhiro; Shimizu, Isao

    2014-09-01

    A dual focus property and an extended depth of focus were verified by a new type of diffractive lens displaying on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) devices. This type of lens is useful to read information on multilayer optical discs and tilted discs. The radial undulation of the phase groove on the diffractive lens gave the dual focus nature. The focal extension was performed by combining the dual focus lens with the axilens that was invented for expanding the depth of focus. The number of undulations did not affect the intensity along the optical axis but the central spot of the diffraction pattern.

  8. [Common anemias in neonatology].

    PubMed

    Humbert, J; Wacker, P

    1999-01-28

    We describe the four most common groups of neonatal anemia and their treatments, with particular emphasis on erythropoietin therapy. The hemolytic anemias include the ABO incompatibility (much more frequent, nowadays, than the Rh incompatibility, which has nearly disappeared following the use of anti-D immunoglobulin in postpartum Rh-negative mothers), hereditary spherocytosis and G-6-PD deficiency. Among hypoplastic anemias, that caused by Parvovirus B19 predominates, by far, over Diamond-Blackfan anemia, alpha-thalassemia and the rare sideroblastic anemias. "Hemorrhagic" anemias occur during twin-to-twin transfusions, or during feto-maternal transfusions. Finally, the multifactorial anemia of prematurity develops principally as a result of the rapid expansion of the blood volume in this group of patients. Erythropoietin therapy, often at doses much higher than those used in the adult, should be seriously considered in most cases of non-hypoplastic neonatal anemias, to minimise maximally the use of transfusions.

  9. TMT common software update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Kim; Brighton, Allan; Buur, Hanne

    2016-08-01

    TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their functional roles in the software system. TMT CSW has recently passed its preliminary design review. The unique features of CSW include its use of multiple, open-source products as the basis for services, and an approach that works to reduce the amount of CSW-provided infrastructure code. Considerable prototyping was completed during this phase to mitigate risk with results that demonstrate the validity of this design approach and the selected service implementation products. This paper describes the latest design of TMT CSW, key features, and results from the prototyping effort.

  10. Focusators for laser-branding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doskolovich, L. L.; Kazanskiy, N. L.; Kharitonov, S. I.; Uspleniev, G. V.

    A new method is investigated for synthesis of computer-generated optical elements: focusators that are able to focus the radial-symmetrical laser beam into complex focal contours, in particular into alphanumeric symbols. The method is based on decomposition of the focal contour into segments of straight lines and semi-circles, following corresponding spacing out of the focusator on elementary segments (concentric rings or sectors) and solution of the inverse task of focusing from focusator segments into corresponding elements of the focal contour. The results of numerical computing of the field from synthesized focusators into the letters are presented. The theoretical efficiency of the focusators discussed is no less than 85%. The amplitude masks and the results of operational studies of synthesized focusators are presented.

  11. Robust Critical Point Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Harsh

    2016-07-28

    Robust Critical Point Detection is a software to compute critical points in a 2D or 3D vector field robustly. The software was developed as a part of the author's work at the lab as a Phd student under Livermore Scholar Program (now called Livermore Graduate Scholar Program).

  12. Nickel Curie Point Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-01-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient…

  13. Model Breaking Points Conceptualized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vig, Rozy; Murray, Eileen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Current curriculum initiatives (e.g., National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers 2010) advocate that models be used in the mathematics classroom. However, despite their apparent promise, there comes a point when models break, a point in the mathematical problem space where the model cannot,…

  14. The Lagrangian points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linton, J. Oliver

    2017-03-01

    There are five unique points in a star/planet system where a satellite can be placed whose orbital period is equal to that of the planet. Simple methods for calculating the positions of these points, or at least justifying their existence, are developed.

  15. 'Focus on Marshall' Features Final External Tank Rollout

    NASA Video Gallery

    Gumbo, Mardi Gras parades and external tanks. All three share a common bond - they are all New Orleans staples. But for one, it's the final send-off, highlighted on the August episode of "Focus on ...

  16. Preventing Point-of-Sale System Intrusions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    month Crimina l intent may be more focused on identity theft than payme nt card fraud 37 Unknown Zero day or custom keylogger TBD TBD 4...Several major United States retailers have suffered large-scale thefts of payment card information as the result of intrusions against point-of-sale...ABSTRACT Several major United States retailers have suffered large-scale thefts of payment card information as the result of intrusions against point

  17. Labor Dystocia: A Common Approach to Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Neal, Jeremy L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Holley, Sharon L; Ryan, Sharon L; Buxton, Margaret; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary labor and birth population norms should be the basis for evaluating labor progression and determining slow progress that may benefit from intervention. The aim of this article is to present guidelines for a common, evidence-based approach for determination of active labor onset and diagnosis of labor dystocia based on a synthesis of existing professional guidelines and relevant contemporary publications. A 3-point approach for diagnosing active labor onset and classifying labor dystocia-related labor aberrations into well-defined, mutually exclusive categories that can be used clinically and validated by researchers is proposed. The approach comprises identification of 1) an objective point that strictly defines active labor onset (point of active labor determination); 2) an objective point that identifies when labor progress becomes atypical, beyond which interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia may be justified (point of protraction diagnosis); and 3) an objective point that identifies when interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia, if used, can first be determined to be unsuccessful, beyond which assisted vaginal or cesarean birth may be justified (earliest point of arrest diagnosis). Widespread adoption of a common approach for diagnosing labor dystocia will facilitate consistent evaluation of labor progress, improve communications between clinicians and laboring women, indicate when intervention aimed at speeding labor progress or facilitating birth may be appropriate, and allow for more efficient translation of safe and effective management strategies into clinical practice. Correct application of the diagnosis of labor dystocia may lead to a decrease in the rate of cesarean birth, decreased health care costs, and improved health of childbearing women and neonates.

  18. Focus vernier for optical lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, William H.; Barouch, Eytan; Hollerbach, Uwe; Orszag, Steven A.

    1993-08-01

    As the depth of focus of optical steppers grows smaller, it becomes more important to determine the position of best focus accurately and quickly. This paper describes the use of phase-shifted mask technology to form a focus vernier: a phase pattern on the stepper reticle which, when imaged in resist, can give both the magnitude and the direction of the focus error. In this, the focus vernier structure is analogous to 3overlay verniers. Thus the determination of focus error can be treated as an alignment problem in the z-axis. This technique is an improvement on previous schemes for the determination of best focus from resist images as it can indicate both the magnitude of the error and its direction in a single exposure.

  19. Constructive points of powerlocales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickers, Steven

    1997-09-01

    Results of Bunge and Funk and of Johnstone, providing constructively sound descriptions of the global points of the lower and upper powerlocales, are extended here to describe the generalized points and proved in a way that displays in a symmetric fashion two complementary treatments of frames: as suplattices and as preframes. Also described here are the points of the Vietoris powerlocale.In each of two special cases, an exponential D ( being the Sierpinski locale) is shown to be homeomorphic to a powerlocale: to the lower powerlocale when D is discrete, and to the upper powerlocale when D is compact regular.

  20. [Sinusitis is common in small children].

    PubMed

    Herløv-Nielsen, Henrik; Højby, Niels

    2010-11-29

    Children have air-filled paranasal sinuses from birth. Acute sinusitis is common in early childhood and complicates 5-13% of common colds. Bacteriology comprises 30% Streptococcus pneumoniae, 20% Haemophilus influenzae, 20% Moraxella catarrhalis. While suppurative complications are rare, there has been an increasing focus on comorbidity affecting the lower airways (asthma). The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria developed through microbiological studies. Antibiotic treatment is controversial, but evidence suggests an effect when the diagnosis has been made correctly. We advocate antibiotic treatment in selected cases.

  1. Focal Point Inside the Vacuum Chamber for Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on an 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. This photograph is a close-up view of a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber at the MSFC Solar Thermal Propulsion Test facility. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  2. Arctic climate tipping points.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the Arctic are briefly reviewed. Then, the current behaviour of a range of Arctic systems is summarised. Looking ahead, a range of potential tipping phenomena are described. This leads to a revised and expanded list of potential Arctic climate tipping elements, whose likelihood is assessed, in terms of how much warming will be required to tip them. Finally, the available responses are considered, especially the prospects for avoiding Arctic climate tipping points.

  3. Analysis of polyamidoamine dendrimers by isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, Samik K; Swanson, Douglas R; Tomalia, Donald A; Sharma, Ajit

    2014-01-01

    Polyamidoamine dendrimers have been studied extensively for their potential applications in nanomedicine. Their uses as imaging, drug, and nucleic acid delivery agents are nearing clinical trials. As such, characterization of polyamidoamine dendrimers and their nano-devices is of immense importance for monitoring the efficiency of their synthesis, purity, and quality control of manufactured products as well as their in vivo behavior. We report here the analysis of polyamidoamine dendrimers possessing various cores and surface groups with a simple and inexpensive isoelectric focusing method. The isoelectric points of the dendrimers were readily determined from a calibration plot generated by running proteins with known pI values. The isoelectric points for various surface-modified polyamidoamine dendrimers ranged from 4 to 9. Polyamidoamine dendrimers possessing terminal hydroxyl groups gave a pI > 7, while those with terminal carboxyl groups exhibit a pI < 7. Generation number and cores of the dendrimers did not significantly affect their isoelectric points. Isoelectric focusing thus offers another important tool for characterizing these nanomolecules.

  4. Collinear Points Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Harris S.; Shiflett, Ray C.

    2008-01-01

    Students were asked to find all possible values for A so that the points (1, 2), (5, A), and (A, 7) lie on a straight line. This problem suggests a generalization: Given (x, y), find all values of A so that the points (x, y), (5, A), and (A, 7) lie on a straight line. We find that this question about linear equations must be resolved using the…

  5. Nickel Curie point engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-04-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient heat source. A simple but elegant device illustrates this phenomenon beautifully.

  6. Unpredictable points and chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmet, Marat; Fen, Mehmet Onur

    2016-11-01

    It is revealed that a special kind of Poisson stable point, which we call an unpredictable point, gives rise to the existence of chaos in the quasi-minimal set. The existing definitions of chaos are formulated in sets of motions. This is the first time in the literature that description of chaos is initiated from a single motion. The theoretical results are exemplified by means of the symbolic dynamics.

  7. Bloch points are sticky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Kim, Se Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Bloch points are zero-dimensional topological defects in three-dimensional ferromagnets. A representative magnetic configuration is a hedgehog with magnetization pointing away from a center. The singular nature of a Bloch point's core leads to interesting and observable consequences. A simple argument based on dimensional analysis shows that a magnetic lattice creates a periodic potential that can pin a Bloch point even if the lattice has no defects. The pinning force is of the order of the micromagnetic exchange constant, a few piconewtons in a typical ferromagnet. A domain wall in a cylindrical ferromagnetic wire with the diameter of a few tens of nanometers may contain a Bloch point. Such a domain wall will have a sizable depinning field, tens of oersteds. A Bloch point moving through an atomic lattice should emit electromagnetic waves at the frequency of a few hundred gigahertz. Research supported in part by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grants No. DMR-0520491 and No. DMR-1104753.

  8. Reference Point Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Ayse; Koedijk, Kees; Noussair, Charles N.; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that, when confronted with a decision to be taken under risk, individuals use reference payoff levels as important inputs. The purpose of this paper is to study which reference points characterize decisions in a setting in which there are several plausible reference levels of payoff. We report an experiment, in which we investigate which of four potential reference points: (1) a population average payoff level, (2) the announced expected payoff of peers in a similar decision situation, (3) a historical average level of earnings that others have received in the same task, and (4) an announced anticipated individual payoff level, best describes decisions in a decontextualized risky decision making task. We find heterogeneity among individuals in the reference points they employ. The population average payoff level is the modal reference point, followed by experimenter's stated expectation of a participant's individual earnings, followed in turn by the average earnings of other participants in previous sessions of the same experiment. A sizeable share of individuals show multiple reference points simultaneously. The reference point that best fits the choices of the individual is not affected by a shock to her income. PMID:27672374

  9. Reference Point Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Ayse; Koedijk, Kees; Noussair, Charles N; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that, when confronted with a decision to be taken under risk, individuals use reference payoff levels as important inputs. The purpose of this paper is to study which reference points characterize decisions in a setting in which there are several plausible reference levels of payoff. We report an experiment, in which we investigate which of four potential reference points: (1) a population average payoff level, (2) the announced expected payoff of peers in a similar decision situation, (3) a historical average level of earnings that others have received in the same task, and (4) an announced anticipated individual payoff level, best describes decisions in a decontextualized risky decision making task. We find heterogeneity among individuals in the reference points they employ. The population average payoff level is the modal reference point, followed by experimenter's stated expectation of a participant's individual earnings, followed in turn by the average earnings of other participants in previous sessions of the same experiment. A sizeable share of individuals show multiple reference points simultaneously. The reference point that best fits the choices of the individual is not affected by a shock to her income.

  10. Alignment and focus of mirrored facets of a heliosat

    DOEpatents

    Yellowhair, Julius E; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Diver, Richard B; Moss, Timothy A

    2013-11-12

    Various technologies pertaining to aligning and focusing mirrored facets of a heliostat are described herein. Updating alignment and/or focus of mirrored facets is undertaken through generation of a theoretical image, wherein the theoretical image is indicative of a reflection of the target via the mirrored facets when the mirrored facets are properly aligned. This theoretical image includes reference points that are overlaid on an image of the target as reflected by the mirrored facets of the heliostat. A technician adjusts alignment/focus of a mirrored facet by causing reflected reference markings to become aligned with the reference points in the theoretical image.

  11. Focus Groups Help To Focus the Marketing Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashar, Hanna; Lane, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    A university-based degree completion program for adults conducted focus group research to refine market positioning and promotion. Focus groups averaged five current students and recent graduates who reflected, demographically, the current student population. Results gave insight into reasons for selecting the university, aspects of the program…

  12. SonoKnife: Feasibility of a line-focused ultrasound device for thermal ablation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Duo; Xia, Rongmin; Chen, Xin; Shafirstein, Gal; Corry, Peter M.; Griffin, Robert J.; Penagaricano, Jose A.; Tulunay-Ugur, Ozlem E.; Moros, Eduardo G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of line-focused ultrasound for thermal ablation of superficially located tumors. Methods: A SonoKnife is a cylindrical-section ultrasound transducer designed to radiate from its concave surface. This geometry generates a line-focus or acoustic edge. The motivation for this approach was the noninvasive thermal ablation of advanced head and neck tumors and positive neck nodes in reasonable treatment times. Line-focusing may offer advantages over the common point-focusing of spherically curved radiators such as faster coverage of a target volume by scanning of the acoustic edge. In this paper, The authors report studies using numerical models and phantom and ex vivo experiments using a SonoKnife prototype. Results: Acoustic edges were generated by cylindrical-section single-element ultrasound transducers numerically, and by the prototype experimentally. Numerically, simulations were performed to characterize the acoustic edge for basic design parameters: transducer dimensions, line-focus depth, frequency, and coupling thickness. The dimensions of the acoustic edge as a function of these parameters were determined. In addition, a step-scanning simulation produced a large thermal lesion in a reasonable treatment time. Experimentally, pressure distributions measured in degassed water agreed well with acoustic simulations, and sonication experiments in gel phantoms and ex vivo porcine liver samples produced lesions similar to those predicted with acoustic and thermal models. Conclusions: Results support the feasibility of noninvasive thermal ablation with a SonoKnife. PMID:21859038

  13. Focus on the positive: lessons learned from focus determination of infrared space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Jacob; Rigg, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    Wide field of view optics paired with large starer infrared detector arrays can be notoriously difficult to place into focus. This paper will discuss the lessons learned in taking one such system from being more than 20x out of its focus specification to within focus in a single iteration. Traditionally the tight tolerances required for space borne applications forces the system designer to carefully consider many effects that may otherwise be negligible. These include changes in system tolerances between ambient to cryogenic temperature, lens boule property differences, test setup to properly mimic the flight thermal profile, lack of commercially available lasers with the proper wavelength, and several others. In this case, some key pieces of information were not provided when the system arrived at Northrop Grumman's Azusa facility for unit integration and through-focus testing. The presented approach involves taking extremely out-of-focus responses from point sources at various focus positions and combining them with optical modeling parameters to determine how to best reposition the detector array to the best plane of focus. A successful implementation of the approach will be presented using data from a wide field-of-view infrared sensor.

  14. Ground Vibration Measurements at LHC Point 4

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsche, Kirk; Gaddi, Andrea; /CERN

    2012-09-17

    Ground vibration was measured at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Point 4 during the winter shutdown in February 2012. This report contains the results, including power and coherence spectra. We plan to collect and analyze vibration data from representative collider halls to inform specifications for future linear colliders, such as ILC and CLIC. We are especially interested in vibration correlations between final focus lens locations.

  15. Using PowerPoint in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Dusti; Howell, Deanne

    This book is intended for those teachers who want to create more dynamic classroom lessons and presentations using quick and easy custom animations. The focus of this book is to explain how to use PowerPoint to create transitions, graphics, charts, graphs, and sound effects in a format that makes learning fun. The book is designed to give…

  16. Continuous point symmetries in group field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kegeles, Alexander; Oriti, Daniele

    2017-03-01

    We discuss the notion of symmetries in non-local field theories characterized by integro-differential equations of motion, from a geometric perspective. We then focus on group field theory (GFT) models of quantum gravity and provide a general analysis of their continuous point symmetry transformations, including the generalized conservation laws following from them.

  17. Radio frequency focused interdigital linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Donald A.; Starling, W. Joel

    2006-08-29

    An interdigital (Wideroe) linear accelerator employing drift tubes, and associated support stems that couple to both the longitudinal and support stem electromagnetic fields of the linac, creating rf quadrupole fields along the axis of the linac to provide transverse focusing for the particle beam. Each drift tube comprises two separate electrodes operating at different electrical potentials as determined by cavity rf fields. Each electrode supports two fingers, pointing towards the opposite end of the drift tube, forming a four-finger geometry that produces an rf quadrupole field distribution along its axis. The fundamental periodicity of the structure is equal to one half of the particle wavelength .beta..lamda., where .beta. is the particle velocity in units of the velocity of light and .lamda. is the free space wavelength of the rf. Particles are accelerated in the gaps between drift tubes. The particle beam is focused in regions inside the drift tubes.

  18. Active Learning: A PowerPoint Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gareis, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Individual or group presentations are common assignments in business communication courses, and many students use PowerPoint slides as audiovisual support. Frequently, curriculum constraints don't allow instructors much time to teach effective design and delivery of presentation graphics in their courses; guidelines in the form of minilectures or…

  19. Treatment of Common Congenital Hand Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Takashi; Pushman, Allison G.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Recognize the clinical features associated with five common congenital hand conditions. 2. Describe the indications and appropriate timing for various surgical procedures used to treat congenital hand anomalies. 3. Identify the pearls and pitfalls of these surgical treatments in order to avoid complications. 4. Understand the expected post-operative outcomes associated with these surgical procedures. Summary This article will provide an introduction to congenital hand differences by focusing on practical surgical strategies for treating five commonly encountered conditions including syndactyly, constriction ring syndrome, duplicated thumb, hypoplastic thumb and trigger thumb. The accompanying videos will demonstrate common and reliable surgical techniques for syndactyly release, duplicated thumb reconstruction and pollicization for hypoplastic thumb. PMID:20811188

  20. Cofunctional Subpathways Were Regulated by Transcription Factor with Common Motif, Common Family, or Common Tissue.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Shang, Desi; Xu, Yanjun; Feng, Li; Yang, Haixiu; Liu, Baoquan; Su, Shengyang; Chen, Lina; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Dissecting the characteristics of the transcription factor (TF) regulatory subpathway is helpful for understanding the TF underlying regulatory function in complex biological systems. To gain insight into the influence of TFs on their regulatory subpathways, we constructed a global TF-subpathways network (TSN) to analyze systematically the regulatory effect of common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs on subpathways. We performed cluster analysis to show that the common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs that regulated the same pathway classes tended to cluster together and contribute to the same biological function that led to disease initiation and progression. We analyzed the Jaccard coefficient to show that the functional consistency of subpathways regulated by the TF pairs with common motif, common family, or common tissue was significantly greater than the random TF pairs at the subpathway level, pathway level, and pathway class level. For example, HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha) and NR1I3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3) were a pair of TFs with common motif, common family, and common tissue. They were involved in drug metabolism pathways and were liver-specific factors required for physiological transcription. In short, we inferred that the cofunctional subpathways were regulated by common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs.

  1. Embracing a Common Focus: A Framework for Middle Level Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Shawn A.; Howell, Penny B.; Cook, Chris M.

    2013-01-01

    As more and more states make a commitment to specialized middle level teacher preparation, teacher education programs across the country must make the necessary adjustments to ensure middle level teachers are prepared to be successful. Unfortunately, individual state and institutional requirements often make this challenging and can result in…

  2. Tumor markers in clinical practice: a review focusing on common solid cancers.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Tumor markers are playing an increasingly important role in cancer detection and management. These laboratory-based tests are potentially useful in screening for early malignancy, aiding cancer diagnosis, determining prognosis, surveillance following curative surgery for cancer, up front predicting drug response or resistance, and monitoring therapy in advanced disease. Clinically useful markers include fecal occult blood testing in screening for early colorectal cancer, carcinoembryonic antigen in the management of patients with colorectal cancer, both α-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotrophin in the management of patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumors, CA 125 for monitoring therapy in patients with ovarian cancer, estrogen receptors for predicting response to hormone therapy in breast cancer, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 for the identification of women with breast cancer likely to respond to trastuzumab (Herceptin) and KRAS mutational status for identifying patients with advanced colorectal cancer likely to benefit from treatment with the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies, cetuximab and panitumumab. Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen screening in reducing mortality from prostate cancer is unclear.

  3. Giant Onychomatricoma of the Great Toenail: Case Report and Review Focusing on Less Common Variants.

    PubMed

    Prevezas, Christos; Triantafyllopoulou, Ioanna; Belyayeva, Helena; Sgouros, Dimitrios; Konstantoudakis, Stephanos; Panayiotides, Ioannis; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-05-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare benign fibroepithelial filamentous tumor originating from the nail matrix. It typically presents with the clinical tetrad of xanthonychia, pachyonychia, proximal splinter hemorrhages and increased transverse overcurvature of the nail plate. The giant variant can easily confuse the clinician due to its extensive nail dystrophy that can mask the characteristic features of this tumor. Benign (fibrokeratoma, ungual fibroma, onycholytic matricoma) and malignant entities (Bowen's disease, squamous cell carcinoma, onycholytic carcinoma) are mimics of the disease. Nail surgery can facilitate the diagnosis, which should always be confirmed by histology, as rare variants do exist.

  4. A holographic critical point

    SciTech Connect

    DeWolfe, Oliver; Rosen, Christopher; Gubser, Steven S.

    2011-04-15

    We numerically construct a family of five-dimensional black holes exhibiting a line of first-order phase transitions terminating at a critical point at finite chemical potential and temperature. These black holes are constructed so that the equation of state and baryon susceptibilities approximately match QCD lattice data at vanishing chemical potential. The critical end point in the particular model we consider has temperature 143 MeV and chemical potential 783 MeV. Critical exponents are calculated, with results that are consistent with mean-field scaling relations.

  5. SAMPEX special pointing mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Flatley, Thomas W.; Leoutsakos, Theodore

    1995-01-01

    A new pointing mode has been developed for the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) spacecraft. This pointing mode orients the instrument boresights perpendicular to the field lines of the Earth's magnetic field in regions of low field strength and parallel to the field lines in regions of high field strength, to allow better characterization of heavy ions trapped by the field. The new mode uses magnetometer signals and is algorithmically simpler than the previous control mode, but it requires increased momentum wheel activity. It was conceived, designed, tested, coded, uplinked to the spacecraft, and activated in less than seven months.

  6. Microchannel protein separation by electric field gradient focusing.

    PubMed

    Petsev, Dimiter N; Lopez, Gabriel P; Ivory, Cornelius F; Sibbett, Scott S

    2005-06-01

    A microchannel device is presented which separates and focuses charged proteins based on electric field gradient focusing. Separation is achieved by setting a constant electroosmotic flow velocity against step changes in electrophoretic velocity. Where these two velocities are balanced for a given analyte, the analyte focuses at that point because it is driven to it from all points within the channel. We demonstrate the separation and focusing of a binary mixture of bovine serum albumin and phycoerythrin. The device is constructed of intersecting microchannels in poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS) inlaid with hollow dialysis fibers. The device uses no exotic chemicals such as antibodies or synthetic ampholytes, but operates instead by purely physical means involving the independent manipulation of electrophoretic and electroosmotic velocities. One important difference between this apparatus and most other devices designed for field-gradient focusing is the injection of current at discrete intersections in the channel rather than continuously along the length of a membrane-bound separation channel.

  7. Inception point for embankment dam stepped spillways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stepped spillways applied to embankment dams have become a common design practice with the rehabilitation of aging watershed dams, especially those experiencing a hazard classification change from low to high hazard. Previous research on stepped spillways focused on gravity dams where aerated flow ...

  8. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  9. Description of common musculoskeletal findings in Williams Syndrome and implications for therapies.

    PubMed

    Copes, L E; Pober, B R; Terilli, C A

    2016-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), is a relatively rare genetic disorder affecting ∼1/10,000 persons. Since the disorder is caused by a micro-deletion of ∼1.5 Mb, it is not surprising that the manifestations of WS are extremely broad, involving most body systems. In this paper, we primarily focus on the musculoskeletal aspects of WS as these findings have not been the subject of a comprehensive review. We review the MSK features commonly seen in individuals with WS, along with related sensory and neurological issues interacting with and compounding underlying MSK abnormalities. We end by providing perspective, particularly from the vantage point of a physical therapist, on therapeutic interventions to address the most common MSK and related features seen in WS. Clin. Anat. 29:578-589, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Orofacial pain and headache: a review and look at the commonalities.

    PubMed

    Bender, Steven D

    2014-03-01

    Headache and facial pain - in particular, temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) - are very prevalent conditions in the general population. TMDs are defined as a collection of symptoms and signs involving masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joints (TMJs), or both. The pain reported by TMD patients is typically located in the muscles of mastication, in the preauricular area, or in the TMJs. In many cases, headaches and facial pain will occur in the same patient. Much of the research relative to the relationship of these disorders focuses on statistics of association and prevalence data. This review will provide a brief description of the types and classifications of orofacial pains (OFPs), as well as point to relevant research describing the commonalities and potential comorbid nature of these maladies. Finally, several recent papers describing morphologic changes to the brain in headache and TMD individuals will be discussed in an effort to stimulate further research into the potential common pathophysiologic mechanism that may explain the comorbid nature of these disorders.

  11. Point and Shoot Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoot, John E.

    2011-05-01

    A new generation of point and shoot digital cameras, when combined with open source firmware enhancements can operate as astrographs. This paper explores the research and astro-photographic opportunities and capabilities offered by this pairing of mass production optics and open source functional extensions that retail for as little as $200.

  12. EcoTipping Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Gerald G.; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Contrary to what we often hear and teach, there is good news to be found on the environmental front. Environmental success stories show us not only that sustainability is possible, but also how people have made it happen. We can make these stories and their lessons accessible to students with help from the EcoTipping Points Project, which has…

  13. The Lagrange Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a derivation of all five Lagrange points by methods accessible to sixth-form students, and provides a further opportunity to match Newtonian gravity with centripetal force. The predictive powers of good scientific theories are also discussed with regard to the philosophy of science. Methods for calculating the positions of the…

  14. Decision Points in Cataloging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Franklyn F.

    Libraries are frequently faced with policy decisions which can affect the quality and cost of library services for years to come. This point can be illustrated by citing examples of decisions made at the University of Wisconsin Library in the areas of: (1) conforming to national cataloging standards; (2) producing catalog cards in-house; and (3)…

  15. Optical Pointing Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Joel F.; Metz, Brandon C.

    2010-01-01

    The optical pointing sensor provides a means of directly measuring the relative positions of JPL s Formation Control Testbed (FCT) vehicles without communication. This innovation is a steerable infrared (IR) rangefinder that gives measurements in terms of range and bearing to a passive retroreflector.

  16. Building Temperature Set Point

    SciTech Connect

    Meincke, Carol L.; Evans, Christopher A.

    2014-09-01

    This white paper provides information and recommendations for an actionable and enforceable corporate policy statement on temperature set points for office and related spaces at Sandia and presents a strategy that balances the need to achieve the energy goals with optimizing employee comfort and productivity.

  17. Points and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Syed Jamil; Heddon, Dee; Mackey, Sally

    2007-01-01

    This collection of three articles represents the "Points and Practices" section of this month's issue of "Research in Drama Education." The first article, "'Fitting the Bill' for 'Helping Them.' A Response to 'Integrated Popular Theatre Approach in Africa' and 'Commissioned Theatre Projects on Human Rights in…

  18. Common Core State Standards 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent the first time that nearly every state has set common expectations for what students should know and be able to do. In the past, each state set its own standards, and the results varied widely. And while states collectively developed these common standards, decisions about the curriculum and…

  19. Three-dimensional singular points in aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Aynur

    1988-01-01

    When three-dimensional separation occurs on a body immersed in a flow governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, the geometrical surfaces formed by the three vector fields (velocity, vorticity and the skin-friction) and a scalar field (pressure) become interrelated through topological maps containing their respective singular points and extremal points. A mathematically consistent description of these singular points becomes inevitable when we want to study the geometry of the separation. A separated stream surface requires, for example, the existence of a saddle-type singular point on the skin-friction surface. This singular point is actually, in the proper language of mathematics, a saddle of index two. The index is a measure of the dimension of the outset (set leaving the singular point). Hence, when a saddle of index two is specified, a two dimensional surface that becomes separated from the osculating plane of the saddle is implied. The three-dimensional singular point is interpreted mathematically and the most common aerodynamical singular points are discussed through this perspective.

  20. Optimization of Focusing by Strip and Pixel Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, G J; White, D A; Thompson, C A

    2005-06-30

    Professor Kevin Webb and students at Purdue University have demonstrated the design of conducting strip and pixel arrays for focusing electromagnetic waves [1, 2]. Their key point was to design structures to focus waves in the near field using full wave modeling and optimization methods for design. Their designs included arrays of conducting strips optimized with a downhill search algorithm and arrays of conducting and dielectric pixels optimized with the iterative direct binary search method. They used a finite element code for modeling. This report documents our attempts to duplicate and verify their results. We have modeled 2D conducting strips and both conducting and dielectric pixel arrays with moment method and FDTD codes to compare with Webb's results. New designs for strip arrays were developed with optimization by the downhill simplex method with simulated annealing. Strip arrays were optimized to focus an incident plane wave at a point or at two separated points and to switch between focusing points with a change in frequency. We also tried putting a line current source at the focus point for the plane wave to see how it would work as a directive antenna. We have not tried optimizing the conducting or dielectric pixel arrays, but modeled the structures designed by Webb with the moment method and FDTD to compare with the Purdue results.

  1. FOCUSing on Innovative Solar Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Rohlfing, Eric; Holman, Zak, Angel, Roger

    2016-03-02

    Many of ARPA-E’s technology programs seek to break down silos and build new technological communities around a specific energy challenge. In this video, ARPA-E’s Deputy Director for Technology Eric Rohlfing, discusses how the Full-Spectrum Optimized Conversion and Utilization of Sunlight (FOCUS) program is bringing together the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) communities to develop hybrid solar energy systems. This video features interviews with innovators from the FOCUS project team made up by Arizona State University and the University of Arizona, and showcases how the FOCUS program is combining.

  2. FOCUSing on Innovative Solar Technologies

    ScienceCinema

    Rohlfing, Eric; Holman, Zak, Angel, Roger

    2016-07-12

    Many of ARPA-E’s technology programs seek to break down silos and build new technological communities around a specific energy challenge. In this video, ARPA-E’s Deputy Director for Technology Eric Rohlfing, discusses how the Full-Spectrum Optimized Conversion and Utilization of Sunlight (FOCUS) program is bringing together the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) communities to develop hybrid solar energy systems. This video features interviews with innovators from the FOCUS project team made up by Arizona State University and the University of Arizona, and showcases how the FOCUS program is combining.

  3. Compact electron beam focusing column

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-07-13

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  4. Chaotic Dynamics and Application of LCR Oscillators Sharing Common Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeevarekha, A.; Paul Asir, M.; Philominathan, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper addresses the problem of sharing common nonlinearity among nonautonomous and autonomous oscillators. By choosing a suitable common nonlinear element with the driving point characteristics capable of bringing out chaotic motion in a combined system, we obtain identical chaotic states. The dynamics of the coupled system is explored through numerical and experimental studies. Employing the concept of common nonlinearity, a simple chaotic communication system is modeled and its performance is verified through Multisim simulation.

  5. Memory and Common Ground Processes in Language Use.

    PubMed

    Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Duff, Melissa C

    2016-10-01

    During communication, we form assumptions about what our communication partners know and believe. Information that is mutually known between the discourse partners-their common ground-serves as a backdrop for successful communication. Here we present an introduction to the focus of this topic, which is the role of memory in common ground and language use. Two types of questions emerge as central to understanding the relationship between memory and common ground, specifically questions having to do with the representation of common ground in memory, and the use of common ground during language processing.

  6. A Most Probable Point-Based Method for Reliability Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis and Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Gene J.-W.; Gumbert, Clyde R.; Newman, Perry A.

    2004-01-01

    A major step in a most probable point (MPP)-based method for reliability analysis is to determine the MPP. This is usually accomplished by using an optimization search algorithm. The optimal solutions associated with the MPP provide measurements related to safety probability. This study focuses on two commonly used approximate probability integration methods; i.e., the Reliability Index Approach (RIA) and the Performance Measurement Approach (PMA). Their reliability sensitivity equations are first derived in this paper, based on the derivatives of their respective optimal solutions. Examples are then provided to demonstrate the use of these derivatives for better reliability analysis and Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO).

  7. General Music and the Common Core: A Brief Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core Standards and the wide-spread state adoption have implications for music teachers. Alignment with English language arts Common Core Standards is discussed, with examples provided for elementary general music experiences. The author notes the challenge of retaining focus on the music domain while meeting the expectations of the…

  8. CALL and Less Commonly Taught Languages: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) researchers face many challenges in developing effective, high-quality CALL. CALL research has a very strong focus on the Most Commonly Taught Languages (MCLTs), particularly English. CALL researchers working with Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTLs) face further constraints. LCTLs can range from…

  9. Isoelectric focusing in a drop.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Noah G; Hayes, Mark A; Garcia, Antonio A; Ansari, Rafat R

    2011-01-04

    A novel approach to molecular separations is investigated using a technique termed droplet-based isoelectric focusing. Drops are manipulated discretely on a superhydrophobic surface, subjected to low voltages for isoelectric focusing, and split-resulting in a preparative separation. A universal indicator dye demonstrates the generation of stable, reversible pH gradients (3-10) in ampholyte buffers, and these gradients lead to protein focusing within the drop length. Focusing was visually characterized, spectroscopically verified, and assessed quantitatively by noninvasive light scattering measurements. It was found to correlate with a quantitative model based on 1D steady-state theory. This work illustrates that molecular separations can be deployed within a single open drop, and the differential fractions can be separated into new discrete liquid elements.

  10. Focusing light through living tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellekoop, I. M.; Aegerter, C. M.

    2010-02-01

    Tissues such as skin, fat or cuticle are non-transparent because inhomogeneities in the tissue scatter light. We demonstrate experimentally that light can be focused through turbid layers of living tissue, in spite of scattering. Our method is based on the fact that coherent light forms an interference pattern, even after hundreds of scattering events. By spatially shaping the wavefront of the incident laser beam, this interference pattern was modified to make the scattered light converge to a focus. In contrast to earlier experiments, where light was focused through solid objects, we focused light through living pupae of Drosophila melanogaster. We discuss a dynamic wavefront shaping algorithm that follows changes due to microscopic movements of scattering particles in real time. We relate the performance of the algorithm to the measured timescale of the changes in the speckle pattern and analyze our experiment in the light of Laser Doppler flowmetry. Applications in particle tracking, imaging, and optical manipulation are discussed.

  11. Diffusiophoretic Focusing of Suspended Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Nan; Nery-Azevedo, Rodrigo; Abdel-Fattah, Amr I.; Squires, Todd M.

    2016-12-01

    Using a microfluidic system to impose and maintain controlled, steady-state multicomponent p H and electrolyte gradients, we present systems where the diffusiophoretic migration of suspended colloids leads them to focus at a particular position, even in steady-state gradients. We show that naively superpositing effects of each gradient may seem conceptually and qualitatively reasonable, yet is invalid due to the coupled transport of these multicomponent electrolytes. In fact, reformulating the classic theories in terms of the flux of each species (rather than local gradients) reveals rather stringent conditions that are necessary for diffusiophoretic focusing in steady gradients. Either particle surface properties must change as a function of local composition in solution (akin to isoelectric focusing in electrophoresis), or chemical reactions must occur between electrolyte species, for such focusing to be possible. The generality of these findings provides a conceptual picture for understanding, predicting, or designing diffusiophoretic systems.

  12. Focusing on Contact Lens Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Focusing on Contact Lens Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... substantial consumer injury. Back to top Types of Contact Lenses General categories Soft contact lenses. These are ...

  13. Simulations of neutralized final focus

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Genoni, T.C.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.

    2005-01-18

    In order to drive an inertial fusion target or study high energy density physics with heavy ion beams, the beam radius must be focused to < 3 mm and the pulse length must be compressed to < 10 ns. The conventional scheme for temporal pulse compression makes use of an increasing ion velocity to compress the beam as it drifts and beam space charge to stagnate the compression before final focus. Beam compression in a neutralizing plasma does not require stagnation of the compression, enabling a more robust method. The final pulse shape at the target can be programmed by an applied velocity tilt. In this paper, neutralized drift compression is investigated. The sensitivity of the compression and focusing to beam momentum spread, plasma, and magnetic field conditions is studied with realistic driver examples. Using the 3D particle-in-cell code, we examine issues associated with self-field generation, stability, and vacuum-neutralized transport transition and focusing.

  14. Oculometer focus and mirror control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    An automatic focusing system designed around an ultrasonic range measurement is described. Besides maintaining the focus, subject distance is a by-product which could lighten the NOVA computational effort. An automatic head tracking unit is also discussed. It is intended to reduce the search time required when track is lost. An X-Y ultrasonic measurement is also made in this design to control the deflection mirrors.

  15. Software Size Estimation Using Activity Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Densumite, S.; Muenchaisri, P.

    2017-03-01

    Software size is widely recognized as an important parameter for effort and cost estimation. Currently there are many methods for measuring software size including Source Line of Code (SLOC), Function Points (FP), Netherlands Software Metrics Users Association (NESMA), Common Software Measurement International Consortium (COSMIC), and Use Case Points (UCP). SLOC is physically counted after the software is developed. Other methods compute size from functional, technical, and/or environment aspects at early phase of software development. In this research, activity point approach is proposed to be another software size estimation method. Activity point is computed using activity diagram and adjusted with technical complexity factors (TCF), environment complexity factors (ECF), and people risk factors (PRF). An evaluation of the approach is present.

  16. Singular points of protein beta-sheets.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, W. M.; Chou, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    Protein beta-sheets can be regarded as surfaces. Two surfaces can be connected along a common edge to form a larger surface, or two edges of a surface can coalesce to form a closed sheet such as a beta-barrel. Singular points are locations where these connections are not perfect. In protein beta-sheets, a singular point is characterized by a residue separating two beta-ladders. In this paper, we study the singular points of protein beta-sheets from the surface topologic viewpoint, summarize our search results from the protein structural data in the Protein Data Bank, and present examples where singular points are near the active sites and may contribute to forming the proper relative positions of catalytic residues. PMID:9827998

  17. Quantum Change Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentís, Gael; Bagan, Emilio; Calsamiglia, John; Chiribella, Giulio; Muñoz-Tapia, Ramon

    2016-10-01

    Sudden changes are ubiquitous in nature. Identifying them is crucial for a number of applications in biology, medicine, and social sciences. Here we take the problem of detecting sudden changes to the quantum domain. We consider a source that emits quantum particles in a default state, until a point where a mutation occurs that causes the source to switch to another state. The problem is then to find out where the change occurred. We determine the maximum probability of correctly identifying the change point, allowing for collective measurements on the whole sequence of particles emitted by the source. Then, we devise online strategies where the particles are measured individually and an answer is provided as soon as a new particle is received. We show that these online strategies substantially underperform the optimal quantum measurement, indicating that quantum sudden changes, although happening locally, are better detected globally.

  18. Quantum Change Point.

    PubMed

    Sentís, Gael; Bagan, Emilio; Calsamiglia, John; Chiribella, Giulio; Muñoz-Tapia, Ramon

    2016-10-07

    Sudden changes are ubiquitous in nature. Identifying them is crucial for a number of applications in biology, medicine, and social sciences. Here we take the problem of detecting sudden changes to the quantum domain. We consider a source that emits quantum particles in a default state, until a point where a mutation occurs that causes the source to switch to another state. The problem is then to find out where the change occurred. We determine the maximum probability of correctly identifying the change point, allowing for collective measurements on the whole sequence of particles emitted by the source. Then, we devise online strategies where the particles are measured individually and an answer is provided as soon as a new particle is received. We show that these online strategies substantially underperform the optimal quantum measurement, indicating that quantum sudden changes, although happening locally, are better detected globally.

  19. Leading the Common Core State Standards: From Common Sense to Common Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkle, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Many educators agree that we already know how to foster student success, so what is keeping common sense from becoming common practice? The author provides step-by-step guidance for overcoming the barriers to adopting the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and achieving equity and excellence for all students. As an experienced teacher and…

  20. Oscillating stagnation point flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosch, C. E.; Salwen, H.

    1982-01-01

    A solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is given for an incompressible stagnation point flow whose magnitude oscillates in time about a constant, non-zero, value (an unsteady Hiemenz flow). Analytic approximations to the solution in the low and high frequency limits are given and compared with the results of numerical integrations. The application of these results to one aspect of the boundary layer receptivity problem is also discussed.

  1. Oscillating stagnation point flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosch, C. E.; Salwen, H.

    1982-11-01

    A solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is given for an incompressible stagnation point flow whose magnitude oscillates in time about a constant, non-zero, value (an unsteady Hiemenz flow). Analytic approximations to the solution in the low and high frequency limits are given and compared with the results of numerical integrations. The application of these results to one aspect of the boundary layer receptivity problem is also discussed.

  2. Universal Common Communication Substrate (UCCS) Specification; Universal Common Communication Substrate (UCCS) Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    2014-08-22

    Universal Common Communication Substrate (UCCS) is a low-level communication substrate that exposes high-performance communication primitives, while providing network interoperability. It is intended to support multiple upper layer protocol (ULPs) or programming models including SHMEM,UPC,Titanium,Co-Array Fortran,Global Arrays,MPI,GASNet, and File I/O. it provides various communication operations including one-sided and two-sided point-to-point, collectives, and remote atomic operations. In addition to operations for ULPs, it provides an out-of-band communication channel required typically required to wire-up communication libraries.

  3. Achromatic Interaction Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Guimei Wang,, Yaroslav Derbenev, S.Alex Bogacz, P. Chevtsov, Andre Afanaciev, Charles Ankenbrandt, Valentin Ivanov, Rolland P. Johnson

    2009-05-01

    Designers of high-luminosity energy-frontier muon colliders must provide strong beam focusing in the interaction regions. However, the construction of a strong, aberration-free beam focus is difficult and space consuming, and long straight sections generate an off-site radiation problem due to muon decay neutrinos that interact as they leave the surface of the earth. Without some way to mitigate the neutrino radiation problem, the maximum c.m. energy of a muon collider will be limited to about 3.5 TeV. A new concept for achromatic low beta design is being developed, in which the interaction region telescope and optical correction elements, are installed in the bending arcs. The concept, formulated analytically, combines space economy, a preventative approach to compensation for aberrations, and a reduction of neutrino flux concentration. An analytical theory for the aberration-free, low beta, spatially compact insertion is being developed.

  4. AXAF SIM focus mechanism study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tananbaum, H. D.; Whitbeck, E.

    1994-02-01

    The design requirements and initial design concept for the AXAF-I Science Instrument Module (SIM) were reviewed at Ball on September 29, 1993. The concept design SIM focus mechanism utilizes a planetary gearset, with redundant motors, to drive a large ring (called 'main housing bearing') via a spur gearset. This large drive ring actuates three tangent bar links (called 'push rods'), which in turn actuate three levers (called 'pin levers'). Each of the three pin levers rotates an 'eccentric pin,' which in turn moves the base of a bipod flexure in both the radial (normal to optical axis) and axial (focus along optical axis) directions. Three bipod flexures are employed, equally spaced at 120 degrees apart, the base of each being translated in the two directions as described above. A focus adjustment is made by rotating the drive ring, which drives the push rods and therefore the pin levers, which in turn rotate the eccentric pins, finally imparting the two motions to the base of each of the bipod flexures. The axial translation (focus adjustment) of the focused structure is the sum of the direct axial motion plus axial motion which comes from uniformly squeezing the three bipod bases radially inward. SAO documented the following concerns regarding the focus mechanism in memo WAP-FY94-001, dated October 7, 1993: (1) The focus adjustment depends, in large part, on the structural properties (stiffnesses and end fixities) of the bipod flexures, push rods, pin levers and eccentric pins. If these properties are not matched very well, then lateral translations as well as unwanted rotations of the focussed structure will accompany focus motion. In addition, the stackup of linkage tolerances and any nonuniform wear in the linkages will result in the same unwanted motions. Thermal gradients will also affect these motions. At the review Ball did not present supporting analyses to support their choice of this design concept. (2) The proposed 'primary' method of measuring focus

  5. Focus cues affect perceived depth

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Simon J.; Akeley, Kurt; Ernst, Marc O.; Banks, Martin S.

    2007-01-01

    Depth information from focus cues—accommodation and the gradient of retinal blur—is typically incorrect in three-dimensional (3-D) displays because the light comes from a planar display surface. If the visual system incorporates information from focus cues into its calculation of 3-D scene parameters, this could cause distortions in perceived depth even when the 2-D retinal images are geometrically correct. In Experiment 1 we measured the direct contribution of focus cues to perceived slant by varying independently the physical slant of the display surface and the slant of a simulated surface specified by binocular disparity (binocular viewing) or perspective/texture (monocular viewing). In the binocular condition, slant estimates were unaffected by display slant. In the monocular condition, display slant had a systematic effect on slant estimates. Estimates were consistent with a weighted average of slant from focus cues and slant from disparity/texture, where the cue weights are determined by the reliability of each cue. In Experiment 2, we examined whether focus cues also have an indirect effect on perceived slant via the distance estimate used in disparity scaling. We varied independently the simulated distance and the focal distance to a disparity-defined 3-D stimulus. Perceived slant was systematically affected by changes in focal distance. Accordingly, depth constancy (with respect to simulated distance) was significantly reduced when focal distance was held constant compared to when it varied appropriately with the simulated distance to the stimulus. The results of both experiments show that focus cues can contribute to estimates of 3-D scene parameters. Inappropriate focus cues in typical 3-D displays may therefore contribute to distortions in perceived space. PMID:16441189

  6. The influences of ambiguity phase aberration profiles on focusing quality in the very near field--part I: single range focusing on transmission.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue

    2002-01-01

    Most phase aberration measurement algorithms have an ambiguity for constant and tilted phase aberration profiles. Based on the Fresnel (near field) approximation with single range focusing and the Fraunhofer (far field) approximation, constant and tilted phase aberration profiles change the position of the focal point only and do not influence the image focusing quality. Therefore, ambiguity phase aberration profiles are generally considered to be harmless and ignored in those algorithms and related theoretical analyses. However, Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximations may become invalid under many medical ultrasound imaging situations, e.g., when the imaging field is in the very near field (f-number approximately 1). In the very near field, although it is known that constant and tilted phase aberration profiles may degrade the focusing quality, it seems that there is a lack of quantitative analysis results in the literature about their influences, and this is the purpose of the current paper. In this paper, a quantitative analysis with a very near field approximation is performed for single range focusing on transmission, which is a commonly used transmission focusing method in medical ultrasound imaging. The tolerable levels of constant and tilted phase aberration profiles are derived as a function of the imaging system's f-number and wavelength. Because some phase aberration measurement algorithms may also have an ambiguity for quadratic phase aberration profiles, they are also included in the analysis. The theoretical results are compared with numerical and simulation results. These results have shown that the influences of tilted and quadratic phase-aberration profiles can be ignored only under certain conditions in the very near field.

  7. Breeding Common Bean for resistance to Common Blight: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common blight {caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli Smith (Dye) is a major bacterial disease causing >40% seed yield and quality losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. Use of resistant cultivars is crucial for its effective, economical, and environment friendly integarated...

  8. Manganese neurotoxicity: a focus on the neonate.

    PubMed

    Erikson, Keith M; Thompson, Khristy; Aschner, Judy; Aschner, Michael

    2007-02-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace metal found in all tissues, and it is required for normal amino acid, lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism. While Mn deficiency is extremely rare in humans, toxicity due to overexposure of Mn is more prevalent. The brain appears to be especially vulnerable. Mn neurotoxicity is most commonly associated with occupational exposure to aerosols or dusts that contain extremely high levels (>1-5 mg Mn/m(3)) of Mn, consumption of contaminated well water, or parenteral nutrition therapy in patients with liver disease or immature hepatic functioning such as the neonate. This review will focus primarily on the neurotoxicity of Mn in the neonate. We will discuss putative transporters of the metal in the neonatal brain and then focus on the implications of high Mn exposure to the neonate focusing on typical exposure modes (e.g., dietary and parenteral). Although Mn exposure via parenteral nutrition is uncommon in adults, in premature infants, it is more prevalent, so this mode of exposure becomes salient in this population. We will briefly review some of the mechanisms of Mn neurotoxicity and conclude with a discussion of ripe areas for research in this underreported area of neurotoxicity.

  9. Vernal Point and Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez-Campos, Teodosio; Chavez S, Nadia; Chavez-Sumarriva, Israel

    2014-05-01

    The time scale was based on the internationally recognized formal chronostratigraphical /geochronological subdivisions of time: The Phanerozoic Eonathem/Eon; the Cenozoic Erathem/Era; the Quaternary System/Period; the Pleistocene and Holocene Series/Epoch. The Quaternary was divided into: (1) The Pleistocene that was characterized by cycles of glaciations (intervals between 40,000 and 100,000 years). (2) The Holocene that was an interglacial period that began about 12,000 years ago. It was believed that the Milankovitch cycles (eccentricity, axial tilt and the precession of the equinoxes) were responsible for the glacial and interglacial Holocene periods. The magnetostratigraphic units have been widely used for global correlations valid for Quaternary. The gravitational influence of the sun and moon on the equatorial bulges of the mantle of the rotating earth causes the precession of the earth. The retrograde motion of the vernal point through the zodiacal band is 26,000 years. The Vernal point passes through each constellation in an average of 2000 years and this period of time was correlated to Bond events that were North Atlantic climate fluctuations occurring every ≡1,470 ± 500 years throughout the Holocene. The vernal point retrogrades one precessional degree approximately in 72 years (Gleissberg-cycle) and approximately enters into the Aquarius constellation on March 20, 1940. On earth this entry was verify through: a) stability of the magnetic equator in the south central zone of Peru and in the north zone of Bolivia, b) the greater intensity of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in Peru and Bolivia since 1940. With the completion of the Holocene and the beginning of the Anthropocene (widely popularized by Paul Crutzen) it was proposed the date of March 20, 1940 as the beginning of the Anthropocene. The date proposed was correlated to the work presented in IUGG (Italy 2007) with the title "Cusco base meridian for the study of geophysical data"; Cusco was

  10. Prelinguistic Vocalizations Distinguish Pointing Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunloh, Thomas; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether point-accompanying characteristics, like vocalizations and hand shape, differentiate infants' underlying motives of prelinguistic pointing. We elicited imperative (requestive) and declarative (expressive and informative) pointing acts in experimentally controlled situations, and analyzed accompanying…

  11. Common arc method for diffraction pattern orientation.

    PubMed

    Bortel, Gábor; Tegze, Miklós

    2011-11-01

    Very short pulses of X-ray free-electron lasers opened the way to obtaining diffraction signal from single particles beyond the radiation dose limit. For three-dimensional structure reconstruction many patterns are recorded in the object's unknown orientation. A method is described for the orientation of continuous diffraction patterns of non-periodic objects, utilizing intensity correlations in the curved intersections of the corresponding Ewald spheres, and hence named the common arc orientation method. The present implementation of the algorithm optionally takes into account Friedel's law, handles missing data and is capable of determining the point group of symmetric objects. Its performance is demonstrated on simulated diffraction data sets and verification of the results indicates a high orientation accuracy even at low signal levels. The common arc method fills a gap in the wide palette of orientation methods.

  12. Managing patient populations in primary care: points of leverage.

    PubMed

    Eidus, Robert; Pace, Wilson D; Staton, Elizabeth W

    2012-01-01

    Common "quality" metrics may represent the quality of care for large populations; however, they do not adequately represent quality in individual primary care settings, especially as stand-alone indices. Using discreet threshold values to measure quality in primary care may result in physicians focusing on managing patients by the numbers at the expense of making individualized and nuanced clinical decisions. Current performance measures may be misapplied as proxies for both cost savings and quality. We posit that developing and focusing measurement on high-leverage activities will yield better clinical outcomes and potentially lower cost. As a starting point for further work in this area, we suggest the development of metrics that track identification and management of depression; management of transitions of care; care coordination; team-based care; identification and support of socially frail/isolated individuals; pharmacologic management, including optimizing medication and dealing with adherence issues; and establishment of a therapeutic environment. These processes, or others like them, will require infrastructure that may be costly and time-consuming, and measuring these processes will require thought and effort. Nevertheless, we believe developing metrics based on high-leverage activities will yield greater clinical and economic returns than relying on the metrics currently in place.

  13. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOEpatents

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.; Lenard, Roger

    1986-01-01

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  14. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOEpatents

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

    1984-12-10

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  15. Common Criteria Based Security Scenario Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Atsushi

    Software is required to comply with the laws and standards of software security. However, stakeholders with less concern regarding security can neither describe the behaviour of the system with regard to security nor validate the system’s behaviour when the security function conflicts with usability. Scenarios or use-case specifications are common in requirements elicitation and are useful to analyze the usability of the system from a behavioural point of view. In this paper, the authors propose both (1) a scenario language based on a simple case grammar and (2) a method to verify a scenario with rules based on security evaluation criteria.

  16. Pointing control for LDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yam, Y.; Briggs, C.

    1988-01-01

    One important aspect of the LDR control problem is the possible excitations of structural modes due to random disturbances, mirror chopping, and slewing maneuvers. An analysis was performed to yield a first order estimate of the effects of such dynamic excitations. The analysis involved a study of slewing jitters, chopping jitters, disturbance responses, and pointing errors, making use of a simplified planar LDR model which describes the LDR dynamics on a plane perpendicular to the primary reflector. Briefly, the results indicate that the command slewing profile plays an important role in minimizing the resultant jitter, even to a level acceptable without any control action. An optimal profile should therefore be studied.

  17. Perfect focusing of scalar wave fields in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C; González, Juan C

    2010-04-12

    A method to design isotropic inhomogeneous refractive index distribution is presented, in which the scalar wave field solutions propagate exactly on an eikonal function (i.e., remaining constant on the Geometrical Optics wavefronts). This method is applied to the design of "dipole lenses", which perfectly focus a scalar wave field emitted from a point source onto a point absorber, in both two and three dimensions. Also, the Maxwell fish-eye lens in two and three dimensions is analysed.

  18. LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications

    SciTech Connect

    White, Devin A

    2013-01-01

    It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

  19. The myth of the boiling point.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hasok

    2008-01-01

    Around 1800, many reputable scientists reported significant variations in the temperature of pure water boiling under normal atmospheric pressure. The reported variations included a difference of over 1 degree C between boiling in metallic and glass vessels (Gay-Lussac), and "superheating" up to 112 degrees C on extracting dissolved air out of water (De Luc). I have confirmed most of these observations in my own experiments, many of which are described in this paper. Water boils at the "boiling point" only under very particular circumstances. Our common-sense intuition about the fixedness of the boiling point is only sustained by our limited experience.

  20. Speeding chemical reactions by focusing.

    PubMed

    Lacasta, A M; Ramírez-Piscina, L; Sancho, J M; Lindenberg, K

    2013-04-14

    We present numerical results for a chemical reaction of colloidal particles which are transported by a laminar fluid and are focused by periodic obstacles in such a way that the two components are well mixed and consequently the chemical reaction is speeded up. The roles of the various system parameters (diffusion coefficients, reaction rate, and obstacles sizes) are studied. We show that focusing speeds up the reaction from the diffusion limited rate ∼t(-1/2) to very close to the perfect mixing rate, ∼t(-1).

  1. Speeding chemical reactions by focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasta, A. M.; Ramírez-Piscina, L.; Sancho, J. M.; Lindenberg, K.

    2013-04-01

    We present numerical results for a chemical reaction of colloidal particles which are transported by a laminar fluid and are focused by periodic obstacles in such a way that the two components are well mixed and consequently the chemical reaction is speeded up. The roles of the various system parameters (diffusion coefficients, reaction rate, and obstacles sizes) are studied. We show that focusing speeds up the reaction from the diffusion limited rate ˜t-1/2 to very close to the perfect mixing rate, ˜t-1.

  2. Hand Dominance and Common Hand Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lutsky, Kevin; Kim, Nayoung; Medina, Juana; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2016-05-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) assess how frequently patients present for evaluation of common hand disorders in relation to hand dominance and (2) evaluate the effect of hand dominance on function in patients with these conditions. The authors hypothesized that (1) the majority of patients who seek evaluation would have a condition that affects the dominant hand, and (2) disability scores would be worse if the dominant hand is involved. They retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients who presented for treatment to their institution with unilateral symptoms of 5 common disorders of the hand: carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), de Quervain's tenosynovitis (DEQ), lateral epicondylitis (LE), hand osteoarthritis (OA), and trigger finger (TF). The authors assessed the effect of diagnosis and hand dominance on Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores. The study group comprised 1029 patients (379 men and 650 women) with a mean age of 59.5 years. Ninety percent were right-hand dominant. The dominant and nondominant hands were affected with relatively equal frequency for CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF (range, 45%-53%). Patients with LE had a significantly higher incidence of dominant hand involvement. Men had lower DASH scores than women by an average of 7.9 points, and DASH scores were significantly but slightly higher for the overall group (3.2 points) when the dominant side was affected. Men with LE and women with TF and OA had significantly higher DASH scores when their dominant extremity was affected. Common hand disorders such as CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF affect the dominant and nondominant hands in roughly equivalent proportions, whereas LE is more common on the dominant side. Dominant hand involvement results in significantly worse DASH scores, although the magnitude of this is relatively small. Women have significantly higher DASH scores than men for the conditions evaluated. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e444-e448.].

  3. Auto-focusing system based on image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, GuangLin; Chen, Dawei; Tao, Chongde; Shao, DongXiang; Niu, Hui

    1999-03-01

    In this paper, an auto-focusing system based on image processing is introduced to realize auto-focusing. Image processing method like differential coefficient, maximum variance is involved in the system to pick up the information of the edges, and the statistical rules of the information under different focusing states are used to control the focus to obtain the best focusing state. The system can automatically read the distance information of the worktable and drive the pacing motor to reach the aim of auto-focusing. This auto-focusing system is loaded on the original CCD-based microscopic measuring system an the practical measuring example is given, and it is pointed out that the way mentioned before of heightening the precision is available. It is pointed out that the higher resolution, higher precision image collection board, the CCD camera with higher resolution and the higher precision pacing motor will make the auto-focusing and the measurement of the system more accurate. It can be practical applied an the further perfection of algorithm and software will result in the system having more functions.

  4. A final focus system for the Next Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, F.; Brown, K.; Emma, P.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Tenenbaum, P.; Wilson, P.

    1995-06-01

    The final focus of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) demagnifies electron and positron beams of 250--750 GeV energy down to a transverse size of about 2.5 {times} 350 nm{sup 2} at the interaction point (IP). The basic layout, momentum bandwidth, vibration tolerances, wakefield effects, and the tunability of the proposed final focus design are discussed. Also a perspective is given on the crab cavity and on effects of the solenoid field in the interaction region.

  5. Focal points in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    King, J B

    1992-07-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons have long had an association with sport, although it is arguable whether Galen who was the first sports medicine doctor, appointed to the Pergamum Gladiators in 157 AD was a surgeon by todays definition. This surgical role is now out of proportion to the more global aspects of sports medicine as reflected in the rest of this publication, but accurately related to the consequences of injury to the elite performer, where a minor injury may have a major consequence. As the title makes clear this chapter is a series of cameos some describing aspects of the management of common injuries and others indicating new developments.

  6. Deconfined Quantum Critical Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthi, T.; Vishwanath, Ashvin; Balents, Leon; Sachdev, Subir; Fisher, Matthew P. A.

    The theory of second-order phase transitions is one of the foundations of modern statistical mechanics and condensed-matter theory. A central concept is the observable order parameter, whose nonzero average value characterizes one or more phases. At large distances and long times, fluctuations of the order parameter(s) are described by a continuum field theory, and these dominate the physics near such phase transitions. We show that near second-order quantum phase transitions, subtle quantum interference effects can invalidate this paradigm, and we present a theory of quantum critical points in a variety of experimentally relevant two-dimensional antiferromagnets. The critical points separate phases characterized by conventional "confining" order parameters. Nevertheless, the critical theory contains an emergent gauge field and "deconfined" degrees of freedom associated with fractionalization of the order parameters. We propose that this paradigm for quantum criticality may be the key to resolving a number of experimental puzzles in correlated electron systems and offer a new perspective on the properties of complex materials.

  7. E-learning for Critical Thinking: Using Nominal Focus Group Method to Inform Software Content and Design

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Steve; Mayner, Lidia; Michael Gillham, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Undergraduate nursing students are often confused by multiple understandings of critical thinking. In response to this situation, the Critiique for critical thinking (CCT) project was implemented to provide consistent structured guidance about critical thinking. Objectives: This paper introduces Critiique software, describes initial validation of the content of this critical thinking tool and explores wider applications of the Critiique software. Materials and Methods: Critiique is flexible, authorable software that guides students step-by-step through critical appraisal of research papers. The spelling of Critiique was deliberate, so as to acquire a unique web domain name and associated logo. The CCT project involved implementation of a modified nominal focus group process with academic staff working together to establish common understandings of critical thinking. Previous work established a consensus about critical thinking in nursing and provided a starting point for the focus groups. The study was conducted at an Australian university campus with the focus group guided by open ended questions. Results: Focus group data established categories of content that academic staff identified as important for teaching critical thinking. This emerging focus group data was then used to inform modification of Critiique software so that students had access to consistent and structured guidance in relation to critical thinking and critical appraisal. Conclusions: The project succeeded in using focus group data from academics to inform software development while at the same time retaining the benefits of broader philosophical dimensions of critical thinking. PMID:26835469

  8. Common rodenticide toxicoses in small animals.

    PubMed

    DeClementi, Camille; Sobczak, Brandy R

    2012-03-01

    This article focuses on the 3 most commonly used rodenticide types: anticoagulants, bromethalin, and cholecalciferol. It is important to verify the active ingredient in any rodenticide exposure. Many animal owners may use the term “D-con” to refer to any rodenticide regardless of the actual brand name or type of rodenticide. The EPA released their final ruling on rodenticide risk mitigation measures in 2008 and all the products on the market had to be compliant by June 2011, changing to consumer products containing either first-generation anticoagulants or nonanticoagulants including bromethalin and cholecalciferol. These regulations are likely to cause an increase in the number of bromethalin and cholecalciferol cases.

  9. HORSESHOE CURVE IN GLACIER POINT ROAD NEAR GLACIER POINT. HALF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HORSESHOE CURVE IN GLACIER POINT ROAD NEAR GLACIER POINT. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. SAME VIEW AT CA-157-2. LOOKING NNE. GIS: N-37' 43 44.3 / W-119 34 14.1 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  10. 2. HORSESHOE CURVE IN GLACIER POINT ROAD NEAR GLACIER POINT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HORSESHOE CURVE IN GLACIER POINT ROAD NEAR GLACIER POINT. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NNE. GIS N-37 43 44.3 / W-119 34 14.1 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  11. 47 CFR 80.41 - Control points and dispatch points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control points and dispatch points. 80.41... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.41 Control points and dispatch... dispatch points may be installed and used without obtaining any authorization from the Commission....

  12. 47 CFR 80.41 - Control points and dispatch points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control points and dispatch points. 80.41... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.41 Control points and dispatch... dispatch points may be installed and used without obtaining any authorization from the Commission....

  13. 47 CFR 80.41 - Control points and dispatch points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control points and dispatch points. 80.41... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.41 Control points and dispatch... dispatch points may be installed and used without obtaining any authorization from the Commission....

  14. 47 CFR 80.41 - Control points and dispatch points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control points and dispatch points. 80.41... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.41 Control points and dispatch... dispatch points may be installed and used without obtaining any authorization from the Commission....

  15. 47 CFR 80.41 - Control points and dispatch points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control points and dispatch points. 80.41... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.41 Control points and dispatch... dispatch points may be installed and used without obtaining any authorization from the Commission....

  16. Common Factors in Effective HIV Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Swendeman, Dallas; Flannery, Diane; Rice, Eric; Adamson, David M.; Ingram, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    We propose a set of common factors in evidence-based interventions (EBI) for HIV prevention, which cut across theoretical models of behavior change. Three existing literatures support this agenda: (1) Common factors in psychotherapy; (2) core elements from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention EBIs; and (3) component analyses of EBI. To stimulate discussion among prevention researchers, we propose a set of common factors at the highest level of abstraction that describe what all effective programs do: (1) establish a framework to understand behavior change; (2) convey issue-specific and population-specific information necessary for healthy actions; (3) build cognitive, affective, and behavioral self-management skills; (4) address environmental barriers to implementing health behaviors; and (5) provide tools to develop ongoing social and community support for healthy actions. A focus on common factors will enhance research on new HIV prevention interventions, encourage collaboration among researchers, provide guidelines for adapting EBI, and simplify and speed the adoption of EBI for providers. PMID:18830813

  17. Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  18. Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase I

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase I project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  19. Using Gel Electrophoresis To Illustrate Protein Diversity and Isoelectric Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Mark; Vanable, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates the differences in protein structures by focusing on isoelectric point with an experiment that is observable under certain pH levels in gel electrophoresis. Explains the electrophoresis procedure and reports results of the experiments. (YDS)

  20. IMMEDIATE DISCONTINUATION OF INTRAVENOUS FLUIDS AFTER COMMON SURGICAL PROCEDURES

    PubMed Central

    Al-Awad, Naif I.; Wosomu, Lade; Al Hassanin, Emad A.W.; Al-Mulhim, Abdulmohsen A.; Adu-Gyamfi, Yaw; Shawan, Saad M.; Abdulhadi, Maha S.

    2000-01-01

    Background: Intravenous (IV) fluids and nasogastric (MG) intubation can be discarded safely in some abdominal operations, but this practice seems rare in our community. Setting: A University teaching hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Aims: To determine the feasibility of the practice in our setting and increase clinicians’ awareness of it and encourage its general adoption. Method: A prospective verification study in consecutive ASA Classes I and II adult patients scheduled for four commonly performed operations. End Points: The practice was considered successful if the patient accepted early oral fluids and did not require re-insertion of IV line. Results: The operations studied were appendicectomy (44), laparoscopic cholecystectomy (35), herniorrhaphy (19) and diagnostic laparoscopy (2). The patients’ mean age was 34.1 years (range 14 to 68); 60% were males. The overall success rate was 98%. Thus postoperative IV fluids proved to be unnecessary in these patients; cost savings were achieved and treating teams were freed to focus on other patients who truly required IV fluids. Conclusions: In our setting also, routine IV fluids are unnecessary and can be discarded safely after appendecectomy, cholecystectomy and herniorrhaphy in adults. PMID:23008615

  1. Remedies for Common Cold Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Penny F.

    1991-01-01

    Individuals suffering from intolerable symptoms of the common cold can now be advised of safe and effective products for symptomatic relief. This article describes and discusses four categories of drugs used to treat the common cold. To simplify the product selection process for family physicians, suggestions are included for possible ingredients for treatments of specific cold symptoms. PMID:21234087

  2. Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.

    PubMed

    Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

    2013-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed.

  3. Common Infant and Newborn Problems

    MedlinePlus

    It is hard when your baby is sick. Common health problems in babies include colds, coughs, fevers, and vomiting. Babies also commonly have skin problems, like diaper rash or cradle cap. Many of these problems are ... are worried about your baby, call your health care provider right away.

  4. Common Pyraloidea species of Dominica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-six adult crambid moths of the superfamily Pyraloidea from Dominica are illustrated and identified. These images are a tool for the identification of large, common species in the Caribbean. The Caribbean is a common entry and pathway of invasive species to southeastern United States....

  5. The Tragedy of the Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons is one of the principal tenets of ecology. Recent developments in experiential computer-based simulation of the tragedy of the commons are described. A virtual learning environment is developed using the popular video game "Minecraft". The virtual learning environment is used to experience first-hand depletion…

  6. The Common Denominator of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Hubert C.

    1976-01-01

    The common denominator of learning is conceived as a guideline in organizing the learning material in support of learning continuity. As to its effect, the common denominator is thought of as a habit-forming element in realizing learning as a (continuous) sequence of relative rather than absolute experiences. (Author/HB)

  7. OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarik, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

  8. Personal Finance. Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document provides the common curriculum goals for the state of Oregon in personal finance, an area of study that relates basic economic concepts and practices to the financial concerns of consumers. These goals were designed to define what should be taught in all public school settings. The common curriculum goals in personal finance are…

  9. Theme: Focus on Vocabulary Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jund, Suzanne, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    The eight articles in this journal issue focus on vocabulary skills. The topics covered are semantic feature analysis, the use of highway survival terms in a vocabulary list, making vocabulary interesting to secondary students, word lists, the use of newspapers in creating vocabulary lists, six strategies underlying effective vocabulary programs,…

  10. Organizing for Schooling. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter focuses on schoolwide approaches to issues of major concern to educators, from the perspective of providing equal education for all children. "Supporting School Improvement in Reading through Professional Development" (Rogelio Lopez del Bosque, Abelardo Villarreal) describes a professional development program that…

  11. How the Human Eye Focuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Jane F.; Handelman, George H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the decline in people's ability to focus their eyes as their age increases. Discusses probable causes of this effect including changes in the eye's geometry and biochemistry. Diagrammatically illustrates age related changes in the lens of the human eye. (CW)

  12. Where's the Focus on Racism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada, Benjamin O.

    1995-01-01

    America still refuses to deal with racism's effects on a child's character development. The "Focus on the Family" agenda must become part of the school's agenda, but it cannot be based on one religion's teachings, as Linda Page suggests ("A Conservative Christian View on Values," this issue). Public schools must teach the facts…

  13. Zoonotic Focus of Plague, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Bitam, Idir; Baziz, Belkacem; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Belkaid, Miloud

    2006-01-01

    After an outbreak of human plague, 95 Xenopsylla cheopis fleas from Algeria were tested for Yersinia pestis with PCR methods. Nine fleas were definitively confirmed to be infected with Y. pestis biovar orientalis. Our results demonstrate the persistence of a zoonotic focus of Y. pestis in Algeria. PMID:17326957

  14. World History. Focus on Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; Clark, James; Herscher, Walter

    This book opens with an exploration of the first economic revolution, which set the stage for the dramatic unfolding of the role economics has played in world history. The lessons focus on two topics: (1) why some economies grew and prospered while others remained stagnant or declined; and (2) what causes people to make choices that help or hinder…

  15. Math Fair: Focus on Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokashi, Neelima A.

    2009-01-01

    This article depicts the rewarding experience of creating mathematical environments for kindergarten and elementary students by focusing on one of the most important and often difficult-to-grasp concepts (fractions) through play methods incorporated into a math fair. The basic concept of a math fair is threefold: (1) to create preplanned,…

  16. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  17. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary I.; Maccagno, Pierre

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  18. Technology for Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on technology for education to benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program Students Meet Peers Via Video Conference" (Linda Cantu, Leticia Lopez-De La Garza) describes how at-risk…

  19. Staying in School. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on issues related to high Texas dropout rates among Hispanic and other minority group students and on dropout prevention strategies. "School Finance Inequities Mean Schools Are Not Ready To Teach" (Maria Robledo Montecel) deplores the recent Texas Supreme Court ruling that state educational funding is…

  20. Standards and Assessment. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This newsletter includes three articles, two of which focus on standards for student evaluation and for admission to higher education. "A Measuring Stick for Standards and TEKS: Meeting the Needs of Second Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green, Adela Solis) examines beliefs embodied in the notion of standards; defines content,…