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Sample records for common polymorphisms influencing

  1. Common Genetic Polymorphisms Influence Blood Biomarker Measurements in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, M. Bradley; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Yang, Jenny; Chen, Ting-huei; Quibrera, Pedro Miguel; Anderson, Wayne; Barr, R. Graham; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Beaty, Terri; Casaburi, Richard; Castaldi, Peter; Cho, Michael H.; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D.; Criner, Gerard; Demeo, Dawn; Christenson, Stephanie A.; Couper, David J.; Doerschuk, Claire M.; Freeman, Christine M.; Gouskova, Natalia A.; Han, MeiLan K.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Hersh, Craig P.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Kaner, Robert J.; Kanner, Richard E.; Kleerup, Eric C.; Lutz, Sharon; Martinez, Fernando J.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Peters, Stephen P.; Regan, Elizabeth A.; Rennard, Stephen I.; Scholand, Mary Beth; Silverman, Edwin K.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; O’Neal, Wanda K.; Bowler, Russell P.

    2016-01-01

    Implementing precision medicine for complex diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) will require extensive use of biomarkers and an in-depth understanding of how genetic, epigenetic, and environmental variations contribute to phenotypic diversity and disease progression. A meta-analysis from two large cohorts of current and former smokers with and without COPD [SPIROMICS (N = 750); COPDGene (N = 590)] was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with measurement of 88 blood proteins (protein quantitative trait loci; pQTLs). PQTLs consistently replicated between the two cohorts. Features of pQTLs were compared to previously reported expression QTLs (eQTLs). Inference of causal relations of pQTL genotypes, biomarker measurements, and four clinical COPD phenotypes (airflow obstruction, emphysema, exacerbation history, and chronic bronchitis) were explored using conditional independence tests. We identified 527 highly significant (p < 8 X 10−10) pQTLs in 38 (43%) of blood proteins tested. Most pQTL SNPs were novel with low overlap to eQTL SNPs. The pQTL SNPs explained >10% of measured variation in 13 protein biomarkers, with a single SNP (rs7041; p = 10−392) explaining 71%-75% of the measured variation in vitamin D binding protein (gene = GC). Some of these pQTLs [e.g., pQTLs for VDBP, sRAGE (gene = AGER), surfactant protein D (gene = SFTPD), and TNFRSF10C] have been previously associated with COPD phenotypes. Most pQTLs were local (cis), but distant (trans) pQTL SNPs in the ABO blood group locus were the top pQTL SNPs for five proteins. The inclusion of pQTL SNPs improved the clinical predictive value for the established association of sRAGE and emphysema, and the explanation of variance (R2) for emphysema improved from 0.3 to 0.4 when the pQTL SNP was included in the model along with clinical covariates. Causal modeling provided insight into specific pQTL-disease relationships for airflow obstruction and emphysema. In

  2. [Genetic polymorphisms commonly influencing efficacy of diverse addictive substances].

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Daisuke; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2014-04-01

    Opioids, such as morphine and fentanyl, are widely used as effective analgesics for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. In addition, the opioid system has a key role in the rewarding effects of morphine, ethanol, cocaine and various other drugs. The authors have focused on G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel subunits, GIRK2 and GIRK3, that are important molecules in opioid transmission, and found that the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the GIRK2 and GIRK3 gene regions were significantly associated with postoperative requirements of analgesics including opioids in patients who underwent abdominal surgery and mRNA expression of these genes in postmortem specimens, one of which was also associated with vulnerability to methamphetamine (METH) dependence. Further, by conducting a multistage genome-wide association study (GWAS) in healthy subjects, the authors found that genetic polymorphisms within a linkage disequilibrium block that spans 2q33.3-2q34 were strongly associated with the requirements for postoperative opioid analgesics after painful cosmetic surgery. The C allele of the best candidate SNP, rs2952768, was associated with more analgesic requirements, and consistent results were obtained in patients who underwent abdominal surgery. In addition, carriers of the C allele in this SNP exhibited less vulnerability to severe drug dependence in patients with methamphetamine dependence, alcohol dependence, and eating disorders and a lower 'Reward Dependence score on a personality questionnaire in healthy subjects. Furthermore, the C/C genotype of this SNP was significantly associated with the elevated expression of a neighboring gene, CREB1. The results show that SNPs in this locus are the most potent genetic factors associated with human opioid sensitivity known to date, affecting both the efficacy of opioid analgesics and liability to severe substance dependence. These outcomes provide valuable information for the

  3. Common Polymorphism in Interleukin 6 Influences Survival of Women with Ovarian and Peritoneal Carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Ruchi; Wollan, Melissa; Galic, Vijaya; Garcia, Rochelle; Goff, Barbara A.; Gray, Heidi J.; Swisher, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The IL6 -174 promoter polymorphism impacts serum cytokine levels through transcriptional regulation. The objective of our study was to determine if -174 IL6 genotype influences survival in ovarian cancer. Methods The IL6 -174 polymorphism was assessed by direct DNA sequencing in lymphocyte DNA from 160 women with invasive ovarian, or peritoneal cancer patients. IL6 levels were measured in ascites and plasma in a subset of cases using colorimetric sandwich ELISA procedure. Overall survival was calculated according to the method of Kaplan and Meier. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the significance of individual variables in multivariate analysis. Chi-square or Fishers Exact was used to assess the significance of contingency tables. Results The IL6 -174 genotype frequencies of CC (19%), CG (50%), and GG (31%) were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and were similar to published frequencies in Caucasian controls. There were no associations with IL6 -174 genotype and age, stage or optimal cytoreduction. Stage had a significant impact on survival (p=0.003). The IL6 -174 GG genotype was significantly associated with longer overall survival (median 131 months) compared to CC or CG (median 28 months, p=0.0007). In cox regression analysis using the covariates genotype (p=0.006) and stage (p=0.02), both were independently significant. Furthermore, there was no association found between IL6 levels in ascites or plasma, and genotype, stage, or overall survival. Conclusions The IL6 -174 GG genotype has a strong, independent, and favorable impact on survival for women with ovarian, and peritoneal carcinoma. PMID:17023036

  4. Common polymorphism in interleukin 6 influences survival of women with ovarian and peritoneal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ruchi; Wollan, Melissa; Galic, Vijaya; Garcia, Rochelle; Goff, Barbara A; Gray, Heidi J; Swisher, Elizabeth

    2006-12-01

    The IL6 -174 promoter polymorphism impacts serum cytokine levels through transcriptional regulation. The objective of our study was to determine if -174 IL6 genotype influences survival in ovarian cancer. The IL6 -174 polymorphism was assessed by direct DNA sequencing in lymphocyte DNA from 160 women with invasive ovarian, or peritoneal cancers. IL6 levels were measured in ascites and plasma in a subset of cases using colorimetric sandwich ELISA procedure. Overall survival was calculated according to the method of Kaplan and Meier. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the significance of individual variables in multivariate analysis. Chi-square or Fishers Exact was used to assess the significance of contingency tables. The IL6 -174 genotype frequencies of CC (19%), CG (50%), and GG (31%) were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and were similar to published frequencies in Caucasian controls. There were no associations with IL6 -174 genotype and age, stage or optimal cytoreduction. Stage had a significant impact on survival (p=0.003). The IL6 -174 GG genotype was significantly associated with longer overall survival (median 131 months) compared to CC or CG (median 28 months, p=0.0007). In cox regression analysis using the covariates genotype (p=0.006) and stage (p=0.02), both were independently significant. Furthermore, there was no association found between IL6 levels in ascites or plasma, and genotype, stage, or overall survival. The IL6 -174 GG genotype has a strong, independent, and favorable impact on survival for women with ovarian, and peritoneal carcinoma.

  5. A common polymorphism in the SFTPD gene influences assembly, function, and concentration of surfactant protein D.

    PubMed

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Garred, Peter; Jensenius, Henriette; Meschi, Joseph; Hartshorn, Kevan; Madsen, Jens; Tornoe, Ida; Madsen, Hans O; Sørensen, Grith; Crouch, Erika; Holmskov, Uffe

    2005-02-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in the host defense against infectious microorganisms and in regulating the innate immune response to a variety of pathogen-associated molecular pattern. SP-D is mainly expressed by type II cells of the lung, but SP-D is generally found on epithelial surfaces and in serum. Genotyping for three single-nucleotide variations altering amino acids in the mature protein in codon 11 (Met(11)Thr), 160 (Ala(160)Thr), and 270 (Ser(270)Thr) of the SP-D gene was performed and related to the SP-D levels in serum. Individuals with the Thr/Thr(11)-encoding genotype had significantly lower SP-D serum levels than individuals with the Met/Met(11) genotype. Gel filtration chromatography revealed two distinct m.w. peaks with SP-D immunoreactivity in serum from Met/Met(11)-encoding genotypes. In contrast, Thr/Thr(11) genotypes lacked the highest m.w. form. A similar SP-D size distribution was found for recombinant Met(11) and Thr(11) expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Atomic force microscopy of purified SP-D showed that components eluting in the position of the high m.w. peak consist of multimers, dodecamers, and monomers of subunits, whereas the second peak exclusively contains monomers. SP-D from both peaks bound to mannan-coated ELISA plates. SP-D from the high m.w. peak bound preferentially to intact influenza A virus and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the monomeric species preferentially bound to isolated LPS. Our data strongly suggest that polymorphic variation in the N-terminal domain of the SP-D molecule influences oligomerization, function, and the concentration of the molecule in serum.

  6. Influence of the common human delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase polymorphism on lead body burden.

    PubMed Central

    Wetmur, J G

    1994-01-01

    delta-Aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD) is the second enzyme in the heme biosynthesis pathway. ALAD is a zinc metalloenzyme, and its inhibition by lead substitution for zinc is one of the most sensitive indicators of blood-lead accumulation, a measure of recent lead exposure. Stoichiometry calculations indicate that a significant portion of blood lead is stored in ALAD. Human ALAD exhibits a charge polymorphism, with about 20% of Caucasians expressing the rarer ALAD2 allele. Human ALAD1 and ALAD2 cDNAs and the 16-kb ALAD gene have been cloned and sequenced. A simple polymerase chain reaction test has been established and validated for determining ALAD genotypes. Two population studies have indicated that lead-exposed individuals with the ALAD2 allele have blood-lead levels about 10 micrograms/dl greater than similarly exposed individuals carrying only the ALAD1 allele. Ongoing work is directed toward determining the biochemistry underlying the allele-specific accumulation of blood lead, and toward determining the contribution of human ALAD genotype to lead accumulation in other tissues in transgenic mouse models and to final lead deposition in bone in both mouse and man. PMID:7843101

  7. In interaction with gender a common CYP3A4 polymorphism may influence the survival rate of chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gézsi, A; Lautner-Csorba, O; Erdélyi, D J; Hullám, G; Antal, P; Semsei, Á F; Kutszegi, N; Hegyi, M; Csordás, K; Kovács, G; Szalai, C

    2015-06-01

    CYP3A4 has an important role in the metabolisms of many drugs used in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy; still, there are practically no publications about the role of CYP3A4 polymorphisms in ALL pharmacogenomics. We genotyped eight common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes in 511 children with ALL and investigated whether they influenced the survival of the patients. We involved additional 127 SNPs in 34 candidate genes and searched for interactions with respect to the survival rates. Significant association between the survival rates and the common rs2246709 SNP in the CYP3A4 gene was observed. The gender of the patients and the rs1076991 in the MTHFD1 gene strongly influenced this effect. We calculated new risk assessments involving the gender-rs2246709 interaction and showed that they significantly outperformed the earlier risk-group assessments at every time point. If this finding is confirmed in other populations, it can have a considerable prognostic significance.

  8. Common polymorphisms in the CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 genes: evidence for a digenic influence on hypertension.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Madrazo, Samantha; Mackenzie, Scott M; Davies, Eleanor; Fraser, Robert; Lee, Wai-Kwong; Brown, Morris; Caulfield, Mark J; Dominiczak, Anna F; Farrall, Martin; Lathrop, Mark; Hedner, Thomas; Melander, Olle; Munroe, Patricia B; Samani, Nilesh; Stewart, Paul M; Wahlstrand, Björn; Webster, John; Palmer, Colin N A; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Connell, John M

    2013-01-01

    The locus encompassing the corticosteroidogenic genes CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 is of potential importance in essential hypertension. We analyzed the association of polymorphisms at this locus with risk of essential hypertension, using 2 white case-control collections for discovery (n=3340) and confirmation (n=2929). Single-marker and haplotype analyses were performed, with the CYP11B2 Intron 2 Conversion polymorphism showing strongest association with hypertension in both cohorts and in combined analysis (odds ratio=1.16, P=8.54×10(-5)). The CYP11B1 ACA haplotype associated with increased risk of hypertension relative to the alternative, GTC (odds ratio=1.11; P=7.4×10(-3)), whereas the CYP11B2 TWtC haplotype seemed protective relative to the contrasting CConvT (odds ratio=0.88, P=2.2×10(-3)). Analysis spanning the whole CYP11B1/CYP11B2 locus showed that haplotypes associated with raised risk of hypertension tend to coexist. Functional analysis of heterozygous human adrenal tissue demonstrated decreased CYP11B2 expression and increased CYP11B1 expression for those alleles associating with reduced risk of hypertension. These results confirm the hypertensive influence of this locus, with data suggesting a complex digenic mechanism whereby altered relative CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 gene expression could have a chronic effect on enzyme activity and corticosteroid synthesis.

  9. Commonly-occurring polymorphisms in the COMT, DRD1 and DRD2 genes influence different aspects of motor sequence learning in humans.

    PubMed

    Baetu, Irina; Burns, Nicholas R; Urry, Kristi; Barbante, Girolamo Giovanni; Pitcher, Julia B

    2015-11-01

    Performing sequences of movements is a ubiquitous skill that involves dopamine transmission. However, it is unclear which components of the dopamine system contribute to which aspects of motor sequence learning. Here we used a genetic approach to investigate the relationship between different components of the dopamine system and specific aspects of sequence learning in humans. In particular, we investigated variations in genes that code for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme, the dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine D1 and D2 receptors (DRD1 and DRD2). COMT and the DAT regulate dopamine availability in the prefrontal cortex and the striatum, respectively, two key regions recruited during learning, whereas dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are thought to be involved in long-term potentiation and depression, respectively. We show that polymorphisms in the COMT, DRD1 and DRD2 genes differentially affect behavioral performance on a sequence learning task in 161 Caucasian participants. The DRD1 polymorphism predicted the ability to learn new sequences, the DRD2 polymorphism predicted the ability to perform a previously learnt sequence after performing interfering random movements, whereas the COMT polymorphism predicted the ability to switch flexibly between two sequences. We used computer simulations to explore potential mechanisms underlying these effects, which revealed that the DRD1 and DRD2 effects are possibly related to neuroplasticity. Our prediction-error algorithm estimated faster rates of connection strengthening in genotype groups with presumably higher D1 receptor densities, and faster rates of connection weakening in genotype groups with presumably higher D2 receptor densities. Consistent with current dopamine theories, these simulations suggest that D1-mediated neuroplasticity contributes to learning to select appropriate actions, whereas D2-mediated neuroplasticity is involved in learning to inhibit incorrect action plans. However, the

  10. A common polymorphism near PER1 and the timing of human behavioral rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Andrew S.P.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Shulman, Joshua M.; Raj, Towfique; Chibnik, Lori B.; Cain, Sean W.; Rothamel, Katherine; Benoist, Christophe; Myers, Amanda J.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Bennett, David A.; Duffy, Jeanne F.; Saper, Clifford B.; De Jager, Philip L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Circadian rhythms influence the timing of behavior, neurological diseases, and even death. Rare mutations in homologs of evolutionarily conserved clock genes are found in select pedigrees with extreme sleep timing, and there is suggestive evidence that certain common polymorphisms may be associated with self-reported day/night preference. However, no common polymorphism has been associated with the timing of directly observed human behavioral rhythms or other physiological markers of circadian timing at the population level. Methods We performed a candidate-gene association study with replication, evaluating associations between polymorphisms in homologs of evolutionarily conserved clock genes and the timing of behavioral rhythms measured by actigraphy. For validated polymorphisms, we evaluated associations with transcript expression and time of death in additional cohorts. Results rs7221412, a common polymorphism near period homolog 1 (PER1), was associated with the timing of activity rhythms in both the discovery and replication cohorts (joint p=2·1×10−7). Mean activity timing was delayed by 67 minutes in rs7221412GG vs. rs7221412AA homozygotes. rs7221412 also showed a suggestive time-dependent relationship with both cerebral cortex (p=0.05) and CD14+CD16− monocyte (p=0.02) PER1 expression and an interesting association with time of death (p=0.015) in which rs7221412GG individuals had a mean time of death nearly seven hours later than rs7221412AA/AG. Interpretation A common polymorphism near PER1 is associated with the timing of human behavioral rhythms, and shows evidence of association with time of death. This may be mediated by differential PER1 expression. These results may facilitate individualized scheduling of shift-work, medical treatments, or monitoring of vulnerable patient populations. PMID:23034908

  11. The wolframin His611Arg polymorphism influences medication overuse headache.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, C; Sances, G; Di Lorenzo, G; Rengo, C; Ghiotto, N; Guaschino, E; Perrotta, A; Santorelli, F M; Grieco, G S; Troisi, A; Siracusano, A; Pierelli, F; Nappi, G; Casali, C

    2007-09-13

    Homozygosis for wolframin (WFS1) mutations determines Wolfram syndrome (WS), and common polymorphisms of WFS1 are associated with psychiatric illnesses and dependence behaviour. To test the influence of WFS1 polymorphisms on medication overuse headache (MOH), a chronic headache condition related to symptomatic drugs overuse, we analyzed 82 MOH patients for the WFS1 His611Arg polymorphism, and performed a comparison between clinical features of Arg/Arg (R/R) and non-R/R individuals. Individuals harbouring the R/R genotype showed significantly higher monthly drug consumption (t=-3.504; p=0.00075) and more severe depressive symptoms on the BDI questionnaire (t=-3.048; p=0.003) than non-R/R. WFS1 polymorphism emerged as the only significant predictor of drug consumption, at the multivariate regression analysis (F=12.277; d.f.=1,80; p=0.00075, adjusted R2=0.122). These results implicate WFS1 in the clinical picture of MOH, may be through an influence on need for drugs as in other conditions of abuse behaviour.

  12. [The β-amylase polymorphism of winter common wheat grains].

    PubMed

    Netsvetaev, V P; Akinshina, O V; Bondarenko, L S; Motorina, I P

    2012-02-01

    The polymorphism of winter common wheat with respect to β-amylase isoenzymes has been analyzed using electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel (PAAG) buffered with a Tris-glycine system (pH 8.3). Seven β-amylase isoenzymes have been found in wheat cultivars and the breeding stock. Isoenzymes A, B, and C are the most frequent in Russian and Ukrainian cultivars (51.7 4.7, 30.7 3.8, and 11.9 2.5%, respectively). Two alleles of the β-Amy-D1 locus of the long arm of chromosome 4D have been identified. The substrate-enzyme affine effect can be used to locate the zones of activity of this enzyme by means of staining for proteins. It has been determined that β-amylase zymotypes may play a role in the aggregating capacity of the grain protein complex via the formation of S-S bonds.

  13. Distinguishing cancer-associated missense mutations from common polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Kaminker, Joshua S; Zhang, Yan; Waugh, Allison; Haverty, Peter M; Peters, Brock; Sebisanovic, Dragan; Stinson, Jeremy; Forrest, William F; Bazan, J Fernando; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Zhang, Zemin

    2007-01-15

    Missense variants are commonly identified in genomic sequence but only a small fraction directly contribute to oncogenesis. The ability to distinguish those missense changes that contribute to cancer progression from those that do not is a difficult problem usually only accomplished through functional in vivo analyses. Using two computational algorithms, Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT) and the Pfam-based LogR.E-value method, we have identified features that distinguish cancer-associated missense mutations from other classes of missense change. Our data reveal that cancer mutants behave similarly to Mendelian disease mutations, but are clearly distinct from either complex disease mutations or common single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We show that both activating and inactivating oncogenic mutations are predicted to be deleterious, although activating changes are likely to increase protein activity. Using the Gene Ontology and data from the SIFT and LogR.E-value metrics, a classifier was built that predicts cancer-associated missense mutations with a very low false-positive rate. The classifier does remarkably well in a number of different experiments designed to distinguish polymorphisms from true cancer-associated mutations. We also show that recurrently observed mutations are much more likely to be predicted to be cancer-associated than rare mutations, suggesting that our classifier will be useful in distinguishing causal from passenger mutations. In addition, from an expressed sequence tag-based screen, we identified a previously unknown germ line change (P1104A) in tumor tissues that is predicted to disrupt the function of the TYK2 protein. The data presented here show that this novel bioinformatics approach to classifying cancer-associated variants is robust and can be used for large-scale analyses.

  14. Characterization of two common 5' polymorphisms in PEX1 and correlation to survival in PEX1 peroxisome biogenesis disorder patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mutations in PEX1 are the most common primary cause of Zellweger syndrome. In addition to exonic mutations, deletions and splice site mutations two 5' polymorphisms at c.-137 and c.-53 with a potential influence on PEX1 protein levels have been described in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the PEX1 gene. Methods We used RACE and in silico promoter prediction analysis to study the 5' UTR of PEX1. We determined the distribution of PEX1 5' polymorphisms in a cohort of 30 Zellweger syndrome patients by standard DNA sequencing. 5' polymorphisms were analysed in relation to the two most common mutations in PEX1 and were incorporated into a novel genotype-phenotype analysis by correlation of three classes of PEX1 mutations with patient survival. Results We provide evidence that the polymorphism 137 bp upstream of the ATG codon is not part of the UTR, rendering it a promoter polymorphism. We show that the first, but not the second most common PEX1 mutation arose independently of a specific upstream polymorphic constellation. By genotype-phenotype analysis we identified patients with identical exonic mutation and identical 5' polymorphisms, but strongly differing survival. Conclusions Our study suggests that two different types of PEX1 5' polymorphisms have to be distinguished: a 5' UTR polymorphism at position c.-53 and a promoter polymorphism 137 bp upstream of the PEX1 start codon. Our results indicate that the exonic PEX1 mutation correlates with patient survival, but the two 5' polymorphisms analysed in this study do not have to be considered for diagnostic and/or prognostic purposes. PMID:21846392

  15. A synonymous polymorphism in a common MDR1 (ABCB1) haplotype shapes protein function

    PubMed Central

    Fung, King Leung; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    The MDR1 (ABCB1) gene encodes a membrane-bound transporter that actively effluxes a wide range of compounds from cells. The overexpression of MDR1 by multidrug-resistant cancer cells is a serious impediment to chemotherapy. MDR1 is expressed in various tissues to protect them from the adverse effect of toxins. The pharmacokinetics of drugs that are also MDR1 substrates also influence disease outcome and treatment efficacy. Although MDR1 is a well conserved gene, there is increasing evidence that its polymorphisms affect substrate specificity. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occur frequently and have strong linkage, creating a common haplotype at positions 1236C>T (G412G), 2677G>T (A893S) and 3435C>T (I1145I). The frequency of the synonymous 3435C>T polymorphism has been shown to vary significantly according to ethnicity. Existing literature suggests that the haplotype plays a role in response to drugs and disease susceptibility. This review summarizes recent findings on the 3435C>T polymorphism of MDR1 and the haplotype to which it belongs. A possible molecular mechanism of action by ribosome stalling that can change protein structure and function by altering protein folding is discussed. PMID:19285158

  16. Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphic variants predispose to the development of bronchopulmonary complications but have no influence on other clinical and laboratory symptoms or signs of common variable immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Litzman, J; Freiberger, T; Grimbacher, B; Gathmann, B; Salzer, U; Pavlík, T; Vlček, J; Postránecká, V; Trávníčková, Z; Thon, V

    2008-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), activating protein of the lectin pathway of the complement system, is an important component of the non-specific immune response. MBL2 gene polymorphisms, both in the coding and promoter regions, lead to low or deficient serum MBL levels. Low serum MBL levels were shown to be associated with serious infectious complications, mainly in patients in whom other non-specific immune system barriers were disturbed (granulocytopenia, cystic fibrosis). We have analysed two promoter (−550 and −221) and three exon (codons 52, 54 and 57) MBL2 polymorphisms in a total of 94 patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) from two immunodeficiency centres. Low-producing genotypes were associated with the presence of bronchiectasis (P = 0·009), lung fibrosis (P = 0·037) and also with respiratory insufficiency (P = 0·029). We could not demonstrate any association of MBL deficiency with age at onset of clinical symptoms, age at diagnosis, the number of pneumonias before diagnosis or serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA and IgM levels before initiation of Ig treatment. No association with emphysema development was observed, such as with lung function test abnormalities. No effect of MBL2 genotypes on the presence of diarrhoea, granuloma formation, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, frequency of respiratory tract infection or the number of antibiotic courses of the patients was observed. Our study suggests that low MBL-producing genotypes predispose to bronchiectasis formation, and also fibrosis and respiratory insufficiency development, but have no effect on other complications in CVID patients. PMID:18637104

  17. Working memory performance is associated with common glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Kumsta, R; Entringer, S; Koper, J W; van Rossum, E F C; Hellhammer, D H; Wüst, S

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol has a modulatory influence on cognitive functions in humans. Both impairing and enhancing effects of cortisol administration have been shown for hippocampus-dependent declarative memory, and impairing effects have been shown for prefrontal-cortex-dependent working memory function. Given the high density of glucocorticoid (GC) receptors in the prefrontal cortex, we investigated whether common polymorphisms of the GC receptor (GR) gene (ER22/23EK, N363S, BclI, 9 beta A3669G) modulate the influence of cortisol administration on working memory. Working memory performance was investigated in 169 subjects on 10 mg hydrocortisone (cortisol) and placebo using an item recognition task. No impairing effect of hydrocortisone treatment became evident. However, a sex x genotype interaction on general working memory performance was revealed (p = 0.02). While female heterozygous carriers of the 9 beta G allele displayed faster reaction times than the other genotype groups, 9 beta G heterozygous men were relatively slower. Heritability estimates for memory are roughly 50%, indicating that common genetic polymorphisms have an important impact on cognitive performance. Our results suggest that variants of the GR gene might explain some of the variance attributable to genetic factors. Furthermore, it can be speculated that they modulate the individual vulnerability for memory impairments related to stress-related psychiatric disorders. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Effect of common polymorphisms of the farnesoid X receptor and bile acid transporters on the pharmacokinetics of ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao; Fok, Benny S P; Wo, Siu-Kwan; Lee, Vincent H L; Zuo, Zhong; Tomlinson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a natural, dihydroxy bile acid, promotes gallstone dissolution and has been attributed with several other beneficial effects. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) may influence the pharmacokinetics of UDCA by modulating the expression of bile acid transporters. This exploratory study examined whether common functional polymorphisms in FXR and in bile acid transporter genes affect the pharmacokinetics of exogenous UDCA. Polymorphisms in genes for transporters involved in bile acid transport, solute carrier organic anion 1B1 (SLCO1B1) 388A>G and 521T>C, solute carrier 10A1 (SLC10A1) 800 C>T and ATP-binding cassette B11 (ABCB11) 1331T>C, and the FXR -1G>T polymorphism were genotyped in 26 male Chinese subjects who ingested single oral 500-mg doses of UDCA. Plasma concentrations of UDCA and its major conjugate metabolite glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) were determined. The mean systemic exposure of UDCA was higher in the five subjects with one copy of the FXR -1G>T variant allele than in those homozygous for the wild-type allele (n = 21) (AUC0-24 h : 38.5 ± 28.2 vs. 20.9 ± 8.0 μg h/mL, P = 0.021), but this difference appeared mainly due to one outlier with the -1GT genotype and elevated baseline and post-treatment UDCA concentrations. After excluding the outlier, body weight was the only factor associated with plasma concentrations of UDCA and there were no significant associations with the other polymorphisms examined. None of the polymorphisms affected the pharmacokinetics of GUDCA. This study showed that the common polymorphisms in bile acid transporters had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of exogenous UDCA but an effect of the FXR polymorphism cannot be excluded.

  19. Influence of the folate pathway and transporter polymorphisms on methotrexate treatment outcome in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Goričar, Katja; Kovač, Viljem; Jazbec, Janez; Zakotnik, Branko; Lamovec, Janez; Dolžan, Vita

    2014-10-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy that occurs mostly in adolescents. Treatment protocols usually include multiagent preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy based on methotrexate, cisplatin, doxorubicin and ifosfamide. Despite a favourable prognosis, there are considerable interindividual differences in treatment outcome. Genetic variability of enzymes involved in the metabolism and transport of methotrexate could contribute towards observed differences in response to chemotherapy. Our aim was to evaluate how polymorphisms in the folate pathway and transporter genes influence treatment outcome in osteosarcoma patients. In total, 44 osteosarcoma patients treated with methotrexate were genotyped for eleven polymorphisms in four folate pathway and five folate transporter genes. Cox regression was used in survival analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of polymorphisms on treatment efficacy and toxicity and nonparametric tests were used to determine the influence on serum methotrexate levels. Polymorphic SLCO1B1 rs4149056 and rs11045879 alleles were associated with significantly higher serum methotrexate area under the curve (P=0.001 and 0.011, respectively). Carriers of at least one polymorphic SLCO1B1 rs4149056 and rs11045879 allele tended to have longer event-free survival compared with patients with two wild-type alleles [P=0.040, hazard ratio (HR)=0.26, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.07-0.94; and P=0.034, HR=0.20, 95% CI=0.05-0.89, respectively]. Compared with the most common haplotype, carriers of both polymorphic alleles had significantly longer event-free survival (P=0.009, HR=0.27, 95% CI=0.10-0.72). We have shown that SLCO1B1 polymorphisms influence methotrexate disposition and survival in methotrexate-treated osteosarcoma patients and therefore might serve as pharmacogenetic markers of treatment outcome.

  20. Genetic influences in common respiratory disorders.

    PubMed

    Workman, M Linda; Winkelman, Chris

    2008-06-01

    Respiratory disorders are common problems for adults and children in North America and generally represent the outcome of gene-environment interactions. Some problems are considered genetic in origin, such as cystic fibrosis, and others are considered environmental in origin, such as respiratory infections. Emerging information indicates that even genetic-based disorders are influenced by the environment and that environmental-based disorders are modified by personal genetic factors in individual physiologic responses. An understanding of an individual's personal risk factors for disease or health problem development can allow health care professionals to tailor health promotion strategies and treatment plans with appropriate environmental manipulation. This article explores the genetic influences that may affect the individual's physiologic responses and the consequences of environmental stimuli.

  1. The effect of ponderal index at birth on the relationships between common LEP and LEPR polymorphisms and adiposity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Labayen, Idoia; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Moreno, Luis A; Ortega, Francisco B; Beghin, Laurent; DeHenauw, Stefaan; Benito, Pedro J; Diaz, Ligia E; Ferrari, Marika; Moschonis, George; Kafatos, Anthony; Molnar, Dénes; Widhalm, Kurt; Dallongeville, Jean; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the effect of ponderal index (PI) at birth on the relationships between eight common polymorphisms of the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes and adiposity in adolescents. A total of 823 European adolescents (45.4% girls) aged 14.8 ± 1.4 years were genotyped for the LEP (rs2167270, rs12706832, rs10244329, rs2071045, and rs3828942) and LEPR (rs1137100, rs1137101, and rs8179183) polymorphisms. The PI was calculated from parental reports of birth weight and length. Fat mass index (FMI) was calculated. Analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders. An "adiposity-risk-allele score" based on genotypes at the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with adolescents' FMI in adolescents within the lower tertile of PI was calculated. The LEP rs10244329 and rs3828942 polymorphisms were associated with higher FMI only in adolescents within the lower PI tertile (+0.55 kg/m(2) per minor T allele, P = 0.040, and +0.58 kg/m(2) per major G allele, P = 0.028, respectively). The LEPR rs8179183 polymorphism was significantly associated with higher FMI in adolescents within the lower PI tertile (+0.87 kg/m(2) per minor C allele, P = 0.006). After correction for multiple comparisons, only the association between the LEPR rs8179183 and FMI persisted. However, each additional risk allele conferred 0.53 kg/m(2) greater FMI in adolescents within the lower tertile of PI (P = 0.008). In conclusion, our results suggest that those adolescents born with lower PI could be more vulnerable to the influence of the LEP rs10244329 and rs3828942 polymorphisms and LEPR rs8179183 polymorphism on total adiposity content. Due to the relatively small sample size, these findings should be replicated in further larger population samples.

  2. Polygenic Effects of Common Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms on Life Span: When Association Meets Causality

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Deqing; Arbeev, Konstantin G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Recently we have shown that the human life span is influenced jointly by many common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), each with a small individual effect. Here we investigate further the polygenic influence on life span and discuss its possible biological mechanisms. First we identified six sets of prolongevity SNP alleles in the Framingham Heart Study 550K SNPs data, using six different statistical procedures (normal linear, Cox, and logistic regressions; generalized estimation equation; mixed model; gene frequency method). We then estimated joint effects of these SNPs on human survival. We found that alleles in each set show significant additive influence on life span. Twenty-seven SNPs comprised the overlapping set of SNPs that influenced life span, regardless of the statistical procedure. The majority of these SNPs (74%) were within genes, compared to 40% of SNPs in the original 550K set. We then performed a review of current literature on functions of genes closest to these 27 SNPs. The review showed that the respective genes are largely involved in aging, cancer, and brain disorders. We concluded that polygenic effects can explain a substantial portion of genetic influence on life span. Composition of the set of prolongevity alleles depends on the statistical procedure used for the allele selection. At the same time, there is a core set of longevity alleles that are selected with all statistical procedures. Functional relevance of respective genes to aging and major diseases supports causal relationships between the identified SNPs and life span. The fact that genes found in our and other genetic association studies of aging/longevity have similar functions indicates high chances of true positive associations for corresponding genetic variants. PMID:22533364

  3. Common polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with human social recognition skills

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, David H.; Lori, Adriana; Cubells, Joseph F.; Lee, Irene; Conneely, Karen N.; Puura, Kaija; Lehtimäki, Terho; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Young, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin are evolutionarily conserved regulators of social perception and behavior. Evidence is building that they are critically involved in the development of social recognition skills within rodent species, primates, and humans. We investigated whether common polymorphisms in the genes encoding the oxytocin and vasopressin 1a receptors influence social memory for faces. Our sample comprised 198 families, from the United Kingdom and Finland, in whom a single child had been diagnosed with high-functioning autism. Previous research has shown that impaired social perception, characteristic of autism, extends to the first-degree relatives of autistic individuals, implying heritable risk. Assessments of face recognition memory, discrimination of facial emotions, and direction of gaze detection were standardized for age (7–60 y) and sex. A common SNP in the oxytocin receptor (rs237887) was strongly associated with recognition memory in combined probands, parents, and siblings after correction for multiple comparisons. Homozygotes for the ancestral A allele had impairments in the range −0.6 to −1.15 SD scores, irrespective of their diagnostic status. Our findings imply that a critical role for the oxytocin system in social recognition has been conserved across perceptual boundaries through evolution, from olfaction in rodents to visual memory in humans. PMID:24367110

  4. Common Polymorphisms in the Age of RDoC: Integration and Translation

    PubMed Central

    Glatt, Charles E.; Lee, Francis S.

    2015-01-01

    The value of common polymorphisms in guiding clinical psychiatry is limited by the complex polygenic architecture of psychiatric disorders. Common polymorphisms have too small an effect on risk for psychiatric disorders as defined by clinical phenomenology to guide clinical practice. To identify polymorphic effects that are large and reliable enough to serve as biomarkers requires detailed analysis of a polymorphism’s biology across levels of complexity from molecule to cell to circuit and behavior. Emphasis on behavioral domains rather than clinical diagnosis as proposed in the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework facilitates the use of mouse models that recapitulate human polymorphisms because effects on equivalent phenotypes can be translated across species and integrated across levels of analysis. A knock-in mouse model of a common polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) provides examples of how such a vertically integrated translational approach can identify robust genotype-phenotype relationships that have relevance to psychiatric practice. PMID:25680673

  5. Association of a common TLR-6 polymorphism with coronary artery disease – implications for healthy ageing?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The pro-inflammatory status of the elderly triggers most of the age-related diseases such as cancer and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, the leading cause world wide of morbidity and death, is an inflammatory disease influenced by life-style and genetic host factors. Stimuli such as oxLDL or microbial ligands have been proposed to trigger inflammation leading to atherosclerosis. It has recently been shown that oxLDL activates immune cells via the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4/6 complex. Several common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TLR system have been associated with atherosclerosis. To investigate the role of TLR-6 we analyzed the association of the TLR-6 SNP Pro249Ser with atherogenesis. Results Genotyping of two independent groups with CAD, as well as of healthy controls revealed a significant association of the homozygous genotype with a reduced risk for atherosclerosis (odds ratio: 0.69, 95% CI 0.51-0.95, P = 0.02). In addition, we found a trend towards an association with the risk of restenosis after transluminal coronary angioplasty (odds ratio: 0.53, 95% CI 0.24-1.16, P = 0.12). In addition, first evidence is presented that the frequency of this protective genotype increases in a healthy population with age. Taken together, our results define a role for TLR-6 and its genetic variations in modulating the inflammatory response leading to atherosclerosis. Conclusions These results may lead to a better risk stratification, and potentially to an improved prophylactic treatment of high-risk populations. Furthermore, the protective effect of this polymorphism may lead to an increase of this genotype in the healthy elderly and may therefore be a novel genetic marker for the well-being during aging. PMID:24498948

  6. A common polymorphism in the LDL receptor gene has multiple effects on LDL receptor function.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Ihn, Hansel E; Medina, Marisa W; Krauss, Ronald M

    2013-04-01

    A common synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 12 of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene, rs688, has been associated with increased plasma total and LDL cholesterol in several populations. Using immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines from a healthy study population, we confirmed an earlier report that the minor allele of rs688 is associated with increased exon 12 alternative splicing (P < 0.05) and showed that this triggered nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) of the alternatively spliced LDLR mRNA. However, since synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms may influence structure and function of the encoded proteins by co-translational effects, we sought to test whether rs688 was also functional in the full-length mRNA. In HepG2 cells expressing LDLR cDNA constructs engineered to contain the major or minor allele of rs688, the latter was associated with a smaller amount of LDLR protein at the cell surface (-21.8 ± 0.6%, P = 0.012), a higher amount in the lysosome fraction (+25.7 ± 0.3%, P = 0.037) and reduced uptake of fluorescently labeled LDL (-24.3 ± 0.7%, P < 0.01). Moreover, in the presence of exogenous proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a protein that reduces cellular LDL uptake by promoting lysosomal degradation of LDLR, the minor allele resulted in reduced capacity of a PCSK9 monoclonal antibody to increase LDL uptake. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that rs688, which is located in the β-propeller region of LDLR, has effects on LDLR activity beyond its role in alternative splicing due to impairment of LDLR endosomal recycling and/or PCSK9 binding, processes in which the β-propeller is critically involved.

  7. Common polymorphisms in the NOD2 gene region are associated with leprosy and its reactive states

    PubMed Central

    Berrington, William Richard; Macdonald, Murdo; Khadge, Saraswoti; Sapkota, Bishwa Raj; Janer, Marta; Hagge, Deanna Alisa; Kaplan, Gilla; Hawn, Thomas Richard

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and well-defined immunologic complications, leprosy is a useful disease for studying genetic regulation of the host response to infection. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in NOD2, a cytosolic receptor known to detect mycobacteria, are associated with susceptibility to leprosy and its clinical outcomes. Methods We used a case-control study design with 933 patients in Nepal, which included 240 patients with type I (reversal) reaction (RR), and 124 patients with type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL)) reactions. We compared 32 common NOD2 gene region polymorphism frequencies between the different clinical types of leprosy as well as 101 controls without leprosy. Results Four polymorphisms were associated with leprosy susceptibility when comparing allele frequencies and eight were associated when comparing genotype frequencies with a dominant model. Five polymorphisms were associated with protection from RR in an allelic analysis, and seven were associated with RR with a dominant model. Four polymorphisms were associated with increased susceptibility to ENL in an allelic analysis, while seven of 32 polymorphisms were associated with a dominant model. Conclusion These data suggest that NOD2 genetic variants are associated with leprosy susceptibility and the development of leprosy reactive states. PMID:20350193

  8. CYP2C19 polymorphism influences Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Lu, Chien-Yu; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Liu, Chung-Jung; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Hu, Huang-Ming; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Yu, Fang-Jung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Kuo, Fu-Chen

    2014-01-01

    The known factors that have contributed to the decline of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication rate include antibiotic resistance, poor compliance, high gastric acidity, high bacterial load, and cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) polymorphism. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is important in the eradication regimen. The principal enzyme implicated in the metabolism of PPIs is CYP2C19. The effects of PPI depend on metabolic enzyme, cytochrome P450 enzymes, and CYP2C19 with genetic differences in the activity of this enzyme (the homozygous EM, heterozygous EM (HetEM), and poor metabolizer). The frequency of the CYP2C19 polymorphism is highly varied among different ethnic populations. The CYP2C19 genotype is a cardinal factor of H. pylori eradication in patients taking omeprazole- based or lansoprazole-based triple therapies. In contrast, the CYP2C19 polymorphism has no significant effect on the rabeprazole-based or esomeprazole-based triple therapies. The efficacy of levofloxacin-based rescue triple therapy might be also affected by the CYP2C19 polymorphism, but CYP2C19 genotypes did not show obvious impact on other levofloxacin-based rescue therapies. Choice of different PPIs and/or increasing doses of PPIs should be individualized based on the pharmacogenetics background of each patient and pharmacological profile of each drug. Other possible factors influencing gastric acid secretion (e.g., IL-1β- 511 polymorphism) would be also under consideration. PMID:25473155

  9. Investigation on association between five common polymorphisms in vascular endothelial growth factor and prototypes of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Che, Nan; Li, Yongsheng; Liu, Shanshan; Pan, Wenyou; Liu, Yan

    2015-06-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a crucial regulator in angiogenesis. Previous research has indicated that modified VEGF-VEGFR signaling pathway has an impact on the development of inflammatory diseases. It has been proved that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for critical genes might be associated with the susceptibility of autoimmune diseases. In this study, we targeted five common VEGF SNPs, i.e. -1154G>A, +405G>C, -2578C>A, +936C>T and -460T>C. Their associations with eleven prototypes autoimmune disease were assessed by our meta-analysis. PubMed/Medline and CNKI were searched for related articles. Studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled in this analysis. Meta-analysis was performed using odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals as effect measures. 73 studies from 30 relevant articles were retrieved in accordance with the data selection methods. A total of 11,354 cases and 8694 controls from the 30 included studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, no statistically significant association was confirmed concerning five common VEGF polymorphisms and the susceptibility of autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, in the stratified analysis by ethnicity, the C allele of +405G>C polymorphism in Caucasian people was found to be correlated to increase autoimmune diseases risk, while an inverse trend of association was observed in Asian people. Also, decreased susceptibility to Graves' disease was detected in Caucasian people with G allele in +405G>C polymorphism. Besides, a trend of decreased risk of psoriatic arthritis was confirmed among population with T allele of +936C>T polymorphism. In summary, as suggested by our analysis, +405G>C polymorphism in VEGF might exert an influence on autoimmune diseases, with opposite effect observed in Asians and Caucasians. No association between the other four common SNPs (-2578C>A, -1154G>A and -460T>C) and autoimmune diseases susceptibility was confirmed. Copyright © 2015

  10. Polymorphism influences singlet fission rates in tetracene thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Arias, Dylan H.; Ryerson, Joseph L.; Cook, Jasper D.; ...

    2015-11-06

    Here, we report the effect of crystal structure and crystallite grain size on singlet fission (SF) in polycrystalline tetracene, one of the most widely studied SF and organic semiconductor materials. SF has been comprehensively studied in one polymoprh (Tc I), but not in the other, less stable polymorph (Tc II). Using carefully controlled thermal evaporation deposition conditions and high sensitivity ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, we found that for large crystallite size samples, SF in nearly pure Tc II films is significantly faster than SF in Tc I films. We also discovered that crystallite size has a minimal impact on themore » SF rate in Tc II films, but a significant influence in Tc I films. Large crystallites exhibit SF times of 125 ps and 22 ps in Tc I and Tc II, respectively, whereas small crystallites have SF times of 31 ps and 33 ps. Our results demonstrate first, that attention must be paid to polymorphism in obtaining a self-consistent rate picture for SF in tetracene and second, that control of polymorphism can play a significant role towards achieving a mechanistic understanding of SF in polycrystalline systems. In this latter context we show that conventional theory based on non-covalent tetracene couplings is insufficient, thus highlighting the need for models that capture the delocalized and highly mobile nature of excited states in elucidating the full photophysical picture.« less

  11. Polymorphism influences singlet fission rates in tetracene thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Dylan H.; Ryerson, Joseph L.; Cook, Jasper D.; Damrauer, Niels H.; Johnson, Justin C.

    2015-11-06

    Here, we report the effect of crystal structure and crystallite grain size on singlet fission (SF) in polycrystalline tetracene, one of the most widely studied SF and organic semiconductor materials. SF has been comprehensively studied in one polymoprh (Tc I), but not in the other, less stable polymorph (Tc II). Using carefully controlled thermal evaporation deposition conditions and high sensitivity ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, we found that for large crystallite size samples, SF in nearly pure Tc II films is significantly faster than SF in Tc I films. We also discovered that crystallite size has a minimal impact on the SF rate in Tc II films, but a significant influence in Tc I films. Large crystallites exhibit SF times of 125 ps and 22 ps in Tc I and Tc II, respectively, whereas small crystallites have SF times of 31 ps and 33 ps. Our results demonstrate first, that attention must be paid to polymorphism in obtaining a self-consistent rate picture for SF in tetracene and second, that control of polymorphism can play a significant role towards achieving a mechanistic understanding of SF in polycrystalline systems. In this latter context we show that conventional theory based on non-covalent tetracene couplings is insufficient, thus highlighting the need for models that capture the delocalized and highly mobile nature of excited states in elucidating the full photophysical picture.

  12. Common Polymorphisms in Human Langerin Change Specificity for Glycan Ligands*♦

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Hadar; Rowntree, Thomas J. W.; Tan, Shawn L. W.; Drickamer, Kurt; Weis, William I.; Taylor, Maureen E.

    2013-01-01

    Langerin, a C-type lectin on Langerhans cells, mediates carbohydrate-dependent uptake of pathogens in the first step of antigen presentation to the adaptive immune system. Langerin binds a diverse range of carbohydrates including high mannose structures, fucosylated blood group antigens, and glycans with terminal 6-sulfated galactose. Mutagenesis and quantitative binding assays indicate that salt bridges between the sulfate group and two lysine residues compensate for the nonoptimal binding of galactose at the primary Ca2+ site. A commonly occurring single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in human langerin results in change of one of these lysine residues, Lys-313, to isoleucine. Glycan array screening reveals that this amino acid change abolishes binding to oligosaccharides with terminal 6SO4-Gal and enhances binding to oligosaccharides with terminal GlcNAc residues. Structural analysis shows that enhanced binding to GlcNAc may result from Ile-313 packing against the N-acetyl group. The K313I polymorphism is tightly linked to another SNP that results in the change N288D, which reduces affinity for glycan ligands by destabilizing the Ca2+-binding site. Langerin with Asp-288 and Ile-313 shows no binding to 6SO4-Gal-terminated glycans and increased binding to GlcNAc-terminated structures, but overall decreased binding to glycans. Altered langerin function in individuals with the linked N288D and K313I polymorphisms may affect susceptibility to infection by microorganisms. PMID:24217250

  13. rs965513 polymorphism as a common risk marker is associated with papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun; Chen, Meijun; Qiao, Hong; Zhang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. With the rapid development of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), many genome variants associated with susceptibility to PTC have been identified, including the single nucleotide polymorphism rs965513 (9q22.33) near FOXE1. To evaluate the association between rs965513 and PTC in different ethnicities and countries, we conducted a meta-analysis using relatively large-scale samples from 23 studies (N = 163,136; 20,736 cases and 142,400 controls) by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Significant heterogeneity caused by different populations among the selected studies was observed. The A allele of rs965513 polymorphism was shown to be highly associated with risk of thyroid cancer, with odds ratios of 1.58 (95% CI 1.32–1.90) in all populations, 1.65 (95% CI 1.31–2.07)) in Caucasian populations and 1.49 in Asian populations. Compared to the dominant and recessive models, we observed the highest odds ratio (OR = 2.80, 95% CI 2.12–3.69) in the homozygous model. These results revealed that the rs965513 polymorphism is a risk factor for thyroid cancer PMID:27191655

  14. A Common Polymorphism in a Williams Syndrome Gene Predicts Amygdala Reactivity and Extraversion in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Johnna R; Waller, Rebecca; Bogdan, Ryan; Knodt, Annchen R; Sabhlok, Aditi; Hyde, Luke W; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2017-02-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic disorder resulting from hemizygous microdeletion of chromosome 7q11.23, has emerged as a model for identifying the genetic architecture of socioemotional behavior. Common polymorphisms in GTF2I, which is found within the WS microdeletion, have been associated with reduced social anxiety in the general population. Identifying neural phenotypes affected by these polymorphisms would help advance our understanding not only of this specific genetic association but also of the broader neurogenetic mechanisms of variability in socioemotional behavior. Through an ongoing parent protocol, the Duke Neurogenetics Study, we measured threat-related amygdala reactivity to fearful and angry facial expressions using functional magnetic resonance imaging, assessed trait personality using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, and imputed GTF2I rs13227433 from saliva-derived DNA using custom Illumina arrays. Participants included 808 non-Hispanic Caucasian, African American, and Asian university students. The GTF2I rs13227433 AA genotype, previously associated with lower social anxiety, predicted decreased threat-related amygdala reactivity. An indirect effect of GTF2I genotype on the warmth facet of extraversion was mediated by decreased threat-related amygdala reactivity in women but not men. A common polymorphism in the WS gene GTF2I associated with reduced social anxiety predicts decreased threat-related amygdala reactivity, which mediates an association between genotype and increased warmth in women. These results are consistent with reduced threat-related amygdala reactivity in WS and suggest that common variation in GTF2I contributes to broader variability in socioemotional brain function and behavior, with implications for understanding the neurogenetic bases of WS as well as social anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. C3 Polymorphism Influences Circulating Levels of C3, ASP and Lipids in Schizophrenic Patients.

    PubMed

    Nsaiba, Mohamed Jalloul; Lapointe, Marc; Mabrouk, Hajer; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Pérusse, Louis; Bouchard, Claude; Jrad, Besma Bel Hadj; Cianflone, Katherine

    2015-05-01

    Excessive activation of complement is associated with many diseases including schizophrenia. Investigation of C3 polymorphisms, circulating C3, cleavage product ASP/C3adesArg, and lipid metabolism. Cross-sectional analysis. C3 genotyping (CC vs GG for R102L) was performed on 434 Tunisian people consisting of 272 schizophrenic (SZ) patients and 162 control subjects. In a age- and gender-matched subgroups of the three genotypes (131 SZ and 112 NOR), plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol (C), LDL-C, HDL-C, ASP, and complement C3 were measured. C3 gene polymorphism influences BMI and plasma C3, ASP, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C among SZ patients (p < 0.05-0.0001), with increasing values demonstrated from CC (common form) to CG (heterozygote form) to GG (rare homozygote) forms. Significant correlations between plasma C3 and BMI, triglyceride, HDL-C and ASP (p < 0.05-0.0001) were observed, while ASP correlated with BMI and LDL-C (p = 0.005, p = 0.001, respectively) in SZ patients. Further, proportional conversion of C3 to ASP (%ASP/C3) also increased (p < 0.0001, GG>CG>CC). C3 polymorphisms and plasma C3, ASP and %ASP/C3 correlated with lipid parameters in this SZ population, suggesting that factors predisposing patients to schizophrenia are permissive for complement pathway activation and dyslipidemic influences.

  16. Effect of ATP-binding Cassette Transporter A1 (ABCA1) Gene Polymorphisms on Plasma Lipid Variables and Common Demographic Parameters in Greek Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Kolovou, Vana; Marvaki, Apostolia; Boutsikou, Maria; Vasilopoulos, Georgios; Degiannis, Dimitrios; Marvaki, Christina; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study is on line with our previous studies evaluating the influence of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene polymorphisms on the lipid variables of Greek student-nurses. The current study was undertaken to (1) estimate the influence of variant(s) such as rs2066715 (V825I), R219K, R1587K, I883M of ABCA1 gene on lipid variables and (2) evaluate the effect of all four ABCA1 polymorphisms on common demographic parameters. Methods: The study population involved 432 unrelated nurses (86 men) who were genotyped for ABCA1 polymorphisms and correlated according to lipid variables [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) A] and demographic parameters (age, gender, BMI, waist circumference). Results: According to lipid variables concentration there was no difference between genotypes and alleles of V825I, R219K and I883M polymorphisms. The LDL-C concentration was 13% lower in RR compared with RK genotype (100.7 vs. 113.9 mg/dl, p=0.013) of R1587K gene polymorphism. In regression analysis the effects of age, gender and only R1587K gene polymorphism on LDL-C concentrations were proved significant. Additionally, LDL-C was increased (by 1.29 mg/dl on average) by every year of increase of age. Moreover, females had lower LDL-C concentrations as compared with males. Conclusion: Findings suggested that only R1587K polymorphism of ABCA1 gene was associated with lipid variables, age, and gender of Greek nurses. These findings may be helpful in assessing the risk factors for premature coronary heart disease and distinct individuals with lower/higher atherosclerotic burden. PMID:27990182

  17. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group f polymorphisms influence risk of glioma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hong-Bin; Xie, Chen; Zhang, Ru-You; Hu, Shao-Shan; Wang, Zhi; Yue, Wu

    2013-01-01

    We conducted an exploratory investigation of whether variation in six common SNPs of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F (XPF) is associated with risk of glioma in a Chinese population. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 207 glioma cases and 236 cancer-free controls by a 384-well plate format on the Sequenom MassARRAY platform (Sequenom, San Diego, USA). The rs1800067 G and rs2276466 G allele frequencies were significantly higher in the glioma group than controls. Individuals with the rs1800067 GG genotype were at greater risk of glioma when compared with the A/A genotype in the codominant model, with an OR (95% CI) of 2.63 (1.04-7.25). The rs2276466 polymorphism was significantly associated with moderate increased risk of glioma in codominant and dominant models, with ORs (95% CI) of 1.90 (1.05-3.44) and 1.55 (1.07-2.47), respectively. The combination genotype of rs1800067 G and rs2276466 G alleles was associated with a reduced risk of glioma (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.19-0.98). These findings indicate that genetic variants of the XPF gene have critical functions in the development of glioma.

  18. Common polymorphisms in WNT10A affect tooth morphology as well as hair shape.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Chiaki; Kawaguchi, Akira; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Soo-Byung; Maki, Koutaro; Ishida, Hajime; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro

    2015-05-01

    Hair and teeth are appendages of ectodermal origin, and there are common molecular backgrounds involved in their formation. To date, it has been revealed that a non-synonymous polymorphism in EDAR has effects on the morphological variation in both hair and teeth. Previous association studies have confirmed that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in/near THADA, FRAS1, WNT10A, NAF1 and FGFR2 are associated with hair morphology. In this study, we thus examined whether these SNPs are also associated with dental characteristics. We measured metric dental traits including crown size and also evaluated non-metric dental traits using plaster casts obtained from subjects (272 Japanese and 226 Koreans). DNA samples were prepared from the subjects and genotyped for the hair morphology-associated SNPs. We observed a significant association of crown size with an SNP in WNT10A (rs7349332), but not with SNPs in other genes. Therefore, we further examined four SNPs within and around WNT10A, among which rs10177996 had the strongest association with dental traits. World distribution of the derived allele in rs10177996, which is associated with larger teeth, showed that Eurasians have a higher allele frequency than Africans. Together with previous studies on hair morphology, this study demonstrated that common variations in WNT10A have pleiotropic effects on the morphology of ectodermal appendages.

  19. Common polymorphisms in C3, factor B, and factor H collaborate to determine systemic complement activity and disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Heurich, Meike; Martínez-Barricarte, Ruben; Francis, Nigel J.; Roberts, Dawn L.; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Morgan, B. Paul; Harris, Claire L.

    2011-01-01

    Common polymorphisms in complement alternative pathway (AP) proteins C3 (C3R102G), factor B (fBR32Q), and factor H (fHV62I) are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other pathologies. Our published work showed that fBR32Q influences C3 convertase formation, whereas fHV62I affects factor I cofactor activity. Here we show how C3R102G (C3S/F) influences AP activity. In hemolysis assays, C3102G activated AP more efficiently (EC50 C3102G: 157 nM; C3102R: 191 nM; P < 0.0001). fB binding kinetics and convertase stability were identical, but native and recombinant fH bound more strongly to C3b102R (KD C3b102R: 1.0 μM; C3b102G: 1.4 μM; P < 0.0001). Accelerated decay was unaltered, but fH cofactor activity was reduced for C3b102G, favoring AP amplification. Combining disease “risk” variants (C3102G, fB32R, and fH62V) in add-back assays yielded sixfold higher hemolytic activity compared with “protective” variants (C3102R, fB32Q, and fH62I; P < 0.0001). These data introduce the concept of a functional complotype (combination of polymorphisms) defining complement activity in an individual, thereby influencing susceptibility to AP-driven disease. PMID:21555552

  20. Influence of leukotriene gene polymorphisms on chronic rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shemari, Hasan; Bossé, Yohan; Hudson, Thomas J; Cabaluna, Myrna; Duval, Melanie; Lemire, Mathieu; Vallee-Smedja, Sophie; Frenkiel, Saul; Desrosiers, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is increasingly viewed as an inflammatory condition of the sinonasal mucosa interacting with bacteria and/or fungi. However, factors conferring susceptibility to disease remain unknown. Advances in genomics offer powerful tools to explore this disorder. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on CRS in a panel of genes related to cysteinyl leukotriene metabolism. Methods Severe cases of CRS and postal code match controls were recruited prospectively. A total of 206 cases and 200 controls were available for the present study. Using a candidate gene approach, five genes related to cysteinyl leukotriene metabolism were assessed. For each gene, we selected the maximally informative set of common SNPs (tagSNPs) using the European-derived (CEU) HapMap dataset. These SNPs are in arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5), arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP), leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4S), cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CYSLTR1) and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 (CYSLTR2) genes. Results A total of 59 SNPs were genotyped to capture the common genetic variations within these genes. Three SNPs located within the ALOX5, CYSLTR1 and ALOX5AP genes reached the nominal p-value threshold (p < 0.05) for association with CRS. However, none of these SNPs resist multiple testing adjustment. Conclusion While these initial results do not support that polymorphsims in genes assessed involved in the leukotriene pathways are contributing to the pathogenesis of CRS, this initial study was not powered to detect polymorphisms with relative risk of 2.0 or less, where we could expect many gene effects for complex diseases to occur. Thus, despite this lack of significant association noted in this study, we believe that validation with external populations and the use of better-powered studies in the future may allow more conclusive findings. PMID:18366797

  1. A common p73 polymorphism is associated with a reduced incidence of oesophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, B M; McManus, R; Daly, J S; Carton, E; Keeling, P W N; Reynolds, J V; Kelleher, D

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma is rising; to date, no susceptibility genes have been identified. p73, a novel p53 homologue, maps to chromosome 1p36, a region commonly deleted in oesophageal cancers. p73 shares some p53-like activity, but in addition, may also play a role in gastrointestinal epithelial inflammatory responses. A non-coding p73 polymorphism (denoted AT or GC) may be functionally significant. We investigated whether this polymorphism might play a role in the aetiopathogenesis of oesophageal cancer. This was a case–control, retrospective study. 84 cases of oesophageal cancer (25 squamous and 59 adenocarcinoma) and 152 normal population controls were genotyped for this polymorphism. Informative cases were examined for p73 LOH within the tumour. AT/AT homozygotes were significantly less prevalent in the oesophageal cancer population (1/84 = 1.2%) compared to controls (15/152 = 9.9%) (P < 0.02), corresponding to an odds ratio of 0.11 (95% C.I. 0.02–0.6, P < 0.02), or 9-fold reduced risk. Moreover, AT/AT homozygotes were significantly less frequent in the cancer population than would be expected under the Hardy–Weinberg hypothesis (P = 0.0099). LOH at the p73 locus was observed in 37.8% (14/37) of the AT/GC heterozygotes studied; in all cases there was loss of the AT allele. Our findings indicate that p73 AT/AT homozygotes appear to be protected against the development of oesophageal cancer. Clinically, this observation could have implications in aiding identification of high-risk Barrett's oesophagus patients.© 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11720435

  2. The human GIMAP5 gene has a common polyadenylation polymorphism increasing risk to systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Hellquist, Anna; Zucchelli, Marco; Kivinen, Katja; Saarialho‐Kere, Ulpu; Koskenmies, Sari; Widen, Elisabeth; Julkunen, Heikki; Wong, Andrew; Karjalainen‐Lindsberg, Marja‐Liisa; Skoog, Tiina; Vendelin, Johanna; Cunninghame‐Graham, Deborah S; Vyse, Timothy J; Kere, Juha; Lindgren, Cecilia M

    2007-01-01

    Background Several members of the GIMAP gene family have been suggested as being involved in different aspects of the immune system in different species. Recently, a mutation in the GIMAP5 gene was shown to cause lymphopenia in a rat model of autoimmune insulin‐dependent diabetes. Thus it was hypothesised that genetic variation in GIMAP5 may be involved in susceptibility to other autoimmune disorders where lymphopenia is a key feature, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Material and methods To investigate this, seven single nucleotide polymorphisms in GIMAP5 were analysed in five independent sets of family‐based SLE collections, containing more than 2000 samples. Result A significant increase in SLE risk associated with the most common GIMAP5 haplotype was found (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.54, p = 0.0033). In families with probands diagnosed with trombocytopenia, the risk was increased (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.09 to 4.09, p = 0.0153). The risk haplotype bears a polymorphic polyadenylation signal which alters the 3′ part of GIMAP5 mRNA by producing an inefficient polyadenylation signal. This results in higher proportion of non‐terminated mRNA for homozygous individuals (p<0.005), a mechanism shown to be causal in thalassaemias. To further assess the functional effect of the polymorphic polyadenylation signal in the risk haplotype, monocytes were treated with several cytokines affecting apoptosis. All the apoptotic cytokines induced GIMAP5 expression in two monocyte cell lines (1.5–6 times, p<0.0001 for all tests). Conclusion Taken together, the data suggest the role of GIMAP5 in the pathogenesis of SLE. PMID:17220214

  3. BDNF Binds Its Pro-Peptide with High Affinity and the Common Val66Met Polymorphism Attenuates the Interaction.

    PubMed

    Uegaki, Koichi; Kumanogoh, Haruko; Mizui, Toshiyuki; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Kojima, Masami

    2017-05-12

    Most growth factors are initially synthesized as precursors then cleaved into bioactive mature domains and pro-domains, but the biological roles of pro-domains are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the pro-domain (or pro-peptide) of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which promotes neuronal survival, differentiation and synaptic plasticity. The BDNF pro-peptide is a post-processing product of the precursor BDNF. Using surface plasmon resonance and biochemical experiments, we first demonstrated that the BDNF pro-peptide binds to mature BDNF with high affinity, but not other neurotrophins. This interaction was more enhanced at acidic pH than at neutral pH, suggesting that the binding is significant in intracellular compartments such as trafficking vesicles rather than the extracellular space. The common Val66Met BDNF polymorphism results in a valine instead of a methionine in the pro-domain, which affects human brain functions and the activity-dependent secretion of BDNF. We investigated the influence of this variation on the interaction between BDNF and the pro-peptide. Interestingly, the Val66Met polymorphism stabilized the heterodimeric complex of BDNF and its pro-peptide. Furthermore, compared with the Val-containing pro-peptide, the complex with the Met-type pro-peptide was more stable at both acidic and neutral pH, suggesting that the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism forms a more stable complex. A computational modeling provided an interpretation to the role of the Val66Met mutation in the interaction of BDNF and its pro-peptide. Lastly, we performed electrophysiological experiments, which indicated that the BDNF pro-peptide, when pre-incubated with BDNF, attenuated the ability of BDNF to inhibit hippocampal long-term depression (LTD), suggesting a possibility that the BDNF pro-peptide may interact directly with BDNF and thereby inhibit its availability. It was previously reported that the BDNF pro-domain exerts a chaperone-like function

  4. BDNF Binds Its Pro-Peptide with High Affinity and the Common Val66Met Polymorphism Attenuates the Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Uegaki, Koichi; Kumanogoh, Haruko; Mizui, Toshiyuki; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Kojima, Masami

    2017-01-01

    Most growth factors are initially synthesized as precursors then cleaved into bioactive mature domains and pro-domains, but the biological roles of pro-domains are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the pro-domain (or pro-peptide) of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which promotes neuronal survival, differentiation and synaptic plasticity. The BDNF pro-peptide is a post-processing product of the precursor BDNF. Using surface plasmon resonance and biochemical experiments, we first demonstrated that the BDNF pro-peptide binds to mature BDNF with high affinity, but not other neurotrophins. This interaction was more enhanced at acidic pH than at neutral pH, suggesting that the binding is significant in intracellular compartments such as trafficking vesicles rather than the extracellular space. The common Val66Met BDNF polymorphism results in a valine instead of a methionine in the pro-domain, which affects human brain functions and the activity-dependent secretion of BDNF. We investigated the influence of this variation on the interaction between BDNF and the pro-peptide. Interestingly, the Val66Met polymorphism stabilized the heterodimeric complex of BDNF and its pro-peptide. Furthermore, compared with the Val-containing pro-peptide, the complex with the Met-type pro-peptide was more stable at both acidic and neutral pH, suggesting that the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism forms a more stable complex. A computational modeling provided an interpretation to the role of the Val66Met mutation in the interaction of BDNF and its pro-peptide. Lastly, we performed electrophysiological experiments, which indicated that the BDNF pro-peptide, when pre-incubated with BDNF, attenuated the ability of BDNF to inhibit hippocampal long-term depression (LTD), suggesting a possibility that the BDNF pro-peptide may interact directly with BDNF and thereby inhibit its availability. It was previously reported that the BDNF pro-domain exerts a chaperone-like function

  5. The Influence of Genotype Polymorphism on Morphine Analgesic Effect for Postoperative Pain in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Geum; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Keun Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background Although opioids are the most commonly used medications to control postoperative pain in children, the analgesic effects could have a large inter-individual variability according to genotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the analgesic effect of morphine for postoperative pain in children. Methods A prospective study was conducted in 88 healthy children undergoing tonsillectomy, who received morphine during the operation. The postoperative pain score, frequency of rescue analgesics, and side effects of morphine were assessed in the post-anesthesia care unit. The children were genotyped for OPRM1 A118G, ABCB1 C3435T, and COMT Val158Met. Results Children with at least one G allele for OPRM1 (AG/GG) had higher postoperative pain scores compared with those with the AA genotype at the time of discharge from the post-anesthesia care unit (P = 0.025). Other recovery profiles were not significantly different between the two groups. There was no significant relationship between genotypes and postoperative pain scores in analysis of ABCB1 and COMT polymorphisms. Conclusions Genetic polymorphism at OPRM1 A118G, but not at ABCB1 C3435T and COMT Val158Met, influences the analgesic effect of morphine for immediate acute postoperative pain in children. PMID:26839669

  6. LIN28B polymorphisms influence susceptibility to epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Kim, Donghwa; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Lin, Hui-Yi; Chen, Y. Ann; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Birrer, Michael J.; Bloom, Gregory; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Zhihua; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Dagne, Getachew; Ebbert-Syfrett, Judith; Fenstermacher, David; Fridley, Brooke L.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gayther, Simon A.; Ge, William; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Gonzalez-Bosquet, Jesus; Goode, Ellen L.; Iversen, Edwin; Jim, Heather; Kong, William; McLaughlin, John; Menon, Usha; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Narod, Steven A.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Qu, Xiaotao; Ramus, Susan J.; Risch, Harvey; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Song, Honglin; Stockwell, Heather; Sutphen, Rebecca; Terry, Kathryn L.; Tyrer, Jonathan; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lancaster, Johnathan M.; Cheng, Jin Q.; Sellers, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Defective miRNA biogenesis contributes to the development and progression of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). In this study, we examined the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA biogenesis genes may influence EOC risk. In an initial investigation, 318 SNPs in 18 genes were evaluated among 1,815 EOC cases and 1,900 controls, followed up by a replicative joint meta-analysis of data from an additional 2,172 cases and 3,052 controls. Of 23 SNPs from 9 genes associated with risk (empirical P<0.05) in the initial investigation, the meta-analysis replicated 6 SNPs from the DROSHA, FMR1, LIN28, and LIN28B genes, including rs12194974 (G>A), a SNP in a putative transcription factor binding site in the LIN28B promoter region (summary OR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.82–0.98; P=0.015) which has been recently implicated in age of menarche and other phenotypes. Consistent with reports that LIN28B over-expression in EOC contributes to tumorigenesis by repressing tumor suppressor let-7 expression, we provide data from luciferase reporter assays and quantitative RT-PCR to suggest that the inverse association among rs12194974 A allele carriers may be due to reduced LIN28B expression. Our findings suggest that variants in LIN28B and possibly other miRNA biogenesis genes may influence EOC susceptibility. PMID:21482675

  7. Polymorphisms in the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Influence Memory and Processing Speed One Month after Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Anna L.; Flashman, Laura A.; Rhodes, C. Harker; McDonald, Brenna C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Tsongalis, Gregory J.; Moore, Jason H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in cognition, as well as neural survival and plasticity. There are several common polymorphisms in the BDNF gene, one of which (rs6265) is an extensively studied non-synonymous coding polymorphism (Val66Met) which has been linked to cognitive performance in healthy controls and some clinical populations. We hypothesized that the Met allele of rs6265 would be associated with poorer cognitive performance in individuals with mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury, and that other polymorphisms in the BDNF gene would also affect cognition. Genotype at 9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BDNF gene, and measures of speed of information processing, learning, and memory were assessed in 75 patients with mTBI and 38 healthy subjects. Consistent with previous reports, the Met allele of rs6265 was associated with cognition (slower processing speed) in the entire group. Two other SNPs were associated with processing speed in the mTBI group, but both are in linkage disequilibrium with rs6265, and neither remained significant after adjustment for rs6265 status. Within the mTBI group, but not the controls, 4 SNPs, but not rs6265, were associated with memory measures. These associations were not affected by adjustment for rs6265 status. Polymorphisms in BDNF influence cognitive performance shortly after mTBI. The results raise the possibility that a functional polymorphism other than rs6265 may contribute to memory function after mTBI. PMID:22188054

  8. A common polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) modulates human cortical plasticity and the response to rTMS.

    PubMed

    Cheeran, Binith; Talelli, Penelope; Mori, Francesco; Koch, Giacomo; Suppa, Antonio; Edwards, Mark; Houlden, Henry; Bhatia, Kailash; Greenwood, Richard; Rothwell, John C

    2008-12-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) is one of many genes thought to influence synaptic plasticity in the adult brain and shows a common single nucleotide polymorphism (BDNF Val66Met) in the normal population that is associated with differences in hippocampal volume and episodic memory. It is also thought to influence possible synaptic changes in motor cortex following a simple motor learning task. Here we extend these studies by using new non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) techniques that directly test the excitability and plasticity of neuronal circuits in human motor cortex in subjects at rest. We investigated whether the susceptibility to TMS probes of plasticity is significantly influenced by the BDNF polymorphism. Val66Met carriers were matched with Val66Val individuals and tested on the following protocols: continuous and intermittent theta burst TMS; median nerve paired associative stimulation; and homeostatic plasticity in the TDCS/1 Hz rTMS model. The response of Met allele carriers differed significantly in all protocols compared with the response of Val66Val individuals. We suggest that this is due to the effect of BNDF on the susceptibility of synapses to undergo LTP/LTD. The circuits tested here are implicated in the pathophysiology of movement disorders such as dystonia and are being assessed as potential new targets in the treatment of stroke. Thus the polymorphism may be one factor that influences the natural response of the brain to injury and disease.

  9. Analysis of the influence of PTPN22 gene polymorphisms in systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Gallo, LM; Gourh, P; Broen, J; Simeon, C; Fonollosa, V; Ortego-Centeno, N; Agarwal, S; Vonk, MC; Coenen, M; Riemekasten, G; Hunzelmann, N; Hesselstrand, R; Tan, FK; Reveille, JD; Assassi, S; García-Hernandez, FJ; Carreira, P; Camps, MT; Fernandez-Nebro, A; de la Peña, P Garcia; Nearney, T; Hilda, D; González-Gay, MA; Airo, P; Beretta, L; Scorza, R; Herrick, A; Worthington, J; Pros, A; Gómez-Gracia, I; Trapiella, L; Espinosa, G; Castellvi, I; Witte, T; de Keyser, F; Vanthuyne, M; Mayes, MD; Radstake, TRDJ; Arnett, FC; Martin, J; Rueda, B

    2011-01-01

    Objective Two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the PTPN22 gene (rs24746601 and rs33996649) have been associated with autoimmunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the R263Q SNP for the first time and to re-evaluate the role of the R620W SNP in the genetic predisposition to systemic sclerosis (SSc) susceptibility and clinical phenotypes. Methods 3422 SSc patients (2020 with limited cutaneous SSc and 1208 with diffuse cutaneous SSc) and 3638 healthy controls of Caucasian ancestry from an initial case--control set of Spain and seven additional independent replication cohorts were included in our study. Both rs33996649 and rs2476601 PTPN22 polymorphisms were genotyped by TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. A meta-analysis was performed to test the overall effect of these PTPN22 polymorphisms in SSc. Results The meta-analysis revealed evidence of association of the rs2476601 T allele with SSc susceptibility (pFDRcorrected=0.03 pooled, OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.28). In addition, the rs2476601 T allele was significantly associated with anticentromere-positive status (pFDRcorrected=0.02 pooled, OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.42). Although the rs33996649 A allele was significantly associated with SSc in the Spanish population (pFDRcorrected=0.04, OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.92), this association was not confirmed in the meta-analysis (p=0.36 pooled, OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.1). Conclusion The study suggests that the PTPN22 R620W polymorphism influences SSc genetic susceptibility but the novel R263Q genetic variant does not. These data strengthen evidence that the R620W mutation is a common risk factor in autoimmune diseases. PMID:21131644

  10. Common Polymorphisms in the Solute Carrier SLC30A10 are Associated With Blood Manganese and Neurological Function.

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Karin; Kippler, Maria; Alhamdow, Ayman; Rahman, Syed Moshfiqur; Smith, Donald R; Vahter, Marie; Lucchini, Roberto G; Broberg, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient in humans, but excessive exposure to Mn may cause neurotoxicity. Despite homeostatic regulation, Mn concentrations in blood vary considerably among individuals. We evaluated if common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SLC30A10, which likely encodes an Mn transporter, influence blood Mn concentrations and neurological function. We measured blood Mn concentrations by ICP-MS or atomic absorption spectroscopy and genotyped 2 SLC30A10 non-coding SNPs (rs2275707 and rs12064812) by TaqMan PCR in cohorts from Bangladesh (N = 406), the Argentinean Andes (N = 198), and Italy (N = 238). We also measured SLC30A10 expression in whole blood by TaqMan PCR in a sub-group (N = 101) from the Andean cohort, and neurological parameters (sway velocity and finger-tapping speed) in the Italian cohort. The rs2275707 variant allele was associated with increased Mn concentrations in the Andes (8%, P = .027) and Italy (10.6%, P = .012), but not as clear in Bangladesh (3.4%, P = .21; linear regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and plasma ferritin). This allele was also associated with increased sway velocity (15%, P = .033; adjusted for age and sex) and reduced SLC30A10 expression (-24.6%, P = .029). In contrast, the rs12064812 variant homozygous genotype was associated with reduced Mn concentrations, particularly in the Italian cohort (-18.4%, P = .04), and increased finger-tapping speed (8.7%, P = .025). We show that common SNPs in SLC30A10 are associated with blood Mn concentrations in 3 unrelated cohorts and that their influence may be mediated by altered SLC30A10 expression. Moreover, the SNPs appeared to influence neurological functions independent of blood Mn concentrations, suggesting that SLC30A10 could regulate brain Mn levels.

  11. Single-nucleotide polymorphism associations in common with immune responses to measles and rubella vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Salk, Hannah M; Larrabee, Beth R; Pankratz, V Shane; Poland, Gregory A

    2014-11-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate immune response genes were evaluated for associations with measles- and rubella-specific neutralizing antibodies, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion in two separate association analyses in a cohort of healthy immunized subjects. We identified six SNP associations shared between the measles-specific and rubella-specific immune responses, specifically neutralizing antibody titers (DDX58), secreted IL-6 (IL10RB, IL12B), and secreted IFN-γ (IFNAR2, TLR4). An intronic SNP (rs669260) in the antiviral innate immune receptor gene, DDX58, was significantly associated with increased neutralizing antibody titers for both measles and rubella viral antigens post-MMR vaccination (p values 0.02 and 0.0002, respectively). Significant associations were also found between IL10RB (rs2284552; measles study p value 0.006, rubella study p value 0.00008) and IL12B (rs2546893; measles study p value 0.005, rubella study p value 0.03) gene polymorphisms and variations in both measles- and rubella virus-specific IL-6 responses. We also identified associations between individual SNPs in the IFNAR2 and TLR4 genes that were associated with IFN-γ secretion for both measles and rubella vaccine-specific immune responses. These results are the first to indicate that there are SNP associations in common across measles and rubella vaccine immune responses and that SNPs from multiple genes involved in innate and adaptive immune response regulation may contribute to the overall human antiviral response.

  12. Polymorphism at expressed DQ and DR loci in five common equine MHC haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Donald; Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Binns, Matthew; Zhu, Baoli; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Ahmed, Ayeda; Brooks, Samantha A; Antczak, Douglas F

    2017-03-01

    The polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQ and DR genes in five common equine leukocyte antigen (ELA) haplotypes was determined through sequencing of mRNA transcripts isolated from lymphocytes of eight ELA homozygous horses. Ten expressed MHC class II genes were detected in horses of the ELA-A3 haplotype carried by the donor horses of the equine bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and the reference genome sequence: four DR genes and six DQ genes. The other four ELA haplotypes contained at least eight expressed polymorphic MHC class II loci. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of genomic DNA of these four MHC haplotypes revealed stop codons in the DQA3 gene in the ELA-A2, ELA-A5, and ELA-A9 haplotypes. Few NGS reads were obtained for the other MHC class II genes that were not amplified in these horses. The amino acid sequences across haplotypes contained locus-specific residues, and the locus clusters produced by phylogenetic analysis were well supported. The MHC class II alleles within the five tested haplotypes were largely non-overlapping between haplotypes. The complement of equine MHC class II DQ and DR genes appears to be well conserved between haplotypes, in contrast to the recently described variation in class I gene loci between equine MHC haplotypes. The identification of allelic series of equine MHC class II loci will aid comparative studies of mammalian MHC conservation and evolution and may also help to interpret associations between the equine MHC class II region and diseases of the horse.

  13. A Common BACE1 Polymorphism Is a Risk Factor for Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    PubMed Central

    Calero, Olga; Bullido, María J.; Clarimón, Jordi; Frank-García, Ana; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Lleó, Alberto; Rey, María Jesús; Sastre, Isabel; Rábano, Alberto; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Ferrer, Isidro; Calero, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The β site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the rate-limiting β-secretase enzyme in the amyloidogenic processing of APP and Aβ formation, and therefore it has a prominent role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Recent evidence suggests that the prion protein (PrP) interacts directly with BACE1 regulating its β-secretase activity. Moreover, PrP has been proposed as the cellular receptor involved in the impairment of synaptic plasticity and toxicity caused by Aβ oligomers. Provided that common pathophysiologic mechanisms are shared by Alzheimer’s and Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) diseases, we investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge a possible association of a common synonymous BACE1 polymorphism (rs638405) with sporadic CJD (sCJD). Our results indicate that BACE1 C-allele is associated with an increased risk for developing sCJD, mainly in PRNP M129M homozygous subjects with early onset. These results extend the very short list of genes (other than PRNP) involved in the development of human prion diseases; and support the notion that similar to AD, in sCJD several loci may contribute with modest overall effects to disease risk. These findings underscore the interplay in both pathologies of APP, Aβ oligomers, ApoE, PrP and BACE1, and suggest that aging and perhaps vascular risk factors may modulate disease pathologies in part through these key players. PMID:22952813

  14. Association of Common C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Gene Polymorphisms With Baseline Plasma CRP Levels and Fenofibrate Response

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jian; Arnett, Donna K.; Parnell, Laurence D.; Peacock, James M.; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Hixson, James E.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Province, Michael A.; Straka, Robert J.; Ordovas, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory marker that contributes to the prediction of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the influences of CRP polymorphisms on baseline CRP levels and fenofibrate-induced CRP changes in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Research Design and Methods We examined the association of CRP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (m772A>G, m301G>A >T, i178T>A, 3u1273C>T, and 3u2131C>T) with baseline plasma CRP levels among 1,123 white U.S. participants in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study and the modulating effect of these SNPs on CRP response to a 3-week fenofibrate treatment among 290 participants with the metabolic syndrome. Results There were strong associations of m301G>A>T (rs3091244; P = 0.003), i178T>A (rs1417938; P = 0.001), 3u1273C>T (rs1130864; P = 0.001), and 3u2131C>T (rs1205; P < 0.001) with baseline CRP levels. Moreover, among subjects with the metabolic syndrome, fenofibrate induced the greatest reduction in CRP levels for TT subjects of the i178T>A compared with TA and AA subjects (−30 for TT, −19 for TA, and −11% for AA; P = 0.004). Similarly, for the m301G>A>T, major allele carriers displayed maximal reduction of CRP over noncarriers (−20 for GG, −15 for GA and GT, and −0.3% for TA and AA; P = 0.020). Conclusions Our results demonstrate that common genetic variants within the CRP gene affect baseline CRP levels and further modulate CRP response in subjects with the metabolic syndrome treated with fenofibrate. This knowledge could contribute to a better prediction of therapeutic success. PMID:18285551

  15. Transcriptional Regulation of the Human P450 Oxidoreductase Gene: Hormonal Regulation and Influence of Promoter Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Damm, Izabella

    2011-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the flavoprotein that acts as the obligatory electron donor to all microsomal P450 enzymes, including those involved in hepatic drug metabolism as well as three steroidogenic P450 enzymes. The untranslated first exon of human POR was located recently, permitting analysis of human POR transcription. Expression of deletional mutants containing up to 3193 bp of the human POR promoter in human adrenal NCI-H295A and liver Hep-G2 cells located the proximal promoter at −325/−1 bp from the untranslated exon. Common human POR polymorphisms at −208 and −173 had little influence on transcription, but the polymorphism at −152 reduced transcription significantly in both cell lines. EMSA and supershift assays identified binding of Smad3/Smad4 between −249 and −261 and binding of thyroid hormone receptor-β (TRβ) at −240/−245. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Smad3, Smad4, TRα, TRβ, and estrogen receptor-α were bound between −374 and −149. Cotransfection of vectors for these transcription factors and POR promoter-reporter constructs into both cell types followed by hormonal treatment showed that T3 exerts major tropic effects via TRβ, with TRα, estrogen receptor-α, Smad3, and Smad4 exerting lesser, modulatory effects. T3 also increased POR mRNA in both cell lines. Thyroid hormone also is essential for rat liver POR expression but acts via different transcription factor complexes. These are the first data on human POR gene transcription, establishing roles for TRβ and Smad3/4 in its expression and indicating that the common polymorphism at −152 may play a role in genetic variation in steroid biosynthesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21393444

  16. Neanderthal and Denisova genetic affinities with contemporary humans: introgression versus common ancestral polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Robert K; Uribe, Gabriel; Jimenez, Eric B; Weiss, Mark A; Herrera, Kristian J; Regueiro, Maria; Herrera, Rene J

    2013-11-01

    Analyses of the genetic relationships among modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans have suggested that 1-4% of the non-Sub-Saharan African gene pool may be Neanderthal derived, while 6-8% of the Melanesian gene pool may be the product of admixture between the Denisovans and the direct ancestors of Melanesians. In the present study, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity among a worldwide collection of contemporary human populations with respect to the genetic constitution of these two archaic hominins and Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee). We partitioned SNPs into subsets, including those that are derived in both archaic lineages, those that are ancestral in both archaic lineages and those that are only derived in one archaic lineage. By doing this, we have conducted separate examinations of subsets of mutations with higher probabilities of divergent phylogenetic origins. While previous investigations have excluded SNPs from common ancestors in principal component analyses, we included common ancestral SNPs in our analyses to visualize the relative placement of the Neanderthal and Denisova among human populations. To assess the genetic similarities among the various hominin lineages, we performed genetic structure analyses to provide a comparison of genetic patterns found within contemporary human genomes that may have archaic or common ancestral roots. Our results indicate that 3.6% of the Neanderthal genome is shared with roughly 65.4% of the average European gene pool, which clinally diminishes with distance from Europe. Our results suggest that Neanderthal genetic associations with contemporary non-Sub-Saharan African populations, as well as the genetic affinities observed between Denisovans and Melanesians most likely result from the retention of ancient mutations in these populations.

  17. Evidence for a common biological basis of the Absorption trait, hallucinogen effects, and positive symptoms: epistasis between 5-HT2a and COMT polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Ott, Ulrich; Reuter, Martin; Hennig, Juergen; Vaitl, Dieter

    2005-08-05

    Absorption represents a disposition to experience altered states of consciousness characterized by intensively focused attention. It is correlated with hypnotic susceptibility and includes phenomena ranging from vivid perceptions and imaginations to mystical experiences. Based on the assumption that drug-induced and naturally occurring mystical experiences share common neural mechanisms, we hypothesized that Absorption is influenced by the T102C polymorphism affecting the 5-HT2a receptor, which is known to be an important target site of hallucinogens like LSD. Based on the pivotal role ascribed to the prefrontal executive control network for absorbed attention and positive symptoms in schizophrenia, it was further hypothesized that Absorption is associated with the VAL158MET polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affecting the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system. The Tellegen Absorption Scale was administered to 336 subjects (95 male, 241 female). Statistical analysis revealed that the group with the T/T genotype of the T102C polymorphism, implying a stronger binding potential of the 5-HT2a receptor, indeed had significantly higher Absorption scores (F = 10.00, P = 0.002), while no main effect was found for the COMT polymorphism. However, the interaction between T102C and COMT genotypes yielded significance (F = 3.89; P = 0.049), underlining the known functional interaction between the 5-HT and the dopaminergic system. These findings point to biological foundations of the personality trait of Absorption.

  18. A common BIM deletion polymorphism mediates intrinsic resistance and inferior responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cancer.

    PubMed

    Ng, King Pan; Hillmer, Axel M; Chuah, Charles T H; Juan, Wen Chun; Ko, Tun Kiat; Teo, Audrey S M; Ariyaratne, Pramila N; Takahashi, Naoto; Sawada, Kenichi; Fei, Yao; Soh, Sheila; Lee, Wah Heng; Huang, John W J; Allen, John C; Woo, Xing Yi; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Kumar, Vikrant; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Poh, Wan Ting; Ang, Ai Leen; Mya, Hae Tha; How, Gee Fung; Yang, Li Yi; Koh, Liang Piu; Chowbay, Balram; Chang, Chia-Tien; Nadarajan, Veera S; Chng, Wee Joo; Than, Hein; Lim, Lay Cheng; Goh, Yeow Tee; Zhang, Shenli; Poh, Dianne; Tan, Patrick; Seet, Ju-Ee; Ang, Mei-Kim; Chau, Noan-Minh; Ng, Quan-Sing; Tan, Daniel S W; Soda, Manabu; Isobe, Kazutoshi; Nöthen, Markus M; Wong, Tien Y; Shahab, Atif; Ruan, Xiaoan; Cacheux-Rataboul, Valère; Sung, Wing-Kin; Tan, Eng Huat; Yatabe, Yasushi; Mano, Hiroyuki; Soo, Ross A; Chin, Tan Min; Lim, Wan-Teck; Ruan, Yijun; Ong, S Tiong

    2012-03-18

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) elicit high response rates among individuals with kinase-driven malignancies, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and epidermal growth factor receptor-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (EGFR NSCLC). However, the extent and duration of these responses are heterogeneous, suggesting the existence of genetic modifiers affecting an individual's response to TKIs. Using paired-end DNA sequencing, we discovered a common intronic deletion polymorphism in the gene encoding BCL2-like 11 (BIM). BIM is a pro-apoptotic member of the B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family of proteins, and its upregulation is required for TKIs to induce apoptosis in kinase-driven cancers. The polymorphism switched BIM splicing from exon 4 to exon 3, which resulted in expression of BIM isoforms lacking the pro-apoptotic BCL2-homology domain 3 (BH3). The polymorphism was sufficient to confer intrinsic TKI resistance in CML and EGFR NSCLC cell lines, but this resistance could be overcome with BH3-mimetic drugs. Notably, individuals with CML and EGFR NSCLC harboring the polymorphism experienced significantly inferior responses to TKIs than did individuals without the polymorphism (P = 0.02 for CML and P = 0.027 for EGFR NSCLC). Our results offer an explanation for the heterogeneity of TKI responses across individuals and suggest the possibility of personalizing therapy with BH3 mimetics to overcome BIM-polymorphism-associated TKI resistance.

  19. Association of common C-protein (CRP) gene polymorphism with baseline plasma CRP levels and fenofibrate response: The GOLDN Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    OBJECTIVE-C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory marker that contributes to the prediction of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We investigated the influence of CRP polymorphisms on baseline CRP levels and fenofibrate-induced CRP changes in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). RESEARCH DES...

  20. Influence of IL-18 and IL-10 Polymorphisms on Tacrolimus Elimination in Chinese Lung Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Xu, Jiandong; Zhang, Tao; Li, Yuping; Xie, Boxiong; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Shengtao; Ye, Ling; Liu, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Aims. The influence of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) polymorphisms on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics had been described in liver and kidney transplantation. The expression of cytokines varied in different kinds of transplantation. The influence of IL-10 and IL-18 genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetic parameters of tacrolimus remains unclear in lung transplantation. Methods. 51 lung transplant patients at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital were included. IL-18 polymorphisms (rs5744247 and rs1946518), IL-10 polymorphisms (rs1800896, rs1800872, and rs3021097), and CYP3A5 rs776746 were genotyped. Dose-adjusted trough blood concentrations (C/D ratio, mg/kg body weight) in lung transplant patients during the first 4 postoperative weeks were calculated. Results. IL-18 rs5744247 allele C and rs1946518 allele A were associated with fast tacrolimus metabolism. Combined analysis showed that the numbers of low IL-18 mRNA expression alleles had positive correlation with tacrolimus C/D ratios in lung transplant recipients. The influence of IL-18 polymorphisms on tacrolimus C/D ratios was observed in CYP3A5 expresser recipients, but not in CYP3A5 nonexpresser recipients. No clinical significance of tacrolimus C/D ratios difference of IL-10 polymorphisms was found in our data. Conclusions. IL-18 polymorphisms may influence tacrolimus elimination in lung transplantation patients. PMID:28246425

  1. Influence of GSTT1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Arsenic Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kile, Molly L.; Houseman, E. Andres; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Mostofa, Golam; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Christiani, David C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A repeated measures study was conducted in Pabna, Bangladesh to investigate factors that influence biomarkers of arsenic exposure. Drinking water arsenic concentrations were measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and urinary arsenic species [arsenite (As3), arsenate (As5), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] were detected using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Hydride Generated Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HGAAS). Linear mixed effects models with random intercepts were used to evaluate the effects of arsenic contaminated drinking water, genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-S-transferase (GSTT1 and GSTM1) on total urinary arsenic, primary methylation index [MMA/(As3+As5)], secondary methylation index (DMA/MMA), and total methylation index [(MMA+DMA)/(As3+As5)]. Drinking water arsenic concentrations were positively associated with total urinary arsenic concentrations and total methylation index. A significant gene-environment interaction was observed between urinary arsenic exposure in drinking water GSTT1 but not GSTM1 where GSTT1 null individuals had a slightly higher excretion rate of arsenic compared to GSTT1 wildtypes after adjusting for other factors. Additionally, individuals with GSTT1 null genotypes had a higher primary methylation index and lower secondary methylation index compared to GSTT1 wildtype after adjusting for other factors. This data suggests that GSTT1 contributes to the observed variability in arsenic metabolism. Since individuals with a higher primary methylation index and lower secondary methylation index are more susceptible to arsenic related disease, these results suggest that GSTT1 null individuals may be more susceptible to arsenic-related toxicity. No significant associations were observed between GSTM1 and any of the arsenic methylation indices. PMID:24511153

  2. Influence of GSTT1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Arsenic Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kile, Molly L; Houseman, E Andres; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Mostofa, Golam; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Christiani, David C

    2013-08-01

    A repeated measures study was conducted in Pabna, Bangladesh to investigate factors that influence biomarkers of arsenic exposure. Drinking water arsenic concentrations were measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and urinary arsenic species [arsenite (As3), arsenate (As5), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] were detected using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Hydride Generated Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HGAAS). Linear mixed effects models with random intercepts were used to evaluate the effects of arsenic contaminated drinking water, genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-S-transferase (GSTT1 and GSTM1) on total urinary arsenic, primary methylation index [MMA/(As3+As5)], secondary methylation index (DMA/MMA), and total methylation index [(MMA+DMA)/(As3+As5)]. Drinking water arsenic concentrations were positively associated with total urinary arsenic concentrations and total methylation index. A significant gene-environment interaction was observed between urinary arsenic exposure in drinking water GSTT1 but not GSTM1 where GSTT1 null individuals had a slightly higher excretion rate of arsenic compared to GSTT1 wildtypes after adjusting for other factors. Additionally, individuals with GSTT1 null genotypes had a higher primary methylation index and lower secondary methylation index compared to GSTT1 wildtype after adjusting for other factors. This data suggests that GSTT1 contributes to the observed variability in arsenic metabolism. Since individuals with a higher primary methylation index and lower secondary methylation index are more susceptible to arsenic related disease, these results suggest that GSTT1 null individuals may be more susceptible to arsenic-related toxicity. No significant associations were observed between GSTM1 and any of the arsenic methylation indices.

  3. Identification of common, unique and polymorphic microsatellites among 73 cyanobacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Kabra, Ritika; Kapil, Aditi; Attarwala, Kherunnisa; Rai, Piyush Kant; Shanker, Asheesh

    2016-04-01

    Microsatellites also known as Simple Sequence Repeats are short tandem repeats of 1-6 nucleotides. These repeats are found in coding as well as non-coding regions of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and play a significant role in the study of gene regulation, genetic mapping, DNA fingerprinting and evolutionary studies. The availability of 73 complete genome sequences of cyanobacteria enabled us to mine and statistically analyze microsatellites in these genomes. The cyanobacterial microsatellites identified through bioinformatics analysis were stored in a user-friendly database named CyanoSat, which is an efficient data representation and query system designed using ASP.net. The information in CyanoSat comprises of perfect, imperfect and compound microsatellites found in coding, non-coding and coding-non-coding regions. Moreover, it contains PCR primers with 200 nucleotides long flanking region. The mined cyanobacterial microsatellites can be freely accessed at www.compubio.in/CyanoSat/home.aspx. In addition to this 82 polymorphic, 13,866 unique and 2390 common microsatellites were also detected. These microsatellites will be useful in strain identification and genetic diversity studies of cyanobacteria.

  4. The frequency of 4 common gene polymorphisms in nonagenarians, centenarians, and average life span individuals.

    PubMed

    Kolovou, Genovefa; Kolovou, Vana; Vasiliadis, Ioannis; Giannakopoulou, Vasiliki; Mihas, Constantinos; Bilianou, Helen; Kollia, Aikaterini; Papadopoulou, Evaggelia; Marvaki, Apostolia; Goumas, Georgos; Kalogeropoulos, Petros; Limperi, Sotiria; Katsiki, Niki; Mavrogeni, Sophie

    2014-03-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) such as rs1799752, nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) such as rs28362491 and cholesteryl ester transport protein (CETP) such as rs708272 (TaqB1) and rs5882 (I405V) were evaluated in nonagenarians, centenarians, and average life span individuals (controls). The study population (n = 307; 190 nonagenarians, 12 centenarians and 105 middle-aged controls) was genotyped for ACE, NFkB, and CETP genetic variants. The age of nonagenarian and centenarian group ranged between 90 and 111 years; centenarians and controls age ranged from 99 to 111, and from 18 to 80 years, respectively. The I carriers of ACE I/D gene were fewer in nonagenarians compared to centenarians (37.6% vs 62.5%, P = .016). The I carriers of ACE gene were more frequent in centenarians compared to controls (62% vs 41%, P = .045). No differences in frequency of common NFkB and CETP genotypes between patients with exceptional longevity and middle-aged patients were observed.

  5. Common DISC1 polymorphisms disrupt Wnt/GSK3β-signaling and brain development

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Karun K.; DiRienzo, Gianluca; Drane, Laurel; Mao, Yingwei; Flood, Zachary; Madison, Jon; Ferreira, Manuel; Bergen, Sarah; King, Cillian; Sklar, Pamela; Sive, Hazel; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2011-01-01

    Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) is a candidate gene for psychiatric disorders and has many roles during brain development. Common DISC1 polymorphisms (variants) are associated with neuropsychiatric phenotypes including altered cognition, brain structure and function; however, it is unknown how this occurs. Here we demonstrate using mouse, zebrafish and human model systems that DISC1 variants are loss of function in Wnt/GSK3β signaling and disrupt brain development. The DISC1 variants A83V, R264Q and L607F, but not S704C, do not activate Wnt signaling compared to wild type DISC1 resulting in decreased neural progenitor proliferation. In zebrafish, R264Q and L607F could not rescue DISC1 knockdown mediated aberrant brain development. Furthermore, human lymphoblast cell lines endogenously expressing R264Q displayed impaired Wnt signaling. Interestingly, S704C inhibited the migration of neurons in the developing neocortex. Our data demonstrate DISC1 variants impair Wnt signaling and brain development, and elucidate a possible mechanism for their role in neuropsychiatric phenotypes. PMID:22099458

  6. A Common Phenotype Polymorphism in Mammalian Brains Defined by Concomitant Production of Prolactin and Growth Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Daude, Nathalie; Lee, Inyoul; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Janus, Christopher; Glaves, John Paul; Gapeshina, Hristina; Yang, Jing; Sykes, Brian D.; Carlson, George A.; Hood, Leroy E.; Westaway, David

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary Prolactin (PRL) and Growth Hormone (GH) are separately controlled and sub-serve different purposes. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that extra-pituitary expression in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is coordinated at mRNA and protein levels. However this was not a uniform effect within populations, such that wide inter-individual variation was superimposed on coordinate PRL/GH expression. Up to 44% of individuals in healthy cohorts of mice and rats showed protein levels above the norm and coordinated expression of PRL and GH transcripts above baseline occurred in the amygdala, frontal lobe and hippocampus of 10% of human subjects. High levels of PRL and GH present in post mortem tissue were often presaged by altered responses in fear conditioning and stress induced hyperthermia behavioral tests. Our data define a common phenotype polymorphism in healthy mammalian brains, and, given the pleiotropic effects known for circulating PRL and GH, further consequences of coordinated CNS over-expression may await discovery. PMID:26894278

  7. Molecular analysis of common polymorphisms within the human Tyrosinase locus and genetic association with pigmentation traits

    PubMed Central

    Jagirdar, Kasturee; Smit, Darren J.; Ainger, Stephen A.; Lee, Katie J.; Brown, Darren L.; Chapman, Brett; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Stow, Jennifer L.; Duffy, David L.; Sturm, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We have compared the melanogenic activities of cultured melanocytes carrying two common TYR alleles as homozygous 192S-402R wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous variant. This includes assays of TYR protein, DOPAoxidase activity, glycosylation and temperature sensitivity of protein and DOPAoxidase levels. Homozygous wildtype strains on average had higher levels of TYR protein and enzyme activity than other genotypes. Homozygous 402Q/Q melanocytes produced significantly less TYR protein, displayed altered trafficking and glycosylation, with reduced DOPAoxidase. However, near wildtype TYR activity levels could be recovered at lower growth temperature. In a sample population from Southeast Queensland these two polymorphisms were present on four TYR haplotypes, designated as WT 192S-402R, 192Y-402R, 192S-402Q with a double variant 192Y-402Q of low frequency at 1.9%. Based on cell culture findings and haplotype associations, we have used an additive model to assess the penetrance of the ten possible TYR genotypes derived from the combination of these haplotypes. PMID:24739399

  8. Common oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism and social support interact to reduce stress in humans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Frances S.; Kumsta, Robert; von Dawans, Bernadette; Monakhov, Mikhail; Ebstein, Richard P.; Heinrichs, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin has played an essential role in the regulation of social behavior and attachment throughout mammalian evolution. Because recent studies in humans have shown that oxytocin administration reduces stress responses and increases prosocial behavior, we investigated whether a common single nucleotide polymorphism (rs53576) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) might interact with stress-protective effects of social support. Salivary cortisol samples and subjective stress ratings were obtained from 194 healthy male participants before, during, and after a standardized psychosocial laboratory stress procedure. Participants were randomly assigned either to prepare alone or to receive social support from their female partner or close female friend while preparing for the stressful task. Differential stress responses between the genotype groups were observed depending on the presence or absence of social support. Only individuals with one or two copies of the G allele of rs53576 showed lower cortisol responses to stress after social support, compared with individuals with the same genotype receiving no social support. These results indicate that genetic variation of the oxytocin system modulates the effectiveness of positive social interaction as a protective buffer against a stressful experience. PMID:22123970

  9. Associations between common fibrinogen gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular disease in older adults. The Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Carty, Cara L; Cushman, Mary; Jones, Daniel; Lange, Leslie A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Rice, Kenneth; Jenny, Nancy S; Durda, J Peter; Walston, Jeremy; Carlson, Christopher S; Nickerson, Debbie; Tracy, Russell P; Reiner, Alex P

    2008-02-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but associations between fibrinogen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease risk are inconsistent. We investigated whether common (> or = 5% minor allele frequency) variation in the fibrinogen genes (FGA, FGB, FGG) is associated with fibrinogen concentration, carotid artery intima-medial thickness (IMT) and risk of incident myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke and CVD mortality in European- (EA) and African-descent (AA) adults (> or = 65 years) from the Cardiovascular Health Study. TagSNPs were genotyped in 3,969 EA and 719 AA free of MI or stroke at baseline. Race-specific models included multiple testing correction and adjustment for sex, age and site. Among EA, minor alleles of FGA3807, FGB1437 and FGG902 were associated with higher fibrinogen levels; whereas FGA251, FGA2224, FGA6534 and FGG10034 were associated with lower levels, p<0.004 for each. Strongest associations were seen for FGB1437; each additional copy of the minor allele was associated with 13 mg/dl (95%CI: 9-16) higher fibrinogen level. Similar trends in AA were not significant. Fibrinogen haplotypes were not significantly associated with internal or common carotid IMT. No associations with MI or CVD mortality were seen in EA, though FGB1038 and FGG902 were significantly associated with increased and decreased risk of stroke in men, respectively, as were related haplotypes. FGB1038 was also associated with CVD mortality in AA, HR = 1.9 (95%CI: 1.3-2.7). In conclusion, while fibrinogen genetic variation was strongly associated with fibrinogen levels, there was less evidence of association with the more complex outcomes of IMT and CVD events.

  10. Development of polymorphic expressed sequence tag-single sequence repeat markers in the common Chinese cuttlefish, Sepiella maindroni.

    PubMed

    Li, R H; Lu, S K; Zhang, C L; Song, W W; Mu, C K; Wang, C L

    2014-07-25

    The common Chinese cuttlefish (Sepiella maindroni) is one of the popular edible cephalopod consumed across Asia. To facilitate the population genetic investigation of this species, we developed fourteen polymorphic microsatellite makers from expressed sequence tags of S. maindroni. The number of alleles at each locus ranged from 6 to 10 with an average of 7.9 alleles per locus. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were from 0.615 to 0.962 and 0.685 to 0.888, respectively. Four loci were found deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.638 to 0.833. These polymorphic microsatellite loci will be helpful for the population genetic, genetic linkage map, and other genetic studies of S. maindroni.

  11. Common polymorphisms in CD44 gene and susceptibility to cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 45 studies

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Tingting; Cai, Yangke; Xu, Yue; Yan, Cunye; Zhang, Li; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    CD44 is one of the commonly recognized stem cell markers, which plays a critical role in many cancer related cellular processes. Relationships between CD44 polymorphisms and cancer risk have been widely investigated previously, whereas results derived from these studies were inconclusive and controversial. We conducted present meta-analysis aiming to explore the association between CD44 polymorphisms and cancer risk. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs) corresponding with the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to make the evaluation clear. Embase, Web of Science, PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were retrieved to identify all eligible publications. As a result, a total of 12 publications comprised 25,777 cases and 27,485 controls fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Nevertheless, the pooled analyses suggested that no significant association was uncovered between CD44 (rs10836347, rs11821102, rs13347, rs1425802, rs353639, rs713330 and rs187115) polymorphisms with overall cancer risk. Subsequently, we conducted subgroup analysis for rs13347 polymorphism based on source of control, and we identified a significantly increased cancer risk for the population-based (P-B) group restricted to a recessive model (TT vs. TC+CC: OR = 2.030, 95%CI: 1.163-3.545, PAdjust < 0.001). In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrates that CD44 polymorphisms may not represent risk factors for cancer. Future well-designed large-scale case-control studies are warranted to verify our findings. PMID:27738347

  12. Correlation analysis between starch properties and single nucleotide polymorphisms of waxy genes in common rye (Secale cereale L.).

    PubMed

    Meng, M; Gao, X; Han, L J; Li, X Y; Wu, D; Li, H Z; Chen, Q J

    2014-01-14

    To understand the relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the waxy gene and starch parameters in common rye, we performed sequence characterization, enzyme activity testing, amylopectin/amylose ratio evaluation, starch property testing, and correlation analysis. Specific primers were used to clone waxy from 20 rye cultivars. Sequence analysis showed that waxy was 2852 bp, including 11 exons, and sequence similarity across the 20 cultivars was over 98%. The Waxy protein showed >95% similarity with those from wheat, rice, and barley, the closest genetic relationship being with wheat Wx-A type. Waxy had multiple SNPs, most of which were located in the exons. Amino acid variants were found to be mainly distributed in the catalytic domain in an imbalanced state. Multi-factor correlation analysis revealed significant correlation among starch pasting parameters in rye flour. The Waxy protein activity was significantly negatively correlated with the amylose content and amylopectin/amylose ratio. However, pasting parameters, Waxy enzyme activity, and amylopectin/amylose content ratio were not correlated. The correlation of SNPs, the key catalytic site of Waxy, with starch parameters and enzyme activity suggested that both starch pasting parameters and Waxy protein activity were influenced by No. 260 amino acid (aa). Further, the 141 and 152 aa loci were found in the enzyme-catalyzing domain of Waxy. Interestingly, Waxy enzyme activity was also influenced by the 363 aa locus in the pliable region. These results provide important theoretical regarding the high-throughput quality identification of noodle starch, functional studies, directional selection, and molecular markers of wheat Wx subunits.

  13. Common Genetic Polymorphisms within NFκB-Related Genes and the Risk of Developing Invasive Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Lupiañez, Carmen B.; Villaescusa, María T.; Carvalho, Agostinho; Springer, Jan; Lackner, Michaela; Sánchez-Maldonado, José M.; Canet, Luz M.; Cunha, Cristina; Segura-Catena, Juana; Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Solano, Carlos; Fianchi, Luana; Pagano, Livio; Potenza, Leonardo; Aguado, José M.; Luppi, Mario; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Einsele, Hermann; Vázquez, Lourdes; Ríos-Tamayo, Rafael; Loeffler, Jurgen; Jurado, Manuel; Sainz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Aspergillosis (IA) is an opportunistic infection caused by Aspergillus, a ubiquitously present airborne pathogenic mold. A growing number of studies suggest a major host genetic component in disease susceptibility. Here, we evaluated whether 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms within NFκB1, NFκB2, RelA, RelB, Rel, and IRF4 genes influence the risk of IA in a population of 834 high-risk patients (157 IA and 677 non-IA) recruited through a collaborative effort involving the aspBIOmics consortium and four European clinical institutions. No significant overall associations between selected SNPs and the risk of IA were found in this large cohort. Although a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)-stratified analysis revealed that carriers of the IRF4rs12203592T/T genotype had a six-fold increased risk of developing the infection when compared with those carrying the C allele (ORREC = 6.24, 95%CI 1.25–31.2, P = 0.026), the association of this variant with IA risk did not reach significance at experiment-wide significant threshold. In addition, we found an association of the IRF4AATC and IRF4GGTC haplotypes (not including the IRF4rs12203592T risk allele) with a decreased risk of IA but the magnitude of the association was similar to the one observed in the single-SNP analysis, which indicated that the haplotypic effect on IA risk was likely due to the IRF4rs12203592 SNP. Finally, no evidence of significant interactions among the genetic markers tested and the risk of IA was found. These results suggest that the SNPs on the studied genes do not have a clinically relevant impact on the risk of developing IA. PMID:27570521

  14. Sex, Drugs, and Rock ‘N’ Roll: Hypothesizing Common Mesolimbic Activation as a Function of Reward Gene Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Werner, Tonia; Carnes, Stefanie; Carnes, Patrick; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Giordano, John; Marlene-Oscar-Berman; Gold, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens, a site within the ventral striatum, plays a prominent role in mediating the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, food, sex, and other addictions. Indeed, it is generally believed that this structure mandates motivated behaviors such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity, which are elicited by natural rewards and other strong incentive stimuli. This article focuses on sex addiction, but we hypothesize that there is a common underlying mechanism of action for the powerful effects that all addictions have on human motivation. That is, biological drives may have common molecular genetic antecedents, which if impaired, lead to aberrant behaviors. Based on abundant scientific support, we further hypothesize that dopaminergic genes, and possibly other candidate neurotransmitter-related gene polymorphisms, affect both hedonic and anhedonic behavioral outcomes. Genotyping studies already have linked gene polymorphic associations with alcohol and drug addictions and obesity, and we anticipate that future genotyping studies of sex addicts will provide evidence for polymorphic associations with specific clustering of sexual typologies based on clinical instrument assessments. We recommend that scientists and clinicians embark on research coupling the use of neuroimaging tools with dopaminergic agonistic agents to target specific gene polymorphisms systematically for normalizing hyper- or hypo-sexual behaviors. PMID:22641964

  15. Sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll: hypothesizing common mesolimbic activation as a function of reward gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Blum, Kenneth; Werner, Tonia; Carnes, Stefanie; Carnes, Patrick; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Giordano, John; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Gold, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens, a site within the ventral striatum, plays a prominent role in mediating the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, food, sex, and other addictions. Indeed, it is generally believed that this structure mandates motivated behaviors such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity, which are elicited by natural rewards and other strong incentive stimuli. This article focuses on sex addiction, but we hypothesize that there is a common underlying mechanism of action for the powerful effects that all addictions have on human motivation. That is, biological drives may have common molecular genetic antecedents, which if impaired, lead to aberrant behaviors. Based on abundant scientific support, we further hypothesize that dopaminergic genes, and possibly other candidate neurotransmitter-related gene polymorphisms, affect both hedonic and anhedonic behavioral outcomes. Genotyping studies already have linked gene polymorphic associations with alcohol and drug addictions and obesity, and we anticipate that future genotyping studies of sex addicts will provide evidence for polymorphic associations with specific clustering of sexual typologies based on clinical instrument assessments. We recommend that scientists and clinicians embark on research coupling the use of neuroimaging tools with dopaminergic agonistic agents to target specific gene polymorphisms systematically for normalizing hyper- or hypo-sexual behaviors.

  16. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    PubMed Central

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Olde Loohuis, Loes M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; van ’t Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Jönsson, Erik G.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences1. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement2, learning, memory3 and motivation4, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease2. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume5 and intracranial volume6. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10−33; 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability inhuman brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:25607358

  17. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures.

    PubMed

    Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Renteria, Miguel E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Olde Loohuis, Loes M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; van Eijk, Kristel R; Walters, Raymond K; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Winkler, Anderson M; Zwiers, Marcel P; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M H; Hartberg, Cecilie B; Haukvik, Unn K; Heister, Angelien J G A M; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Makkinje, Remco R R; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A M; McKay, D Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S L; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Bastin, Mark E; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Carless, Melanie A; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K; Hartman, Catharina A; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; McMahon, Katie L; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Mostert, Jeanette C; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Nalls, Michael A; Nichols, Thomas E; Nilsson, Lars G; Nöthen, Markus M; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; van 't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J A; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J; Wassink, Thomas H; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Ashbrook, David G; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J; Morris, Derek W; Williams, Robert W; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Roffman, Joshua L; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smoller, Jordan W; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brouwer, Rachel M; Cannon, Dara M; Cookson, Mark R; de Geus, Eco J C; Deary, Ian J; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C; Grabe, Hans J; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Jönsson, Erik G; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; Ophoff, Roel A; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Weale, Michael E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Adams, Hieab H H; Launer, Lenore J; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L; Becker, James T; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W T; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M; Medland, Sarah E

    2015-04-09

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume and intracranial volume. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.

  18. 5-hydroxytryptamine1B receptor and triptan response in migraine, lack of association with common polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Velati, Daniela; Viana, Michele; Cresta, Stefania; Mantegazza, Paola; Testa, Lucia; Bettucci, Diego; Rinaldi, Maurizio; Sances, Grazia; Tassorelli, Cristina; Nappi, Giuseppe; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Martignoni, Emilia; Genazzani, Armando A

    2008-02-02

    Triptans mediate vasoconstriction of meningeal vessels via stimulation of vascular 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(1B) receptors. These drugs are recommended for acute treatment in patients with moderate-to-severe migraine attacks and in those patients with mild-to-moderate headache that are not controlled adequately by other agents. Yet, approximately 25% of all migraine users and 40% of all attacks do not respond to triptan treatment. Among the hypothesis to explain this is the possibility that genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms that alter the receptor, for example changing the transcriptional rate and therefore the amount of target protein might change the clinical response to these drugs. In the present contribution, we therefore decided to evaluate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms on the 5-HT(1B) gene might contribute to inter-individual variability in clinical responses to triptans. Two polymorphisms in the promoter region of the 5-HT(1B) receptor (T-261G and A-161T) and the synonymous variation G861C in the coding region were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism in 105 migraine patients. In our sample population, 71% of patients responded to triptans. Allelic and diplotype frequencies were not significantly different between responders and non-responders. On the other hand, extrapolation of in vitro data on promoter activity would suggest that patients with higher copy number of receptors respond slightly better. Our data therefore do not support the involvement of 5-HT(1B) single nucleotide polymorphisms in mediating the inter-individual variability to triptans.

  19. Association between common CYP1A2 polymorphisms and theophylline metabolism in non-smoking healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqing; Hu, Zheyi; Deng, Xun; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Zhongyi; Cheng, Ze-Neng

    2013-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 polymorphisms on theophylline metabolism in a non-smoking healthy male Chinese population. Four polymorphisms CYP1A2 1C (G-3860A), G-3113A, CYP1A2 1F (C-163A) and CYP1A2 1B (C-5347T) were screened in 238 unrelated male volunteers. Then, a single oral 200-mg dose of theophylline was administered to 37 volunteers, who were selected from 238 volunteers based on the CYP1A2 genotype. CYP1A2 activities were evaluated by plasma 1,7-dimethylxanthine/caffeine ratios (17X/137X) after administration of 100-mg caffeine. The plasma concentrations of theophylline, 17X and 137X were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The activity of CYP1A2 was lower in volunteers with the -3113 AA genotype compared with those with the -3113 AG genotype (0.35 ± 0.04 versus 0.48 ± 0.07, p = 0.016) or the -3113 GG genotype (0.35 ± 0.04 versus 0.58 ± 0.22, p = 0.037). CYP1A2 1F polymorphisms were associated with increased CYP1A2 activity in volunteers with -3860G/-3113G/5347C homozygosity (0.66 ± 0.24 versus 0.46 ± 0.05, p = 0.034). However, theophylline metabolism showed no difference among volunteers carrying different haplotype pairs. CYP1A2 genetic polymorphisms influenced CYP1A2 enzyme activity as measured by caffeine, but CYP1A2 gene polymorphisms appeared to have limited influence on theophylline metabolism in our study. © 2012 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2012 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  20. Drug consumption in medication overuse headache is influenced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Cherubino; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Sances, Grazia; Ghiotto, Natascia; Guaschino, Elena; Grieco, Gaetano S; Santorelli, Filippo M; Casali, Carlo; Troisi, Alfonso; Siracusano, Alberto; Pierelli, Francesco

    2009-10-01

    Medication overuse headache (MOH) can be considered a clinical condition at the boundaries between drug addiction and chronic pain disorder. The common 196G > A single-nucleotide polymorphism of BDNF gene, resulting in a valine 66 to methionine (Val66Met), is related with behaviour disorders and substance abuse. With the aim of identifying a worsening factor in MOH, rather than the detection of a specific risk factor for the development of the disease, we investigated whether the presence of a functional BDNF polymorphism might determine clinical differences within a group of 90 MOH patients, particularly in monthly drug consumption, that is the hallmark of disease. Directly comparing MOH patients homozygous for G allele (G/G) with carriers of A allele (non-G/G), we have observed 47 G/G genotypes and 60 non-G/G genotypes. Non-G/G had a higher consumption of monthly drug number (Cohen's d = 0.76) than G/G patients. At multiple regression analysis, the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism emerged as a significant independent predictor of analgesic drug consumption (Beta = 0.33, Cohen's f(2) = 0.134). These findings showed an influence of examined BDNF polymorphism in the MOH clinical features, supporting the idea that MOH is a substance abuse disorder.

  1. A Common Polymorphism in SCN2A Predicts General Cognitive Ability Through Effects on Prefrontal Cortex Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Scult, Matthew A.; Trampush, Joey W.; Zheng, Fengyu; Conley, Emily Drabant; Lencz, Todd; Malhotra, Anil K.; Dickinson, Dwight; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Here we provide novel convergent evidence across three independent cohorts of healthy adults (n=531) demonstrating that a common polymorphism in the gene encoding the α2 subunit of neuronal voltage-gated type II sodium channels (SCN2A) predicts human general cognitive ability or “g.” Using meta-analysis, we demonstrate that the minor T allele of a common polymorphism (rs10174400) in SCN2A is associated with significantly higher “g” independent of gender and age. We further demonstrate using resting-state fMRI data from our discovery cohort (n=236) that this genetic advantage may be mediated by increased capacity for information processing between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, which support higher cognitive functions. Collectively, these findings fill a gap in our understanding of the genetics of general cognitive ability and highlight a specific neural mechanism through which a common polymorphism shapes inter-individual variation in “g.” PMID:25961639

  2. Count on dopamine: influences of COMT polymorphisms on numerical cognition

    PubMed Central

    Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Antunes, Andressa M.; Lopes-Silva, Júlia B.; Moreira, Bárbara C.; Vianna, Gabrielle S.; Wood, Guilherme; Carvalho, Maria R. S.; Haase, Vitor G.

    2013-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that is particularly important for the metabolism of dopamine. Functional polymorphisms of COMT have been implicated in working memory and numerical cognition. This is an exploratory study that aims at investigating associations between COMT polymorphisms, working memory, and numerical cognition. Elementary school children from 2th to 6th grades were divided into two groups according to their COMT val158met polymorphism [homozygous for valine allele (n = 61) vs. heterozygous plus methionine homozygous children or met+ group (n = 94)]. Both groups were matched for age and intelligence. Working memory was assessed through digit span and Corsi blocks. Symbolic numerical processing was assessed through transcoding and single-digit word problem tasks. Non-symbolic magnitude comparison and estimation tasks were used to assess number sense. Between-group differences were found in symbolic and non-symbolic numerical tasks, but not in working memory tasks. Children in the met+ group showed better performance in all numerical tasks while val homozygous children presented slower development of non-symbolic magnitude representations. These results suggest COMT-related dopaminergic modulation may be related not only to working memory, as found in previous studies, but also to the development of magnitude processing and magnitude representations. PMID:23966969

  3. Influence of GST gene polymorphisms on busulfan pharmacokinetics in children.

    PubMed

    Ansari, M; Lauzon-Joset, J-F; Vachon, M-F; Duval, M; Théoret, Y; Champagne, M A; Krajinovic, M

    2010-02-01

    Busulfan (BU) is a key compound in conditioning myeloablative regimens for children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). There are wide interindividual differences in BU pharmacokinetics, which increase the risk of veno-occlusive disease, graft rejection and disease relapse. As BU is mainly metabolized by glutathione S-transferase (GST), it is hypothesized that functional polymorphisms in GST genes may explain in part the variability in BU pharmacokinetics. We analyzed polymorphisms in GSTA1 (C-69T, A-513G, G-631T, C-1142G), GSTM1 (deletion) and GSTP1 (A1578G, C2293T) genes in 28 children undergoing HSCT. All patients had individualized dosing based on pharmacokinetics after the first dose of intravenous BU. GSTM1-null individuals had higher drug exposure (P(Cmax)=0.008; P(AUC)=0.003; P(Css)=0.02) and lower clearance (P(CL)=0.001). Multivariate regression models showed that, other than the drug dose and age, the GSTM1 genotype was the best predictor of first-dose pharmacokinetic variability. GSTM1-null patients also received lower cumulative BU doses (P=0.02). No association was found between BU exposure and major GSTA1 or GSTP1 gene variants. In children, GSTM1 polymorphism seems to modify BU pharmacokinetics after intravenous drug administration.

  4. Mitochondrial localization of the OAS1 p46 isoform associated with a common single nucleotide polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The expression of 2′-5′-Oligoadenylate synthetases (OASs) is induced by type 1 Interferons (IFNs) in response to viral infection. The OAS proteins have a unique ability to produce 2′-5′ Oligoadenylates, which bind and activate the ribonuclease RNase L. The RNase L degrades cellular RNAs which in turn inhibits protein translation and induces apoptosis. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OAS1 gene have been associated with disease. We have investigated the functional effect of two common SNPs in the OAS1 gene. The SNP rs10774671 affects splicing to one of the exons in the OAS1 gene giving rise to differential expression of the OAS1 isoforms, and the SNP rs1131454 (former rs3741981) resides in exon 3 giving rise to OAS1 isoforms with either a Glycine or a Serine at position 162 in the core OAS unit. Results We have used three human cell lines with different genotypes in the OAS1 SNP rs10774671, HeLa cells with the AA genotype, HT1080 cells with AG, and Daudi cells with GG. The main OAS1 isoform expressed in Daudi and HT1080 cells was p46, and the main OAS1 isoform expressed in HeLa cells was p42. In addition, low levels of the OAS1 p52 mRNA was detected in HeLa cells and p48 mRNA in Daudi cells, and trace amounts of p44a mRNA were detected in the three cell lines treated with type 1 interferon. We show that the OAS1 p46 isoform was localized in the mitochondria in Daudi cells, whereas the OAS1 isoforms in HeLa cells were primarily localized in cytoplasmic vacuoles/lysosomes. By using recombinantly expressed OAS1 mutant proteins, we found that the OAS1 SNP rs1131454 (former rs3741981) did not affect the enzymatic OAS1 activity. Conclusions The SNP rs10774671 determines differential expression of the OAS1 isoforms. In Daudi and HT1080 cells the p46 isoform is the most abundantly expressed isoform associated with the G allele, whereas in HeLa cells the most abundantly expressed isoform is p42 associated with the A allele. The SNP rs

  5. Common Genetic Variant of insig2 Gene rs7566605 Polymorphism Is Associated with Severe Obesity in North India

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jai; Mittal, Balraj; Apurva, Srivastava; Shally, Awasthi; Pranjal, Srivastava; Neena, Srivastava

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a very common disorder resulting from an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure, and it has a substantial impact on the development of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the association of INSIG2 (rs7566605) gene polymorphism with obesity and obesity associated phenotypes in North Indian subjects. The variants were investigated for association in 642 obese and non-obese individuals. The genotyping of INSIG2 (rs7566605) single nucleotide polymorphism was analyzed by the TaqMan allelic discrimination protocol. A significant association was observed for INSIG2 (rs7566605) single nucleotide polymorphism with obesity and obesity-related phenotypes. Furthermore, a significant relationship was found between the rs7566605 and insulin, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, the percentage of body fat, fat mass, leptin, and adiponectin. The present study observed significant association between INSIG2 (rs7566605) single nucleotide polymorphism and obesity, as well as obesity-associated phenotypes in North Indian population.

  6. Prevalence of common vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in HIV-infected and uninfected South Africans

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Lynne; Takuva, Simbarashe; Chirwa, Tobias; MacPhail, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background: Host genetic factors may a play role in susceptibility to infection. Vitamin-D is an immunomodulator that may play a role in HIV infection. Vitamin-D action is mediated by the vitamin-D receptor. We establish prevalence of ApaI, BsmI, FokI and TaqI polymorphisms (VDRPs) amongst a black southern African HIV+ve population and investigate polymorphic differences between HIV+ve and -ve people. Methods: Seventy-nine sex and age-group matched HIV+ve patients of African origin initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 79 HIV-ve participants, also of African origin, were recruited from a public sector HIV testing and treatment clinic and investigated for the 4 polymorphisms. The genotype frequencies were compared, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the association of HIV status and each genotype were calculated. Both dominant, co-dominant, recessive and allele models were tested. Results: We found no evidence of difference in distribution and association between HIV infection and the genotypes of the BsmI, FokI and TaqI VDR polymorphisms. The genotype distributions were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for these genotypes. The ApaI genotype showed differences in distribution by HIV status in the dominant and co-dominant models. However this finding is cautiously stated as the ApaI genotype violated the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and frequency of the minor variant was unexpectedly low in this population. Conclusion: We do not show convincing differences in distribution of the VDR genotypes among HIV+ve and HIV-ve black southern African persons. Future studies need to be replicated in larger study populations as understanding polymorphic differences and similarities may offer insights into the different susceptibility and progression of HIV in southern African populations. PMID:27186331

  7. No Evidence of Association between Common Autoimmunity STAT4 and IL23R Risk Polymorphisms and Non-Anterior Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Cordero-Coma, Miguel; Gorroño-Echebarría, Marina Begoña; Fonollosa, Alejandro; Adán, Alfredo; Martínez-Berriotxoa, Agustín; Díaz Valle, David; Pato, Esperanza; Blanco, Ricardo; Cañal, Joaquín; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; García Serrano, José Luis; de Ramón, Enrique; del Rio, María José; Martín-Villa, José Manuel; Molins, Blanca; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Martín, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Objective STAT4 and IL23R loci represent common susceptibility genetic factors in autoimmunity. We decided to investigate for the first time the possible role of different STAT4/IL23R autoimmune disease-associated polymorphisms on the susceptibility to develop non-anterior uveitis and its main clinical phenotypes. Methods Four functional polymorphisms (rs3821236, rs7574865, rs7574070, and rs897200) located within STAT4 gene as well as three independent polymorphisms (rs7517847, rs11209026, and rs1495965) located within IL23R were genotyped using TaqMan® allelic discrimination in a total of 206 patients with non-anterior uveitis and 1553 healthy controls from Spain. Results No statistically significant differences were found when allele and genotype distributions were compared between non-anterior uveitis patients and controls for any STAT4 (rs3821236: P=0.39, OR=1.12, CI 95%=0.87-1.43; rs7574865: P=0.59 OR=1.07, CI 95%=0.84-1.37; rs7574070: P=0.26, OR=0.89, CI 95%=0.72-1.10; rs897200: P=0.22, OR=0.88, CI 95%=0.71-1.08;) or IL23R polymorphisms (rs7517847: P=0.49, OR=1.08, CI 95%=0.87-1.33; rs11209026: P=0.26, OR=0.78, CI 95%=0.51-1.21; rs1495965: P=0.51, OR=0.93, CI 95%=0.76-1.15). Conclusion Our results do not support a relevant role, similar to that described for other autoimmune diseases, of IL23R and STAT4 polymorphisms in the non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition. Further studies are needed to discard a possible weak effect of the studied variant. PMID:24312163

  8. TPH-2 Polymorphisms Interact with Early Life Stress to Influence Response to Treatment with Antidepressant Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Gavin P.; Yuan, Yonggui; Shi, Yanyan; Pu, Mengjia; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Variation in genes implicated in monoamine neurotransmission may interact with environmental factors to influence antidepressant response. We aimed to determine how a range of single nucleotide polymorphisms in monoaminergic genes influence this response to treatment and how they interact with childhood trauma and recent life stress in a Chinese sample. An initial study of monoaminergic coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms identified significant associations of TPH2 and HTR1B single nucleotide polymorphisms with treatment response that showed interactions with childhood and recent life stress, respectively (Xu et al., 2012). Methods: A total of 47 further single nucleotide polymorphisms in 17 candidate monoaminergic genes were genotyped in 281 Chinese Han patients with major depressive disorder. Response to 6 weeks’ antidepressant treatment was determined by change in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score, and previous stressful events were evaluated by the Life Events Scale and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form. Results: Three TPH2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs11178998, rs7963717, and rs2171363) were significantly associated with antidepressant response in this Chinese sample, as was a haplotype in TPH2 (rs2171363 and rs1487278). One of these, rs2171363, showed a significant interaction with childhood adversity in its association with antidepressant response. Conclusions: These findings provide further evidence that variation in TPH2 is associated with antidepressant response and may also interact with childhood trauma to influence outcome of antidepressant treatment. PMID:27521242

  9. Liver fat reduction with niacin is influenced by DGAT-2 polymorphisms in hypertriglyceridemic patients

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Miao; Chu, Winnie Chiu Wing; Yamashita, Shizuya; Yeung, David Ka Wai; Shi, Lin; Wang, Defeng; Masuda, Daisaku; Yang, Yaling; Tomlinson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Niacin reduces plasma triglycerides, but it may increase free fatty acids and insulin resistance during long-term treatment. We examined the effect of extended-release niacin on liver fat content in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia and whether the common diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2) polymorphisms influenced this effect. The 39 patients (baseline liver fat content: 12.8 ± 7.6%, triglycerides: 3.30 ± 1.67 mmol/l) were treated with niacin, gradually increasing the dose to 2 g/day for a total of 23 weeks. The liver fat content and visceral/subcutaneous fat was measured before and after treatment. Subjects were genotyped for the DGAT2 rs3060 and rs101899116 polymorphisms. There were significant (P < 0.001) reductions in plasma triglycerides (−34.9 ± 37.6%), liver fat content (−47.2 ± 32.8%), and visceral fat (−6.3 ± 15.8%, P < 0.05) after niacin treatment. Mean body weight decreased by 1.46 ± 2.7% (1.17 ± 2.44 kg, P < 0.001) during the study, but liver fat changes remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, and body weight changes [mean absolute change (95% CI): −6.1% (−8.0, −4.3), P < 0.001]. The DGAT2 variant alleles were associated with a smaller reduction in liver fat content in response to niacin after adjustment for other covariates (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that niacin treatment may reduce liver fat content in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia and that the mechanism may involve inhibition of DGAT2. However, the findings might have been confounded by the small but significant reductions in body weight during the study. Future large randomized controlled trials are needed to verify these findings. PMID:22315393

  10. The RFC1 80G>A, among Common One-Carbon Polymorphisms, Relates to Survival Rate According to DNA Global Methylation in Primary Liver Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Moruzzi, Sara; Udali, Silvia; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Guglielmi, Alfredo; Guarini, Patrizia; Martinelli, Nicola; Conci, Simone; Mazzi, Filippo; Pattini, Patrizia; Tammen, Stephanie A.; Olivieri, Oliviero; Pizzolo, Francesca; Choi, Sang-Woon

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms within one-carbon metabolism genes have been largely studied in relation to cancer risk for the function of this pathway in nucleotide synthesis and DNA methylation. Aims of this study were to explore the possible link among several common functional gene polymorphisms within one-carbon metabolism and survival rate in primary liver cancers, i.e., hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, and to assess the additional effect of global DNA methylation on survival rate and mortality risk. Forty-seven primary liver cancer patients were genotyped for ten polymorphisms: DHFR 19bp ins/del, TS 2rpt-3rpt, MTHFD1 1958G>A, MTHFR 677C>T, MTR 2756A>G, MTRR 66A>G, RFC1 80G>A, SHMT1 1420C>T, BHMT 716 A>G, TC II 776C>G. Methylation was determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) DNA as methylcytosine (mCyt) content using LC/MS/MS. Among the polymorphisms analysed, the RFC1 80G>A (rs1051266) influenced the survival rate in primary liver cancers. The RFC1 80AA was associated to a significantly reduced survival rate (22.2%) as compared to both GG and GA genotypes (61.5% and 76% respectively, p = 0.005). When the cancer patients were stratified according to the mCyt median value as high (>5.34%) or low (≤5.34%), the concomitant presence of AA genotype and low mCyt level led to a significantly worse survival rate as compared to the G allele carriership (p<0.0001) with a higher Hazard Ratio (HR = 6.62, p = 0.001). The subjects carrying the AA genotype in association with high mCyt did not show a significant difference in survival rate as compared with the G allele carriers (p = 0.919). The RFC1 80G>A polymorphism influenced the survival rate, and the presence of RFC1 80AA genotype with low global methylation in PBMCs DNA was associated with poorer prognosis and higher mortality risk, therefore highlighting novel molecular signatures potentially helpful to define prognostic markers for primary liver cancers. PMID:27936032

  11. Influence of CAG Repeat Polymorphism on the Targets of Testosterone Action

    PubMed Central

    Tirabassi, Giacomo; Cignarelli, Angelo; Perrini, Sebastio; delli Muti, Nicola; Furlani, Giorgio; Gallo, Mariagrazia; Pallotti, Francesco; Paoli, Donatella; Giorgino, Francesco; Lombardo, Francesco; Gandini, Loredana; Lenzi, Andrea; Balercia, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, ample evidence has demonstrated the growing importance of androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat polymorphism in andrology. This genetic parameter is able to condition the peripheral effects of testosterone and therefore to influence male sexual function and fertility, cardiovascular risk, body composition, bone metabolism, the risk of prostate and testicular cancer, the psychiatric status, and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we extensively discuss the literature data and identify a role for AR CAG repeat polymorphism in conditioning the systemic testosterone effects. In particular, our main purpose was to provide an updated text able to shed light on the many and often contradictory findings reporting an influence of CAG repeat polymorphism on the targets of testosterone action. PMID:26421011

  12. Obesity and eating behaviour in children and adolescents: contribution of common gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Joanne; Dalton, Michelle; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John; Hetherington, Marion; Palmer, Colin

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing in many countries and confers risks for early type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. In the presence of potent 'obesogenic' environments not all children become obese, indicating the presence of susceptibility and resistance. Taking an energy balance approach, susceptibility could be mediated through a failure of appetite regulation leading to increased energy intake or via diminished energy expenditure. Evidence shows that heritability estimates for BMI and body fat are paralleled by similar coefficients for energy intake and preferences for dietary fat. Twin studies implicate weak satiety and enhanced food responsiveness as factors determining an increase in BMI. Single gene mutations, for example in the leptin receptor gene, that lead to extreme obesity appear to operate through appetite regulating mechanisms and the phenotypic response involves overconsumption and a failure to inhibit eating. Investigations of robustly characterized common gene variants of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARG) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) which contribute to variance in BMI also influence the variance in appetite factors such as measured energy intake, satiety responsiveness and the intake of palatable energy-dense food. A review of the evidence suggests that susceptibility to childhood obesity involving specific allelic variants of certain genes is mediated primarily through food consumption (appetite regulation) rather than through a decrease in activity-related energy expenditure. This conclusion has implications for early detection of susceptibility, and for prevention and management of childhood obesity.

  13. Polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha gene influences the risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Brune, S; Kölsch, H; Ptok, U; Majores, M; Schulz, A; Schlosser, R; Rao, M L; Maier, W; Heun, R

    2003-09-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha) is a member of the steroid hormone super family of ligand-inducible transcription factors, involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. We screened for polymorphisms in the PPAR-alpha gene and detected two known polymorphisms located in exon 5 and intron 7. These polymorphisms were investigated for their possible association with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and for their effect in carriers of an insulin gene (INS) polymorphism. The PPAR-alpha C --> G polymorphism in exon 5 (L162V) was associated with AD, in that the V-allele was more frequent in AD patients than in healthy subjects. Further data analysis revealed that carriers of an PPAR-alpha L162V V-allele and an INS-1 allele presented with an increased risk for AD. Cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-beta levels were influenced by PPAR-alpha L162V genotype. These results suggest, that PPAR-alpha polymorphism may be a risk factor for AD.

  14. Influence of amorphous structure on polymorphism in vanadia

    DOE PAGES

    Stone, Kevin H.; Schelhas, Laura T.; Garten, Lauren M.; ...

    2016-07-13

    Normally we think of the glassy state as a single phase and therefore crystallization from chemically identical amorphous precursors should be identical. Here we show that the local structure of an amorphous precursor is distinct depending on the initial deposition conditions, resulting in significant differences in the final state material. Using grazing incidence total x-ray scattering, we have determined the local structure in amorphous thin films of vanadium oxide grown under different conditions using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Here we show that the subsequent crystallization of films deposited using different initial PLD conditions result in the formation of different polymorphsmore » of VO2. Ultimately this suggests the possibility of controlling the formation of metastable polymorphs by tuning the initial amorphous structure to different formation pathways.« less

  15. Factors that may influence polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma growth.

    PubMed

    Soares, Andresa Borges; Martinez, Elizabeth Ferreira; Ribeiro, Patricia Fernandes Avila; Barreto, Icleia Siqueira; Aguiar, Maria Cássia; Furuse, Cristiane; Sperandio, Marcelo; Montalli, Victor Angelo; de Araújo, Ney Soares; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti

    2017-04-01

    There is mounting evidence on the importance of some biological processes in tumor growth, such as vascular supply, apoptosis, autophagy, and senescence. We have investigated these processes in polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA), in an attempt to identify those that are relevant for this particular lesion. We analyzed 31 cases of PLGA using immunohistochemistry to antibodies against CD34 and CD105 to detect blood vessels; against D2-40 to detect lymphatic vessels; against Bax, Bcl-2, and survivin to explore cell apoptosis; and against Beclin and LCB3 to investigate autophagy and against p21 and p16 to assess senescence. Our results showed that PLGA growth does not depend on newly formed vessels but only on preexisting vasculature. Furthermore, PLGA is promoted by autophagy, sustained by both anti-apoptotic and anti-senescence signals, and stimulated by Bcl-2 and survivin.

  16. Development and cross-validation of sequencing-based assays for genotyping common polymorphisms of the CXCL5 gene.

    PubMed

    Zineh, Issam; Welder, Gregory J; Langaee, Taimour Y

    2006-08-01

    Epithelial neutrophil activating peptide (ENA-78) is encoded by the polymorphic CXCL5 gene and is a recruiter and activator of neutrophils. Furthermore, ENA-78 may be involved in pathological inflammatory processes and variable drug responses. To facilitate future disease-gene and pharmacogenetic investigation of ENA-78, we developed and cross-validated medium- to high-throughput genotyping assays for 2 commonly occurring CXCL5 polymorphisms (rs352046 and rs425535). Furthermore, we compared allele and genotype frequencies in a U.S. population with those of a previously studied European population. There was 100% genotype concordance between the 2 methods used (Pyrosequencing and TaqMan). Variant allele frequencies for rs352046 were consistent between the U.S. (16%) and European (16%) populations, while the rs425535 variant allele was more than twice as high in the European cohort (38% vs. 16%). There was complete linkage of genotypes at both loci in our population. The distribution of variant alleles for the 2 polymorphisms studied should be further evaluated in other populations. In addition, our data highlight the importance of assay validation using multiple platforms.

  17. Effect of common polymorphisms in folate uptake and metabolism genes on frequency of micronucleated lymphocytes in a South Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Varinderpal; Thomas, Philip; Fenech, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes that control folate uptake and metabolism may have an important effect on chromosomal stability. The present study investigated the effect of common SNPs in some of these critical genes on frequency of lymphocytes with micronuclei, a biomarker of chromosome breakage or loss. 164 individuals (94 males and 70 females) of different age ranging from 18 to 73 years participated in this study. Polymorphisms in GCPII (C1561T), RFC (G80A), MTR (A2756G), MTRR (A66G and C524T), TS (tandem repeats, 6bp deletion in 3'-UTR region) and MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) were detected using PCR-based methods. Frequency of binucleated (BN) lymphocytes containing one or more micronuclei (BN-MN) was determined using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and adjusted for the effects of age and gender. We did not find any significant association between BN-MN frequency and the common SNPs in GCPII, MTRR, TS and MTHFR genes. BN-MN frequency in individuals who carried at least one copy of the rarer G allele for MTR (A2756G) or were homozygotes for the more common G allele for RFC (G80A) had a 14% or 19% lower BN-MN frequency compared to the alternative genotypes for that SNP respectively. It was evident from genotype combination analyses that BN-MN frequency per 1000 BN cells was highest in those with the combined MTR (2756) AA and RFC (80) GA or AA genotype (13.6 per thousand) and lowest in those with the combined MTR (2756) AG or GG and RFC (80) GG genotypes (9.5 per thousand) (P trend=0.015). The RFC G80A and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and their combinations may be important variables that substantially affect lymphocyte BN-MN frequency in this South Australian cohort.

  18. Additional Common Polymorphisms in the PON Gene Cluster Predict PON1 Activity but Not Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel S.; Burt, Amber A.; Ranchalis, Jane E.; Richter, Rebecca J.; Marshall, Julieann K.; Eintracht, Jason F.; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Furlong, Clement E.; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) enzymatic activity has been consistently predictive of cardiovascular disease, while the genotypes at the four functional polymorphisms at PON1 have not. The goal of this study was to identify additional variation at the PON gene cluster that improved prediction of PON1 activity and determine if these variants predict carotid artery disease (CAAD). Methods. We considered 1,328 males in a CAAD cohort. 51 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tag SNPs) across the PON cluster were evaluated to determine their effects on PON1 activity and CAAD status. Results. Six SNPs (four in PON1 and one each in PON2/3) predicted PON1 arylesterase (AREase) activity, in addition to the four previously known functional SNPs. In total, the 10 SNPs explained 30.1% of AREase activity, 5% of which was attributable to the six identified predictive SNPs. We replicate rs854567 prediction of 2.3% of AREase variance, the effects of rs3917510, and a PON3 haplotype that includes rs2375005. While AREase activity strongly predicted CAAD, none of the 10 SNPs predicting AREase predicted CAAD. Conclusions. This study identifies new genetic variants that predict additional PON1 AREase activity. Identification of SNPs associated with PON1 activity is required when evaluating the many phenotypes associated with genetic variation near PON1. PMID:22685667

  19. SREBF-2 polymorphism influences white matter microstructure in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Sara; Aggio, Veronica; Bollettini, Irene; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-11-30

    The aim of the study is to investigate if gene polymorphisms in sterol regulatory element binding protein transcriptional factors SREBF-1 and SREBF-2, which regulate lipid and cholesterol metabolism, could affect white matter (WM) microstructure, the most recognized structural biomarker of bipolar disorder (BD). In a sample of 93 patients affected by BD, we investigated the effect of SREBF-1 rs11868035, and SREBF-2 rs1052717, on WM microstructure, using diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics. We observed increased radial diffusivity in the rs1052717 A/A genotype compared to A/G and G/G, and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the rs1052717 A/A genotype compared to G carriers in cingulum, corpus callosum, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, and anterior thalamic radiation. These results seem to suggest an involvement of SREBF-2 in the integrity of white matter tracts in BD and therefore a possible role of SREBP pathway in CNS myelination processes.

  20. Influence of acylpeptide hydrolase polymorphisms on valproic acid level in Chinese epilepsy patients.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhi Peng; Fan, Shuang Shi; Du, Can; Yin, Tao; Zhou, Bo Ting; Peng, Ze Feng; Xie, Yuan Yang; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Yao; Tang, Jie; Xiao, Jian; Chen, Xiao Ping

    2016-07-01

    Concomitant use of meropenem (MEPM) can dramatically decrease valproic acid (VPA) plasma level. It is accepted that inhibition in acylpeptide hydrolase (APEH) activity by MEPM coadministration was the trigger of this drug-drug interaction. To investigate the influence of APEH genetic polymorphisms on VPA plasma concentration in Chinese epilepsy patients. Urinary VPA-d6 β-D-glucuronide concentration was determined in 19 patients with VPA treatment alone (n = 10) or concomitant use with MEPM (n = 9). A retrospective study was performed on 149 epilepsy patients to investigate the influence of APEH polymorphisms rs3816877 and rs1131095 on adjusted plasma VPA concentration (CVPA) at steady-state. Urinary VPA-d6 β-D-glucuronide (VPA-G) concentration was increased significantly in patients with MEPM coadministration. The CVPA of patients carrying the APEH rs3816877 C/C genotype was significantly higher than that of C/T carriers, and the difference was still obvious when stratified by UGT2B7 rs7668258 polymorphism. APEH polymorphism has significant influence on VPA pharmacokinetics in Chinese population.

  1. Influence of XRCC1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Damage and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Sterpone, Silvia; Cozzi, Renata

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that ionizing radiation (IR) can damage DNA through a direct action, producing single- and double-strand breaks on DNA double helix, as well as an indirect effect by generating oxygen reactive species in the cells. Mammals have evolved several and distinct DNA repair pathways in order to maintain genomic stability and avoid tumour cell transformation. This review reports important data showing a huge interindividual variability on sensitivity to IR and in susceptibility to developing cancer; this variability is principally represented by genetic polymorphisms, that is, DNA repair gene polymorphisms. In particular we have focussed on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of XRCC1, a gene that encodes for a scaffold protein involved basically in Base Excision Repair (BER). In this paper we have reported and presented recent studies that show an influence of XRCC1 variants on DNA repair capacity and susceptibility to breast cancer. PMID:20798883

  2. A common FMO3 polymorphism may amplify the effect of nicotine exposure in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

    PubMed

    Poetsch, Micaela; Czerwinski, Marco; Wingenfeld, Lisa; Vennemann, Mechtild; Bajanowski, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Smoking during pregnancy has been identified as one of the major modifiable risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). It has been demonstrated that the risk of SIDS increases with increasing cigarette consumption. A variety of hypotheses have been proposed for explanation, including a genetic predisposition. The flavin-monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) is one of the enzymes metabolising nicotine, and several polymorphisms have already been described in this gene. Here, we studied variations in the exons and introns of the FMO3 gene by direct sequencing analysis and minisequencing in 159 SIDS cases and 170 controls. The three common variants G472A (E158K), G769A (V257M) and A923G (E308G) in the exons of the FMO3 gene were identified. The homozygote 472AA genotype occurred more frequently in SIDS cases than in controls (p = 0.0054) and was more frequent in those SIDS cases for which the mothers reported heavy smoking (p = 0.0084). This study is the first to demonstrate a gene-environment interaction in SIDS. The findings suggest that the common polymorphism G472A of FMO3 could act as an additional genetic SIDS risk factor in children whose mothers smoke. Parents who could pass on the 472A allele should be informed of the increased risk associated with smoking. Smoking mothers should be strongly advised to give up smoking during pregnancy and for at least the first year of the child's life.

  3. Intravarietal polymorphisms reveal possible common ancestor of native Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi populations in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, J V C; Crispim, B A; Vasconcelos, A A; Geelen, D; Grisolia, A B; Vieira, M C

    2016-01-08

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi is a perennial native from Atlantic forest. It is of high ecological plasticity and is used in traditional medicine. Based on promising reports concerning its bioactivity, it was included as a species of great interest for distribution through the National Health System. A number of agronomic studies to guide its crop production are therefore underway. This study examined diversity and phylogenetic relationships among native S. terebinthifolius populations from different Brazilian ecosystems: Cerrado; sandbanks; dense rainforest; and deciduous forest. The intergenic regions rpl20-5'rps12, trnH-psbA, and trnS-trnG were sequenced from cpDNA and aligned using BLASTn. There were few fragments for comparison in GenBank and so only region trnS-trnG was informative. There were variations among and within populations with intravarietal polymorphisms and three distinct haplotypes (HpSM, HpDDO, HpNE), once populations from NE (sandbanks and rainforest) clustered together. Sequences from HpSM, HpNE, and HpDDO returned greater similarity to haplotypes A (AY928398.1), B (AY928399.1), and C (AY928400.1), respectively. A network, built by median-joining among native haplotypes and 10 available on GenBank, revealed HpSM as the origin of all other haplogroups. HpDDO showed the most mutations and was closely related to haplogroups from Argentina. While this could indicate hybridization, we believe that the polymorphisms resulted from adaptation to events such as deforestation, fire, rising temperature, and seasonal drought during the transition from Atlantic forest to Cerrado. While more detailed phylogeographical studies are needed, these results indicate eligible groups for distinct climates as an important step for pre-breeding programs before field propagation.

  4. Common Polymorphisms in IFI16 and AIM2 Genes Are Associated With Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Marchesan, Julie T; Jiao, Yizu; Moss, Kevin; Divaris, Kimon; Seaman, William; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer; Zhang, Shaoping; Yu, Ning; Song, Catharine; Bencharit, Sompop; Teles, Ricardo; Offenbacher, Steven

    2017-07-01

    The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) context of a previously identified periodontitis-associated locus is investigated, and its association with microbial, biologic, and periodontal disease clinical parameters is examined. A 200-kb spanning region of 1q12 previously highlighted in a genome-wide association scan among 4,766 European American individuals (SNP rs1633266) was annotated. Two haplotype blocks were selected. Association of these polymorphisms with data on microbial plaque composition, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF)-interleukin (IL)-1β levels, and clinical parameters of periodontal disease were examined. Descriptive analysis of IFI16 and AIM2 protein expression in gingival tissues from healthy individuals (n = 2) and individuals with chronic periodontitis (n = 2) was done via immunohistochemistry. The highlighted locus is a 100-kb region containing the interferon γ-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) and absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) genes. Two haplotype blocks, rs6940 and rs1057028, were significantly associated with increased extent bleeding on probing and levels of microorganisms Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Campylobacter rectus (P ≤0.05). Haplotype block rs1057028 was also significantly associated with pathogens Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, increased GCF-IL-1β levels, and extent of probing depth ≥4 mm (P ≤0.05). Prevalence of severe periodontitis (biofilm-gingival interface P3 classification) was positively associated with haplotype block rs1057028. Similar trends were observed for haplotype block rs1057028. IFI16 and AIM2 protein expression was observed in multiple cell types of gingival tissues, including inflammatory cells. This study found IFI16 and AIM2 SNPs associated with higher levels of periodontal microorganisms and an increased percentage of periodontal disease clinical parameters, suggesting the need for functional studies and additional fine-mapping of variants in the 1q12

  5. Functional polymorphism of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) influences reinforcement learning in humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mary R; Gallen, Courtney L; Zhang, Xiaochu; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Goldman, David; Stein, Elliot A; Barr, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports on the functional effects (i.e., gain or loss of function), and phenotypic outcomes (e.g., changes in addiction vulnerability and stress response) of a commonly occurring functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1 A118G) have been inconsistent. Here we examine the effect of this polymorphism on implicit reward learning. We used a probabilistic signal detection task to determine whether this polymorphism impacts response bias to monetary reward in 63 healthy adult subjects: 51 AA homozygotes and 12 G allele carriers. OPRM1 AA homozygotes exhibited typical responding to the rewarded response--that is, their bias to the rewarded stimulus increased over time. However, OPRM1 G allele carriers exhibited a decline in response to the rewarded stimulus compared to the AA homozygotes. These results extend previous reports on the heritability of performance on this task by implicating a specific polymorphism. Through comparison with other studies using this task, we suggest a possible mechanism by which the OPRM1 polymorphism may confer reduced response to natural reward through a dopamine-mediated decrease during positive reinforcement learning.

  6. The influence of genetic polymorphisms on population variability in six xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Gary; Smolenski, Susan; Neafsey, Patricia; Hattis, Dale; Walker, Katy; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Johns, Douglas O; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2009-01-01

    This review provides variability statistics for polymorphic enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Six enzymes were evaluated: cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2D6, CYP2E1, aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), paraoxonase (PON1), glutathione transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1), and N-acetyltransferases (NAT1 and NAT2). The polymorphisms were characterized with respect to (1) number and type of variants, (2) effects of polymorphisms on enzyme function, and (3) frequency of genotypes within specified human populations. This information was incorporated into Monte Carlo simulations to predict the population distribution and describe interindividual variability in enzyme activity. The results were assessed in terms of (1) role of these enzymes in toxicant activation and clearance, (2) molecular epidemiology evidence of health risk, and (3) comparing enzyme variability to that commonly assumed for pharmacokinetics. Overall, the Monte Carlo simulations indicated a large degree of interindividual variability in enzyme function, in some cases characterized by multimodal distributions. This study illustrates that polymorphic metabolizing systems are potentially important sources of pharmacokinetic variability, but there are a number of other factors including blood flow to liver and compensating pathways for clearance that affect how a specific polymorphism will alter internal dose and toxicity. This is best evaluated with the aid of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. The population distribution of enzyme activity presented in this series of articles serves as inputs to such PBPK modeling analyses.

  7. Influence of PRKCH gene polymorphism on antihypertensive response to amlodipine and telmisartan.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zan-Ling; Zhu, Miao-Miao; Li, Hui-Lan; Shi, Li-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Luo, Jia; Zhao, Jin-Feng

    2017-06-22

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of PRKCH rs2230500 genetic polymorphism on efficacy of amlodipine and telmisartan for patients with hypertension. A total of 136 essential hypertension (EH) patients were treated with amlodipine (70 patients) or telmisartan (66 patients), respectively. Genetic polymorphism was genotyped by Sanger sequencing. Both baseline and post-treatment blood pressure (BP) and heart rate were measured to evaluate the influence of genetic polymorphism on the antihypertensive response. No significant difference in the absolute decrease in diastolic blood pressure (DBP),systolic blood pressure (SBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was observed among PRKCH rs2230500 genotypes after 4-week amlodipine or telmisartan therapy (p > 0.05). However, when compared with carriers or GG genotype, the antihypertensive effect of PRKCH rs2230500 GA/AA carriers was superior in telmisartan treatment group. PRKCH rs2230500 gene polymorphism is significantly related to the efficiency in telmisartan therapy (p = 0.02). The PRKCH rs2230500 may influence the antihypertensive efficacy of telmisartan in Chinese EH patients, and further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  8. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population.

    PubMed

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.

  9. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population

    PubMed Central

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important. A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects. The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population. PMID:27977609

  10. Vitamin D receptor gene FokI polymorphisms influence bone mass in adolescent football (soccer) players.

    PubMed

    Diogenes, Maria Eduarda L; Bezerra, Flávia Fioruci; Cabello, Giselda M K; Cabello, Pedro H; Mendonça, Laura M C; Oliveira Júnior, Astrogildo V; Donangelo, Carmen M

    2010-01-01

    The genetic influence on bone mineralization during adolescence is unclear possibly due to modifying factors such as skeletal maturation and lifestyle. We evaluated the influence of polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene on longitudinal changes in bone mass, bone- and calcium-related hormones in 46 adolescent soccer players (11.8-14.2 years). Total body bone mineral content (TBMC) and density (TBMD) were measured at baseline and after 6 months. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), testosterone, intact parathyroid hormone, and activity of plasma bone alkaline phosphatase were measured at baseline and after 3 months. The influence of FokI or TaqI VDR genotypes on changes in the outcome variables were analyzed by univariate ANOVA with adjustment for chronological age, skeletal age and body weight at baseline. At baseline, boys with Ff genotype had higher TBMC, TBMD, TBMD Z-score compared to those with FF genotype (P < 0.05). After 3 months, Ff boys also had higher increment in plasma IGF-1 (P < 0.05). FokI polymorphism did not influence changes in bone mass measurements after 6 months, although differences detected at baseline remained significant after 6 months. There were no differences in the outcome variables according to TaqI genotypes. This study demonstrates that FokI polymorphisms affect bone mass in Brazilian adolescent soccer players and suggests that the FokI effect on bone mineralization occurs during bone maturation, possibly at the initial pubertal stages.

  11. Influence of Co2+ in CaCO3 polymorphism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-López, Jorge; Fernández-González, Angeles; Jiménez, Amalia

    2014-05-01

    Cobalt is a trace element in the Earth crust but also a toxic metal. Furthermore, Co2+can accumulate in some specific areas due to both natural and anthropogenic factors and hence soils and groundwater can be contaminated. Numerous studies have demonstrated that toxic elements can be removed from aqueous solution by its incorporation in mineral structures. In particular, the uptake of divalent metallic cations in the crystal structure of calcium carbonates has been postulated as a valuable solution to resolve and / or reduce some environmental problems. Here, we have investigated the cobalt uptake during calcium carbonate precipitation at ambient conditions. It is well known that certain anions such as sulphate, chromate and selenite favour the precipitation of vaterite while other cations as Sr2+ or Mg2+, avoid the calcite crystallization favouring the aragonite precipitation. Similar scenery can be depicted for Co2+ behaviour since the precipitation of both aragonite and a low crystallinity phase from aqueous solution have been described. However, the evolution of the polymorphic transformations after the precipitation of the phases remains unknown. In the present work we have precipitated calcium carbonate at room temperature in the presence of a certain amount of Co2+. Then, the precipitated solid has been aged in the remaining aqueous solution for two months. The experiment was carried out by mixing two different aqueous solutions: a) 50 mL of CoCl2 (0.02M) and CaCl2(0.05M) and b) 50 mL of Na2CO3 (0.05M). The aging process was monitored after 5 minutes, 1, 5, 24, and 48 hours and 4, 7, 30 and 60 days by analysing both the aqueous solution and the aged solids. The evolution of the different crystalline phases in the solid was followed by X-ray Powder Diffraction, their morphology was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and their chemical composition was analysed by Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. Furthermore, the aqueous solution has also been

  12. Common α2A and α2C adrenergic receptor polymorphisms do not affect plasma membrane trafficking.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Carl M; Sorensen, Matt W; Angelotti, Timothy

    2014-06-01

    Various naturally occurring polymorphic forms of human G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified and linked to diverse pathological diseases, including receptors for vasopressin type 2 (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism). In most cases, polymorphic amino acid mutations disrupt protein folding, altering receptor function as well as plasma membrane expression. Other pathological GPCR variants have been found that do not alter receptor function, but instead affect only plasma membrane trafficking (e.g., delta opiate and histamine type 1 receptors). Thus, altered membrane trafficking with retained receptor function may be another mechanism causing polymorphic GPCR dysfunction. Two common human α2A and α2C adrenergic receptor (AR) variants have been identified (α2A N251K and α2C Δ322-325 ARs), but pharmacological analysis of ligand binding and second messenger signaling has not consistently demonstrated altered receptor function. However, possible alterations in plasma membrane trafficking have not been investigated. We utilized a systematic approach previously developed for the study of GPCR trafficking motifs and accessory proteins to assess whether these α2 AR variants affected intracellular trafficking or plasma membrane expression. By combining immunofluorescent microscopy, glycosidic processing analysis, and quantitative fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS), we demonstrate that neither variant receptor had altered intracellular localization, glycosylation, nor plasma membrane expression compared to wild-type α2 ARs. Therefore, pathopharmacological properties of α2A N251K and α2C Δ322-325 ARs do not appear to be due to altered receptor pharmacology or plasma membrane trafficking, but may involve interactions with other intracellular signaling cascades or proteins.

  13. Significant association between common polymorphisms in the aromatase gene CYP19A1 and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mullin, B H; Carter, K W; Lewis, J R; Ingley, E; Wilson, S G; Prince, R L

    2011-12-01

    17β-Estradiol is important in maintaining bone structure, and regulation of its synthesis plays an important role in the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We and others have demonstrated associations between variation in the CYP19A1 gene (encoding aromatase) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) phenotypes in women. In the present study 33 tag polymorphisms were genotyped across the CYP19A1 gene in a population of 1,185 Caucasian postmenopausal women to test the association between sequence variations, total DXA hip aBMD, and circulating 17β-estradiol levels. An in silico bioinformatics analysis was performed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with aBMD to identify putative functional effects, while linkage disequilibrium analysis of these SNPs was undertaken with previously published sequence variants. Five SNPs located in the central third of the gene were strongly associated with total-hip aBMD after adjustment for age (P = 0.006-0.013). A haplotype analysis of these five SNPs revealed an association between the haplotype C-G-G-G-C and increased aBMD (P = 0.008) and the haplotype A-A-A-A-A and a decreased aBMD (P = 0.021). The haplotype frequency was 9.0% for C-G-G-G-C and 15.4% for A-A-A-A-A, with the variation in mean total-hip aBMD explained by the haplotype analyses being 5% and 7%, respectively. None of these polymorphisms was significantly associated with circulating 17β-estradiol levels. In conclusion, common genetic variations within the CYP19A1 gene are significantly associated with aBMD in postmenopausal Caucasian women.

  14. Association of common eNOS/NOS3 polymorphisms with preeclampsia in Tunisian Arabs.

    PubMed

    Ben Ali Gannoun, Marwa; Zitouni, Hedia; Raguema, Nozha; Maleh, Wided; Gris, Jean-Christophe; Almawi, Wassim; Mahjoub, Touhami

    2015-09-15

    We investigated the association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) polymorphisms -786T>C, 27-bp repeat 4b/4a, and Glu298Asp with preeclampsia (PE). This was a case-control study involving 345 unrelated Tunisian women with PE and 289 unrelated age- and ethnically matched control women. The -786C allele was significantly increased in PA patients when compared to healthy controls (P=0.015). In contrast, MAF of Glu298Asp (P=0.103) and 4b/4a (P=0.168) were not significantly different between the study groups. Higher frequencies of heterozygous Glu298/298Asp and homozygous -786T/-786T genotypes were seen in PE cases compared to healthy subjects. The combination of genotypes 221 (-786T>C, Glu298Asp, 4a/4a) was more in PE cases compared with control women (17.68% vs. 8.36%; P=0.029). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed this association. Genetic variation at the NOS3 locus represents a genetic risk factor for increased susceptibility to PE.

  15. A common polymorphism near the interleukin-6 gene modifies the association between dietary fat intake and insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Cuda, Cristina; Garcia-Bailo, Bibiana; Karmali, Mohamed; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Badawi, Alaa

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests a role for inflammation in the development of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, have been associated with insulin resistance, and dietary lipids can increase cytokine production. The objective of this study was to determine whether a single nucleotide polymorphism near the IL6 gene (rs7801406) modifies the relationship between dietary fat and markers of insulin sensitivity. Methods Subjects were healthy men and women aged 20–29 years from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Dietary intake was estimated using a one-month semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were taken for genotyping and biomarker measurement. Results The single nucleotide polymorphism was not associated with any of the measures of insulin sensitivity. However, it modified the relationship between total dietary fat and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0.053 for interaction). Total fat intake was positively related to HOMA-IR in individuals homozygous for the G allele (β = 0.005 ± 0.002, P = 0.03), but not among heterozygotes. There was an inverse relationship between total fat intake and HOMA-IR in individuals who were homozygous for the A allele (β = −0.012 ± 0.006, P = 0.047). Conclusion These findings suggest that dietary fat influences insulin sensitivity differently depending on genotype. PMID:22334790

  16. A common polymorphism near the interleukin-6 gene modifies the association between dietary fat intake and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Cuda, Cristina; Garcia-Bailo, Bibiana; Karmali, Mohamed; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Badawi, Alaa

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a role for inflammation in the development of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, have been associated with insulin resistance, and dietary lipids can increase cytokine production. The objective of this study was to determine whether a single nucleotide polymorphism near the IL6 gene (rs7801406) modifies the relationship between dietary fat and markers of insulin sensitivity. Subjects were healthy men and women aged 20-29 years from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Dietary intake was estimated using a one-month semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were taken for genotyping and biomarker measurement. The single nucleotide polymorphism was not associated with any of the measures of insulin sensitivity. However, it modified the relationship between total dietary fat and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0.053 for interaction). Total fat intake was positively related to HOMA-IR in individuals homozygous for the G allele (β = 0.005 ± 0.002, P = 0.03), but not among heterozygotes. There was an inverse relationship between total fat intake and HOMA-IR in individuals who were homozygous for the A allele (β = -0.012 ± 0.006, P = 0.047). These findings suggest that dietary fat influences insulin sensitivity differently depending on genotype.

  17. Common polymorphisms in TP53 and MDM2 and the relationship to TP53 mutations and clinical outcomes in women with ovarian and peritoneal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Galic, Vijaya; Willner, Julia; Wollan, Melissa; Garg, Ruchi; Garcia, Rochelle; Goff, Barbara A; Gray, Heidi J; Swisher, Elizabeth M

    2007-03-01

    The importance of somatic TP53 mutations and germline TP53 codon 72 genotype in the survival of women with epithelial ovarian cancer is controversial. Recent data suggest that a promoter polymorphism in the MDM2 gene may influence age of cancer onset in a gender-specific fashion. We sought to determine the relationship between somatic TP53 mutations, germline genotypes at TP53 codon 72 and MDM2 SNP309, and overall survival and response to chemotherapy in a large series of patients with ovarian and peritoneal carcinomas. Of the 188 cancers, 103 (54.8%) had a TP53 mutation, of which 71% were missense mutations and 29% were null mutations. TP53 mutation status and mutation type (null vs. missense) did not influence response to therapy or overall survival. Women with the codon 72 Pro/Pro had a decreased overall survival (median, 29 months) compared with women with one or two arginine alleles (median, 49 months; P=0.04). Somatic mutation or deletion was equally common for either codon 72 allele. Age of diagnosis was not influenced by codon 72 but showed a trend for younger age in women with somatic TP53 mutations and the MDM2 G/G genotype. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Within-population polymorphism of sex-determination systems in the common frog (Rana temporaria).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, N; Betto-Colliard, C; Jourdan-Pineau, H; Perrin, N

    2013-07-01

    In sharp contrast with birds and mammals, the sex chromosomes of ectothermic vertebrates are often undifferentiated, for reasons that remain debated. A linkage map was recently published for Rana temporaria (Linnaeus, 1758) from Fennoscandia (Eastern European lineage), with a proposed sex-determining role for linkage group 2 (LG2). We analysed linkage patterns in lowland and highland populations from Switzerland (Western European lineage), with special focus on LG2. Sibship analyses showed large differences from the Fennoscandian map in terms of recombination rates and loci order, pointing to large-scale inversions or translocations. All linkage groups displayed extreme heterochiasmy (total map length was 12.2 cM in males, versus 869.8 cM in females). Sex determination was polymorphic within populations: a majority of families (with equal sex ratios) showed a strong correlation between offspring phenotypic sex and LG2 paternal haplotypes, whereas other families (some of which with female-biased sex ratios) did not show any correlation. The factors determining sex in the latter could not be identified. This coexistence of several sex-determination systems should induce frequent recombination of X and Y haplotypes, even in the absence of male recombination. Accordingly, we found no sex differences in allelic frequencies on LG2 markers among wild-caught male and female adults, except in one high-altitude population, where nonrecombinant Y haplotypes suggest sex to be entirely determined by LG2. Multifactorial sex determination certainly contributes to the lack of sex-chromosome differentiation in amphibians. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF SEVEN POLYMORPHIC MICROSATELLITE LOCI IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and conditions to amplify seven microsatellite DNA loci isolated from the Common Loon (Gavia immer). The PCR primers were tested on 83 individuals from ten locations in North America, including breeding, migration stopover, and...

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF SEVEN POLYMORPHIC MICROSATELLITE LOCI IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and conditions to amplify seven microsatellite DNA loci isolated from the Common Loon (Gavia immer). The PCR primers were tested on 83 individuals from ten locations in North America, including breeding, migration stopover, and...

  1. Common variation at 2q22.3 (ZEB2) influences the risk of renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Henrion, Marc; Frampton, Matthew; Scelo, Ghislaine; Purdue, Mark; Ye, Yuanqing; Broderick, Peter; Ritchie, Alastair; Kaplan, Richard; Meade, Angela; McKay, James; Johansson, Mattias; Lathrop, Mark; Larkin, James; Rothman, Nathaniel; Wang, Zhaoming; Chow, Wong-Ho; Stevens, Victoria L.; Ryan Diver, W.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wu, Xifeng; Brennan, Paul; Chanock, Stephen; Eisen, Timothy; Houlston, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of renal cell cancer (RCC) have identified four susceptibility loci thus far. To identify an additional RCC common susceptibility locus, we conducted a GWAS and performed a meta-analysis with published GWASs (totalling 2215 cases and 8566 controls of European background) and followed up the most significant association signals [nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genomic regions] in 3739 cases and 8786 controls. A combined analysis identified a novel susceptibility locus mapping to 2q22.3 marked by rs12105918 (P = 1.80 × 10−8; odds ratio 1.29, 95% CI: 1.18–1.41). The signal localizes to intron 2 of the ZEB2 gene (zinc finger E box-binding homeobox 2). Our findings suggest that genetic variation in ZEB2 influences the risk of RCC. This finding provides further insights into the genetic and biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to RCC. PMID:23184150

  2. COMMON POLYMORPHISMS AT THE CYP17A1 LOCUS ASSOCIATE WITH STEROID PHENOTYPE: SUPPORT FOR BLOOD PRESSURE GWAS SIGNALS AT THIS LOCUS

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Robert; McManus, Frances; Freel, E. Marie; Alvarez-Madrazo, Samantha; McClure, John D.; Friel, Elaine C.; Hanley, Neil A.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Connell, John M.; Davies, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) implicate the CYP17A1 gene in human blood pressure regulation although the causative polymorphisms are as yet unknown. We sought to identify common polymorphisms likely to explain this association. We sequenced the CYP17A1 locus in 60 normotensive individuals and observed 24 previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms with minor allele frequency >0.05. From these, we selected for further study 7 polymorphisms located up to 2 kilobases upstream of the CYP17A1 transcription start site. In vitro reporter gene assays identified three of these (rs138009835, rs2150927 and rs2486758) as having significant functional effects. We then analysed association between the 7 polymorphisms and urinary steroid metabolites in a hypertensive cohort (n=232). Significant associations included that of rs138009835 with aldosterone metabolite excretion; rs2150927 associated with the ratio of tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone to tetrahydrodeoxycortisol, which we employed as an index of 17α-hydroxylation. Linkage analysis showed rs138009835 to be the only one of the 7 polymorphisms in strong linkage disequilibrium with the blood pressure-associated polymorphisms identified in previous studies. In conclusion, we have identified, characterised and investigated common polymorphisms at the CYP17A1 locus that have functional effects on gene transcription in vitro and associate with corticosteroid phenotype in vivo. Of these, rs138009835 – which we associate with changes in aldosterone level – is in strong linkage disequilibrium with polymorphisms linked by genome-wide association studies to blood pressure regulation. This finding clearly has implications for the development of high blood pressure in a large proportion of the population and justifies further investigation of rs138009835 and its effects. PMID:26902494

  3. Influence of environment on piroxicam polymorphism: vibrational spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Taddei, P; Torreggiani, A; Simoni, R

    2001-01-01

    FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopies were used to evaluate the mechanism of transformation of piroxicam into its different forms (alpha, beta, and monohydrate), depending on the environment. These vibrational techniques allowed us to identify the forms of piroxicam that crystallize from different solvents at different cooling rates and the conformation of the drug in some of its derivatives: piroxicam hydrochloride, piroxicam thallium and sodium salt hemihydrates, and piroxicam sodium salt. The usefulness of Raman spectroscopy in characterizing piroxicam:beta-cyclodextrin (PbetaCD) inclusion compounds was described. The Raman spectrum of 1:2 PbetaCD was discussed in comparison with that of the corresponding piroxicam sodium salt containing inclusion compound (1:2 PNabetaCD) in order to study the influence of the piroxicam derivative used on the structure of the inclusion compound. The Raman results showed that in both of the inclusion compounds the piroxicam mainly assumes the zwitterionic structure typical of a monohydrate; therefore, the kind of derivative used does not affect the conformation of the drug in its inclusion compound. The effect of the method of synthesis utilized (freeze-drying or freeze-thaw cycling) to obtain 1:2.5 PbetaCD was investigated. The inclusion compound obtained by freeze-thaw cycling proved to be more crystalline and to contain a higher amount of the beta form than the freeze-dried inclusion compound. Raman spectroscopy proved to be a useful technique for evaluating the effectiveness of the manufacturing process in relation to the pharmaceutical properties of the drug and to the nondestructive and noninvasive on-line quality control of the industrial products.

  4. CYP2D6 polymorphisms and their influence on risperidone treatment

    PubMed Central

    Puangpetch, Apichaya; Vanwong, Natchaya; Nuntamool, Nopphadol; Hongkaew, Yaowaluck; Chamnanphon, Monpat; Sukasem, Chonlaphat

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzyme especially CYP2D6 plays a major role in biotransformation. The interindividual variations of treatment response and toxicity are influenced by the polymorphisms of this enzyme. This review emphasizes the effect of CYP2D6 polymorphisms in risperidone treatment in terms of basic knowledge, pharmacogenetics, effectiveness, adverse events, and clinical practice. Although the previous studies showed different results, the effective responses in risperidone treatment depend on the CYP2D6 polymorphisms. Several studies suggested that CYP2D6 polymorphisms were associated with plasma concentration of risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, and active moiety but did not impact on clinical outcomes. In addition, CYP2D6 poor metabolizer showed more serious adverse events such as weight gain and prolactin than other predicted phenotype groups. The knowledge of pharmacogenomics of CYP2D6 in risperidone treatment is increasing, and it can be used for the development of personalized medication in term of genetic-based dose recommendation. Moreover, the effects of many factors in risperidone treatment are still being investigated. Both the CYP2D6 genotyping and therapeutic drug monitoring are the important steps to complement the genetic-based risperidone treatment. PMID:27942231

  5. IL6-174G > C genetic polymorphism influences antidepressant treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Serafim; Santos, Marlene; Lima, Luís; Mota-Pereira, Jorge; Pimentel, Paulo; Maia, Dulce; Correia, Diana; Gomes, Sofia; Cruz, Agostinho; Medeiros, Rui

    2017-02-01

    Major depressive disorder is a condition associated with dysregulated cytokine levels; among these, IL6. Furthermore, genetic variations within cytokine genes have been proposed to predict antidepressant treatment outcome. This study aims to evaluate the role of IL6-174G > C and IL6R D358A A > C functional polymorphisms in antidepressant treatment phenotypes, specifically remission, relapse, and treatment resistant depression (TRD). The referred polymorphisms were genotyped in 80 MDD patients followed at Hospital Magalhães Lemos, Portugal, within a period of 27 months. It was found that patients carrying IL6-174 GC genotype present a protection towards the development of TRD (OR = 0.242; 95% CI = 0.068-0.869; p = .038), when compared with GG genotype. Additionally, carriers of IL6-174 CC genotype remit earlier than patients with IL6-174 GG/GC genotypes, with a median time to remission of 6 weeks for CC carriers and 15 weeks for GG or GC carriers (p = .030, Log-rank test). No association was found between IL6R D358A genetic polymorphism and any of the treatment phenotypes evaluated. The IL6-174G > C polymorphism influences antidepressant treatment outcome in this sub-set of MDD patients, providing a putative mechanistic link for the dysregulated IL-6 levels described in the literature in patients with TRD.

  6. The influence of PRNP polymorphisms on human prion disease susceptibility: an update.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Teruya, Kenta; Matsuura, Yuichi; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Yamada, Masahito; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Mohri, Shirou; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki

    2015-08-01

    Two normally occurring polymorphisms of the human PRNP gene, methionine (M)/valine (V) at codon 129 and glutamic acid (E)/lysine (K) at codon 219, can affect the susceptibility to prion diseases. It has long been recognized that 129M/M homozygotes are overrepresented in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) patients and variant CJD patients, whereas 219E/K heterozygotes are absent in sporadic CJD patients. In addition to these pioneering findings, recent progress in experimental transmission studies and worldwide surveillance of prion diseases have identified novel relationships between the PRNP polymorphisms and the prion disease susceptibility. For example, although 219E/K heterozygosity confers resistance against the development of sporadic CJD, this genotype is not entirely protective against acquired forms (iatrogenic CJD and variant CJD) or genetic forms (genetic CJD and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome) of prion diseases. In addition, 129M/V heterozygotes predispose to genetic CJD caused by a pathogenic PRNP mutation at codon 180. These findings show that the effects of the PRNP polymorphisms may be more complicated than previously thought. This review aims to summarize recent advances in our knowledge about the influence of the PRNP polymorphisms on the prion disease susceptibility.

  7. Common genetic variants in NEFL influence gene expression and neuroblastoma risk.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Mario; Diskin, Sharon; Cimmino, Flora; Acierno, Giovanni; Totaro, Francesca; Petrosino, Giuseppe; Pezone, Lucia; Diamond, Maura; McDaniel, Lee; Hakonarson, Hakon; Iolascon, Achille; Devoto, Marcella; Maris, John M

    2014-12-01

    The genetic etiology of sporadic neuroblastoma is still largely obscure. In a genome-wide association study, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with neuroblastoma at the CASC15, BARD1, LMO1, DUSP12, HSD17B12, HACE1, and LIN28B gene loci, but these explain only a small fraction of neuroblastoma heritability. Other neuroblastoma susceptibility genes are likely hidden among signals discarded by the multiple testing corrections. In this study, we evaluated eight additional genes selected as candidates for further study based on proven involvement in neuroblastoma differentiation. SNPs at these candidate genes were tested for association with disease susceptibility in 2,101 cases and 4,202 controls, with the associations found replicated in an independent cohort of 459 cases and 809 controls. Replicated associations were further studied for cis-effect using gene expression, transient overexpression, silencing, and cellular differentiation assays. The neurofilament gene NEFL harbored three SNPs associated with neuroblastoma (rs11994014: Pcombined = 0.0050; OR, 0.88; rs2979704: Pcombined = 0.0072; OR, 0.87; rs1059111: Pcombined = 0.0049; OR, 0.86). The protective allele of rs1059111 correlated with increased NEFL expression. Biologic investigations showed that ectopic overexpression of NEFL inhibited cell growth specifically in neuroblastoma cells carrying the protective allele. NEFL overexpression also enhanced differentiation and impaired the proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of cells with protective allele and basal NEFL expression, while impairing invasiveness and proliferation of cells homozygous for the risk genotype. Clinically, high levels of NEFL expression in primary neuroblastoma specimens were associated with better overall survival (P = 0.03; HR, 0.68). Our results show that common variants of NEFL influence neuroblastoma susceptibility and they establish that NEFL expression influences disease initiation and

  8. [Influence of interleukin-1 beta gene polymorphism and childhood maltreatment on antidepressant treatment].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Zhijun; Xu, Zhi; Pu, Mengjia; Geng, Leiyu

    2015-12-01

    To explore the influence of interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) gene polymorphism and childhood maltreatment on antidepressant treatment. Two hundred and four patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have received treatment with single antidepressant drugs and were followed up for 8 weeks. Hamilton depression scale-17 (HAMD-17) was used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms and therapeutic effect. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, a 28-item Short Form (CTQ-SF). Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the IL1B gene was determined using a SNaPshot method. Correlation of rs16944 gene polymorphism with response to treatment was analyzed using Unphased 3.0.13 software. The main and interactive effects of SNP and childhood maltreatment on the antidepressant treatment were analyzed using Logistic regression analysis. No significant difference of gender, age, year of education, family history, episode time, and antidepressant agents was detected between the remitters and non-remitters. Association analysis has found that the SNP rs16944 in the IL1B AA genotype carriers antidepressant response was poorer (χ2=3.931, P=0.047). No significant difference was detected in the CTQ scores between the two groups. Genetic and environmental interaction analysis has demonstrated a significant correlation between rs16944 AA genotype and childhood maltreatment and poorer response to antidepressant treatment. The SNP rs16944 in the IL1B gene and its interaction with childhood maltreatment may influence the effect of antidepressant treatment for patients with MDD.

  9. Microsatellite polymorphism among Chrysanthemum sp. polyploids: the influence of whole genome duplication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibin; Qi, Xiangyu; Gao, Ri; Wang, Jingjing; Dong, Bin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Polyploidy is common among flowering plants, including the Asteraceae, a relatively recent angiosperm group. EST-SSRs were used to characterize polymorphism among 29 Chrysanthemum and Ajania spp. accessions of various ploidy levels. Most EST-SSR loci were readily transferable between the species, 29 accessions were separated into three groups in terms of the number of fragments. It inferred that the formation from tetraploid to hexaploid and from octoploid to decaploid may be a recent event, while from the diploid to the tetraploid may be an ancient one in the Chrysanthemum lineage. EST-SSR polymorphism was found and some transcripts containing an SSR were transcribed differently in the de novo autotetraploid C. nankingense and C. lavandulifolium than in their progenitor diploid. EST-SSR could provide a potential molecular basis of adaptation during evolution, while whole genome duplication has a major effect on the mutational dynamics of EST-SSR loci, which could also affect gene regulation. PMID:25339092

  10. Biomarkers of susceptibility following benzene exposure: influence of genetic polymorphisms on benzene metabolism and health effects.

    PubMed

    Carbonari, Damiano; Chiarella, Pieranna; Mansi, Antonella; Pigini, Daniela; Iavicoli, Sergio; Tranfo, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Benzene is a ubiquitous occupational and environmental pollutant. Improved industrial hygiene allowed airborne concentrations close to the environmental context (1-1000 µg/m(3)). Conversely, new limits for benzene levels in urban air were set (5 µg/m(3)). The biomonitoring of exposure to such low benzene concentrations are performed measuring specific and sensitive biomarkers such as S-phenylmercapturic acid, trans, trans-muconic acid and urinary benzene: many studies referred high variability in the levels of these biomarkers, suggesting the involvement of polymorphic metabolic genes in the individual susceptibility to benzene toxicity. We reviewed the influence of metabolic polymorphisms on the biomarkers levels of benzene exposure and effect, in order to understand the real impact of benzene exposure on subjects with increased susceptibility.

  11. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common susceptibility polymorphisms for colorectal and endometrial cancer near SH2B3 and TSHZ1

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Timothy HT; Thompson, Deborah; Painter, Jodie; O’Mara, Tracy; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Palles, Claire; Jones, Angela; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Ko Win, Aung; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Giles, Graham G; Pharoah, Paul; Peto, Julian; Cox, Angela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Couch, Fergus; Cunningham, Julie M; Goode, Ellen L; Winham, Stacey J; Lambrechts, Diether; Fasching, Peter; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Salvesen, Helga B.; Kristensen, Vessela; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Tao; Lindblom, Annika; Hall, Per; de Polanco, Magdalena Echeverry; Sans, Monica; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Aguiar Jnr, Samuel; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Dunning, Alison M; Dennis, Joe; Otton, Geoffrey; Proietto, Tony; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Ashton, Katie; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Dowdy, Sean C; Fridley, Brooke L; Werner, Henrica MJ; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Tham, Emma; Mints, Miriam; Runnebaum, Ingo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Amant, Frederic; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif; Czene, Kamila; Meindl, Alfons; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wang, Qin; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Shah, Mitul; Annibali, Daniela; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Al-Tassan, Nada A.; Harris, Rebecca; Meyer, Brian F.; Whiffin, Nicola; Hosking, Fay J; Kinnersley, Ben; Farrington, Susan M.; Timofeeva, Maria; Tenesa, Albert; Campbell, Harry; Haile, Robert W.; Hodgson, Shirley; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Cheadle, Jeremy P.; Easton, Douglas; Dunlop, Malcolm; Houlston, Richard; Spurdle, Amanda; Tomlinson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    High-risk mutations in several genes predispose to both colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC). We therefore hypothesised that some lower-risk genetic variants might also predispose to both CRC and EC. Using CRC and EC genome-wide association series, totalling 13,265 cancer cases and 40,245 controls, we found that the protective allele [G] at one previously-identified CRC polymorphism, rs2736100 near TERT, was associated with EC risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, P = 0.000167); this polymorphism influences the risk of several other cancers. A further CRC polymorphism near TERC also showed evidence of association with EC (OR = 0.92; P = 0.03). Overall, however, there was no good evidence that the set of CRC polymorphisms was associated with EC risk, and neither of two previously-reported EC polymorphisms was associated with CRC risk. A combined analysis revealed one genome-wide significant polymorphism, rs3184504, on chromosome 12q24 (OR = 1.10, P = 7.23 × 10−9) with shared effects on CRC and EC risk. This polymorphism, a missense variant in the gene SH2B3, is also associated with haematological and autoimmune disorders, suggesting that it influences cancer risk through the immune response. Another polymorphism, rs12970291 near gene TSHZ1, was associated with both CRC and EC (OR = 1.26, P = 4.82 × 10−8), with the alleles showing opposite effects on the risks of the two cancers. PMID:26621817

  12. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common susceptibility polymorphisms for colorectal and endometrial cancer near SH2B3 and TSHZ1.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Timothy H T; Thompson, Deborah; Painter, Jodie; O'Mara, Tracy; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Palles, Claire; Jones, Angela; Buchanan, Daniel D; Ko Win, Aung; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Giles, Graham G; Pharoah, Paul; Peto, Julian; Cox, Angela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Couch, Fergus; Cunningham, Julie M; Goode, Ellen L; Winham, Stacey J; Lambrechts, Diether; Fasching, Peter; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Salvesen, Helga B; Kristensen, Vessela; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Tao; Lindblom, Annika; Hall, Per; de Polanco, Magdalena Echeverry; Sans, Monica; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Aguiar Jnr, Samuel; Teixeira, Manuel R; Dunning, Alison M; Dennis, Joe; Otton, Geoffrey; Proietto, Tony; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Ashton, Katie; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Dowdy, Sean C; Fridley, Brooke L; Werner, Henrica M J; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Tham, Emma; Mints, Miriam; Runnebaum, Ingo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Amant, Frederic; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif; Czene, Kamila; Meindl, Alfons; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wang, Qin; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Shah, Mitul; Annibali, Daniela; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Al-Tassan, Nada A; Harris, Rebecca; Meyer, Brian F; Whiffin, Nicola; Hosking, Fay J; Kinnersley, Ben; Farrington, Susan M; Timofeeva, Maria; Tenesa, Albert; Campbell, Harry; Haile, Robert W; Hodgson, Shirley; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Cheadle, Jeremy P; Easton, Douglas; Dunlop, Malcolm; Houlston, Richard; Spurdle, Amanda; Tomlinson, Ian

    2015-12-01

    High-risk mutations in several genes predispose to both colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC). We therefore hypothesised that some lower-risk genetic variants might also predispose to both CRC and EC. Using CRC and EC genome-wide association series, totalling 13,265 cancer cases and 40,245 controls, we found that the protective allele [G] at one previously-identified CRC polymorphism, rs2736100 near TERT, was associated with EC risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, P = 0.000167); this polymorphism influences the risk of several other cancers. A further CRC polymorphism near TERC also showed evidence of association with EC (OR = 0.92; P = 0.03). Overall, however, there was no good evidence that the set of CRC polymorphisms was associated with EC risk, and neither of two previously-reported EC polymorphisms was associated with CRC risk. A combined analysis revealed one genome-wide significant polymorphism, rs3184504, on chromosome 12q24 (OR = 1.10, P = 7.23 × 10(-9)) with shared effects on CRC and EC risk. This polymorphism, a missense variant in the gene SH2B3, is also associated with haematological and autoimmune disorders, suggesting that it influences cancer risk through the immune response. Another polymorphism, rs12970291 near gene TSHZ1, was associated with both CRC and EC (OR = 1.26, P = 4.82 × 10(-8)), with the alleles showing opposite effects on the risks of the two cancers.

  13. Influence of serum adiponectin level and SNP +45 polymorphism of adiponectin gene on myocardial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Cheng-jun; Li, Su-mei; Xiao, Qiang; Liu, Yan; Hou, Jian; Chen, Ai-fang; Xia, Li-ping; Li, Xiu-chang

    2013-08-01

    Adiponectin plays an important role in the development of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, but very little was known about the influence of serum adiponectin or the adiponectin gene polymorphism on myocardial fibrosis. Our study investigates the influence of the SNP +45 polymorphism of the adiponectin gene and serum levels of adiponectin on myocardial fibrosis in patients with essential hypertension. A case-control study was conducted on 165 hypertensive patients and 126 normotensive healthy controls. The genotypes of adiponectin gene polymorphisms were detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Serum concentrations of procollagen were measured by a double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in all subjects. The integrated backscatter score (IBS) was measured in the left ventricular myocardium using echocardiography. The serum levels of adiponectin in hypertensive patients were significantly lower than those in the normal control group ((2.69±1.0) μg/ml vs. (4.21±2.89) μg/ml, respectively, P<0.001). The serum levels of type-I procollagen carboxyl end peptide (PICP) and type-III procollagen ammonia cardinal extremity peptide (PIIINP) in the hypertension group were significantly higher than those in the control group. In the hypertension group, serum levels of adiponectin were significantly and negatively related to the average acoustic intensity and corrected acoustic intensity of the myocardium (r=0.46 and 0.61, respectively, P<0.05 for both). The serum levels of PICP and PIIINP were significantly different among the three genotypes of SNP +45 (P<0.01). Logistic regression analyses showed that sex and genotype (GG+GT) were the major risk factors of myocardial fibrosis in hypertensive patients (OR=5.343 and 3.278, respectively, P<0.05). These data suggest that lower levels of adiponectin and SNP +45 polymorphism of the adiponectin gene are likely to play an important role in myocardial fibrosis in

  14. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism influences prefrontal executive function in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youwen; Feng, Shujun; Nie, Kun; Zhao, Xin; Gan, Rong; Wang, Limin; Zhao, Jiehao; Tang, Hongmei; Gao, Liang; Zhu, Ruiming; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Yuhu

    2016-10-15

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism has been proposed to be associated with increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) and have a specific impact on dopamine-mediated prefrontal executive function in an inverted-U curve manner. We explored the influence of this genetic polymorphism on prefrontal executive function in a well-established Chinese cohort of early PD patients with no current or past history of motor fluctuations or dyskinesias. Cognitive functions were assessed in 250 patients with early PD using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Chinese Revision (WAIS-RC) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese Revision (WMS-RC). These patients and 300 healthy controls were subsequently genotyped for the COMT gene Val158Met polymorphism. We employed analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and a stratified analysis to determine the associations between the COMT Val158Met genotype and cognitive functions. The COMT Val158Met allele frequency and genotype distributions showed no statistically significant differences between PD patients and controls. However, patients with met/met genotype performed significantly worse on WAIS-RC similarities, a measure of executive function, compared to individuals with val/val genotype. Subsequent ANCOVA analysis revealed that COMT genotype interacted with sex and daily levodopa equivalent dose (LED) to influence executive function. Further stratified analysis showed that the lower-activity COMT met/met genotype has a detrimental effect on executive function among women. Our results demonstrate that COMT Val158Met polymorphism is probably not associated with increased risk of PD, but has an effect on prefrontal executive function interacting with gender and dopaminergic medication. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Detailed analysis of association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms and subclinical atherosclerosis: The Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jose D; Manichaikul, Ani; Wang, Xin-Qun; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Post, Wendy S; Polak, Joseph F; Budoff, Matthew J; Bluemke, David A

    2016-06-01

    Previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genome wide association studies (GWAS) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in participants of mostly European descent were tested for association with subclinical cardiovascular disease (sCVD), coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The data in this data in brief article correspond to the article Common Genetic Variants and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [1]. This article includes the demographic information of the participants analyzed in the article as well as graphical displays and data tables of the association of the selected SNPs with CAC and of the meta-analysis across ethnicities of the association of CIMT-c (common carotid), CIMT-I (internal carotid), CAC-d (CAC as dichotomous variable with CAC>0) and CAC-c (CAC as continuous variable, the log of the raw CAC score plus one) and CVD. The data tables corresponding to the 9p21 fine mapping experiment as well as the power calculations referenced in the article are also included.

  16. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Interacts with Maternal Parenting Influencing Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Evidence of Differential Susceptibility Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leilei; Li, Zhi; Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Zhang, Jianxin; Belsky, Jay

    2016-03-01

    Although depressive symptoms are common during adolescence, little research has examined gene-environment interaction on youth depression. This study chose the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, tested the interaction between a functional polymorphism resulting amino acid substitution of valine (Val) to methionine (Met) in the proBDNF protein at codon 66 (Val66Met), and maternal parenting on youth depressive symptoms in a sample of 780 community adolescents of Chinese Han ethnicity (aged 11-17, M = 13.6, 51.3 % females). Participants reported their depressive symptoms and perceived maternal parenting. Results indicated the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism significantly moderated the influence of maternal warmth-reasoning, but not harshness-hostility, on youth depressive symptoms. Confirmatory model evaluation indicated that the interaction effect involving warmth-reasoning conformed to the differential-susceptibility rather than diathesis-stress model of person-X-environment interaction. Thus, Val carriers experienced less depressive symptoms than Met homozygotes when mothering was more positive but more symptoms when mothering was less positive. The findings provided evidence in support of the differential susceptibility hypothesis of youth depressive symptoms and shed light on the importance of examining the gene-environment interaction from a developmental perspective.

  17. Platelet receptor polymorphisms do not influence Staphylococcus aureus–platelet interactions or infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Daga, Shruti; Shepherd, James G.; Callaghan, J. Garreth S.; Hung, Rachel K.Y.; Dawson, Dana K.; Padfield, Gareth J.; Hey, Shi Y.; Cartwright, Robyn A.; Newby, David E.; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac vegetations result from bacterium–platelet adherence, activation and aggregation, and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in infective endocarditis. The GPIIb/IIIa and FcγRIIa platelet receptors play a central role in platelet adhesion, activation and aggregation induced by endocarditis pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, but the influence of known polymorphisms of these receptors on the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis is unknown. We determined the GPIIIa platelet antigen PlA1/A2 and FcγRIIa H131R genotype of healthy volunteers (n = 160) and patients with infective endocarditis (n = 40), and investigated the influence of these polymorphisms on clinical outcome in infective endocarditis and S. aureus–platelet interactions in vitro. Platelet receptor genotype did not correlate with development of infective endocarditis, vegetation characteristics on echocardiogram or the composite clinical end-point of embolism, heart failure, need for surgery or mortality (P > 0.05 for all), even though patients with the GPIIIa PlA1/A1 genotype had increased in vivo platelet activation (P = 0.001). Furthermore, neither GPIIIa PlA1/A2 nor FcγRIIa H131R genotype influenced S. aureus-induced platelet adhesion, activation or aggregation in vitro (P > 0.05). Taken together, our data suggest that the GPIIIa and FcγRIIa platelet receptor polymorphisms do not influence S. aureus–platelet interactions in vitro or the clinical course of infective endocarditis. PMID:21044892

  18. Common polymorphic effectors of immunity against hepatitis B and C modulate susceptibility to infection and spontaneous clearance in a Moroccan population.

    PubMed

    Rebbani, Khadija; Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Marchio, Agnès; Ababou, Mostafa; Kitab, Bouchra; Dejean, Anne; Kandil, Mostafa; Pineau, Pascal; Benjelloun, Soumaya

    2014-08-01

    Chronic diseases caused by hepatitis B and C viruses may evolve towards major complications as liver cirrhosis and cancer. Fortunately, only subsets among acutely infected individuals develop a persistent disease suggesting that genetic susceptibility may influence the establishment of chronicity. In the present study we aim to explore variants distribution in genes encoding for important immune response effectors in chronic hepatitis B and C. We intend to identify common features and to establish connections between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predisposing to both chronic hepatitis and spontaneous clearance in a Moroccan population. Ten SNPs mapping on seven candidate genes (CD209, TGFβ-1, CCR5, CCL2, CXCL12, SUMO1 and UBC9) were studied in 544 Moroccan subjects grouped in chronically infected patients, spontaneously resolved individuals, liver disease progressors and healthy controls. Among significant associations found between virus infections and genetic variants, we report for the first time an association of rs4804803 (CD209) A and G variants with susceptibility to HBV infection and spontaneous clearance (p<0.001, OR=3.53, 95% CI 2.155; 5.908, and p<0.001, OR=7.75, 95% CI 4.646-13.114, respectively). Other important, albeit previously unknown, association was found between SUMO1 rs10185956T variant and spontaneous clearance of HCV infection (p=0.002, OR=2.71, 95% CI 1.332-5.869). Our observation, that deserves further confirmation with other SNPs and populations, underlines the involvement of selected immune polymorphisms, among which those in CD209, in the natural history of both chronic hepatitis B and C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Polymorphous light eruption

    MedlinePlus

    Polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) is a common skin reaction in people who are sensitive to sunlight (ultraviolet light). ... Polymorphic light eruption; Photodermatosis; PMLE; Benign summer light eruption

  20. Commonality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E., Jr.

    Commonality analysis is an attempt to understand the relative predictive power of the regressor variables, both individually and in combination. The squared multiple correlation is broken up into elements assigned to each individual regressor and to each possible combination of regressors. The elements have the property that the appropriate sums…

  1. IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV infection

    PubMed Central

    Depla, Marion; Pelletier, Sandy; Bédard, Nathalie; Brunaud, Camille; Bruneau, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Polymorphisms in the type III interferon IFN‐λ3 and the killer cell immunoglobulin‐like receptor (KIR) genes controlling the activity of natural killer (NK) cells can predict spontaneous resolution of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We hypothesized that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism may modulate NK cell function during acute HCV. Methods We monitored the plasma levels of type III IFNs in relation to the phenotype and the function of NK cells in a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) during acute HCV infection with different outcomes. Results Early acute HCV was associated with high variability in type III IFNs plasma levels and the favorable IFN‐λ3 CC genotype was associated with higher viral loads. Reduced expression of Natural Killer Group Protein 2A (NKG2A) was associated with lower IFN‐λ3 plasma levels and the CC genotype. IFN‐γ production by NK cells was higher in individuals with the CC genotype during acute infection but this did not prevent viral persistence. IFN‐λ3 plasma levels did not correlate with function of NK cells and IFN‐λ3 prestimulation did not affect NK cell activation and function. Conclusions These results suggest that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV but other factors may act in concert to determine the outcome of the infection. PMID:27621819

  2. Influence of solvent polarity and supersaturation on template-induced nucleation of carbamazepine crystal polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parambil, Jose V.; Poornachary, Sendhil K.; Tan, Reginald B. H.; Heng, Jerry Y. Y.

    2017-07-01

    Studies on the use of template surfaces to induce heterogeneous crystal nucleation have gained momentum in recent years-with potential applications in selective crystallisation of polymorphs and in the generation of seed crystals in a continuous crystallisation process. In developing a template-assisted solution crystallisation process, the kinetics of homogeneous versus heterogeneous crystal nucleation could be influenced by solute-solvent, solute-template, and solvent-template interactions. In this study, we report the effect of solvents of varying polarity on the nucleation of carbamazepine (CBZ) crystal polymorphs, a model active pharmaceutical ingredient. The experimental results demonstrate that functionalised template surfaces are effective in promoting crystallisation of either the metastable (form II) or stable (form III) polymorphs of CBZ only in moderately (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol) and low polar (toluene) solvents. A solvent with high polarity (acetonitrile) is thought to mask the template effect on heterogeneous nucleation due to strong solute-solvent and solvent-template interactions. The current study highlights that a quality-by-design (QbD) approach-considering the synergistic effects of solute concentration, solvent type, solution temperature, and template surface chemistry on crystal nucleation-is critical to the development of a template-induced crystallisation process.

  3. Association of two common polymorphisms of apolipoprotein A5 gene with metabolic syndrome indicators in a North Iranian population, a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is an obesity dependent disorder with a worldwide high prevalence. Regarding the high prevalence of Metabolic syndrome in Iran we analyzed the influence of -1131T>C (rs662799) and c.56C>G (S19W, rs3135506) polymorphisms of the novel apolipoprotein gene, ApoA5, on some Metabolic Syndrome indicators in population from north of Iran. Methods 199 volunteers from Babol city-Iran were divided in two groups of low (N = 99, TG ≤ 103 mg/dl) and high (N = 100, TG ≥ 150 mg/dl) serum levels of Triglycerides (TG). We amplified the gene fragments containing -1131T>C and c.56C>G polymorphisms by PCR method and revealed the polymorphisms by RFLP analysis. Results We found a significant association (p = 0.016, Independent t-test) between high levels of TG and -1131T>C polymorphism but not between this polymorphism and serum HDL-C concentrations. Carriers of the C allele had a 1.97 times higher odds ratio to be in the high-TG group than those of the TT genotype (95%, CI = 1.05-3.68). We observed no association between -1131T>C polymorphism with either Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR) or Body-Mass-Index (BMI). In the case of c.56C>G polymorphism, although it showed a significant relationship with WHR (p = 0/040, Independent t-test), but failed to correlate with either levels of TG (p = 0.594) or HDL-C (p = 0.640) in serum. Conclusion Our study confirms that ApoA5 gene polymorphisms, -1131T>C and c.56C>G are associated with the two criteria of Metabolic Syndrome, TG and WHR, respectively. PMID:24708648

  4. Vitamin C levels in blood are influenced by polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Horska, Alexandra; Mislanova, Csilla; Bonassi, Stefano; Ceppi, Marcello; Volkovova, Katarina; Dusinska, Maria

    2011-09-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are intimately involved in combating oxidative stress and in detoxifying xenobiotics. Our objective was to examine possible interactions between polymorphisms in GST genes and plasma vitamin C, tocopherols and carotenoids in 149 reference subjects and 239 subjects occupationally exposed to mineral fibres (asbestos, rock wool, glass fibre), agents that induce oxidative stress. Deletion of GSTM1 and GSTT1, and substitution 105Ile/Val in GSTP1 genes were determined by PCR, antioxidants in plasma were measured by HPLC. Tocopherols and carotenoids were affected by age, sex, smoking, occupational exposure to fibres, but not by GST polymorphisms. Vitamin C level was influenced by sex, smoking and occupational exposure. Subjects with deletion of GST had lower vitamin C levels compared with subjects carrying the functional gene variant. Vitamin C levels varied according to GSTM1 polymorphism in the whole group (p < 0.05), in all reference subjects (p < 0.05), in the asbestos factory reference group (p < 0.05), and according to GSTT1 polymorphism in reference group of the rock wool plant (p < 0.05). Vitamin C levels were approximately 20% lower in subjects with both functionally deficient genes in the whole group (p < 0.01) and in all non-exposed subjects (p < 0.05). The correspondence of lower vitamin C levels with non-functional GST isoenzymes may indicate a causal connection between two antioxidant defence pathways, also the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. It seems that supplementation by natural antioxidants is particularly important for subjects with unfavourable genetic makeup and in those exposed to oxidative stress.

  5. The effect of perinatal anxiety on bronchiolitis is influenced by polymorphisms in ROS-related genes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun; Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Lee, Kyung-Sook; Suh, Dong In; Yu, Ho-Sung; Kang, Mi-Jin; Choi, In Ae; Park, Jinah; Kim, Kyung Won; Shin, Youn Ho; Ahn, Kang Mo; Kwon, Ja-Young; Choi, Suk-Joo; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Won, Hye-Sung; Yang, Song I; Jung, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Joo-Shil; Keyes, Katherine M; Shin, Yee-Jin; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2014-09-29

    Exposure to perinatal anxiety affects disease susceptibility in offspring but studies on the association between perinatal anxiety and gene polymorphisms are lacking. This study aimed to elucidate the interaction between perinatal anxiety and polymorphisms in antioxidant defense and innate immunity genes on the development of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) during early infancy. Trait anxiety levels in 440 women were assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory during late gestation. The occurrence of RTIs, including bronchiolitis, during the first year of life was assessed by parent-reported doctor diagnosis. Polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase P-1 (GSTP1, rs1695) and CD14 (rs2569190) were genotyped using the TaqMan assay. Copy number variations of GSTT1 were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Exposure to high levels of perinatal anxiety increased the risk of bronchiolitis in the first year of life (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.80), in particular among children with the AG + GG genotype of GSTP1 or the GSTT1 null genotype (aOR 3.36 and 2.79). In infants with the TC + CC genotype of CD14, high levels of perinatal anxiety were associated with an increased risk of upper RTI, lower RTI, and bronchiolitis (aOR 2.51, 4.60, and 4.31, respectively). Perinatal maternal anxiety levels affect the occurrence of bronchiolitis in offspring. The effect of perinatal anxiety on the occurrence of bronchiolitis during infancy was influenced by genetic polymorphisms in antioxidant defense and innate immunity genes.

  6. Common inversion polymorphism at 17q21.31 affects expression of multiple genes in tissue-specific manner.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Simone; Chepelev, Iouri; Janson, Esther; Strengman, Eric; van den Berg, Leonard H; Veldink, Jan H; Ophoff, Roel A

    2012-09-06

    Chromosome 17q21.31 contains a common inversion polymorphism of approximately 900 kb in populations with European ancestry. Two divergent MAPT haplotypes, H1 and H2 are described with distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns across the region reflecting the inversion status at this locus. The MAPT H1 haplotype has been associated with progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, while the H2 is linked to recurrent deletion events associated with the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, a disease characterized by developmental delay and learning disability. In this study, we investigate the effect of the inversion on the expression of genes in the 17q21.31 region. We find the expression of several genes in and at the borders of the inversion to be affected; specific either to whole blood or different regions of the human brain. The H1 haplotype was found to be associated with an increased expression of LRRC37A4, PLEKH1M and MAPT. In contrast, a decreased expression of MGC57346, LRRC37A and CRHR1 was associated with H1. Studies thus far have focused on the expression of MAPT in the inversion region. However, our results show that the inversion status affects expression of other genes in the 17q21.31 region as well. Given the link between the inversion status and different neurological diseases, these genes may also be involved in disease pathology, possibly in a tissue-specific manner.

  7. Influence of The -202 A/C insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 promoter polymorphism on individual variation in height in Korean girls.

    PubMed

    Yi, Min Ju; Park, Tae Young; Hwang, Il Tae; Yang, Seung

    2017-03-01

    The most common single nucleotide polymorphism in the IGFBP3 promoter region occurs at position -202. This polymorphic variation occurs frequently and may influence growth hormone responsiveness and somatic growth. However, the effects of IGFBP3 promoter polymorphism on growth in children are unknown. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-based genotyping of the -202 single nucleotide polymorphism was performed in 146 Korean girls aged between 15 and 16 years, who were selected randomly from the Seoul School Health Promotion Center. The participants were divided into 3 groups (tall, medium, and short) according to the height percentile established from normal reference values for Korean children. The serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were then compared according to genotype. The genotype distribution in the participants was 79 AA (54.1%), 60 AC (41.1%), and 7 CC (4.8%). The C allele frequency at the -202 IGFBP3 position was 25.4% in this group. The mean serum IGFBP-3 concentration in girls with the AA genotype was higher than that in girls with the AC genotype in the medium (P=0.047) and short (P=0.035) groups, respectively. There was no difference in the IGF-I to IGFBP-3 molar ratio between the AA and AC genotype groups (P=0.161). In conclusion, the -202 polymorphism in the IGFBP3 promoter region is assumed to affect the serum concentration of IGFBP-3 in children as well as in adults. However, it is unclear whether this affects physical development according to the concentration of IGFBP-3.

  8. A common polymorphism in the interleukin-8 gene promoter is associated with an increased risk for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Garey, Kevin W; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Ghantoji, Shashank; Tam, Vincent H; Arora, Vaneet; Dupont, Herbert L

    2010-12-15

    Neutrophil recruitment coordinated by intestinal interleukin (IL)-8 secretion is a key component in the pathogenesis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We hypothesized that a common single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the -251 region of the IL-8 gene promoter may be predictive of recurrent CDI. This was a prospective cohort study of hospitalized adult patients with CDI who were admitted to a large, university-affiliated medical center from 2007 through 2008. Patients were monitored for 3 months after diagnosis of CDI and assessed for recurrent CDI (defined as a return of diarrhea that required treatment after initial symptom resolution). DNA was isolated from blood samples, and genetic sequencing was performed using polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing. The association between IL-8 genotype and recurrent CDI was assessed using univariate and multivariate statistics. Ninety-six patients with a mean (± standard deviation) age of 61 ± 16 years (54% of whom were female and 63% of whom were white) were identified. The overall incidence of recurrent CDI was 24%. IL-8 allele frequency was similar to previously reported findings (for A/A, 27%; for A/T, 53%; and for T/T, 20%). The incidence of recurrent CDI was 38% in patients with the A/A allele and 19% in all other patients (relative risk, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-4.13) (P = .043). This study indicates that a common SNP in the IL-8 gene promoter is an independent predictor of recurrent CDI. Our results could offer risk stratification for patients at high risk for recurrent CDI.

  9. Presence of a TA haplotype in the APC gene containing the common 1822 polymorphism and colorectal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Egan, Jan B; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Martínez, María Elena; Gerner, Eugene W; Jurutka, Peter W; Thompson, Patricia A

    2008-07-15

    Acquired or inherited mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene are causally linked to colorectal cancer. Given the significance of APC in colorectal cancer, we investigated the association between common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the APC gene and the odds of developing metachronous colorectal adenomas as a surrogate measure of colorectal cancer risk. Coding SNPs at codons 486, 1678, 1822, 1960, and 2502 were analyzed in a total of 1,399 subjects who participated in two randomized clinical trials for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. No association was found for any single SNP and the odds of metachronous adenoma. In contrast, a TA haplotype (codons 486 and 1822) was associated with a statistically significant 27% and 26% reduction in the odds of any and nonadvanced metachronous adenoma after adjustment for baseline adenoma characteristics [odds ratio (OR), 0.73; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.59-0.91 and OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.94], respectively. No significant reduction in odds was observed for advanced metachronous lesions. Diplotype analysis revealed a strong gene dose effect with carriers of two alleles containing TT-AA (codons 486 and 1822, respectively) having an 89% lower odds for advanced metachronous adenomas (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.01-0.80) when compared with the common CC-AA diplotype (codons 486 and 1822, respectively). Our findings support an important role for germ-line allele sequence in the APC gene and individual risk of metachronous adenomatous polyps.

  10. Molecular evaluation of orphan Afghan common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) landraces collected by Dr. Kihara using single nucleotide polymorphic markers.

    PubMed

    Manickavelu, Alagu; Jighly, Abdulqader; Ban, Tomohiro

    2014-11-29

    Landraces are an important source of genetic diversity in common wheat, but archival collections of Afghan wheat landraces remain poorly characterised. The recent development of array based marker systems, particularly single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, provide an excellent tool for examining the genetic diversity of local populations. Here we used SNP analysis to demonstrate the importance of Afghan wheat landraces and found tremendous genetic diversity and province-specific characteristics unique to this geographic region. A total of 446 Afghan wheat landraces were analysed using genotype by sequencing (GBS) arrays containing ~10 K unique markers. Pair-wise genetic distance analyses revealed significant genetic distances between landraces, particularly among those collected from distanced provinces. From these analyses, we were able to divide the landraces into 14 major classes, with the greatest degree of diversity evident among landraces isolated from Badakhshan province. Population-based analyses revealed an additional 15 sub-populations within our germplasm, and significant correlations were evident in both the provincial and botanical varieties. Genetic distance analysis was used to identify differences among provinces, with the strongest correlations seen between landraces from Herat and Ghor province, followed closely by those between Badakhshan and Takhar provinces. This result closely resembles existing agro-climatic zones within Afghanistan, as well as the wheat varieties commonly cultivated within these regions. Molecular variance analysis showed a higher proportion of intra-province variation among landraces compared with variation among all landraces as a whole. The SNP analyses presented here highlight the importance and genetic diversity of Afghan wheat landraces. Furthermore, these data strongly refute a previous analysis that suggested low genetic diverse within this germplasm. Ongoing analyses include phenotypic characterisation of

  11. A common polymorphism in the ABCB1 gene is associated with side effects of PGP-dependent antidepressants in a large naturalistic Dutch cohort.

    PubMed

    Bet, P M; Verbeek, E C; Milaneschi, Y; Straver, D B M; Uithuisje, T; Bevova, M R; Hugtenburg, J G; Heutink, P; Penninx, B W J H; Hoogendijk, W J G

    2016-04-01

    The drug efflux transporter permeability glycoprotein (PGP) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 are important for eliminating antidepressants from the brain and body. The ABCB1 gene, encoding for PGP, and CYP2C19 gene have several variants that could influence enzyme function and thereby the effect of PGP- and 2C19-dependent antidepressants. We investigated the association of antidepressant side effect and common genetic variation in 789 antidepressant users. In PGP-dependent antidepressant users, the A-allele of the rs2032588 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was associated with a lower number of side effects after adjusting for gender, age, dosage and duration of use, (B=-0.44, q=4.6 × 10(-3)). This association was different from and absent in non-PGP-dependent antidepressant users. Other SNP associations as well as an interaction analysis between the rs2032588 SNP and the CYP2C19 SNPs were not statistically significant after adjusting for covariates and multiple comparisons. The association of rs2032588 with antidepressant side effects suggests the involvement of the ABCB1 genotype in the clinical pharmacology of PGP-dependent antidepressants.

  12. Androgen receptor gene polymorphism influence fat accumulation: A longitudinal study from adolescence to adult age.

    PubMed

    Ponce-González, J G; Rodríguez-Garcia, L; Losa-Reyna, J; Guadalupe-Grau, A; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, F G; Díaz-Chico, B N; Dorado, C; Serrano-Sanchez, J A; Calbet, J A L

    2016-11-01

    To determine the influence of androgen receptor CAG and GGN repeat polymorphisms on fat mass and maximal fat oxidation (MFO), CAG and GGN repeat lengths were measured in 128 young boys, from which longitudinal data were obtained in 45 of them [mean ± SD: 12.8 ± 3.6 years old at recruitment, and 27.0 ± 4.8 years old at adult age]. Subjects were grouped as CAG short (CAGS ) if harboring repeat lengths ≤  21, the rest as CAG long (CAGL ); and GGN short (GGNS ) if GGN repeat lengths ≤  23, or long if >  23 (GGNL ). CAGS and GGNS were associated with lower adiposity than CAGL or GGNL (P < 0.05). There was an association between the logarithm of CAG repeats polymorphism and the changes of body mass (r = 0.34, P = 0.03). At adult age, CAGS men showed lower accumulation of total body and trunk fat mass, and lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) and MFO per kg of total lean mass compared with CAGL (P < 0.05). GGNS men also showed lower percentage of body fat (P < 0.05). In summary, androgen receptor CAG and GGN repeat polymorphisms are associated with RMR, MFO, fat mass, and its regional distribution in healthy male adolescents, influencing fat accumulation from adolescence to adult age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Influence of androgen receptor repeat polymorphisms on personality traits in men

    PubMed Central

    Westberg, Lars; Henningsson, Susanne; Landén, Mikael; Annerbrink, Kristina; Melke, Jonas; Nilsson, Staffan; Rosmond, Roland; Holm, Göran; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Eriksson, Elias

    2009-01-01

    Background Testosterone has been attributed importance for various aspects of behaviour. The aim of our study was to investigate the potential influence of 2 functional polymorphisms in the amino terminal of the androgen receptor on personality traits in men. Methods We assessed and genotyped 141 men born in 1944 recruited from the general population. We used 2 different instruments: the Karolinska Scales of Personality and the Temperament and Character Inventory. For replication, we similarly assessed 63 men recruited from a forensic psychiatry study group. Results In the population-recruited sample, the lengths of the androgen receptor repeats were associated with neuroticism, extraversion and self-transcendence. The association with extraversion was replicated in the independent sample. Limitations Our 2 samples differed in size; sample 1 was of moderate size and sample 2 was small. In addition, the homogeneity of sample 1 probably enhanced our ability to detect significant associations between genotype and phenotype. Conclusion Our results suggest that the repeat polymorphisms in the androgen receptor gene may influence personality traits in men. PMID:19448851

  14. Understanding pharmaceutical polymorphic transformations II: crystallization variables and influence on dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Sood, Jatin; Sapra, Bharti; Bhandari, Sameer; Tiwary, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    Excipients or formulation variables have often been exploited to improve stability, modify release, or improve physicochemical properties of dosage forms. In pharmaceutical field, it is generally expected that excipients work at macromolecular level where they might influence the crystal structure of a solid. These polymers/colloidal particles may modify the rate and direction of crystal growth. It has also been observed, that different polymorphic crystals exhibit different colors on exposure to same colorant, predominantly due to difference in surface pH of different crystal lattices. Apart from physicochemical affect, crystal habit also influences pharmacokinetic parameters of the dosage form. Crystals with smaller size or lower lattice energy have shown to exhibit higher bioavailability with faster rate of release.

  15. PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism and haplotype of the most common mutation L176F in the beta-glucuronidase gene.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Rafiq; Shah, Gul N; Sly, William S

    2007-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII or Sly syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder of glycosaminoglycan storage leading to variable clinical symptoms, such as hepatosplenomegaly, bone deformities, hearing loss, corneal opacities, mental retardation, and hydrops fetalis in affected individuals. The disease is caused by approximately 40 different mutations in the beta-glucuronidase gene. Detection of the most common mutation L176F by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was not always successful. Although DNA sequencing followed by PCR amplification can easily detect this mutation, accessibility to a DNA sequencer or useful reagents in the sequencing procedure is not readily available in many countries. A PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) developed in this report would allow rapid and easier detection of this mutation for screening new patients or neonates of heterozygous parents. Analysis of intragenic polymorphic sites in the L176F patients identified two distinct alleles; the predominant one probably originated in Spain.

  16. Relationships of common polymorphisms in IL-6, IL-1A, and IL-1B genes with susceptibility to osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao; Sun, Huan-Jian; Wang, You-Hua; Zhang, Zhe

    2015-08-01

    Observational and experimental studies have arrived at inconsistent conclusions about whether common polymorphisms in IL-6, IL-1A, and IL-1B genes are associated with an increased risk of osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, we undertook a comprehensive meta-analysis to more systematically summarize the relationships of IL-6, IL-1A, and IL-1B genetic polymorphisms with susceptibility to OA. We screened the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, CINAHL, Google Scholar, China BioMedicine (CBM), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases up to 31 March 2014. We used STATA software to analyze statistical data. Odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated. Seventeen independent case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis with a total number of 7,491 subjects, comprised of 3,293 OA patients and 4,729 healthy controls. Our results indicate that IL-6, IL-1A, and IL-1B genetic polymorphisms are statistically correlated with an increased risk of OA under the allele and dominant models. According to a subgroup analysis based on disease, a higher frequency of IL-6 genetic polymorphisms was observed among knee OA and hand OA patients, but not among hip OA and DIP OA patients. A higher frequency of IL-1A genetic polymorphisms were found among hip OA patients, hand OA, hip OA and DIP OA patients. Furthermore, we observed a higher IL-1B polymorphism frequency among knee OA and hip OA patients, but not among hand OA patients. Our findings provide evidence that IL-6, IL-1A, and IL-1B genetic polymorphisms may be correlated with susceptibility to OA.

  17. Interactions between common genetic polymorphisms in ABCG5/G8 and CYP7A1 on LDL cholesterol-lowering response to atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Kajinami, Kouji; Brousseau, Margaret E; Ordovas, Jose M; Schaefer, Ernst J

    2004-08-01

    Cholesterol excretion by ATP binding cassette transporters G5 and G8 (ABCG5/G8) and bile acid biosynthesis by cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) are major pathways for the removal of cholesterol into bile. To investigate the interactions between common polymorphisms in ABCG5/G8 and CYP7A1 and statin response, we examined the relationships between five non-synonymous polymorphisms in ABCG5/G8 (Q604E, D19H, Y54C, T400K, and A632V) and a promoter variant in CYP7A1 (A-204C) in 337 hypercholesterolemic patients treated with atorvastatin 10mg. The ABCG8 H19 allele was significantly associated with a greater LDL cholesterol reduction relative to the wild type D19 allele (39.6% versus 36.6%, P = 0.043). This difference was enhanced in non-carriers of the CYP7A1 promoter polymorphism (42.7% versus 38.2%, P = 0.048), and was diminished in accordance with the number of CYP7A1 variant alleles (1.8% in heterozygotes and 0.2% in homozygotes). Combination analysis of these polymorphisms explained a greater percentage of LDL cholesterol response variation (8.5% difference across subgroups) than did single polymorphism analysis (4.2% in CYP7A1 and 3.0% in ABCG8 D19H). The other ABCG5/G8 polymorphisms did not show any significant interactions with the CYP7A1 polymorphism. We conclude that the ABCG8 H19 and CYP7A1 C-204 alleles appear to interact in a dose-dependent manner on atorvastatin response.

  18. Increased body mass index but not common vitamin D receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, or cytokine polymorphisms confers predisposition to posttransplant diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Hudspeth, Elissa

    2011-12-01

    Posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a major complication after solid organ transplantation. The use of corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, especially tacrolimus, are significant risk factors. However, it is not clear what genetic factors modify the risk. Evidence suggests vitamin D deficiency, perturbed glucose homeostasis, and increased inflammation all play roles in the development of diabetes. To investigate whether common vitamin D receptor (VDR), cytokine, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) polymorphisms are correlated with the development of PTDM. DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood of 51 kidney transplant recipients with PTDM and 72 patients without diabetes pretransplant or posttransplant at the time of follow-up. The genotypes for 5 polymorphisms, 1 each in VDR, PPARγ, INFγ, TGFβ1, and TNF, were determined using direct sequencing. Age, sex, number of acute rejection episodes, follow-up length, ethnicity, body mass index, and the frequency of alleles and genotypes for each polymorphism were compared between the 2 groups. Body mass index was the only factor that was statistically different between the 2 groups (P  =  .001). The frequency of different alleles and genotypes for each of the 5 polymorphisms did not differ between the 2 groups. These results indicate that increased body mass index is a significant risk factor for the development of PTDM. However, none of the genetic polymorphisms studied confer predisposition to PTDM with the current sample size.

  19. Two common functional catalase gene polymorphisms (rs1001179 and rs794316) and cancer susceptibility: evidence from 14,942 cancer cases and 43,285 controls

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xijing; Kang, Huafeng; Lin, Shuai; Yang, Pengtao; Dai, Cong; Xu, Peng; Li, Shanli; Dai, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the associations of catalase polymorphisms with various types of cancer, including cervical and prostate cancers. However, the results were inconsistent. To obtain a more reliable conclusion, we evaluated the relationship between the two common catalase gene polymorphisms (rs1001179 and rs794316) and cancer risk by a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis included 37 published studies involving 14,942 cancer patients and 43,285 cancer-free controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the cancer risk. The results demonstrated that the rs1001179 polymorphism was associated with an increased cancer risk in the recessive and homozygote models (TT vs. CC: OR = 1.19, P = 0.01; TT vs. CT+CC: OR = 1.19, P <0.001). Furthermore, stratified analyses revealed a significant association between the rs1001179 polymorphism and prostate cancer in all models except the homozygote comparison. An association of the rs794316 polymorphism with cancer risk was detected in two genetic models (TT vs. AA: OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.03–1.74, P <0.001; TT vs. AT+AA: OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.09–1.77, P = 0.01). Additional well-designed studies with large samples should be performed to validate our results. PMID:27449288

  20. Influence of coronary artery disease and subclinical atherosclerosis related polymorphisms on the risk of atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    López-Mejías, Raquel; Corrales, Alfonso; Vicente, Esther; Robustillo-Villarino, Montserrat; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Llorca, Javier; Genre, Fernanda; Remuzgo-Martínez, Sara; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Miranda-Filloy, José A.; Huaranga, Marco A. Ramírez; Pina, Trinitario; Blanco, Ricardo; Alegre-Sancho, Juan J.; Raya, Enrique; Mijares, Verónica; Ubilla, Begoña; Ferraz-Amaro, Iván; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Balsa, Alejandro; López-Longo, Francisco J.; Carreira, Patricia; González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Ocejo-Vinyals, J. Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Castañeda, Santos; Martín, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    A genetic component influences the development of atherosclerosis in the general population and also in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, genetic polymorphisms associated with atherosclerosis in the general population are not always involved in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in RA. Accordingly, a study in North-American RA patients did not show the association reported in the general population of coronary artery disease with a series of relevant polymorphisms (TCF21, LPA, HHIPL1, RASD1-PEMT, MRPS6, CYP17A1-CNNM2-NT5C2, SMG6-SRR, PHACTR1, WDR12 and COL4A1-COL4A2). In the present study, we assessed the potential association of these polymorphisms with CVD in Southern European RA patients. We also assessed if polymorphisms implicated in the increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in non-rheumatic Caucasians (ZHX2, PINX1, SLC17A4, LRIG1 and LDLR) may influence the risk for CVD in RA. 2,609 Spanish patients were genotyped by TaqMan assays. Subclinical atherosclerosis was determined in 1,258 of them by carotid ultrasonography (assessment of carotid intima media thickness and presence/absence of carotid plaques). No statistically significant differences were found when each polymorphism was assessed according to the presence/absence of cardiovascular events and subclinical atherosclerosis, after adjustment for potential confounder factors. Our results do not show an association between these 15 polymorphisms and atherosclerosis in RA. PMID:28059143

  1. Influence of coronary artery disease and subclinical atherosclerosis related polymorphisms on the risk of atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    López-Mejías, Raquel; Corrales, Alfonso; Vicente, Esther; Robustillo-Villarino, Montserrat; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Llorca, Javier; Genre, Fernanda; Remuzgo-Martínez, Sara; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Miranda-Filloy, José A; Huaranga, Marco A Ramírez; Pina, Trinitario; Blanco, Ricardo; Alegre-Sancho, Juan J; Raya, Enrique; Mijares, Verónica; Ubilla, Begoña; Ferraz-Amaro, Iván; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Balsa, Alejandro; López-Longo, Francisco J; Carreira, Patricia; González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Ocejo-Vinyals, J Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Castañeda, Santos; Martín, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A

    2017-01-06

    A genetic component influences the development of atherosclerosis in the general population and also in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, genetic polymorphisms associated with atherosclerosis in the general population are not always involved in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in RA. Accordingly, a study in North-American RA patients did not show the association reported in the general population of coronary artery disease with a series of relevant polymorphisms (TCF21, LPA, HHIPL1, RASD1-PEMT, MRPS6, CYP17A1-CNNM2-NT5C2, SMG6-SRR, PHACTR1, WDR12 and COL4A1-COL4A2). In the present study, we assessed the potential association of these polymorphisms with CVD in Southern European RA patients. We also assessed if polymorphisms implicated in the increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in non-rheumatic Caucasians (ZHX2, PINX1, SLC17A4, LRIG1 and LDLR) may influence the risk for CVD in RA. 2,609 Spanish patients were genotyped by TaqMan assays. Subclinical atherosclerosis was determined in 1,258 of them by carotid ultrasonography (assessment of carotid intima media thickness and presence/absence of carotid plaques). No statistically significant differences were found when each polymorphism was assessed according to the presence/absence of cardiovascular events and subclinical atherosclerosis, after adjustment for potential confounder factors. Our results do not show an association between these 15 polymorphisms and atherosclerosis in RA.

  2. The association between 2D:4D ratio and cognitive empathy is contingent on a common polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR rs53576).

    PubMed

    Weisman, Omri; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Leckman, James F; Feldman, Ruth; Lu, Yunfeng; Chong, Anne; Chen, Ying; Monakhov, Mikhail; Chew, Soo Hong; Ebstein, Richard P

    2015-08-01

    Both testosterone and oxytocin influence an individual's accuracy in inferring another's feelings and emotions. Fetal testosterone, and the second-to-forth digit ratio (2D:4D) as its proxy, plays a role in social cognitive development, often by attenuating socio-affective skill. Conversely, oxytocin generally facilitates socio-affiliative and empathic cognition and behavior. A common polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene, OXTR rs53576, has been repeatedly linked with psychosocial competence, including empathy, with individuals homozygous for the G allele typically characterized by enhanced socio-cognitive skills compared to A allele carriers. We examined the role of oxytocin and testosterone in collectively contributing to individual differences in cognitive empathy as measured by Baron-Cohen's "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" task (RMET). Findings are based on a large cohort of male and female students (N=1463) of Han Chinese ethnicity. In line with existing literature, women outperformed men in the RMET. Men showed significantly lower 2D:4D ratio compared to women, indicating higher exposure to testosterone during the prenatal period. Interestingly, variation in the OXTR gene was found to interact with 2D:4D to predict men's (but not women's) RMET performance. Among men with GG allelic variation, those with low fetal testosterone performed better on the RMET, compared to men with GG and high fetal testosterone, suggesting greater identification of another's emotional state. Taken together, our data lend unique support to the mutual influence of the oxytocin and testosterone systems in shaping core aspect of human social cognition early in development, further suggesting that this effect is gender-specific. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel SLC22A16 polymorphisms and influence on doxorubicin pharmacokinetics in Asian breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lal, Suman; Wong, Zee Wan; Jada, Srinivasa Rao; Xiang, Xiaoqiang; Chen Shu, Xiao; Ang, Peter Cher Siang; Figg, William D; Lee, Edmund Jd; Chowbay, Balram

    2007-06-01

    To identify novel polymorphisms in the solute carrier SLC22A16 gene and determine their influence on the pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol in Asian breast cancer patients. SLC22A16 coding regions were screened in a total of 400 healthy subjects belonging to three distinct Asian ethnic groups (Chinese [n = 100], Malays [n = 100] and Indians [n = 100]) and in the Caucasian population (n = 100). Pharmacokinetic parameters of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol were estimated in Asian breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy to investigate genotype-phenotype correlations. Four novel polymorphisms (c.146A>G [exon 2], c.312T>C, c.755T>C [exon 4] and c.1226T>C [exon 5]) were identified. The genotypic frequency of the homozygous c.146GG polymorphism was approximately twofold higher in the healthy Chinese (13%) & Malay (18%) populations compared with the Indian (7%) and Caucasian (9%) populations. The genotypic frequency of the c.1226T>C polymorphism was observed to be significantly higher among the Caucasian (11%) and Indian (8%) study subjects compared with the Chinese (1%) and Malay (1%) ethnic groups (p < 0.005 in each case). Breast cancer patients harboring the 146GG genotype showed a trend towards higher exposure levels to doxorubicin (AUC(0 negative infinity)/dose/body surface area [BSA] [hm(-5)]: 21.6; range: 18.8-27.7) compared with patients with either the reference genotype (AUC(0 negative infinity)/dose/BSA[hm(-5)]: 17.4; range: 8.2-26.3, p = 0.066) or heterozygotes (AUC(0 negative infinity)/dose/BSA[hm(-5)]: 15.4; range: 6.2-38.0, p = 0.055). The exposure levels of doxorubicinol were also higher in patients harboring the variant 146GG genotype (AUC(0 negative infinity)/dose/BSA[hm(-5)]: 13.3; range: 8.8-21.7) when compared with patients harboring the reference genotype (AUC(0 negative infinity)/dose/BSA[hm(-5)]): 9.8; range: 6.1-24.3, p = 0.137) or heterozygotes (AUC(0 negative infinity)/dose/BSA[hm(-5)]: 8.98; range: 3.7-20.6, p = 0

  4. Polymorphism of a complex resistance gene candidate family in wild populations of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Argentina: comparison with phenotypic resistance polymorphism.

    PubMed

    De Meaux, J; Cattan-Toupance, I; Lavigne, C; Langin, T; Neema, C

    2003-01-01

    Fifteen populations of wild bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), located in three provinces in Argentina, were analysed for their polymorphism for a complex resistance gene candidate (RGC) family clustered on the genome and for resistance phenotypes to strains of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Results indicate that RGC polymorphism is high. Population structure obtained for markers related to resistance was compared to population structure obtained for RAPD markers in order to infer the evolutionary forces driving polymorphism for resistance in wild populations at both molecular and phenotypic levels. Hierarchical analysis of differentiation showed that, within provinces, populations were differentiated for RAPD as well as for molecular and phenotypic markers of resistance. In contrast, provinces were differentiated only for RAPD and RGC markers and not for resistance phenotypes. The discrepancies found between diversity structures for molecular markers (RAPD and RGCs) and for resistance phenotypes suggest an effect of selection and indicate that diversity for resistance may not be driven by the same selective forces at the molecular and phenotypic levels. We further discuss whether specific selective forces are exerted on RGC markers and underline the importance of spatial scale of analysis for demonstrating an impact of selection.

  5. Identification of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers Linked to the Co-4 Resistance Gene to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in Common Bean.

    PubMed

    de Arruda, M C; Alzate-Marin, A L; Chagas, J M; Moreira, M A; de Barros, E G

    2000-07-01

    ABSTRACT New cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) with durable resistance to anthracnose can be developed by pyramiding major resistance genes using marker-assisted selection. To this end, it is necessary to identify sources of resistance and molecular markers tightly linked to the resistance genes. The objectives of this work were to study the inheritance of resistance to anthracnose in the cultivar TO (carrying the Co-4 gene), to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to Co-4, and to introgress this gene in the cultivar Rudá. Populations F(1), F(2), F(2:3), BC(1)s, and BC(1)r from the cross Rudá x TO were inoculated with race 65 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, causal agent of bean anthracnose. The phenotypic ratios (resistant/susceptible) were 3:1 in the F(2) population, 1:1 in the BC(1)s, and 1:0 in the BC(1)r, confirming that resistance to anthracnose in the cultivar TO was monogenic and dominant. Six RAPD markers linked to the Co-4 gene were identified, four in the coupling phase: OPY20(830C) (0.0 centimorgan [cM]), OPC08(900C) (9.7 cM), OPI16(850C) (14.3 cM), and OPJ01(1,380C) (18.1 cM); and two in the repulsion phase: OPB03(1,800T) (3.7 cM) and OPA18(830T) (17.4 cM). OPY20(830C) and OPB03(1,800T), used in association as a codominant pair, allowed the identification of the three genotypic classes with a high degree of confidence. Marker OPY20(830C), which is tightly linked to Co-4, is being used to assist in breeding for resistance to anthracnose.

  6. Common inversion polymorphism at 17q21.31 affects expression of multiple genes in tissue-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chromosome 17q21.31 contains a common inversion polymorphism of approximately 900 kb in populations with European ancestry. Two divergent MAPT haplotypes, H1 and H2 are described with distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns across the region reflecting the inversion status at this locus. The MAPT H1 haplotype has been associated with progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, while the H2 is linked to recurrent deletion events associated with the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, a disease characterized by developmental delay and learning disability. Results In this study, we investigate the effect of the inversion on the expression of genes in the 17q21.31 region. We find the expression of several genes in and at the borders of the inversion to be affected; specific either to whole blood or different regions of the human brain. The H1 haplotype was found to be associated with an increased expression of LRRC37A4, PLEKH1M and MAPT. In contrast, a decreased expression of MGC57346, LRRC37A and CRHR1 was associated with H1. Conclusions Studies thus far have focused on the expression of MAPT in the inversion region. However, our results show that the inversion status affects expression of other genes in the 17q21.31 region as well. Given the link between the inversion status and different neurological diseases, these genes may also be involved in disease pathology, possibly in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:22950410

  7. The Common FTO Genetic Polymorphism rs9939609 is Associated with Increased BMI in Type 1 Diabetes but not with Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Harvest F; Alvarsson, Alexandra; Brismar, Kerstin

    2010-04-27

    The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene has an important genetic effect on body mass index (BMI) and risk of obesity, and obesity contributes to the progression of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. We thus conducted a genetic association study to evaluate whether the FTO gene confers the risk susceptibility to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Genotyping experiments of the common FTO polymorphism, rs9939609, in 1170 type 1 diabetes patients with (n = 597) or without diabetic nephropathy (n = 573) were performed with TaqMan allelic discrimination. All subjects are of European descent and selected from the Genetics of Kidney Diseases in Diabetes (GoKinD) study. The frequency of T allele of this polymorphism was 0.414 in the studied population. There was no allelic association of this polymorphism with diabetic nephropathy. But, the risk susceptibility of A allele conferring to the increased BMI among type 1 diabetes patients was observed. The subjects carrying with AA genotype had higher BMI compared to the carriers with TA and/or TT genotype(s) (P common FTO genetic polymorphism, rs9939609, is associated with increased BMI in type 1 diabetes but not with diabetic nephropathy.

  8. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Jasińska, Kaja K.; Molfese, Peter J.; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Mencl, W. Einar; Frost, Stephen J.; Lee, Maria; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how genes impact the brain’s functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism) modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265) is associated with children’s (age 6–10) neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading–related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes. PMID:27551971

  9. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children.

    PubMed

    Jasińska, Kaja K; Molfese, Peter J; Kornilov, Sergey A; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Lee, Maria; Pugh, Kenneth R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how genes impact the brain's functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism) modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265) is associated with children's (age 6-10) neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading-related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes.

  10. Monitoring low benzene exposure: comparative evaluation of urinary biomarkers, influence of cigarette smoking, and genetic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Consonni, Dario; Campo, Laura; Buratti, Marina; Colombi, Antonio; Pesatori, Angela C; Bonzini, Matteo; Bertazzi, Pier A; Foà, Vito; Garte, Seymour; Farmer, Peter B; Levy, Leonard S; Pala, Mauro; Valerio, Federico; Fontana, Vincenzo; Desideri, Arianna; Merlo, Domenico F

    2005-09-01

    Benzene is a human carcinogen and an ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Identification of specific and sensitive biological markers is critical for the definition of exposure to low benzene level and the evaluation of the health risk posed by this exposure. This investigation compared urinary trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), S-phenylmercapturic acid, and benzene (U-benzene) as biomarkers to assess benzene exposure and evaluated the influence of smoking and the genetic polymorphisms CYP2E1 (RsaI and DraI) and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1 on these indices. Gas station attendants, urban policemen, bus drivers, and two groups of controls were studied (415 subjects). Median benzene exposure was 61, 22, 21, 9 and 6 microg/m(3), respectively, with higher levels in workers than in controls. U-benzene, but not t,t-MA and S-phenylmercapturic acid, showed an exposure-related increase. All the biomarkers were strongly influenced by cigarette smoking, with values up to 8-fold higher in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Significant correlations of the biomarkers with each other and with urinary cotinine were found. A possible influence of genetic polymorphism of CYP2E1 (RsaI and/or DraI) on t,t-MA and U-benzene in subjects with a variant allele was found. Multiple linear regression analysis correlated the urinary markers with exposure, smoking status, and CYP2E1 (RsaI; R(2) up to 0.55 for U-benzene). In conclusion, in the range of investigated benzene levels (<478 micro/m(3) or <0.15 ppm), smoking may be regarded as the major source of benzene intake; among the study indices, U-benzene is the marker of choice for biomonitoring low-level occupational and environmental benzene exposure.

  11. Evaluation of the influence of alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphisms on alcohol elimination rates in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Vanessa J; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Kalu, Nnenna; Kwagyan, John; Scott, Denise M; Ferguson, Clifford L; Taylor, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) polymorphisms and alcohol use disorders in populations of African descent has not been clearly established. This study examined the effect of ADH1B polymorphisms on alcohol metabolism and subjective response, following intravenous (IV) alcohol administration, and the influence of gender, recent drinking history, and family history of alcoholism (FHA), in nondependent African American drinkers. The sample included eighty-seven 21- to 35-year-old, light social drinkers of African descent. Participants included 39 sib pairs, 2 sibships with 3 siblings each, and 3 individuals who were not part of a sibship. Participants received infusions via the use of the clamp method that refers to the goal of controlling breath alcohol concentration in 2 randomized sessions at 0.06 g% ethanol and 0 mg% (placebo), and a battery of subjective scales at predefined time points. Dependent measures included alcohol elimination rates (AERs), alcohol disappearance rates (ADRs), subjective measures peak scores, and area under the curve. General linear model and mixed models were performed to examine the relationship between ADH1B genotype, dependent measures, and influence of covariates. Participants with ADH1B1/1 genotypes showed higher number of drinks (p = 0.023) and drinks per drinking day (p = 0.009) compared with the persons with ADH1B1/3 genotype. AER (adjusted for body weight) was higher in ADH1B*1 homozygotes (p = 0.045) compared with ADH1B1/3 heterozygotes. ADR differed significantly between males and females (p = 0.002), regardless of body weight (p = 0.004) and lean body mass (p < 0.001) adjustments. Although a few subjective measures differed across genotype, all measures were higher in alcohol sessions compared with placebo sessions (p < 0.001). These observations were mediated by drinks per drinking day, gender, and FHA. ADH1B polymorphism had a marginal effect on alcohol pharmacokinetics following IV alcohol administration

  12. The influence of genetic polymorphisms on performance and cardiac and hemodynamic parameters among Brazilian soccer players.

    PubMed

    Dionísio, Thiago José; Thiengo, Carlos Rogério; Brozoski, Daniel Thomas; Dionísio, Evandro José; Talamoni, Guilherme Augusto; Silva, Roberto Braga; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Santos, Carlos Ferreira; Amaral, Sandra Lia

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated whether ACTN3 R577X, AMPD1 C34T, I/D ACE, and M235T AGT polymorphisms can affect performance tests such as jumping, sprinting, and endurance in 220 young male athletes from professional minor league soccer team from São Paulo Futebol Clube, Brazil. I/D ACE and M235T AGT polymorphisms were also analyzed according to cardiac and hemodynamic parameters. Athletes were grouped or not by age. DNA from saliva and Taqman assays were used for genotyping 220 athletes and the results were associated with performance tests. Ventricle mass, ventricle end-diastolic diameter, end-diastolic volume, and ejection fraction were assessed by echocardiogram. Arterial pressure, heart rate, and oximetry were assessed by a cardioscope. The main results of this study were that athletes who carried RR/RX (ACTN3) and DD (ACE) genotypes presented better performance during jump and sprint tests. On the other hand, athletes with ID/II genotype presented better results during endurance test, while AGT genotypes did not seem to favor the athletes during the evaluated physical tests. CC genotype (AMPD1) only favored the athletes during 10-m sprint test. Although there are environmental interactions influencing performance, the present results suggest that RR/RX ACTN3 and ACE DD genotypes may benefit athletes in activities that require strength and speed, while II ACE genotype may benefit athletes in endurance activities. This information could help coaches to plan the training session to improve the athletes' performance.

  13. BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Visuomotor Associative Learning and the Sensitivity to Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Hétu, Sébastien; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Massicotte, Elsa; De Beaumont, Louis; Fecteau, Shirley; Poirier, Judes; Mercier, Catherine; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Jackson, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    Motor representations in the human mirror neuron system are tuned to respond to specific observed actions. This ability is widely believed to be influenced by genetic factors, but no study has reported a genetic variant affecting this system so far. One possibility is that genetic variants might interact with visuomotor associative learning to configure the system to respond to novel observed actions. In this perspective, we conducted a candidate gene study on the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism, a genetic variant linked to motor learning in regions of the mirror neuron system, and tested the effect of this polymorphism on motor facilitation and visuomotor associative learning. In a single-pulse TMS study carried on 16 Met (Val/Met and Met/Met) and 16 Val/Val participants selected from a large pool of healthy volunteers, Met participants showed significantly less muscle-specific corticospinal sensitivity during action observation, as well as reduced visuomotor associative learning, compared to Val homozygotes. These results are the first evidence of a genetic variant tuning sensitivity to action observation and bring to light the importance of considering the intricate relation between genetics and associative learning in order to further understand the origin and function of the human mirror neuron system. PMID:27703276

  14. Bim polymorphisms: influence on function and response to treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Vincent; Rousseau, Julie; Labuda, Malgorzata; Sharif-Askari, Bahram; Brukner, Ivan; Laverdière, Caroline; Ceppi, Francesco; Sallan, Stephen E; Silverman, Lewis B; Neuberg, Donna; Kutok, Jeffery L; Sinnett, Daniel; Krajinovic, Maja

    2013-09-15

    Corticosteroids induce apoptosis in the malignant lymphoid cells and are critical component of combination therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Several genome-wide microarray studies showed major implication of proapoptotic Bim in mediating corticosteroid-related resistance in leukemia cells. We investigated Bim gene polymorphisms and their association with childhood ALL outcome, and the mechanism underlying the observed finding. Lower overall survival (OS) was associated with Bim C29201T located in Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain (P = 0.01). An association remained significant in multivariate model (P = 0.007), was more apparent in high-risk patients (P = 0.004) and patients treated with dexamethasone (P = 0.009), and was subsequently confirmed in the replication patient cohort (P = 0.03). RNA analysis revealed that C29201T affects generation of γ isoforms (γ1) that lack proapoptotic BH3 domain. The phenotypic effect was minor suggesting the influence of additional factors that may act in conjunction with Bim genotype. Combined analysis with Mcl gene polymorphism (G-486T) revealed profound reduction in OS in individuals with both risk genotypes (P < 0.0005 in discovery and P = 0.002 in replication cohort) and particularly in high-risk patients (P ≤ 0.008). Increased expression of prosurvival Mcl1 and presence of Bim isoforms lacking proapoptotic function might explain marked reduction of OS in a disease and dose-dependent manner in ALL patients carrying Bim- and Mcl1-risk genotypes. ©2013 AACR.

  15. Genomic association analysis of common variants influencing antihypertensive response to hydrochlorothiazide.

    PubMed

    Turner, Stephen T; Boerwinkle, Eric; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Bailey, Kent R; Gong, Yan; Chapman, Arlene B; McDonough, Caitrin W; Beitelshees, Amber L; Schwartz, Gary L; Gums, John G; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hiltunen, Timo P; Citterio, Lorena; Donner, Kati M; Hedner, Thomas; Lanzani, Chiara; Melander, Olle; Saarela, Janna; Ripatti, Samuli; Wahlstrand, Björn; Manunta, Paolo; Kontula, Kimmo; Dominiczak, Anna F; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Johnson, Julie A

    2013-08-01

    To identify novel genes influencing blood pressure response to thiazide diuretic therapy for hypertension, we conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of ≈1.1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a combined sample of 424 European Americans with primary hypertension treated with hydrochlorothiazide from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses study (n=228) and the Genetic Epidemiology of Responses to Antihypertensive study (n=196). Polymorphisms associated with blood pressure response at P<10(-5) were tested for replication of the associations in independent samples of hydrochlorothiazide-treated European hypertensives. The rs16960228 polymorphism in protein kinase C, α replicated for same-direction association with diastolic blood pressure response in the Nordic Diltiazem study (n=420) and the Genetics of Drug Responsiveness in Essential Hypertension study (n=206), and the combined 4-study meta-analysis P value achieved genome-wide significance (P=3.3 × 10(-8)). Systolic or diastolic blood pressure responses were consistently greater in carriers of the rs16960228 A allele than in GG homozygotes (>4/4 mm Hg) across study samples. The rs2273359 polymorphism in the GNAS-EDN3 region also replicated for same-direction association with systolic blood pressure response in the Nordic Diltiazem study, and the combined 3-study meta-analysis P value approached genome-wide significance (P=5.5 × 10(-8)). The findings document clinically important effects of genetic variation at novel loci on blood pressure response to a thiazide diuretic, which may be a basis for individualization of antihypertensive drug therapy and identification of new drug targets.

  16. Genomic Association Analysis of Common Variants Influencing Antihypertensive Response to Hydrochlorothiazide

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Stephen T.; Boerwinkle, Eric; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Bailey, Kent R.; Gong, Yan; Chapman, Arlene B.; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Schwartz, Gary L.; Gums, John G.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hiltunen, Timo P.; Citterio, Lorena; Donner, Kati M.; Hedner, Thomas; Lanzani, Chiara; Melander, Olle; Saarela, Janna; Ripatti, Samuli; Wahlstrand, Björn; Manunta, Paolo; Kontula, Kimmo; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Johnson, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    To identify novel genes influencing blood pressure response to thiazide diuretic therapy for hypertension, we conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of ≈1.1 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in a combined sample of 424 European Americans with primary hypertension treated with hydrochlorothiazide from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses Study (N=228) and the Genetic Epidemiology of Responses to Antihypertensive Study (N=196). Polymorphisms associated with blood pressure response at p<10-5 were tested for replication of the associations in independent samples of hydrochlorothiazide-treated European hypertensives. The rs16960228 polymorphism in protein kinase C, alpha replicated for same-direction association with diastolic blood pressure response in the Nordic Diltiazem Study (N=420) and the Genetics of Drug Responsiveness in Essential Hypertension Study (N=206), and the combined four-study meta-analysis p-value achieved genome-wide significance (p=3.3 × 10-8). Systolic/diastolic blood pressure responses were consistently greater in carriers of the rs16960228 A allele than in GG homozygotes (4/4 mmHg greater) across study samples. The rs2273359 polymorphism in the GNAS-EDN3 region also replicated for same-direction association with systolic blood pressure response in the Nordic Diltiazem Study, and the combined three-study meta-analysis p-value approached genome-wide significance (p=5.5 × 10-8). The findings document clinically-important effects of genetic variation at novel loci on blood pressure response to a thiazide diuretic, which may be a basis for individualization of antihypertensive drug therapy and identification of new drug targets. PMID:23753411

  17. Bone growth in juvenile rhesus monkeys is influenced by 5HTTLPR polymorphisms and interactions between 5HTTLPR polymorphisms and fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Golub, Mari S; Bulleri, Alicia M; Hogrefe, Casey E; Sherwood, Richard J

    2015-10-01

    Male rhesus monkeys received a therapeutic oral dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine daily from 1 to 3 years of age. Puberty is typically initiated between 2 and 3 years of age in male rhesus and reproductive maturity is reached at 4 years. The study group was genotyped for polymorphisms in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and serotonin transporter (SERT) genes that affect serotonin neurotransmission. Growth was assessed with morphometrics at 4 month intervals and radiographs of long bones were taken at 12 month intervals to evaluate skeletal growth and maturation. No effects of fluoxetine, or MAOA or SERT genotype were found for growth during the first year of the study. Linear growth began to slow during the second year of the study and serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) long polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) polymorphism effects with drug interactions emerged. Monkeys with two SERT 5HTTLPR L alleles (LL, putative greater transcription) had 25-39% less long bone growth, depending on the bone, than monkeys with one S and one L allele (SL). More advanced skeletal maturity was also seen in the LL group, suggesting earlier onset of puberty. An interaction between 5HTTLPR polymorphisms and fluoxetine was identified for femur and tibia growth; the 5HTTLPR effect was seen in controls (40% less growth for LL) but not in the fluoxetine treated group (10% less growth for LL). A role for serotonin in peripubertal skeletal growth and maturation has not previously been investigated but may be relevant to treatment of children with SSRIs.

  18. Bone growth in juvenile rhesus monkeys is influenced by 5HTTLPR polymorphisms and interactions between 5HTTLPR polymorphisms and fluoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Mari S.; Bulleri, Alicia M.; Hogrefe, Casey E.; Sherwood, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Male rhesus monkeys received a therapeutic oral dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine daily from 1 to 3 years of age. Puberty is typically initiated between 2 and 3 years of age in male rhesus and reproductive maturity is reached at 4 years. The study group was genotyped for polymorphisms in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and serotonin transporter (SERT) genes that affect serotonin neurotransmission. Growth was assessed with morphometrics at 4 month intervals and radiographs of long bones were taken at 12 month intervals to evaluate skeletal growth and maturation. No effects of fluoxetine, or MAOA or SERT genotype were found for growth during the first year of the study. Linear growth began to slow during the second year of the study and serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) long polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) polymorphism effects with drug interactions emerged. Monkeys with two SERT 5HTTLPR L alleles (LL, putative greater transcription) had 25–39% less long bone growth, depending on the bone, than monkeys with one S and one L allele (SL). More advanced skeletal maturity was also seen in the LL group, suggesting earlier onset of puberty. An interaction between 5HTTLPR polymorphisms and fluoxetine was identified for femur and tibia growth; the 5HTTLPR effect was seen in controls (40% less growth for LL) but not in the fluoxetine treated group (10% less growth for LL). A role for serotonin in peripubertal skeletal growth and maturation has not previously been investigated but may be relevant to treatment of children with SSRIs. PMID:26067181

  19. A Common Polymorphism in HIBCH Influences Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations in Blood Independently of Cobalamin

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Anne M.; Pangilinan, Faith; Mills, James L.; Shane, Barry; O’Neill, Mary B.; McGaughey, David M.; Velkova, Aneliya; Abaan, Hatice Ozel; Ueland, Per M.; McNulty, Helene; Ward, Mary; Strain, J.J.; Cunningham, Conal; Casey, Miriam; Cropp, Cheryl D.; Kim, Yoonhee; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Wilson, Alexander F.; Brody, Lawrence C.

    2016-01-01

    Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a by-product of propionic acid metabolism through the vitamin B12 (cobalamin)-dependent enzyme methylmalonyl CoA mutase. Elevated MMA concentrations are a hallmark of several inborn errors of metabolism and indicators of cobalamin deficiency in older persons. In a genome-wide analysis of 2,210 healthy young Irish adults (median age 22 years) we identified a strong association of plasma MMA with SNPs in 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH, p = 8.42 × 10−89) and acyl-CoA synthetase family member 3 (ACSF3, p = 3.48 × 10−19). These loci accounted for 12% of the variance in MMA concentration. The most strongly associated SNP (HIBCH rs291466; c:2T>C) causes a missense change of the initiator methionine codon (minor-allele frequency = 0.43) to threonine. Surprisingly, the resulting variant, p.Met1?, is associated with increased expression of HIBCH mRNA and encoded protein. These homozygotes had, on average, 46% higher MMA concentrations than methionine-encoding homozygotes in young adults with generally low MMA concentrations (0.17 [0.14–0.21] μmol/L; median [25th–75th quartile]). The association between MMA levels and HIBCH rs291466 was highly significant in a replication cohort of 1,481 older individuals (median age 79 years) with elevated plasma MMA concentrations (0.34 [0.24–0.51] μmol/L; p = 4.0 × 10−26). In a longitudinal study of 185 pregnant women and their newborns, the association of this SNP remained significant across the gestational trimesters and in newborns. HIBCH is unique to valine catabolism. Studies evaluating flux through the valine catabolic pathway in humans should account for these variants. Furthermore, this SNP could help resolve equivocal clinical tests where plasma MMA values have been used to diagnose cobalamin deficiency. PMID:27132595

  20. FKBP5 polymorphisms influence pre-learning stress-induced alterations of learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Dailey, Alison M; Nagle, Hannah E; Fiely, Miranda K; Mosley, Brianne E; Brown, Callie M; Duffy, Tessa J; Scharf, Amanda R; Earley, McKenna B; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2017-03-01

    FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) is a co-chaperone of heat shock protein 90 and significantly influences glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FKBP5 gene are associated with altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, changes in the structure and function of several cognitive brain areas, and increased susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, bipolar disorder and suicidal events. The mechanisms underlying these associations are largely unknown, but it has been speculated that the influence of these SNPs on emotional memory systems may play a role. In the present study, 112 participants were exposed to the socially evaluated cold pressor test (stress) or control (no stress) conditions immediately prior to learning a list of 42 words. Participant memory was assessed immediately after learning (free recall) and 24 h later (free recall and recognition). Participants provided a saliva sample that enabled the genotyping of three FKBP5 polymorphisms: rs1360780, rs3800373 and rs9296158. Results showed that stress impaired immediate recall in risk allele carriers. More importantly, stress enhanced long-term recall and recognition memory in non-carriers of the risk alleles, effects that were completely absent in risk allele carriers. Follow-up analyses revealed that memory performance was correlated with salivary cortisol levels in non-carriers, but not in carriers. These findings suggest that FKBP5 risk allele carriers may possess a sensitized stress response system, perhaps specifically for stress-induced changes in corticosteroid levels, which might aid our understanding of how SNPs in the FKBP5 gene confer increased risk for stress-related psychological disorders and their related phenotypes.

  1. Influence of the CYP17 polymorphism on vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, R C; Costa, A M Massad; Silva, I D C G; Carvalho, C Valleta; Maganhin, C; Baracat, E C; Soares, J M

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the influence of CYP17 polymorphism on menopausal symptoms after estrogen treatment. A total of 130 women were recruited, but only 100 of these were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria; they were treated with 0.3 mg/day conjugated equine estrogens. One year later, the study was completed by 71 women. The analysis of the Kupperman menopausal index symptoms was made with information provided by the patients on daily diary cards. Blood samples were analyzed and the women were divided into two groups based on the CYP17, 5'-untranslated region: group A (wild-type homozygote and heterozygote) and group B (mutated homozygote). The values for the Kupperman menopausal index were similar in both groups at baseline. The symptoms in both groups decreased after 1 year of treatment when compared to those at baseline. The improvement rate was approximately 27.09% and 32.18%, in groups A and B, respectively. The levels of estrogen after treatment were higher in both groups in comparison with the baseline values. The testosterone level rose in group B with the 1-year treatment (0.48 + 0.16 ng/ml), reaching a higher level than the level in group A after treatment. The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) level showed a significant increase after the 1-year treatment in group B, surpassing both the baseline and the after-treatment values in group A (p < 0.01). Our data suggest that the CYP17 polymorphism did not influence the action of estrogen on menopause symptoms during the 1-year treatment. The extra production of estrogen and androgen may have been countered by the elevation of SHBG levels.

  2. [Researches on influence of squalene synthase gene polymorphism on catalytic efficiency of its encode enzyme in Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Xue-Yong; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Chen, Hong-Hao; Wen, Hao

    2012-12-01

    To analyse the polymorphism of squalene synthase gene and reveal the influence of squalene synthase (SQS) gene polymorphism on the catalytic efficiency of its encode enzyme in Glycyrrhiza uralensi. The total RNA was extracted. PCR was used to amplify the coding sequences of squalene synthase gene, which were sequenced and analysed. The expression vectors containing different SQS gene sequences, including SQS1C, SQS1F, SQS2A, SQS2B, were constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21. The fusion protein was induced to express by IPTG, then was isolated, purified and used to carry out the enzymatic reaction in vitro. GC-MS was used to analyse the production. There were three kinds of gene polymorphism existing in SQS1 gene of G. uralensis, including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), insertion/deletion length polymorphism (InDels) and level of amino acid, the proportion of conservative replace of SQS1 was 53.94%, and there were 2 mutational sites in structural domains. The proportion of conservative replace of SQS2 was 60%, and there was 1 mutational site in structural domains. The production squalene could be detected by GC-MS in all the 4 kinds of enzymatic reactions. The capacity of accumulating squalene of SQS1F was higher than other SQS genes. The polymorphism of SQS gene was quite abundant in G. uralensis, which maybe the molecular foundation of the formation of high-quality liquorice.

  3. Exploiting Illumina sequencing for the development of 95 novel polymorphic EST-SSR markers in common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhipeng; Liu, Peng; Luo, Dong; Liu, Wenxian; Wang, Yanrong

    2014-05-05

    The common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa), a self-pollinating and diploid species, is one of the most important annual legumes in the world due to its short growth period, high nutritional value, and multiple usages as hay, grain, silage, and green manure. The available simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for common vetch, however, are insufficient to meet the developing demand for genetic and molecular research on this important species. Here, we aimed to develop and characterise several polymorphic EST-SSR markers from the vetch Illumina transcriptome. A total number of 1,071 potential EST-SSR markers were identified from 1025 unigenes whose lengths were greater than 1,000 bp, and 450 primer pairs were then designed and synthesized. Finally, 95 polymorphic primer pairs were developed for the 10 common vetch accessions, which included 50 individuals. Among the 95 EST-SSR markers, the number of alleles ranged from three to 13, and the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.09 to 0.98. The observed heterozygosity values ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, and the expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.11 to 0.98. These 95 EST-SSR markers developed from the vetch Illumina transcriptome could greatly promote the development of genetic and molecular breeding studies pertaining to in this species.

  4. Association between a common KCNJ11 polymorphism (rs5219) and new-onset posttransplant diabetes in patients treated with Tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Tavira, Beatriz; Coto, Eliecer; Torres, Armando; Díaz-Corte, Carmen; Díaz-Molina, Beatriz; Ortega, Francisco; Arias, Manuel; Díaz, Juan M; Selgas, Rafael; López-Larrea, Carlos; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Ortiz, Alberto; González, Elena; Campistol, Josep M; Alvarez, Victoria

    2012-03-01

    KCNJ11 polymorphisms have been linked to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to define the contribution of KCNJ11 to new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) among patients treated with Tacrolimus (Tac). A total of 115 NODAT and 205 non-NODAT were genotyped for rs5219 (p.E23K). AA+AG genotypes were significantly associated with NODAT-risk (p=0.004; OR=2.10). The reported effect of this KCNJ11 polymorphism on insulin release by beta cells could explain this association. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of Common Polymorphisms in TNFA, NFkB1 and NFKBIA with Risk and Prognosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Meenakshi; Upadhyay, Rohit; Kumar, Shaleen; Ghoshal, Uday Chand; Mittal, Balraj

    2013-01-01

    Background Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor of kappa light chain gene enhancer in activated B cells (NF-κB) play critical role in carcinogenesis processes like tumour initiation, proliferation, migration and invasion. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in TNF-α, NF-κB and its inhibitor IκB genes were shown to be associated with susceptibility and prognosis of several cancers; however, their role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is not well recognised. Therefore, in present study, we aimed to investigate association of common polymorphisms in TNFA, NFkB1 and NFKBIA with risk and prognosis of ESCC in northern Indian population. Methods We genotyped 290 ESCC patients (including 162 followed up cases) and 311 mean age, gender and ethnicity matched controls for TNFA -308G>A, NFkB1 -94ATTG ins/del and NFKBIA (-826C>T and 3’UTRA>G) polymorphisms using PCR alone or followed by RFLP and TaqMan assay. Results TNFA -308GA genotype was associated with increased risk of ESCC specifically in females and in patients with regional lymph node involvement, while, NFKBIA -826CT+TT genotype conferred decreased risk of ESCC in females. Haplotypes of NFKBIA -826C>T and 3’UTRA>G polymorphisms, C-826G3’UTR and T-826A3’UTR, were associated with reduced risk of ESCC. No independent role of NFkB1 -94ATTG ins/del polymorphism in susceptibility of ESCC was found. Multi-dimensionality reduction analysis showed three factor model TNFA-308, NFKBIA-826, NFKBIA 3’UTR as better predictor for risk of ESCC. Furthermore, combined risk genotype analysis of all studied polymorphisms showed increased risk of ESCC in patients with 1-3 risk genotype compared to ‘0’ risk genotype. Survival analysis did not show any significant prognostic effect of studied polymorphisms. However, in stepwise multivariate analysis, metastasis was found to be independent prognostic predictor of ESCC patients. Conclusion TNFA-308 and NFKBIA (-826C>T and 3’UTRA>G) polymorphisms

  6. Association of a Common Oxytocin Receptor Gene Polymorphism with Self-Reported ‘Empathic Concern’ in a Large Population of Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Anette; Siffert, Doris; Stelmach, Patrick; Knop, Dietmar; Horn, Peter Alexander; Siffert, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has linked genomic variations of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene with individual differences in empathy. The impact of these variations on specific cognitive and emotional aspects of empathy, however, remains to be clarified. Methods We analysed associations of a common OXTR polymorphism (rs53576) with trait empathy in a sample of 421 blood donors (231 M, 190 F; age 18–74) using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) as an established multidimensional self-report measure of empathy. Results Female sex was significantly associated with higher empathy scores in all IRI scales (p<0.001) with the exception of the cognitive perspective taking scale (p = 0.09). The overall trait empathy score was significantly associated with rs53576 (p = 0.01), with mean scores increasing from AA to GG genotypes. An analysis of the IRI subscores revealed that the polymorphism was especially associated with the emotional empathic concern scale (p = 0.02). Separate analysis of the male and female subgroup revealed a significant association of the polymorphism with female (p = 0.04), but not with male (p = 0.20) empathic concern. A comparison of effect sizes between the groups showed greater effects for women compared to men although effect size differences did not become significant in our sample. Conclusions Our findings suggest a significant association of the rs53576 OXTR gene polymorphism with trait empathy and especially with emotional aspects of empathy. This association is possibly weaker or absent in men compared to women. PMID:27467763

  7. Environmental factors and beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism: influence on the energy expenditure and nutritional status of obese women.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Eliane Lopes; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2) gene, fat intake and physical activity on the energy expenditure (EE) and nutritional status of obese women. Sixty obese women (30-46 years) participated in the study and were assigned to three groups depending on the genotypes: Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu. At baseline and after nutritional intervention, the anthropometric and body composition (bioelectrical impedance), dietary, EE (indirect calorimetry) and biochemical variables were measured. All women received a high-fat test meal to determine the postprandial EE (short-term) and an energy-restricted diet for 10 weeks (long term). The frequencies of Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu were 36.67, 40.0 and 23.33 %, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical variables and EE did not differ between groups, although women who had no polymorphism demonstrated decreased carbohydrate oxidation. On the other hand, the Glu27Glu genotype showed a positive relation with EE in physical activity and fat oxidation. The environmental factors and Gln27Glu polymorphism did not influence the nutritional status and EE of obese women, but physical activity in obese women with the polymorphism in the ADRβ2 gene can promote fat oxidation. The results suggest that encouraging the practice of physical exercise is important considering the high frequency of this polymorphism in obese subjects.

  8. Common genetic loci influencing plasma homocysteine concentrations and their effect on risk of coronary artery disease12345

    PubMed Central

    van Meurs, Joyce BJ; Pare, Guillaume; Schwartz, Stephen M; Hazra, Aditi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Vermeulen, Sita H; Cotlarciuc, Ioana; Yuan, Xin; Mälarstig, Anders; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bis, Joshua C; Blom, Henk; Brown, Morris J; Chen, Constance; Chen, Yii-Der; Clarke, Robert J; Dehghan, Abbas; Erdmann, Jeanette; Ferrucci, Luigi; Hamsten, Anders; Hofman, Albert; Hunter, David J; Goel, Anuj; Johnson, Andrew D; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kampman, Ellen; Kiel, Douglas P; Kiemeney, Lambertus ALM; Chambers, John C; Kraft, Peter; Lindemans, Jan; McKnight, Barbara; Nelson, Christopher P; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Psaty, Bruce M; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rose, Lynda M; Seedorf, Udo; Siscovick, David S; Schunkert, Heribert; Selhub, Jacob; Ueland, Per M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Waterworth, Dawn M; Watkins, Hugh; Witteman, Jacqueline CM; den Heijer, Martin; Jacques, Paul; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Kooner, Jaspal S; Rader, Dan J; Reilly, Muredach P; Mooser, Vincent; Chasman, Daniel I; Samani, Nilesh J; Ahmadi, Kourosh R

    2013-01-01

    Background: The strong observational association between total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the null associations in the homocysteine-lowering trials have prompted the need to identify genetic variants associated with homocysteine concentrations and risk of CAD. Objective: We tested whether common genetic polymorphisms associated with variation in tHcy are also associated with CAD. Design: We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on tHcy concentrations in 44,147 individuals of European descent. Polymorphisms associated with tHcy (P < 10−8) were tested for association with CAD in 31,400 cases and 92,927 controls. Results: Common variants at 13 loci, explaining 5.9% of the variation in tHcy, were associated with tHcy concentrations, including 6 novel loci in or near MMACHC (2.1 × 10−9), SLC17A3 (1.0 × 10−8), GTPB10 (1.7 × 10−8), CUBN (7.5 × 10−10), HNF1A (1.2 × 10−12), and FUT2 (6.6 × 10−9), and variants previously reported at or near the MTHFR, MTR, CPS1, MUT, NOX4, DPEP1, and CBS genes. Individuals within the highest 10% of the genotype risk score (GRS) had 3-μmol/L higher mean tHcy concentrations than did those within the lowest 10% of the GRS (P = 1 × 10−36). The GRS was not associated with risk of CAD (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.04; P = 0.49). Conclusions: We identified several novel loci that influence plasma tHcy concentrations. Overall, common genetic variants that influence plasma tHcy concentrations are not associated with risk of CAD in white populations, which further refutes the causal relevance of moderately elevated tHcy concentrations and tHcy-related pathways for CAD. PMID:23824729

  9. Copy number variations play important roles in heredity of common diseases: a novel method to calculate heritability of a polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Yoshiro

    2015-11-24

    "Missing heritability" in genome wide association studies, the failure to account for a considerable fraction of heritability by the variants detected, is a current puzzle in human genetics. For solving this puzzle the involvement of genetic variants like rare single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variations (CNVs) has been proposed. Many papers have published estimating the heritability of sets of polymorphisms, however, there has been no paper discussing the estimation of a heritability of a single polymorphism. Here I show a simple but rational method to calculate heritability of an individual polymorphism, hp(2). Using this method, I carried out a trial calculation of hp(2) of CNVs and SNPs using published data. It turned out that hp(2) of some CNVs is quite large. Noteworthy examples were that about 25% of the heritability of type 2 diabetes mellitus and about 15% of the heritability of schizophrenia could be accounted for by one CNV and by four CNVs, respectively. The results suggest that a large part of missing heritability could be accounted for by re-evaluating the CNVs which have been already found and by searching novel CNVs with large hp(2).

  10. Common Polymorphisms in the PKP3-SIGIRR-TMEM16J Gene Region Are Associated With Susceptibility to Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, April K.; Chau, Tran T. H.; Bang, Nguyen D.; Yen, Nguyen T. B.; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Dunstan, Sarah J.; Hawn, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    (See the editorial commentary by Wilkinson, on pages 525–7.) Background. Tuberculosis has been associated with genetic variation in host immunity. We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SIGIRR, a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor/IL-1R signaling, are associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis. Methods. We used a case-population study design in Vietnam with cases that had either tuberculous meningitis or pulmonary tuberculosis. We genotyped 6 SNPs in the SIGIRR gene region (including the adjacent genes PKP3 and TMEM16J) in a discovery cohort of 352 patients with tuberculosis and 382 controls. Significant associations were genotyped in a validation cohort (339 patients with tuberculosis, 376 controls). Results. Three SNPs (rs10902158, rs7105848, rs7111432) were associated with tuberculosis in discovery and validation cohorts. The polymorphisms were associated with both tuberculous meningitis and pulmonary tuberculosis and were strongest with a recessive genetic model (odds ratios, 1.5–1.6; P = .0006–.001). Coinheritance of these polymorphisms with previously identified risk alleles in Toll-like receptor 2 and TIRAP was associated with an additive risk of tuberculosis susceptibility. Conclusions. These results demonstrate a strong association of SNPs in the PKP3-SIGIRR-TMEM16J gene region and tuberculosis in discovery and validation cohorts. To our knowledge, these are the first associations of polymorphisms in this region with any disease. PMID:22223854

  11. Common polymorphisms in the PKP3-SIGIRR-TMEM16J gene region are associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Horne, David J; Randhawa, April K; Chau, Tran T H; Bang, Nguyen D; Yen, Nguyen T B; Farrar, Jeremy J; Dunstan, Sarah J; Hawn, Thomas R

    2012-02-15

    Tuberculosis has been associated with genetic variation in host immunity. We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SIGIRR, a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor/IL-1R signaling, are associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis. We used a case-population study design in Vietnam with cases that had either tuberculous meningitis or pulmonary tuberculosis. We genotyped 6 SNPs in the SIGIRR gene region (including the adjacent genes PKP3 and TMEM16J) in a discovery cohort of 352 patients with tuberculosis and 382 controls. Significant associations were genotyped in a validation cohort (339 patients with tuberculosis, 376 controls). Three SNPs (rs10902158, rs7105848, rs7111432) were associated with tuberculosis in discovery and validation cohorts. The polymorphisms were associated with both tuberculous meningitis and pulmonary tuberculosis and were strongest with a recessive genetic model (odds ratios, 1.5-1.6; P = .0006-.001). Coinheritance of these polymorphisms with previously identified risk alleles in Toll-like receptor 2 and TIRAP was associated with an additive risk of tuberculosis susceptibility. These results demonstrate a strong association of SNPs in the PKP3-SIGIRR-TMEM16J gene region and tuberculosis in discovery and validation cohorts. To our knowledge, these are the first associations of polymorphisms in this region with any disease.

  12. Coronary heart disease and chronic periodontitis: is polymorphism of interleukin-6 gene the common risk factor in a Chinese population?

    PubMed

    Fan, W H; Liu, D L; Xiao, L M; Xie, C J; Sun, S Y; Zhang, J C

    2011-04-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) and chronic periodontitis (CP) both are multifactorial chronic diseases and related to inflammation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. The purpose of the study was to investigate the association among IL-6 gene polymorphisms, CP and CHD susceptibility in a Chinese population.   The investigation was conducted as a case-control study involving 505 individuals: 113 patients with CHD and CP, 84 patients with CHD, 178 patients with CP and 130 control individuals. The polymorphisms of IL-6 gene were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Relationships between the distributions of the genotypes and risk factors were also assessed.   Mutations at the loci -174 G/C, -597 G/A of IL-6 were rare in a Chinese population. No significant difference for IL-6-572C/G polymorphism was detected among moderate CP group, severe CP group and control (P = 0.312 and 0.481), significant differences were found between CHD groups and non-CHD groups (P ≤ 0.001). After adjustment for CHD risk factors, the G allele resulted in an increased risk (OR = 1.676-1.856), the GG/CG genotype was nearly two times higher risk compared to CC genotype (OR = 2.010-2.136).   IL-6-572C/G polymorphism did not correlate with CP susceptibility, but might be a potential risk factor for CHD in a Chinese population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Highly Significant Association between Two Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in CORIN Gene and Preeclampsia in Caucasian Women

    PubMed Central

    de Prost, Dominique; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Dreyfus, Michel; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Mandelbrot, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a frequent medical complication during pregnancy. Corin, a serine protease which activates pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, has recently been shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to search for CORIN gene variations and their association to preeclampsia in Caucasian and African women. Our study population was composed of 571 pregnant women (295 with preeclampsia and 276 normotensive controls) matched for maternal and gestational age, and ethnic origin. The 22 exons of the CORIN gene were sequenced in a discovery sample (n = 260), where 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. In a replication sample (n = 311), 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested. Two minor alleles (C for rs2271036 and G for rs2271037) were significantly associated to preeclampsia. Adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence interval] were 2.5 [1.2–3.8] (p = 0.007) and 2.3 [1.5–3.5] (p = 1.3×10−4), respectively. These associations were ethnic-specific, as only found in the Caucasian of subjects (odds ratio = 3.5 [1.8–6.6], p = 1.1×10−4; odds ratio = 3.1 [1.7–5.8], p = 2.1×10−4, for each single nucleotide polymorphism, respectively). The two single nucleotide polymorphisms are in almost perfect linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 0.93). No specific association was found with severe preeclampsia, early-onset preeclampsia nor fetal growth retardation. In conclusion, this is the first report of a highly significant association between these two single nucleotide polymorphisms in CORIN gene and preeclampsia. Our findings further support the probability of a critical role of corin in preeclamspia pathophysiology at the uteroplacental interface. PMID:25474356

  14. Highly significant association between two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in CORIN gene and preeclampsia in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Stepanian, Alain; Alcaïs, Alexandre; de Prost, Dominique; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Dreyfus, Michel; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Mandelbrot, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a frequent medical complication during pregnancy. Corin, a serine protease which activates pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, has recently been shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to search for CORIN gene variations and their association to preeclampsia in Caucasian and African women. Our study population was composed of 571 pregnant women (295 with preeclampsia and 276 normotensive controls) matched for maternal and gestational age, and ethnic origin. The 22 exons of the CORIN gene were sequenced in a discovery sample (n = 260), where 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. In a replication sample (n = 311), 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested. Two minor alleles (C for rs2271036 and G for rs2271037) were significantly associated to preeclampsia. Adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence interval] were 2.5 [1.2-3.8] (p = 0.007) and 2.3 [1.5-3.5] (p = 1.3 × 10(-4)), respectively. These associations were ethnic-specific, as only found in the Caucasian of subjects (odds ratio = 3.5 [1.8-6.6], p = 1.1 × 10(-4); odds ratio = 3.1 [1.7-5.8], p = 2.1 × 10(-4), for each single nucleotide polymorphism, respectively). The two single nucleotide polymorphisms are in almost perfect linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.93). No specific association was found with severe preeclampsia, early-onset preeclampsia nor fetal growth retardation. In conclusion, this is the first report of a highly significant association between these two single nucleotide polymorphisms in CORIN gene and preeclampsia. Our findings further support the probability of a critical role of corin in preeclamspia pathophysiology at the uteroplacental interface.

  15. Single strand conformation polymorphism based SNP and Indel markers for genetic mapping and synteny analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are an important source of gene-based markers such as those based on insertion-deletions (Indels) or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Several gel based methods have been reported for the detection of sequence variants, however they have not been widely exploited in common bean, an important legume crop of the developing world. The objectives of this project were to develop and map EST based markers using analysis of single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCPs), to create a transcript map for common bean and to compare synteny of the common bean map with sequenced chromosomes of other legumes. Results A set of 418 EST based amplicons were evaluated for parental polymorphisms using the SSCP technique and 26% of these presented a clear conformational or size polymorphism between Andean and Mesoamerican genotypes. The amplicon based markers were then used for genetic mapping with segregation analysis performed in the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. A total of 118 new marker loci were placed into an integrated molecular map for common bean consisting of 288 markers. Of these, 218 were used for synteny analysis and 186 presented homology with segments of the soybean genome with an e-value lower than 7 × 10-12. The synteny analysis with soybean showed a mosaic pattern of syntenic blocks with most segments of any one common bean linkage group associated with two soybean chromosomes. The analysis with Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus presented fewer syntenic regions consistent with the more distant phylogenetic relationship between the galegoid and phaseoloid legumes. Conclusion The SSCP technique is a useful and inexpensive alternative to other SNP or Indel detection techniques for saturating the common bean genetic map with functional markers that may be useful in marker assisted selection. In addition, the genetic markers based on ESTs allowed the construction of a transcript map and

  16. Influence of CTLA-4 gene polymorphism in autoimmune and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Mestre, Mercedes; Sánchez, Karen; Balbás, Omar; Gendzekhzadze, Ketevan; Ogando, Violeta; Cabrera, Mayra; Layrisse, Zulay

    2009-07-01

    Cell-mediated immunity requires costimulatory activity to initiate or inhibit antigen-specific T-cell responses. CTLA-4 is an inhibitory receptor expressed by activated and regulatory T cells. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) +49 A/G of the CTLA-4 gene alters intracellular distribution of CTLA-4, interleukin-2 production, and, as a consequence, T-cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to analyze the only coding SNP CTLA-4 +49 A/G polymorphism in patients with either infectious (Chagas's, Dengue, and American cutaneous leishmaniasis) or autoimmune diseases (myasthenia gravis, pemphigus, and psoriasis). No statistically significant differences were reported when all patients of each disease group were compared with healthy individuals. However, the +49 G/G genotype was moderately increased in pemphigus and myasthenia gravis. Patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) exhibited an increased frequency of the A/G +49 genotype compared with patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL; p = 0.009; odds ratio [OR] = 4.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.245-14.501) and intermediate cutaneous leishmaniasis (ICL; p = 0.027; OR = 4.44; 95% CI = 1.273-15.516), indicating that the heterozygous genotype, associated with overactivation of T-cell proliferation, could confer susceptibility to the development of the more severe clinical form of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The A/A +49 genotype was increased in LCL patients compared with DCL patients (p = 0.019; OR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.067-0.953), indicating that this genotype, which has been associated with normal proliferation of T cells, could confer protection to the development of DCL. The results indicate that the polymorphism of CTLA-4 is an important genetic factor associated with risk or protection for the development of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis and has influence in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. However, other closely linked candidate genes in linkage disequilibrium with CTLA4

  17. A polymorphic repeat in the IGF1 promoter influences the risk of endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Katherine A; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Attia, John; Bowden, Nikola A

    2016-01-01

    Due to the lack of high-throughput genetic assays for tandem repeats, there is a paucity of knowledge about the role they may play in disease. A polymorphic CA repeat in the promoter region of the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (IGF1 has been studied extensively over the past 10 years for association with the risk of developing breast cancer, among other cancers, with variable results. The aim of this study was to determine if this CA repeat is associated with the risk of developing breast cancer and endometrial cancer. Using a case–control design, we analysed the length of this CA repeat in a series of breast cancer and endometrial cancer cases and compared this with a control population. Our results showed an association when both alleles were considered in breast and endometrial cancers (P=0.029 and 0.011, respectively), but this did not pass our corrected threshold for significance due to multiple testing. When the allele lengths were analysed categorically against the most common allele length of 19 CA repeats, an association was observed with the risk of endometrial cancer due to a reduction in the number of long alleles (P=0.013). This was confirmed in an analysis of the long alleles separately for endometrial cancer risk (P=0.0012). Our study found no association between the length of this polymorphic CA repeat and breast cancer risk. The significant association observed between the CA repeat length and the risk of developing endometrial cancer has not been previously reported. PMID:27090263

  18. [MxA gene-88 G/T polymorphism influences the outcomes of HBV infection].

    PubMed

    Yin, Si-chun; Peng, Xiao-mou; Gu, Lin; Huang, Yang-su; Gao, Zhi-liang

    2006-06-01

    To study the relationship between a G/T substitution at position -88 of myxovirus resistance-1 gene (MxA) and the self-limiting or chronic infection of HBV. Blood samples from 100 patients with self-limiting HBV infection (positive anti-HBs and anti-HBc) and from 340 patients with chronic HBV infection were collected. MxA-88 G/T polymorphism was typed using a protocol based on competitively differentiated-polymerase chain reaction. For statistical analysis, odds ratio and chi-square test were used. The detective rate of G/G genotype (low expression genotype) of MxA-88 G/T was 50.2% (221/440), those of T/T genotype (high expression genotype) and G/T heterozygous genotype were 5.5% (24/440) and 44.3% (195/440). Compared to patients with chronic infection, patients with self-limiting infection had lower frequency of G/G genotype (41.0% vs 52.9%, P < 0.05) or G allele (62.5% vs 75.9%, P < 0.01) and had higher frequency of T/T genotype (16.0% vs 2.4%, P < 0.01) or T allele (37.5% vs 24.1%, P < 0.01), but there was no significant difference in the G/T heterozygous genotype. MxA gene -88 G/T polymorphism influences the natural outcomes of HBV infection to some extent. This SNP of MxA gene may be used as a clinical prognostic marker of HBV infection.

  19. Asthma exacerbations during long term β agonist use: influence of β2 adrenoceptor polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, D; Drazen, J.; Herbison, G; Yandava, C.; Hancox, R.; Town, G

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Polymorphisms of the β2 adrenoceptor influence receptor function in vitro and asthma phenotypes in vivo. However, their importance in determining responses to inhaled β agonist treatment has not been clearly defined.
METHODS—In a retrospective analysis of previously published data we have examined relationships between polymorphisms at codons 16and 27 of the β2 adrenoceptor and clinical outcomes in a randomised, placebo controlled, crossover trial of regularly scheduled salbutamol and salmeterol in 115 patients with mild to moderate asthma. Genotyping was obtained for positions 16 and 27 in 108 and 107 patients, respectively. For position 16, 17 patients (16%) were homozygous Arg-Arg, 40 (37%) were heterozygous Arg-Gly, and 51 (47%) were homozygous Gly-Gly.
RESULTS—Within the homozygous Arg-16 group major exacerbations were more frequent during salbutamol treatment than with placebo (1.91(95% CI 1.07 to 3.12) per year versus 0.81 (95% CI 0.28 to 1.66) per year; p = 0.005). No significant treatment related differences occurred for heterozygous Arg-Gly patients (salbutamol 0.11 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.40), placebo 0.54 (95% CI 0.26 to 1.00) exacerbations per year) or homozygous Gly-16 patients (salbutamol 0.38 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.73), placebo 0.30 (95% CI 0.12 to 0.61) exacerbations per year). No adverse changes occurred for any position 16 subgroup with salmeterol. There was no significant relationship between position 27 genotypes and treatment related outcomes.
CONCLUSION—Homozygous Arg-16 patients are susceptible to clinically important increases in asthma exacerbations during chronic dosing with the short acting β2 agonist salbutamol.

 PMID:10950895

  20. Bim polymorphisms: influence on function and response to treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gagné, Vincent; Rousseau, Julie; Labuda, Malgorzata; Sharif-Askari, Bahram; Brukner, Ivan; Laverdière, Caroline; Ceppi, Francesco; Sallan, Stephen E.; Silverman, Lewis B.; Neuberg, Donna; Kutok, Jeffery L.; Sinnett, Daniel; Krajinovic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Corticosteroids (CS) induce apoptosis in the malignant lymphoid cells and are critical component of combination therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Several genome-wide microarray studies demonstrated major implication of proapoptotic Bim in mediating CS-related resistance in leukemia cells. Experimental design We investigated Bim gene polymorphisms and their association with childhood ALL outcome, and the mechanism underlying the observed finding. Results Lower overall survival (OS) was associated with Bim C29201T located in BH3 domain (p=0.01). An association remained significant in multivariate model (p=0.007), was more apparent in high risk (HR) patients (p=0.004) and patients treated with dexamethasone (p=0.009), and was subsequently confirmed in the replication patient cohort (p=0.03). RNA analysis revealed that C29201T affects generation of gamma isoforms (gamma1) that lack pro-apoptotic BH3 domain. The phenotypic effect was minor suggesting the influence of additional factors that may act in conjunction with Bim genotype. Combined analysis with Mcl gene polymorphism (G -486T) revealed profound reduction in OS in individuals with both risk genotypes (p<0.0005 in discovery and p=0.002 in replication cohort) and particularly in HR patients (p≤0.008). Conclusions Increased expression of pro-survival Mcl1 and presence of Bim isoforms lacking pro-apoptotic function might explain marked reduction of OS in a disease and dose dependent manner in ALL patients carrying Bim and Mcl1 risk genotypes. PMID:23908358

  1. Polymorphism in the CLOCK gene may influence the effect of fat intake reduction on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Loria-Kohen, Viviana; Espinosa-Salinas, Isabel; Marcos-Pasero, Helena; Lourenço-Nogueira, Thais; Herranz, Jesús; Molina, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo; Ramirez de Molina, Ana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a weight loss treatment on obesity- associated variables with respect to the CLOCK and FTO genotypes. In all, 179 volunteers (78% female) participated in a 12-week calorie-restriction program; hypocaloric diets of between 5442 and 10048 kJ/d were individually prescribed to all participants. Dietetic, anthropometric, and biochemical data were collected at baseline and at the end of the intervention. When treatment was over, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were sought in CLOCK and FTO in all participants who provided consent. Bonferroni-corrected linear regression models were used to examine the influence of interactions of the type genotype × dietetic change on obesity-associated variables. Variation in the CLOCK and FTO genotypes had no significant influence on the change in obesity-associated variables. The interaction genotype × percentage intake of dietary fat had a significant influence on body mass index (BMI; adjusted P = 0.03). Participants carrying CLOCK rs3749474 (TT + CT) showed a positive association between the change in percentage intake of dietary fat and change in BMI (β = 0.044; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0119-0.0769; P = 0.008), whereas participants homozygous for the wild-type allele (CC) showed a negative, although nonsignificant association (β = -0.032; 95% CI, -0.0694 to 0.036; P = 0.077). The possession of CLOCK rs3749474 may influence the effect of reducing the percentage intake of dietary fat on obesity-associated variables. Participants carrying this SNP might benefit more than others from weight loss treatment involving dietary fat restriction. The treatment of obesity might therefore be customized, depending on the alleles carried. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydroxylation and N-dechloroethylation of Ifosfamide and deuterated Ifosfamide by the human cytochrome p450s and their commonly occurring polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Calinski, Diane M; Zhang, Haoming; Ludeman, Susan; Dolan, M Eileen; Hollenberg, Paul F

    2015-07-01

    The hydroxylation and N-dechloroethylation of deuterated ifosfamide (d4IFO) and ifosfamide (IFO) by several human P450s have been determined and compared. d4IFO was synthesized with deuterium at the alpha and alpha' carbons to decrease the rate of N-dechloroethylation and thereby enhance hydroxylation of the drug at the 4' position. The purpose was to decrease the toxic and increase the efficacious metabolites of IFO. For all of the P450s tested, hydroxylation of d4IFO was improved and dechloroethylation was reduced as compared with nondeuterated IFO. Although the differences were not statistically significant, the trend favoring the 4'-hydroxylation pathway was noteworthy. CYP3A5 and CYP2C19 were the most efficient enzymes for catalyzing IFO hydroxylation. The importance of these enzymes in IFO metabolism has not been reported previously and warrants further investigation. The catalytic ability of the common polymorphisms of CYP2B6 and CYP2C9 for both reactions were tested with IFO and d4IFO. It was determined that the commonly expressed polymorphisms CYP2B6*4 and CYP2B6*6 had reduced catalytic ability for IFO compared with CYP2B6*1, whereas CYP2B6*7 and CYP2B6*9 had enhanced catalytic ability. As with the wild-type enzymes, d4IFO was more readily hydroxylated by the polymorphic variants than IFO, and d4IFO was not dechloroethylated by any of the polymorphic forms. We also assessed the use of specific inhibitors of P450 to favor hydroxylation in human liver microsomes. We were unable to separate the pathways with these experiments, suggesting that multiple P450s are responsible for catalyzing both metabolic pathways for IFO, which is not observed with the closely related drug cyclophosphamide.

  3. Population genomics reveals that within-fungus polymorphism is common and maintained in populations of the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis

    PubMed Central

    Wyss, Tania; Masclaux, Frédéric G; Rosikiewicz, Pawel; Pagni, Marco; Sanders, Ian R

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are symbionts of most plants, increasing plant growth and diversity. The model AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (isolate DAOM 197198) exhibits low within-fungus polymorphism. In contrast, another study reported high within-fungus variability. Experiments with other R. irregularis isolates suggest that within-fungus genetic variation can affect the fungal phenotype and plant growth, highlighting the biological importance of such variation. We investigated whether there is evidence of differing levels of within-fungus polymorphism in an R. irregularis population. We genotyped 20 isolates using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing and developed novel approaches for characterizing polymorphism among haploid nuclei. All isolates exhibited higher within-isolate poly-allelic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) densities than DAOM 197198 in repeated and non-repeated sites mapped to the reference genome. Poly-allelic SNPs were independently confirmed. Allele frequencies within isolates deviated from diploids or tetraploids, or that expected for a strict dikaryote. Phylogeny based on poly-allelic sites was robust and mirrored the standard phylogeny. This indicates that within-fungus genetic variation is maintained in AM fungal populations. Our results predict a heterokaryotic state in the population, considerable differences in copy number variation among isolates and divergence among the copies, or aneuploidy in some isolates. The variation may be a combination of all of these hypotheses. Within-isolate genetic variation in R. irregularis leads to large differences in plant growth. Therefore, characterizing genomic variation within AM fungal populations is of major ecological importance. PMID:26953600

  4. Association of the common fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene polymorphism with obesity in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Shigeru; Daimon, Makoto; Sasaki, Satoshi; Toriyama, Sayumi; Oizumi, Toshihide; Susa, Shinji; Kameda, Wataru; Wada, Kiriko; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Fukao, Akira; Kubota, Isao; Kawata, Sumio; Kayama, Takamasa; Kato, Takeo

    2010-01-01

    The association of the FTO gene polymorphism, rs9939609, with obesity was examined using the population of the Takahata study (n (M/F): 2,639 (1,168 / 1,470); age: 63.0 +/- 10.2 years), a Japanese community-based study. The effects of lifestyle-related factors, including nutritional intake and physical activities, on the association were also examined. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly associated with the FTO gene polymorphism (p<0.001). A case-control association study of the FTO gene polymorphism with obesity using multiple logistic regression analysis showed a significant association of the genotype AA (odds ratio, 1.53 [95% confidential interval, 1.04-2.24]) after adjustment for age and gender. Analysis to examine the differences in lifestyle-related factors among the genotype groups showed a significant difference in the energy expenditure for moderate to high-intensity physical activity (PA) (> or = 3.0 METs) (p=0.012) with a significant decrease toward the genotype AA (p=0.027). The effect of energy expenditure for moderate to high-intensity PA on the association of the polymorphism with obesity was then examined using study groups stratified based on the energy expenditure for moderate to high-intensity PA (Low-PA and High-PA). The BMI was significantly higher in the genotype AA in the Low-PA group (p=0.016) but not in the High-PA group (p=0.103). Furthermore, the genotype AA was significantly associated with obesity (odds ratio, 2.39 [95% confidential interval, 1.19-4.80]) in the Low-PA group but not in the High- PA group (p=0.650). The FTO gene, rs9939609, was associated with obesity, and the association was evident in subjects with low-PA, suggesting a PA-dependent association.

  5. Effects of Common Polymorphisms in the MTHFR and ACE Genes on Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Progression: a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuai; Han, Yan; Hu, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaojie; Cui, Guangcheng; Li, Zezhi; Guan, Yangtai

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C>T and ACE I/D polymorphisms in the development of DPN. We systematically reviewed published studies on MTHFR 677 C>T and ACE I/D polymorphisms and DPN found in various types of electronic databases. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) quality score systems were used to determine the quality of the articles selected for inclusion. Odds ratios (ORs) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were calculated. We used STATA statistical software (version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) to deal with statistical data. Our results indicated an association of ACE D>I mutation (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.12-1.83, P = 0.004) and MTHFR 677 C>T mutation (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.08-1.90, P = 0.014) with DPN under the allele model, and similar results were also found under the dominant model (all P < 0.05). Subgroup analysis by country indicated that the MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphism may be the main risk factor for DPN in Turkey under four genetic models. ACE D>I mutation was correlated with DPN in Japanese and Pakistani populations in the majority of groups. The relationships of MTHFR 677 C>T and ACE I/D polymorphisms with DPN patients presented in this meta-analyses support the view that the MTHFR and ACE genes might play an important role in the development of DPN.

  6. Evidence for Common Etiological Influences on Early Literacy Skills in Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Soden-Hensler, Brooke; Taylor, Jeanette; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how the etiology of print awareness and phonological awareness are related to the etiology of decoding can provide insights into the development of word reading. To address this issue, we examined the degree of overlap among etiological influences of pre-reading skills in 1,252 twin pairs in kindergarten. Genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental factors were significant for all three literacy phenotypes. The majority of genetic and shared environmental influence on decoding was due to common factors that included print awareness and phonological awareness. Notably, only a single genetic factor contributed to all three literacy phenotypes but there was additional shared environmental influence common to phonological awareness and decoding. Findings suggest commonalities in the etiology of pre-reading literacy skills that could inform work on the development of reading skill. PMID:23204828

  7. Human histamine N-methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: gene resequencing, promoter characterization, and functional studies of a common 5'-flanking region single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP).

    PubMed

    Wang, Liewei; Thomae, Bianca; Eckloff, Bruce; Wieben, Eric; Weinshilboum, Richard

    2002-08-15

    Histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) catalyzes one of two major metabolic pathways for histamine. The levels of HNMT activity and immunoreactive protein in human tissues are regulated primarily by inheritance. Previous studies of HNMT identified two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including a functionally significant nonsynonymous coding SNP (cSNP), (C314T, Thr105Ile), but that polymorphism did not explain all of the phenotypic variation. In the present study, a genotype-to-phenotype strategy was used to search for additional genetic factors that might contribute to the regulation of human HNMT activity. Specifically, we began by resequencing the human HNMT gene using 90 ethnically anonymous DNA samples from the Coriell Cell Repository and identified a total of eight SNPs, including the two that had been reported previously. No new nonsynonymous cSNPs were observed, but three of the six novel SNPs were located in the 5'-flanking region (5'-FR) of the gene-including a third common polymorphism with a frequency of 0.367 (36.7%). That observation directed our attention to possible genetic effects on HNMT transcription. As a first step in testing that possibility, we created and studied a series of reporter gene constructs for the initial 1kb of the HNMT 5'-FR. The core promoter and possible regulatory regions were identified and verified by electrophoresis mobility shift assays. We then studied the possible functional implications of the new common HNMT 5'-FR SNP. However, on the basis of reporter gene studies, that SNP appeared to have little effect on transcription. Phenotype-genotype correlation analysis performed with 112 human kidney biopsy samples that had been phenotyped for their level of HNMT activity confirmed that the common 5'-FR SNP was not associated with the level of HNMT activity in vivo. In summary, this series of experiments resulted in the identification of several novel HNMT polymorphisms, identification of the HNMT core promoter

  8. TNFRSF11B gene polymorphisms 1181G > C and 245T > G as well as haplotype CT influence bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mencej-Bedrač, Simona; Preželj, Janez; Marc, Janja

    2011-07-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) inhibits osteoclast function by acting as a decoy receptor for receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), thus being an important candidate gene for osteoporosis. Three recent genome-wide association studies also identified the TNFRSF11B gene, coding for OPG, as playing a key role in bone mineral density (BMD) regulation. As variations in the TNFRSF11B gene could alter the susceptibility to osteoporosis, the aim of study was to investigate association of two TNFRSF11B gene polymorphisms with BMD and serum OPG concentration in postmenopausal women. 478 postmenopausal women were genotyped for the presence of TNFRSF11B gene polymorphisms 245T > G (rs3134069) and 1181G > C (rs2073618). BMDs and serum OPG concentrations were measured. Two common haplotypes GT and CT occurred in 41.2% and 52.4% of subjects. In osteoporotic postmenopausal women, lumbar spine BMD was associated with polymorphisms 245T > G and 1181G > C, as well as with CT haplotype (p values 0.013, 0.006 and 0.006, respectively). Additionally, femoral neck BMD showed the association with 245T > G (p = 0.047). No other statistically significant associations with BMD were found for the studied SNPs and haplotypes. No association with serum OPG concentration was shown in any of the studied groups. Our results suggest that, in postmenopausal osteoporosis, polymorphisms 245T > G and 1181G > C, as well as haplotype CT in TNFRSF11B gene influence BMD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 on the urinary levels of 1-hydroxypyrene.

    PubMed

    Apostoli, P; Neri, G; Lucas, D; Manno, M; Berthou, F

    2003-09-15

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of the genetic polymorphism of two enzymes involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and glutathione-S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), on the urinary levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-P) in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and in unexposed workers (controls). The study group consisted of 30 controls recruited among employees of a service company and 171 PAHs-exposed workers from two electric steel plants and an iron foundry (all males, ranging between 18 and 60 years of age). Determination of airborne PAHs and urinary 1-OH-P was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric detection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to determine the genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1 (CYP1A1*2A and CYP1A1*2B) and GSTM1. No influence of the genetic polymorphism of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 on the urinary levels of 1-OH-P was observed in this study.

  10. Exposure assessment of benzene in Thai workers, DNA-repair capacity and influence of genetic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Chanvaivit, Sirirat; Navasumrit, Panida; Hunsonti, Potchanee; Autrup, Herman; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2007-01-10

    of deletions in laboratory workers (0.22 per metaphase cell) and gasoline service attendants (0.39 per metaphase cell) were significantly higher than in control workers (0.16 per metaphase cell, p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). An increase in radiation-induced dicentrics and deletions indicate a lower DNA-repair capacity in benzene-exposed workers. The influence of genetic polymorphisms on the biomarkers was assessed. Benzene-exposed workers who carried CYP2E1*1/*5 or *5/*5 genotypes excreted slightly higher levels of trans,trans-muconic acid than workers who carried the CYP2E1*1/*1 genotype. In this study, NQO1 and GSTT1 genotypes did not have any effect on the levels of trans,trans-muconic acid. In the case of XRCC1, laboratory workers with 399Arg/Gln or Gln/Gln had a lower DNA-repair capacity--measured as radiation-induced frequency of dicentrics and deletions--than those with the 399Arg/Arg genotype (p<0.01). Our results show that biomarkers of internal dose and early biological effect in people occupationally exposed to benzene are influenced by genetic polymorphisms in susceptibility genes.

  11. Differential influence of 5-HTTLPR - polymorphism and COMT Val158Met - polymorphism on emotion perception and regulation in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elisabeth M; Freudenthaler, H Harald; Fink, Andreas; Reiser, Eva M; Niederstätter, Harald; Nagl, Simone; Parson, Walther; Papousek, Ilona

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence indicates that a considerable amount of variance in self-estimated emotional competency can be directly attributed to genetic factors. The current study examined the associations between the polymorphisms of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Met158Val) and the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and specific measures of the self-estimated effectiveness of an individual's emotion perception and regulation. Emotional competence was measured in a large sample of 289 healthy women by using the Self-report Emotional Ability Scale (SEAS), which includes two subscales for the assessment of emotion perception and regulation in the intra-personal domain and two subscales for the assessment of emotion perception and regulation in the inter-personal domain. Participants' reports of effective emotion regulation in everyday life were associated with the COMT Met-allele, with women homozygous for the Val-allele scoring lowest on this scale. Self-estimated effectiveness of emotion perception of the individual's own emotions was related to the 5-HTTLPR. Both homozygous groups (s/s and l/l) rated their intra-personal emotion perception less effective than participants in the heterozygous s/l group. Taken together, the results indicate that genetic variants of the COMT and 5HTTLPR genes are differentially associated with specific measures of the self-estimated effectiveness of an individual's emotion perception and regulation in the intra-personal domain.

  12. HFE p.H63D polymorphism does not influence ALS phenotype and survival.

    PubMed

    Chiò, Adriano; Mora, Gabriele; Sabatelli, Mario; Caponnetto, Claudia; Lunetta, Christian; Traynor, Bryan J; Johnson, Janel O; Nalls, Mike A; Calvo, Andrea; Moglia, Cristina; Borghero, Giuseppe; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; La Bella, Vincenzo; Volanti, Paolo; Simone, Isabella; Salvi, Fabrizio; Logullo, Francesco O; Nilo, Riva; Giannini, Fabio; Mandrioli, Jessica; Tanel, Raffaella; Murru, Maria Rita; Mandich, Paola; Zollino, Marcella; Conforti, Francesca L; Penco, Silvana; Brunetti, Maura; Barberis, Marco; Restagno, Gabriella

    2015-10-01

    It has been recently reported that the p.His63Asp polymorphism of the HFE gene accelerates disease progression both in the SOD1 transgenic mouse and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We have evaluated the effect of HFE p.His63Asp polymorphism on the phenotype in 1351 Italian ALS patients (232 of Sardinian ancestry). Patients were genotyped for the HFE p.His63Asp polymorphism (CC, GC, and GG). All patients were also assessed for C9ORF72, TARDBP, SOD1, and FUS mutations. Of the 1351 ALS patients, 363 (29.2%) were heterozygous (GC) for the p.His63Asp polymorphism and 30 (2.2%) were homozygous for the minor allele (GG). Patients with CC, GC, and GG polymorphisms did not significantly differ by age at onset, site of onset of symptoms, and survival; however, in SOD1 patients with CG or GG polymorphism had a significantly longer survival than those with a CC polymorphism. Differently from what observed in the mouse model of ALS, the HFE p.His63Asp polymorphism has no effect on ALS phenotype in this large series of Italian ALS patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Age Differences in Microstructure of the Corpus Callosum

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Land, Susan J.; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neuroplasticity and promotes axonal growth, but its secretion, regulated by a BDNF gene, declines with age. The low-activity (met) allele of common polymorphism BDNF val66met is associated with reduced production of BDNF. We examined whether age-related reduction in the integrity of cerebral white matter (WM) depends on the BDNF val66met genotype. Forty-one middle-aged and older adults participated in the study. Regional WM integrity was assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA) computed from manually drawn regions of interest in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum on diffusion tensor imaging scans. After controlling for effects of sex and hypertension, we found that only the BDNF 66met carriers displayed age-related declines in the splenium FA, whereas no age-related declines were shown by BDNF val homozygotes. No genotype-related differences were observed in the genu of the corpus callosum. This finding is consistent with a view that genetic risk for reduced BDNF affects posterior regions that otherwise are considered relatively insensitive to normal aging. Those individuals with a genetic predisposition for decreased BDNF expression may not be able to fully benefit from BDNF-based plasticity and repair mechanisms. PMID:19738930

  14. Fibroblast Growth Factor 20 Polymorphisms and Haplotypes Strongly Influence Risk of Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    van der Walt, Joelle M.; Noureddine, Maher A.; Kittappa, Raja; Hauser, Michael A.; Scott, William K.; McKay, Ron; Zhang, Fengyu; Stajich, Jeffrey M.; Fujiwara, Kenichiro; Scott, Burton L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Vance, Jeffery M.; Martin, Eden R.

    2004-01-01

    The pathogenic process responsible for the loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) is poorly understood. Current research supports the involvement of fibroblast growth factor (FGF20) in the survival of dopaminergic cells. FGF20 is a neurotrophic factor that is preferentially expressed within the substantia nigra of rat brain. The human homologue has been mapped to 8p21.3-8p22, which is within an area of PD linkage revealed through our published genomic screen. To test whether FGF20 influences risk of PD, we genotyped five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) lying within the FGF20 gene, in a large family study. We analyzed our sample (644 families) through use of the pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT), the genotype PDT, the multilocus-genotype PDT, and the family-based association test to assess association between risk of PD and alleles, genotypes, multilocus genotypes, and haplotypes. We discovered a highly significant association of PD with one intronic SNP, rs1989754 (P=.0006), and two SNPs, rs1721100 (P=.02) and ss20399075 (P=.0008), located in the 3′ regulatory region in our overall sample. Furthermore, we detected a haplotype (A-G-C-C-T) that is positively associated with risk of PD (P=.0003), whereas a second haplotype (A-G-G-G-C) was found to be negatively associated with risk of PD (P=.0009). Our results strongly support FGF20 as a risk factor for PD. PMID:15122513

  15. Quadruplex-single nucleotide polymorphisms (Quad-SNP) influence gene expression difference among individuals.

    PubMed

    Baral, Aradhita; Kumar, Pankaj; Halder, Rashi; Mani, Prithvi; Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Ankita; Das, Swapan K; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2012-05-01

    Non-canonical guanine quadruplex structures are not only predominant but also conserved among bacterial and mammalian promoters. Moreover recent findings directly implicate quadruplex structures in transcription. These argue for an intrinsic role of the structural motif and thereby posit that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that compromise the quadruplex architecture could influence function. To test this, we analysed SNPs within quadruplex motifs (Quad-SNP) and gene expression in 270 individuals across four populations (HapMap) representing more than 14,500 genotypes. Findings reveal significant association between quadruplex-SNPs and expression of the corresponding gene in individuals (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, analysis of Quad-SNPs obtained from population-scale sequencing of 1000 human genomes showed relative selection bias against alteration of the structural motif. To directly test the quadruplex-SNP-transcription connection, we constructed a reporter system using the RPS3 promoter-remarkable difference in promoter activity in the 'quadruplex-destabilized' versus 'quadruplex-intact' promoter was noticed. As a further test, we incorporated a quadruplex motif or its disrupted counterpart within a synthetic promoter reporter construct. The quadruplex motif, and not the disrupted-motif, enhanced transcription in human cell lines of different origin. Together, these findings build direct support for quadruplex-mediated transcription and suggest quadruplex-SNPs may play significant role in mechanistically understanding variations in gene expression among individuals.

  16. Genetic influences on insight problem solving: the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weili; Shang, Siyuan; Su, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    People may experience an “aha” moment, when suddenly realizing a solution of a puzzling problem. This experience is called insight problem solving. Several findings suggest that catecholamine-related genes may contribute to insight problem solving, among which the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is the most promising candidate. The current study examined 753 healthy individuals to determine the associations between 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms on the COMT gene and insight problem-solving performance, while considering gender differences. The results showed that individuals carrying A allele of rs4680 or T allele of rs4633 scored significantly higher on insight problem-solving tasks, and the COMT gene rs5993883 combined with gender interacted with correct solutions of insight problems, specifically showing that this gene only influenced insight problem-solving performance in males. This study presents the first investigation of the genetic impact on insight problem solving and provides evidence that highlights the role that the COMT gene plays in insight problem solving. PMID:26528222

  17. Genetic influences on insight problem solving: the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weili; Shang, Siyuan; Su, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    People may experience an "aha" moment, when suddenly realizing a solution of a puzzling problem. This experience is called insight problem solving. Several findings suggest that catecholamine-related genes may contribute to insight problem solving, among which the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is the most promising candidate. The current study examined 753 healthy individuals to determine the associations between 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms on the COMT gene and insight problem-solving performance, while considering gender differences. The results showed that individuals carrying A allele of rs4680 or T allele of rs4633 scored significantly higher on insight problem-solving tasks, and the COMT gene rs5993883 combined with gender interacted with correct solutions of insight problems, specifically showing that this gene only influenced insight problem-solving performance in males. This study presents the first investigation of the genetic impact on insight problem solving and provides evidence that highlights the role that the COMT gene plays in insight problem solving.

  18. IL2/IL21 region polymorphism influences response to rituximab in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Ana; Dávila-Fajardo, Cristina Lucía; Robledo, Gema; Rubio, José Luis Callejas; de Ramón Garrido, Enrique; García-Hernández, Francisco J; González-León, Rocío; Ríos-Fernández, Raquel; Barrera, José Cabeza; González-Escribano, Ma Francisca; García, Ma Teresa Camps; Palma, Ma Jesús Castillo; del Mar Ayala, Ma; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Martín, Javier

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether the IL2/IL21 region, a general autoimmunity locus, contributes to the observed variation in response to rituximab in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus as well as to analyze its influence in a cohort including other autoimmune diseases. rs6822844 G/T polymorphism at the IL2-IL21 region was analyzed by TaqMan assay in 84 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 60 different systemic autoimmune diseases Spanish patients receiving rituximab. Six months after the first infusion patients were classified, according to the EULAR criteria, as good responders, partial responders and non-responders. A statistically significant difference was observed in GG genotype frequency between responder (total and partial response) (83.56%) and non-responder (45.45%) SLE patients (p=0.010, odds ratio (OR)=6.10 [1.28-29.06]). No association with the response was evident in the group of patients with autoimmune diseases other than lupus. Furthermore, when both groups of patients were pooled in a meta-analysis, a reduced statistical significance of the association was observed (p=0.024, OR=3.53 [1.06-11.64]). Our results show for a first time that IL2-IL21 region seems to play a role in the response to rituximab in SLE patients but not in other autoimmune diseases.

  19. Polymorphisms at Amino Acid Residues 141 and 154 Influence Conformational Variation in Ovine PrP

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sujeong; Thackray, Alana M.; Hopkins, Lee; Monie, Tom P.; Burke, David F.; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms in ovine PrP at amino acid residues 141 and 154 are associated with susceptibility to ovine prion disease: Leu141Arg154 with classical scrapie and Phe141Arg154 and Leu141His154 with atypical scrapie. Classical scrapie is naturally transmissible between sheep, whereas this may not be the case with atypical scrapie. Critical amino acid residues will determine the range or stability of structural changes within the ovine prion protein or its functional interaction with potential cofactors, during conversion of PrPC to PrPSc in these different forms of scrapie disease. Here we computationally identified that regions of ovine PrP, including those near amino acid residues 141 and 154, displayed more conservation than expected based on local structural environment. Molecular dynamics simulations showed these conserved regions of ovine PrP displayed genotypic differences in conformational repertoire and amino acid side-chain interactions. Significantly, Leu141Arg154 PrP adopted an extended beta sheet arrangement in the N-terminal palindromic region more frequently than the Phe141Arg154 and Leu141His154 variants. We supported these computational observations experimentally using circular dichroism spectroscopy and immunobiochemical studies on ovine recombinant PrP. Collectively, our observations show amino acid residues 141 and 154 influence secondary structure and conformational change in ovine PrP that may correlate with different forms of scrapie. PMID:25126555

  20. Human Polymorphisms in the Glutathione Transferase Zeta 1/Maleylacetoacetate Isomerase Gene Influence the Toxicokinetics of Dichloroacetate

    PubMed Central

    Shroads, Albert L.; Langaee, Taimour; Coats, Bonnie S.; Kurtz, Tracie L.; Bullock, John R.; Weithorn, David; Gong, Yan; Wagner, David A.; Ostrov, David A.; Johnson, Julie A.; Stacpoole, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA), a chemical relevant to environmental science and allopathic medicine, is dehalogenated by the bifunctional enzyme glutathione transferase zeta (GSTz1) maleylacetoacetate isomerase (MAAI), the penultimate enzyme in the phenylalanine/tyrosine catabolic pathway. The authors postulated that polymorphisms in GSTz1/MAAI modify the toxicokinetics of DCA. GSTz1/MAAI haplotype significantly affected the kinetics and biotransformation of 1,2-13C-DCA when it was administered at either environmentally (μg/kg/d) or clinically (mg/kg/d) relevant doses. GSTz1/MAAI haplotype also influenced the urinary accumulation of potentially toxic tyrosine metabolites. Atomic modeling revealed that GSTz1/MAAI variants associated with the slowest rates of DCA metabolism induced structural changes in the enzyme homodimer, predicting protein instability or abnormal protein-protein interactions. Knowledge of the GSTz1/MAAI haplotype can be used prospectively to identify individuals at potential risk of DCA’s adverse side effects from environmental or clinical exposure or who may exhibit aberrant amino acid metabolism in response to dietary protein. PMID:21642471

  1. Association of the common FTO-rs9939609 polymorphism with type 2 diabetes, independent of obesity-related traits in a Vietnamese population.

    PubMed

    Binh, Tran Quang; Phuong, Pham Tran; Nhung, Bui Thi; Thoang, Dang Dinh; Lien, Ha Thi; Thanh, Duong Van

    2013-01-15

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disorder resulting from both genetic and environmental factors in its pathogenesis. A case-control study was designed with subjects recruited from a general population to investigate whether the association between T2D and the common T>A polymorphism (rs9939609) in fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene is mediated by obesity-related measurements, considering the contribution of socio-economic status and lifestyle factors. The significant association between the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism and T2D was first observed in the model unadjusted (OR per A allele=1.61, 95% CI=1.06-2.44, P=0.024). It remained consistently replicated in the final model after adjustments for sex, age, systolic blood pressure, socio-economic status, lifestyle factors, and obesity-related measurements (body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body fat percentage, and body adiposity index), showing an increased T2D risk with an additive effect of the alleles (ORs per A allele=1.80-1.92, 95% CI=1.09-3.19, P<0.05). The FTO-rs9939609 polymorphism, systolic blood pressure, and waist-hip ratio were the most significant independent predictors for T2D, in which the power of the adjusted prediction model was 0.769. In conclusion, the study suggested that the FTO-rs9939609 polymorphism was significantly associated with the increased risk of T2D, independent of obesity-related measurements in a Vietnamese population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Erythrocyte invasion profiles are associated with a common invasion ligand polymorphism in Senegalese isolates of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Lantos, P M; Ahouidi, A D; Bei, A K; Jennings, C V; Sarr, O; Ndir, O; Wirth, D F; Mboup, S; Duraisingh, M T

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites use multiple ligand-receptor interactions to invade human erythrocytes. Variant expression levels of members of the PfRh and PfEBA ligand families are associated with the use of different erythrocyte receptors, defining invasion pathways. Here we analyse a major polymorphism, a large sequence deletion in the PfRh2b ligand, and erythrocyte invasion profiles in uncultured Senegalese isolates. Parasites vary considerably in their use of sialic acid-containing and protease-sensitive erythrocyte receptors for invasion. The erythrocyte selectivity index was not related to invasion pathway usage, while parasite multiplication rate was associated with enhanced use of a trypsin-resistant invasion pathway. PfRh2b protein was expressed in all parasite isolates, although the PfRh2b deletion was present in a subset (approximately 68%). Parasites with the PfRh2b deletion were found to preferentially utilize protease-resistant pathways for erythrocyte invasion. Sialic acid-independent invasion is reduced in parasites with the PfRh2b deletion, but only in isolates derived from blood group O patients. Our results suggest a significant role for PfRh2b sequence polymorphism in discriminating between alternative erythrocyte receptors for invasion and as a possible determinant of virulence.

  3. BDNF pro-peptide actions facilitate hippocampal LTD and are altered by the common BDNF polymorphism Val66Met.

    PubMed

    Mizui, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Kumanogoh, Haruko; Lume, Maria; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Hara, Tomoko; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Takahashi, Masami; Shiosaka, Sadao; Itami, Chiaki; Uegaki, Koichi; Saarma, Mart; Kojima, Masami

    2015-06-09

    Most growth factors are initially synthesized as precursor proteins and subsequently processed into their mature form by proteolytic cleavage, resulting in simultaneous removal of a pro-peptide. However, compared with that of mature form, the biological role of the pro-peptide is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the biological role of the pro-peptide of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and first showed that the pro-peptide is expressed and secreted in hippocampal tissues and cultures, respectively. Interestingly, we found that the BDNF pro-peptide directly facilitates hippocampal long-term depression (LTD), requiring the activation of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors and the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR). The BDNF pro-peptide also enhances NMDA-induced α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor endocytosis, a mechanism crucial for LTD expression. Thus, the BDNF pro-peptide is involved in synaptic plasticity that regulates a mechanism responsible for promoting LTD. The well-known BDNF polymorphism valine for methionine at amino acid position 66 (Val66Met) affects human memory function. Here, the BDNF pro-peptide with Met mutation completely inhibits hippocampal LTD. These findings demonstrate functional roles for the BDNF pro-peptide and a naturally occurring human BDNF polymorphism in hippocampal synaptic depression.

  4. BDNF pro-peptide actions facilitate hippocampal LTD and are altered by the common BDNF polymorphism Val66Met

    PubMed Central

    Mizui, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Kumanogoh, Haruko; Lume, Maria; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Hara, Tomoko; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Takahashi, Masami; Shiosaka, Sadao; Itami, Chiaki; Uegaki, Koichi; Saarma, Mart; Kojima, Masami

    2015-01-01

    Most growth factors are initially synthesized as precursor proteins and subsequently processed into their mature form by proteolytic cleavage, resulting in simultaneous removal of a pro-peptide. However, compared with that of mature form, the biological role of the pro-peptide is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the biological role of the pro-peptide of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and first showed that the pro-peptide is expressed and secreted in hippocampal tissues and cultures, respectively. Interestingly, we found that the BDNF pro-peptide directly facilitates hippocampal long-term depression (LTD), requiring the activation of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors and the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. The BDNF pro-peptide also enhances NMDA-induced α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor endocytosis, a mechanism crucial for LTD expression. Thus, the BDNF pro-peptide is involved in synaptic plasticity that regulates a mechanism responsible for promoting LTD. The well-known BDNF polymorphism valine for methionine at amino acid position 66 (Val66Met) affects human memory function. Here, the BDNF pro-peptide with Met mutation completely inhibits hippocampal LTD. These findings demonstrate functional roles for the BDNF pro-peptide and a naturally occurring human BDNF polymorphism in hippocampal synaptic depression. PMID:26015580

  5. Selenium levels in human breast carcinoma tissue are associated with a common polymorphism in the gene for SELENOP (Selenoprotein P).

    PubMed

    Ekoue, Dede N; Zaichick, Sofia; Valyi-Nagy, Klara; Picklo, Matthew; Lacher, Craig; Hoskins, Kent; Warso, Michael A; Bonini, Marcelo G; Diamond, Alan M

    2017-01-01

    Selenium supplementation of the diets of rodents has consistently been shown to suppress mammary carcinogenesis and some, albeit not all, human epidemiological studies have indicated an inverse association between selenium and breast cancer risk. In order to better understand the role selenium plays in breast cancer, 30 samples of tumor tissue were obtained from women with breast cancer and analyzed for selenium concentration, the levels of several selenium-containing proteins and the levels of the MnSOD anti-oxidant protein. Polymorphisms within the genes for these same proteins were determined from DNA isolated from the tissue samples. There was a wide range of selenium in these tissues, ranging from 24 to 854ng/gm. The selenium levels in the tissues were correlated to the genotype of the SELENOP selenium carrier protein, but not to other proteins whose levels have been reported to be responsive to selenium availability, including GPX1, SELENOF and SBP1. There was an association between a polymorphism in the gene for MnSOD and the levels of the encoded protein. These studies were the first to examine the relationship between selenium levels, genotypes and protein levels in human tissues. Furthermore, the obtained data provide evidence for the need to obtain data about the effects of selenium in breast cancer by examining samples from that particular tissue type. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  6. Common Genetic and Environmental Influences on Major Depressive Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subbarao, Anjali; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Young, Susan E.; Ehringer, Marissa A.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John K.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence for common genetic and environmental influences on conduct disorder (CD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents was examined. A sample of 570 monozygotic twin pairs, 592 dizygotic twin pairs, and 426 non-twin siblings, aged 12-18 years, was recruited from the Colorado Twin Registry. For the past year data, there was a…

  7. The Analysis of Polymorphism of Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) Gene and Influence of Liver Function Status in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Suhartini; Mustofa; Nurhantari, Yudha; Rianto, Bambang Udji Djoko

    2017-01-31

    Indonesian culture actually has no historical record of behaviors in consuming alcohol, but there are many recent reports of alcohol abuse among Asian people involving their traditional drink. In genotype studies, the damage of the liver caused by consuming alcohol is influenced by the presence of the polymorphism enzyme gene. The lack of study regarding such topic is a signal to further investigate ADH3 gene distribution and its effect on liver function status. The total of 197 research subjects of Javanese descent received alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) genetic polymorphism and liver status tests in the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesian. An analytical study with a cross-sectional design was then conducted on the subjects, with the resulting isolated DNAs amplified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genotype of ADH3 was determined by means of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using Ssp1 restricting enzyme. Liver function status was assessed by measuring serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) using a photometric system. Gene types of ADH3*1 (2.1%), ADH3*2 (82.7%) and ADH3*1/3*2 (15.2%) on the subjects were concluded, finding that there is no difference between the gender. In conclusion most of the ADH3 gene polymorphism of the subjects were ADH3*2 (82.7%). The influence of genetic polymorphisms on the status of liver function in the subjects showed significant difference according to GGT measurement, but the same cannot be said on the other two values measuring SGOT and SGPT.

  8. Common Polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 Are Associated with Susceptibility to Urinary Bladder Cancer in Individuals from Balkan Endemic Nephropathy Areas of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Matic, Marija; Dragicevic, Biljana; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Suvakov, Sonja; Savic-Radojevic, Ana; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija; Dragicevic, Dejan; Smiljic, Jelena; Simic, Tatjana

    2016-09-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic familial form of interstitial nephritis that might eventually lead to end stage renal disease. This nephropathy affects individuals living along of the Danube River and its tributaries in Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Bulgaria and Romania. The increased incidence of urinary tract tumors in the BEN areas is well described, but its specific genetic predisposition is still unclear. Certain nephrocarcinogenic compounds, including those associated with BEN, are metabolized by glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily of phase II detoxication enzymes. Importantly, the GST-mediated detoxification may result in formation of more toxic compounds. We examined the association of common GST polymorphisms and bladder cancer (BC) risk in individuals from BEN areas in Serbia. A hospital-based case-control study included 201 BC cases (67 from BEN region) and 122 controls. Each polymorphism was identified by a PCR-based method. Individuals from BEN region with low-expression GSTA1 genotype (AB+BB) exhibited a 2.6-fold higher BC risk compared to those with GSTA1 (AA) genotype who were from non-BEN region (OR = 2.60, p = 0.015). In contrast, carriers of GSTM1-active genotype from BEN region had a 2.9-fold increased BC risk compared to those with GSTM1-active genotype from non-BEN region (OR = 2.90, p = 0.010). Likewise, carriers with GSTT1-active genotype from BEN region exhibited 2.1-fold higher BC risk compared to those from non-BEN region with GSTT1-active genotype (OR = 2.10, p = 0.027). Thus, common polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 are associated with susceptibility to BC in individuals from BEN areas of Serbia.

  9. Influence of polymorphic N-acetyltransferases on non-malignant spontaneous disorders and on response to drugs.

    PubMed

    Ladero, J M

    2008-07-01

    Polymorphic N-acetyl transferases (NAT) 1 and 2 are involved in detoxification of xenobiotic arylamines and hydralazines. These common environmental chemicals may be related to the pathogenesis of many spontaneous disorders, mainly malignancies, but also disimmune or degenerative diseases, for which a polygenic predisposition has been suggested. Hence, polymorphic NAT genes (NAT2 has been the most studied one) may be low-penetrance risk genes for some of these disorders. Although a relation of risk may be definitely discarded for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease and endometriosis, more research is needed for rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Behçet's and periodontal diseases , as current results are inconclusive but suggest a possible relation with NAT2 polymorphism. In diabetes mellitus the possible relation with the rapid phenotype may be due to acquired metabolic changes and more genotyping studies are needed. NAT2 slow metabolizers are more prone to the side effects of polymorphically acetylated drugs, as is the SLE-like syndrome induced by hydralazine and procainamide, the side effects due to sulphasalazine and the skin rash secondary to many sulphonamides. Future research should be based on well-designed studies, with adequate sample sizes and homogeneous recruitment criteria, to obviate the proliferation of small studies that are time- and resource-consuming without offering definite answers.

  10. ACTN3 R577X polymorphism does not influence explosive leg muscle power in elite volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J R; Fernández del Valle, M; Verde, Z; Díez-Vega, I; Santiago, C; Yvert, T; Rodríguez-Romo, G; Gómez-Gallego, F; Molina, J J; Lucia, A

    2011-12-01

    We examined the association of R577X polymorphism (rs1815739) in the α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene with "explosive" leg muscle power performance in a group of male and female elite volleyball players (n=66, 31 men, 35 women) and in a group of non-athletic male and female young adults (n=334, 243 men, 91 women). We assessed power performance by means of the vertical squat and counter-movement jump tests. We also determined whether the genotypic frequencies of the ACTN3 R577X genotypes differed between groups. We did not observe any effect of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on study phenotypes in both groups, regardless of gender (all P>0.05). Genotype frequencies were similar between volleyball and control groups (P=0.095). Moreover, we did not find an association between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and the likelihood of being an elite volleyball player using the dominant (RR vs RX+XX) and the recessive model (RR+RX vs XX). In summary, these findings suggest that the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism does not influence explosive leg muscle power in elite volleyball players.

  11. Influence of Androgen Receptor Gene CAG and GGC Polymorphisms on Male Sexual Function: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Giovanni; Falzetti, Sara; delli Muti, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Background. No study has assessed the possible involvement of GGC androgen receptor (AR) polymorphism in sexual function. Our aim is to evaluate the association between CAG and GGC AR polymorphisms in this function. Methods. We retrospectively examined eighty-five outpatients. Clinical, biochemical, and genetic parameters were considered. Sexual assessment was performed using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) which evaluates erectile function (EF), orgasmic function (OF), sexual desire (SD), intercourse satisfaction (IS), and overall satisfaction (OS). Results. In the whole sample, CAG repeats were inversely correlated with EF, OF, and total IIEF-15 score, whereas GGC tracts did not show any significant correlation with sexual function. CAG relationship with IIEF items retained significance only in the eugonadal but not in the hypogonadal cohort. On the other hand, GGC tracts were not found to be significantly correlated with IIEF variables in either eugonadal or hypogonadal subjects. In eugonadal subjects, logistic regression pointed out that a higher number of CAG triplets were associated with lower values of EF, OF, SD, OS, and total IIEF independently from other confounders. Conclusions. GGC polymorphism seems not to exert any influence on sexual function, whereas CAG polymorphism appears to affect sexual parameters only in eugonadal subjects. PMID:28243253

  12. A replication study examining three common single-nucleotide polymorphisms and the risk of prostate cancer in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; Suzuki, Motofumi; Arai, Tomio; Sawabe, Motoji; Enomoto, Yutaka; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Kume, Haruki; Homma, Yukio; Kitamura, Tadaichi

    2011-07-01

    Recently, genome-wide association studies have independently identified multiple prostate cancer risk variants on 8q24 and 17q in European and American populations. In this study, we examined the association between three key single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these two regions and the risk of prostate cancer in a Japanese population. The associations between the rs6983561, rs4430796, and rs1859962 SNPs and prostate cancer susceptibility and tumor aggressiveness were examined in a total of 950 Japanese subjects (518 with sporadic prostate cancer (SPCa), 109 with latent prostate cancer (LPCa), and 323 controls). After adjustments for age, the C allele of rs6983561 and the A allele of rs4430796 were significantly more frequent among the SPCa patients than among the controls. Men who carry these risk alleles have an estimated odds ratio (OR) of 1.55 and 1.35, respectively. Furthermore, the SNPs rs6983561 and rs4430796 were associated with a susceptibility to aggressive prostate cancer, whereas rs1859962 was associated with non-aggressive prostate cancer. However, no significant difference was observed between these three polymorphisms and the risk of LPCa. We also examined the cumulative association of these three SNPs and prostate cancer susceptibility. Compared with men who do not have any risk alleles, the ORs increased according to the number of risk alleles that were present (P-value for trend: 8.1 × 10(-4) ). Our results further confirmed that variants at 8q24 and 17q are associated with the risk of prostate cancer and play an important role in tumor aggressiveness. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. A common polymorphism within MSLN affects miR-611 binding site and soluble mesothelin levels in healthy people.

    PubMed

    Garritano, Sonia; De Santi, Chiara; Silvestri, Roberto; Melaiu, Ombretta; Cipollini, Monica; Barone, Elisa; Lucchi, Marco; Barale, Roberto; Mutti, Luciano; Gemignani, Federica; Bonotti, Alessandra; Foddis, Rudy; Cristaudo, Alfonso; Landi, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    Soluble mesothelin related peptide (SMRP) was proposed as a promising diagnostic marker for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In a previous study, we found that rs1057147 within the 3' untranslated region of MSLN gene was associated with SMRP levels. Thus, we aimed to (1) confirm the previous association on a large series of volunteers and (2) test the hypothesis that the SNP could affect microRNA binding sites. The association analysis was verified in 759 subjects. Then, in silico predictions highlighted miR-611 and miR-887 as candidate miRNAs binding to the polymorphic site. Thus, chimeric constructs bearing the alternative alleles (G > A) were assayed alone or in cotransfection with the miRNA mimics, with dual luciferase reporter assay in non-MPM Met-5A cells. The miRNAs were also assayed by western blot analysis for their ability to down-regulate endogenous mesothelin in the MPM Mero-14 cell line. We confirmed that, among non-MPM volunteers, GG homozygotes have the lowest SMRP levels. When the genotype is taken into account, the specificity of SMRP as biomarker improves from 79.7% to 85.3%. Dual-luciferase assays showed a significantly lower reporter activity when the vector harbored the G allele as compared to A allele. miR-887 mimic caused a reduced reporter activity of vectors harboring A or G alleles, while miR-611 was effective only on the vector harboring the G allele. Transfection of these miRNAs into Mero-14 cells significantly reduced endogenous MSLN protein. SMRP performance as diagnostic biomarker improved by considering the genotype rs1057147. This polymorphism most likely affects a binding site for miR-611.

  14. A common NOS1AP genetic polymorphism is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in users of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Matthijs L; Visser, Loes E; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Stricker, Bruno H Ch

    2009-01-01

    AIM Recently, a polymorphism in the NOS1AP gene (rs10494366), a regulator of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), was associated with QTc prolongation. Both nNOS and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) regulate intracellular calcium levels and have an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis. The aim was to investigate whether this polymorphism is associated with cardiovascular mortality in users of CCBs. METHODS The data from the Rotterdam study, a population-based closed cohort study of Caucasian individuals of ≥55 years of age, were used. We identified 1113 participants in the Rotterdam Study who were prescribed CCBs for the first time between 1991 and 2005. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality was assessed in participants who were prescribed CCBs with different NOS1AP rs10494366 genotypes using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS In participants starting on dihydropyridine CCBs (amlodipine, nifedipine and others) all-cause mortality (n = 79) risks were higher in participants with the TG [hazard ratio (HR) 2.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24, 5.34] or the GG genotype (HR 3.18, 95% CI 1.18, 8.58) than in participants with the referent TT genotype. Cardiovascular mortality (n = 54) risks were 3.51 (95% CI 1.41, 8.78) for the TG genotype and 6.00 (95% CI 1.80, 20.0) for the GG genotype. No differences in all-cause mortality or cardiovascular mortality were seen in participants starting with the nondihydropyridine CCBs verapamil or diltiazem. CONCLUSION The minor G allele of rs10494366 in the NOS1AP gene is associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Caucasian users of dihydropyridine CCBs. The mechanism underlying the observed association is unknown. PMID:19076153

  15. The Strong Influence of Structure Polymorphism on the Conductivity of Peptide Fibrils.

    PubMed

    Ivnitski, Denis; Amit, Moran; Silberbush, Ohad; Atsmon-Raz, Yoav; Nanda, Jayanta; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Miller, Yifat; Ashkenasy, Gonen; Ashkenasy, Nurit

    2016-08-16

    Peptide fibril nanostructures have been advocated as components of future biotechnology and nanotechnology devices. However, the ability to exploit the fibril functionality for applications, such as catalysis or electron transfer, depends on the formation of well-defined architectures. Fibrils made of peptides substituted with aromatic groups are described presenting efficient electron delocalization. Peptide self-assembly under various conditions produced polymorphic fibril products presenting distinctly different conductivities. This process is driven by a collective set of hydrogen bonding, electrostatic, and π-stacking interactions, and as a result it can be directed towards formation of a distinct polymorph by using the medium to enhance specific interactions rather than the others. This method facilitates the detailed characterization of different polymorphs, and allows specific conditions to be established that lead to the polymorph with the highest conductivity.

  16. APOE and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms combine to influence episodic memory function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Ward, David D; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Janssen, Pierce; Stuart, Kimberley E; Vickers, James C

    2014-09-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have shown inconsistent associations with healthy adult cognitive functions. Recent investigations have suggested that APOE polymorphisms do not contribute to non-pathological cognitive function and that any effect is likely due to prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Similarly, although BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms affect hippocampal morphology and function, associations with learning and/or memory have not always been found. This study sought to determine whether APOE and BDNF polymorphisms were associated, either independently or in combination, with adult cognition. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments were conducted on 433 older adults, aged 50-79 years (M=62.16, SD=6.81), which yielded measures of episodic memory, working memory, executive function, and language processing. Participants underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment to ensure that only cognitively intact individuals comprised the sample. APOE and BDNF polymorphic data were used as predictors in general linear models that assessed composite cognitive domain variables, while covarying for education and age. Although no main effects for APOE or BDNF were found, the analysis identified a significant APOE×BDNF interaction that predicted episodic memory performance (p=.02, η(2)=.02). Post-hoc analyses demonstrated that in BDNF Val homozygotes, the cognitive consequences of APOE polymorphisms were minimal. However, in BDNF Met carriers, the hypothesized beneficial/detrimental effects of APOE polymorphisms were found. Our data show that concurrent consideration of both APOE and BDNF polymorphisms are required in order to witness a cognitive effect in healthy older adults. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms in pain sensibility of Brazilian fibromialgia patients.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Flávia Regina; Matsuda, Josie Budag; Mazucato, Mendelson; de Castro França, Suzelei; Zingaretti, Sônia Marli; da Silva, Lucienir Maria; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce Maria; Júnior, Milton Faria; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2012-02-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) is a rheumatic syndrome affecting to 2-3% of individuals of productive age, mainly women. Neuroendocrine and genetic factors may play a significant role in development of the disease which is characterized by diffuse chronic pain and presence of tender points. Several studies have suggested an association between FS, especially pain sensitivity, and polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. The aim of the present study was to characterize the SNPs rs4680 and rs4818 of the COMT gene and assess its influence in pain sensitivity of patients with fibromyalgia screened by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 112 patients with fibromyalgia and 110 healthy individuals and was used as template in PCR for amplification of a 185-bp fragment of the COMT gene. The amplified fragment was sequenced for analyses of the SNPs rs4680 and rs4818. The frequency of mutant genotype AA of SNP rs6860 was 77.67% in patients with FS and 28.18% for the control group. For the SNP rs4818, the frequency of mutant genotype CC was 73.21 and 39.09% for patients with FS and controls, respectively. Moreover, the FIQ score was higher in patients with the homozygous mutant genotype for SNPs rs4680 (87.92 points) and rs4818 (86.14 points). These results suggest that SNPs rs4680 and rs4818 of the COMT gene may be associated with fibromyalgia and pain sensitivity in FS Brazilian patients.

  18. Cell type specificity and host genetic polymorphisms influence antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Boonnak, Kobporn; Dambach, Kaitlyn M; Donofrio, Gina C; Tassaneetrithep, Boonrat; Marovich, Mary A

    2011-02-01

    Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is implicated in severe, usually secondary, dengue virus (DV) infections. Preexisting heterotypic antibodies, via their Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR) interactions, may increase disease severity through enhanced target cell infection. Greater numbers of infected target cells may contribute to higher viremia and excess cytokine levels often observed in severe disease. Monocytes, macrophages, and immature and mature dendritic cells (DC) are considered major cellular targets of DV. Apheresis of multiple donors allowed isolation of autologous primary myeloid target cell types for head-to-head comparison of infection rates, viral output, and cytokine production under direct infection (without antibody) or ADE conditions (with antibody). All studied cell types except immature DC supported ADE. All cells undergoing ADE secreted proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) at enhancement titers, but distinct cell-type-specific patterns were observed for other relevant proteins (alpha/beta interferon [IFN-α/β] and IL-10). Macrophages produced type I interferons (IFN-α/β) that were modulated by ADE. Mature DC mainly secreted IFN-β. Interestingly, only monocytes secreted IL-10, and only upon antibody-enhanced infection. While ADE infection rates were remarkably consistent in monocytes (10 to 15%) across donors, IL-10 protein levels varied according to previously described regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-10 promoter region. The homozygous GCC haplotype was associated with high-level IL-10 secretion, while the ACC and ATA haplotypes produced intermediate and low levels of IL-10, respectively. Our data suggest that ADE effects are cell type specific, are influenced by host genetics, and, depending on relative infection rates, may further contribute to the complexity of DV pathogenesis.

  19. More Aroused, Less Fatigued: Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Gene Polymorphisms Influence Acute Response to Amphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Dlugos, Andrea M; Hamidovic, Ajna; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Goldman, David; Palmer, Abraham A; de Wit, Harriet

    2010-01-01

    Amphetamine is a stimulant drug that enhances attention and feelings of alertness. Amphetamine's effects are known to be modulated by endogenous cannabinoids, which are degraded by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In this study we investigated inter-individual differences in mood response to amphetamine in relation to four polymorphisms in the FAAH gene, including the FAAH missense variant rs324420C → A (Pro129Thr), which was previously found to be associated with street drug use and addictive traits. One hundred and fifty-nine healthy Caucasian volunteers participated in a three-session, double-blind crossover study receiving either placebo or oral d-amphetamine (10 and 20 mg). Associations between individual genotypes and levels of self-reported Arousal (Profile of Mood States) after d-amphetamine ingestion were investigated using two-way ANOVAs/ANCOVAs. Association analyses for haplotypes were performed using the adaptive permutation approach implemented in PLINK. Genotypes at rs3766246 and rs2295633 were significantly associated with increased ratings of Arousal (p<0.05) and Fatigue (p<0.01) after the 10-mg dose. Fatigue levels were also found to be associated with the haplotypes CCC and TAT formed from rs3766246, rs324420, and rs2295633 (p<0.05). These data suggest that the endocannabinoid system influences variation in subjective response to amphetamine. This has important implications for understanding the role of endogenous cannabinoids in response to amphetamine, studies of poly-substance abuse, and understanding the genetic determinants of inter-individual differences in stimulant effects and risk of abuse. PMID:19890266

  20. NTM and NR3C2 polymorphisms influencing intelligence: family-based association studies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Aragam, Nagesh

    2011-01-15

    Family, twin, and adoption studies have indicated that human intelligence quotient (IQ) has significant genetic components. We performed a low-density genome-wide association analysis with a family-based association test to identify genetic variants influencing IQ, as measured by Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale full-score IQ (FSIQ). We examined 11,120 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Affymetrix GeneChips 10K mapping array genotyped in 292 nuclear families from Genetic Analysis Workshop 14, a subset from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). A replication analysis was performed using part of International Multi-Center ADHD Genetics Project (IMAGE) dataset. Twenty-two SNPs were identified as having suggestive associations with IQ (p<10(-3)) in the COGA sample and eleven of the SNPs were located within known genes. In particular, NTM at 11q25 (rs411280, p = 0.000764) and NR3C2 at 4q31.1 (rs3846329, p = 0.000675) were two novel genes which have not been associated with IQ in other studies. It has been reported that NTM might play a role in late-onset Alzheimer disease while NR3C2 may be associated with cognitive function and major depression. The associations of these two genes were well-replicated by single-marker and haplotype analyses in the IMAGE sample. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that chromosome regions of 11q25 and 4q31.1 contain genes affecting IQ. This study will serve as a resource for replication in other populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Does the GNB3 C825T Polymorphism Influence Swimming Performance in Competitive Swimmers?

    PubMed

    Grenda, Agata; Sawczuk, Marek; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Maciejewska, Agnieszka; Umiastowska, Danuta; Łubkowska, Wioletta; Żmijewski, Piotr; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-09-29

    Single nucleotide polymorphism C825T located within the GNB3 gene has been proposed in the literature as the performance enhancing polymorphism in highly trained athletes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to verify the hypothesis assuming an association between the C825T polymorphic site and performance of competitive swimmers. The frequencies of C/T alleles and distribution of CC, CT and TT genotypes of the C825T GNB3 polymorphism were compared between athletes and nonathletic controls as well as between sprint and endurance swimmers. Genomic DNA was extracted from 197 competitive swimmers (50 long distance swimmers (LDS) and 147 short distance swimmers (SDS)) and 379 sedentary volunteers. The allele frequencies and genotype distribution of the C825T polymorphic site were not significantly different when LDS and SDS were compared to sedentary controls. Gender-specific analysis did not reveal any significant differences in allele and genotype distribution, neither between female controls and female swimmers nor between male controls and male swimmers. No significant differences in allele frequencies and genotype distribution were observed when LDS and SDS as well as groups of swimmers stratified by gender were compared. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that the C825T polymorphism of the GNB3 gene is associated with swimming performance in competitive swimmers.

  2. HLA class II, MICA and PRL gene polymorphisms: the common contribution to the systemic lupus erythematosus development in Czech population.

    PubMed

    Fojtíková, Markéta; Novota, Peter; Cejková, Pavlína; Pešičková, Satu; Tegzová, Dana; Cerná, Marie

    2011-09-01

    The genetic components contribute to the systemic lupus erythematosus development. This study for the first time determined the distribution of the polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium in HLA class II, MICA and PRL gene among patients suffering from SLE and healthy Czech individuals. DNA was obtained from the peripheral blood cells of 123 SLE patients and 96 healthy people. Allele variants of the HLA class II, MICA transmembrane polymorphism and PRL extrapituitary promoter -1149G/T SNP were detected using the sequence-specific primers analysis, PCR-fragment analysis and PCR-RFLP, respectively. In Czech population, only DRB1*03-DQB1*0201 haplotype is significantly associated with increased risk for SLE development: the frequency in SLE group was 44.7% in comparison with 15.2% in controls, P (c) < 0.0001; OR 4.54 CI 95% (2.36-9.09). The MICA-A5.1 allele is present significantly more often in SLE (55.7%) than controls (39.9%), P (c) = 0.005; OR 1.88 CI 95% (1.29-2.77), and the combination of HLA DRB1 *03 together with MICA-A5.1 is strongly associated with SLE [P (c) < 0.000001; OR 9.71 CI 95% (3.4-27.7)]. On the other hand, the MICA-A6 allele is less frequent in SLE patients compared to controls, 10.6% and 19.7%, respectively [P (c) = 0.035; OR 0.48 CI 95% (0.28-0.82)], and the combination of absence both alleles MICA-A6 and HLA DRB*11 seems to be risk for SLE development compared to controls, 84.6 and 70.2%, respectively, [P (c) = 0.0003 OR 2.32 CI 95% (1.47-3.70)]. We found that only G allele of the -1149 G/T SNP is associated with specific clinical manifestation of SLE, arthritis [P (c) = 0.022; OR 2.63, CI 95% (1.45-4.81)]. HLA class II-MICA combinations may increase/decrease a risk for SLE development. Multiple studies focusing on the ethnical differences as well as genetic-epigenetic relationships are necessary for better understanding SLE pathogenesis.

  3. A Single-Amino-Acid Polymorphism in Chikungunya Virus E2 Glycoprotein Influences Glycosaminoglycan Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Laurie A.; Khomandiak, Solomiia; Ashbrook, Alison W.; Weller, Romy; Heise, Mark T.; Morrison, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    utilized by both a vaccine strain and a clinical isolate of CHIKV to mediate virus binding. We also identified an amino acid polymorphism in the viral E2 attachment protein that influences utilization of glycosaminoglycans. These data enhance an understanding of the viral and host determinants of CHIKV cell entry, which may foster development of new antivirals that act by blocking this key step in viral infection. PMID:24371059

  4. The CYBA gene A640G polymorphism influences predispositions to coronary artery disease through interactions with cigarette smoking and hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Pawel; Nowak, Tomasz; Balcerzyk, Anna; Krauze, Jolanta; Zak, Iwona

    2011-08-01

    The CYBA gene encodes the p22phox peptide, an essential subunit of vascular NADPH oxidases. The aim of the study was to analyze potential interactions between CYBA gene A640G polymorphism and traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis. We studied 320 subjects: 160 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 160 controls. The results of interactions were interpreted on the basis of synergy index values (SI, SIM). The 640G allele interacted with cigarette smoking (SI = 2.02, SIM = 2.32). Even greater increase of the CAD risk was found whenever the 640G allele interacted with both smoking and hypercholesterolemia (SI = 2.70, SIM = 3.60). The results suggest that the A640G polymorphism may influence individual predispositions to CAD through interactions with smoking and hypercholesterolemia.

  5. Influence of the 393T>C polymorphism of the GNAS1 gene on the intensity of opiate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, H S; Lieb, B; Bonnet, U; Specka, M; Augener, S; Siffert, W; Scherbaum, N

    2011-06-01

    There are high interindividual differences regarding the intensity of withdrawal symptoms. in opiate addicts. This study was carried out in order to test whether the intensity of withdrawal is influenced by the 393T>C polymorphism of the GNASI gene. Only patients addicted exclusively to opiates were included. Thirty-three out of 39 patients undergoing inpatient detoxification treatment achieved a drug-free state. During the most intense period of withdrawal (stop of methadone and following days) TT homozygotes (n=4) had a significantly higher pulse rate (primary outcome criterion) than C-allele carriers (n=29). This study and a previous study about GNB3 825C> T underline the possible role of G-protein polymorphisms in the interindividual variability of opiate withdrawal. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Investigations of the influence of common approximations in scatterometry for dimensional nanometrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, J.; Diener, A.; Wurm, M.; Bodermann, B.

    2014-04-01

    Scatterometry is a common tool for the dimensional characterization of periodic nanostructures. It is an indirect measurement method, where the dimensions and geometry of the structures under test are reconstructed from the measured scatterograms applying inverse rigorous calculations. This approach is numerically very elaborate so that usually a number of approximations are used. The influence of each approximation has to be analysed to quantify its contribution to the uncertainty budget. This is a fundamental step to achieve traceability. In this paper, we experimentally investigate two common approximations: the effect of a finite illumination spot size and the application of a more advanced structure model for the reconstruction. We show that the illumination spot size affects the sensitivity to sample inhomogeneities but has no influence on the reconstruction parameters, whereas additional corner rounding of the trapezoidal grating profile significantly improves the reconstruction result.

  7. An overview on common aspects influencing the dissipation pattern of pesticides: a review.

    PubMed

    Farha, Waziha; Abd El-Aty, A M; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2016-12-01

    The common aspects and processes influencing dissipation kinetics of pesticides are determinants of their fate in the environment. Nowadays, with increasing population, the demand for food and fodder crops has also increased. With the development in science and technology, the methods of controlling pests may improve, but the major role played by the environment cannot be altered, i.e. the environmental factors, climatic conditions, and geology of areas under cultivation. Plants play a crucial role in the dissipation kinetics, as they may vary in species and characteristics. Differences in physico-chemical properties, such as formulation, bioavailability, and efficacy of the pesticide, may result in variable dissipation patterns even under the same environmental conditions. While modelling the dissipation kinetics for any specific pesticide applied to any specific crop, each factor must be considered. This review focusses on the variability observed across common factors, i.e. environmental aspects, plant-associated facts, and observed characteristics of chemical substances, influencing pesticide dissipation.

  8. The common single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2681472 is associated with early-onset preeclampsia in Northern Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ji-Peng; Wang, Hong; Li, Chang-Zhong; Zhao, Han; You, Li; Shi, Dong-Hong; Sun, Xiu-Hua; Lv, Hong; Wang, Fei; Wen, Ze-Qing; Wang, Xie-Tong; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Preeclampsia, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified the single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs2681472, as a new hypertension susceptibility genetic variant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between preeclampsia and rs268172 in a Northern Han Chinese population. We genotyped 1218 unrelated Northern Han Chinese women, including 515 patients with preeclampsia and 703 healthy controls. No significant differences were detected in the allele frequencies between patients and controls (P = .23). When patients were divided into early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia according to gestational age of disease onset, the allele frequencies significantly differed between controls and patients with early-onset preeclampsia (P = .02). Genotype frequencies also were significantly different between controls and patients early-onset preeclampsia when data were analyzed under additive (P = .03) and dominant (P = .009) models. We replicated this association in an independent Northern Han Chinese population and observed a significant difference in the allele frequencies between patients with early-onset preeclampsia and controls (P = .011). We report that rs2681472 is associated with early-onset preeclampsia in Northern Han Chinese women. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Limits of a rapid identification of common Mediterranean sandflies using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Bounamous, Azzedine; Lehrter, Véronique; Hadj-Henni, Leila; Delecolle, Jean-Claude; Depaquit, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    A total of 131 phlebotomine Algerian sandflies have been processed in the present study. They belong to the species Phlebotomus bergeroti, Phlebotomus alexandri, Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus chabaudi, Phlebotomus riouxi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus longicuspis, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus chadlii, Sergentomyia fallax, Sergentomyia minuta, Sergentomyia antennata, Sergentomyia schwetzi, Sergentomyia clydei, Sergentomyia christophersi and Grassomyia dreyfussi. They have been characterised by sequencing of a part of the cytochrome b (cyt b), t RNA serine and NADH1 on the one hand and of the cytochrome C oxidase I of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on the other hand. Our study highlights two sympatric populations within P. sergenti in the area of its type-locality and new haplotypes of P. perniciosus and P. longicuspis without recording the specimens called lcx previously found in North Africa. We tried to use a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on a combined double digestion of each marker. These method is not interesting to identify sandflies all over the Mediterranean Basin. PMID:24936911

  10. Inversion of the Williams syndrome region is a common polymorphism found more frequently in parents of children with Williams syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hobart, Holly H.; Morris, Colleen A.; Mervis, Carolyn B.; Pani, Ariel M.; Kistler, Doris J.; Rios, Cecilia M.; Kimberley, Kendra W.; Gregg, Ronald G.; Bray-Ward, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a multisystem disorder caused by deletion of about 1.55 Mb of DNA (including 26 genes) on chromosome 7q11.23, a region predisposed to recombination due to its genomic structure. Deletion of the Williams syndrome chromosome region (WSCR) occurs sporadically. To better define chance for familial recurrence and to investigate the prevalence of genomic rearrangements of the region, 257 children with WS and their parents were studied. We determined deletion size in probands by metaphase FISH, parent-of-origin of the deleted chromosome by molecular genetic methods, and inversion status of the WSCR in both parents by interphase FISH. The frequency of WSCR inversion in the transmitting parent group was 24.9%. In contrast, the rate of inversion in the non-transmitting parent group (a reasonable estimate of the rate in the general population) was 5.8%. There were no significant gender differences with respect to parent-of-origin for the deleted chromosome or the incidence of the inversion polymorphism. There was no difference in the rate of spontaneous abortion for mothers heterozygous for the WSCR inversion relative to mothers without the inversion. We calculate that for a parent heterozygous for a WSCR inversion, the chance to have a child with WS is about 1 in 1750, in contrast to the 1 in 9500 chance for a parent without an inversion. PMID:20425783

  11. Inversion of the Williams syndrome region is a common polymorphism found more frequently in parents of children with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hobart, Holly H; Morris, Colleen A; Mervis, Carolyn B; Pani, Ariel M; Kistler, Doris J; Rios, Cecilia M; Kimberley, Kendra W; Gregg, Ronald G; Bray-Ward, Patricia

    2010-05-15

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a multisystem disorder caused by deletion of about 1.55 Mb of DNA (including 26 genes) on chromosome 7q11.23, a region predisposed to recombination due to its genomic structure. Deletion of the Williams syndrome chromosome region (WSCR) occurs sporadically. To better define chance for familial recurrence and to investigate the prevalence of genomic rearrangements of the region, 257 children with WS and their parents were studied. We determined deletion size in probands by metaphase FISH, parent-of-origin of the deleted chromosome by molecular genetic methods, and inversion status of the WSCR in both parents by interphase FISH. The frequency of WSCR inversion in the transmitting parent group was 24.9%. In contrast, the rate of inversion in the non-transmitting parent group (a reasonable estimate of the rate in the general population) was 5.8%. There were no significant gender differences with respect to parent-of-origin for the deleted chromosome or the incidence of the inversion polymorphism. There was no difference in the rate of spontaneous abortion for mothers heterozygous for the WSCR inversion relative to mothers without the inversion. We calculate that for a parent heterozygous for a WSCR inversion, the chance to have a child with WS is about 1 in 1,750, in contrast to the 1 in 9,500 chance for a parent without an inversion.

  12. A common oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism modulates intranasal oxytocin effects on the neural response to social cooperation in humans.

    PubMed

    Feng, C; Lori, A; Waldman, I D; Binder, E B; Haroon, E; Rilling, J K

    2015-09-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) can modulate social-emotional functioning and related brain activity in humans. Consequently, OT has been discussed as a potential treatment for psychiatric disorders involving social behavioral deficits. However, OT effects are often heterogeneous across individuals. Here we explore individual differences in OT effects on the neural response to social cooperation as a function of the rs53576 polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Previously, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which healthy men and women were randomized to treatment with intranasal OT or placebo. Afterwards, they were imaged with functional magnetic resonance imaging while playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game with same-sex partners. Within the left ventral caudate nucleus, intranasal OT treatment increased activation to reciprocated cooperation in men, but tended to decrease activation in women. Here, we show that these sex differences in OT effects are specific to individuals with the rs53576 GG genotype, and are not found for other genotypes (rs53576 AA/AG). Thus, OT may increase the reward or salience of positive social interactions for male GG homozygotes, while decreasing those processes for female GG homozygotes. These results suggest that rs53576 genotype is an important variable to consider in future investigations of the clinical efficacy of intranasal OT treatment.

  13. A common oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism modulates intranasal oxytocin effects on the neural response to social cooperation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chunliang; Lori, Adriana; Waldman, Irwin D.; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Haroon, Ebrahim; Rilling, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) can modulate social-emotional functioning and related brain activity in humans. Consequently, OT has been discussed as a potential treatment for psychiatric disorders involving social behavioral deficits. However, OT effects are often heterogeneous across individuals. Here we explore individual differences in OT effects on the neural response to social cooperation as a function of the rs53576 polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Previously, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which healthy men and women were randomized to treatment with intranasal OT or placebo. Afterwards, they were imaged with fMRI while playing an iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma Game with same-sex partners. Within the left ventral caudate nucleus, intranasal OT treatment increased activation to reciprocated cooperation in men, but tended to decrease activation in women. Here, we show that these sex differences in OT effects are specific to individuals with the rs53576 GG genotype, and are not found for other genotypes (rs53576 AA/AG). Thus, OT may increase the reward or salience of positive social interactions for male GG homozygotes, while decreasing those processes for female GG homozygotes. These results suggest that rs53576 genotype is an important variable to consider in future investigations of the clinical efficacy of intranasal OT treatment. PMID:26178189

  14. Tumour necrosis factor superfamily member 11 gene promoter polymorphisms modulate promoter activity and influence bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mencej, Simona; Albagha, Omar M E; Prezelj, Janez; Kocjan, Tomaz; Marc, Janja

    2008-06-01

    Tumour necrosis factor superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11) gene, that codes for receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand, is one of the candidate genes for the genetic susceptibility to osteoporosis. As variations in the TNFSF11 gene promoter could alter its expression, the aim of the study was to evaluate the functional influence of three polymorphisms in the promoter and to investigate their association with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers in postmenopausal women. A total of 404 postmenopausal women were genotyped for the presence of TNFSF11 gene promoter polymorphisms -290C>T, -643C>T and -693G>C. Two common haplotypes, CCG and TTC, which occur in 44.3 and 49.3% of subjects respectively, were subjected to functional analysis. Amplified fragments were cloned into pGL3-basic reporter plasmid, which was co-transfected with pRL-TK plasmid into HEK293 cells. Dual luciferase reporter assay was performed. BMD and biochemical markers were measured. Reporter gene analysis showed significantly higher luciferase activity in CCG than in TTC haplotype (P=0.018). Both showed association with lumbar spine BMD (BMD-ls; P=0.005 and 0.007 for TTC and CCG respectively), whereas in femoral neck there was no association with BMD. In postmenopausal osteoporosis, association with BMD-ls was established in -290C>T, -643C>T and -693G>C (P values: 0.001, 0.041 and 0.013 respectively). Association with femoral neck BMD was shown in -693G>C (P=0.049). No association was found with biochemical markers in any of the groups. Our results suggest that in postmenopausal osteoporosis, TNFSF11 gene promoter polymorphisms -290C>T, -643C>T and -693G>C play a functional role in the genetic regulation of BMD.

  15. Influence of climate on the presence of colour polymorphism in two montane reptile species

    PubMed Central

    Broennimann, Olivier; Ursenbacher, Sylvain; Meyer, Andreas; Golay, Philippe; Monney, Jean-Claude; Schmocker, Hans; Guisan, Antoine; Dubey, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The coloration of ectotherms plays an important role in thermoregulation processes. Dark individuals should heat up faster and be able to reach a higher body temperature than light individuals and should therefore have benefits in cool areas. In central Europe, montane local populations of adder (Vipera berus) and asp viper (Vipera aspis) exhibit a varying proportion of melanistic individuals. We tested whether the presence of melanistic V. aspis and V. berus could be explained by climatic conditions. We measured the climatic niche position and breadth of monomorphic (including strictly patterned individuals) and polymorphic local populations, calculated their niche overlap and tested for niche equivalency and similarity. In accordance with expectations, niche overlap between polymorphic local populations of both species is high, and even higher than that of polymorphic versus monomorphic montane local populations of V. aspis, suggesting a predominant role of melanism in determining the niche of ectothermic vertebrates. However, unexpectedly, the niche of polymorphic local populations of both species is narrower than that of monomorphic ones, indicating that colour polymorphism does not always enable the exploitation of a greater variability of resources, at least at the intraspecific level. Overall, our results suggest that melanism might be present only when the thermoregulatory benefit is higher than the cost of predation. PMID:25392313

  16. Influence of seasonality on circadian motor activity rhythm in common marmosets during puberty.

    PubMed

    Melo, Paula R; Belísio, Aline S; Menezes, Alexandre A L; Azevedo, Carolina V M

    2010-08-01

    The effect of puberty on circadian rhythmicity in nonhuman primates has been little studied, even though it has been demonstrated that puberty-related changes in circadian activity rhythm occur in a number of species, including humans. To characterize the motor activity rhythm during puberty in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), six animals was continuously monitored by actimeters between their 5th and 12th months of age. The animals were housed with their families in outdoor cages under seminatural conditions. Onset of puberty was determined from fecal estrogen and progesterone levels in females and androgen levels in males. The spectral power of the circadian component stabilized later in the last two animals to enter puberty. The bimodal characteristic of the active phase in this species became progressively more apparent over the course of the months in which the mean temperature was highest, irrespective of the animal's age. Although the onset of activity advanced after entry into puberty, this parameter showed a strong correlation with sunrise, indicating that seasonality influences this variable. Neither age nor climatic factors included in the regression model influenced the differences in phase angles between sunrise and onset of activity, and between sunset and offset of activity. Total activity was the only parameter influenced by age in the regression model, showing an increase after entry into puberty. Despite the evidence of pubertal influence on both the circadian component and total activity, under seminatural conditions seasonal factors may have a more important effect on motor activity rhythm in common marmosets.

  17. Influence of an interaction between lithium salts and a functional polymorphism in SLC1A2 on the history of illness in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Dallaspezia, Sara; Poletti, Sara; Lorenzi, Cristina; Pirovano, Adele; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a recurrent and disabling illness, characterized by periods of depression and mania. The history of the illness differs widely between patients, with episode frequency emerging as a strong predictor of poor illness outcome. Lithium salts are the first-choice long-term mood-stabilizing therapy, but not all patients respond equally to the treatment. Evidence suggests that alterations in glutamatergic systems may contribute to the pathophysiology of depression. Moreover, glutamate signaling is involved in brain development and synaptic plasticity, both of which are modified in individuals affected by BD, and has been implicated in the etiology of the disorder. The inactivation of glutamate is handled by a series of molecular glutamate transporters (excitatory amino acid transporters [EAATs]), among which EAAT2/SLC1A2 is responsible for up to 95% of extracellular glutamate clearance. A functional single-nucleotide polymorphism at -181 bp from the transcription start site of the SLC1A2 gene has been described. This T-to-G (DNA forward strand) polymorphism, commonly known as SLC1A2 -181A>C, affects transporter expression, with the variant G allele inducing a 30% reduction in promoter activity compared with the T allele. The aims of the study were to investigate if factors affecting glutamate function, such as SLC1A2 -181A>C (rs4354668), could affect recurrence of illness in BD, and if they interact with lithium salt treatment. We performed an observational study in our university hospital in Milan. We enrolled 110 subjects (76 females, 34 males) affected by BD type I. The exclusion criteria were other diagnoses on Axis I, mental retardation on Axis II, a history of epilepsy, and major medical and neurologic disorders. Fifty-four patients had been treated with lithium salts for more than 6 months. Patients were genotyped for SLC1A2 -181A>C by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and the influence of genotype on BD

  18. Additive sex-specific influence of common non-synonymous DISC1 variants on amygdala, basal ganglia, and white cortical surface area in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Mühle, Christiane; Kreczi, Jakob; Rhein, Cosima; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Lenz, Bernd; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    The disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) gene is known for its role in the development of mental disorders. It is also involved in neurodevelopment, cognition, and memory. To investigate the association between DISC1 variants and brain morphology, we analyzed the influence of the three common non-synonymous polymorphisms in DISC1 on specific brain structures in healthy young adults. The volumes of brain regions were determined in 145 subjects by magnetic resonance imaging and automated analysis using FreeSurfer. Genotyping was performed by high resolution melting of amplified products. In an additive genetic model, rs6675281 (Leu607Phe), rs3738401 (Arg264Gln), and rs821616 (Ser704Cys) significantly explained the volume variance of the amygdala (p = 0.007) and the pallidum (p = 0.004). A higher cumulative portion of minor alleles was associated with larger volumes of the amygdala (p = 0.005), the pallidum (p = 0.001), the caudate (p = 0.024), and the putamen (p = 0.007). Sex-stratified analysis revealed a strong genetic effect of rs6675281 on putamen and pallidum in females but not in males and an opposite influence of rs3738401 on the white cortical surface in females compared to males. The strongest single association was found for rs821616 and the amygdala volume in male subjects (p < 0.001). No effect was detected for the nucleus accumbens. We report-to our knowledge-for the first time a significant and sex-specific influence of common DISC1 variants on volumes of the basal ganglia, the amygdala and on the cortical surface area. Our results demonstrate that the additive model of all three polymorphisms outperforms their single analysis.

  19. Common NOD2/CARD15 and TLR4 Polymorphisms Are Associated with Crohn's Disease Phenotypes in Southeastern Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Tolentino, Yolanda F M; Elia, Paula Peruzzi; Fogaça, Homero Soares; Carneiro, Antonio José V; Zaltman, Cyrla; Moura-Neto, Rodrigo; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria C; de Souza, Heitor S

    2016-09-01

    To investigate whether variants in NOD2/CARD15 and TLR4 are associated with CD and ulcerative colitis (UC) in a genetically admixed population of Rio de Janeiro, where IBD has continued to rise. We recruited 67 consecutive patients with CD, 61 patients with UC, and 86 healthy and ethnically matched individuals as controls. DNA was extracted from buccal brush samples and genotyped by PCR with restriction enzymes for G908R and L1007finsC NOD2/CARD15 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and for T399I and D299G TLR4 SNPs. Clinical data were registered for subsequent analysis with multivariate models. NOD2/CARD15 G908R and L1007finsC SNPs were found in one and three patients, respectively, with CD. NOD2/CARD15 G908R and L1007finsC SNPs were not found in any patients with UC, but were found in three and three controls, respectively. With regard to the TLR4 gene, no significant difference was detected among the groups. Overall, none of the SNPs investigated determined a differential risk for a specific diagnosis. Genotype-phenotype associations were found in only CD, where L1007finsC was associated with colonic localization; however, TLR4 T399I SNP was associated with male gender, and D299G SNP was associated with colonic involvement, chronic corticosteroid use, and the need for anti-TNF-alpha therapy. Variants of NOD2/CARD15 and TLR4 do not confer susceptibility to IBD, but appear to determine CD phenotypes in this southeastern Brazilian population.

  20. Polymorphic change from vaterite to aragonite under influence of sulfate: The "morning star" habit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagterveld, R. M.; Yu, M.; Miedema, H.; Witkamp, G. J.

    2014-02-01

    The presence of sulfate in reverse osmosis drinking water concentrate and its effect on calcium carbonate precipitation was studied, notably the overall kinetics of CaCO3 formation and the types of polymorphs formed. CaCO3 formation slows down with increasing sulfate concentration and the preferential polymorph shifts from vaterite to aragonite with increasing sulfate concentration. With this polymorphic change, a new combined habit is observed where aragonite spikes grow on top of vaterite ("morning star" habit). The presence of a moderate magnesium concentration results in the shift of vaterite to aragonite at relatively low sulfate concentrations; where sulfate and magnesium appear to have an additive effect. Without magnesium, spikes on top of vaterite were also observed, but only at relatively high sulfate concentration. Without the presence of magnesium, single crystals of aragonite were not found.

  1. Common HEXB polymorphisms reduce serum HexA and HexB enzymatic activities, potentially masking Tay-Sachs disease carrier identification.

    PubMed

    Vallance, Hilary; Morris, Tara J; Coulter-Mackie, Marion; Lim-Steele, Joyce; Kaback, Michael

    2006-02-01

    A DNA-proven Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier and his brother were found to have serum percent Hexosaminidase A (%HexA) enzymatic activities in the non-carrier range, while the leukocyte %HexA profiles clearly identified them as TSD heterozygotes. Both their serum HexA and HexB enzymatic activities were below reference range, suggesting inheritance of mutations in both the HEXA (alpha-subunit) and HEXB (beta-subunit) genes. DNA sequencing revealed that both individuals, carried the common HEXA 1277_1278insTATC mutation, and two common HEXB polymorphisms: [619A>G (+) delTG]. To determine if these HEXB polymorphisms reduce HexA and HexB enzymatic activities, 69 DNA samples from subjects previously screened enzymatically in both serum and leukocytes for TSD carrier status were selected for either high, mid-range or low serum Total Hex (defined as the sum of HexA and HexB) activities and were tested for the HEXB mutations. Further, three additional TSD carriers ascertained by the atypical pattern of normal serum %HexA but carrier leukocyte %HexA, were found to have the [delTG (+) 619A>G] genotype. In addition, the frequency of the [delTG (+) 619A>G] genotype was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in subjects with low serum HexB enzymatic activities. Given the high frequency of the [delTG (+) 619A>G] haplotype in the Ashkenazi Jewish population (approximately 10%), up to 10% of TSD carriers may have normal serum %HexA values with low total Hex. Accordingly, serum %HexA should not be the sole criterion used for carrier status determination. Where total Hex activity is reduced, further testing with leukocyte Hex profiles is indicated.

  2. Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Gene and Their Associations with Growth Traits in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiu; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays an important role in the growth and development of vertebrates. To study polymorphisms of IGF-I, we screened a total of 4555 bp of genomic sequences in four exons and partial introns for the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Three SNPs (g.3759T>G, g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C) in intron 2 and a nonsynonymous SNP (g.7892C>T) in exon 3 were identified in a pilot population including random parents and their progenies. 289 progenies were further genotyped for studying possible associations between genotypes or combined genotypes and growth traits. The results showed that the locus g.7627T>A was significantly associated with body weight and body length, and fish with genotype AA had a mean body weight 5.9% higher than those with genotype TT. No significant associations were observed between genotypes of other loci and growth traits. However, when both g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C were considered, the combined genotype TT/TT was extremely associated with the lowest values of body length and body weight and the highest K value in comparison with other diplotypes (p < 0.01). These results suggest that genotype AA at g.7627T>A and its combined genotypes with alleles from another locus have positive effects on growth traits, which would be a candidate molecular marker for further studies in marker-assisted selection in common carp. PMID:25486058

  3. [Influence of genetic polymorphisms (IL-10/CXCL8/CXCR2/NFκB) on the susceptibility of autoimmune rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Salim, Patricia Hartstein; Xavier, Ricardo Machado

    2014-01-01

    The autoimmune rheumatologic disorders mostly have a common genetic path to the autoimmunity. Several genes have been associated with rheumatologic disorders; therefore, we are analyzing just the ones in those containing several evidences of the existence of association with the risk or protection from autoimmune disorder. The nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kappa B), which regulates the autoimmune and anti-inflammatory responses, is associated with systemic sclerosis (SS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), just as the CXCR2 e CXCL8 genes. On the other hand, the interleukin-10 (IL-10), which is an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is associated with almost all rheumatologic disorders. In this article, we are reviewing the potential roles of these genes in the immune system and in several rheumatologic disorders. In relation to IL-10, several studies have been carried out, but most of them are controversial - some detected the absence of association, and others found association in different genetic polymorphisms. Conversely, in relation to NF-kappa B, it was studied just in RA and SLE, and no relevant significant analyses were observed. The genetic polymorphisms of the CXCR2 gene were associated with SS, but not with RA e SLE. On the other side, the genetic polymorphisms of the CXCL8 gene are not associated with SS, but with RA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Male reproductive timing in Rhesus macaques is influenced by the 5HTTLPR promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Michael; Trefilov, Andrea; Berard, John; Bercovitch, Fred; Kessler, Matthew; Sauermann, Ulrike; Croucher, Peter; Nürnberg, Peter; Widdig, Anja; Schmidtke, Jörg

    2005-05-01

    The 5HTTLPR polymorphism in the promoter region of the human serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) gene is known to be associated with various stress-related psychological and psychiatric phenomena. We observed that a similar diallelic polymorphism in the orthologous gene of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) was related to the reproductive life history of 580 males residing in the free-ranging colony of Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, between 1985 and 1998. At first glance, the polymorphism appeared to be selectively neutral because no difference in total reproductive output was noted between males of different 5HTTLPR genotypes. However, whereas heterozygotes were significantly more reproductive than homozygotes at intermediate age (10-13 yr), the opposite held true before and after this period (n = 682 offspring; randomization P = 0.014). This association, which explains approximately 7% of the observed variation in sire age, most likely reflects different natal dispersal patterns and represents the first reported instance of a genetic influence on reproductive timing in mammals.

  5. Influence of Estrogen Receptor α Polymorphisms on Bone Density in Response to Habitual Exercise in Japanese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Hiroyo; Nagatomo, Fumiko; Ishihara, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ER α) is one of candidate genes for osteoporosis. This study examined the influence of ER α gene, PvuII, and XbaI genotypes on bone density of calcaneus in response to habitual exercise. ER α polymorphisms were detected using PvuII and XbaI restriction enzymes in 316 Japanese postmenopausal women. The bone density was significantly lower in the women carrying PP, pp, or xx genotype without habitual exercise than in the age-matched women without those genotypes. The women carrying Pp genotype without habitual exercise had normal bone density compared to those without Pp genotype. The women carrying PPxx or ppxx polymorphism without habitual exercise had low bone density compared to those with habitual exercise. Thus, the reduction of bone density was attenuated in the women carrying PPxx or ppxx with habitual exercise. In addition, habitual exercise was highly effective for the bone density in the women carrying xx homozygote. These findings indicate that analyses of XbaI and PvuII polymorphisms of ER α may be useful to predict the effect of exercise on bone density, and habitual exercise attenuates the reduction of bone density in women with some genotypes. PMID:25152917

  6. Decanucleotide insertion polymorphism of F7 significantly influences the risk of thrombosis in patients with essential thrombocythemia.

    PubMed

    Buxhofer-Ausch, Veronika; Olcaydu, Damla; Gisslinger, Bettina; Schalling, Martin; Frantal, Sophie; Thiele, Jürgen; Müllauer, Leonhard; Kvasnicka, Hans-Michael; Watzke, Herbert; Kralovics, Robert; Gisslinger, Heinz

    2014-08-01

    There is strong evidence that certain thrombophilic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) account for an increased risk of thrombosis. The additive impact of inherited thrombotic risk factors to a certain disease- immanent thrombotic risk is vastly unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the influence of three novel, preselected SNPs on the risk of thrombosis in patients diagnosed with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). In 167 patients with a diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia (ET) or prefibrotic primary myelofibrosis (PMF) thrombophilic SNPs in the genes of factor VII (F7), nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and FcɣRIIa (FCGR2A) were determined. Subsequently, the polymorphic variants were correlated with the incidence of major thrombosis after diagnosis. Decanucleotide insertion polymorphism of F7 emerged as an independent, significant risk factor for total thrombosis and arterial thrombosis in particular in the whole group of patients (P = 0.0007) as well as in the separate analysis of patients with ET (P = 0.0002). Our results illustrate that the risk of thrombosis in MPN is significantly multiplied by inherited thrombophilic SNPs. This result points to the importance of a combined consideration of the inherited and the acquired hypercoagulable state in patients with MPN. Larger studies are needed to confirm and extend these important findings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Influence of estrogen receptor α polymorphisms on bone density in response to habitual exercise in Japanese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hiroyo; Fujino, Hidemi; Nagatomo, Fumiko; Ishihara, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ER α) is one of candidate genes for osteoporosis. This study examined the influence of ER α gene, PvuII, and XbaI genotypes on bone density of calcaneus in response to habitual exercise. ER α polymorphisms were detected using PvuII and XbaI restriction enzymes in 316 Japanese postmenopausal women. The bone density was significantly lower in the women carrying PP, pp, or xx genotype without habitual exercise than in the age-matched women without those genotypes. The women carrying Pp genotype without habitual exercise had normal bone density compared to those without Pp genotype. The women carrying PPxx or ppxx polymorphism without habitual exercise had low bone density compared to those with habitual exercise. Thus, the reduction of bone density was attenuated in the women carrying PPxx or ppxx with habitual exercise. In addition, habitual exercise was highly effective for the bone density in the women carrying xx homozygote. These findings indicate that analyses of XbaI and PvuII polymorphisms of ER α may be useful to predict the effect of exercise on bone density, and habitual exercise attenuates the reduction of bone density in women with some genotypes.

  8. Human placental glucose dehydrogenase: IEF polymorphism in two Italian populations and enzyme activity in the six common phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Scacchi, R; Corbo, R M; Calzolari, E; Laconi, G; Palmarino, R; Lucarelli, P

    1985-01-01

    Glucose dehydrogenase (hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) has been assayed qualitatively and quantitatively in more than 600 human placentae collected in two Italian populations. The gene frequencies for GDH1, GDH2 and GDH3 were, respectively, 0.66, 0.21 and 0.12 in Continental Italy and 0.65, 0.23 and 0.12 in Sardinia. Among the six common phenotypes there was no difference in catalytic activity.

  9. Influence of polymorphisms of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor on the presence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in adolescents✰

    PubMed Central

    Consentino, Cássio Leandro Mühe; Furtado-Alle, Lupe; da Silva, Larissa Rosa; Lopes, Wendell Arthur; Tureck, Luciane Viater; Milano, Gerusa Einsfeld; Lazarotto, Leilane; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina; Leite, Neiva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the influence of polymorphisms of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) in triggering exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) in adolescents. Methods: The subjects were divided into two groups: present EIB (EIB+) (n=45) and absent EIB (EIB−) (n=115). The bronchial provocation test with exercise was performed with a protocol that consisted of walking/running for at least eight minutes at high intensity, i.e., >85% of maximum heart rate, considering EIB+ as a 10% decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). The genotyping of the ADRB2 gene was performed by the Taqman method, using the Step One Plus system. Independent t-test, Mann–Whitney and Chi-square tests, as well as Spearman's correlation coefficient were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Age, body weight, height, FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio were lower in the EIB+ group when compared to EIB− (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the proportion of the allele at position 27 and Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu genotypes between the EIB+ and EIB− groups (p=0.26; p=0.97 and p=0.43, respectively). However, there was a trend toward statistical significance regarding the greater proportion of the Gly16 allele for the EIB+ when compared to the EIB− group (p=0.08). Conclusions: The presence of polymorphisms associated with the Glu27 allele and Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu genotypes had no influence on EIB. However, the statistical trend toward greater frequency of the Gly16 allele in individuals with EIB+ can be considered evidence of the influence of polymorphisms of the ADBR2 gene on EIB in adolescents. PMID:26684442

  10. Sleep homeostatic pressure and PER3 VNTR gene polymorphism influence antidepressant response to sleep deprivation in bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Dallaspezia, Sara; Locatelli, Clara; Lorenzi, Cristina; Pirovano, Adele; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Combined Total sleep deprivation (TSD) and light therapy (LT) cause a rapid improvement in bipolar depression which has been hypothesized to be paralleled by changes in sleep homeostasis. Recent studies showed that bipolar patients had lower changes of EEG theta power after sleep and responders to antidepressant TSD+LT slept less and showed a lower increase of EEG theta power then non-responders. A polymorphism in PER3 gene has been associated with diurnal preference, sleep structure and homeostatic response to sleep deprivation in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that the individual variability in the homeostatic response to TSD could be a correlate of antidepressant response and be influenced by genetic factors. We administered three TSD+LT cycles to bipolar depressed patients. Severity of depression was rated on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Actigraphic recordings were performed in a group of patients. PER3 polymorphism influenced changes in total sleep time (F=2.24; p=0.024): while PER3(4/4) and PER3(4/5) patients showed a reduction in it after treatment, PER3(5/5) subjects showed an increase of about 40min, suggesting a higher homeostatic pressure. The same polymorphism influenced the change of depressive symptomatology during treatment (F=3.72; p=0.028). Sleep information was recorded till the day after the end of treatment: a longer period of observation could give more information about the possible maintenance of allostatic adaptation. A higher sleep homeostatic pressure reduced the antidepressant response to TSD+LT, while an allostatic adaptation to sleep loss was associated with better response. This process seems to be under genetic control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Epistasis Between Polymorphisms in COMT, ESR1, and GCH1 Influences COMT Enzyme Activity and Pain

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shad B.; Reenilä, Ilkka; Männistö, Pekka T.; Slade, Gary D.; Maixner, William; Diatchenko, Luda; Nackley, Andrea G.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in the enzymatic activity of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) contribute to chronic pain conditions, such as temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Thus, we sought to determine the effects of polymorphisms in COMT and functionally-related pain genes in the COMT pathway (estrogen receptor 1: ESR1, guanosine-5-triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1: GCH1, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: MTHFR) on COMT enzymatic activity, musculoskeletal pain, and pain-related intermediate phenotypes among TMD cases and healthy controls. Results demonstrate that the COMT rs4680 (val158met) polymorphism is most strongly associated with outcome measures, such that individuals with the minor A allele (met) exhibit reduced COMT activity, increased TMD risk, and increased musculoskeletal pain. Epistatic interactions were observed between the COMT rs4680 polymorphism and polymorphisms in GCH1 and ESR1. Among individuals with the COMT met allele, those with two copies of the GCH1 rs10483639 minor G allele exhibit normalized COMT activity and increased mechanical pain thresholds. Among individuals with the COMT val allele, those with two copies of the ESR1 rs3020377 minor A allele exhibit reduced COMT activity, increased bodily pain, and poorer self-reported health. These data reveal that the GCH1 minor G allele confers a protective advantage among met carriers, while the ESR1 minor A allele is disadvantageous among val carriers. Furthermore, these data suggest that the ability to predict the downstream effects of genetic variation on COMT activity is critically important to understanding the molecular basis of chronic pain conditions. PMID:25218601

  12. Epistasis between polymorphisms in COMT, ESR1, and GCH1 influences COMT enzyme activity and pain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shad B; Reenilä, Ilkka; Männistö, Pekka T; Slade, Gary D; Maixner, William; Diatchenko, Luda; Nackley, Andrea G

    2014-11-01

    Abnormalities in the enzymatic activity of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) contribute to chronic pain conditions, such as temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Thus, we sought to determine the effects of polymorphisms in COMT and functionally related pain genes in the COMT pathway (estrogen receptor 1 [ESR1], guanosine-5-triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 [GCH1], methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR]) on COMT enzymatic activity, musculoskeletal pain, and pain-related intermediate phenotypes among TMD cases and healthy control subjects. Results show that the COMT rs4680 (val(158)met) polymorphism is most strongly associated with outcome measures, such that individuals with the minor A allele (met) exhibit reduced COMT activity, increased TMD risk, and increased musculoskeletal pain. Epistatic interactions were observed between the COMT rs4680 polymorphism and polymorphisms in GCH1 and ESR1. Among individuals with the COMT met allele, those with 2 copies of the GCH1 rs10483639 minor G allele exhibit normalized COMT activity and increased mechanical pain thresholds. Among individuals with the COMT val allele, those with 2 copies of the ESR1 rs3020377 minor A allele exhibit reduced COMT activity, increased bodily pain, and poorer self-reported health. These data reveal that the GCH1 minor G allele confers a protective advantage among met carriers, whereas the ESR1 minor A allele is disadvantageous among val carriers. Furthermore, these data suggest that the ability to predict the downstream effects of genetic variation on COMT activity is critically important to understanding the molecular basis of chronic pain conditions.

  13. The influence of metabolic gene polymorphisms on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in Thai bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Petchpoung, Krittaya; Kaojarern, Sming; Yoovathaworn, Krongtong; Sura, Thanyachai; Sirivarasai, Jintana

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated with an increased cancer risk. CYP1A1 and GSTs enzymes are important in metabolism of PAHs. Genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes are responsible for enzyme activity and concentration variation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate association of 1-OHP concentration with genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1 and GSTs in Thai bus drivers. The results showed that 1-OHP levels in bus drivers were significantly higher than that in the control group. Significant difference in 1-OHP was found between smokers and non-smokers, in only bus drivers. Significantly increasing of 1-OHP levels were observed in bus drivers with CYP1A1 MspI and exon 7 variants. Whereas, bus drivers with GSTP1 Val and GSTM1 null genotypes showed decreasing in excretion of 1-OHP. No association between 1-OHP and polymorphisms of GSTT1 was found. This study indicated that 1-OHP concentrations were associated with exposure to air pollution, cigarette smoking and polymorphisms of CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 genes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Influence of Polymorphisms in Disease Severity in β-Thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Mohammdai-Asl, Javad; Ramezani, Abolfazl; Norozi, Fatemeh; Alghasi, Arash; Asnafi, Ali Amin; Jaseb, Kaveh; Saki, Najmaldin

    2015-10-01

    β-Thalassemia is a genetic disorder with a continuum of mild to severe clinical manifestations and requirement of transfusion at different stages of life. The cause(s) of this variety is not clear but genetic alterations could be a potential factor. In this review, the correlation between polymorphisms and different clinical manifestations, including the need for transfusion, was investigated. Relevant articles published in pubmed database from 1982 onwards were studied and compiled. The articles all contained the keywords β-thalassemia, genetic modifiers, and mutations. Certain polymorphisms and mutations could dictate the severity of symptoms as well as their onset. A significant number of the mentioned genetic alterations appear in beta-globin gene cluster and affect gamma chain. Therefore, hemoglobin F production rate is increased and can affect thalassemia symptoms and can relieve β-thalassemia symptoms. A number of polymorphisms in catalase and glutathione S transferase genes have also been shown to modify the severity of disease and response to treatment. Knowledge of these mutations and polymorphisms can provide an insight into the prognosis for individual patients, especially in young ages or before birth to take proper measures in advance and eventually ameliorate the symptoms in the long run.

  15. Influence of genetic polymorphisms in the folate pathway on toxicity after high-dose methotrexate treatment in pediatric osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong A

    2016-01-01

    Background Methotrexate (MTX), one of the main drugs used to treat osteosarcoma, is a representative folic acid antagonist. Polymorphisms of various enzymes involved in the metabolism of MTX could contribute to differences in response to MTX in pediatric osteosarcoma patients. Methods Blood and tissue samples were obtained from 37 pediatric osteosarcoma patients who were treated with high-dose MTX therapy. The following 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed: ATIC 347C>G, MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C and SLC19A1 80G>A. Serial plasma MTX concentrations after high-dose MTX therapy and MTX-induced toxicities were evaluated. Correlations among polymorphisms, MTX concentrations and treatment-induced toxicities were assessed. Results Plasma MTX levels at 48 hours after high-dose MTX infusion were significantly associated with SLC19A1 80G>A (P=0.031). Higher plasma levels of MTX at 48 and 72 hours were significantly associated with MTX-induced mucositis (P=0.007 and P=0.046) and renal toxicity (P=0.002), respectively. SNP of SLC19A1 gene was associated with development of severe mucositis (P=0.026). Conclusion This study suggests that plasma levels of MTX are associated with GI and renal toxicities after high-dose MTX therapy, and genetic polymorphisms that affect the metabolism of MTX may influence drug concentrations and development of significant side effects in pediatric patients treated with high-dose MTX. PMID:27104192

  16. Preliminary investigation of the influence of CREB1 gene polymorphisms on cognitive dysfunction in Chinese patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junhui; Liu, Zhongchun; Dai, Hong; Zhu, Zhixian; Wang, Huiling; Yang, Can; Xiao, Ling; Huang, Yonglan; Wang, Gaohua

    2014-01-01

    Research has increasingly focused on the role of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding (CREB) protein in learning and memory, particularly its role in cognitive disorders and neurodegeneration, such as Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, and Coffin-Lowry syndrome. The cognitive dysfunction of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), which is widely recognized, is not completely in accordance with depressive severity, and the dysfunction persists upon clinical remission in some patients. However, few studies have focused on the role of CREB on cognitive function in patients with MDD. This study aimed to investigate the influence of CREB1 polymorphism on cognitive function in patients with MDD. The current study comprised 113 patients with MDD. The severity of depression was measured using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and cognitive function was assessed using the Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test, verbal fluency test, and tests of immediate logical memory and visual reproduction. All subjects were genotyped with regard to CREB1 polymorphisms (rs10932201, rs2551645, rs2254137, rs6740584, and rs2551640). For the verbal fluency test, the results showed significant differences for all single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypic groups. For the Stroop color-word task, a significant difference was found only for rs6740584. No significant differences were found for the Stroop color task, the immediate logical memory test or the visual reproduction test. In conclusion, there was an effect of CREB1 polymorphism on selective attention and retrieval of long-term memory, but not on immediate memory.

  17. Molecular ecology and selection in the drought-related Asr gene polymorphisms in wild and cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The abscisic acid (ABA) pathway plays an important role in the plants’ reaction to drought stress and ABA-stress response (Asr) genes are important in controlling this process. In this sense, we accessed nucleotide diversity at two candidate genes for drought tolerance (Asr1 and Asr2), involved in an ABA signaling pathway, in the reference collection of cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and a core collection of wild common bean accessions. Results Our wild population samples covered a range of mesic (semi-arid) to very dry (desert) habitats, while our cultivated samples presented a wide spectrum of drought tolerance. Both genes showed very different patterns of nucleotide variation. Asr1 exhibited very low nucleotide diversity relative to the neutral reference loci that were previously surveyed in these populations. This suggests that strong purifying selection has been acting on this gene. In contrast, Asr2 exhibited higher levels of nucleotide diversity, which is indicative of adaptive selection. These patterns were more notable in wild beans than in cultivated common beans indicting that natural selection has played a role over long time periods compared to farmer selection since domestication. Conclusions Together these results suggested the importance of Asr1 in the context of drought tolerance, and constitute the first steps towards an association study between genetic polymorphism of this gene family and variation in drought tolerance traits. Furthermore, one of our major successes was to find that wild common bean is a reservoir of genetic variation and selection signatures at Asr genes, which may be useful for breeding drought tolerance in cultivated common bean. PMID:22799462

  18. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera: Phylostomidae).

    PubMed

    Piaggio, Antoinette J; Johnston, John J; Perkins, Susan L

    2008-03-01

    The common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) is one of three haematophagous species of bats and the only species in this genus. These New World bats prey on mammals and create significant economic impacts through transmission of rabies in areas where livestock are prevalent. Furthermore, in some portions of their range, it is not uncommon for them to prey upon humans. It is critical to the management of this species and for understanding the spread of bat rabies that detailed studies of D. rotundus population structure be conducted. To further such studies, we have characterized 12 microsatellite loci for this species.

  19. The response to cyclophosphamide in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome is influenced by polymorphic expression of glutathion-S-transferases-M1 and -P1.

    PubMed

    Vester, Udo; Kranz, Birgitta; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Büscher, Rainer; Hoyer, Peter F

    2005-04-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) play a central role in the inactivation of toxic drugs like cyclophosphamide (CP). These enzymes depict several polymorphisms with altered activity, and it has been shown that different polymorphisms influence the risk of malignancies and the outcome after chemotherapy. To prove the hypothesis that CP efficacy in children with nephrotic syndrome is influenced by polymorphic expression of GSTs, the genotype of 26 patients was analyzed and correlated with the outcome after CP treatment. All 26 children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome and frequent relapses or steroid dependency were treated with CP at a mean age of 6.7+/-4.0 years. CP was given in a dose of 2 mg/kg/day for 12+/-1 week. GST-M1, GST-P1 and GST-T1 polymorphisms were detected by PCR. In patients with GST-M1 null polymorphism, a significantly better rate of sustained remission was seen than in patients with the heterozygous or homozygous GST-M1 wildtype (0 versus 29%, P <0.01). In contrast, children with GST-P heterozygous or homozygous polymorphism had a significantly lower rate of sustained remission compared to homozygous wildtype (7 versus 38%, P <0.02). The GST-T1 genotype did not influence the outcome after CP treatment (P =0.32). Patients with the combination of GST-M1 null and GST-P1 wildtype did not relapse in 50%, compared to 6% in other children (P <0.01). We conclude that the polymorphic expression of GST-M1 and -P1 did significantly influence the long-term remission rate after CP treatment of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome in children. Whereas GST-M1 null will increase cyclophosphamide efficacy, GST-P1 polymorphism seems to be related to enhanced susceptibility to further relapses.

  20. Segmental distribution of some common molecular markers for colorectal cancer (CRC): influencing factors and potential implications.

    PubMed

    Papagiorgis, Petros Christakis

    2016-05-01

    Proximal and distal colorectal cancers (CRCs) are regarded as distinct disease entities, evolving through different genetic pathways and showing multiple clinicopathological and molecular differences. Segmental distribution of some common markers (e.g., KRAS, EGFR, Ki-67, Bcl-2, COX-2) is clinically important, potentially affecting their prognostic or predictive value. However, this distribution is influenced by a variety of factors such as the anatomical overlap of tumorigenic molecular events, associations of some markers with other clinicopathological features (stage and/or grade), and wide methodological variability in markers' assessment. All these factors represent principal influences followed by intratumoral heterogeneity and geographic variation in the frequency of detection of particular markers, whereas the role of other potential influences (e.g., pre-adjuvant treatment, interaction between markers) remains rather unclear. Better understanding and elucidation of the various influences may provide a more accurate picture of the segmental distribution of molecular markers in CRC, potentially allowing the application of a novel patient stratification for treatment, based on particular molecular profiles in combination with tumor location.

  1. Acute Normal Tissue Reactions in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Treated With IMRT: Influence of Dose and Association With Genetic Polymorphisms in DNA DSB Repair Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Werbrouck, Joke Ruyck, Kim de; Duprez, Frederic; Veldeman, Liv; Claes, Kathleen; Eijkeren, Marc van; Boterberg, Tom; Willems, Petra; Vral, Anne; Neve, Wilfried de; Thierens, Hubert

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the association between dose-related parameters and polymorphisms in DNA DSB repair genes XRCC3 (c.-1843A>G, c.562-14A>G, c.722C>T), Rad51 (c.-3429G>C, c.-3392G>T), Lig4 (c.26C>T, c.1704T>C), Ku70 (c.-1310C>G), and Ku80 (c.2110-2408G>A) and the occurrence of acute reactions after radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 88 intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)-treated head-and-neck cancer patients. Mucositis, dermatitis, and dysphagia were scored using the Common Terminology Criteria (CTC) for Adverse Events v.3.0 scale. The population was divided into a CTC0-2 and CTC3+ group for the analysis of each acute effect. The influence of the dose on critical structures was analyzed using dose-volume histograms. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism or PCR-single base extension assays. Results: The mean dose (D{sub mean}) to the oral cavity and constrictor pharyngeus (PC) muscles was significantly associated with the development of mucositis and dysphagia, respectively. These parameters were considered confounding factors in the radiogenomics analyses. The XRCC3c.722CT/TT and Ku70c.-1310CG/GG genotypes were significantly associated with the development of severe dysphagia (CTC3+). No association was found between the investigated polymorphisms and the development of mucositis or dermatitis. A risk analysis model for severe dysphagia, which was developed based on the XRCC3c.722CT/TT and Ku70c.-1310CG/GG genotypes and the PC dose, showed a sensitivity of 78.6% and a specificity of 77.6%. Conclusions: The XRCC3c.722C>T and Ku70c.-1310C>G polymorphisms as well as the D{sub mean} to the PC muscles were highly associated with the development of severe dysphagia after IMRT. The prediction model developed using these parameters showed a high sensitivity and specificity.

  2. The two common polymorphic forms of human NRH-quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) have different biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Megarity, Clare F; Gill, James R E; Caraher, M Clare; Stratford, Ian J; Nolan, Karen A; Timson, David J

    2014-05-02

    There are two common forms of NRH-quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) in the human population resulting from SNP rs1143684. One has phenylalanine at position 47 (NQO2-F47) and the other leucine (NQO2-L47). Using recombinant proteins, we show that these variants have similar steady state kinetic parameters, although NQO2-L47 has a slightly lower specificity constant. NQO2-L47 is less stable towards proteolytic digestion and thermal denaturation than NQO2-F47. Both forms are inhibited by resveratrol, but NQO2-F47 shows negative cooperativity with this inhibitor. Thus these data demonstrate, for the first time, clear biochemical differences between the variants which help explain previous biomedical and epidemiological findings.

  3. The influence of swimming demand on phenotypic plasticity and morphological integration: a comparison of two polymorphic charr species.

    PubMed

    Peres-Neto, Pedro R; Magnan, Pierre

    2004-06-01

    In northern freshwater lakes, several fish species have populations composed of discrete morphs, usually involving a divergence between benthic and limnetic morphs. Although it has been suggested that swimming demand plays an important role in morphological differentiation, thus influencing habitat selection, it is unclear how it affects reaction norms, patterns in character correlation, and levels of morphological integration. We examined whether swimming demand could induce morphological plasticity in the directions expected under divergent habitat selection, and evaluated its influence on the morphological integration in Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus) and brook charr ( S. fontinalis), two congeneric species exhibiting conspicuous and subtle resource polymorphism, respectively. We found that changes in morphology were induced by differential swimming demands in both species. The length of the pectoral fin was the character that responded most strongly according to the predicted morphological expectations under divergent habitat selection. High levels of morphological plasticity, relatively low levels of integration, and differences found in the morphological correlation structure among water velocity treatments suggest that constraints on morphological change are unlikely in either species, thus allowing great potential for phenotypic flexibility in both species. The magnitude of character integration, however, was larger for Arctic charr than for brook charr. This latter result is discussed in the light of the differences in the level of polymorphism between the two species in the wild. The results of the present study indicate that swimming demand alone may not be sufficient to generate the polymorphism encountered in nature. Given that both diet and swimming demands can induce morphological changes, it would be important to conduct experiments targeting the interaction between the morphological modules related to trophic and swimming demands.

  4. The Serotonin-Related FEV Gene Variant in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is a Common Polymorphism in the African–American Population

    PubMed Central

    Broadbelt, Kevin G.; Barger, Melissa A.; Paterson, David S.; Holm, Ingrid A.; Haas, Elisabeth A.; Krous, Henry F.; Kinney, Hannah C.; Markianos, Kyriacos; Beggs, Alan H.

    2009-01-01

    An important subset of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is associated with multiple serotonergic (5-HT) abnormalities in regions of the medulla oblongata. The mouse ortholog of the fifth Ewing variant gene (FEV) is critical for 5-HT neuronal development. A putatively rare intronic variant [IVS2-191_190insA, here referred to as c.128-(191_192)dupA] has been reported as a SIDS-associated mutation in an African-American population. We tested this association in an independent dataset: 137 autopsied cases (78 SIDS, 59 controls) and an additional 296 control DNA samples from Coriell Cell Repositories. In addition to the c.128-(191_192)dupA variant, we observed an associated single base deletion [c.128-(301–306)delG] in a subset of the samples. Neither of the two FEV variants showed significant association with SIDS in either the African-American subgroup or the overall cohort. Although we found a significant association of c.128-(191_192)dupA with SIDS when San Diego Hispanic SIDS cases were compared with San Diego Hispanic controls plus Mexican controls (p=0.04); this became non-significant after multiple testing correction. Among Coriell controls, 33/99 (33%) African-American and 0/197 (0%) of the remaining controls carry the polymorphism (c.128-(191_192)dupA). The polymorphism appears to be a common, likely non-pathogenic, variant in the African-American population. PMID:19707175

  5. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FNDC5 gene are associated with glucose metabolism but do not affect serum irisin levels in Japanese men with low fitness levels.

    PubMed

    Tanisawa, Kumpei; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Sun, Xiaomin; Ito, Tomoko; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study analyzed the association of serum irisin concentrations with cardiorespiratory fitness levels and common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FNDC5 gene and examined the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness levels, common SNPs in FNDC5, and glucose metabolism. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by measuring peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and serum irisin levels by ELISA in 163 Japanese men (age, 21-79years). Subjects were divided into low- and high-fitness groups within each age group according to the median VO2peak value. Common SNPs (rs3480 and rs16835198) of the FNDC5 gene were genotyped with the TaqMan assay. Glucose metabolism was evaluated by measuring HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin levels, and HOMA-IR. Serum irisin levels were negatively correlated with age (p<0.001) and not associated with the VO2peak or HOMA-IR. In the low-fitness group, SNP analysis revealed that subjects with the rs3480 AG and GG genotypes had higher levels of insulin and HOMA-IR than those with the AA genotype (p<0.01; no significant difference was observed in the high-fitness group). The GG genotypes of rs16835198 were associated with increased HbA1c and FPG in the low-fitness group only (p<0.05). SNPs and both fitness groups were not associated with serum irisin levels. In Japanese men, cardiorespiratory fitness levels and common SNPs in FNDC5 are not associated with circulating irisin levels, whereas high cardiorespiratory fitness abolishes the association between the rs3480 and rs16835198 SNPs and glucose metabolism independent of serum irisin levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding pharmaceutical polymorphic transformations I: influence of process variables and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Sood, Jatin; Sapra, Bharti; Bhandari, Sameer; Jindal, Manish; Tiwary, Ashok K

    2014-10-01

    The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of a dosage form is affected by number of mechanical and environmental factors which have a tendency to alter its crystalline state. Polymorphic transitions have been observed to occur during various unit operations like granulation, milling and compression. Forces of pressure, shear and temperature have an ability to induce alterations in crystal habit. A conversion in polymorphic form during a unit operation is very likely to affect the handling of API in the subsequent unit operation. Transitions have also been observed during storage of formulations where the relative humidity and temperature play a major role. An increase in temperature during storage can dehydrate or desolvate the crystal and hence produce crystal defects, whilst, high humidity conditions produce higher molecular mobility leading to either crystallization of API or alteration of its crystalline form.

  7. MTHFR polymorphisms in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: influence on methotrexate therapy

    PubMed Central

    Umerez, Maitane; Gutierrez-Camino, Ángela; Muñoz-Maldonado, Carmen; Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; Garcia-Orad, Africa

    2017-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is an important component in the therapy used to treat childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme for MTX pharmacokinetics. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR gene, C677T and A1298C, affecting MTHFR activity, have been widely studied as potential markers of MTX toxicity and/or outcome in pediatric ALL. In this review, we show that the majority of published reports do not find association or present opposite effect. Therefore, MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms do not seem to be good markers of MTX-related toxicity and/or outcome in pediatric ALL. The efforts should be focused on other genes, such as transporter genes or microRNA-related genes. PMID:28392709

  8. Thiopurine S-methyltransferase polymorphisms in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune disorders: influence on treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Abaji, Rachid; Krajinovic, Maja

    2017-01-01

    The thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene encodes for the TPMT enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of thiopurine drugs. Genetic polymorphisms in this gene can affect the activity of the TPMT enzyme and have been correlated with variability in response to treatment with thiopurines. Advances in the pharmacogenetics of TPMT allowed the development of dosing recommendations and treatment strategies to optimize and individualize prescribing thiopurine in an attempt to enhance treatment efficacy while minimizing toxicity. The influence of genetic polymorphisms in the TPMT gene on clinical outcome has been well-documented and replicated in many studies. In this review, we provide an overview of the evolution, results, conclusions and recommendations of selected studies that investigated the influence of TPMT pharmacogenetics on thiopurine treatment in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune disorders. We focus mainly on prospective studies that explored the impact of individualized TPMT-based dosing of thiopurines on clinical response. Together, these studies demonstrate the importance of preemptive TPMT genetic screening and subsequent dose adjustment in mitigating the toxicity associated with thiopurine treatment while maintaining treatment efficacy and favorable long-term outcomes. In addition, we briefly address the cost-effectiveness of this pharmacogenetics approach and its impact on clinical practice as well as the importance of recent breakthrough advances in sequencing and genotyping techniques in refining the TPMT genetic screening process. PMID:28507448

  9. Thiopurine S-methyltransferase polymorphisms in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune disorders: influence on treatment response.

    PubMed

    Abaji, Rachid; Krajinovic, Maja

    2017-01-01

    The thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene encodes for the TPMT enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of thiopurine drugs. Genetic polymorphisms in this gene can affect the activity of the TPMT enzyme and have been correlated with variability in response to treatment with thiopurines. Advances in the pharmacogenetics of TPMT allowed the development of dosing recommendations and treatment strategies to optimize and individualize prescribing thiopurine in an attempt to enhance treatment efficacy while minimizing toxicity. The influence of genetic polymorphisms in the TPMT gene on clinical outcome has been well-documented and replicated in many studies. In this review, we provide an overview of the evolution, results, conclusions and recommendations of selected studies that investigated the influence of TPMT pharmacogenetics on thiopurine treatment in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune disorders. We focus mainly on prospective studies that explored the impact of individualized TPMT-based dosing of thiopurines on clinical response. Together, these studies demonstrate the importance of preemptive TPMT genetic screening and subsequent dose adjustment in mitigating the toxicity associated with thiopurine treatment while maintaining treatment efficacy and favorable long-term outcomes. In addition, we briefly address the cost-effectiveness of this pharmacogenetics approach and its impact on clinical practice as well as the importance of recent breakthrough advances in sequencing and genotyping techniques in refining the TPMT genetic screening process.

  10. Effects of Two Common Polymorphisms rs2910164 in miR-146a and rs11614913 in miR-196a2 on Gastric Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Qing; Yin, Junfeng; Wang, Xiangjun; Liu, Xinnong

    2015-01-01

    Background. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding microRNAs may play important role in the development of gastric cancer. It has been reported that common SNPs rs2910164 in miR-146a and rs11614913 in miR-196a2 are associated with susceptibility to gastric cancer. The published results remain inconclusive or even controversial. A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess potential association between the two common SNPs and gastric cancer risk. Methods. A comprehensive literature search was performed in multiple internet-based electronic databases. Data from 12 eligible studies were extracted to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results. C allele of rs2910164 is associated with reduced gastric cancer risk in heterozygote model and dominant model whereas rs11614913 indicates no significant association. Subgroup analysis demonstrates that C allele of rs2910164 and rs11614913 may decrease susceptibility to diffuse type gastric cancer in dominant model and recessive model, respectively, while rs11614913 increased intestinal type gastric cancer in dominant model. Conclusion. SNPs rs2910164 and rs11614913 might have effect on gastric cancer risk in certain genetic models and specific types of cancer. Further well-designed studies should be considered to validate the potential effect. PMID:25983750

  11. A preliminary examination of how serotonergic polymorphisms influence brain response following an adolescent cannabis intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Sarah W. Feldstein; Mead, Hilary K.; Yezhuvath, Uma; DeWitt, Sam; Hutchison, Kent E.; Filbey, Francesca M.

    2012-01-01

    Given the link between depression, anxiety, and cannabis abuse, a serotonin receptor (rs6311) and transporter polymorphism (rs2020936) were examined as moderators of neural response following a psychosocial treatment for cannabis use disorders (CUDs). While the proposed hypotheses wereunsupported, we found that the rs6311 C allelewas significantly related to brain activation (medial frontal gyrus, precuneus), indicating the role of this serotonin receptor in adolescent treatment response. PMID:23217578

  12. Angiotensinogen gene G-6A polymorphism influences idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Molina, M.; Xaubet, A.; Li, X.; Abdul-Hafez, A.; Friderici, K.; Jernigan, K.; Fu, W.; Ding, Q.; Pereda, J.; Serrano-Mollar, A.; Casanova, A.; Rodríguez-Becerra, E.; Morell, F.; Ancochea, J.; Picado, C.; Uhal, B.D.

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II is a growth factor that plays a key role in the physiopathology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). A nucleotide substitution of an adenine instead of a guanine (G-6A) in the proximal promoter region of angiotensinogen (AGT), the precursor of angiotensin II, has been associated with an increased gene transcription rate. In order to investigate whether the G-6A polymorphism of the AGT gene is associated with IPF development, severity and progression, the present study utilised a case–control study design and genotyped G-6A in 219 patients with IPF and 224 control subjects. The distribution of G-6A genotypes and alleles did not significantly differ between cases and controls. The G-6A polymorphism of the AGT gene was not associated with disease severity at diagnosis. The presence of the A allele was strongly associated with increased alveolar arterial oxygen tension difference during follow-up, after controlling for the confounding factors. Higher alveolar arterial oxygen tension changes over time were observed in patients with the AA genotype (0.37 ± 0.7 mmHg (0.049 ± 0.093 kPa) per month) compared to GA genotype (0.12 ± 1 mmHg (0.016 ± 0.133 kPa) per month) and GG genotype (0.2 ± 0.6 mmHg (0.027 ± 0.080 kPa) per month). G-6A polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene is associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis progression but not with disease predisposition. This polymorphism could have a predictive significance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. PMID:18508830

  13. Influence of MDM2 polymorphisms on squamous cell carcinoma susceptibility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Huanxin; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Jinling; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Controversial associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2279744, rs937283, rs3730485) of the MDM2 gene and the etiology of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) have been reported. This merits further comprehensive assessment. Materials and methods We systematically reviewed the available data and conducted an updated meta-analysis to evaluate the genetic effect of MDM2 polymorphisms in SCC susceptibility, using Stata/SE 12.0 software. Results After screening, 7,987 SCC cases and 12,954 controls from 26 eligible case–control studies were enrolled. Overall, compared with the control group, a significantly increased SCC risk was observed for the MDM2 rs2279744 polymorphism in the Asian population (test of association: odds ratio [OR] 1.12, P=0.027 for G vs T; OR 1.26, P=0.016 for GG vs TT; OR 1.25, P<0.001 for GG vs TT + TG; and OR 1.08, P=0.023 for carrier G vs T). In subgroup analysis by SCC type, a similarly increased esophageal SCC risk was detected (OR 1.19, P<0.001 for G vs T; OR 1.46, P<0.001 for GG vs TT; and OR 1.48, P=0.005 for GG vs TT + TG). Furthermore, MDM2–TP53 double mutation was statistically associated with increased SCC susceptibility overall (OR 1.52, P=0.001), especially in the Asian population (OR 1.49, P=0.022). However, no significant difference between the control and case groups was obtained for MDM2 rs937283 or rs3730485 under any genetic model (all P>0.05). Conclusion Our results highlight a positive association between the GG genotype of MDM2 rs2279744 polymorphism and an increased risk of esophageal SCC in the Asian population, which needs to be clarified by more large-scale studies. PMID:27785069

  14. Invasive earthworms interact with abiotic conditions to influence the invasion of common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica).

    PubMed

    Roth, Alexander M; Whitfeld, Timothy J S; Lodge, Alexandra G; Eisenhauer, Nico; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2015-05-01

    Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) is one of the most abundant and ecologically harmful non-native plants in forests of the Upper Midwest United States. At the same time, European earthworms are invading previously glaciated areas in this region, with largely anecdotal evidence suggesting they compound the negative effects of buckthorn and influence the invasibility of these forests. Germination and seedling establishment are important control points for colonization by any species, and manipulation of the conditions influencing these life history stages may provide insight into why invasive species are successful in some environments and not others. Using a greenhouse microcosm experiment, we examined the effects of important biotic and abiotic factors on the germination and seedling establishment of common buckthorn. We manipulated light levels, leaf litter depth and earthworm presence to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these treatments on buckthorn establishment. We found that light and leaf litter depth were significant predictors of buckthorn germination but that the presence of earthworms was the most important factor; earthworms interacted with light and leaf litter to increase the number and biomass of buckthorn across all treatments. Path analysis suggested both direct and moisture-mediated indirect mechanisms controlled these processes. The results suggest that the action of earthworms may provide a pathway through which buckthorn invades forests of the Upper Midwest United States. Hence, researchers and managers should consider co-invasion of plants and earthworms when investigating invasibility and creating preemptive or post-invasion management plans.

  15. Influence of common genetic variation on blood lipid levels, cardiovascular risk, and coronary events in two British prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sonia; Casas, Juan P.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Cooper, Jackie; Drenos, Fotios; Zabaneh, Delilah; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Shah, Tina; Sofat, Reecha; Palmen, Jutta; Kumari, Meena; Kivimaki, Mika; Ebrahim, Shah; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Whittaker, John; Day, Ian N.M.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Humphries, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to quantify the collective effect of common lipid-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on blood lipid levels, cardiovascular risk, use of lipid-lowering medication, and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods and results Analysis was performed in two prospective cohorts: Whitehall II (WHII; N = 5059) and the British Women’s Heart and Health Study (BWHHS; N = 3414). For each participant, scores were calculated based on the cumulative effect of multiple genetic variants influencing total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). Compared with the bottom quintile, individuals in the top quintile of the LDL-C genetic score distribution had higher LDL-C {mean difference of 0.85 [95% confidence interval, (CI) = 0.76–0.94] and 0.63 [95% CI = 0.50–0.76] mmol/l in WHII and BWHHS, respectively}. They also tended to have greater odds of having ‘high-risk’ status (Framingham 10-year cardiovascular disease risk >20%) [WHII: odds ratio (OR) = 1.36 (0.93–1.98), BWHHS: OR = 1.49 (1.14–1.94)]; receiving lipid-lowering treatment [WHII: OR = 2.38 (1.57–3.59), BWHHS: OR = 2.24 (1.52–3.29)]; and CHD events [WHII: OR = 1.43 (1.02–2.00), BWHHS: OR = 1.31 (0.99–1.72)]. Similar associations were observed for the TC score in both studies. The TG score was associated with high-risk status and medication use in both studies. Neither HDL nor TG scores were associated with the risk of coronary events. The genetic scores did not improve discrimination over the Framingham risk score. Conclusion At the population level, common SNPs associated with LDL-C and TC contribute to blood lipid variation, cardiovascular risk, use of lipid-lowering medications and coronary events. However, their effects are too small to discriminate future lipid-lowering medication requirements or coronary events. PMID:22977227

  16. Anaemia, iron deficiency and a common polymorphism of iron-regulation, TMPRSS6 rs855791, in Rwandan children.

    PubMed

    Danquah, Ina; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Zeile, Irene; Musemakweri, Andre; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia in children living in sub-Saharan Africa is common, but its causes are diverse. In 545 children below 5 years of age from rural southern Rwanda, we assessed the role of iron deficiency (ID) and of the TMPRSS6 736(V) (rs855791) allele, known to reduce iron status and haemoglobin (Hb) levels, in anaemia and Hb concentrations. Anaemia (Hb <11 g/dl) was present in 34.4% of the children and ID (ferritin <12 ng/ml) in 17.6%. The TMPRSS6 736(V) allele was uncommon (allele frequency, 0.096) and not associated with ID. In multivariate analysis, ID was positively associated with anaemia (adjusted odds ratio, 1.67) to an extent comparable with α(+) -thalassaemia, breastfeeding, inflammation and low household income, but the odds were substantially higher in Plasmodium falciparum infection (adjusted odds ratio, 10.3). These findings were verified in a multivariate analysis of Hb concentrations. The TMPRSS6 736(V) allele only tended to be associated with low Hb levels. TMPRSS6 736(V) is comparatively rare among Rwandan children and may only slightly contribute to low Hb concentrations. Preventable causes of anaemia, notably ID and P. falciparum infection, largely outweigh its impact and need to be addressed to improve the haematological status of children in the study area.

  17. HLA polymorphism of the Zhuang population reflects the common HLA characteristics among Zhuang-Dong language-speaking populations*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Li; Huang, Xiao-qin; Shi, Lei; Tao, Yu-fen; Yao, Yu-feng; Yu, Liang; Lin, Ke-qin; Yi, Wen; Sun, Hao; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Chu, Jia-you

    2011-01-01

    A study of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic characteristics in the Zhuang, the largest ethnic population in China, would provide insight into Zhuang history and give a useful tool for disease associations, transplantation, and anthropology. In the present study, we report the comprehensive HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1 alleles and haplotypes in the Zhuang population of southern China for the first time. A total of 13 HLA-A, 24 HLA-B, 22 HLA-C, and 18 HLA-DRB1 were identified in 104 Zhuang individuals. The frequencies of HLA-A*11:01, A*02:07, A*24:02, A*02:03, and A*33:03 on A loci, B*15:02, B*58:01, B*46:01, and B*13:01 on B loci, C*03:04, C*08:01, C*01:02, C*03:02, and C*07:02 on C loci, and DRB1*15:01, DRB1*16:02, DRB1*14:01, DRB1*15:02, and DRB1*03:01 on the DRB1 loci were >10%. The A*33:03-C*03:02-B*58:01-DRB1*03:01 and A*02:07-C*01:02-B*46:01-DRB1*14:01 haplotypes were predominant in the Zhuang. The phylogenetic tree, as well as the analysis of haplotypes, suggested that the Zhuang are genetically similar to southern Chinese populations, especially the Zhuang-Dong language-speaking populations, such as the Bouyei, Dai, and Maonan. Even though the Zhuang and southern Chinese populations shared common alleles and haplotypes, the Zhuang has maintained its unique genetic characteristics. PMID:21634035

  18. Functional polymorphisms in COMT and SLC6A4 genes influence the prognosis of patients with medication overuse headache after withdrawal therapy.

    PubMed

    Cargnin, S; Viana, M; Ghiotto, N; Bianchi, M; Sances, G; Tassorelli, C; Nappi, G; Canonico, P L; Genazzani, A A; Terrazzino, S

    2014-07-01

    It is currently unknown if common genetic variants influence the prognosis of patients with medication overuse headache (MOH). Here the role of two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the COMT gene (rs4680 and rs6269), as well as the STin2 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the SLC6A4 gene, were evaluated as predictors for long-term outcomes of MOH patients after withdrawal therapy. Genotyping was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or real-time PCR allelic discrimination assay on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood. Gene variants association was evaluated by logistic regression analysis adjusted for clinical confounding factors, and the threshold of statistical significance for multiple testing was set at P < 0.012. Sixty-five MOH patients with unsuccessful detoxification and 83 MOH patients with effective drug withdrawal therapy were available for the analysis. rs4680G allele carriers or the COMT rs6269G-rs4680G haplotype were found to be associated with a lower risk of relapse within the first year after successful detoxification therapy, in comparison with homozygous rs4680A allele carriers [odds ratio (OR) 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05-0.61, P = 0.007] or with the COMT rs6269A-rs4680A haplotype (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.06-0.54, P = 0.003), respectively. In addition, carriers of the STin2 VNTR short allele were found at higher odds for the composite poor outcome including unsuccessful withdrawal therapy and relapse within 12 months of follow-up after successful detoxification (OR 2.81, 95%CI 1.26-6.25, P = 0.009). Our results indicate that genotyping for COMT rs4680 and SLC6A4 STin2 VNTR could be useful for the identification of MOH patients at higher risk of poor prognosis after drug withdrawal. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  19. Ancient Humans Influenced the Current Spatial Genetic Structure of Common Walnut Populations in Asia.

    PubMed

    Pollegioni, Paola; Woeste, Keith E; Chiocchini, Francesca; Del Lungo, Stefano; Olimpieri, Irene; Tortolano, Virginia; Clark, Jo; Hemery, Gabriel E; Mapelli, Sergio; Malvolti, Maria Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that J. regia survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, J. regia evolved over many centuries under the influence of human management and exploitation. We evaluated the hypothesis that the current distribution of natural genetic resources of common walnut in Asia is, at least in part, the product of ancient anthropogenic dispersal, human cultural interactions, and afforestation. Genetic analysis combined with ethno-linguistic and historical data indicated that ancient trade routes such as the Persian Royal Road and Silk Road enabled long-distance dispersal of J. regia from Iran and Trans-Caucasus to Central Asia, and from Western to Eastern China. Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan), where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged. A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries. Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history.

  20. Detrended partial cross-correlation analysis of two nonstationary time series influenced by common external forces.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xi-Yuan; Liu, Ya-Min; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2015-06-01

    When common factors strongly influence two power-law cross-correlated time series recorded in complex natural or social systems, using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) without considering these common factors will bias the results. We use detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPXA) to uncover the intrinsic power-law cross correlations between two simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity after removing the effects of other time series acting as common forces. The DPXA method is a generalization of the detrended cross-correlation analysis that takes into account partial correlation analysis. We demonstrate the method by using bivariate fractional Brownian motions contaminated with a fractional Brownian motion. We find that the DPXA is able to recover the analytical cross Hurst indices, and thus the multiscale DPXA coefficients are a viable alternative to the conventional cross-correlation coefficient. We demonstrate the advantage of the DPXA coefficients over the DCCA coefficients by analyzing contaminated bivariate fractional Brownian motions. We calculate the DPXA coefficients and use them to extract the intrinsic cross correlation between crude oil and gold futures by taking into consideration the impact of the U.S. dollar index. We develop the multifractal DPXA (MF-DPXA) method in order to generalize the DPXA method and investigate multifractal time series. We analyze multifractal binomial measures masked with strong white noises and find that the MF-DPXA method quantifies the hidden multifractal nature while the multifractal DCCA method fails.

  1. Ancient Humans Influenced the Current Spatial Genetic Structure of Common Walnut Populations in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Pollegioni, Paola; Woeste, Keith E.; Chiocchini, Francesca; Del Lungo, Stefano; Olimpieri, Irene; Tortolano, Virginia; Clark, Jo; Hemery, Gabriel E.; Mapelli, Sergio; Malvolti, Maria Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that J. regia survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, J. regia evolved over many centuries under the influence of human management and exploitation. We evaluated the hypothesis that the current distribution of natural genetic resources of common walnut in Asia is, at least in part, the product of ancient anthropogenic dispersal, human cultural interactions, and afforestation. Genetic analysis combined with ethno-linguistic and historical data indicated that ancient trade routes such as the Persian Royal Road and Silk Road enabled long-distance dispersal of J. regia from Iran and Trans-Caucasus to Central Asia, and from Western to Eastern China. Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan), where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged. A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries. Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history. PMID:26332919

  2. Detrended partial cross-correlation analysis of two nonstationary time series influenced by common external forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xi-Yuan; Liu, Ya-Min; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-06-01

    When common factors strongly influence two power-law cross-correlated time series recorded in complex natural or social systems, using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) without considering these common factors will bias the results. We use detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPXA) to uncover the intrinsic power-law cross correlations between two simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity after removing the effects of other time series acting as common forces. The DPXA method is a generalization of the detrended cross-correlation analysis that takes into account partial correlation analysis. We demonstrate the method by using bivariate fractional Brownian motions contaminated with a fractional Brownian motion. We find that the DPXA is able to recover the analytical cross Hurst indices, and thus the multiscale DPXA coefficients are a viable alternative to the conventional cross-correlation coefficient. We demonstrate the advantage of the DPXA coefficients over the DCCA coefficients by analyzing contaminated bivariate fractional Brownian motions. We calculate the DPXA coefficients and use them to extract the intrinsic cross correlation between crude oil and gold futures by taking into consideration the impact of the U.S. dollar index. We develop the multifractal DPXA (MF-DPXA) method in order to generalize the DPXA method and investigate multifractal time series. We analyze multifractal binomial measures masked with strong white noises and find that the MF-DPXA method quantifies the hidden multifractal nature while the multifractal DCCA method fails.

  3. [Influence of the Concentration of Dissolved Oxygen on Embryonic Development of the Common Toad (Bufo bufo)].

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, E V

    2015-01-01

    Several series of experiments investigating the influence of dissolved oxygen concentrations on the growth rates and mortality in the embryogenesis of the common toad Bufo bufo were carried out. The experiments showed that, when the eggs develop singly, the lack of oxygen does not lead to an increase in mortality by the time of hatching and results only in a change in the dynamics of mortality: mortality occurs at an earlier stage of development than in the conditions of normal access to oxygen. Taking into account the combined effect of the density of eggs and the dissolved oxygen concentration, we increase the accuracy of analysis of the experimental results and improve the interpretation of the results. In the conditions of different initial density of eggs, the impact of the concentration of dissolved oxygen on mortality and rates of development of the common toad embryos is manifested in different ways. At high density, only a small percentage of embryos survives by the time of hatching, and the embryos are significantly behind in their development compared with the individuals that developed in normal oxygen conditions. The lack of oxygen dissolved in the water slows down the development of embryos of the common toad.

  4. Association of common SIX6 polymorphisms with peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness: the Singapore Chinese Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Allingham, R Rand; Aung, Tin; Tham, Yih-Chung; Hauser, Michael A; Vithana, Eranga N; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Wong, Tien Yin

    2014-12-23

    Recently the common SIX6 missense variant rs33912345 was found to be highly associated with glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between this SIX6 variant and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a population setting. Study subjects were enrolled from the Singapore Chinese Eye Study (SCES), a population-based survey of Singaporean Chinese aged 40 years or older. Subjects underwent a comprehensive ocular examination. Spectral-domain OCT was used to measure RNFL thicknesses. Genotyping of SIX6 rs33912345 (Asn141His) was performed using HumanExome BeadChip. A total of 2129 eyes from 1243 SCES subjects (mean age: 55.0 ± 7.4 years) with rs33912345 genotype data and SD-OCT images were included for the analysis. Of these, 26 eyes of 21 subjects had glaucoma. The frequency of rs33912345 risk variant C (His141) was 80% in the study subjects. Each rs33912345 C allele was associated with a decrease of 1.44 μm in RNFL thickness after adjusting for age, sex, genetic principal components, and axial length (P = 0.001). These associations remained similar in 2096 nonglaucoma eyes in which each C allele was associated with a decrease of 1.39 μm in RNFL thickness (P = 0.001). The strongest association was observed in the superior RNFL sector (a decrease of 2.83 μm per risk allele, P < 0.001) followed by the inferior RNFL sector (a decrease of 2.24 μm per risk allele, P = 0.003), while the association did not reach significance in the nasal and temporal sectors. Nonglaucomatous individuals with the SIX6 missense variant have reduced RNFL thickness in regions known to be particularly affected in those with glaucoma. This may be the primary mechanism for increased risk of POAG in individuals who carry the SIX6 His141 risk variant. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  5. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Zelda; Rijken, Dingeman C; Hoekstra, Tiny; Conradie, Karin R; Jerling, Johann C; Pieters, Marlien

    2013-01-01

    Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT). We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009) but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central) obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%). Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.

  6. In Black South Africans from Rural and Urban Communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 Polymorphism Influences PAI-1 Activity, but Not Plasma Clot Lysis Time

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Zelda; Rijken, Dingeman C.; Hoekstra, Tiny; Conradie, Karin R.; Jerling, Johann C.; Pieters, Marlien

    2013-01-01

    Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT). We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009) but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central) obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%). Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT. PMID:24386152

  7. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism influences the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women of Northwest India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Monica; Singh, Puneetpal; Singh, Surinder; Juneja, Pawan Kumar; Kaur, Taranpal

    2013-01-01

    The influence of VDR gene for the risk of osteoporosis has remained inconclusive. VDR gene polymorphism in relation to BMD in postmenopausal women of Northwest India revealed a susceptibility haplotype AGT. Possession of this haplotype exacerbates the risk of osteoporosis by 2.8 times, which manifests in recessive mode of inheritance. The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of coordinated effect of various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene for the risk of osteoporosis, which has remained undefined so far. Four pertinent SNPs of VDR gene, i.e., rs2228570, rs1544410, rs17879735, and rs731236 were examined with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry verified 188 osteoporotics, 115 osteopenics, and 147 normal postmenopausal women of Northwest India. Minor allele 'T' of rs2228570 showed significant influence for the risk of osteoporosis (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.16-2.20, P=0.004) and also in dominant (OR 2.32, 95%CI 1.47-3.64, P=0.0006) and additive model (OR 2.41, 95%CI 1.49-3.87, P=0.0006) after Bonferroni correction. Minor allele (T) of rs2228570 showed an allele dose effect with BMD of L1-L4 (P=0.009) and FN (P=0.036). Disease association analysis exposed a susceptibility haplotype AGT which influences the risk of osteopenia (OR 2.04, 95%CI 1.03-4.08, P=0.036) and osteoporosis (OR 2.90, 95%CI 1.61-5.38, P=0.00005) after adjusting the effects of age, BMI and years since menopause. This haplotype is significantly associated with BMDs at lumbar spine (P=0.0001) and femoral neck (P=0.016). In-depth analysis of this haplotype with other methods of Wald statistics and Akaike information criterion confirmed that carriers of each unit of this haplotype AGT increases the risk of osteoporosis by a factor of 2.80±0.34 (β±SE) which manifests (P=0.1 × 10⁻⁶) in its recessive mode of inheritance.

  8. Allele frequency and genotype distribution of polymorphisms within disease-related genes is influenced by ethnic population sub-structuring in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Bereir, R E H; Mohamed, H S; Seielstad, M; El Hassani, A M; Khalil, E A G; Peacock, C S; Blackwell, J M; Ibrahim, M E

    2003-09-01

    Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism located within disease associated/causing genes were typed in four populations of different tribal and ethnic affiliation from the Sudan. The genotype and allele frequencies were compared with those of other groups from published and unpublished data of world populations. The combined Sudanese sample conformed with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) expectation. However, population sub-structuring according to ethnic/linguistic group indicated at least two SNPs in departure from HWE. Differences in allele frequencies and genotype distribution between groups was also noted in three of the four SNPs. The other loci were distributed homogeneously within the populations studied with genotype frequencies in agreement with HWE expectation. These results highlight the importance of inter-population stratification for polymorphic markers, as well as the potential influence of evolutionary history and ethnic variation of loci, in the general distribution of SNPs and other polymorphisms.

  9. TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms influence mRNA and protein expression in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Proença, Marcela Alcântara; de Oliveira, Juliana Garcia; Cadamuro, Aline Cristina Targa; Succi, Maysa; Netinho, João Gomes; Goloni-Bertolo, Eny Maria; Pavarino, Érika Cristina; Silva, Ana Elizabete

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of promoter region polymorphisms of toll-like receptor (TLR)2-196 to -174del and TLR4-1607T/C (rs10759932) on mRNA and protein expression in tumor tissue and of TLR4+896A/G (rs4986790) on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. METHODS: The TLR2-196 to -174del polymorphism was investigated using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the TLR4-1607T/C and TLR4+896A/G by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). We genotyped 434 DNA samples from 194 CRC patients and 240 healthy individuals. The mRNA relative quantification (RQ) was performed in 40 tumor tissue samples by quantitative PCR TaqMan assay, using specific probes for TLR2 and TLR4 genes, and ACTB and GAPDH reference genes were used as endogenous controls. Protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry with specific primary antibodies. RESULTS: No association was found for TLR4-1607T/C and TLR4+896A/G by three statistical models (log-additive, dominant and recessive). However, based on dominant and log-additive models, the polymorphic variant TLR2-196 to -174del was associated with increased CRC risk [dominant: odds ratio (OR) = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.03-2.89; P = 0.038 and log-additive: OR =1.59, 95%CI: 1.02-2.48; P = 0.039]. TLR2 mRNA expression was increased in tumor tissue (RQ = 2.36) when compared to adjacent normal tissue (RQ = 1; P < 0.0001), whereas the TLR4 mRNA showed a basal expression (RQ = 0.74 vs RQ = 1, P = 0.452). Immunohistochemistry analysis of TLR2 and TLR4 protein expression was concordant with the findings of mRNA expression. In addition, the TLR2-196 to -174del variant carriers showed mRNA relative expression 2.19 times higher than wild-genotype carriers. The TLR2 protein expression was also higher for the TLR2-196 to -174del variant carriers [117 ± 10 arbitrary unit (a.u.) vs 95 ± 4 a.u., P = 0.03]. However, for the TLR4 -1607T/C polymorphism no significant difference was found for both mRNA (P = 0.56) and protein expression (P = 0

  10. GDF15(MIC1) H6D Polymorphism Does Not Influence Cardiovascular Disease in a Latin American Population with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolas; Montoya-Sánchez, Laura; Nath, Swapan K.; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common autoimmune arthropathy worldwide. The increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in RA is not fully explained by classic risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of rs1058587 SNP within GDF15(MIC1) gene on the risk of CVD in a Colombian RA population. Methods. This was a cross-sectional analytical study in which 310 consecutive Colombian patients with RA and 228 age- and sex-matched controls were included and assessed for variables associated with CVD. The mixed cluster methodology based on multivariate descriptive methods such as principal components analysis and multiple correspondence analyses and regression tree (CART) predictive model were performed. Results. Of the 310 patients, 87.4% were women and CVD was reported in 69.5%. Significant differences concerning GDF15 polymorphism were not observed between patients and controls. Mean arterial pressure, current smoking, and some clusters were significantly associated with CVD. Conclusion. GDF15 (rs1058587) does not influence the development of CVD in the population studied. PMID:26090487

  11. -1227C>T polymorphism in the pleiotrophin gene promoter influences bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mencej-Bedrač, Simona; Preželj, Janez; Komadina, Radko; Vindišar, Franc; Marc, Janja

    2011-05-01

    Our gene expression microarray data of primary cultures of osteoblasts revealed that the expression of the pleiotrophin (PTN) gene is decreased in osteoporosis. PTN is involved in osteoblasts' proliferation and differentiation, response to mechanical stimuli and cross-talk with Wnt signaling. On the basis of these findings, we studied the PTN gene as a candidate gene for genetic susceptibility to osteoporosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of two PTN gene promoter polymorphisms with osteoporotic phenotype in postmenopausal women. 530 postmenopausal women, 480 without and 50 with hip fracture, were genotyped for the presence of PTN gene promoter polymorphisms -1734C>T (rs161335) and -1227C>T (rs321198). Three common haplotypes, CC (14.2%), CT (42.8%) and TC (42.9%), were inferred. Bone mineral densities (BMDs) at lumbar spine and (contralateral) hip were measured. In non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women without hip fracture, the association of -1227C>T and CT haplotype with lumbar spine BMD was shown (p=0.014 and 0.014). No other significant association of the studied genotypes and haplotypes in the PTN gene promoter with BMDs was found. Comparing age-matched postmenopausal women with and without hip fractures, no differences in frequency distributions of the studied genotypes and haplotypes was shown. For the first time we have shown that, in postmenopausal women, the PTN gene promoter polymorphism -1227C>T and CT haplotype could contribute to the genetic background of osteoporosis, but these findings need further functional and clinical confirmation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative Assessment of the Influence of Cytochrome P450 1A2 Gene Polymorphism and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Rewuti, Abudouaini; Ma, Yu-Shui; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Xia, Qing; Fu, Da; Han, Yu-Song

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes, which play a central role in activating and detoxifying many carcinogens and endogenous compounds thought to be involved in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The CYP1A2*C (rs2069514) and CYP1A2*F (rs762551) polymorphism are two of the most commonly studied polymorphisms of the gene for their association with risk of CRC, but the results are conflicting. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between CYP1A2 and genetic risk of CRC, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis which included 7088 cases and 7568 controls from 12 published case-control studies. In a combined analysis, the summary per-allele odds ratio for CRC was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.83–1.00, P = 0.04), and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.68–1.22, P = 0.53), for CYP1A2 *F and *C allele, respectively. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significant associations were found in Asians for CYP1A2*F and CYP1A2*C, while no significant associations were detected among Caucasian populations. Similar results were also observed using dominant genetic model. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored by subgroup analysis and meta-regression. No significant heterogeneity was detected in most of comparisons. This meta-analysis suggests that the CYP1A2 *F and *C polymorphism is a protective factor against CRC among Asians. PMID:23951174

  13. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on executive functions: influence of COMT Val/Met polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Plewnia, Christian; Zwissler, Bastian; Längst, Isabella; Maurer, Brigitte; Giel, Katrin; Krüger, Rejko

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a frequently used technique to investigate healthy and impaired neuronal functions. Its modulatory effect on executive functions is of particular interest for understanding the mechanisms underlying integration of cognition and behavior. The key role of prefrontal dopamine function for executive functions suggest that differences of the Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene would interact with tDCS interventions in this domain. In this study, we hypothesized that the COMT Met allele homozygosity, associated with higher levels of prefrontal dopamine, would influence the effect of tDCS on higher-level executive functions. Forty-six healthy subjects participated in a double-blind sham-controlled crossover study and underwent COMT genotyping. Anodal tDCS (20 min, 1 mA) to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) or sham stimulation was applied during the performance of a parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG) test measuring sustained attention, response inhibition and cognitive flexibility as measured by set-shifting. In COMT Met/Met allele carrier anodal tDCS of the dlPFC was associated with a deterioration of set-shifting ability, which is assessed by the most challenging level of the PGNG. Without regard to the carrier status of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism no effects of anodal tDCS on executive functions could be determined. In line with the model of non-linear effects of l-dopa on cortical plasticity high dopaminergic prefrontal activity mediated by COMT Val158Met polymorphism predicts a detrimental effect of anodal tDCS on cognitive flexibility. Therefore, we suggest that the individual genetic profile may modulate behavioral effect of tDCS. More precise application of brain stimulation techniques according to the individual genetic patterns may support the development of personalized treatment approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Glutathione S-Transferase Polymorphisms on Cognitive Functioning Effects Induced by p,p′-DDT among Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Eva; Sunyer, Jordi; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Estivill, Xavier; Julvez, Jordi; Ribas-Fitó, Nuria; Torrent, Maties; Grimalt, Joan O.; de Cid, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Background Early-life exposure to p,p′-DDT [2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane] is associated with a decrease in cognitive skills among preschoolers at 4 years of age. We hypothesized that genetic variability in glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes (GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1) could influence the effects of prenatal exposure to p,p′-DDT. Methods We used data from 326 children assessed in a prospective population-based birth cohort at the age of 4 years. In that study, the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities were administrated by psychologists, organochlorine compounds were measured in cord serum, and genotyping was conducted for the coding variant Ile105Val from GSTP1 and for null alleles from GSTM1 and GSTT1. We used linear regression models to measure the association between organochlorines and neurodevelopmental scores by GST polymorphisms. Results p,p′-DDT cord serum concentration was inversely associated with general cognitive, memory, quantitative, and verbal skills, as well as executive function and working memory, in children who had any GSTP1 Val-105 allele. GSTP1 polymorphisms and prenatal p,p′-DDT exposure showed a statistically significant interaction for general cognitive skills (p = 0.05), quantitative skills (p = 0.02), executive function (p = 0.01), and working memory (p = 0.02). There were no significant associations between p,p′-DDT and cognitive functioning at 4 years of age according to GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms. Conclusions Results indicate that children with GSTP1 Val-105 allele were at higher risk of the adverse cognitive functioning effects of prenatal p,p′-DDT exposure. PMID:19057715

  15. Interactions between rs5498 polymorphism in the ICAM1 gene and traditional risk factors influence susceptibility to coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Sarecka-Hujar, Beata; Zak, Iwona; Krauze, Jolanta

    2009-06-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) depends on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Adhesion molecules are markers of endothelium dysfunction. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) interacts with leukocyte integrins and promotes atherosclerotic process at the surface of endothelial cells. The aim of the study was to assess the association between ICAM1 rs5498 polymorphism and CAD and to establish whether there are any interactions between this polymorphism and traditional risk factors in determining the risk of CAD. We studied 191 cases with angiographically documented CAD and 203 controls with no signs of cardiovascular diseases. The ICAM1 polymorphism was genotyped using PCR-RFLP method. Data were analyzed with the STATISTICA 7.1 and EpiInfo 6 softwares. We did not observe significant differences in the distribution of genotypes and alleles of rs5498 between cases and controls. We only found a tendency to a higher prevalence of G allele carriers (AG + GG) in patients compared to controls (68 vs. 64%, P = 0.399). A synergistic effect of G allele carrier-state and smoking that had influenced the risk of CAD [synergy index multiplicative (SIM = 2.09)] was observed. Smoking carriers of G allele compared to non-smoking AA were more prevalent in CAD group (39.8%) than among controls (13.3%, P < 0.0001, OR 4.81). Moreover, there was also a synergistic effect between G allele carrier-state and an elevated level of triacylglycerols (TG) (SIM = 1.28) increasing the risk of CAD. There is a synergistic interaction between rs5498 genotype and smoking that increases the risk of CAD.

  16. HLA-DR polymorphisms influence in vivo responses to staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in a transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Krogman, A; Tilahun, A; David, C S; Chowdhary, V R; Alexander, M P; Rajagopalan, G

    2017-01-01

    Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) is a potent superantigen produced by Staphylococcus aureus. In addition to menstrual and nonmenstrual toxic shock syndromes, TSST-1 is also implicated in the immunopathogenesis of pneumonia, infective endocarditis, neonatal exanthematous disease, and atopic dermatitis among others. Superantigens first bind to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and then activate a large proportion of T cells by cross-linking their T cell receptor. As binding to MHC class II molecules is a critical step in the robust activation of the immune system by TSST-1 and other superantigens, polymorphic variations between different HLA-DR alleles could potentially influence the magnitude of immune activation and immunopathology caused by TSST-1. As TSST-1 is highly toxic to humans and given that multiple variations of alleles of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ are expressed in each individual, it is difficult to determine how HLA-DR polymorphisms quantitatively and qualitatively impact immune activation caused by TSST-1 in humans. However, such investigations can be conducted on transgenic mice lacking all endogenous MHC class II molecules and expressing specific HLA class II alleles. Therefore, transgenic mice expressing different HLA-DRB1 alleles (HLA-DRB1*15:01, HLA-DRB1*15:02, HLA-DRB1*03:01, HLA-DRB1*04:01), and sharing HLA-A1*01:01 chain, were systemically challenged with purified TSST-1 and multiple immune parameters were assessed. Among the HLA-DR alleles, mice expressing HLA-DRB1*15:01 allele elicited a significantly higher serum cytokine/chemokine response; greater splenic T cell expansion and most severe organ pathology. Our study highlights the potential utility of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic mice in understanding the impact of HLA polymorphisms on the outcomes of diseases caused by TSST-1 and other superantigens. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Influence of OLR1 and PCSK9 Gene Polymorphisms on Ischemic Stroke: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony; Griffiths, Lyn R; Cheng, Kian-Kai; Wee Kooi, Cheah; Irene, Looi; Keat Wei, Loo

    2015-12-15

    Both OLR1 and PCSK9 genes are associated with atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and ischemic stroke. The overall prevalence of PCSK9 rs505151 and OLR1 rs11053646 variants in ischemic stroke were 0.005 and 0.116, respectively. However, to date, association between these polymorphisms and ischemic stroke remains inconclusive. Therefore, this first meta-analysis was carried out to clarify the presumed influence of these polymorphisms on ischemic stroke. All eligible case-control and cohort studies that met the search terms were retrieved in multiple databases. Demographic and genotyping data were extracted from each study, and the meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 and Metafor R 3.2.1. The pooled odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using both fixed- and random-effect models. Seven case-control studies encompassing 1897 cases and 2119 controls were critically evaluated. Pooled results from the genetic models indicated that OLR1 rs11053646 dominant (OR = 1.33, 95%  CI:1.11-1.58) and co-dominant models (OR = 1.24, 95%  CI:1.02-1.51) were significantly associated with ischemic stroke. For the PCSK9 rs505151 polymorphism, the OR of co-dominant model (OR = 1.36, 95%  CI:1.01-1.58) was found to be higher among ischemic stroke patients. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis highlighted that variant allele of OLR1 rs11053646 G > C and PCSK9 rs505151 A > G may contribute to the susceptibility risk of ischemic stroke.

  18. The Influence of OLR1 and PCSK9 Gene Polymorphisms on Ischemic Stroke: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Au, Anthony; Griffiths, Lyn R.; Cheng, Kian-Kai; Wee Kooi, Cheah; Irene, Looi; Keat Wei, Loo

    2015-01-01

    Both OLR1 and PCSK9 genes are associated with atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and ischemic stroke. The overall prevalence of PCSK9 rs505151 and OLR1 rs11053646 variants in ischemic stroke were 0.005 and 0.116, respectively. However, to date, association between these polymorphisms and ischemic stroke remains inconclusive. Therefore, this first meta-analysis was carried out to clarify the presumed influence of these polymorphisms on ischemic stroke. All eligible case-control and cohort studies that met the search terms were retrieved in multiple databases. Demographic and genotyping data were extracted from each study, and the meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 and Metafor R 3.2.1. The pooled odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using both fixed- and random-effect models. Seven case-control studies encompassing 1897 cases and 2119 controls were critically evaluated. Pooled results from the genetic models indicated that OLR1 rs11053646 dominant (OR = 1.33, 95%  CI:1.11–1.58) and co-dominant models (OR = 1.24, 95%  CI:1.02–1.51) were significantly associated with ischemic stroke. For the PCSK9 rs505151 polymorphism, the OR of co-dominant model (OR = 1.36, 95%  CI:1.01–1.58) was found to be higher among ischemic stroke patients. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis highlighted that variant allele of OLR1 rs11053646 G > C and PCSK9 rs505151 A > G may contribute to the susceptibility risk of ischemic stroke. PMID:26666837

  19. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism influences postprandial retinyl palmitate but not triglyceride concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Boerwinkle, E. ); Brown, S.; Patsch, W. ); Sharrett, A.R. ); Heiss, G. )

    1994-02-01

    To quantify the effect of the apolipoprotein (apo) E polymorphism on the magnitude of postprandial lipemia, the authors have defined its role in determining the response to a single high-fat meal in a large sample of (N = 474) individuals taking part in the biethnic Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. The profile of postprandial response in plasma was monitored over 8 h by triglyceride, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL)-triglyceride, apo B-48/apo B-100 ratio, and retinyl palmitate concentrations, and the apo E polymorphism was determined by DNA amplification and digestion. The frequency of the apo E alleles and their effects on fasting lipid levels in this sample with vitamin A was significantly different among apo E genotypes, with delayed clearance in individuals with an [var epsilon]2 allele, compared with [var epsilon]3/3 and [var epsilon]3/4 individuals. In the sample of 397 Caucasians, average retinyl palmitate response was 1,489 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]2/3 individuals, compared with 1,037 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]3/3 individuals and 1,108 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]3/4 individuals. The apo E polymorphism accounted for 7.1% of the interindividual variation in postprandial retinyl palmitate response, a contribution proportionally greater than its well-known effect on fasting LDL-cholesterol. However, despite this effect on postprandial retinyl palmitate, the profile of postprandial triglyceride response was not significantly different among apo E genotypes. The profile of postprandial response was consistent between the sample of Caucasians and a smaller sample of black subjects. While these data indicate that the removal of remnant particles from circulation is delayed in subjects with the [var epsilon]2/3 genotype, there is no reported evidence that the [var epsilon]2 allele predisposes to coronary artery disease (CAD). 82 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. The eNOS 894G/T gene polymorphism and its influence on early and long-term mortality after on-pump cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The eNOS 894G/T polymorphism (GG, GT, and TT) is associated with cardiovascular mortality and may influence cardiovascular diseases as a genetic risk factor. Moreover, this polymorphism has an impact on intraoperative hemodynamics during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In this study, we analyzed the influence of this gene polymorphism on early clinical outcome in patients who underwent cardiac surgery with CPB. Also, we performed a 5-year follow-up, assessing the impact of this polymorphism on long-term mortality. Method 500 patients who underwent cardiac surgery with CPB between 2006 and 2007 were included in this prospective single centre study. Genotyping for the eNOS gene polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Results Genotype distribution of 894G/T was: GG 50.2%; GT 42.2%; TT 7.8%. Cardiovascular risk factors were equally distributed between the different genotypes of the eNOS 894G/T polymorphism. No significant difference among the groups was shown regarding Euroscore, SAPS II and APACHE II. Perioperative characteristics were also not affected by the genotypes, except for the consumption of norepinephrine (p = 0.03) and amiodarone (p = 0.01) which was higher in the GT allele carrier. The early postoperative course was quite uniform across the genotypes, except for mean intensive care unit length of stay which was significantly prolonged in GT carriers (p = 0.001). The five-year follow-up was 100% complete and showed no significant differences regarding mortality between the groups. Conclusion Our results show that the eNOS 894G /T polymorphism is not associated with early and late clinical outcome after cardiac surgery. Thus, this polymorphism can actually not help to identify high risk groups in the heterogeneous population of individuals who undergo cardiac surgery with CPB. PMID:24161078

  1. Common variation near CDKN1A, POLD3 and SHROOM2 influences colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Malcolm G; Dobbins, Sara E; Farrington, Susan Mary; Jones, Angela M; Palles, Claire; Whiffin, Nicola; Tenesa, Albert; Spain, Sarah; Broderick, Peter; Ooi, Li-Yin; Domingo, Enric; Smillie, Claire; Henrion, Marc; Frampton, Matthew; Martin, Lynn; Grimes, Graeme; Gorman, Maggie; Semple, Colin; Ma, Yusanne P; Barclay, Ella; Prendergast, James; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Olver, Bianca; Penegar, Steven; Lubbe, Steven; Chander, Ian; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis G; Ballereau, Stephane; Lloyd, Amy; Vijayakrishnan, Jayaram; Zgaga, Lina; Rudan, Igor; Theodoratou, Evropi; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian; Kirac, Iva; Kovacević, Dujo; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Matsuda, Koichi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Okada, Yukinori; Gallinger, Steven; Duggan, David J; Conti, David; Newcomb, Polly; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Casey, Graham; Easton, Douglas; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul; Lindblom, Annika; Liu, Tao; Smith, Christopher G; West, Hannah; Cheadle, Jeremy P; Midgley, Rachel; Kerr, David J; Campbell, Harry; Tomlinson, Ian P; Houlston, Richard S

    2012-05-27

    We performed a meta-analysis of five genome-wide association studies to identify common variants influencing colorectal cancer (CRC) risk comprising 8,682 cases and 9,649 controls. Replication analysis was performed in case-control sets totaling 21,096 cases and 19,555 controls. We identified three new CRC risk loci at 6p21 (rs1321311, near CDKN1A; P = 1.14 × 10(-10)), 11q13.4 (rs3824999, intronic to POLD3; P = 3.65 × 10(-10)) and Xp22.2 (rs5934683, near SHROOM2; P = 7.30 × 10(-10)) This brings the number of independent loci associated with CRC risk to 20 and provides further insight into the genetic architecture of inherited susceptibility to CRC.

  2. Common variation near CDKN1A, POLD3 and SHROOM2 influences colorectal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Malcolm G; Dobbins, Sara E; Farrington, Susan Mary; Jones, Angela M; Palles, Claire; Whiffin, Nicola; Tenesa, Albert; Spain, Sarah; Broderick, Peter; Ooi, Li-Yin; Domingo, Enric; Smillie, Claire; Henrion, Marc; Frampton, Matthew; Martin, Lynn; Grimes, Graeme; Gorman, Maggie; Semple, Colin; Ma, Yussanne; Barclay, Ella; Prendergast, James; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Olver, Bianca; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis G; Ballereau, Stephane; Lloyd, Amy; Vijayakrishnan, Jayaram; Zgaga, Lina; Rudan, Igor; Theodoratou, Evropi; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian; Kirac, Iva; Kovačević, Dujo; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Matsuda, Koichi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Okada, Yukinori; Gallinger, Steven; Duggan, David J; Conti, David; Newcomb, Polly; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Casey, Graham; Easton, Douglas; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul; Lindblom, Annika; Liu, Tao; Smith, Christopher G; West, Hannah; Cheadle, Jeremy P.; Midgley, Rachel; Kerr, David J; Campbell, Harry; Tomlinson, Ian P; Houlston, Richard S

    2015-01-01

    We performed a meta-analysis of five genome-wide association studies to identify common variants influencing colorectal cancer (CRC) risk comprising 8,682 cases and 9,649 controls. Replication analysis was performed in case-control sets totalling 21,096 cases and 19,555 controls. We identified three novel CRC risk loci at 6p21 (rs1321311, near CDKN1A; P=1.14×10−10), 11q13.4 (rs3824999, intronic to POLD3; P=3.65×10−10) and Xp22.2 (rs5934683, near SHROOM2; P=7.30×10−10) This brings to 20 the number of independent loci associated with CRC risk, and provides further insight into the genetic architecture of inherited susceptibility to CRC. PMID:22634755

  3. Influence of host plants on feeding, growth and reproduction of Papilio polytes (The common mormon).

    PubMed

    Shobana, K; Murugan, K; Naresh Kumar, A

    2010-09-01

    We studied the feeding, growth and reproductive behaviour of Papilio polytes (common mormon butterfly) on five different host plants, Murraya koenigii, Toddalia asiatica, Glycosmis pentaphylla, Aegle marmelos and Citrus medica. The growth rate of P. polytes was fastest on M. koenigii followed by T. asiatica, C. medica, G. pentaphylla and A. marmelos. We related this to the nutrient contexts of the five plants. The plants T. asiatica and C. medica had higher water contents, which influenced the growth rate of the insect. M. koenigii was found to contain rich quantities of carbohydrate. M. koenigii, T. asiatica and C. medica were also rich in protein when compared to A. marmelos and G. pentaphylla. Total amino acid levels were comparatively higher in M. koenigii, T. asiatica, C. medica rather than A. marmelos and G. pentaphylla.

  4. Common variations in the pretest environment influence genotypic comparisons in models of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Izídio, G S; Lopes, D M; Spricigo, L; Ramos, A

    2005-10-01

    The behavioral characterization of rodent strains in different studies and laboratories can provide unreplicable results even when genotypes are kept constant and environmental control is maximized. In the present study, the influence of common laboratory environmental variables and their interaction with genotype on the results of behavioral tests of anxiety/emotionality were investigated. To this end, the inbred rat strains Lewis (LEW) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which are known to differ for numerous emotionality-related behaviors, were tested in the open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and black/white box (BWB), while three environmental factors were systematically controlled and analyzed: (1) the experimenter handling the animal (familiar or unfamiliar); (2) the position of the home cage (top or bottom shelf of the rack) and (3) the behavioral state of the animal immediately before the test (arousal or rest). Experimenter familiarity did not alter the behavior of rats in the OF. Cage position, on the other hand, influenced the behavior in the OF and BWB, with rats housed in top cages appearing less anxious than those housed in the bottom. In the BWB (but not in the OF), these effects were genotype dependent. Finally, the behavioral state of the animals prior to testing altered the results of the EPM in a strain-dependent manner, with some anxiety-related genotypic differences being found only among rats that were aroused in their home cages. This study showed that common variations in the laboratory environment interact with genotype in behavioral tests of anxiety/emotionality. Recognizing and understanding such variations can help in the design of more effective experiments.

  5. IL-3 and CTLA4 gene polymorphisms may influence the tacrolimus dose requirement in Chinese kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mou-ze; He, Hai-yan; Zhang, Yue-li; Hu, Yong-fang; He, Fa-zhong; Luo, Jian-quan; Luo, Zhi-ying; Chen, Xiao-ping; Liu, Zhao-qian; Zhou, Hong-hao; Shao, Ming-jie; Ming, Ying-zi; Xin, Hua-wen; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The highly variable pharmacokinetics and narrow therapeutic window of tacrolimus (TAC) has hampered its clinical use. Genetic polymorphisms may contribute to the variable response, but the evidence is not compelling, and the explanation is unclear. In this study we attempted to find previously unknown genetic factors that may influence the TAC dose requirements. The association of 105 pathway-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with TAC dose-adjusted concentrations (C0/D) was examined at 7, 30 and 90 d post-operation in 382 Chinese kidney transplant recipients. In CYP3A5 non-expressers, the patients carrying the IL-3 rs181781 AA genotype showed a significantly higher TAC logC0/D than those with the AG genotype at 30 and 90 d post-operation (AA vs AG, 2.21±0.06 vs 2.01±0.03, P=0.004; and 2.17±0.06 vs 2.03±0.03, P=0.033, respectively), and than those with the GG genotype at 30 d (AA vs GG, 2.21±0.06 vs 2.04±0.03, P =0.011). At 30 d, the TAC logC0/D in the grouped AG+GG genotypes of CTLA4 rs4553808 was significantly lower than that in the AA genotype (P =0.041) in CYP3A5 expressers, but it was higher (P=0.008) in the non-expressers. We further validated the influence of CYP3A5 rs776746, CYP3A4 rs2242480 and rs4646437 on the TAC C0/D; other candidate SNPs were not associated with the differences in TAC C0/D. In conclusion, genetic polymorphisms in the immune genes IL-3 rs181781 and CTLA4 rs4553808 may influence the TAC C0/D. They may, together with CYP3A5 rs776746, CYP3A4 rs2242480 and rs4646437, contribute to the variation in TAC dose requirements. When conducting individualized therapy with tacrolimus, these genetic factors should be taken into account. PMID:28112181

  6. NOD1 in contrast to NOD2 functional polymorphism influence Chlamydia trachomatis infection and the risk of tubal factor infertility

    PubMed Central

    Branković, Ivan; van Ess, Eleanne F.; Noz, Marlies P.; Wiericx, Wilhelmina (Anke) J.; Spaargaren, Joke; Morré, Servaas A.; Ouburg, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular pattern-recognition receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are capable of sensing common structural units of bacterial walls. Recognition triggers specific immune signalling pathways and leads to pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulation and adequate immune response. We investigated whether two functional polymorphisms in NOD1 and NOD2 exert an effect on susceptibility to (STD patients) and severity of (female patients visiting the fertility clinic) Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 807 Dutch Caucasian women. A significant association of the NOD1 +32656 GG insertion variant with protection against infection with C. trachomatis has been detected [p: 0.0057; OR: 0.52]. When comparing C. trachomatis-positive women without symptoms to C. trachomatis-positive women with symptoms, and to C. trachomatis-positive women with TFI, we observed an increasing trend in carriage of the GG allele [Ptrend: 0.0003]. NOD2 1007fs failed to reveal an association. We hypothesize that the underlying mechanism might be a functional effect of the GG insertion on IFN-beta-dependent regulation of immune response in the genital tract. The research is part of an ongoing effort of identifying key polymorphisms that determine the risk of TFI and effectively translating them into the clinical setting for the purpose of optimizing diagnostic management of women at risk for developing TFI. PMID:25854006

  7. PFMDR1 POLYMORPHISMS INFLUENCE ON IN VITRO SENSITIVITY OF THAI PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM ISOLATES TO PRIMAQUINE, SITAMAQUINE AND TAFENOQUINE.

    PubMed

    Kaewpruk, Napaporn; Tan-ariya, Peerapan; Ward, Stephen A; Sitthichot, Naruemon; Suwandittakul, Nantana; Mungthin, Mathirut

    2016-05-01

    Primaquine (PQ), an 8-aminoquinoline, is considered a tissue schizonticide drug for radical cure in vivax and ovale malaria, with minimal impact on asexual erythrocytic stages at therapeutic concentrations. Tafenoquine (TQ), a new 8-aminoquinoline analog of PQ, is active against both malaria parasite tissue and blood stages and is being promoted as a drug candidate for antimalarial chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis and potential transmission blocking against Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum. This study compared in vitro sensitivity of Thai P. falciparum isolates against three 8-aminoquinolines, PQ, TQ and sitamaquine (SQ), a related 8-aminoquinoline and assessed the importance of pfmdr1 polymorphism on the in vitro response. Seventy-eight laboratory adapted Thai P. falciparum isolates were evaluated for in vitro sensitivity to the three 8-aminoquinolines using a radioisotopic assay, and pfmdr1 polymorphisms were determined using PCR-based methods. All three drugs have weak antiplasmodial activity against asexual erythrocytic stage with SQ being the most potent by almost 10 folds. Cross susceptibility was observed in all three 8-aminoquinolines. Parasites containing pfmdr1 86Y, 184Y or 1034S allele exhibit significantly higher PQ IC₅₀. TQ sensitivity was reduced in those parasites containing pfmdr1 86Y, 1034S or 1042N allele. However, there was no significant influence of pfmdr1 alleles on SQ sensitivity. The data highlight unique differences among three representative 8-aminoquinoline drugs that may be useful in understanding their potential utility in antimalarial development.

  8. Influence of a critical single nucleotide polymorphism on nuclear receptor PXR-promoter function.

    PubMed

    Rana, Manjul; Coshic, Poonam; Goswami, Ravinder; Tyagi, Rakesh K

    2017-02-15

    The Pregnane and Xenobiotic Receptor (PXR; NR1I2) is a ligand-modulated transcription factor that belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily. It is expressed at higher levels primarily in liver and intestine as compared to the levels in several other organs. It is activated by a broad spectrum of xenobiotics and endobiotics. The primary function of PXR is to regulate the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters and prevent the accumulation of toxic chemicals in the body, thereby maintaining body's homeostasis. In this study, we identified a C/T single nucleotide polymorphism at position -831 from the transcriptional start site of the PXR gene promoter and examined the functional significance of this variant using both the luciferase reporter gene assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Transient transfection experiments showed that the T-allele was associated with significantly greater transcriptional activity than the C-allele of SNP rs3814055. These results indicate that the -831C/T polymorphism has a direct effect on transcriptional regulation of PXR gene. This allelic variation may be a potential genetic marker that can help identify individuals at higher risk for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).

  9. Influence of cytarabine metabolic pathway polymorphisms in acute myeloid leukemia induction treatment.

    PubMed

    Megías-Vericat, Juan Eduardo; Montesinos, Pau; Herrero, María José; Moscardó, Federico; Bosó, Virginia; Martínez-Cuadrón, David; Rojas, Luis; Rodríguez-Veiga, Rebeca; Boluda, Blanca; Sendra, Luis; Cervera, José; Poveda, José Luis; Sanz, Miguel Ángel; Aliño, Salvador F

    2017-12-01

    Cytarabine is considered the most effective chemotherapeutic option in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The impact of 10 polymorphisms in cytarabine metabolic pathway genes were evaluated in 225 adult de novo AML patients. Variant alleles of DCK rs2306744 and CDA rs602950 showed higher complete remission (p = .024, p = .045), with lower survival rates for variant alleles of CDA rs2072671 (p = .015, p = .045, p = .032), rs3215400 (p = .033) and wild-type genotype of rs602950 (p = .039, .014). Induction death (p = .033) and lower survival rates (p = .021, p = .047) were correlated to RRM1 rs9937 variant allele. In addition, variant alleles of CDA rs532545 and rs602950 were related to skin toxicity (p = .031, p = .049) and mucositis to DCK rs2306744 minor allele (p = .046). Other toxicities associated to variant alleles were hepatotoxicity to NT5C2 rs11598702 (p = .032), lung toxicity (p = .031) and thrombocytopenia to DCK rs4694362 (p = .046). This study supports the interest of cytarabine pathway polymorphisms regarding efficacy and toxicity of AML therapy in a coherent integrated manner.

  10. TERT polymorphisms rs2853669 and rs7726159 influence on prostate cancer risk in Russian population.

    PubMed

    Shadrina, Alexandra S; Boyarskikh, Uljana A; Oskina, Natalja A; Sinkina, Tatiana V; Lazarev, Alexandr F; Petrova, Valentina D; Filipenko, Maxim L

    2015-02-01

    Telomere length and telomerase activity have been hypothesized to play a role in cancer development. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of allelic variants of three functional polymorphisms rs2853669, rs2736100, and rs7726159 in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene with the risk of the breast cancer and prostate cancer in Russian population. Six hundred sixty women with breast cancer, 372 men with prostate cancer, and corresponding control groups of 523 women and 363 men were included in the present case-control study. We observed an association of allele rs2853669 C with increased risk of prostate cancer (co-dominant model TC vs. TT OR = 1.65, P = 0.002; additive model OR = 1.42, P = 0.005; dominant model: OR = 1.64, P = 0.001) and allele rs7726159 A with reduced risk of this malignancy (сo-dominant model: AA vs. CC OR = 0.42, P = 0.002; additive model: OR = 0.69, P = 0.002; dominant model: OR = 0.67, P = 0.01; recessive model: OR = 0.48, P = 0.005). None of the studied polymorphisms showed an association with the risk of breast cancer. Our results provide evidence that the TERT gene variability modulate prostate cancer predisposition in ethnical Russians.

  11. CCR5 (chemokine receptor-5) DNA-polymorphism influences the severity of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zapico, I; Coto, E; Rodríguez, A; Alvarez, C; Torre, J C; Alvarez, V

    2000-01-01

    Chemokines are critical for the inflammatory process in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The chemokine receptor-5 (CCR5) mediates chemotaxis by CC-chemokines and is expressed by lymphocytes with the Th1 phenotype and monocyte/macrophages. A 32 bp deletion in the CCR5 (CCR5-delta 32 allele) abolishes receptor expression in homozygotes, while CCR5-delta 32 carriers would express less receptor than wild-type homozygotes. This polymorphism is related to the resistance to HIV-1 infection and progression towards AIDS. We hypothesized that the CCR5-delta 32 allele may modulate the severity of disease in RA. A total of 160 RA-patients (71 and 89 with severe and non-severe phenotypes, respectively) and 500 healthy individuals from the same Caucasian population (Asturias, northern Spain) were genotyped. Carriers of the CCR5-delta 32 allele were at a significantly higher frequency (P = 0.012) in non-severe compared to severe patients (17% vs 4%). Our results suggest that the CCR5-delta 32 polymorphism is a genetic marker related to the severity of RA.

  12. Summary of contributions to GAW Group 15: family-based samples are useful in identifying common polymorphisms associated with complex traits.

    PubMed

    Knight, Stacey; Uh, Hae-Won; Martinez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, family-based samples have been used for genetic analyses of single-gene traits caused by rare but highly penetrant risk variants. The utility of family-based genetic data for analyzing common complex traits is unclear and contains numerous challenges. To assess the utility as well as to address these challenges, members of Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 Group 15 analyzed Framingham Heart Study data using family-based designs ranging from parent--offspring trios to large pedigrees. We investigated different methods including traditional linkage tests, family-based association tests, and population-based tests that correct for relatedness between subjects, and tests to detect parent-of-origin effects. The analyses presented an assortment of positive findings. One contribution found increased power to detect epistatic effects through linkage using ascertainment of sibships based on extreme quantitative values or presence of disease associated with the quantitative value. Another contribution found four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing a maternal effect, two SNPs with an imprinting effect, and one SNP having both effects on a binary high blood pressure trait. Finally, three contributions illustrated the advantage of using population-based methods to detect association to complex binary or quantitative traits. Our findings highlight the contribution of family-based samples to the genetic dissection of complex traits. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Identification of common variants influencing risk of the tauopathy Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Höglinger, Günter U.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Sleiman, Patrick M.A.; Wang, Li-San; Klei, Lambertus; Rademakers, Rosa; de Silva, Rohan; Litvan, Irene; Riley, David E.; van Swieten, John C.; Heutink, Peter; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Uitti, Ryan J.; Vandrovcova, Jana; Hurtig, Howard I.; Gross, Rachel G.; Maetzler, Walter; Goldwurm, Stefano; Tolosa, Eduardo; Borroni, Barbara; Pastor, Pau; Cantwell, Laura B.; Han, Mi Ryung; Dillman, Allissa; van der Brug, Marcel P.; Gibbs, J Raphael; Cookson, Mark R.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Farrer, Matthew J.; Yu, Chang-En; Golbe, Lawrence I.; Revesz, Tamas; Hardy, John; Lees, Andrew J.; Devlin, Bernie; Hakonarson, Hakon; Müller, Ulrich; Schellenberg, Gerard D.

    2011-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a movement disorder with prominent tau neuropathology. Brain diseases with abnormal tau deposits are called tauopathies, the most common being Alzheimer’s disease. Environmental causes of tauopathies include repetitive head trauma associated with some sports. To identify common genetic variation contributing to risk for tauopathies, we carried out a genome-wide association study of 1,114 PSP cases and 3,247 controls (Stage 1) followed up by a second stage where 1,051 cases and 3,560 controls were genotyped for Stage 1 SNPs that yielded P ≤ 10−3. We found significant novel signals (P < 5 × 10−8) associated with PSP risk at STX6, EIF2AK3, and MOBP. We confirmed two independent variants in MAPT affecting risk for PSP, one of which influences MAPT brain expression. The genes implicated encode proteins for vesicle-membrane fusion at the Golgi-endosomal interface, for the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, and for a myelin structural component. PMID:21685912

  14. Analyzing the rate at which languages lose the influence of a common ancestor.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Klein, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the rate at which languages change can clarify whether similarities across languages are solely the result of cognitive biases or might be partially due to descent from a common ancestor. To demonstrate this approach, we use a simple model of language evolution to mathematically determine how long it should take for the distribution over languages to lose the influence of a common ancestor and converge to a form that is determined by constraints on language learning. We show that modeling language learning as Bayesian inference of n binary parameters or the ordering of n constraints results in convergence in a number of generations that is on the order of n log n. We relax some of the simplifying assumptions of this model to explore how different assumptions about language evolution affect predictions about the time to convergence; in general, convergence time increases as the model becomes more realistic. This allows us to characterize the assumptions about language learning (given the models that we consider) that are sufficient for convergence to have taken place on a timescale that is consistent with the origin of human languages. These results clearly identify the consequences of a set of simple models of language evolution and show how analysis of convergence rates provides a tool that can be used to explore questions about the relationship between accounts of language learning and the origins of similarities across languages. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. The Relationship Between the Genetic and Environmental Influences on Common Externalizing Psychopathology and Mental Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Myers, John M.; Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing, we examined detailed measures of emotional, social and psychological wellbeing, and a history of alcohol-related problems and smoking behavior in the last year in 1,386 individual twins from same-sex pairs from the MIDUS national US sample assessed in 1995. Cholesky decomposition analyses were performed with the Mx program. The best fit model contained one highly heritable common externalizing psychopathology factor for both substance use/abuse measures, and one strongly heritable common factor for the three wellbeing measures. Genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology were both negatively associated with levels of mental wellbeing and accounted for, respectively, 7% and 21% of its genetic and environmental influences. Adding internalizing psychopathology assessed in the last year to the model, genetic risk factors unique for externalizing psychopathology were now positively related to levels of mental wellbeing, although accounting for only 5% of the genetic variance. Environmental risk factors unique to externalizing psychopathology continued to be negatively associated with mental wellbeing, accounting for 26% of the environmental variance. When both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology are associated with mental wellbeing, the strongest risk factors for low mental wellbeing are genetic factors that impact on both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology, and environmental factors unique to externalizing psychopathology. In this model, genetic risk factors for externalizing psychopathology predict, albeit weakly, higher levels of mental wellbeing. PMID:22506307

  16. The relationship between the genetic and environmental influences on common externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John M; Keyes, Corey L M

    2011-12-01

    To determine the relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing, we examined detailed measures of emotional, social and psychological wellbeing, and a history of alcohol-related problems and smoking behavior in the last year in 1,386 individual twins from same-sex pairs from the MIDUS national US sample assessed in 1995. Cholesky decomposition analyses were performed withthe Mx program. The best fit model contained one highly heritable common externalizing psychopathology factor for both substance use/abuse measures, and one strongly heritable common factor for the three wellbeing measures. Genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology were both negatively associated with levels of mental wellbeing and accounted for, respectively, 7% and 21% of its genetic and environmental influences. Adding internalizing psychopathology assessed in the last year to the model, genetic risk factors unique for externalizing psychopathology were now positively related to levels of mental wellbeing, although accounting for only 5% of the genetic variance. Environmental risk factors unique to externalizing psychopathology continued to be negatively associated with mental wellbeing, accounting for 26% of the environmental variance. When both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology are associated with mental wellbeing, the strongest risk factors for low mental wellbeing are genetic factors that impact on both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology, and environmental factors unique to externalizing psychopathology. In this model, genetic risk factors for externalizing psychopathology predict, albeit weakly, higher levels of mental wellbeing.

  17. Common Genetic Factors Influence Hand Strength, Processing Speed, and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Soshiro; Kato, Kenji; Honda, Chika; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important to detect cognitive decline at an early stage, especially before onset of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Processing speed and working memory are aspects of cognitive function that are associated with cognitive decline. Hand strength is an inexpensive, easily measurable indicator of cognitive decline. However, associations between hand strength, processing speed, and working memory have not been studied. In addition, the genetic and environmental structure of the association between hand strength and cognitive decline is unclear. We investigated phenotypic associations between hand strength, processing speed, and working memory and examined the genetic and environmental structure of the associations between phenotypes. Methods Hand strength, processing speed (digit symbol performance), and working memory (digit span performance) were examined in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify phenotypic associations, and structural equation modeling was used to investigate the genetic and environmental structure of the association. Results Generalized estimating equations showed that hand strength was phenotypically associated with digit symbol performance but not with digit span performance. Structural equation modeling showed that common genetic factors influenced hand strength and digit symbol and digit span performance. Conclusions There was a phenotypic association between hand strength and processing speed. In addition, some genetic factors were common to hand strength, processing speed, and working memory. PMID:24292650

  18. Influence of dinner music on food intake and symptoms common in dementia.

    PubMed

    Ragneskog, H; Bråne, G; Karlsson, I; Kihlgren, M

    1996-01-01

    The influence of dinner music on food intake and symptoms common in dementia such as depressed mood, irritability and restlessness was studied. The study was carried out in a nursing-home ward in Sweden. Soothing music was played as dinner music for weeks, Swedish tunes form the 1920s and 1930s for two weeks and pop music for two weeks. Prior to these periods, there was one week without music, and at the end of the intervention there was a two-week control period. The effects of the intervention were assessed by psychological ratings and by weighing the food helpings. It was found that during all three music periods the patients ate more in total. The difference was particularly significant for the dessert. The staff were thought to be influenced by the music, as they served the patients more food, both main course and dessert, whenever music was played. The patients were less irritable, anxious and depressed during the music periods. The results of the study suggest that dinner music, particularly soothing music, can reduce irritability, fear-panic and depressed mood and can stimulate demented patients in a nursing-home ward into eating more.

  19. Influence of a nucleotide oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) polymorphism and NOD2 mutant alleles on Crohn's disease phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Cantó, Elisabet; Ricart, Elena; Busquets, David; Monfort, David; García-Planella, Esther; González, Dolors; Balanzó, Joaquim; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José L; Vidal, Sílvia

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine genetic variation of nucleotide oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) and NOD2, their respective influences on Crohn's disease phenotype and gene-gene interactions. METHODS: (ND1+32656*1) NOD1 polymorphism and SNP8, SNP12 and SNP13 of NOD2 were analyzed in 97 patients and 50 controls. NOD2 variants were determined by reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. NOD1 genotyping and NOD2 variant confirmation were performed by specific amplification and sequencing. RESULTS: The distribution of NOD1 polymorphism in patients was different from controls (P = 0.045) and not altered by existence of NOD2 mutations. In this cohort, 30.92% patients and 6% controls carried at least one NOD2 variant (P < 0.001) with R702W being the most frequent variant. Presence of at least one NOD2 mutation was inversely associated with colon involvement (9.09% with colon vs 36.4% with ileal or ileocolonic involvement, P = 0.04) and indicative of risk of penetrating disease (52.63% with penetrating vs 25.64% with non-penetrating or stricturing behavior, P = 0.02). L1007finsC and double NOD2 mutation conferred the highest risk for severity of disease (26.3% with penetrating disease vs 3.8% with non-penetrating or stricturing behavior presented L1007finsC, P = 0.01 and 21.0% with penetrating disease vs 2.5% with non-penentrating or stricturing behavior carried double NOD2 mutation, P = 0.007). Exclusion of patients with NOD2 mutations from phenotype/NOD1-genotype analysis revealed higher prevalence of *1*1 genotype in groups of younger age at onset and colonic location. CONCLUSION: This study suggests population differences in the inheritance of risk NOD1 polymorphism and NOD2 mutations. Although no interaction between NOD1-NOD2 was noticed, a relationship between disease location and Nod-like receptor molecules was established. PMID:17907287

  20. Four of the Most Common Mutations in Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1 Unmask the Cryptic Mitochondrial Targeting Sequence of Alanine:glyoxylate Aminotransferase Encoded by the Polymorphic Minor Allele*

    PubMed Central

    Fargue, Sonia; Lewin, Jackie; Rumsby, Gill; Danpure, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The gene encoding the liver-specific peroxisomal enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT, EC. 2.6.1.44) exists as two common polymorphic variants termed the “major” and “minor” alleles. The P11L amino acid replacement encoded by the minor allele creates a hidden N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence, the unmasking of which occurs in the hereditary calcium oxalate kidney stone disease primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1). This unmasking is due to the additional presence of a common disease-specific G170R mutation, which is encoded by about one third of PH1 alleles. The P11L and G170R replacements interact synergistically to reroute AGT to the mitochondria where it cannot fulfill its metabolic role (i.e. glyoxylate detoxification) effectively. In the present study, we have reinvestigated the consequences of the interaction between P11L and G170R in stably transformed CHO cells and have studied for the first time whether a similar synergism exists between P11L and three other mutations that segregate with the minor allele (i.e. I244T, F152I, and G41R). Our investigations show that the latter three mutants are all able to unmask the cryptic P11L-generated mitochondrial targeting sequence and, as a result, all are mistargeted to the mitochondria. However, whereas the G170R, I244T, and F152I mutants are able to form dimers and are catalytically active, the G41R mutant aggregates and is inactive. These studies open up the possibility that all PH1 mutations, which segregate with the minor allele, might also lead to the peroxisome-to-mitochondrion mistargeting of AGT, a suggestion that has important implications for the development of treatment strategies for PH1. PMID:23229545

  1. The common apolipoprotein A-1 polymorphism −75A>G is associated with ethnic differences in recurrent coronary events after recovery from an acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Block, Robert; Corsetti, James; Goldenberg, Ilan; Vorobiof, Gabriel; McNitt, Scott; Ryan, Daniel; Zareba, Wojciech; Moss, Arthur J.

    2009-01-01

    Since data regarding the relationship between a common polymorphism (SNP) of the apoA1 gene with apoA1 levels and risk of coronary artery disease are inconsistent, we hypothesized that its association with recurrent coronary events differs for White and Black individuals with diagnosed coronary heart disease. The apoA1 −75G>A SNP was genotyped in a cohort of 834 Black (n=129) and White (n=705) post-myocardial infarction patients. Recurrent coronary events (coronary-related death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or unstable angina) were documented during an average follow-up of 28 months. Thirty percent of White and 21% of Black patients carried the SNP. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis, adjusting for clinical and laboratory covariates, demonstrated that the SNP was not associated with recurrent events in the total cohort (HR=1.37, 95% CI 0.95–1.97; p= 0.09) but was the only variable associated with an increased risk of recurrent cardiac events in Blacks (HR=2.40, 95% CI 1.07–5.40; p= 0.034). Conversely in Whites, the SNP was not associated with recurrent events (HR=1.12, 95% CI 0.75–1.67; p= 0.59) whereas apoB (HR=1.78, 95% CI 1.20 −2.65; p= 0.0042) and calcium channel blocker use (HR=2.53, 95% CI 1.72–3.72; p<0.001) were associated; p= 0.0024 for interaction between ethnicity and the SNP. A common apoA1 SNP is associated with a significantly increased risk of recurrent cardiac events among Black, but not White, postmyocardial infarction patients. Relationships with lipoproteins may help explain this finding. PMID:21152377

  2. Effects of common polymorphisms in miR-146a and miR-196a2 on lung cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yan-Gang; Zhou, Xiao-Ming; Cui, Zhi-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may play an important role in organ development, cell differentiation, apoptosis, proliferation, cell growth regulation and act as tumor suppressor genes or proto-oncogenes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNAs are considered to be genetic factors to influence the susceptibility to lung cancer (LC). Rs2910164 in miR-146a and rs11614913 in miR-196a2 are shown to be associated with increased/decreased LC risk. The aim of this meta-analysis was to systematically summarize the possible association. Methods The relevant articles were retrieved from several important databases. Studies were selected using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of association between miRNA polymorphism and susceptibility to LC. All analyses were performed using the Stata software. Results Seven studies were included in this meta-analysis. There were 3,225 cases and 3,268 controls for SNP rs2910164 and 2,794 cases and 2,840 controls for SNP rs11614913. The significant associations between SNP rs2910164 and LC risk were observed (CC vs. GG: OR =1.30, 95% CI: 1.13–1.50; CC + GC vs. GG: OR =1.15, 95% CI: 1.02–1.29; CC vs. GC + GG: OR =1.27, 95% CI: 1.13–1.42; C vs. G: OR =1.15, 95% CI: 1.08–1.24). SNP rs11614913 was found to be associated with LC risk in most genetic models (TC vs. TT: OR =1.16, 95% CI: 1.02–1.32; CC vs. TT: OR =1.24, 95% CI: 1.06–1.44; CC + TC vs. TT: OR =1.19, 95% CI: 1.06–1.34; C vs. T: OR =1.11, 95% CI: 1.03–1.20). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, genotyping method and control characteristics, significantly affected LC risks were also suggested. Conclusions The rs2910164 in miR-146a and the rs11614913 in miR-196a2 are likely to be associated with LC risks. PMID:27293850

  3. The influence of CYP3A gene polymorphisms on cyclosporine dose requirement in renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Eng, H-S; Mohamed, Z; Calne, R; Lang, C C; Mohd, M A; Seet, W-T; Tan, S-Y

    2006-05-01

    Cyclosporine is a substrate of cytochrome P-450 3A (CYP3A) subfamily of enzymes and characterized by a narrow therapeutic range with wide interindividual variation in pharmacokinetics. A few single-nucleotide polymorphisms detected in CYP3A genes have been shown to correlate significantly with the CYP3A protein expression and activity. We therefore postulated that these polymorphisms could be responsible for some of the interindividual variation in cyclosporine pharmacokinetics. The objective of our study is to determine correlation if any between single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CYP3A5 and CYP3AP1 on cyclosporine dose requirement and concentration-to-dose ratio in renal allograft recipients. Cyclosporine-dependent renal allograft recipients were genotyped for CYP3A5 A6986G and CYP3AP1 G-44A. The cyclosporine dosages prescribed and the corresponding cyclosporine trough levels for each patient were recorded so that cyclosporine dose per weight (mg/kg/day) and concentration-to-dose ratio (C(0)/D, whereby C(0) is trough level and D is daily dose per weight) could be calculated. A total of 67 patients were recruited for our study. The dose requirement for 1, 3, and 6 months post-transplantation ranged 2.3-11.4, 1.0-9.0, and 1.4-7.2 mg/kg/day, respectively. Patients with *1*1*1*1 (n=5) CYP3A5- and CYP3AP1-linked genotypes needed higher dose of cyclosporine compared to patients with *1*3*1*3 (n = 27) and *3*3*3*3 (n = 33) linked genotypes in months 3 and 6 post-transplantation (P < 0.016). The identification of patients with *1*1*1*1 by CYP3A5 and CYP3AP1 genotyping may have a clinically significant and positive impact on patient outcome with reduced rejection rate by providing pretransplant pharmacogenetic information for optimization of cyclosporine A dosing.

  4. Influence of SLC22A1 rs622342 genetic polymorphism on metformin response in South Indian type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Praveen, Ramakrishnan Geethakumari; Damodaran, Solai Elango; Das, Ashok Kumar; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

    2015-11-01

    Metformin is an oral antidiabetic drug, commonly used for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. It is transported into the hepatocytes by polyspecific organic cation transporter 1, which is encoded by the gene SLC22A1. It has been hypothesized that genetic variations of SLC22A1 gene will influence inter-individual variation in glucose lowering efficacy of metformin. Previous studies have demonstrated this in other populations with conflicting results, but it remains to be elucidated in Indian population. Henceforth, the objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of SLC22A1 rs622342 gene polymorphism on the clinical efficacy of metformin in South Indian T2DM patients. A total of 122 newly detected, treatment naive T2DM patients of either sex were included in this study. The patients were started on metformin monotherapy and followed up for 12 weeks. Genotype was determined using qRT-PCR. Before and after treatment with metformin, body mass index (BMI), serum lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting and postprandial glucose level, and blood pressure (BP) were measured. The study cohort mean age was 49.57 ± 9.88 years. Of the 122 T2DM patients, 93 were classified as responders and 29 as non-responders based on fall in HbA1c levels. Interestingly, carriers of one variant allele 'C' (AC) of rs622342 polymorphism were less among the responders than those who did not (44.8 vs. 22.6 %). The response was even lesser (13.8 vs. 4.3 %) in carriers of two copies of "C" allele (CC). On the contrary, patients with two copies of allele 'A' (AA) had 5.6 times greater chance of responding to metformin treatment. A similar trend was observed when the proportion was analyzed under different genetic models (OR 3.85, 95 % CI 1.61-9.19 for dominant; OR 3.56, 95 % CI 0.83-15.26 for recessive; OR 0.35, 95 % CI 0.14-0.86 for over-dominant; and OR 4.10, 95 % CI 1.78-9.43 for additive). Further, metformin showed significant beneficial effects on BMI, HbA1c, FPG

  5. Influence of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphisms and Adverse Life Events on Depressive Symptoms in the Elderly: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Davin, Annalisa; Monti, Maria Cristina; Polito, Letizia; Vaccaro, Roberta; Abbondanza, Simona; Gnesi, Marco; Villani, Simona; Guaita, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is common in the elderly. The role of genetic and environmental factors in modulating depressive symptoms is not clear. Methods We evaluated the influence of serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and recent adverse life events on depressive symptoms in an elderly Italian population. We used data from “InveCe.Ab”, a population-based study of 1321 subjects aged 70–74 years. We used the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) to assess depressive symptoms–a GDS score ≥5 points (GDS≥5) indicated the presence of clinically relevant symptoms–and performed 5-HTTLPR and rs25531 genotyping to obtain the triallelic polymorphism of the serotonin transporter. We used the Geriatric Adverse Life Events Scale to measure adverse life events, and logistic regression models to evaluate the role of genotype and recent adverse life events in depressive symptoms, controlling for potential confounders and independent predictors. Results Two hundred subjects (15.76%) had a GDS≥5. The 5-HTTLPR triallelic polymorphism was significantly associated with GDS≥5. Only S′S′ carriers showed an increased risk of depressive symptoms (ORadj = 1.81, p = .022); one extra adverse life event increased this risk by 14% (p = .061) independently of genotype. Other factors significantly related to GDS≥5 were: female gender (ORadj = 2.49, p < .001), age (ORadj = 1.19, p = .007), a history of depression (ORadj = 4.73, p < .001), and comorbidity (ORadj = 1.23, p = .001). One extra adverse life event increased the risk of depressive symptoms by 57% (p = .005) only in the L′L′ carriers, while antidepressant intake was directly related to GDS≥5 in the L′S′ carriers (ORadj = 2.46, p = .036) and borderline significant in the S′S′ carriers (ORadj = 2.41, p = .081). Discussion The S′S′ genotype and recent exposure to adverse life events were independently associated with depressive symptoms. The S′S′ genotype, compared with the environment

  6. IL-10 gene polymorphism c.-592C>A increases HPV infection susceptibility and influences IL-10 levels in HPV infected women.

    PubMed

    Berti, Fernanda Costa Brandão; Pereira, Ana Paula Lombardi; Trugilo, Kleber Paiva; Cebinelli, Guilherme Cesar Martelossi; Silva, Lorena Flor da Rosa Santos; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara; de Oliveira, Karen Brajão

    2017-09-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) influences HPV infection and viral persistence, favoring cervical immunosuppression and cervical carcinogenesis. IL-10 levels may be influenced by HPV itself and by IL-10 polymorphisms, including rs1800872 (c.-592C>A). Therefore, we evaluated the influence of IL-10 c.-592C>A polymorphism in HPV infection and in IL-10 plasmatic/cervical levels in HPV infected and non-infected women. The study included 174 infected and 186 non-infected patients. Cervical epithelial scrapings were obtained to determine HPV DNA presence PCR. Peripheral blood samples were obtained to determine IL-10 polymorphism by PCR-RFLP, while IL-10 levels were assessed by ELISA. HPV was more prevalent among allele A carriers (p<0.001), with IL-10 c.-592C>A polymorphism being associated with HPV infection. As demonstrated by binary logistic regression analysis, heterozygotes [ORadj=2.081 95% CI (1.222-3.544), p=0.007] and homozygotes [ORadj=3.745 95% CI (1.695-8.271), p=0.001] showed approximately 2 and 4 time's greater odds, respectively, of presenting HPV when compared to CC patients. Moreover, HPV infected patients carrying polymorphic allele A showed higher IL-10 cervical levels (p=0.039). Binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that IL-10 cervical levels were not independently associated to CA+AA genotypes (p=0.162), neither to HPV's presence (p=0.061), thus IL-10 cervical levels are possibly increased because of both HPV and allele A presence. Taken together, these findings suggest that IL-10 c.-592C>A polymorphism is independently associated with HPV infection susceptibility exerting influence on IL-10 cervical levels in HPV infected women, thus contributing to cervical carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of coding region polymorphism on the peripheral expression of a human TCR V[beta] gene

    SciTech Connect

    Vissinga, C.S.; Charmley, P.; Concannon, P. )

    1994-02-01

    A number of human TCR V[beta] gene segments are reported to be polymorphic, with alleles differing by one or a small number of amino acid substitutions. In the absence of detailed structural information regarding the interaction of specific positions in the TCR with Ag or MHC, the significance of such variation is difficult to assess. In this report the relative use of the two common alleles of the human V[beta]6.7 gene, 6.7a and 6.7b, which differ by two nonconservative amino acid substitutions, and the use of two common alleles of the V[beta]12.2 gene, which differ by only silent substitutions, were measured in PBL derived from individuals heterozygous for these alleles. Equal use of V[beta]12.2 alleles was observed, consistent with the inability of selection mechanisms to discriminate between the products of these alleles that are indistinguishable at the amino acid level. However, statistically significant skewing in the use of V[beta]6.7 alleles was observed in 15 of 16 individuals studied. Expression levels for each allele ranged from 16 to 84% of the total V[beta]6.7 signal in heterozygous individuals, with either the 6.7a or the 6.7b allele predominant in different individuals. Based on segregation studies in families, it seems unlikely that other unidentified polymorphism in the TCR[beta] locus, such as in the V[beta]6.7 promoter, was responsible for the differential allele expression. Family studies provided no evidence for an association between specific HLA haplotypes and V[beta]6.7 allele use. These results indicate that even modest allelic variation in human TCR V[beta] coding regions can have a significant impact on the expression of human V[beta] genes in the peripheral repertoire. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  8. CD99 polymorphisms significantly influence the probability to develop Ewing sarcoma in earlier age and patient disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Marcella; Parra, Alessandro; Scapoli, Luca; Sanctis, Paola De; Chiadini, Valentina; Hattinger, Claudia; Picci, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (EWS), the second most common primary bone tumor in pediatric age, is known for its paucity of recurrent somatic abnormalities. Apart from the chimeric oncoprotein that derives from the fusion of EWS and FLI genes, recent genome-wide association studies have identified susceptibility variants near the EGR2 gene that regulate DNA binding of EWS-FLI. However, to induce transformation, EWS-FLI requires the presence of additional molecular events, including the expression of CD99, a cell surface molecule with critical relevance for the pathogenesis of EWS. High expression of CD99 is a common and distinctive feature of EWS cells, and it has largely been used for the differential diagnosis of the disease. The present study first links CD99 germline genetic variants to the susceptibility of EWS development and its progression. In particular, a panel of 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms has been genotyped in a case-control study. The CD99 rs311059 T variant was found to be significantly associated [P value = 0.0029; ORhet = 3.9 (95% CI 1.5-9.8) and ORhom = 5.3 (95% CI 1.2-23.7)] with EWS onset in patients less than 14 years old, while the CD99 rs312257-T was observed to be associated [P value = 0.0265; ORhet = 3.5 (95% CI 1.3-9.9)] with a reduced risk of relapse. Besides confirming the importance of CD99, our findings indicate that polymorphic variations in this gene may affect either development or progression of EWS, leading to further understanding of this cancer and development of better diagnostics/prognostics for children and adolescents with this devastating disease. PMID:27792997

  9. Association between dopamine receptor 2 TaqIA polymorphisms and smoking behavior with an influence of ethnicity: a systematic review and meta-analysis update.

    PubMed

    Ohmoto, Masanori; Sakaishi, Ken; Hama, Ayako; Morita, Atsuko; Nomura, Masaaki; Mitsumoto, Yasuhide

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene TaqIA polymorphisms and smoking behavior remains controversial. The aim of this review was to update a previous meta-analysis on the effect of DRD2 polymorphisms on smoking behavior by considering the influence of ethnicity. This review presents analyses stratified by ancestry, as the samples included individuals of different ethnicities. Pooled effect sizes were calculated using fixed- and random-effects models to verify heterogeneity. We investigated the association for the proportion of men and Caucasians by regression analysis using the effect sizes calculated by each meta-analysis. Analysis of smoking cessation revealed a significant effect, which suggested that ethnic differences between Caucasians and Asians moderate the effect of DRD2 polymorphisms. Smoking initiation and rate exhibited no relationship with DRD2 polymorphisms; furthermore, we detected heterogeneity. Although the analysis of smoking persistence indicated significant effects, heterogeneity was detected. The finding of heterogeneity for smoking persistence and rate suggests the possibility of gene-gene interactions arising from ethnic differences between the samples. We found a significant inverse relationship between the proportion of men and effect sizes among Caucasians for smoking persistence and rate. Gender differences between Caucasian samples may moderate the effect of DRD2 polymorphisms on smoking persistence and rate. Our findings indicate that the ethnicity of the participants alters the effect of DRD2 polymorphisms on smoking behavior. The observed heterogeneity may be associated with participant gender as a moderating factor, and the association may be specific to Caucasians.

  10. Influence of hydroxyl contents on photocatalytic activities of polymorphic titania nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    kaewguna, Sujaree; Nolpha, Christopher A.; Lee, Burtrand I.; Wang, Li Q.

    2009-03-15

    Polymorphic titania nanoparticles, prepared by a Water-based Ambient Condition Sol (WACS) process, were post-treated by a Solvent-based Ambient Condition Sol (SACS) process in sec-butanol. All samples were characterized for phase composition, surface area, lattice hydroxyl contamination, and particle morphology by X-ray diffraction, N2 physisorption, FT-IR, solid state Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) 1H NMR and scanning electron microscopy. The resultswerecompared to acommercial titania, Degussa P25. Evaluation of methyl orange degradation under UV irradiation results showed that the lower lattice hydroxyl content in SACS titania nanoparticles enhances photocatalytic activity. As-prepared titania and post-treated SACS samples, which have similar surface areas and crystallinity, were compared in order to prove that the superior photocatalytic activity came from a reduction in lattice hydroxyl content.

  11. Common Variants at 10 Genomic Loci Influence Hemoglobin A1C Levels via Glycemic and Nonglycemic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Soranzo, Nicole; Sanna, Serena; Wheeler, Eleanor; Gieger, Christian; Radke, Dörte; Dupuis, Josée; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Langenberg, Claudia; Prokopenko, Inga; Stolerman, Elliot; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Heeney, Matthew M.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ricketts, Sally L.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), used to monitor and diagnose diabetes, is influenced by average glycemia over a 2- to 3-month period. Genetic factors affecting expression, turnover, and abnormal glycation of hemoglobin could also be associated with increased levels of HbA1c. We aimed to identify such genetic factors and investigate the extent to which they influence diabetes classification based on HbA1c levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied associations with HbA1c in up to 46,368 nondiabetic adults of European descent from 23 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 8 cohorts with de novo genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We combined studies using inverse-variance meta-analysis and tested mediation by glycemia using conditional analyses. We estimated the global effect of HbA1c loci using a multilocus risk score, and used net reclassification to estimate genetic effects on diabetes screening. RESULTS Ten loci reached genome-wide significant association with HbA1c, including six new loci near FN3K (lead SNP/P value, rs1046896/P = 1.6 × 10−26), HFE (rs1800562/P = 2.6 × 10−20), TMPRSS6 (rs855791/P = 2.7 × 10−14), ANK1 (rs4737009/P = 6.1 × 10−12), SPTA1 (rs2779116/P = 2.8 × 10−9) and ATP11A/TUBGCP3 (rs7998202/P = 5.2 × 10−9), and four known HbA1c loci: HK1 (rs16926246/P = 3.1 × 10−54), MTNR1B (rs1387153/P = 4.0 × 10−11), GCK (rs1799884/P = 1.5 × 10−20) and G6PC2/ABCB11 (rs552976/P = 8.2 × 10−18). We show that associations with HbA1c are partly a function of hyperglycemia associated with 3 of the 10 loci (GCK, G6PC2 and MTNR1B). The seven nonglycemic loci accounted for a 0.19 (% HbA1c) difference between the extreme 10% tails of the risk score, and would reclassify ∼2% of a general white population screened for diabetes with HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS GWAS identified 10 genetic loci reproducibly associated with HbA1c. Six are novel and seven map to loci where rarer variants cause hereditary anemias and iron

  12. Human leukocyte antigen-G polymorphism influences the age of onset and autoantibody status in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mariaselvam, C M; Chaaben, A B; Salah, S; Charron, D; Krishnamoorthy, R; Tamouza, R; Negi, V S

    2015-03-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the frequency of three gene polymorphisms in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of human leucocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) gene in south Indian patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and analyze their influence on disease susceptibility, phenotype and treatment response. HLA-G 14 bp insertion (Ins)/deletion (del) (rs66554220), HLA-G +3142G>C (rs1063320) and +3187A>G (rs9380142) polymorphism was analyzed in 221 RA patients and 200 healthy controls. Frequency of HLA-G genotypes or alleles did not differ between patients and controls. Analysis based on rheumatoid factor (RF) status revealed that the frequency of allele 'A' (rs9380142) was significantly higher in RF-positive than in RF-negative patients [84% vs 74%, Yates-corrected P value (Pc) = 0.04, odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-3.2]. A similar difference was maintained in RF-positive female patients than their RF-negative counterparts (83% vs 71%, Pc = 0.02, OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0 to 3.4) and between RF-positive and RF-negative young onset RA (YORA) patients (84% vs 73%, Pc = 0.03, OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0-3.2), suggesting that rs9380142 polymorphism influenced RF status. The 14 bp Ins allele of rs66554220 was significantly more prevalent in RF-positive YORA than in RF-positive late onset RA (LORA) patients (51% vs 25%, P = 0.03, OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.1-9.8). Frequency of the four major haplotypes [InsGA (48%), DelGA (22%), DelCG (18%), DelCA (9.7%)] observed did not differ between cases and controls. HLA-G does not appear to be a risk factor for development of RA in south Indian Tamils but may act as a genetic modifier of clinical phenotype in terms of autoantibody production, gender preference and age at disease onset.

  13. Common polymorphisms in interleukin genes (IL4, IL6, IL8 and IL12) are not associated with alcoholic liver disease or alcoholism in Spanish men.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Miguel; Pastor, Isabel; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Laso, Francisco-Javier

    2009-03-01

    Preliminary data suggest that polymorphisms in cytokine genes may be involved in the genetic predisposition to alcoholic liver cirrhosis or alcohol use disorders. We thus analyze the association between these diseases and the following polymorphisms: -33T>C IL4, -174 G>C IL6, -251 T>A IL8 and 1188 A>C IL12B. 258 male alcoholics (161 without liver disease and 97 with liver cirrhosis) and 101 healthy controls were genotyped for the above mentioned polymorphisms. We examined the relationship between genotype and allele frequencies and the presence of disease, as well as the correlation with combinations of putative pro-inflammatory genotypes. Haplotypes were inferred using the expectation-maximization algorithm and haplotype frequencies were compared. We found no statistically significant association between any of these polymorphisms or the combinations of pro-inflammatory polymorphisms and the risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis or alcohol abuse or dependence. Haplotype analysis of the IL4 and IL12B polymorphisms did not show any statistical relationship either. Our results do not support the hypothesis that the analyzed polymorphisms confer differences in alcoholic liver cirrhosis or alcohol use disorders susceptibility.

  14. Creatine kinase MM TaqI and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C gene polymorphisms influence exercise-induced C-reactive protein levels.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Akimoto, Arthur K; Lordelo, Graciana S; Pereira, Luiz C S; Grisolia, Cesar K; Klautau-Guimarães, Maria de Nazaré

    2012-03-01

    Physical training induces beneficial adaptations, but exhausting exercise increases reactive oxygen species, which can cause muscular injuries with consequent inflammatory processes, implying jeopardized performance and possibly overtraining. Acute strenuous exercise almost certainly exceeds the benefits of physical activity; it can compromise performance and may contribute to increased future risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in athletes. Polymorphisms in the muscle-type creatine kinase (CK-MM) gene may influence performance and adaptation to training, while many potentially significant genetic variants are reported as risk factors for CVD. Therefore, we investigated the influence of polymorphisms in CK-MM TaqI and NcoI, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C) and C-reactive protein (CRP G1059C) genes on exercise-induced damage and inflammation markers. Blood samples were taken immediately after a race (of at least 4 km) that took place outdoors on flat tracks, and were submitted to genotyping and biochemical evaluation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), CK, CRP and high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP). CK-MM TaqI polymorphism significantly influenced results of AST, CK and hs-CRP, and an association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C with CRP level was found, although these levels did not exceed reference values. The results indicate that these polymorphisms can indirectly influence performance, contribute to higher susceptibility to exercise-induced inflammation or protection against it, and perhaps affect future risks of CVD in athletes.

  15. Creatine kinase MM TaqI and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C gene polymorphisms influence exercise-induced C-reactive protein levels.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Akimoto, Arthur K; Lordelo, Graciana S; Pereira, Luiz C S; Grisolia, Cesar K; Klautau-Guimarães, Maria de Nazaré

    2012-01-01

    Physical training induces beneficial adaptations, but exhausting exercise increases reactive oxygen species, which can cause muscular injuries with consequent inflammatory processes, implying jeopardized performance and possibly overtraining. Acute strenuous exercise almost certainly exceeds the benefits of physical activity; it can compromise performance and may contribute to increased future risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in athletes. Polymorphisms in the muscle-type creatine kinase (CK-MM) gene may influence performance and adaptation to training, while many potentially significant genetic variants are reported as risk factors for CVD. Therefore, we investigated the influence of polymorphisms in CK-MM TaqI and NcoI, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C) and C-reactive protein (CRP G1059C) genes on exercise-induced damage and inflammation markers. Blood samples were taken immediately after a race (of at least 4 km) that took place outdoors on flat tracks, and were submitted to genotyping and biochemical evaluation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), CK, CRP and high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP). CK-MM TaqI polymorphism significantly influenced results of AST, CK and hs-CRP, and an association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C with CRP level was found, although these levels did not exceed reference values. Results indicate that these polymorphisms can indirectly influence performance, contribute to higher susceptibility to exercise-induced inflammation or protection against it, and perhaps affect future risks of CVD in athletes.

  16. Common variants within oxidative phosphorylation genes influence risk of ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christopher D; Biffi, Alessandro; Nalls, Michael A; Devan, William J; Schwab, Kristin; Ayres, Alison M; Valant, Valerie; Ross, Owen A; Rost, Natalia S; Saxena, Richa; Viswanathan, Anand; Worrall, Bradford B; Brott, Thomas G; Goldstein, Joshua N; Brown, Devin; Broderick, Joseph P; Norrving, Bo; Greenberg, Steven M; Silliman, Scott L; Hansen, Björn M; Tirschwell, David L; Lindgren, Arne; Slowik, Agnieszka; Schmidt, Reinhold; Selim, Magdy; Roquer, Jaume; Montaner, Joan; Singleton, Andrew B; Kidwell, Chelsea S; Woo, Daniel; Furie, Karen L; Meschia, James F; Rosand, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies demonstrated association between mitochondrial DNA variants and ischemic stroke (IS). We investigated whether variants within a larger set of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes encoded by both autosomal and mitochondrial DNA were associated with risk of IS and, based on our results, extended our investigation to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This association study used a discovery cohort of 1643 individuals, a validation cohort of 2432 individuals for IS, and an extension cohort of 1476 individuals for ICH. Gene-set enrichment analysis was performed on all structural OXPHOS genes, as well as genes contributing to individual respiratory complexes. Gene-sets passing gene-set enrichment analysis were tested by constructing genetic scores using common variants residing within each gene. Associations between each variant and IS that emerged in the discovery cohort were examined in validation and extension cohorts. IS was associated with genetic risk scores in OXPHOS as a whole (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; P=0.008) and complex I (OR, 1.06; P=0.050). Among IS subtypes, small vessel stroke showed association with OXPHOS (OR, 1.16; P=0.007), complex I (OR, 1.13; P=0.027), and complex IV (OR, 1.14; P=0.018). To further explore this small vessel association, we extended our analysis to ICH, revealing association between deep hemispheric ICH and complex IV (OR, 1.08; P=0.008). This pathway analysis demonstrates association between common genetic variants within OXPHOS genes and stroke. The associations for small vessel stroke and deep ICH suggest that genetic variation in OXPHOS influences small vessel pathobiology. Further studies are needed to identify culprit genetic variants and assess their functional consequences.

  17. Common Variants within Oxidative Phosphorylation Genes Influence Risk of Ischemic Stroke and Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christopher D.; Biffi, Alessandro; Nalls, Michael A.; Devan, William J.; Schwab, Kristin; Ayres, Alison M.; Valant, Valerie; Ross, Owen A.; Rost, Natalia S.; Saxena, Richa; Viswanathan, Anand; Worrall, Bradford B.; Brott, Thomas G.; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Brown, Devin; Broderick, Joseph P.; Norrving, Bo; Greenberg, Steven M.; Silliman, Scott L.; Hansen, Björn M.; Tirschwell, David L.; Lindgren, Arne; Slowik, Agnieszka; Schmidt, Reinhold; Selim, Magdy; Roquer, Jaume; Montaner, Joan; Singleton, Andrew B.; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Woo, Daniel; Furie, Karen L.; Meschia, James F.; Rosand, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prior studies demonstrated association between mitochondrial DNA variants and ischemic stroke (IS). We investigated whether variants within a larger set of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes encoded by both autosomal and mitochondrial DNA were associated with risk of IS and, based on our results, extended our investigation to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods This association study employed a discovery cohort of 1643 individuals, a validation cohort of 2432 individuals for IS, and an extension cohort of 1476 individuals for ICH. Gene-set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed on all structural OXPHOS genes, as well as genes contributing to individual respiratory complexes. Gene-sets passing GSEA were tested by constructing genetic scores using common variants residing within each gene. Associations between each variant and IS that emerged in the discovery cohort were examined in validation and extension cohorts. Results IS was associated with genetic risk scores in OXPHOS as a whole (odds ratio (OR)=1.17, p=0.008) and Complex I (OR=1.06, p=0.050). Among IS subtypes, small vessel (SV) stroke showed association with OXPHOS (OR=1.16, p=0.007), Complex I (OR=1.13, p=0.027) and Complex IV (OR 1.14, p=0.018). To further explore this SV association, we extended our analysis to ICH, revealing association between deep hemispheric ICH and Complex IV (OR=1.08, p=0.008). Conclusions This pathway analysis demonstrates association between common genetic variants within OXPHOS genes and stroke. The associations for SV stroke and deep ICH suggest that genetic variation in OXPHOS influences small vessel pathobiology. Further studies are needed to identify culprit genetic variants and assess their functional consequences. PMID:23362085

  18. pH influence on antibacterial efficacy of common antiseptic substances.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Abel, Martin; Ruth, Peter; Elsner, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina

    2015-01-01

    Wound infection plays an important role in compromised wound healing. A high bioburden impairs healing and leads to formation of a chronic wound. Distinctly higher pH values were observed in chronic wounds compared to acute wounds. However, there is only limited knowledge of pH dependency on the antibacterial efficacy of common antimicrobial substances. This study investigated the pH influence on the antimicrobial efficacy of povidone (PVP)-iodine, silver nitrate, chlorhexidine, octenidine and polihexanide against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the agar diffusion test and microplate laser nephelometry. The bactericidal activity of chlorhexidine and octenidine was mainly pH-independent in a pH range of 5.0-9.0. In contrast, polihexanide showed a significant efficacy increase at a higher pH. It was also found that the influence of the pH on antiseptics differs among species of bacteria. For instance, S. aureus exhibited an increasing sensitivity against silver nitrate with rising pH whereas the effect on P. aeruginosa was found to be distinctly decreased. The antimicrobial effect of PVP-iodine was strongly diminished with rising pH. The shift towards higher pH values in chronic wounds compared to acute wounds makes it imperative to know whether the antimicrobial efficacy of applied antimicrobial substances is altered by different pH levels. The results suggest that application of polihexanide might be advantageous for the management of wound infections, as both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa exhibited an increased susceptibility with rising pH. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Influence of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (SERPINE1) 4G/5G polymorphism on circulating SERPINE-1 antigen expression in HCC associated with viral infection.

    PubMed

    Divella, Rosa; Mazzocca, Antonio; Gadaleta, Cosimo; Simone, Giovanni; Paradiso, Angelo; Quaranta, Michele; Daniele, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocarcinogenesis is heavily influenced by chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection. Elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (SERPINE1/PAI-1) have been reported in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with viral infection. The gene encoding SERPINE1 is highly polymorphic and the frequently associated 4/5 guanosine (4G/5G) polymorphism in the gene promoter may influence its expression. Here, we investigated the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the 4G/5G polymorphism in patients with HCC, the influence of the 4G/5G polymorphism on plasma SERPINE1 levels and its association with viral infection. A total of 75 patients with HCC were enrolled: 32 (42.6%) were HBV(+)/HCV(+), 11 (14.6%) were only HCV(+), and 32 (42.6%) were negative for both viruses. A control group of healthy donors was also enrolled (n=50). SERPINE1 plasma concentrations were determined by ELISA and the detection of the promoter 4G/5G polymorphism was performed by an allele-specific PCR analysis. We found that the frequency of both the 4G/4G genotype (p=0.02) and the 4G allele (p=0.006) were significantly higher in patients with HCC compared to the control group, and particularly higher in patients with HCC co-infected with HBV(+)/HCV(+) than in those with no viral infection. We also found that patients with the 4G/4G genotype had significantly higher plasma SERPINE1 protein levels when compared with patients with the 4G/5G or 5G/5G genotype (p<0.001). Differences in frequency of 4G allele and genetic variability of 4G/5G SERPINE1 polymorphism with a higher level of SERPINE1 protein in patients with HCC with HBV(+)/HCV(+) than those without infection, suggest the presence of two distinct pathogenic mechanisms in hepatocarcinogenesis, depending on the etiology.

  20. Polymorphisms in key bone modulator cytokines genes influence bisphosphonates therapy in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lima, C A D; Javorski, N R; Souza, A P O; Barbosa, A D; Valença, A P M C; Crovella, S; Souza, P R E; De Azevedo Silva, J; Sandrin-Garcia, P

    2017-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a multifactorial and debilitating disease resulting from decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and loss of tissue microarchitecture. Ineffective therapies may lead to bone fractures and subsequent death. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key immune regulator genes have been associated with therapeutic response to bisphosphonates, which are the first therapeutic line of choice for osteoporosis. However, cytokine pathways and their relation with therapeutic adhesion remain to be fully elucidated. Aimed at better understanding these processes, we investigated the response to bisphosphonate therapy in postmenopausal women and four SNPs in key proinflammatory cytokines genes: IL23R +2284 (C>A) (rs10889677), IL17A +672 (G>A) (rs7747909), IL12B +1188 (T>G) (rs3212227) and INF-γ -1616 (G>A) (rs2069705). A total of 69 patients treated with bisphosphonate were followed for a period of 1 up to 4 years, genotyped and compared according to their changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and level of biochemical markers during their treatment. The INF-γ -1616 G/G associated with increased BMD values in femoral neck (GG/AA, p = 0.016) and decreased BMD values in total hip (GG/GA, p = 0.019; GG/AA, p = 0.011). In relation to biochemical markers, INF-γ -1616 SNP associated with increased alkaline phosphatase (GG/AA; p < 0.0001) and parathyroid hormone levels (AA/GA; p = 0.017). Vitamin D values changes were related to IL17A +672 (GG/GA, p = 0.034) and to IL12B +1188 (TT/TG, p = 0.046) SNPs. Besides, significant differences in changes of calcium levels correlated with IL23R +2284 (CC/CA, p = 0.016) genotypes. Altogether, we suggest that these polymorphisms may play an important role for therapeutic decisions in osteoporosis treatment.

  1. Common SSRI side-effects in older adults associated with genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter and receptors: Data from a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, Lauren D.; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Lotrich, Francis E.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Kristjansson, Sean D.; Doré, Peter M.; Lenze, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Antidepressant side-effects are a significant public health issue, associated with poor adherence, premature treatment discontinuation and in rare cases significant harm. This is especially relevant for older adults, who assume the largest and most serious burden of medication side-effects. We investigated the association between antidepressant side-effects and genetic variation in the serotonin system in anxious, older adults participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the SSRI escitalopram. Method Adults (n=177) aged ≥ 60 years were randomized to active treatment or placebo for 12-weeks. Side-effects were assessed using the UKU side effect rating scale. Genetic polymorphisms were putative functional variants in the promoters of the serotonin transporter and 1A and 2A receptors (5-HTTLPR (L/S + rs25531), HTR1A rs6295, HTR2A rs6311, respectively). Results Four significant drug-placebo side-effect differences were found, including increased duration of sleep, dry mouth, diarrhea and diminished sexual desire. Analyses using putative high- vs low-transcription genotype groupings revealed 6 pharmacogenetic effects: greater dry mouth and decreased sexual desire for the low- and high-expressing genotypes of the serotonin transporter, respectively, and greater diarrhea with the low-transcription genotype of the 1A receptor. Diminished sexual desire was experienced significantly more in those with high-expressing genotype and either the serotonin transporter, 1A or 2A receptors. There was not a significant relationship between drug concentration and side-effects nor a mean difference in drug concentration between low- and high-expressing genotypes. Conclusion Genetic variation in the 5HT system may predict who develops common SSRI side-effects and why. More work is needed to further characterize this genetic modulation and to translate research findings into strategies useful for more personalized patient care. PMID:24021217

  2. Most common single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with rheumatoid arthritis in persons of European ancestry confer risk of rheumatoid arthritis in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Laura B; Reynolds, Richard J; Brown, Elizabeth E; Kelley, James M; Thomson, Brian; Conn, Doyt L; Jonas, Beth L; Westfall, Andrew O; Padilla, Miguel A; Callahan, Leigh F; Smith, Edwin A; Brasington, Richard D; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Kimberly, Robert P; Moreland, Larry W; Plenge, Robert M; Bridges, S Louis

    2010-12-01

    Large-scale genetic association studies have identified >20 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk alleles among individuals of European ancestry. The influence of these risk alleles has not been comprehensively studied in African Americans. We therefore sought to examine whether these validated RA risk alleles are associated with RA risk in an African American population. Twenty-seven candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 556 autoantibody-positive African Americans with RA and 791 healthy African American control subjects. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for each SNP were compared with previously published ORs for RA patients of European ancestry. We then calculated a composite genetic risk score (GRS) for each individual based on the sum of all risk alleles. Overlap of the ORs and 95% CIs between the European and African American populations was observed for 24 of the 27 candidate SNPs. Conversely, 3 of the 27 SNPs (CCR6 rs3093023, TAGAP rs394581, and TNFAIP3 rs6920220) demonstrated ORs in the opposite direction from those reported for RA patients of European ancestry. The GRS analysis indicated a small but highly significant probability that African American patients relative to control subjects were enriched for the risk alleles validated in European RA patients (P = 0.00005). The majority of RA risk alleles previously validated for RA patients of European ancestry showed similar ORs in our population of African Americans with RA. Furthermore, the aggregate GRS supports the hypothesis that these SNPs are risk alleles for RA in the African American population. Future large-scale genetic studies are needed to validate these risk alleles and identify novel RA risk alleles in African Americans. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  3. [Influence of salt stress on the genetically polymorphic system of Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago truncatula].

    PubMed

    Kurchak, O N; Provorov, N A; Onishchuk, O P; Vorobyov, N I; Roumiantseva, M L; Simarov, B V

    2014-07-01

    The impacts of salt stress (75 mM NaC1) on the ecological efficiency of the genetically polymorphic Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago truncatula system were studied. Its impact on a symbiotic system results in an increase of the partners' variability for symbiotic traits and of the symbiosis integrity as indicated by: a) the specificity of the partners' interactions--the nonadditive inputs of their genotypes into the variation of symbiotic parameters; and b) the correlative links between these parameters. The structure of the nodDI locus and the content correlates to the efficiency of the symbiosis between S. meliloti and M. truncatula genotypes under stress conditions more sufficiently than in the absence of stress. Correlations between the symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia strains and their growth rate outside symbiosis are expressed under stress conditions, not in the absence of stress. Under salt stress symbiotic effectiveness was decreased for M. truncatula line F83005.5, which was salt sensitive for mineral nutrition. The inhibition of symbiotic activity for this line is linked with decreased nodule formation, whereas for Jemalong 6 and DZA315.16 lines it is associated with repressed N2-fixation. It was demonstrated for the first time that salt stress impairs the M. truncatula habitus (the mass : height ratio increased 2- to 6-fold), which in the salt-resistant cultivar Jemalong 6 is normalized as the result of rhizobia inoculation.

  4. Is there an ACE ID - ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms interaction that influences sprint performance?

    PubMed

    Eynon, N; Alves, A J; Yamin, C; Sagiv, M; Duarte, J A; Oliveira, J; Ayalon, M; Goldhammer, E; Sagiv, M; Meckel, Y

    2009-12-01

    Functional R577X (rs.1815739) and ID (rs.5186) polymorphisms in the alpha-actinin-3 ( ACTN3) and the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genes, respectively, have been associated with sprint performance. The aim of this study was to determine their effect on sprint performance among 81 Israeli sprinters and 240 healthy controls. Results revealed that the ACE II genotype+ ACTN3 R allele (P=0.003 for sprinters vs. controls), and the ACTN3 RR genotype +ACE I allele (P=0.001 for sprinters vs. controls) might be the genotype for sprinters. In the whole cohort the probability of ACTN3 RR genotype+ ACE I allele being a sprinter (odds ratio 2.67, 95% confidence interval 1.45-4.93) and of ACE II genotype+ ACTN3 R allele being a sprinter (odds ratio 3.57, 95% confidence interval 1.78-7.15) was significantly higher than that in the controls. In conclusion, the above data suggest that ACE ID/ ACTN3 R577X genotype combination is associated with sprint ability. However, ACE ID/ ACTN3 R577X genotype combination is not related to the level of performance.

  5. Influence of carboxylesterase 2 genetic polymorphisms on mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetics in Japanese renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Fujiyama, N; Miura, M; Satoh, S; Inoue, K; Kagaya, H; Saito, M; Habuchi, T; Suzuki, T

    2009-05-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA), converted from the prodrug mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), is generated by intestinal and hepatic esterases. The role of carboxylesterase (CES) in MMF hydrolysis was examined in vitro using human liver microsomes. V(max) and K(m) values of MMF hydrolysis in pooled human liver microsomes were 1368 +/- 44 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein and 1030 +/- 65 microM, respectively. Hydrolytic activity was inhibited by the CES inhibitors phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, bis-p-nitorophenylphosphate and diisopropylfluorophosphate, with IC(50) values of 77.1, 3.59 and 0.0312 microM, respectively. Eighty Japanese renal transplant recipients that received repeated-doses of MMF, tacrolimus and prednisolone,were evaluated for MPA pharmacokinetics 28 days after transplantation to investigate the relationship between MPA pharmacokinetics and CES2 genetic polymorphisms. No significant differences in MPA pharmacokinetics were observed between CES2 A4595G, C8721T orA-1548G genotype groups. CES2 allelic variants also did not appear to affect plasma MPA concentrations between individuals. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that while CES1 and/or CES2 are involved in the hydrolysis of MMF to MPA, CES2 allelic variants appeared to make only a minor contribution to inter-personal differences in MPA pharmacokinetics.

  6. [Influence of the -866G/A polymorphism of the UCP2 gene on an obese pediatric population].

    PubMed

    Zurbano, R; Ochoa, M C; Moreno-Aliaga, M J; Martínez, J A; Marti, A

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of -866G/A mutation of UCP2 gene and to study its influence on the phenotype of obese children (11-12 years old) from Navarra. BACKGROUND AND STUDY SETTING: Obesity is a disease with a multifactorial origin that may related be to the presence of mutations and polymorphisms in several candidate genes. The gene of the uncoupling protein UCP2 is one of the most studied ones in relation to obesity because it seems to participate in body composition and several metabolic processes control. Three polymorphisms have been described for this gene: an insertion/deletion of 45 nucleotides, a nucleotide change of guanine for adenine in -866 position, an another change that replaces alanine for valine at amino acid position 55. According to several studies, the -866G allele is related to an increased risk of developing obesity, although the results are contradictory about this association in the literature. The study was carried out on 125 obese children (52% male), aged 11-12 years, selected through the Pediatric Endocrinology Departments of Clínica Universitaria and Hospital Virgen del Camino of Pamplona (Spain), the reported results on this association are contradictory. After checking the inclusion criteria, anthropometrical data (weight, height, BMI, tricipital and subscapular skinfolds) were taken, and the percentage of fat mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Besides, plasma levels of total cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and leptin were measured. DNA was extracted from white blood cells to determine the genotype by PCR technique followed by BstUI digestion and further visualization in agarose gel with 2% ethidium bromide. The genetic analysis revealed a 0.404 frequency of the allele A, with a percentage of individuals G/G, G/A, and A/A of 40.0%, 39.2%, and 20.8%, respectively. Carriers of the A allele had a significantly higher sum of tricipital and subscapular folds (p = 0.034). No

  7. Influence of ALA54THR polymorphism of fatty acid-binding protein 2 on obesity and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Sagrado, M G; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Conde, R

    2007-11-01

    A transition of G to A at codon 54 of FABP2 results in an amino acid substitution (Ala54 to Thr54). This polymorphism was associated with some cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Thr54 polymorphism in the FABP2 gene on obesity anthropometric parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. A population of 226 obesity (body mass index >30) nondiabetic outpatients were analyzed. An indirect calorimetry, tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance, blood pressure, a serial assessment of nutritional intake with 3 days of written food records, and biochemical analysis (lipid profile, adipocytokines, insulin, CRP, and lipoprotein-a) were performed. The statistical analysis was performed for the combined ALA54/THR54 and THR54/THR54 as a mutant group and wild type ALA54/ALA54 as a second group. Two-hundred and twenty-six patients gave informed consent and were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 44.2+/-16 years and the mean BMI 35.1+/-5.1, with 63 males (28.3%) and 163 females (71.7%). One-hundred and thirteen patients (50%) had the genotype ALA54/ALA54 (wild group) and 113 (50%) patients had the genotype ALA54/THR54 (91 patients, 40.2%) or THR54/THR54 (22 patients, 9.8%) (mutant group). The ANOVA analysis of the three groups ( ALA54/THR54, THR54/THR54 and ALA54/ALA54) shows a higher levels of fat mass in Thr54/Thr54 group (45.6+/-14.6 kg) than Ala54/Ala54 (37.5+/-11.2 kg: p<0.05), without differences with Ala54/Thr54 group (41.2+/-13.5 kg). CRP, IL-6, and lipoprotein-a were higher in mutant group ( ALA54/THR54, THR54/THR54) than in wild group ( ALA54/ALA54). The novel finding of this study is the association of the Thr54/Ala54 and Thr54/Thr54 FABP2 phenotypes with higher levels of C reactive protein, IL6, and lipoprotein-a. Further studies are needed to explain the role of this polymorphism in different populations.

  8. Influence of ApoE and FABP2 polymorphisms and environmental factors in the susceptibility to gallstone disease.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Curiel-Lopez, Fatima; Hernandez-Nazara, Alejandro; Moreno-Luna, Laura E; Ramos-Marquez, Martha E; Roman, Sonia; Panduro, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Gallstone disease (GSD) is a common chronic disease in the Western hemisphere, yet environmental and genetic factors may be responsible for the variations in the prevalence of GSD among populations. To analyze the relationship of the ApoE and FABP2 polymorphisms with diet, physical activity and emotional health in patients with GSD from West Mexico. A total of 120 patients with GSD and 370 healthy subjects were enrolled. Anthropometric, biochemical, nutritional, clinical and physical activity parameters were measured. ApoE and FABP2 genotypes were assesed by PCR-RFLPs assays. ApoE E3/E4 genotype and the ApoE E4 allele was highly prevalent among the GSD patients compared to the controls (32% vs. 12.0% and 22% vs. 8.4% respectively p < 0.01). Patients with the Apo E4 allele showed an upward trend of cholesterol levels compared to non-Apo E4 allele carriers (E4 186 ± 30 mg/dL; E3 143 ± 37 mg/dL; E2 129 ± 34 mg/dL). High triglyceride levels were associated with patients that were FABP2 Thr54 allele carriers (p < 0.05) but lacked association with GSD. This may be due to changes in dietary fats after GSD diagnosis, masking the clinical course of the disease. Sedentary lifestyle and negative emotions were detected in 83% and 63% of patients, respectively. These data suggest that the Apo E4 allele could confer genetic susceptibility for the development of GSD among the Mexican population. The Ala54Thr polymorphism of FABP2 was associated with high triglycerides levels, but not to GSD; suggesting that environmental factors modulate such susceptibility.

  9. The influence of genetic polymorphisms on the efficacy and side effects of anastrozole in postmenopausal breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, Murtala B; Wei, Keat; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is a common cause of cancer mortality among women. Several genetic factors have been implicated in its development. Current treatment guidelines for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer recommend that anastrozole [or any of the other two aromatase inhibitors (letrozole and exemestane)] is used as an alternative to tamoxifen or following several years of tamoxifen treatment. Nevertheless, this approach is still associated with many challenges, ranging from the recurrence of breast cancer to considerable interindividual variability in the tolerability of anastrozole, which may cause adverse effects, such as musculoskeletal symptoms, and lead to the withdrawal of many patients from treatment. Variabilities in the genes encoding the drug target (aromatase) or its metabolizing enzymes (CYP3A and UGT1A) contribute toward the interindividual variability in anastrozole's pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics. This paper reviews the role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP19A1, CYP3A4, and UGT1A4 in the responses of female hormone receptor-positive postmenopausal breast cancer patients to anastrozole. Many reviews in the literature have suggested that the study of functional polymorphisms and investigation of relevant genetic markers may provide valuable information in predicting responses to anastrozole in terms of its therapeutic and adverse effects. Nevertheless, more studies are required before the knowledge of its pharmacogenomics can be applied to the individualization of treatment to ensure that patients receive the maximum benefits. Therefore, future analyses, including but not limited to genome-wide association studies, are encouraged to address some of the gray areas in the pharmacogenomics of anastrozole therapy in postmenopausal breast cancer cases; this will help in providing guidance for future pharmacogenomics protocols when anastrozole is utilized in patients' management.

  10. Influence of the ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism on insulin sensitivity and impaired glucose tolerance in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Fabrice; Patel, Sheila; Laville, Martine; Balkau, Beverley; Favuzzi, Angela; Monti, Lucilla D; Lalic, Nebojsa; Walker, Mark

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies suggested that the blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may be associated with metabolic benefits. However, data about the potential influence of the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) genotype on insulin resistance have been contradictory with studies of limited sample sizes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ACE gene I/D polymorphism and both insulin sensitivity and glucose intolerance in a large cohort of healthy subjects. A total of 1,286 participants in the Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Study had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to assess whole-body insulin sensitivity. Age, BMI, waist, fat-free mass (ffm), and physical activity did not differ by ACE genotype. Fasting glucose and insulin were similar among genotypes, but 2-h glucose levels were higher in DD than in ID and II subjects (DD: 5.9 +/- 1.7; ID: 5.7 +/- 1.5; II: 5.6 +/- 1.5 mmol/l) (P = 0.004). Participants with the DD genotype were more likely to have impaired glucose tolerance than those with the ID and II genotypes (13.1 vs. 8.7%; P = 0.02). Insulin sensitivity was lower in participants with the DD genotype than in those with the II genotype (136 +/- 63 vs. 147 +/- 65 micromol x min(-1)x kg ffm(-1) x mmol(-1) x l(-1); P = 0.02). The presence of the D allele was associated with a trend, albeit not significant, for reduced insulin secretion during the oral glucose tolerance test (P = 0.07). The ACE I/D polymorphism is associated with whole-body insulin sensitivity and with impaired glucose tolerance in our healthy population. These findings confirm potential interactions between the RAS and glucose metabolism.

  11. The AIRE -230Y Polymorphism Affects AIRE Transcriptional Activity: Potential Influence on AIRE Function in the Thymus.

    PubMed

    Lovewell, Thomas R J; McDonagh, Andrew J; Messenger, Andrew G; Azzouz, Mimoun; Tazi-Ahnini, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is expressed in the thymus, particularly in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTECs), and is required for the ectopic expression of a diverse range of peripheral tissue antigens by mTECs, facilitating their ability to perform negative selection of auto-reactive immature T-cells. The expression profile of peripheral tissue antigens is affected not only by AIRE deficiency but also with variation of AIRE activity in the thymus. Therefore we screened 591bp upstream of the AIRE transcription start site including AIRE minimal promoter for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and identified two SNPs -655R (rs117557896) and -230Y (rs751032) respectively. To study the effect of these variations on AIRE promoter activity we generated a Flp-In host cell line which was stably transfected with a single copy of the reporter vector. Relative promoter activity was estimated by comparing the luciferase specific activity for lysates of the different reporter AIRE promoter-reporter gene constructs including AIRE-655G AIRE-230C, AIRE-655G AIRE-230T and AIRE-655A AIRE-230C. The analysis showed that the commonest haplotype AIRE-655G AIRE-230C has the highest luciferase specific activity (p<0.001). Whereas AIRE-655G AIRE-230T has a luciferase specific activity value that approaches null. Both AIRE promoter polymorphic sites have one allele that forms a CpG methylation site which we determined can be methylated in methylation assays using the M.SssI CpG methyltransferase. AIRE-230Y is in a conserved region of the promoter and is adjacent to a predicted WT1 transcription factor binding site, suggesting that AIRE-230Y affects AIRE expression by influencing the binding of biochemical factors to this region. Our findings show that AIRE-655GAIRE-230T haplotype could dramatically alter AIRE transcription and so have an effect on the process of negative selection and affect susceptibility to autoimmune conditions.

  12. Influence of mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphisms on the invasiveness of cytomegalovirus disease after solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cervera, C; Lozano, F; Linares, L; Antón, A; Balderramo, D; Suárez, B; Pascal, M; Sanclemente, G; Cofán, F; Ricart, M J; Navasa, M; Roig, E; Marcos, M A; Pumarola, T; Moreno, A

    2009-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a component of the innate immune system that binds the surface of pathogens, activating the complement pathway and acting as opsonin. Certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MBL2 are associated with a decrease in the circulating levels of MBL. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of MBL2 polymorphisms in the invasiveness of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease after solid organ transplantation. We include those solid organ transplant recipients who developed CMV disease posttransplant from 2000 to 2006. MBL2 genotyping was performed by sequencing of exon 1 (wild-type allele A and variants B, C, and D) and promoter regions (alleles H and L, X and Y, and P and Q). In the case of liver transplantation, donor MBL2 genotypes were analyzed. Associations were calculated by the chi-square test and binary logistic regression. We included 45 transplant recipients with CMV disease (22 renal, 7 simultaneous kidney-pancreas, 11 liver, and 5 heart), of whom 10 (22%) had invasive CMV disease. No differences were found regarding HH (versus HL or LL), YY and YX (versus XX) and QQ (versus QP and PP) haplotypes with invasive CMV disease (P = 1.000 for all 3 comparisons). Patients with an exon 1 wild-type (AA) haplotype had 36% invasive CMV disease in comparison with 9% of patients with A/O or O/O haplotypes (P = .035). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that patients with exon 1 AA haplotype had an independent risk of developing invasive CMV disease (odds ratio, 6.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-32.5). Our results suggest that exon 1 wild-type genotypes are associated with a higher risk of invasive CMV disease after solid organ transplantation.

  13. A Polymorphism in the Regulatory Region of the CC-Chemokine Receptor 5 Gene Influences Perinatal Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 to African-American Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kostrikis, Leondios G.; Neumann, Avidan U.; Thomson, Bruce; Korber, Bette T.; McHardy, Paul; Karanicolas, Rose; Deutsch, Lisa; Huang, Yaoxing; Lew, Judy F.; McIntosh, Kenneth; Pollack, Henry; Borkowsky, William; Spiegel, Hans M. L.; Palumbo, Paul; Oleske, James; Bardeguez, Arlene; Luzuriaga, Katherine; Sullivan, John; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Koup, Richard A.; Ho, David D.; Moore, John P.

    1999-01-01

    There are natural mutations in the coding and noncoding regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CC-chemokine coreceptor 5 (CCR5) and in the related CCR2 protein (the CCR2-64I mutation). Individuals homozygous for the CCR5-Δ32 allele, which prevents CCR5 expression, strongly resist HIV-1 infection. Several genetic polymorphisms have been identified within the CCR5 5′ regulatory region, some of which influence the rate of disease progression in adult AIDS study cohorts. We genotyped 1,442 infants (1,235 uninfected and 207 HIV-1 infected) for five CCR5 and CCR2 polymorphisms: CCR5-59353-T/C, CCR5-59356-C/T CCR5-59402-A/G, CCR5-Δ32, and CCR2-64I. The clinical significance of each genotype was assessed by measuring whether it influenced the rate of perinatal HIV-1 transmission among 667 AZT-untreated mother-infant pairs (554 uninfected and 113 HIV-1 infected). We found that the mutant CCR5-59356-T allele is relatively common in African-Americans (20.6% allele frequency among 552 infants) and rare in Caucasians and Hispanics (3.4 and 5.6% of 174 and 458 infants, respectively; P < 0.001). There were 38 infants homozygous for CCR5-59356-T, of whom 35 were African-Americans. Among the African-American infants in the AZT-untreated group, there was a highly significant increase in HIV-1 transmission to infants with two mutant CCR5-59356-T alleles (47.6% of 21), compared to those with no or one mutant allele (13.4 to 14.1% of 187 and 71, respectively; P < 0.001). The increased relative risk was 5.9 (95% confidence interval, 2.3 to 15.3; P < 0.001). The frequency of the CCR5-59356-T mutation varies between population groups in the United States, a low frequency occurring in Caucasians and a higher frequency occurring in African-Americans. Homozygosity for CCR5-59356-T is strongly associated with an increased rate of perinatal HIV-1 transmission. PMID:10559343

  14. COMT Val158Met polymorphism interacts with stressful life events and parental warmth to influence decision making.

    PubMed

    He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chunhui; Lei, Xuemei; Liu, Yuyun; Li, Jin; Zhu, Bi; Moyzis, Robert K; Dong, Qi; Bechara, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors have been shown to influence decision making, but their relative contributions and interactions are not well understood. The present study aimed to reveal possible gene-environment interactions on decision making in a large healthy sample. Specifically, we examined how the frequently studied COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism interacted with an environmental risk factor (i.e., stressful life events) and a protective factor (i.e., parental warmth) to influence affective decision making as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. We found that stressful life events acted as a risk factor for poor IGT performance (i.e., high reward sensitivity) among Met carriers, whereas parental warmth acted as a protective factor for good IGT performance (i.e., higher IGT score) among Val/Val homozygotes. These results shed some new light on gene-environment interactions in decision making, which could potentially help us understand the underlying etiology of several psychiatric disorders associated with decision making impairment.

  15. [Caffeine--common ingredient in a diet and its influence on human health].

    PubMed

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed by people of all ages. In the last period a market of caffeine-containing products, particularly energy drinks and food supplements increased. Caffeine for years is under discussion, whether has positive whether adverse impact on health. Children are a group of special anxieties. Caffeine is a stimulant of central nervous system and therefore is probably the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world. The physiological effect of caffeine and the lack of nutrition value causes a great interest its impact on health, especially with reference to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Results of scientific research are not clear. The influence of caffeine on the human body is conditioned with the individual metabolism of caffeine which also depends on many endogenic and environmental factors. According to the current knowledge moderate caffeine intake by healthy adults at a dose level of 400 mg a day is not associated with adverse effects, but it also depends on other health determinants of a lifestyle. Excessive caffeine consumption can cause negative health consequences such as psychomotor agitation, insomnia, headache, gastrointestinal complaints. Adverse effect of caffeine intoxication is classified in World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Metabolism of caffeine by pregnant woman is slowed down. Caffeine and its metabolites pass freely across the placenta into a fetus. For this reason pregnant women should limit caffeine intake. Children and adolescents should also limit daily caffeine consumption. It results from the influence of caffeine on the central nervous system in the period of rapid growth and the final stage of brain development, calcium balance and sleep duration. Average daily caffeine consumption in European countries ranging from 280-490 mg. The highest caffeine intake is in Scandinavian countries what results from the great consumption of the coffee. As far as caffeine

  16. The Influence of Dopamine Receptor D4 Polymorphism on Resting EEG in Healthy Young Females

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tien-Wen; Yu, Younger W.-Y; Hong, Chen-Jee; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Wu, Hung-Chi; Chen, Tai-Jui

    2012-01-01

    The polymorphism of variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) in dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene exon III has been linked to various neuro-psychiatric conditions with disinhibition/impulsivity as one of the core features. This study examined the modulatory effects of long-allele variant of DRD4 VNTR on the regional neural activity as well as inter-regional neural interactions in a young female population. Blood sample and resting state eyes-closed EEG signals were collected in 233 healthy females, stratified into two groups by polymerase chain reaction: long-allele carriers (>4- repeat) and non-carriers (<=4-repeat/<=4-repeat). The values of mean power of 18 electrodes and mutual information of 38 channel pairs across theta, alpha, and beta frequencies were analyzed. Our connectivity analysis was based on information theory, which combined Morlet wavelet transform and mutual information calculation. Between-group differences of regional power and connectivity strength were quantified by independent t-test, while between-group differences in global trends were examined by non-parametric analyses. We noticed that DRD4 VNTR long-allele was associated with decreased global connectivity strength (from non-parametric analysis), especially over bi-frontal, biparietal and right fronto-parietal and right fronto-temporal connections (from independent t-tests). The between-group differences in regional power were not robust. Our findings fit with the networks of response inhibition, providing evidence bridging DRD4 long-allele and disinhibition/impulsivity in neuropsychiatric disorders. We suggest future DRD4 studies of imaging genetics incorporate connectivity analysis to unveil its impact on cerebral network. PMID:22448208

  17. Influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms on thrombin generation in factor V Leiden heterozygotes.

    PubMed

    Segers, O; Simioni, P; Tormene, D; Castoldi, E

    2014-03-03

    Carriership of the factor V (FV) Leiden mutation increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) ~4-fold, but the individual risk of each FV Leiden carrier depends on several co-inherited risk and protective factors. Under the hypothesis that thrombin generation might serve as an intermediate phenotype to identify genetic modulators of VTE risk, we enrolled 188 FV Leiden heterozygotes (11 with VTE) and determined the following parameters: thrombin generation in the absence and presence of activated protein C (APC); plasma levels of prothrombin, factor X, antithrombin, protein S and tissue factor pathway inhibitor; and the genotypes of 24 SNPs located in the genes encoding these coagulation factors and inhibitors. Multiple regression analysis was subsequently applied to identify the (genetic) determinants of thrombin generation. The endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) showed a striking inter-individual variability among different FV Leiden carriers and, especially when measured in the presence of APC, correlated with VTE risk. Several SNPs in the F2 (rs1799963, rs3136516), F10 (rs693335), SERPINC1 (rs2227589), PROS1 (Heerlen polymorphism) and TFPI (rs5940) genes significantly affected the ETP-APC and/or the ETP+APC in FV Leiden carriers. Most of these SNPs have shown an association with VTE risk in conventional epidemiological studies, suggesting that the genetic dissection of thrombin generation leads to the detection of clinically relevant SNPs. In conclusion, we have identified several SNPs that modulate thrombin generation in FV Leiden heterozygotes. These SNPs may help explain the large variability in VTE risk observed among different FV Leiden carriers.

  18. Influence of Multiple Genetic Polymorphisms on Genitourinary Morbidity After Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suga, Tomo; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Oda, Eisei; Noda, Shuhei; Otsuka, Yoshimi; Ishikawa, Atsuko; Ishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Shimazaki, Jun; Mizoe, Jun-Etsu; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Imai, Takashi

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the genetic risk of late urinary morbidity after carbon ion radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 197 prostate cancer patients who had undergone carbon ion radiotherapy were evaluated for urinary morbidity. The distribution of patients with dysuria was as follows: Grade 0, 165; Grade 1, 28; and Grade 2, 4 patients. The patients were divided (2:1) consecutively into the training and test sets and then categorized into control (Grade 0) and case (Grade 1 or greater) groups. First, 450 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 118 candidate genes were genotyped in the training set. The associations between the SNP genotypes and urinary morbidity were assessed using Fisher's exact test. Then, various combinations of the markers were tested for their ability to maximize the area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUC-ROC) curve analysis results. Finally, the test set was validated for the selected markers. Results: When the SNP markers in the SART1, ID3, EPDR1, PAH, and XRCC6 genes in the training set were subjected to AUC-ROC curve analysis, the AUC-ROC curve reached a maximum of 0.86. The AUC-ROC curve of these markers in the test set was 0.77. The SNPs in these five genes were defined as 'risk genotypes.' Approximately 90% of patients in the case group (Grade 1 or greater) had three or more risk genotypes. Conclusions: Our results have shown that patients with late urinary morbidity after carbon ion radiotherapy can be stratified according to the total number of risk genotypes they harbor.

  19. Oxytocin Gene Polymorphisms Influence Human Dopaminergic Function in a Sex Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Love, Tiffany M.; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Pecina, Marta; Mickey, Brian; Koeppe, Robert A.; Stohler, Christian S.; Goldman, David; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2012-01-01

    Background Oxytocin, classically involved in social and reproductive activities, is increasingly recognized as an antinociceptive and anxiolytic agent, effects which may be mediated via oxytocin’s interactions with the dopamine system. Thus, genetic variation within the oxytocin gene (OXT) is likely to explain variability in dopamine-related stress responses. As such, we examined how OXT variation is associated with stress-induced dopaminergic neurotransmission in a healthy human sample. Method Fifty-five young healthy volunteers were scanned using [11C] raclopride positron emission tomography while they underwent a standardized physical and emotional stressor that consisted of moderate levels of experimental sustained deep muscle pain, and a baseline, control state. Four haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms located in regions near OXT were genotyped. Measures of pain, affect, anxiety, well-being and interpersonal attachment were also assessed. Results Female rs4813625 C allele carriers demonstrated greater stress-induced dopamine release, measured as reductions in receptor availability from baseline to the pain-stress condition relative to female GG homozygotes. No significant differences were detected among males. We also observed that female rs4813625 C allele carriers exhibited higher attachment anxiety, higher trait anxiety and lower emotional well-being scores. In addition, greater stress-induced dopamine release was associated with lower emotional well-being scores in female rs4813625 C allele carriers. Conclusions Our results suggest that variability within the oxytocin gene appear to explain interindividual differences in dopaminergic responses to stress, which are shown to be associated with anxiety traits, including those linked to attachment style, as well as emotional well-being in women. PMID:22418012

  20. Influence of three common calibration metrics on the diagnosis of climate change impacts on water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiller, G.; Roy, R.; Anctil, F.

    2017-04-01

    Uncertainties associated to the evaluation of the impacts of climate change on water resources are broad, from multiple sources, and lead to diagnoses sometimes difficult to interpret. Quantification of these uncertainties is a key element to yield confidence in the analyses and to provide water managers with valuable information. This work specifically evaluates the influence of hydrological modeling calibration metrics on future water resources projections, on thirty-seven watersheds in the Province of Québec, Canada. Twelve lumped hydrologic models, representing a wide range of operational options, are calibrated with three common objective functions derived from the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. The hydrologic models are forced with climate simulations corresponding to two RCP, twenty-nine GCM from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) and two post-treatment techniques, leading to future projections in the 2041-2070 period. Results show that the diagnosis of the impacts of climate change on water resources are quite affected by the hydrologic models selection and calibration metrics. Indeed, for the four selected hydrological indicators, dedicated to water management, parameters from the three objective functions can provide different interpretations in terms of absolute and relative changes, as well as projected changes direction and climatic ensemble consensus. The GR4J model and a multimodel approach offer the best modeling options, based on calibration performance and robustness. Overall, these results illustrate the need to provide water managers with detailed information on relative changes analysis, but also absolute change values, especially for hydrological indicators acting as security policy thresholds.

  1. Plant Ontogeny, Spatial Distance, and Soil Type Influence Patterns of Relatedness in a Common Amazonian Tree

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Carlos Eduardo A.; Misiewicz, Tracy M.; Fine, Paul V. A.; Costa, Flávia R. C.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of spatial genetic structure (SGS) may originate from different patterns of seed deposition in the landscape, and is mostly determined by seed dispersal limitation. After dispersal, mechanisms such as filtering by environmental factors or attack by herbivores/pathogens throughout plant development stages, and potentially either disrupt or intensify SGS patterns. We investigated how the genotype of Protium subserratum (Burseraceae), a common tree species in the Ducke Reserve, Brazil, is distributed across the landscape. We used seven microsatellite markers to assess the SGS among plants at different life stages and in different environments. By quantifying the patterns of relatedness among plants of different sizes, we inferred the ontogenetic stage in which SGS changes occurred, and compared these effects across soil types. Relatedness among seedlings decreased when distance between seedlings increased, especially for the youngest seedlings. However, this trend was not continued by older plants, as relatedness values were higher among neighboring individuals of the juvenile and adult size class. Contrasting relatedness patterns between seedlings and larger individuals suggests a trade-off between the negative effects of being near closely-related adults (e.g. due to herbivore and pathogen attack) and the advantage of being in a site favorable to establishment. We also found that soil texture strongly influenced density-dependence patterns, as young seedlings in clay soils were more related to each other than were seedlings in bottomland sandy soils, suggesting that the mechanisms that create and maintain patterns of SGS within a population may interact with environmental heterogeneity. PMID:23667502

  2. Influence of polymorphisms in the NOD1/CARD4 and NOD2/CARD15 genes on the clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Rosenstiel, Philip; Hellmig, Stephan; Hampe, Jochen; Ott, Stefan; Till, Andreas; Fischbach, Wolfgang; Sahly, Hany; Lucius, Ralph; Fölsch, Ulrich R; Philpott, Dana; Schreiber, Stefan

    2006-07-01

    Host immune response influences the clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection leading to ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. A genetic risk profile for gastric cancer has been identified, but genetic susceptibility to develop MALT lymphoma is still unclear. We investigated the role of NOD1 and NOD2 as intracellular recognition molecules for pathogen-associated molecules in H. pylori infection in vitro and analysed the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms on susceptibility to ulcer disease and MALT lymphoma. Expression of NOD1 and NOD2 significantly sensitized HEK293 cells to H. pylori-induced NF-kappaB activation in a cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI)-dependent manner. In cells carrying the Crohn-associated NOD2 variant R702W the NF-kappaB response was significantly diminished. NOD1/NOD2 expression levels were induced in the gastric epithelium in H. pylori-positive patients. No mutations were found to be associated with gastritis or gastric ulcer development. However, the R702W mutation in the NOD2/CARD15 gene was significantly associated with gastric lymphoma. Carrier of the rare allele T had a more than doubled risk to develop lymphoma than controls [odds ratio (OR): 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-4.6; P < 0.044]. H. pylori-induced upregulation of NOD1 and NOD2 in vivo may play a critical role in the recognition of this common pathogen. A missense mutation in the leucine-rich region of CARD15 is associated with gastric lymphoma.

  3. Influence of the serotonin transporter 5HTTLPR polymorphism on symptom severity in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Colucci, Rocchina; Gambaccini, Dario; Ghisu, Narcisa; Rossi, Giuseppe; Costa, Francesco; Tuccori, Marco; De Bortoli, Nicola; Fornai, Matteo; Antonioli, Luca; Ricchiuti, Angelo; Mumolo, Maria Gloria; Marchi, Santino; Blandizzi, Corrado; Bellini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    5HTTLPR polymorphism of serotonin transporter yields short (S) and long (L) alleles. SS and LS genotypes are associated with reduced expression of serotonin transporter. This cross-sectional study investigated the association of 5HTTLPR with symptom severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients with IBS (Rome III) and healthy controls were included. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva, and 5HTTLPR alleles were assessed by polymerase chain reaction. IBS symptom severity was evaluated by means of IBS-SSS questionnaire. Two hundreds and four IBS patients (159 females; mean age: 39.6±12.3 years; 106 with constipation: C-IBS; 98 with diarrhea: D-IBS) and 200 healthy controls (154 females; mean age: 40.4±15.8 years) were enrolled. The overall IBS-SSS value was higher in LS/SS than LL patients (319.0±71.5 versus 283.8±62.3; P = 0.0006). LS/SS patients had also higher values of abdominal pain (59.7±21.0 versus 51.0±18.8; P = 0.020) and bowel dissatisfaction (80.1±23.9 versus 70.5±22.8; P = 0.035). The overall IBS-SSS values in C-IBS and D-IBS patients were 317.2±68.3 and 296.1±71.4, respectively (P = 0.192), with significantly higher values for abdominal distension (65.0±24.4 versus 51.4±24.8; P = 0.0006), but not for bowel dissatisfaction (80.5±21.7 versus 72.9±25.7; P = 0.138). Frequencies of 5HTTLPR genotypes did not differ significantly when comparing IBS patients (overall or upon stratification in C-IBS and D-IBS) with healthy controls. In conclusion, the LS and SS genotypes are significantly correlated with IBS symptom severity, although their possible direct causal role remains to be proven. In addition, the present findings do not support an association of 5HTTLPR with IBS or its clinical presentation in terms of bowel habit predominance.

  4. Influence of the Serotonin Transporter 5HTTLPR Polymorphism on Symptom Severity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Colucci, Rocchina; Gambaccini, Dario; Ghisu, Narcisa; Rossi, Giuseppe; Costa, Francesco; Tuccori, Marco; De Bortoli, Nicola; Fornai, Matteo; Antonioli, Luca; Ricchiuti, Angelo; Mumolo, Maria Gloria; Marchi, Santino; Blandizzi, Corrado; Bellini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    5HTTLPR polymorphism of serotonin transporter yields short (S) and long (L) alleles. SS and LS genotypes are associated with reduced expression of serotonin transporter. This cross-sectional study investigated the association of 5HTTLPR with symptom severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients with IBS (Rome III) and healthy controls were included. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva, and 5HTTLPR alleles were assessed by polymerase chain reaction. IBS symptom severity was evaluated by means of IBS-SSS questionnaire. Two hundreds and four IBS patients (159 females; mean age: 39.6±12.3 years; 106 with constipation: C-IBS; 98 with diarrhea: D-IBS) and 200 healthy controls (154 females; mean age: 40.4±15.8 years) were enrolled. The overall IBS-SSS value was higher in LS/SS than LL patients (319.0±71.5 versus 283.8±62.3; P = 0.0006). LS/SS patients had also higher values of abdominal pain (59.7±21.0 versus 51.0±18.8; P = 0.020) and bowel dissatisfaction (80.1±23.9 versus 70.5±22.8; P = 0.035). The overall IBS-SSS values in C-IBS and D-IBS patients were 317.2±68.3 and 296.1±71.4, respectively (P = 0.192), with significantly higher values for abdominal distension (65.0±24.4 versus 51.4±24.8; P = 0.0006), but not for bowel dissatisfaction (80.5±21.7 versus 72.9±25.7; P = 0.138). Frequencies of 5HTTLPR genotypes did not differ significantly when comparing IBS patients (overall or upon stratification in C-IBS and D-IBS) with healthy controls. In conclusion, the LS and SS genotypes are significantly correlated with IBS symptom severity, although their possible direct causal role remains to be proven. In addition, the present findings do not support an association of 5HTTLPR with IBS or its clinical presentation in terms of bowel habit predominance. PMID:23393559

  5. Association between two common polymorphisms (single nucleotide polymorphism -250G/A and -514C/T) of the hepatic lipase gene and coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Ghorban; Ghaffari, Mohammad-Ali; Bazyar, Mohammad; Kheirollah, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Variations in the hepatic lipase (HL) gene are the potential candidate for coronary artery disease (CAD) especially in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in diverse populations. We assessed the association of -514C/T and -250G/A polymorphisms in HL (LIPC) gene with CAD risk in Iranian population with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 322 type 2 diabetic patients, 166 patients with normal angiograms as controls and 156 patients those identified with CAD undergoing their first coronary angiography as CAD cases. Genotyping of -514C/T and -250G/A polymorphisms in the promoter of the LIPC gene were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Results: Genotype distributions in CAD cases (73.7%, 20.5%, and 5.8% for −250G/A) and (62.2%, 32.7%, and 5.1% for -514C/T) were significantly different from those in controls (60.8%, 37.4%, and 1.8% for -250G/A) and (51.2%, 48.2%, and 0.6% for -514C/T). CAD cases had lower A-allele frequency than controls (0.131 vs. 0.196, P = 0.028). The odds ratio for the presence of -250 (GG + GA) genotype and A allele in CAD cases were 2.206 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.33–3.65, P = 0.002) and 1.609 (95% CI = 1.051 −2.463, P = 0.029) respectively. Haplotype analysis demonstrated a significant association between especially LIPC double mutant (−250 A/-514 T) haplotype and presence of CAD. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that -250 G/A polymorphism rather than -514 C/T polymorphism of LIPC gene is more associated with the increased risk of CAD particularly in women with T2DM. PMID:27014654

  6. Polymorphic form of piroxicam influences the performance of amorphous material prepared by ball-milling.

    PubMed

    Naelapää, Kaisa; Boetker, Johan Peter; Veski, Peep; Rantanen, Jukka; Rades, Thomas; Kogermann, Karin

    2012-06-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the starting solid state form of piroxicam (anhydrate form I: PRXAH I vs form II: PRXAH II) on the properties of the resulting amorphous material. The second objective was to obtain further insight into the impact of critical factors like thermal stress, dissolution medium and storage conditions on the thermal behavior, solid state transformations and physical stability of amorphous materials. For analysis differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) were used. Pair-wise distribution function (PDF) analysis of the XRPD data was performed. PDF analysis indicated that the recrystallization behavior of amorphous samples was influenced by the amount of residual order in the samples. The recrystallization behavior of amorphous samples prepared from PRXAH I showed similarity to the starting material, whereas the recrystallization behavior of amorphous samples prepared from PRXAH II resembled to that of the PRX form III (PRXAH III). Multivariate data analysis (MVDA) helped to identify that the influence of storage time and temperature was more pronounced in the case of amorphous PRX prepared from PRXAH I. Furthermore, the wet slurry experiments with amorphous materials revealed the recrystallization of amorphous material as PRXMH in the biorelevant medium.

  7. Associations between two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2241766 and rs1501299) of ADIPOQ gene and coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shengjun; Ma, Qiang; Ma, Cong; Yang, Xiaolan; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Rui; Li, Jing; Yang, Xiaogang; Cui, Tao

    2017-01-01

    ADIPOQ gene polymorphisms were indicated to be associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetic patients, however, published studies reported inconsistent results. We performed this meta-analysis to reach a more accurate estimation of the relationship between two common ADIPOQ genetic polymorphisms (rs2241766 and rs1501299) and CAD risk in diabetic patients. Eligible studies were retrieved by searching PubMed, Embase, Wangfang, VIP database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Included and excluded criteria were formulated. The case group was diabetic patients with CAD, and the control group was diabetic subjects without CAD. Summary odds rations (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate ADIPOQ polymorphisms associations with CAD risk in diabetic group. Heterogeneity was evaluated by Q statistic and I2 statistic. A total of twelve published articles, involving 3996 cases and 8876 controls were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results from rs1501299 polymorphism showed decreased risk in homozygote model (TT VS GG: OR=0.67, 95%CI=0.54-0.83). Heterogeneity was detected in our study. Sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were conducted in the meta-analysis. For rs2241766 polymorphism, an increased risk was detected in Caucasian subgroup in heterozygote model (CT VS TT: OR=1.19, 95%CI=1.00-1.42). In genotyping method (PCR-RFLP) subgroup, an increased risk was found in recessive model (GG VS GT+TT: OR=2.05, 95%CI=1.23-3.39). In the sensitivity analysis of rs1501299, decreased risk was detected in allelic model (T VS G: OR=0.86, 95%CI=0.76-0.98) and recessive model (TT VS TG+GG: OR=0.47, 95%CI=0.33-0.67). Publication bias is not observed in our results. Our meta-analysis suggests that the rs1501299 polymorphism may play a protective role in CAD in diabetic patients. The rs2241766 polymorphism is found to be associated with a significant increase in CAD risk in Caucasian and genotyping method (PCR

  8. The effect of nine common polymorphisms in coagulation factor genes (F2, F5, F7, F12 and F13 ) on the effectiveness of statins: the GenHAT study.

    PubMed

    Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse; Peters, Bas J M; Lynch, Amy I; Boerwinkle, Eric; Arnett, Donna K; Cheng, Suzanne; Davis, Barry R; Leiendecker-Foster, Catherine; Ford, Charles E; Eckfeldt, John H

    2009-05-01

    Pharmacogenetic research has shown that genetic variation may influence statin responsiveness. Statins exert a variety of beneficial effects beyond lipid lowering, including antithrombotic effects, which contribute to the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease. Statins have been shown to influence the expression of coagulation factors II, V, VII, XII and XIII. Data from a large randomized clinical trial of pravastatin, designed to show efficacy relative to usual care, were used to investigate whether a pharmacogenetic effect of polymorphisms in genes coding for coagulation factors II, V, VII, XII and XIII is associated with reduced fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and nonfatal myocardial infarction, combined CHD and all-cause mortality. The Genetics of Hypertension Associated Treatment is an ancillary study of the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial. The genotyped population in the lipid-lowering trial of Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial included 9624 participants randomly assigned to pravastatin or to usual care. The efficacy of pravastatin in reducing risk of all-cause mortality, CHD and nonfatal myocardial infarction and combined CHD, was compared among genotype strata by examining an interaction term in a proportional hazards model. None of the polymorphisms were associated with the clinical outcomes. For the F7 (-323) ins/del polymorphism there was no interaction with pravastatin for either outcome. For both the F5 Arg506Gln G>A (rs6025) polymorphism and F7 Arg353Gln G>A (rs6046) polymorphism there were no interactions with pravastatin in relation to all-cause mortality, but there were significant interactions with combined CHD [interaction hazard ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval (1.01-1.76) and interaction hazard ratio = 1.92, 95% confidence interval (1.00-3.65), respectively]. There were no interactions between the polymorphisms in the other coagulation genes and

  9. The effect of nine common polymorphisms in coagulation factor genes (F2, F5, F7, F12 and F13) on the effectiveness of statins: the GenHAT study

    PubMed Central

    Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse; Peters, Bas J.M.; Lynch, Amy I.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Arnett, Donna K.; Cheng, Suzanne; Davis, Barry R.; Leiendecker-Foster, Catherine; Ford, Charles E.; Eckfeldt, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic research has shown that genetic variation may influence statin responsiveness. Statins exert a variety of beneficial effects beyond lipid lowering, including antithrombotic effects, which contribute to the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease. Statins have been shown to influence the expression of coagulation factors II, V, VII, XII and XIII. AimData from a large randomized clinical trial of pravastatin, designed to show efficacy relative to usual care, were used to investigate whether a pharmacogenetic effect of polymorphisms in genes coding for coagulation factors II, V, VII, XII and XIII is associated with reduced fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and nonfatal myocardial infarction, combined CHD and all-cause mortality. Methods The Genetics of Hypertension Associated Treatment is an ancillary study of the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial. The genotyped population in the lipid-lowering trial of Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial included 9624 participants randomly assigned to pravastatin or to usual care. The efficacy of pravastatin in reducing risk of all-cause mortality, CHD plus nonfatal myocardial infarction and combined CHD, was compared among genotype strata by examining an interaction term in a proportional hazards modelAQ2. Results None of the polymorphisms were associated with the clinical outcomes. For the F7 (−323) del/ins polymorphism there was no interaction with pravastatin for either outcome. For both the F5 Arg506Gln G>A (rs6025) polymorphism and F7 Arg353Gln G>A (rs6046) polymorphism there were no interactions with pravastatin in relation to all-cause mortality, but there were significant interactions with combined CHD [interaction hazard ratioλ=λ1.33, 95% confidence interval (1.01−1.76) and interaction hazard ratioλ=λ1.92, 95% confidence interval (1.00−3.65), respectively]AQ3. There were no interactions between the

  10. SLC22A3 polymorphisms do not modify pancreatic cancer risk, but may influence overall patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Mohelnikova-Duchonova, Beatrice; Strouhal, Ondrej; Hughes, David J.; Holcatova, Ivana; Oliverius, Martin; Kala, Zdenek; Campa, Daniele; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Canzian, Federico; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Malecka-Panas, Ewa; Sperti, Cosimo; Federico Zambon, Carlo; Pedrazzoli, Sergio; Fogar, Paola; Milanetto, Anna Caterina; Capurso, Gabriele; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Valente, Roberto; Gazouli, Maria; Malleo, Giuseppe; Teresa Lawlor, Rita; Strobel, Oliver; Hackert, Thilo; Giese, Nathalia; Vodicka, Pavel; Vodickova, Ludmila; Landi, Stefano; Tavano, Francesca; Gioffreda, Domenica; Piepoli, Ada; Pazienza, Valerio; Mambrini, Andrea; Pedata, Mariangela; Cantore, Maurizio; Bambi, Franco; Ermini, Stefano; Funel, Niccola; Lemstrova, Radmila; Soucek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Expression of the solute carrier (SLC) transporter SLC22A3 gene is associated with overall survival of pancreatic cancer patients. This study tested whether genetic variability in SLC22A3 associates with pancreatic cancer risk and prognosis. Twenty four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the SLC22A3 gene sequence and regulatory elements were selected for analysis. Of these, 22 were successfully evaluated in the discovery phase while six significant or suggestive variants entered the validation phase, comprising a total study number of 1,518 cases and 3,908 controls. In the discovery phase, rs2504938, rs9364554, and rs2457571 SNPs were significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Moreover, rs7758229 associated with the presence of distant metastases, while rs512077 and rs2504956 correlated with overall survival of patients. Although replicated, the association for rs9364554 did not pass multiple testing corrections in the validation phase. Contrary to the discovery stage, rs2504938 associated with survival in the validation cohort, which was more pronounced in stage IV patients. In conclusion, common variation in the SLC22A3 gene is unlikely to significantly contribute to pancreatic cancer risk. The rs2504938 SNP in SLC22A3 significantly associates with an unfavorable prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients. Further investigation of this SNP effect on the molecular and clinical phenotype is warranted. PMID:28272475

  11. The HIF1A C85T single nucleotide polymorphism influences the number of branches of the human coronary tree.

    PubMed

    Duran, Joan; Götzens, Víctor; Carballo, Julio; Martín, Eva; Petit, Màrius; Cordero, Alex; Sánchez Olavarría, María Pilar; Reig, Josep; de Anta, Josep Maria

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia is required for the development of the cardiovascular system. Tissue adaptation to low oxygen is mediated through hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Hypoxia-driven gradients of vascular endothelial growth factor within the heart drive vessel tip sprouting and the angiogenic phase of vasculogenesis. We hypothesized that functional variants of the HIF1A C85T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) are associated with the number of coronary artery branches in humans. Coronary artery branching in 88 individuals was assessed by dynamic counting of the arterial branches detected in coronary angiograms. Values were classified on the basis of the branches emerging from the right and left coronary arteries. HIF1A C85T genotypes were determined using TaqMan-based assays. A generalized linear model was used to measure the effect of each SNP on the response variables. The presence of the T allele in the HIF1A C85T SNP was associated with few branches of the coronary arteries: 81.03 ± 1.79 for individuals with the CC genotype versus 74.09 ± 2.48 for T-carrying ones (p = 0.042). The functionality of HIF1A may influence the degree of branching of the human coronary tree. We propose that the HIF1A C85T SNP is a genetic marker that determines interindividual differences in the human coronary artery pattern. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with carcass traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers.

    PubMed

    Royer, A M; Shivers, C; Riley, D G; Elzo, M A; Garcia, M D

    2016-06-21

    Brahman cattle are important in tropical regions due to their ability to tolerate excessive heat and parasites. However, Brahman cattle exhibit lower carcass quality characteristics when compared to Bos taurus breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six candidate genes for carcass quality and composition traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers. Steers were evaluated through the American Brahman Breeders Association carcass evaluation project in Gonzales, Texas. Carcass traits measured included hot carcass weight, ribeye area, marbling score, yield grade, quality grade, dressing percent, and Warner-Bratzler shear force score. Six previously described candidate genes were chosen for SNP analysis based on their previous association with growth and carcass traits. Candidate genes utilized in the current study included calpastatin (CAST), calpain (CAPN3), thyroglobulin (TG), growth hormone, insulin growth factor 1, and adiponectin. Six unique SNPs from three candidate genes (TG, CAST, and CAPN3) were significantly associated (P < 0.001) with carcass quality traits (marbling score and quality grade). A genotypic effect was observed for all significant SNPs, with differing levels of performance observed for animals inheriting different genotypes. Although multiple SNPs in the current study were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with growth and carcass traits, they should be validated in larger populations prior to implementation in selection strategies.

  13. Influence of FKBP5 polymorphism and DNA methylation on structural changes of the brain in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyu-Man; Won, Eunsoo; Sim, Youngbo; Kang, June; Han, Changsu; Kim, Yong-Ku; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Lee, Min-Soo; Tae, Woo-Suk; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2017-01-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism of rs1360780 in the FKBP5 gene is associated with a predisposition to developing major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated the interactive effects of FKBP5 rs1360780 allelic variants, DNA methylation, and the diagnosis of MDD on structural changes of the entire brain. One hundred and fourteen patients with MDD and eighty-eight healthy controls underwent T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and FKBP5 rs1360780 genotyping, including DNA methylation of intron 7. We analyzed the volume of cortical and subcortical regions and cortical thickness using FreeSurfer. Significant genotype-by-diagnosis interactions were observed for volumes of the left pars triangularis, supramarginal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, right frontomarginal, and posterior midcingulate gyrus. The T allele was associated with significant volume reductions in these brain regions only in the MDD group except for the right posterior midcingulate gyrus. FKBP5 DNA methylation showed a positive correlation with the thickness of the right transverse frontopolar gyrus in the C allele homozygote group. Our findings suggest that the FKBP5 gene and its epigenetic changes could have influence on morphologic changes of several brain regions involved in emotion regulation, and that this process may be associated with the development of MDD. PMID:28198448

  14. The Influence of Sexual and Larval Selection on the Maintenance of Polymorphism at the Sepia Locus in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Anxolabehere, D.

    1980-01-01

    Sexual selection is measured between two strains of Drosophila melanogaster: a wild strain and a strain mutant at the sepia locus. Frequency-dependent male mating was found to be successful, whereas the female genotype exerted no influence. The rarer the male genotype becomes, the greater is its mating success. A selection model is built for this behavior characteristic in which selection operates differently in the two sexes. The genetic consequencies of this model upon the maintenance of genetic polymorphism at the sepia locus are compared to experimental data from previous population cage studies. The fit obtained with this sexual selection model is compared to that of the larvel selection model previously investigated. A model composed of both sexual and larval components of fitness is presented. The role that each major selection component is expected to play in experimental populations as the gene frequency changes is discussed. Sexual selection leads to an equilibrium level higher than larval selection, and the combined model is very close to the experimental values. PMID:6777247

  15. Influence of FKBP5 polymorphism and DNA methylation on structural changes of the brain in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Man; Won, Eunsoo; Sim, Youngbo; Kang, June; Han, Changsu; Kim, Yong-Ku; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Lee, Min-Soo; Tae, Woo-Suk; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2017-02-15

    A single nucleotide polymorphism of rs1360780 in the FKBP5 gene is associated with a predisposition to developing major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated the interactive effects of FKBP5 rs1360780 allelic variants, DNA methylation, and the diagnosis of MDD on structural changes of the entire brain. One hundred and fourteen patients with MDD and eighty-eight healthy controls underwent T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and FKBP5 rs1360780 genotyping, including DNA methylation of intron 7. We analyzed the volume of cortical and subcortical regions and cortical thickness using FreeSurfer. Significant genotype-by-diagnosis interactions were observed for volumes of the left pars triangularis, supramarginal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, right frontomarginal, and posterior midcingulate gyrus. The T allele was associated with significant volume reductions in these brain regions only in the MDD group except for the right posterior midcingulate gyrus. FKBP5 DNA methylation showed a positive correlation with the thickness of the right transverse frontopolar gyrus in the C allele homozygote group. Our findings suggest that the FKBP5 gene and its epigenetic changes could have influence on morphologic changes of several brain regions involved in emotion regulation, and that this process may be associated with the development of MDD.

  16. Polymorphisms of ABCC5 and NOS3 genes influence doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Krajinovic, M; Elbared, J; Drouin, S; Bertout, L; Rezgui, A; Ansari, M; Raboisson, M-J; Lipshultz, S E; Silverman, L B; Sallan, S E; Neuberg, D S; Kutok, J L; Laverdière, C; Sinnett, D; Andelfinger, G

    2016-11-01

    Anthracyclines are efficient chemotherapy agents. However, their use is limited by anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (CT). We investigated the influence of polymorphisms in doxorubicin metabolic and functional pathways on late-onset CT as estimated by echocardiography in 251 childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL) patients. Association analyses revealed a modulating effect of two variants: A-1629 T in ABCC5, an ATP-binding cassette transporter, and G894T in the NOS3 endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene. Individuals with the ABCC5 TT-1629 genotype had an average of 8-12% reduction of ejection (EF) and shortening fractions (SF; EF: P<0.0001, and SF: P=0.001, respectively). A protective effect of the NOS3 TT894 genotype on EF was seen in high-risk patients (P=0.02), especially in those who did not receive dexrazoxane (P=0.002). Analysis of an additional cohort of 44 cALL patients replicated the ABCC5 association but was underpowered for NOS3. In summary, we identified two biomarkers that may contribute to cALL anthracycline CT risk stratification.

  17. The serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and coping strategies influence successful emotion regulation in an acute stress situation: Physiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Plieger, Thomas; Melchers, Martin; Vetterlein, Annabel; Görtz, Janina; Kuhn, Sarah; Ruppel, Melissa; Reuter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Emotion regulation is an important everyday-life skill to reduce harm and stress. Consequently, research shows associations between psychopathologies and emotional dysregulation. The serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) has repeatedly been associated to phenotypes and syndromes related to emotional dysregulation. However, there is no study showing any direct effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype and emotion regulation. Hence, the aim of the present study was to draw a link between 5-HTTLPR to emotion regulation. N=91 healthy participants filled in a coping questionnaire, provided gene samples and participated in an emotion regulation experiment. In a within-subject design they viewed emotional pictures and were either instructed to suppress their emotions or not. During the emotion regulation task, skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded. Emotion regulation abilities measured by SCR were influenced by 5-HTTLPR and coping strategies, together explaining 30% of variance. S-allele carriers showed increased SCRs when watching aversive stimuli in the uninstructed condition. However, when receiving an emotion regulation instruction, they were able to downregulate their arousal resulting in comparable SCRs as observed in LL-carriers. This is the first study showing an impact of 5-HTTLPR on physiological emotion regulation. Results show that S-allele carriers have the same emotional arousal as L-allele carriers, when they get a supportive instruction to suppress unwanted feelings. These findings have implications for psychotherapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Priority Research Agenda for Understanding the Influence of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Daniel J.; Weiss, Iris R.; Pasley, Joan D.

    2011-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) are part of a broader effort coordinated by the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers to develop common state standards in key subjects. The CCSSM specify content learning goals by grade in K-8 and by conceptual categories in…

  19. Individual Participation in Organizational Information Commons: The Impact of Team Level Social Influence and Technology-Specific Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Yu; Fulk, Janet; Shumate, Michelle; Monge, Peter R.; Bryant, J. Alison; Matsaganis, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    This research extended earlier public goods research on individual incentives to use an organizational information commons that was based in Marwell and Oliver's (1993) collective action model. A revised theoretical model that incorporated team-level social influence and technology-specific competence was proposed. The model was tested using…

  20. Influence of brown stink bug feeding, planting date and sampling time on common smut infection of maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytopathogen infections are frequently influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors in a crop field. The effect of brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), feeding and planting date and sampling time on common smut (Ustilago maydis) infection percentage of maize plants was exa...

  1. The AIRE -230Y Polymorphism Affects AIRE Transcriptional Activity: Potential Influence on AIRE Function in the Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Lovewell, Thomas R. J.; McDonagh, Andrew J.; Messenger, Andrew G.; Azzouz, Mimoun; Tazi-Ahnini, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Background The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is expressed in the thymus, particularly in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTECs), and is required for the ectopic expression of a diverse range of peripheral tissue antigens by mTECs, facilitating their ability to perform negative selection of auto-reactive immature T-cells. The expression profile of peripheral tissue antigens is affected not only by AIRE deficiency but also with variation of AIRE activity in the thymus. Method and Results Therefore we screened 591bp upstream of the AIRE transcription start site including AIRE minimal promoter for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and identified two SNPs -655R (rs117557896) and -230Y (rs751032) respectively. To study the effect of these variations on AIRE promoter activity we generated a Flp-In host cell line which was stably transfected with a single copy of the reporter vector. Relative promoter activity was estimated by comparing the luciferase specific activity for lysates of the different reporter AIRE promoter-reporter gene constructs including AIRE-655G AIRE-230C, AIRE-655G AIRE-230T and AIRE-655A AIRE-230C. The analysis showed that the commonest haplotype AIRE-655G AIRE-230C has the highest luciferase specific activity (p<0.001). Whereas AIRE-655G AIRE-230T has a luciferase specific activity value that approaches null. Both AIRE promoter polymorphic sites have one allele that forms a CpG methylation site which we determined can be methylated in methylation assays using the M.SssI CpG methyltransferase. Conclusion AIRE-230Y is in a conserved region of the promoter and is adjacent to a predicted WT1 transcription factor binding site, suggesting that AIRE-230Y affects AIRE expression by influencing the binding of biochemical factors to this region. Our findings show that AIRE-655GAIRE-230T haplotype could dramatically alter AIRE transcription and so have an effect on the process of negative selection and affect susceptibility to autoimmune conditions. PMID

  2. The Pulmonary Fibrosis-Associated MUC5B Promoter Polymorphism Does Not Influence the Development of Interstitial Pneumonia in Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Mark P.; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Hinchcliff, Monique E.; Murphy, Elissa; Podlusky, Sofia; Carns, Mary; Schwarz, Marvin; Varga, John; Schwartz, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: More than 80% of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) develop lung involvement, most commonly interstitial pneumonia (IP). We recently identified a common variant in the promoter region of MUC5B (rs35705950) that has a significant effect on the risk of developing both familial and sporadic forms of IP. We hypothesized that this MUC5B promoter polymorphism is also associated with IP in subjects with SSc. Methods: We examined the minor allele frequency of the MUC5B polymorphism among 231 subjects with SSc, 109 with IP, and 122 without IP. IP diagnosis was confirmed by HRCT imaging and defined as the presence of reticular infiltrates and/or honeycomb cysts. FVC and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (Dlco) were also assessed. Results: We found no association between IP and the MUC5B polymorphism among subjects with SSc (OR = 1.1, P = .80). The frequencies of the MUC5B polymorphism among subjects with SSc with IP (10.6%) and without IP (9.4%) were similar to the frequency observed in a population of unaffected control subjects (9.0%). In secondary analyses, we found the MUC5B polymorphism was not significantly associated with either FVC (P = .42) or Dlco (P = .06). No association with SSc-associated IP was found even when we used a more conservative definition of IP (FVC ≤ 70% and evidence of reticulations or honeycombing vs SSc FVC > 70% and no evidence of reticulation or honeycombing). Conclusions: Although SSc-associated IP is clinically, radiologically, and histologically similar to other forms of IP, it appears to have distinct genetic risk factors. This study highlights the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of IP in general. PMID:22576636

  3. The Same Major Histocompatibility Complex Polymorphism Involved in Control of HIV Influences Peptide Binding in the Mouse H-2Ld System*

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Samanthi; Kranz, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-site polymorphisms in human class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) products (HLA-B) have recently been shown to correlate with HIV disease progression or control. An identical single-site polymorphism (at residue 97) in the mouse class I product H-2Ld influences stability of the complex. To gain insight into the human polymorphisms, here we examined peptide binding, stability, and structures of the corresponding Ld polymorphisms, Trp97 and Arg97. Expression of LdW97 and LdR97 genes in a cell line that is antigen-processing competent showed that LdR97 was expressed at higher levels than LdW97, consistent with enhanced stability of self-peptide·LdR97 complexes. To further examine peptide-binding capacities of these two allelic variants, we used a high affinity pep-Ld specific probe to quantitatively examine a collection of self- and foreign peptides that bind to Ld. LdR97 bound more effectively than LdW97 to most peptides, although LdW97 bound more effectively to two peptides. The results support the view that many self-peptides in the Ld system (or the HLA-B system) would exhibit enhanced binding to Arg97 alleles compared with Trp97 alleles. Accordingly, the self-peptide·MHC-Arg97 complexes would influence T-cell selection behavior, impacting the T-cell repertoire of these individuals, and could also impact peripheral T cell activity through effects of self-peptide·Ld interacting with TCR and/or CD8. The structures of several peptide·LdR97 and peptide·LdW97 complexes provided a framework of how this single polymorphism could impact peptide binding. PMID:24064213

  4. Influence of common variants of TLR4 and TLR9 on clinical outcomes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Kar, Avishek; Panigrahi, Subhendu; Tripathy, Sagnika; Mohapatra, Manoj K; Tayung, Kumananda; Dhangadamajhi, Gunanidhi

    2015-12-01

    In malaria, the toll-like receptors (TLRs) have recently emerged as major player of innate immunity. However, implication of TLR variants on clinical manifestations of malaria is conflicting. The present study aims to provide relevant information of growing interest in understanding the role of TLR4D299G, TLR9T-1237C and TLR9T-1486C polymorphisms on clinical outcomes of malaria. We genotyped TLR4D299G, TLR9T-1237C and TLR9T-1486C polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP methods and subsequently analyzed in 200 uncomplicated patients and 200 severe patients. Further, the severe malaria categorized into sub-clinical groups such as cerebral malaria (CM), non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM), single organ dysfunction (SOD) and multi-organ dysfunctions (MODS) are analyzed. The TLR9-1237CC genotype was observed at significantly low frequency in MODS (p=0.0008), while in heterozygous state (TC) it was proportionately more frequent in SOD (p=0.087) as compared to mild malaria. The TLR9T-1486C heterozygote was more common in all categories of severe malaria. However, pair wise LD analysis revealed significant linkage between T-1237C and T-1486C, whereas haplotype analysis showed significantly low frequency of C-T haplotype in CM (p=0.005, pc=0.02) and high frequency of T-C haplotype in NCSM as compared to mild malaria. Although TLR9-1237C could be a risk factor for severe malaria in heterozygous state, negative association of CC genotype with MODS warrants caution of segregating severe malaria into its sub-clinical groups while interpreting data. Further, clinical outcome in malaria was observed to be apparently modulated by LD between TLR9 promoter variants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Polymorphism of CD44 influences the efficacy of CD34(+) cells mobilization in patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Szmigielska-Kaplon, Anna; Szemraj, Janusz; Hamara, Katarzyna; Robak, Marta; Wolska, Anna; Pluta, Agnieszka; Czemerska, Magdalena; Krawczynska, Anna; Jamroziak, Krzysztof; Szmigielska, Katarzyna; Robak, Tadeusz; Wierzbowska, Agnieszka

    2014-07-01

    group of poor mobilizers had higher frequency of TT genotype in rs13347 (CD44) gene (CC+ CT versus TT P = .047). Patients homozygous for T allele had a lower total yield of CD34(+) cells/kg body weight than the group with allele C (median, 3.7 × 10(6)/kg versus 5.8 × 10(6)/kg; P = .019) and a lower number of CD34(+) cells gathered during first apheresis (.95 × 10(6)/kg versus 3.3 × 10(6)/kg, P = .04). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the CD44 TT genotype was the only factor associated with 5-fold higher risk of poor mobilization (P = .037). Polymorphic variants of CXCR4 and VCAM-1 did not significantly influence the efficacy of HSCs mobilization in our group of patients. In conclusion, our results indicate that among investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only CD44 rs13347 has an impact on the efficacy of HSCs mobilization in patients with hematologic malignancies. CD44 SNPs analysis may be helpful for predicting the poor mobilizers population who may benefit from newer modalities using adhesion molecules inhibitors.

  6. Influence of sectioning location on age estimates from common carp dorsal spines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Carson J.; Klein, Zachary B.; Terrazas, Marc M.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Dorsal spines have been shown to provide precise age estimates for Common CarpCyprinus carpio and are commonly used by management agencies to gain information on Common Carp populations. However, no previous studies have evaluated variation in the precision of age estimates obtained from different sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. We evaluated the precision, relative readability, and distribution of age estimates obtained from various sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. Dorsal spines from 192 Common Carp were sectioned at the base (section 1), immediately distal to the basal section (section 2), and at 25% (section 3), 50% (section 4), and 75% (section 5) of the total length of the dorsal spine. The exact agreement and within-1-year agreement among readers was highest and the coefficient of variation lowest for section 2. In general, age estimates derived from sections 2 and 3 had similar age distributions and displayed the highest concordance in age estimates with section 1. Our results indicate that sections taken at ≤ 25% of the total length of the dorsal spine can be easily interpreted and provide precise estimates of Common Carp age. The greater consistency in age estimates obtained from section 2 indicates that by using a standard sectioning location, fisheries scientists can expect age-based estimates of population metrics to be more comparable and thus more useful for understanding Common Carp population dynamics.

  7. Influence of APOE polymorphism on cognitive and behavioural outcome in moderate and severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Ariza, M; Pueyo, R; del M Matarín, M; Junqué, C; Mataró, M; Clemente, I; Moral, P; Poca, M A; Garnacho, Á; Sahuquillo, J

    2006-01-01

    Aim To analyse the influence of apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 status on the cognitive and behavioural functions usually impaired after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods In all, 77 patients with TBI selected from 140 consecutive admissions were genotyped for APOE. Each patient was subjected to neuropsychological and neurobehavioural assessment at least 6 months after injury. Results Performance of participants carrying the ε4 allele was notably worse on verbal memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test), motor speed, fine motor coordination, visual scanning, attention and mental flexibility (Grooved Pegboard, Symbol Digit Modalities Test and part B of the Trail Making Test) and showed considerably more neurobehavioural disturbances (Neurobehavioral Rating Scale—Revised) than the group without the ε4 allele. Conclusions In particular, performance on neuropsychological tasks that are presumed to be related to temporal lobe, frontal lobe and white matter integrity is worse in patients with the APOE ε4 allele than in those without it. More neurobehavioural disturbances are observed in APOE ε4 carriers than in APOE ε2 and ε3 carriers. PMID:16614010

  8. Mutational analysis of the coding region of the uncoupling protein 2 gene in obese NIDDM patients: impact of a common amino acid polymorphism on juvenile and maturity onset forms of obesity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Urhammer, S A; Dalgaard, L T; Sørensen, T I; Møller, A M; Andersen, T; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Hansen, T; Clausen, J O; Vestergaard, H; Pedersen, O

    1997-10-01

    Recently, a gene encoding a novel human uncoupling protein, designated UCP2, was discovered. The murine UCP2 was mapped to a region on mouse chromosome 7 which in several models has been shown to be linked to obesity and hyperinsulinaemia. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing of the coding region of the UCP2 gene in 35 obese Caucasian NIDDM patients of Danish ancestry revealed one nucleotide substitution, replacing an alanine with a valine at codon 55. The amino acid polymorphism was present in 24 of the 35 (69%) examined subjects. The allelic frequency of the A/V55 variant was 48.3% (95% CI: 42.5-54.1%) among 144 subjects with juvenile onset obesity, 45.6% (40.5-50.7%) among 182 subjects randomly selected at the draft board examination, and 45.5% (37.1-53.9%) among lean control subjects selected from the same study cohort. Within these cohorts there were no differences in BMI values at different ages among wild-type carriers and A/V55 carriers. In a population-based sample of 369 young healthy Caucasians the variant showed no association with alterations in BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, fat mass or weight gain during childhood or adolescence. The A/V55 polymorphism was not related to alterations in fasting values of serum insulin and C-peptide or to an impaired insulin sensitivity index. We conclude that genetic variability in the human UCP2 gene is not a common factor contributing to NIDDM in obese Danish Caucasian subjects and the common A/V55 amino acid polymorphism of the gene is not implicated in the pathogenesis of juvenile or maturity onset obesity or insulin resistance in Caucasians.

  9. Influence of Cytochrome P450, Family 2, Subfamily D, Polypeptide 6 (CYP2D6) polymorphisms on pain sensitivity and clinical response to weak opioid analgesics.

    PubMed

    Zahari, Zalina; Ismail, Rusli

    2014-01-01

      CYP2D6 polymorphisms show large geographical and interethnic differences. Variations in CYP2D6 activity may impact upon a patient's pain level and may contribute to interindividual variations in the response to opioids. This paper reviews the evidence on how CYP2D6 polymorphisms might influence pain sensitivity and clinical response to codeine and tramadol. For example, it is shown that (1) CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs) may be less efficient at synthesizing endogenous morphine compared with other metabolizers. In contrast, ultra-rapid metabolizers (UMs) may be more efficient than other metabolizers at synthesizing endogenous morphine, thus strengthening endogenous pain modulation. Additionally, for codeine and tramadol that are bioactivated by CYP2D6, PMs may undergo no metabolite formation, leading to inadequate analgesia. Conversely, UMs may experience quicker analgesic effects but be prone to higher mu-opioid-related toxicity. The literature suggested the potential usefulness of the determination of CYP2D6 polymorphisms in elucidating serious adverse events and in preventing subsequent inappropriate selection or doses of codeine and tramadol. Notably, even though many studies investigated a possible role of the CYP2D6 polymorphisms on pain sensitivity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these drugs, the results of analgesia and adverse effects are conflicting. More studies are required to demonstrate genetically determined unresponsiveness and risk of developing serious adverse events for patients with pain and these should involve larger numbers of patients in different population types.

  10. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influence on striatal blood-level-dependent response to monetary feedback depends on valence and agency.

    PubMed

    Chumbley, J; Späti, J; Dörig, N; Brakowski, J; Grosse Holtforth, M; Seifritz, E; Spinelli, S

    2014-11-07

    Animal work implicates the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in function of the ventral striatum (VS), a region known for its role in processing valenced feedback. Recent evidence in humans shows that BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates VS activity in anticipation of monetary feedback. However, it remains unclear whether the polymorphism impacts the processing of self-attributed feedback differently from feedback attributed to an external agent. In this study, we emphasize the importance of the feedback attribution because agency is central to computational accounts of the striatum and cognitive accounts of valence processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a task, in which financial gains/losses are either attributable to performance (self-attributed, SA) or chance (externally-attributed, EA) to ask whether BDNF Val66Met polymorphism predicts VS activity. We found that BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influenced how feedback valence and agency information were combined in the VS and in the right inferior frontal junction (IFJ). Specifically, Met carriers' VS response to valenced feedback depended on agency information, while Val/Val carriers' VS response did not. This context-specific modulation of valence effectively amplified VS responses to SA losses in Met carriers. The IFJ response to SA losses also differentiated Val/Val from Met carriers. These results may point to a reduced allocation of attention and altered motivational salience to SA losses in Val/Val compared to Met carriers. Implications for major depressive disorder are discussed.

  11. Influence of nucleotide polymorphisms in the CCR2 gene and the CCR5 promoter on the expression of cell surface CCR5 and CXCR4.

    PubMed

    Shieh, B; Liau, Y E; Hsieh, P S; Yan, Y P; Wang, S T; Li, C

    2000-09-01

    Polymorphisms in the CCR2 gene (CCR2-64I) and the CCR5 promoter (pCCR5-59029G) have been correlated with slower HIV-1 disease progression. How these polymorphisms influence the rate of AIDS progression has remained unclear. We have therefore investigated whether these nucleotide polymorphisms will reduce the expression levels of surface CCR5 and CXCR4, and thus lead to slower AIDS progression. For this, a cohort of Chinese volunteers in Taiwan was subjected to the determination of CCR2 and pCCR5 genotypes followed by analysis of the surface CCR5 and CXCR4 expression on five cell types derived from peripheral blood mononuclear