Science.gov

Sample records for common spatial origin

  1. Common origin of visible and dark universe

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Peihong; Sarkar, Utpal

    2010-02-01

    Dark matter, baryonic matter, and dark energy have different properties but contribute comparable energy density to the present Universe. We point out that they may have a common origin. As the dark energy has a scale far lower than all known scales in particle physics but very close to neutrino masses, while the excess matter over antimatter in the baryonic sector is probably related to the neutrino-mass generation, we unify the origin of the dark and visible universe in a variant of the seesaw model. In our model (i) the dark matter relic density is a dark matter asymmetry emerged simultaneously with the baryon asymmetry from leptogenesis; (ii) the dark energy is due to a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone-Boson associated with the neutrino-mass generation.

  2. The origin of common laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Y

    1995-02-01

    The house mouse is one of the model organisms in genetics and more than 400 inbred strains have been established. However, many of the strains are related and their ancestry can be traced back to European fancy mice inbred in the 1920s. Recent molecular studies corroborate the early historical records that assert that Japanese fancy mice were introduced into European stocks and thus contributed to the development of "old" inbred strains. Consequently, many inbred strains have genomic DNA derived from more than one subspecies of Mus musculus. The subspecific hybrid origin of common inbred strains has important bearings on the interpretation of genetic data, and the limitations that history imposes upon the currently available strains make it necessary to establish new inbred strains representing specific wild populations.

  3. The origin and relief of common pain.

    PubMed

    Irvin, R E

    1998-01-01

    Where pain of the musculoskeletal system is present, commonly, this pain is without objective evidence of disease, trauma, or disorder. Absence of an apparent cause for common pain prompts the consideration of mechanical stress as a contributing factor. The principal stress of the musculoskeletal system is postural. By posture it is usually meant the distribution of body mass with respect to gravity. Past efforts to predict chronic pain by postural analysis or to reduce such pain by strengthening, conscious control or splinting of posture has had marginal success. Past failure to relate posture to pain is attributable to (1) ubiquity of sub-optimal posture that precludes clinical comparison to those with optimal posture; (2) presupposition that the causal relation between posture and pain is of the observational class of causality rather than the manipulable kind; (3) a definition of posture that is too narrow to complete the picture; and (4) inadequate methods for reduction of postural asymmetry to an extent that is sufficient to elicit a significant and enduring effect on sub-optimal posture and related pain. Posture can be defined more broadly as the stance of the body performing within the boundaries of posture and which is mediated by the Postural Control System towards greatest stability (Fx. 1). The stance of the body is the arrangement of the body with respect to gravity and other accelerative forces. The postural boundaries are the set of forces that resist acceleration and thereby provide the limits within which one functions stably, and this resistance is currently approximated by six principal sources of resistance to acceleration: viscous, elastic, neuromuscular, rigid, viscoelastic, and inertial. The Postural Control System is located in the brainstem and modulates body stance to more economically and stably effect and resist acceleration. The rigid boundaries can be so with respect to compressive, tractive, or tensile qualities that permits three

  4. Robust common spatial filters with a maxmin approach.

    PubMed

    Kawanabe, Motoaki; Vidaurre, Carmen; Scholler, Simon; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2009-01-01

    Electroencephalographic signals are known to be non-stationary and easily affected by artifacts, therefore their analysis requires methods that can deal with noise. In this work we present two ways of calculating robust common spatial patterns under a maxmin approach. The worst-case objective function is optimized within prefixed sets of the covariance matrices that are defined either very simply as identity matrices or in a data driven way using PCA. We test common spatial filters derived with these two approaches with real world brain-computer interface (BCI) data sets in which we expect substantial "day-to-day" fluctuations (session transfer problem). We compare our results with the classical common spatial filters and show that both can improve the performance of the latter.

  5. Investigating the Common Origins of Stars Using Dynamical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Dynamical modeling of stars’ orbits past in time is a robust method in finding stars of common birth origins. Here we present a dynamical study using the Python package galpy to investigate: 1) solar twins and the possibility of them having common birth origins with our Sun or each other and 2) the planet-hosting star iota Horologii proposed to have formed in the Hyades cluster. Solar twins are stars with spectra nearly identical to the Sun. Using a large sample of solar twins, we applied a standard Galactic model to investigate whether these stars have common origins with the Sun or each other at their respective ages, finding only very weak associations. In our investigation of the planet-hosting star iota Horologii, we challenge previous claims in favor of iota Horologii being an evaporated Hyades star. In our dynamical model, we compare the location of iota Horologii back in time to the average location of a representative sample of true Hyades stars, finding this star to have never converged with the cluster. Our results reveal the fundamental importance of dynamical modeling in the identification of stellar siblings.

  6. Common Origins, Common Futures: Reflections on Identity and Difference in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkomo, Mokubung; Dolby, Nadine

    2004-01-01

    The history of human evolution is fascinating and complex indeed. Modern science as revealed by the disciplines of archaeology, palaeontology, and genetics presents strong evidence about the common origins of humankind. Dispersal from the birthplace over millennia has produced a mosaic of identities that are cultural artefacts or social constructs…

  7. Similarity in Spatial Origin of Information Facilitates Cue Competition and Interference

    PubMed Central

    Amundson, Jeffrey C.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2007-01-01

    Two lick suppression studies were conducted with water-deprived rats to investigate the influence of spatial similarity in cue interaction. Experiment 1 assessed the influence of similarity of the spatial origin of competing cues in a blocking procedure. Greater blocking was observed in the condition in which the auditory blocking cue and the auditory blocked cue originated at the same spatial location. Recent investigations have demonstrated that manipulations that impact competition between cues trained together have similar effects on interference between cues trained apart. Therefore, Experiment 2 investigated the influence of similarity of the spatial origin in proactive interference of Pavlovian conditioning by separately pairing two auditory cues with a common outcome, originating at the same spatial location or different spatial locations. Greater proactive interference was observed in the condition in which the interfering cue and target cue originated at the same spatial location. The results are considered in light of the possibility that a similar mechanism may underlie interference between cues trained apart and cue competition between cues trained together. PMID:17471316

  8. Origins of common fears in South African children.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; du Plessis, Michelle; Loxton, Helene

    2008-12-01

    The present study examined the origins of common childhood fears within a South African context. Six-hundred-and-fifty-five 10- to 14-year-old children were given a brief fear list that helped them to identify their most intense fear and then completed a brief questionnaire for assessing the origins of fears that was based on Rachman's [Rachman, S. (1977). The conditioning theory of fear acquisition: A critical examination. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 15, 375-387; Rachman, S. (1991). Neoconditioning and the classical theory of fear acquisition. Clinical Psychology Review, 17, 47-67] three-pathways theory. More precisely, children were asked to report whether they had experienced conditioning, modeling, and negative information experiences in relation to their most feared stimulus or situation, and also had to indicate to what extent such experiences had actually played a role in the onset and/or intensification of their fears. Results showed that children most frequently reported indirect learning experiences (i.e., modeling and negative information) in relation to their fears, whereas conditioning was clearly less often mentioned. The majority of the children had no precise idea of how their fear had actually begun, but a substantial proportion of them reported various learning experiences in relation to the onset and intensification of fears. Significant cultural differences were not only observed in the prevalence of common fears, but also in the pathways reported for the origins of fears. The results are briefly discussed in terms of the living conditions of South African children from various cultural backgrounds.

  9. Filter bank common spatial patterns in mental workload estimation.

    PubMed

    Arvaneh, Mahnaz; Umilta, Alberto; Robertson, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    EEG-based workload estimation technology provides a real time means of assessing mental workload. Such technology can effectively enhance the performance of the human-machine interaction and the learning process. When designing workload estimation algorithms, a crucial signal processing component is the feature extraction step. Despite several studies on this field, the spatial properties of the EEG signals were mostly neglected. Since EEG inherently has a poor spacial resolution, features extracted individually from each EEG channel may not be sufficiently efficient. This problem becomes more pronounced when we use low-cost but convenient EEG sensors with limited stability which is the case in practical scenarios. To address this issue, in this paper, we introduce a filter bank common spatial patterns algorithm combined with a feature selection method to extract spatio-spectral features discriminating different mental workload levels. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, we carry out a comparative analysis between two representative types of working memory tasks using data recorded from an Emotiv EPOC headset which is a mobile low-cost EEG recording device. The experimental results showed that the proposed spatial filtering algorithm outperformed the state-of-the algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy.

  10. Filter ensemble regularized common spatial pattern for EEG classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuxi; Li, Yali; Wang, Shengjin

    2015-07-01

    Common Spatial Pattern (CSP) is one of the most effective feature extraction algorithm for Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI). Despite its advantages of wide versatility and high efficiency, CSP is shown to be non-robust to noise and prone to over fitting when training sample number is limited. In order to overcome these problems, Regularized Common Spatial Pattern (RCSP) is further proposed. RCSP regularized covariance matrix estimation by two parameters, which reduces the estimation difference and improves the stationarity under small sample condition. However, RCSP does not make full use of the frequency information. In this paper, we presents a filter ensemble technique for RCSP (FERCSP) to further extract frequency information and aggregate all the RCSPs efficiently to get an ensemble-based solution. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on data set IVa of BCI Competition III against other five RCSPbased algorithms. The experimental results show that FERCSP significantly outperforms those of the existing methods in classification accuracy. The FERCSP outperforms the CSP algorithm and R-CSP-A algorithm in all five subjects with an average improvement of 6% in accuracy.

  11. Probabilistic Common Spatial Patterns for Multichannel EEG Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Gao, Xiaorong; Li, Yuanqing; Brown, Emery N.; Gao, Shangkai

    2015-01-01

    Common spatial patterns (CSP) is a well-known spatial filtering algorithm for multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. In this paper, we cast the CSP algorithm in a probabilistic modeling setting. Specifically, probabilistic CSP (P-CSP) is proposed as a generic EEG spatio-temporal modeling framework that subsumes the CSP and regularized CSP algorithms. The proposed framework enables us to resolve the overfitting issue of CSP in a principled manner. We derive statistical inference algorithms that can alleviate the issue of local optima. In particular, an efficient algorithm based on eigendecomposition is developed for maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation in the case of isotropic noise. For more general cases, a variational algorithm is developed for group-wise sparse Bayesian learning for the P-CSP model and for automatically determining the model size. The two proposed algorithms are validated on a simulated data set. Their practical efficacy is also demonstrated by successful applications to single-trial classifications of three motor imagery EEG data sets and by the spatio-temporal pattern analysis of one EEG data set recorded in a Stroop color naming task. PMID:26005228

  12. Despite Appearances, Cosmic Explosions Have Common Origin, Astronomers Discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    part encounters less resistance and thus can move outward at greater speeds. Frail pointed out that the radio observations alone had the ability to show the total energy output of the burst, thus providing the breakthrough in understanding the common thread among the different types of explosions. "The key fact is that the optical, X-Ray and gamma-ray telescopes missed 90 percent of the energy put out by this burst," Frail added. "As the VLA Expansion Project progresses and the sensitivity of the VLA improves in the coming years, it will become an even more important tool in unravelling this mystery," Frail said. "The exciting part of this new discovery is that explosions that we once thought were quite different now appear to all have a common origin," Frail concluded. "That insight, of course, gives us the new challenge of explaining how a single mechanism can make itself look so different," he added. In addition to Berger and Frail, the other authors of the paper are Professor Shri Kulkarni of Caltech; Guy Pooley of Cambridge University's Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory; Vince McIntyre and Robin Wark, both of the Australia Telescope National Facility; Re'em Sari, associate professor of astrophysics and planetary science at Caltech; Derek Fox, a postdoctoral scholar in astronomy at Caltech; Alicia Soderberg, a graduate student in astrophysics at Caltech; Sarah Yost, a graduate student in physics at Caltech; and Paul Price, a postdoctoral scholar at the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy. Berger and Soderberg earlier worked on gamma-ray-burst studies as summer students at NRAO. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  13. On The Spatial Distribution and the Origin of Hypervelocity Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Youjun; Zhang, Fupeng; Yu, Qingjuan

    2010-02-01

    Hypervelocity stars (HVSs) escaping away from the Galactic halo are dynamical products of interactions of stars with the massive black hole(s) (MBH) in the Galactic Center (GC). They are mainly B-type stars with their progenitors unknown. OB stars are also populated in the GC, with many being hosted in a clockwise-rotating young stellar (CWS) disk within half a parsec from the MBH and their formation remaining puzzles. In this paper, we demonstrate that HVSs can well memorize the injecting directions of their progenitors using both analytical arguments and numerical simulations, i.e., the ejecting direction of an HVS is almost anti-parallel to the injecting direction of its progenitor. Therefore, the spatial distribution of HVSs maps the spatial distribution of the parent population of their progenitors directly. We also find that almost all the discovered HVSs are spatially consistent with being located on two thin disk planes. The orientation of one plane is consistent with that of the (inner) CWS disk, which suggests that most of the HVSs originate from the CWS disk or a previously existed disk-like stellar structure with an orientation similar to it. The rest of HVSs may be correlated with the plane of the northern arm of the mini-spiral in the GC or the plane defined by the outer warped part of the CWS disk. Our results not only support the GC origin of HVSs but also imply that the central disk (or the disk structure with a similar orientation) should persist or be frequently rejuvenated over the past 200 Myr, which adds a new challenge to the stellar disk formation and provides insights to the longstanding problem of gas fueling into MBHs.

  14. Common origins and the ethics of planetary seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Tony

    2016-10-01

    Faced with a choice between attempting to seed another world with terrestrially-sourced microbes (with which we would have a shared origin) and microbes sourced from elsewhere within the solar system (whose origins might therefore differ), would we have any non-instrumental ethical reason to favour the terrestrial microbes? What follows will argue that in relation to the goals of promoting life similar to our own, or even simply microbial life, we might conceivably make such an appeal and do so in a defensible manner. However, in no case would such a consideration operate as a silencer for rival considerations (such as likelihood of success, enhancing diversity or historical justice). The thought experiment serves to highlight the diversity of considerations which are in play in ethical deliberation about matters of astrobiology and the role of practical wisdom rather than trumping considerations.

  15. A Common Origin of Magnetism from Planets to White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isern, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique; Külebi, Baybars; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo

    2017-02-01

    Isolated magnetic white dwarfs have field strengths ranging from kilogauss to gigagauss. However, the origin of the magnetic field has not been hitherto elucidated. Whether these fields are fossil, hence the remnants of original weak magnetic fields amplified during the course of the evolution of their progenitor stars, or are the result of binary interactions, or, finally, they are produced by other internal physical mechanisms during the cooling of the white dwarf itself, remains a mystery. At sufficiently low temperatures, white dwarfs crystallize. Upon solidification, phase separation of its main constituents, 12C and 16O, and of the impurities left by previous evolution occurs. This process leads to the formation of a Rayleigh–Taylor unstable liquid mantle on top of a solid core. This convective region, as it occurs in solar system planets like the Earth and Jupiter, can produce a dynamo able to yield magnetic fields of strengths of up to 0.1 MG, thus providing a mechanism that could explain magnetism in single white dwarfs.

  16. Proanthocyanidins in common food products of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Jarkko K; Törrönen, A Riitta; Mattila, Pirjo H

    2009-09-09

    The contents of extractable and unextractable proanthocyanidins were determined in a large number of commercial food products of plant origin available in Finland. Proanthocyanidins were extracted with aqueous acetone-methanol and quantified by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) according to their degree of polymerization. Unextractable proanthocyanidins were analyzed from the extraction residue by reversed phase HPLC after acid-catalyzed depolymerization as free flavan-3-ols (terminal units) and benzylthioethers (extension units). Proanthocyanidins were detected in 49 of 99 selected food items. The highest contents per fresh weight were determined in chokeberries, rose hips, and cocoa products. Berries and fruits were generally the best sources of proanthocyanidins, whereas most of the vegetables, roots, and cereals lacked them completely. Many of the samples contained a significant proportion of insoluble proanthocyanidins, which need to be quantified as well if total proanthocyanidins are studied. Considerable variation was observed in proanthocyanidin contents in berries, which requires further research.

  17. Odontomas and Supernumerary Teeth: Is There a Common Origin?

    PubMed Central

    Pippi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to analyze all scientific evidence to verify whether similarities supporting a unified explanation for odontomas and supernumerary teeth exist. A literature search was first conducted for epidemiologic studies indexed by PubMed, to verify their worldwide incidence. The analysis of the literature data shows some interesting similarities between odontomas and supernumerary teeth concerning their topographic distribution and pathologic manifestations. There is also some indication of common genetic and immuno-histochemical factors. Although from a nosological point of view, odontomas and supernumeraries are classified as distinct entities, they seem to be the expression of the same pathologic process, either malformative or hamartomatous. PMID:25419174

  18. The Monros - three medical dynasties with a common origin.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, I; Munro, A

    2015-03-01

    From origins in their heartlands in Easter Ross, clan Munro produced no fewer than three distinct medical dynasties, all descended from Hugh Munro, 9th Baron Foulis (c1352-1425), 12th chief of the clan. This paper describes what we believe to be a unique family of related medical dynasties which were influential in Edinburgh, London and the Scottish Highlands. It sets out in detail the family genealogy, provides some biographical information, and explores the reasons for the development of such medical dynasties, which appear to be different for each of the three dynasties within this family. The 'Edinburgh Monros' included the three Alexanders Monro, primus, secundus and tertius, who between them occupied the university chair of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh for 126 years from 1720. Dr David Monro, son of Alexander Monro tertius, emigrated to New Zealand where his descendants included several doctors, the last of whom died in 2013. The 'Bedlam Monros' achieved fame, and some notoriety, in managing mental illness in London for the 154 years from 1728-1882. In contrast, the 'Bonesetter Munros' practised their skills in the local community in Ross-shire and one of them attracted patients from all over Britain. They practised their trade for over 100 years from the start of the 19th to the early 20th century.

  19. Regularizing common spatial patterns to improve BCI designs: unified theory and new algorithms.

    PubMed

    Lotte, Fabien; Guan, Cuntai

    2011-02-01

    One of the most popular feature extraction algorithms for brain-computer interfaces (BCI) is common spatial patterns (CSPs). Despite its known efficiency and widespread use, CSP is also known to be very sensitive to noise and prone to overfitting. To address this issue, it has been recently proposed to regularize CSP. In this paper, we present a simple and unifying theoretical framework to design such a regularized CSP (RCSP). We then present a review of existing RCSP algorithms and describe how to cast them in this framework. We also propose four new RCSP algorithms. Finally, we compare the performances of 11 different RCSP (including the four new ones and the original CSP), on electroencephalography data from 17 subjects, from BCI competition datasets. Results showed that the best RCSP methods can outperform CSP by nearly 10% in median classification accuracy and lead to more neurophysiologically relevant spatial filters. They also enable us to perform efficient subject-to-subject transfer. Overall, the best RCSP algorithms were CSP with Tikhonov regularization and weighted Tikhonov regularization, both proposed in this paper.

  20. Superficial Ulnar Artery Associated with Anomalous Origin of the Common Interosseous and Ulnar Recurrent Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Pamidi, Narendra; Nayak, Satheesha B; Jetti, Raghu; Thangarajan, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of vascular variations in the upper limb is not uncommon and is well described in the medical literature. However, occurrence of superficial ulnar artery associated with unusual origin of the common interosseous and ulnar recurrent arteries is seldom reported in the literature. In the present case, we report the anomalous origin of common trunk of common interosseous, anterior and posterior ulnar recurrent arteries from the radial artery, in a male cadaver. Further, ulnar artery had presented superficial course. Knowledge of anomalous arterial pattern in the cubital fossa reported here is clinically important during the angiographic procedures and plastic surgeries. PMID:27437201

  1. Common Origins and Host-Dependent Diversity of Plant and Animal Viromes

    PubMed Central

    Dolja, Valerian V.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2012-01-01

    Many viruses infecting animals and plants share common cores of homologous genes involved in the key processes of viral replication. In contrast, genes that mediate virus – host interactions including in many cases capsid protein genes are markedly different. There are three distinct scenarios for the origin of related viruses of plants and animals: i) evolution from a common ancestral virus predating the divergence of plants and animals; ii) horizontal transfer of viruses, for example, through insect vectors; iii) parallel origin from related genetic elements. We present evidence that each of these scenarios contributed, to a varying extent, to the evolution of different groups of viruses. PMID:22408703

  2. The origin of life is a spatially localized stochastic transition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Life depends on biopolymer sequences as catalysts and as genetic material. A key step in the Origin of Life is the emergence of an autocatalytic system of biopolymers. Here we study computational models that address the way a living autocatalytic system could have emerged from a non-living chemical system, as envisaged in the RNA World hypothesis. Results We consider (i) a chemical reaction system describing RNA polymerization, and (ii) a simple model of catalytic replicators that we call the Two’s Company model. Both systems have two stable states: a non-living state, characterized by a slow spontaneous rate of RNA synthesis, and a living state, characterized by rapid autocatalytic RNA synthesis. The origin of life is a transition between these two stable states. The transition is driven by stochastic concentration fluctuations involving relatively small numbers of molecules in a localized region of space. These models are simulated on a two-dimensional lattice in which reactions occur locally on single sites and diffusion occurs by hopping of molecules to neighbouring sites. Conclusions If diffusion is very rapid, the system is well-mixed. The transition to life becomes increasingly difficult as the lattice size is increased because the concentration fluctuations that drive the transition become relatively smaller when larger numbers of molecules are involved. In contrast, when diffusion occurs at a finite rate, concentration fluctuations are local. The transition to life occurs in one local region and then spreads across the rest of the surface. The transition becomes easier with larger lattice sizes because there are more independent regions in which it could occur. The key observations that apply to our models and to the real world are that the origin of life is a rare stochastic event that is localized in one region of space due to the limited rate of diffusion of the molecules involved and that the subsequent spread across the surface is

  3. Similarity in Spatial Origin of Information Facilitates Cue Competition and Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Jeffrey C.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2007-01-01

    Two lick suppression studies were conducted with water-deprived rats to investigate the influence of spatial similarity in cue interaction. Experiment 1 assessed the influence of similarity of the spatial origin of competing cues in a blocking procedure. Greater blocking was observed in the condition in which the auditory blocking cue and the…

  4. Metabolic origins of spatial organization in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Fontaine, Carlos; Akkari, Leila; Thompson, Craig B.; Joyce, Johanna A.; Xavier, Joao B.

    2017-01-01

    The genetic and phenotypic diversity of cells within tumors is a major obstacle for cancer treatment. Because of the stochastic nature of genetic alterations, this intratumoral heterogeneity is often viewed as chaotic. Here we show that the altered metabolism of cancer cells creates predictable gradients of extracellular metabolites that orchestrate the phenotypic diversity of cells in the tumor microenvironment. Combining experiments and mathematical modeling, we show that metabolites consumed and secreted within the tumor microenvironment induce tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to differentiate into distinct subpopulations according to local levels of ischemia and their position relative to the vasculature. TAMs integrate levels of hypoxia and lactate into progressive activation of MAPK signaling that induce predictable spatial patterns of gene expression, such as stripes of macrophages expressing arginase 1 (ARG1) and mannose receptor, C type 1 (MRC1). These phenotypic changes are functionally relevant as ischemic macrophages triggered tube-like morphogenesis in neighboring endothelial cells that could restore blood perfusion in nutrient-deprived regions where angiogenic resources are most needed. We propose that gradients of extracellular metabolites act as tumor morphogens that impose order within the microenvironment, much like signaling molecules convey positional information to organize embryonic tissues. Unearthing embryology-like processes in tumors may allow us to control organ-like tumor features such as tissue repair and revascularization and treat intratumoral heterogeneity. PMID:28246332

  5. A matrix method for finding last common nodes in an origin-based traffic assignment problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Si, Bingfeng; Yang, Xiaobao; Sun, Huijun; Gao, Ziyou

    2012-01-01

    Many algorithms have been presented to solve the traffic assignment problem. Recently, Bar-Gera introduced the concept of “last common node” into an origin-based algorithm to solve the traffic assignment problem. However, how to find the last common nodes has not been investigated in detail. In this paper, we present a matrix method for finding the last common nodes in an origin-based traffic assignment problem. In an acyclic network, the power of binary adjacency matrix (A) will record the number of directed simple routes of length k. Taking this feature into consideration, Sp, the total number of the simple routes related to an origin node p in the subnetwork Gp, is counted by Sp=∑kApk=(. Then, every common node for OD pair pq is picked out by comparing (mathvariant="bold">Sp)pr×(mathvariant="bold">Sp)rq and (mathvariant="bold">Sp)pq, and the last common node for OD pair pq is filtered out according to the topological order l(r). Our method is implemented to find out all LCNs for all n∗(n-1) OD pairs, then tested on three kinds of model networks and four urban transportation networks. We find that the overall computing time T and the size of network n, has a relation like T∼O(n3), which is better than the theoretical estimation O(n4).

  6. Bilinear common spatial pattern for single-trial ERP-based rapid serial visual presentation triage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K.; Shen, K.; Shao, S.; Ng, W. C.; Li, X.

    2012-08-01

    Common spatial pattern (CSP) analysis is a useful tool for the feature extraction of event-related potentials (ERP). However, CSP is essentially time invariant, and thus unable to exploit the temporal information of ERP. This paper proposes a variant of CSP, namely bilinear common spatial pattern (BCSP), which is capable of accommodating both spatial and temporal information. BCSP generalizes CSP through iteratively optimizing bilinear filters. These bilinear filters constitute a spatio-temporal subspace in which the separation between two conditions is maximized. The method is unique in the sense that it is mathematically intuitive and simple, as all the bilinear filters are obtained by maximizing the power ratio as CSP does. The proposed method was evaluated on 20 subjects’ ERP data collected in rapid serial visual presentation triage experiments. The results show that BCSP achieved significantly higher average test accuracy (12.3% higher, p < 0.001).

  7. Crime laboratory proficiency testing results, 1978-1991, II: Resolving questions of common origin.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J L; Markham, P N

    1995-11-01

    A preceding article has examined the origins of crime laboratory proficiency testing and the performance of laboratories in the identification and classification of common types of physical evidence. Part II reviews laboratory proficiency in determining if two or more evidence samples shared a common source. Parts I and II together review the results of 175 separate tests issued to crime laboratories over the period 1978 to 1991. Laboratories perform best in determining the origin of finger and palm prints, metals, firearms (bullets and catridge cases), and footwear. Laboratories have moderate success in determining the source of bloodstains, questioned documents, toolmarks, and hair. A final category is of greater concern and includes those evidence categories where 10% or more of results disagree with manufacturers regarding the source of samples. This latter group includes paint, glass, fibers, and body fluid mixtures. The article concludes with a comparison of current findings with earlier LEAA study results, and a discussion of judicial and policy implications.

  8. Aberrant origin of the inferior thyroid artery from the common carotid artery: a rare anatomical variation

    PubMed Central

    Ngo Nyeki, Adèle-Rose; Peloni, Giuseppe; Karenovics, Wolfram; Triponez, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a rare anatomical variant of the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) taking its origin directly from the common carotid artery (CCA) instead of the thyrocervical trunk (TCT). This anatomical feature exposes to risks of perioperative bleeding and nerve injuries when it is unrecognized by the surgeons. Knowledge of its existence may be helpful to reduce risks for the patient. PMID:28149813

  9. Evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games with common resource dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wakano, Joe Yuichiro

    2007-08-21

    Investment in a common resource shared by all players is difficult to evolve despite higher returns because a non-investor (free-rider) always receives more than an investor (altruist). This situation is referred to as the Tragedy of the Commons and is often observed in various biological systems including environmental problems of human society. Punishment and reputation are effective mechanisms but require cooperator's ability to identify free-riders. Volunteering can work in anonymous public goods games but this requires voluntary participation, which is not always the case. Here, we show that the evolution of altruism is possible in anonymous and obligate public goods games if we consider the spatiotemporal dynamics of the common resource that incorporate spatial diffusion and internal dynamics of the commons. The investors' strategy to counter free-riders is to increase population density and to outnumber them with the common resource level kept as low as that of the free-riders.

  10. On the origin of the spatial inhomogeneity of photoluminescence in thin-film CIGS solar devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hajje, Gilbert; Ory, Daniel; Guillemoles, Jean-François; Lombez, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    In this letter, we investigate the origin of the spatial inhomogeneity of the photoluminescence (PL) intensity maps obtained on thin-film solar cells. Based on a hyperspectral imager setup, we record an absolute map of the quasi-Fermi level splitting Δμ by applying the generalized Planck's law. Then, using scanning confocal microscopy, we perform spatially and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. This allowed us to quantify and map the micrometric fluctuations of the trapping defect density within these solar cells. Finally, we demonstrate the existence of a direct correlation between the spatial fluctuations of the quasi-Fermi level splitting and the trapping defect density. The latter was found to be correlated with the frequently reported spatially inhomogeneous PL maps of thin-film solar cells. Based on the observed correlation, we can quantify the local losses in quasi-Fermi level splitting induced by the spatial distribution of the trapping defects.

  11. The association between spatial distribution of common malignancies and soil lead concentration in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Masoumeh; Rameshat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharib, Hadi; Rouzbahani, Reza; Ghias, Majid; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Malignancies are primarily environmental diseases mostly attributed to environmental factors. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences can be observed in detail. This study aimed to determine the association between map distribution of malignancies and the geological phenomena of lead (Pb) accumulation in soil in the province of Isfahan, Iran. Methods: Spatial distribution maps of malignant diseases were plotted by using data recorded during 2007 to 2009 in the Isfahan Cancer Registry Program. Data on Pb accumulation in soil was obtained from the National Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration. Pb concentrations were documented in three parts of agricultural, non-agricultural, urban, and industrial land. The geographical mapping of cancers and soil Pb were then incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) to create a spatial distribution model. Results: The spatial distributions of ten common malignant diseases in the province, i.e. skin cancers, hematological malignancies, and breast cancers, followed by other malignancies were scattered based on Pb distribution. In fact, common cancers were more prevalent in the parts of the province where soil Pb was more abundant. Conclusion: The findings of this study underscore the importance of preventing Pb exposure and controlling industrial production of Pb. The data is also important to establish further effects modeling for cancers. Moreover, physicians and health professionals should consider the impact of environmental factors on their patients’ health. PMID:23267396

  12. Mitochondria, the Cell Cycle, and the Origin of Sex via a Syncytial Eukaryote Common Ancestor.

    PubMed

    Garg, Sriram G; Martin, William F

    2016-07-02

    Theories for the origin of sex traditionally start with an asexual mitosing cell and add recombination, thereby deriving meiosis from mitosis. Though sex was clearly present in the eukaryote common ancestor, the order of events linking the origin of sex and the origin of mitosis is unknown. Here, we present an evolutionary inference for the origin of sex starting with a bacterial ancestor of mitochondria in the cytosol of its archaeal host. We posit that symbiotic association led to the origin of mitochondria and gene transfer to host's genome, generating a nucleus and a dedicated translational compartment, the eukaryotic cytosol, in which-by virtue of mitochondria-metabolic energy was not limiting. Spontaneous protein aggregation (monomer polymerization) and Adenosine Tri-phosphate (ATP)-dependent macromolecular movement in the cytosol thereby became selectable, giving rise to continuous microtubule-dependent chromosome separation (reduction division). We propose that eukaryotic chromosome division arose in a filamentous, syncytial, multinucleated ancestor, in which nuclei with insufficient chromosome numbers could complement each other through mRNA in the cytosol and generate new chromosome combinations through karyogamy. A syncytial (or coenocytic, a synonym) eukaryote ancestor, or Coeca, would account for the observation that the process of eukaryotic chromosome separation is more conserved than the process of eukaryotic cell division. The first progeny of such a syncytial ancestor were likely equivalent to meiospores, released into the environment by the host's vesicle secretion machinery. The natural ability of archaea (the host) to fuse and recombine brought forth reciprocal recombination among fusing (syngamy and karyogamy) progeny-sex-in an ancestrally meiotic cell cycle, from which the simpler haploid and diploid mitotic cell cycles arose. The origin of eukaryotes was the origin of vertical lineage inheritance, and sex was required to keep vertically

  13. The alpha/beta fold uracil DNA glycosylases: a common origin with diverse fates

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, L; Koonin, Eugene V

    2000-01-01

    Background: Uracil DNA glycosylases (UDGs) are major repair enzymes that protect DNA from mutational damage caused by uracil incorporated as a result of a polymerase error or deamination of cytosine. Four distinct families of UDGs have been identified, which show very limited sequence similarity to each other, although two of them have been shown to possess the same structural fold. The structural and evolutionary relationships between the rest of the UDGs remain uncertain. Results: Using sequence profile searches, multiple alignment analysis and protein structure comparisons, we show here that all known UDGs possess the same fold and must have evolved from a common ancestor. Although all UDGs catalyze essentially the same reaction, significant changes in the configuration of the catalytic residues were detected within their common fold, which probably results in differences in the biochemistry of these enzymes. The extreme sequence divergence of the UDGs, which is unusual for enzymes with the same principal activity, is probably due to the major role of the uracil-flipping caused by the conformational strain enacted by the enzyme on uracil-containing DNA, as compared with the catalytic action of individual polar residues. We predict two previously undetected families of UDGs and delineate a hypothetical scenario for their evolution. Conclusions: UDGs form a single protein superfamily with a distinct structural fold and a common evolutionary origin. Differences in the catalytic mechanism of the different families combined with the construction of the catalytic pocket have, however, resulted in extreme sequence divergence of these enzymes. PMID:11178247

  14. Superresolved common-path phase-shifting digital inline holographic microscopy using a spatial light modulator.

    PubMed

    Micó, Vicente; Zalevsky, Zeev; Garcia, Javier

    2012-12-01

    Common-path phase-shifting lensless holographic microscopy has been recently proposed as a novel approach capable of high numerical aperture imaging in a lensless digital inline holographic microscopy layout [Opt. Lett.35, 3919 (2010)]. Here we present proof-of-concept validation for improving the resolution limit imposed by diffraction in such a setup. This is accomplished by shifting the phase lens displayed at the spatial light modulator, which moves the illumination point source to different off-axis positions. For each off-axis position, a set of inline phase-shifted holograms are recorded by the digital sensor and stored at the computer's memory for later digital postprocessing. As a consequence, each recording allows the recovery of different spatial frequency content of the object's diffracted wavefront meaning a superresolved image of the input object. Experimental results are reported validating the proposed method.

  15. Cells of a common developmental origin regulate REM/non-REM sleep and wakefulness in mice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yu; Kashiwagi, Mitsuaki; Yasuda, Kosuke; Ando, Reiko; Kanuka, Mika; Sakai, Kazuya; Itohara, Shigeyoshi

    2015-11-20

    Mammalian sleep comprises rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. To functionally isolate from the complex mixture of neurons populating the brainstem pons those involved in switching between REM and NREM sleep, we chemogenetically manipulated neurons of a specific embryonic cell lineage in mice. We identified excitatory glutamatergic neurons that inhibit REM sleep and promote NREM sleep. These neurons shared a common developmental origin with neurons promoting wakefulness; both derived from a pool of proneural hindbrain cells expressing Atoh1 at embryonic day 10.5. We also identified inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid-releasing neurons that act downstream to inhibit REM sleep. Artificial reduction or prolongation of REM sleep in turn affected slow-wave activity during subsequent NREM sleep, implicating REM sleep in the regulation of NREM sleep.

  16. Colonizing the High Arctic: Mitochondrial DNA Reveals Common Origin of Eurasian Archipelagic Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

    PubMed Central

    Kvie, Kjersti S.; Heggenes, Jan; Anderson, David G.; Kholodova, Marina V.; Sipko, Taras; Mizin, Ivan; Røed, Knut H.

    2016-01-01

    In light of current debates on global climate change it has become important to know more on how large, roaming species have responded to environmental change in the past. Using the highly variable mitochondrial control region, we revisit theories of Rangifer colonization and propose that the High Arctic archipelagos of Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, and Novaia Zemlia were colonized by reindeer from the Eurasian mainland after the last glacial maximum. Comparing mtDNA control region sequences from the three Arctic archipelagos showed a strong genetic connection between the populations, supporting a common origin in the past. A genetic connection between the three archipelagos and two Russian mainland populations was also found, suggesting colonization of the Eurasian high Arctic archipelagos from the Eurasian mainland. The age of the Franz Josef Land material (>2000 years before present) implies that Arctic indigenous reindeer colonized the Eurasian Arctic archipelagos through natural dispersal, before humans approached this region. PMID:27880778

  17. Common origin of pure and interrupted repeat expansions in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2).

    PubMed

    Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Martins, Sandra; Alonso, Isabel; Emmel, Vanessa E; Saraiva-Pereira, Maria Luiza; Jardim, Laura Bannach; Coutinho, Paula; Sequeiros, Jorge; Silveira, Isabel

    2010-03-05

    The spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by gait and limb ataxia. This disease is caused by the expansion of a (CAG)(n) located in the ATXN2, that encodes a polyglutamine tract of more than 34 repeats. Lately, alleles with 32-33 CAGs have been associated to late-onset disease cases. Repeat interruptions by CAA triplets are common in normal alleles, while expanded alleles usually contain a pure repeat tract. To investigate the mutational origin and the instability associated to the ATXN2 repeat, we performed an extensive haplotype study and sequencing of the CAG/CAA repeat, in a cohort of families of different geographic origins and phenotypes. Our results showed (1) CAA interruptions also in expanded ATXN2 alleles; (2) that pathological CAA interrupted alleles shared an ancestral haplotype with pure expanded alleles; and (3) higher genetic diversity in European SCA2 families, suggesting an older European ancestry of SCA2. In conclusion, we found instability towards expansion in interrupted ATXN2 alleles and a shared ancestral ATXN2 haplotype for pure and interrupted expanded alleles; this finding has strong implications in mutation diagnosis and counseling. Our results indicate that interrupted alleles, below the pathological threshold, may be a reservoir of mutable alleles, prone to expansion in subsequent generations, leading to full disease mutation.

  18. Genomic selection for recovery of original genetic background from hybrids of endangered and common breeds

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Carmen; Hayes, Ben J; Daetwyler, Hans D

    2014-01-01

    Critically endangered breeds and populations are often crossed with more common breeds or subspecies. This results in genetic admixture that can be undesirable when it challenges the genetic integrity of wild and domestic populations, causing a loss in special characteristics or unique genetic material and ultimately extinction. Here, we present two genomic selection strategies, using genome-wide DNA markers, to recover the genomic content of the original endangered population from admixtures. Each strategy relies on the estimation of the proportion of nonintrogressed genome in individuals based on a different method: either genomic prediction or identification of breed-specific haplotypes. Then, breeding programs that remove introgressed genomic information can be designed. To test these strategies, we used empirical 50K SNP array data from two pure sheep breeds, Merino (used as target breed), Poll Dorset and an existing admixed population of both breeds. Sheep populations with varying degrees of introgression and admixture were simulated starting from these real genotypes. Both strategies were capable of identifying segment origin, and both removed up to the 100% of the Poll Dorset segments. While the selection process led to substantial inbreeding, we controlled it by imposing a minimum number of individuals contributing to the next generation. PMID:24567744

  19. World region of origin and common mental disorders among migrant women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Dolores; Mendieta-Marichal, Yaiza; Martínez-Ortega, José M; Agrela, María; Ariza, Carmen; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Araya, Ricardo; Lewis, Glyn; Gurpegui, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Migration can affect the mental health of migrants. This cross-sectional study has two objectives: (1) to compare the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD) between migrants (n = 458) living in Granada (Spain) and Spanish-born women (n = 448); (2) within migrants, to analyse the associations of world region of origin, other sociodemographic factors and post-migration features with the presence of CMD. Participants answered a questionnaire, including sociodemographic characteristics, post-migration features and CMD that was measured by Kessler K6-scale. Logistic regression analyses showed that CMD (K6 ≥ 13) was significantly higher among migrants than Spaniards. Compared with Spaniards, the odds of CMD were 3.6 [95 % confidence intervals (CI) 2.1–6.0] and 2.9 (CI 1.6–5.3), respectively, for Latin Americans and for Moroccan and other African women. Among migrants, Latin Americans as opposed to the reference group (migrants from other countries), had higher probability of CMD (OR 2.3, CI 1.1–4.9). This study supports the hypothesis that migration leads to mental distress. Consideration of world region of origin may clarify the differences observed in mental health across different migrant groups.

  20. Origin and Evolution of Water Oxidation before the Last Common Ancestor of the Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Tanai; Murray, James W.; Rutherford, A. William

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II, the water oxidizing enzyme, altered the course of evolution by filling the atmosphere with oxygen. Here, we reconstruct the origin and evolution of water oxidation at an unprecedented level of detail by studying the phylogeny of all D1 subunits, the main protein coordinating the water oxidizing cluster (Mn4CaO5) of Photosystem II. We show that D1 exists in several forms making well-defined clades, some of which could have evolved before the origin of water oxidation and presenting many atypical characteristics. The most ancient form is found in the genome of Gloeobacter kilaueensis JS-1 and this has a C-terminus with a higher sequence identity to D2 than to any other D1. Two other groups of early evolving D1 correspond to those expressed under prolonged far-red illumination and in darkness. These atypical D1 forms are characterized by a dramatically different Mn4CaO5 binding site and a Photosystem II containing such a site may assemble an unconventional metal cluster. The first D1 forms with a full set of ligands to the Mn4CaO5 cluster are grouped with D1 proteins expressed only under low oxygen concentrations and the latest evolving form is the dominant type of D1 found in all cyanobacteria and plastids. In addition, we show that the plastid ancestor had a D1 more similar to those in early branching Synechococcus. We suggest each one of these forms of D1 originated from transitional forms at different stages toward the innovation and optimization of water oxidation before the last common ancestor of all known cyanobacteria. PMID:25657330

  1. Origin and Evolution of Water Oxidation before the Last Common Ancestor of the Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Tanai; Murray, James W; Rutherford, A William

    2015-05-01

    Photosystem II, the water oxidizing enzyme, altered the course of evolution by filling the atmosphere with oxygen. Here, we reconstruct the origin and evolution of water oxidation at an unprecedented level of detail by studying the phylogeny of all D1 subunits, the main protein coordinating the water oxidizing cluster (Mn4CaO5) of Photosystem II. We show that D1 exists in several forms making well-defined clades, some of which could have evolved before the origin of water oxidation and presenting many atypical characteristics. The most ancient form is found in the genome of Gloeobacter kilaueensis JS-1 and this has a C-terminus with a higher sequence identity to D2 than to any other D1. Two other groups of early evolving D1 correspond to those expressed under prolonged far-red illumination and in darkness. These atypical D1 forms are characterized by a dramatically different Mn4CaO5 binding site and a Photosystem II containing such a site may assemble an unconventional metal cluster. The first D1 forms with a full set of ligands to the Mn4CaO5 cluster are grouped with D1 proteins expressed only under low oxygen concentrations and the latest evolving form is the dominant type of D1 found in all cyanobacteria and plastids. In addition, we show that the plastid ancestor had a D1 more similar to those in early branching Synechococcus. We suggest each one of these forms of D1 originated from transitional forms at different stages toward the innovation and optimization of water oxidation before the last common ancestor of all known cyanobacteria.

  2. Common Origins of Diverse Misconceptions: Cognitive Principles and the Development of Biology Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2012-01-01

    Many ideas in the biological sciences seem especially difficult to understand, learn, and teach successfully. Our goal in this feature is to explore how these difficulties may stem not from the complexity or opacity of the concepts themselves, but from the fact that they may clash with informal, intuitive, and deeply held ways of understanding the world that have been studied for decades by psychologists. We give a brief overview of the field of developmental cognitive psychology. Then, in each of the following sections, we present a number of common challenges faced by students in the biological sciences. These may be in the form of misconceptions, biases, or simply concepts that are difficult to learn and teach, and they occur at all levels of biological analysis (molecular, cellular, organismal, population, and ecosystem). We then introduce the notion of a cognitive construal and discuss specific examples of how these cognitive principles may explain what makes some misconceptions so alluring and some biological concepts so challenging for undergraduates. We will argue that seemingly unrelated misconceptions may have common origins in a single underlying cognitive construal. These ideas emerge from our own ongoing cross-disciplinary conversation, and we think that expanding this conversation to include other biological scientists and educators, as well as other cognitive scientists, could have significant utility in improving biology teaching and learning. PMID:22949417

  3. Spatially Common Sparsity Based Adaptive Channel Estimation and Feedback for FDD Massive MIMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhen; Dai, Linglong; Wang, Zhaocheng; Chen, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a spatially common sparsity based adaptive channel estimation and feedback scheme for frequency division duplex based massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems, which adapts training overhead and pilot design to reliably estimate and feed back the downlink channel state information (CSI) with significantly reduced overhead. Specifically, a non-orthogonal downlink pilot design is first proposed, which is very different from standard orthogonal pilots. By exploiting the spatially common sparsity of massive MIMO channels, a compressive sensing (CS) based adaptive CSI acquisition scheme is proposed, where the consumed time slot overhead only adaptively depends on the sparsity level of the channels. Additionally, a distributed sparsity adaptive matching pursuit algorithm is proposed to jointly estimate the channels of multiple subcarriers. Furthermore, by exploiting the temporal channel correlation, a closed-loop channel tracking scheme is provided, which adaptively designs the non-orthogonal pilot according to the previous channel estimation to achieve an enhanced CSI acquisition. Finally, we generalize the results of the multiple-measurement-vectors case in CS and derive the Cramer-Rao lower bound of the proposed scheme, which enlightens us to design the non-orthogonal pilot signals for the improved performance. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme outperforms its counterparts, and it is capable of approaching the performance bound.

  4. Effects of spatial disturbance on common loon nest site selection and territory success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.P.; DeStefano, S.

    2011-01-01

    The common loon (Gavia immer) breeds during the summer on northern lakes and water bodies that are also often desirable areas for aquatic recreation and human habitation. In northern New England, we assessed how the spatial nature of disturbance affects common loon nest site selection and territory success. We found through classification and regression analysis that distance to and density of disturbance factors can be used to classify observed nest site locations versus random points, suggesting that these factors affect loon nest site selection (model 1: Correct classification = 75%, null = 50%, K = 0.507, P < 0.001; model 2: Correct classification = 78%, null = 50%, K = 0.551, P < 0.001). However, in an exploratory analysis, we were unable to show a relation between spatial disturbance variables and breeding success (P = 0.595, R 2 = 0.436), possibly because breeding success was so low during the breeding seasons of 2007-2008. We suggest that by selecting nest site locations that avoid disturbance factors, loons thereby limit the effect that disturbance will have on their breeding success. Still, disturbance may force loons to use sub-optimal nesting habitat, limiting the available number of territories, and overall productivity. We advise that management efforts focus on limiting disturbance factors to allow breeding pairs access to the best nesting territories, relieving disturbance pressures that may force sub-optimal nest placement. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  5. Common sole in the northern and central Adriatic Sea: Spatial management scenarios to rebuild the stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarcella, Giuseppe; Grati, Fabio; Raicevich, Saša; Russo, Tommaso; Gramolini, Roberto; Scott, Robert D.; Polidori, Piero; Domenichetti, Filippo; Bolognini, Luca; Giovanardi, Otello; Celić, Igor; Sabatini, Laura; Vrgoč, Nedo; Isajlović, Igor; Marčeta, Bojan; Fabi, Gianna

    2014-05-01

    The northern and central Adriatic Sea represents an important spawning and aggregation area for common sole (Solea solea) and provides for around 20% of the Mediterranean landings. In this area, this resource is mainly exploited with rapido trawl and set nets. The stock is not yet depleted and faces a situation of growth overfishing. The comparison between the spatial distribution by age of S. solea and the geographic patterns of the rapido trawl fishing effort evidenced an overlapping of this fishing activity with the area where juveniles concentrate (age groups 0-2). The majority of spawners inhabits specific offshore areas, here defined as ‘sole sanctuaries', where high concentrations of debris and benthic communities make difficult trawling with rapido. The aim of this study was to evaluate existing spatial management regimes and potential new spatial and temporal closures in the northern and central Adriatic Sea using a simple modelling tool. Two spatial simulations were carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of complementary methods for the management of fisheries: the ban of rapido trawling from October to December within 6 nautical miles and 9 nautical miles of the Italian coast. The focus of the simulation is that the effort of the rapido trawl is moved far from the coast during key sole recruitment periods, when the juveniles are moving from the inshore nursery area toward the offshore feeding grounds. The management scenarios showed that a change in selectivity would lead to a clear increase in the spawning stock biomass and an increase in landings of S. solea in the medium-term. The rapido trawl activity could be managed by using a different logic, bearing in mind that catches and incomes would increase with small changes in the spatial pattern of the fishing effort. The present study highlights the importance of taking into account spatial dimensions of fishing fleets and the possible interactions that can occur between fleets and target

  6. A common origin for ridge-and-trough terrain on icy satellites by sluggish lid convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Amy C.; Hammond, Noah P.

    2015-12-01

    Ridge-and-trough terrain is a common landform on outer Solar System icy satellites. Examples include Ganymede's grooved terrain, Europa's gray bands, Miranda's coronae, and several terrains on Enceladus. The conditions associated with the formation of each of these terrains are similar: heat flows of order tens to a hundred milliwatts per meter squared, and deformation rates of order 10-16-10-12 s-1. Our prior work shows that the conditions associated with the formation of these terrains on Ganymede and the south pole of Enceladus are consistent with vigorous solid-state ice convection in a shell with a weak surface. We show that sluggish lid convection, an intermediate regime between the isoviscous and stagnant lid regimes, can create the heat flow and deformation rates appropriate for ridge and trough formation on a number of satellites, regardless of the ice shell thickness. For convection to deform their surfaces, the ice shells must have yield stresses similar in magnitude to the daily tidal stresses. Tidal and convective stresses deform the surface, and the spatial pattern of tidal cracking controls the locations of ridge-and-trough terrain.

  7. Ancient Humans Influenced the Current Spatial Genetic Structure of Common Walnut Populations in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Pollegioni, Paola; Woeste, Keith E.; Chiocchini, Francesca; Del Lungo, Stefano; Olimpieri, Irene; Tortolano, Virginia; Clark, Jo; Hemery, Gabriel E.; Mapelli, Sergio; Malvolti, Maria Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that J. regia survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, J. regia evolved over many centuries under the influence of human management and exploitation. We evaluated the hypothesis that the current distribution of natural genetic resources of common walnut in Asia is, at least in part, the product of ancient anthropogenic dispersal, human cultural interactions, and afforestation. Genetic analysis combined with ethno-linguistic and historical data indicated that ancient trade routes such as the Persian Royal Road and Silk Road enabled long-distance dispersal of J. regia from Iran and Trans-Caucasus to Central Asia, and from Western to Eastern China. Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan), where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged. A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries. Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history. PMID:26332919

  8. Ancient Humans Influenced the Current Spatial Genetic Structure of Common Walnut Populations in Asia.

    PubMed

    Pollegioni, Paola; Woeste, Keith E; Chiocchini, Francesca; Del Lungo, Stefano; Olimpieri, Irene; Tortolano, Virginia; Clark, Jo; Hemery, Gabriel E; Mapelli, Sergio; Malvolti, Maria Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that J. regia survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, J. regia evolved over many centuries under the influence of human management and exploitation. We evaluated the hypothesis that the current distribution of natural genetic resources of common walnut in Asia is, at least in part, the product of ancient anthropogenic dispersal, human cultural interactions, and afforestation. Genetic analysis combined with ethno-linguistic and historical data indicated that ancient trade routes such as the Persian Royal Road and Silk Road enabled long-distance dispersal of J. regia from Iran and Trans-Caucasus to Central Asia, and from Western to Eastern China. Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan), where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged. A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries. Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history.

  9. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Adipokinetic Hormone Signaling Systems Share a Common Evolutionary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Lindemans, Marleen; Janssen, Tom; Beets, Isabel; Temmerman, Liesbet; Meelkop, Ellen; Schoofs, Liliane

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a critical and central hormone that regulates vertebrate reproduction. The high conservation of GnRH signaling within the chordates (deuterostomians) raises the important question as to whether its appearance might date back prior to the divergence of protostomian and deuterostomian lineages, about 700 million years ago. This leads to several important questions regarding the evolution of the GnRH family. Has GnRH been retained in most protostomian lineages? And was regulation of reproduction already a function of ancestral GnRH? The first question can undoubtedly be answered affirmatively since several GnRH-like sequences have been found in wide variety of protostomian and deuterostomian phyla. However, based on their different primary functions in different phyla – which implies a less unanimous answer on the second question – consistency in the nomenclature of this peptide family has been lost. A comparative and phylogenetic approach shows that the ecdysozoan adipokinetic hormones (AKHs), lophotrochozoan GnRHs and chordate GnRHs are structurally related and suggests that they all originate from a common ancestor. This review supports the view that the AKH–GnRH signaling system probably arose very early in metazoan evolution, prior to the divergence of protostomians and deuterostomians. PMID:22649364

  10. Common clonal origin of central and resident memory T cells following skin immunization

    PubMed Central

    Gaide, Olivier; Emerson, Ryan O.; Jiang, Xiaodong; Gulati, Nicholas; Nizza, Suzanne; Desmarais, Cindy; Robins, Harlan; Krueger, James G.; Clark, Rachael A.; Kupper, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    Central memory T (TCM) cells in lymph nodes (LN) and resident memory T (TRM) cells in peripheral tissues play distinct roles in protective immunity1-5. Both are generated after primary infections, but the clonal origin of TRM and TCM cells is unclear. To address this question, mice were immunized through the skin with either a protein antigen, a chemical hapten, or a non-replicating poxvirus. We then analyzed antigen activated T cells from different tissues using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of the gene (Tcrbv) encoding T cell receptor gene β chain CDR3 region to simultaneously track thousands of unique T cells6. For every abundant TRM clone generated in the skin, an abundant TCM clone bearing the identical TCR was present in lymph nodes (LN). Thus antigen reactive skin TRM and LN TCM clones were derived from a common naive T cell precursor after skin immunization, generating overlapping TCR repertoires. Although they bore the same TCR, TRM mediated rapid contact hypersensitivity (CHS)7 responses in mice, whereas TCM mediated delayed and attenuated responses. Studies in human subjects confirmed the generation of skin TRM in allergic contact dermatitis. Thus, immunization through skin simultaneously generates skin TRM and LN TCM in similar numbers from the same naïve T cells. PMID:25962122

  11. Marine spatial planning and oil spill risk analysis: finding common grounds.

    PubMed

    Frazão Santos, Catarina; Michel, Jaqueline; Neves, Mário; Janeiro, João; Andrade, Francisco; Orbach, Michael

    2013-09-15

    A flow of key information links marine spatial planning (MSP) and oil spill risk analysis (OSRA), two distinct processes needed to achieve true sustainable management of coastal and marine areas. OSRA informs MSP on areas of high risk to oil spills allowing a redefinition of planning objectives and the relocation of activities to increase the ecosystem's overall utility and resilience. Concomitantly, MSP continuously generates a large amount of data that is vital to OSRA. The Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) mapping system emerges as an operational tool to implement the MSP-OSRA link. Given the high level of commonalities between ESI and MSP data (both in biophysical and human dimensions), ESI tools (both paper maps and dynamic GIS-based product) are easily developed to further inform MSP and oil spill risk management. Finally, several other benefits from implementing the MSP-OSRA link are highlighted.

  12. Diatoms on the carapace of common snapping turtles: Luticola spp. dominate despite spatial variation in assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shelly C.; Bergey, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Filamentous algae are often visible on the carapaces of freshwater turtles and these algae are dominated by a few species with varying geographic distributions. Compared to filamentous algae, little is known about the much more speciose microalgae on turtles. Our objectives were to compare the diatom flora on a single turtle species (the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina) across part of its range to examine spatial patterns and determine whether specific diatom taxa were consistently associated with turtles (as occurs in the filamentous alga Basicladia spp.). Using preserved turtle specimens from museums, we systematically sampled diatoms on the carapaces of 25 snapping turtles across five states. The diverse diatom assemblages formed two groups–the southern Oklahoma group and the northern Illinois/Wisconsin/New York group, with Arkansas not differing from either group. Of the six diatom species found in all five states, four species are widespread, whereas Luticola cf. goeppertiana and L. cf. mutica are undescribed species, known only from turtles in our study. L. cf. goeppertiana comprised 83% of the diatom abundance on Oklahoma turtles and was relatively more abundant on southern turtles (Oklahoma and Arkansas) than on northern turtles (where mean abundance/state was > 10%). L. cf. mutica was the most abundant species (40%) on New York turtles. Some Luticola species are apparently turtle associates and results support a pattern of spatial variation in Luticola species, similar to that in Basicladia. Using museum specimens is an efficient and effective method to study the distribution of micro-epibionts. PMID:28192469

  13. Spatial and ontogenetic variability in the chemical composition of juvenile common sole ( Solea solea) otoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, S. E.; Vasconcelos, R. P.; Reis-Santos, P.; Cabral, H. N.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    A description of variations in the chemical composition of fish otoliths at different spatial scales and life history stages is a prerequisite for their use as natural tags in fish population connectivity and migration studies. Otolith geochemistry of juvenile common sole ( Solea solea), a marine migrant species collected in six Portuguese estuaries was examined. Elemental ratios (Mg:Ca, Mn:Ca, Cu:Ca, Sr:Ca, Ba:Ca, Pb:Ca) were analysed in two zones of the right otolith (corresponding to late larval and juvenile stages) using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ 13C and δ 18O) were determined in left otoliths using isotopic ratio monitoring mass spectrometry (irm-MS). Significant differences in otolith geochemical signatures were found among estuaries, among sites within estuaries and between otolith zones. Several elemental ratios (Mg:Ca, Mn:Ca, Cu:Ca and Sr:Ca) showed consistent patterns between otolith zones and were likely influenced by environmental factors and ontogenetic effects associated with physiological changes during metamorphosis. Assignment of individuals to their collection estuary based on the otolith geochemical signatures was more accurate at the site level (81%) than among estuaries (69%). Site temperature was not correlated with any of the elemental or isotope ratios, but salinity was significantly correlated with Ba:Ca, δ 13C and δ 18O. Observed spatial variations among estuaries and sites within estuaries indicate that geochemical signatures in otoliths are accurate natural tags of estuarine habitat in common sole. Nevertheless, the significant variations observed between otolith zones should be taken into account in the design of population connectivity studies.

  14. Common spatial pattern patches - an optimized filter ensemble for adaptive brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Sannelli, Claudia; Vidaurre, Carmen; Muller, Klaus-Robert; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Laplacian filters are commonly used in Brain Computer Interfacing (BCI). When only data from few channels are available, or when, like at the beginning of an experiment, no previous data from the same user is available complex features cannot be used. In this case band power features calculated from Laplacian filtered channels represents an easy, robust and general feature to control a BCI, since its calculation does not involve any class information. For the same reason, the performance obtained with Laplacian features is poor in comparison to subject-specific optimized spatial filters, such as Common Spatial Patterns (CSP) analysis, which, on the other hand, can be used just in a later phase of the experiment, since they require a considerable amount of training data in order to enroll a stable and good performance. This drawback is particularly evident in case of poor performing BCI users, whose data is highly non-stationary and contains little class relevant information. Therefore, Laplacian filtering is preferred to CSP, e.g., in the initial period of co-adaptive calibration, a novel BCI paradigm designed to alleviate the problem of BCI illiteracy. In fact, in the co-adaptive calibration design the experiment starts with a subject-independent classifier and simple features are needed in order to obtain a fast adaptation of the classifier to the newly acquired user's data. Here, the use of an ensemble of local CSP patches (CSPP) is proposed, which can be considered as a compromise between Laplacians and CSP: CSPP needs less data and channels than CSP, while being superior to Laplacian filtering. This property is shown to be particularly useful for the co-adaptive calibration design and is demonstrated on off-line data from a previous co-adaptive BCI study.

  15. Spatial frequency-specific contrast adaptation originates in the primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Duong, Thang; Freeman, Ralph D

    2007-07-01

    Adaptation to a high-contrast grating stimulus causes reduced sensitivity to subsequent presentation of a visual stimulus with similar spatial characteristics. This behavioral finding has been attributed by neurophysiological studies to processes within the visual cortex. However, some evidence indicates that contrast adaptation phenomena are also found in early visual pathways. Adaptation effects have been reported in retina and lateral geniculation nucleus (LGN). It is possible that these early pathways could be the physiological origin of the cortical adaptation effect. To study this, we recorded from single neurons in the cat's LGN. We find that contrast adaptation in the LGN, unlike that in the visual cortex, is not spatial frequency specific, i.e., adaptation effects apply to a broad range of spatial frequencies. In addition, aside from the amplitude attenuation, the shape of spatial frequency tuning curves of LGN cells is not affected by contrast adaptation. Again, these findings are unlike those found for cells in the visual cortex. Together, these results demonstrate that pattern specific contrast adaptation is a cortical process.

  16. Commonality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E., Jr.

    Commonality analysis is an attempt to understand the relative predictive power of the regressor variables, both individually and in combination. The squared multiple correlation is broken up into elements assigned to each individual regressor and to each possible combination of regressors. The elements have the property that the appropriate sums…

  17. Diagnostic Value of Common Inflammatory Markers on Fever of Unknown Origin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Jun-Ping; Kang, Yi; Mao, Chong-Shan; Shang, Jia

    2016-09-21

    This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic value of common inflammatory markers with regard to fever of unknown origin (FUO). We investigated 383 patients who were hospitalized with FUO at the Henan Province People's hospital between January 2009 and June 2015. Of all the cases, infectious diseases accounted for 33.9%, neoplasms for 21.1%, collagen vascular diseases for 25.1%, miscellaneous diseases for 4.7%, and no diagnosis for 15.1%. Patients in the neoplasm group were older than those in the infectious disease, collagen vascular disease, and miscellaneous disease groups (p = 0.006, p < 0.0001, and p = 0.001, respectively). The duration of fever before admission of patients in the neoplasm and collagen vascular disease group was longer than that of patients in the infectious disease group (p = 0.002 and p = 0.007, respectively). The diagnostic time after admission of patients from the neoplasm and collagen vascular disease groups was longer than that for patients from the infectious disease group (both p < 0.0001). Serum ferritin levels of patients in the infectious disease group were lower than those of patients in the neoplasm and collagen vascular disease groups (p = 0.029 and p = 0.032, respectively), while serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels in the infectious disease group was higher than that in the neoplasm and collagen vascular disease groups (p = 0.016 and p = 0.007, respectively). Therefore, FUO remains a clinical problem in China and serum ferritin and PCT may be useful in discriminating infectious from non-infectious causes (neoplasms and collagen vascular diseases) in patients with FUO.

  18. A common spatial factor analysis model for measured neighborhood-level characteristics: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Nethery, Rachel C; Warren, Joshua L; Herring, Amy H; Moore, Kari A B; Evenson, Kelly R; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce the dimensionality of a set of neighborhood-level variables collected on participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) while appropriately accounting for the spatial structure of the data. A common spatial factor analysis model in the Bayesian setting was utilized in order to properly characterize dependencies in the data. Results suggest that use of the spatial factor model can result in more precise estimation of factor scores, improved insight into the spatial patterns in the data, and the ability to more accurately assess associations between the neighborhood environment and health outcomes.

  19. A Common Spatial Factor Analysis Model for Measured Neighborhood-Level Characteristics: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Nethery, Rachel C.; Warren, Joshua L.; Herring, Amy H.; Moore, Kari A.B.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce the dimensionality of a set of neighborhood-level variables collected on participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) while appropriately accounting for the spatial structure of the data. A common spatial factor analysis model in the Bayesian setting was utilized in order to properly characterize dependencies in the data. Results suggest that use of the spatial factor model can result in more precise estimation of factor scores, improved insight into the spatial patterns in the data, and the ability to more accurately assess associations between the neighborhood environment and health outcomes. PMID:26372887

  20. Intrinsic Difficulties in Learning Common Greek-Originated English Words: The Case of Pluralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavakli, Nurdan

    2016-01-01

    Knowing the origin of a language helps us to determine the historical background of that language. As language itself is such a system of a society that is continuously evolving as that aforementioned society learns and technologically develops along with its roots or origins. Like many other languages, English is also a language that has roots or…

  1. Hierarchical spatial genetic structure of Common Eiders (Somateria Mollissima) breeding along a migratory corridor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, S.A.; Talbot, S.L.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Scribner, K.T.; McCracken, K.G.

    2009-01-01

    Documentation of spatial genetic discordance among breeding populations of Arctic-nesting avian species is important, because anthropogenic change is altering environmental linkages at micro- and macrogeographic scales. We estimated levels of population subdivision within Pacific Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) breeding on 12 barrier islands in the western Beaufort Sea, Alaska, using molecular markers and capture-mark-recapture (CMR) data. Common Eider populations were genetically structured on a microgeographic scale. Regional comparisons between populations breeding on island groups separated by 90 km (Mikkelsen Bay and Simpson Lagoon) revealed structuring at 14 microsatellite loci (FST = 0.004, P < 0.01), a nuclear intron (FST = 0.022, P = 0.02), and mitochondrial DNA (??ST = 0.082, P < 0.05). The CMR data (n = 34) did not indicate female dispersal between island groups. Concordance between genetic and CMR data indicates that females breeding in the western Beaufort Sea are strongly philopatric to island groups rather than to a particular island. Despite the apparent high site fidelity of females, coalescence-based models of gene flow suggest that asymmetrical western dispersal occurs between island groups and is likely mediated by Mikkelsen Bay females stopping early on spring migration at Simpson Lagoon to breed. Alternatively, late-arriving females may be predisposed to nest in Simpson Lagoon because of the greater availability and wider distribution of nesting habitat. Our results indicate that genetic discontinuities, mediated by female philopatry, can exist at microgeographic scales along established migratory corridors. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2009.

  2. Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about Food Production and the Origins of Common Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet; O'Mahony, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    Individual interviews were conducted with 96 K-3 students, stratified according to grade level, achievement level, and gender. The students were asked to explain land-to-hand progressions involved in bringing several common foods to our tables, identify products derived from common farm animals, explain why a pound of cereal costs more than a…

  3. Spatial dynamics of human-origin H1 influenza A virus in North American swine.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha I; Lemey, Philippe; Tan, Yi; Vincent, Amy; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Detmer, Susan; Viboud, Cécile; Suchard, Marc A; Rambaut, Andrew; Holmes, Edward C; Gramer, Marie

    2011-06-01

    The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human health, relatively little is known about the phylogeography of swine influenza viruses in the United States. This study utilizes an expansive data set of hemagglutinin (HA1) sequences (n = 1516) from swine influenza viruses collected in North America during the period 2003-2010. With these data we investigate the spatial dissemination of a novel influenza virus of the H1 subtype that was introduced into the North American swine population via two separate human-to-swine transmission events around 2003. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis reveals that the spatial dissemination of this influenza virus in the US swine population follows long-distance swine movements from the Southern US to the Midwest, a corn-rich commercial center that imports millions of swine annually. Hence, multiple genetically diverse influenza viruses are introduced and co-circulate in the Midwest, providing the opportunity for genomic reassortment. Overall, the Midwest serves primarily as an ecological sink for swine influenza in the US, with sources of virus genetic diversity instead located in the Southeast (mainly North Carolina) and South-central (mainly Oklahoma) regions. Understanding the importance of long-distance pig transportation in the evolution and spatial dissemination of the influenza virus in swine may inform future strategies for the surveillance and control of influenza, and perhaps other swine pathogens.

  4. Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Michael F; Karafet, Tatiana M; Park, Hwayong; Omoto, Keiichi; Harihara, Shinji; Stoneking, Mark; Horai, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Historic Japanese culture evolved from at least two distinct migrations that originated on the Asian continent. Hunter-gatherers arrived before land bridges were submerged after the last glacial maximum (>12,000 years ago) and gave rise to the Jomon culture, and the Yayoi migration brought wet rice agriculture from Korea beginning approximately 2,300 years ago. A set of 81 Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used to trace the origins of Paleolithic and Neolithic components of the Japanese paternal gene pool, and to determine the relative contribution of Jomon and Yayoi Y chromosome lineages to modern Japanese. Our global sample consisted of >2,500 males from 39 Asian populations, including six populations sampled from across the Japanese archipelago. Japanese populations were characterized by the presence of two major (D and O) and two minor (C and N) clades of Y chromosomes, each with several sub-lineages. Haplogroup D chromosomes were present at 34.7% and were distributed in a U-shaped pattern with the highest frequency in the northern Ainu and southern Ryukyuans. In contrast, haplogroup O lineages (51.8%) were distributed in an inverted U-shaped pattern with a maximum frequency on Kyushu. Coalescent analyses of Y chromosome short tandem repeat diversity indicated that haplogroups D and C began their expansions in Japan approximately 20,000 and approximately 12,000 years ago, respectively, while haplogroup O-47z began its expansion only approximately 4,000 years ago. We infer that these patterns result from separate and distinct genetic contributions from both the Jomon and the Yayoi cultures to modern Japanese, with varying levels of admixture between these two populations across the archipelago. The results also support the hypothesis of a Central Asian origin of Jomonese ancestors, and a Southeast Asian origin of the ancestors of the Yayoi, contra previous models based on morphological and genetic evidence.

  5. Fragility of estimated spatial temperature patterns in climate field reconstructions of the Common Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Vaccaro, A.; Guillot, D.; Rajaratnam, B.

    2013-12-01

    Climate field reconstructions (CFRs) of the Common Era can provide insight into dynamical causes of low-frequency climate variability. For instance, the Mann et al. [2009] study found that the reconstructed sea-surface temperature difference between the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age (hereinafter MCA - LIA) is marked by a La-Niña like pattern over the tropical Pacific, and proposed dynamical explanations for this observation. In this talk, we assess the robustness of such spatial patterns. First we examine the impact of the CFR methodology. Starting with the network of Mann et al. [2008] (hereinafter M08), we perform temperature reconstruction using four different CFR techniques: RegEM-TTLS [Schneider, 2001], the Mann et al. [2009] implementation of RegEM-TTLS (hereinafter M09), Canonical Correlation Analysis [Smerdon et al., 2010, CCA] and GraphEM [Guillot et al., in revision]. We find that results are greatly method-dependent even with identical inputs. While the M09 reconstruction displays a La Niña-like pattern over the tropical Pacific for MCA - LIA, CCA gives a neutral pattern, RegEM-TTLS and GraphEM both display El Niño-like pattern but show different amplitudes. Next we assess a given CFR technique's sensitivity to the selection of inputs. Proxies are selected based on the statistical significance of their correlations with HadCRUT3v annual temperature. A multiple hypothesis test [Ventura et al., 2004] is conducted to preclude spurious correlations. This choice has a large impact on resulting CFRs. In particular, whether the correlation is calculated between local or regional temperature-proxy pairs determines the number of significant records included in the proxy network. This in turn greatly affects the reconstructed spatial patterns and the Northern Hemispheric mean temperature time series with all CFR methods investigated. In order to further analyze CFRs' sensitivities to the abovementioned procedural choices, we assemble an

  6. Multiple origins of the determinate growth habit in domesticated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Myounghai; Toro, Orlando; Debouck, Daniel G.; Gepts, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The actual number of domestications of a crop is one of the key questions in domestication studies. Answers to this question have generally been based on relationships between wild progenitors and domesticated descendants determined with anonymous molecular markers. In this study, this question was investigated by determining the number of instances a domestication phenotype had been selected in a crop species. One of the traits that appeared during domestication of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is determinacy, in which stems end with a terminal inflorescence. It has been shown earlier that a homologue of the arabidopsis TFL1 gene – PvTFL1y – controls determinacy in a naturally occurring variation of common bean. Methods Sequence variation was analysed for PvTFL1y in a sample of 46 wild and domesticated accessions that included determinate and indeterminate accessions. Key Results Indeterminate types – wild and domesticated – showed only synonymous nucleotide substitutions. Determinate types – observed only among domesticated accessions – showed, in addition to synonymous substitutions, non-synonymous substitutions, indels, a putative intron-splicing failure, a retrotransposon insertion and a deletion of the entire locus. The retrotransposon insertion was observed in 70 % of determinate cultivars, in the Americas and elsewhere. Other determinate mutants had a more restricted distribution in the Americas only, either in the Andean or in the Mesoamerican gene pool of common bean. Conclusions Although each of the determinacy haplotypes probably does not represent distinct domestication events, they are consistent with the multiple (seven) domestication pattern in the genus Phaseolus. The predominance of determinacy in the Andean gene pool may reflect domestication of common bean prior to maize introduction in the Andes. PMID:23019270

  7. Common mechanisms of spatial attention in memory and perception: a tactile dual-task study.

    PubMed

    Katus, Tobias; Andersen, Søren K; Müller, Matthias M

    2014-03-01

    Orienting attention to locations in mnemonic representations engages processes that functionally and anatomically overlap the neural circuitry guiding prospective shifts of spatial attention. The attention-based rehearsal account predicts that the requirement to withdraw attention from a memorized location impairs memory accuracy. In a dual-task study, we simultaneously presented retro-cues and pre-cues to guide spatial attention in short-term memory (STM) and perception, respectively. The spatial direction of each cue was independent of the other. The locations indicated by the combined cues could be compatible (same hand) or incompatible (opposite hands). Incompatible directional cues decreased lateralized activity in brain potentials evoked by visual cues, indicating interference in the generation of prospective attention shifts. The detection of external stimuli at the prospectively cued location was impaired when the memorized location was part of the perceptually ignored hand. The disruption of attention-based rehearsal by means of incompatible pre-cues reduced memory accuracy and affected encoding of tactile test stimuli at the retrospectively cued hand. These findings highlight the functional significance of spatial attention for spatial STM. The bidirectional interactions between both tasks demonstrate that spatial attention is a shared neural resource of a capacity-limited system that regulates information processing in internal and external stimulus representations.

  8. Perinatal inflammation: a common factor in the early origins of cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Maria U; Wallace, Megan J; Pepe, Salvatore; Menheniott, Trevelyan R; Moss, Timothy J; Burgner, David

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Traditional risk factors account for only part of the attributable risk. The origins of atherosclerosis are in early life, a potential albeit largely unrecognized window of opportunity for early detection and treatment of subclinical cardiovascular disease. There are robust epidemiological data indicating that poor intrauterine growth and/or prematurity, and perinatal factors such as maternal hypercholesterolaemia, smoking, diabetes and obesity, are associated with adverse cardiovascular intermediate phenotypes in childhood and adulthood. Many of these early-life risk factors result in a heightened inflammatory state. Inflammation is a central mechanism in the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated the role of overt perinatal infection and inflammation (chorioamnionitis) as a potential contributor to cardiovascular risk. Limited evidence from human and experimental models suggests an association between chorioamnionitis and cardiac and vascular dysfunction. Early life inflammatory events may be an important mechanism in the early development of cardiovascular risk and may provide insights into the associations between perinatal factors and adult cardiovascular disease. This review aims to summarise current data on the early life origins of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, with particular focus on perinatal inflammation.

  9. [Origin of the common pulmonary vein, septation of the primary sinus venosus atrial situs and theory of the "sinus man"].

    PubMed

    Dor, X; Corone, P; Jonhson, E

    1987-04-01

    Situated at the entry to the heart, the sinus venosus regulates at an early stage the distribution of the veins. Originally symmetrical, it receives on either side an omphalomesenteric vein, a common cardinal vein (duct of Cuvieri, ductus cuvieri) and a common pulmonary vein. This symmetrical pattern disappears with the obliteration of the rough right pulmonary vein and the invagination of the left ductus cuvieri into the sinusal cavity. Thus, the pulmonary venous blood is kept on the left side and the systemic venous blood is transferred to the right side. This is the usual situs solitus arrangement. Situs inversus is the opposite arrangement. In situs ambiguus the original symmetry is preserved. A sufficiently early cauterization of the left wall of the sinus venosus prevents the left ductus cuvieri from invaginating and results in "absence of coronary sinus"; this arrangement, where part of the original symmetry is preserved, is in fact similar to situs ambiguus. The situs of the liver and stomach is thought not to be determined by these organs but imposed to them by the sinus venosus, more precisely by the invagination--or lack of invagination--of a ductus cuvieri. This would explain the concordance between their situs and that of the sinus venosus and atria. It would appear that two errors are frequently made: the common pulmonary vein is said to originate from the left atrium, whereas it originates from the sinus venosus and only belongs to the left atrium when the sinus is incorporated in the atrium; the transverse septation of the sinus is incorporated to a shift to the right of the left sinoatrial fold which separates the sinus from the primitive atrium. This fold is indeed displaced to the right, but it is more distal and corresponds, in fact, to the cephalic border of the left ductus cuvieri, and its shift is produced by the invagination of that duct.

  10. [Tones and being tuned. Suggestions for the common origins of music therapy and hypnotherapy].

    PubMed

    Vas, József Pál

    2013-01-01

    Sound vibrations are viewed to play an important role in embryonic development. Before the cochlea evolves, the haptic and mechanic skin-receptors detect the amniotic fluid's pressure-waves produced by sounds in uterus. Touching and hearing are seen as primordial and the most relevant stimuli both of mother-fetus attunement and development of fetal nervous system. Man is attuned to environmental stimuli, mainly to human speaking since the embryonic period. Attunement is secured by energy zones (chakras) circling around body. It is considered to be base of our music capacity. Origin of hypnotic susceptibility is viewed as being in embryonic period as well. Movements, experiences supposed, bonding and communication patterns of both of fetus and hypnotized person are suggested to show similarities. Prenatal audio-somatosensory stimulating program facilitates newborn babies' cognitive, emotional and bonding capacities. As a matter of fact, by virtue of regressive fetus-like experiences, hypnotherapy contributes to the restart of personality development halted by trauma.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of common gene expression in human mesenchymal stem cells derived from four different origins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Hao; Lee, Yun-Shien; Hwang, Shiaw-Min

    2011-01-01

    We have used Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays to analyze common transcriptomes and thereby learn about the core gene expression profile in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from different tissues, including fetal amniotic fluid-derived MSC, term pregnancy amniotic membrane-derived MSC, term pregnancy umbilical cord blood-derived MSC, and adult bone marrow-derived MSC. The beauty of microarray analysis of gene expression (MAGE) is that it can be used to discover associating genes that were previously thought to be unrelated to a physiological or pathological event. However, interpreting complex biological processes from gene expression profiles often requires extensive knowledge mining in biomedical literature. In this chapter, we describe, step-by-step, how to use a commercially available biological database and software program, MetaCore (GeneGo Inc.), for functional network analysis.

  12. Type VI secretion apparatus and phage tail-associated protein complexes share a common evolutionary origin

    SciTech Connect

    Leiman, Petr G.; Basler, Marek; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Sauder, J. Michael; Pukatzki, Stefan; Burley, Stephen K.; Almo, Steven C.; Mekalanos, John J.

    2009-04-22

    Protein secretion is a common property of pathogenic microbes. Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use at least 6 distinct extracellular protein secretion systems to export proteins through their multilayered cell envelope and in some cases into host cells. Among the most widespread is the newly recognized Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is composed of 15--20 proteins whose biochemical functions are not well understood. Using crystallographic, biochemical, and bioinformatic analyses, we identified 3 T6SS components, which are homologous to bacteriophage tail proteins. These include the tail tube protein; the membrane-penetrating needle, situated at the distal end of the tube; and another protein associated with the needle and tube. We propose that T6SS is a multicomponent structure whose extracellular part resembles both structurally and functionally a bacteriophage tail, an efficient machine that translocates proteins and DNA across lipid membranes into cells.

  13. Common origins of RNA, protein and lipid precursors in a cyanosulfidic protometabolism

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bhavesh H.; Percivalle, Claudia; Ritson, Dougal J.; Duffy, Colm. D.; Sutherland, John D.

    2015-01-01

    A minimal cell can be thought of as comprising informational, compartment-forming and metabolic subsystems. Imagining the abiotic assembly of such an overall system, however, places great demands on hypothetical prebiotic chemistry. The perceived differences and incompatibilities between these subsystems have led to the widely held assumption that one or other subsystem must have preceded the others. Here, we have experimentally investigated the validity of this assumption by examining the assembly of various biomolecular building blocks from prebiotically plausible intermediates and one-carbon feedstock molecules. We show that precursors of ribonucleotides, amino acids and lipids can all be derived by reductive homologation of hydrogen cyanide and some of its derivatives and thus that all the cellular subsystems could have arisen simultaneously through common chemistry. The key reaction steps are driven by UV light, use hydrogen sulfide as reductant and can be accelerated by Cu(I)-Cu(II) photoredox cycling. PMID:25803468

  14. Common origins of RNA, protein and lipid precursors in a cyanosulfidic protometabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Bhavesh H.; Percivalle, Claudia; Ritson, Dougal J.; Duffy, Colm D.; Sutherland, John D.

    2015-04-01

    A minimal cell can be thought of as comprising informational, compartment-forming and metabolic subsystems. To imagine the abiotic assembly of such an overall system, however, places great demands on hypothetical prebiotic chemistry. The perceived differences and incompatibilities between these subsystems have led to the widely held assumption that one or other subsystem must have preceded the others. Here we experimentally investigate the validity of this assumption by examining the assembly of various biomolecular building blocks from prebiotically plausible intermediates and one-carbon feedstock molecules. We show that precursors of ribonucleotides, amino acids and lipids can all be derived by the reductive homologation of hydrogen cyanide and some of its derivatives, and thus that all the cellular subsystems could have arisen simultaneously through common chemistry. The key reaction steps are driven by ultraviolet light, use hydrogen sulfide as the reductant and can be accelerated by Cu(I)-Cu(II) photoredox cycling.

  15. Common origins of RNA, protein and lipid precursors in a cyanosulfidic protometabolism.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavesh H; Percivalle, Claudia; Ritson, Dougal J; Duffy, Colm D; Sutherland, John D

    2015-04-01

    A minimal cell can be thought of as comprising informational, compartment-forming and metabolic subsystems. To imagine the abiotic assembly of such an overall system, however, places great demands on hypothetical prebiotic chemistry. The perceived differences and incompatibilities between these subsystems have led to the widely held assumption that one or other subsystem must have preceded the others. Here we experimentally investigate the validity of this assumption by examining the assembly of various biomolecular building blocks from prebiotically plausible intermediates and one-carbon feedstock molecules. We show that precursors of ribonucleotides, amino acids and lipids can all be derived by the reductive homologation of hydrogen cyanide and some of its derivatives, and thus that all the cellular subsystems could have arisen simultaneously through common chemistry. The key reaction steps are driven by ultraviolet light, use hydrogen sulfide as the reductant and can be accelerated by Cu(I)-Cu(II) photoredox cycling.

  16. Fine-scale spatial distribution of the common lugworm Arenicola marina, and effects of intertidal clam fishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldina, Inna; Beninger, Peter G.

    2014-04-01

    Despite its ubiquity and its role as an ecosystem engineer on temperate intertidal mudflats, little is known of the spatial ecology of the lugworm Arenicola marina. We estimated lugworm densities and analyzed the spatial distribution of A. marina on a French Atlantic mudflat subjected to long-term clam digging activities, and compared these to a nearby pristine reference mudflat, using a combination of geostatistical techniques: point-pattern analysis, autocorrelation, and wavelet analysis. Lugworm densities were an order of magnitude greater at the reference site. Although A. marina showed an aggregative spatial distribution at both sites, the characteristics and intensity of aggregation differed markedly between sites. The reference site showed an inhibition process (regular distribution) at distances <7.5 cm, whereas the impacted site showed a random distribution at this scale. At distances from 15 cm to several tens of meters, the spatial distribution of A. marina was clearly aggregated at both sites; however, the autocorrelation strength was much weaker at the impacted site. In addition, the non-impacted site presented multi-scale spatial distribution, which was not evident at the impacted site. The differences observed between the spatial distributions of the fishing-impacted vs. the non-impacted site reflect similar findings for other components of these two mudflat ecosystems, suggesting common community-level responses to prolonged mechanical perturbation: a decrease in naturally-occurring aggregation. This change may have consequences for basic biological characteristics such as reproduction, recruitment, growth, and feeding.

  17. Phylogenetics support an ancient common origin of two scientific icons: Devils Hole and Devils Hole pupfish.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, İsmaİl K; Baumsteiger, Jason; Smith, Matt J; Linares-Casenave, Javier; Nichols, Andrew L; O'Rourke, Sean M; Miller, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    The Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis; DHP) is an icon of conservation biology. Isolated in a 50 m(2) pool (Devils Hole), DHP is one of the rarest vertebrate species known and an evolutionary anomaly, having survived in complete isolation for thousands of years. However, recent findings suggest DHP might be younger than commonly thought, potentially introduced to Devils Hole by humans in the past thousand years. As a result, the significance of DHP from an evolutionary and conservation perspective has been questioned. Here we present a high-resolution genomic analysis of DHP and two closely related species, with the goal of thoroughly examining the temporal divergence of DHP. To this end, we inferred the evolutionary history of DHP from multiple random genomic subsets and evaluated four historical scenarios using the multispecies coalescent. Our results provide substantial information regarding the evolutionary history of DHP. Genomic patterns of secondary contact present strong evidence that DHP were isolated in Devils Hole prior to 20-10 ka and the model best supported by geological history and known mutation rates predicts DHP diverged around 60 ka, approximately the same time Devils Hole opened to the surface. We make the novel prediction that DHP colonized and have survived in Devils Hole since the cavern opened, and the two events (colonization and collapse of the cavern's roof) were caused by a common geologic event. Our results emphasize the power of evolutionary theory as a predictive framework and reaffirm DHP as an important evolutionary novelty, worthy of continued conservation and exploration.

  18. Developmental Origins of Pregnancy Loss in the Adult Female Common Marmoset Monkey (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Julienne N.; deMartelly, Victoria A.; Layne Colon, Donna G.; Ross, Corinna N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of the intrauterine environment on the developmental programming of adult female reproductive success is still poorly understood and potentially underestimated. Litter size variation in a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), allows us to model the effects of varying intrauterine environments (e.g. nutrient restriction, exposure to male womb-mates) on the risk of losing fetuses in adulthood. Our previous work has characterized the fetuses of triplet pregnancies as experiencing intrauterine nutritional restriction. Methodology/Principal Findings We used over a decade of demographic data from the Southwest National Primate Research Center common marmoset colony. We evaluated differences between twin and triplet females in the number of pregnancies they produce and the proportion of those pregnancies that ended in fetal loss. We found that triplet females produced the same number of total offspring as twin females, but lost offspring during pregnancy at a significantly higher rate than did twins (38% vs. 13%, p = 0.02). Regardless of their own birth weight or the sex ratio of the litter the experienced as fetuses, triplet females lost more fetuses than did twins. Females with a male littermate experienced a significant increase in the proportion of stillbirths. Conclusions/Significance These striking findings anchor pregnancy loss in the mother’s own fetal environment and development, underscoring a "Womb to Womb" view of the lifecourse and the intergenerational consequences of development. This has important translational implications for understanding the large proportion of human stillbirths that are unexplained. Our findings provide strong evidence that a full understanding of mammalian life history and reproductive biology requires a developmental foundation. PMID:24871614

  19. Ancestry informative marker sets for determining continental origin and admixture proportions in common populations in America.

    PubMed

    Kosoy, Roman; Nassir, Rami; Tian, Chao; White, Phoebe A; Butler, Lesley M; Silva, Gabriel; Kittles, Rick; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E; Gregersen, Peter K; Belmont, John W; De La Vega, Francisco M; Seldin, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    To provide a resource for assessing continental ancestry in a wide variety of genetic studies, we identified, validated, and characterized a set of 128 ancestry informative markers (AIMs). The markers were chosen for informativeness, genome-wide distribution, and genotype reproducibility on two platforms (TaqMan assays and Illumina arrays). We analyzed genotyping data from 825 subjects with diverse ancestry, including European, East Asian, Amerindian, African, South Asian, Mexican, and Puerto Rican. A comprehensive set of 128 AIMs and subsets as small as 24 AIMs are shown to be useful tools for ascertaining the origin of subjects from particular continents, and to correct for population stratification in admixed population sample sets. Our findings provide general guidelines for the application of specific AIM subsets as a resource for wide application. We conclude that investigators can use TaqMan assays for the selected AIMs as a simple and cost efficient tool to control for differences in continental ancestry when conducting association studies in ethnically diverse populations.

  20. Word Origins of Common Neuroscience Terms for Use in an Undergraduate Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Hallock, Robert M.; Brand, Emma C.; Mihalic, Taylor B.

    2016-01-01

    We compiled a list of nearly 300 neuroscience terms and list their language of origin (typically Latin or Greek), their literal meaning, and their pronunciation in a table. The table was distributed to students in an undergraduate neuroscience class a few weeks before the first examination. A follow-up survey asked students how long they spent with the handout, and also assessed whether they thought it helped them better understand the terms, apply the terms, and whether they thought it helped them enough to get a higher grade on the exam. Results were positive: nearly 78% of students used the table while reviewing the material, and these students overwhelmingly reported that the table helped them better understand and apply the terms. However, students were equally split on whether the handout resulted in a better grade on the first exam. It was our premise that better understanding the derivation of the words can help students make associations between the terms and their meanings/functions. This handout can be used in any undergraduate neuroscience to help students better understand the complex terminology associated with the material. PMID:27980475

  1. Common Spatial Organization of Number and Emotional Expression: A Mental Magnitude Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Kevin J.; Lourenco, Stella F.

    2011-01-01

    Converging behavioral and neural evidence suggests that numerical representations are mentally organized in left-to-right orientation. Here we show that this format of spatial organization extends to emotional expression. In Experiment 1, right-side responses became increasingly faster as number (represented by Arabic numerals) or happiness…

  2. Ecdysozoan mitogenomics: evidence for a common origin of the legged invertebrates, the Panarthropoda.

    PubMed

    Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Kayal, Ehsan; Gleeson, Dianne; Daub, Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L; Telford, Maximilian J; Pisani, Davide; Blaxter, Mark; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2010-07-12

    Ecdysozoa is the recently recognized clade of molting animals that comprises the vast majority of extant animal species and the most important invertebrate model organisms--the fruit fly and the nematode worm. Evolutionary relationships within the ecdysozoans remain, however, unresolved, impairing the correct interpretation of comparative genomic studies. In particular, the affinities of the three Panarthropoda phyla (Arthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada) and the position of Myriapoda within Arthropoda (Mandibulata vs. Myriochelata hypothesis) are among the most contentious issues in animal phylogenetics. To elucidate these relationships, we have determined and analyzed complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two Tardigrada, Hypsibius dujardini and Thulinia sp. (the first genomes to date for this phylum); one Priapulida, Halicryptus spinulosus; and two Onychophora, Peripatoides sp. and Epiperipatus biolleyi; and a partial mitochondrial genome sequence of the Onychophora Euperipatoides kanagrensis. Tardigrada mitochondrial genomes resemble those of the arthropods in term of the gene order and strand asymmetry, whereas Onychophora genomes are characterized by numerous gene order rearrangements and strand asymmetry variations. In addition, Onychophora genomes are extremely enriched in A and T nucleotides, whereas Priapulida and Tardigrada are more balanced. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid coding sequences support a monophyletic origin of the Ecdysozoa and the position of Priapulida as the sister group of a monophyletic Panarthropoda (Tardigrada plus Onychophora plus Arthropoda). The position of Tardigrada is more problematic, most likely because of long branch attraction (LBA). However, experiments designed to reduce LBA suggest that the most likely placement of Tardigrada is as a sister group of Onychophora. The same analyses also recover monophyly of traditionally recognized arthropod lineages such as Arachnida and of

  3. On the common origin of the AB Doradus moving group and the Pleiades cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, V. G.; Jilinski, E.; de La Reza, R.; Bazzanella, B.

    2007-05-01

    AB Doradus (AB Dor) is the nearest identified moving group. As with other such groups, the age is important for understanding of several key questions. It is important, for example, in establishing the origin of the group and also in comparative studies of the properties of planetary systems, eventually surrounding some of the AB Dor group members, with those existing in other groups. For AB Dor two rather different estimates for its age have been proposed: the first one, of the order of 50 Myr, by Zuckerman and coworkers from a comparison with the Tucana/Horologium moving group and a second one of about 100-125 Myr by Luhman and coworkers from colour-magnitude diagrams. Using this last value and the closeness in velocity space of AB Dor and the Pleiades galactic cluster, Luhman and coworkers suggested coevality for these systems. Because strictly speaking such a closeness does not still guarantee coevality, here we address this problem by computing and comparing the full 3D orbits of AB Dor, Pleiades, α Persei and IC 2602. The latter two open clusters have estimated ages of about 85-90 and 50 Myr. The resulting age 119 +/- 20 Myr is consistent with AB Dor and Pleiades being coeval. Our solution and the scenario of open cluster formation proposed by Kroupa and collaborators suggest that the AB Dor moving group may be identified with the expanding subpopulation (Group I) present in this scenario. We also discuss other related aspects as iron and lithium abundances, eventual stellar mass segregation during the formation of the systems and possible fraction of debris discs in the AB Dor group.

  4. Ecdysozoan Mitogenomics: Evidence for a Common Origin of the Legged Invertebrates, the Panarthropoda

    PubMed Central

    Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Kayal, Ehsan; Gleeson, Dianne; Daub, Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Telford, Maximilian J.; Pisani, Davide; Blaxter, Mark; Lavrov, Dennis V.

    2010-01-01

    Ecdysozoa is the recently recognized clade of molting animals that comprises the vast majority of extant animal species and the most important invertebrate model organisms—the fruit fly and the nematode worm. Evolutionary relationships within the ecdysozoans remain, however, unresolved, impairing the correct interpretation of comparative genomic studies. In particular, the affinities of the three Panarthropoda phyla (Arthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada) and the position of Myriapoda within Arthropoda (Mandibulata vs. Myriochelata hypothesis) are among the most contentious issues in animal phylogenetics. To elucidate these relationships, we have determined and analyzed complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two Tardigrada, Hypsibius dujardini and Thulinia sp. (the first genomes to date for this phylum); one Priapulida, Halicryptus spinulosus; and two Onychophora, Peripatoides sp. and Epiperipatus biolleyi; and a partial mitochondrial genome sequence of the Onychophora Euperipatoides kanagrensis. Tardigrada mitochondrial genomes resemble those of the arthropods in term of the gene order and strand asymmetry, whereas Onychophora genomes are characterized by numerous gene order rearrangements and strand asymmetry variations. In addition, Onychophora genomes are extremely enriched in A and T nucleotides, whereas Priapulida and Tardigrada are more balanced. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid coding sequences support a monophyletic origin of the Ecdysozoa and the position of Priapulida as the sister group of a monophyletic Panarthropoda (Tardigrada plus Onychophora plus Arthropoda). The position of Tardigrada is more problematic, most likely because of long branch attraction (LBA). However, experiments designed to reduce LBA suggest that the most likely placement of Tardigrada is as a sister group of Onychophora. The same analyses also recover monophyly of traditionally recognized arthropod lineages such as Arachnida and of

  5. Evidence for a Common Physical Origin of the Landau and BEC Theories of Superfluidity

    DOE PAGES

    Diallo, Souleymane Omar; Azuah, R. T.; Abernathy, D. L.; ...

    2014-11-20

    There are two renowned theories of superfluidity in liquid 4He, quite different and each with specific domains of application. In the first, the Landau theory, superflow follows from the existence of a well-defined collective mode supported by dense liquid 4He, the phonon-roton mode. In the second, superflow is a manifestation of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) and phase coherence in the liquid. We present combined measurements of superfluidity, BEC and phonon-roton (P-R) modes in liquid 4He confined in the porous medium MCM-41. The results integrate the two theories by showing that well-defined P-R modes exist where there is BEC. The two aremore » common properties of a Bose condensed liquid and either can be used as a basis of a theory of superfluidity. In addition, the confinement and disorder suppresses the critical temperature for superfluidity, Tc, below that for BEC creating a localized BEC phase consisting of islands of BEC and P-R modes. This phase is much like the pseudogap phase in the cuprate superconductors.« less

  6. Evidence for a Common Physical Origin of the Landau and BEC Theories of Superfluidity

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, Souleymane Omar; Azuah, R. T.; Abernathy, D. L.; Taniguchi, Junko; Suzuki, Masaru; Bossy, Jacques; Mulders, N.; Glyde, H. R.

    2014-11-20

    There are two renowned theories of superfluidity in liquid 4He, quite different and each with specific domains of application. In the first, the Landau theory, superflow follows from the existence of a well-defined collective mode supported by dense liquid 4He, the phonon-roton mode. In the second, superflow is a manifestation of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) and phase coherence in the liquid. We present combined measurements of superfluidity, BEC and phonon-roton (P-R) modes in liquid 4He confined in the porous medium MCM-41. The results integrate the two theories by showing that well-defined P-R modes exist where there is BEC. The two are common properties of a Bose condensed liquid and either can be used as a basis of a theory of superfluidity. In addition, the confinement and disorder suppresses the critical temperature for superfluidity, Tc, below that for BEC creating a localized BEC phase consisting of islands of BEC and P-R modes. This phase is much like the pseudogap phase in the cuprate superconductors.

  7. Rethinking the history of common walnut (Juglans regia L.) in Europe: Its origins and human interactions

    PubMed Central

    Pollegioni, Paola; Woeste, Keith; Chiocchini, Francesca; Del Lungo, Stefano; Ciolfi, Marco; Olimpieri, Irene; Tortolano, Virginia; Clark, Jo; Hemery, Gabriel E.; Mapelli, Sergio; Malvolti, Maria Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its high-quality wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that after the last glaciation J. regia survived and grew in almost completely isolated stands in Asia, and that ancient humans dispersed walnuts across Asia and into new habitats via trade and cultural expansion. The history of walnut in Europe is a matter of debate, however. In this study, we estimated the genetic diversity and structure of 91 Eurasian walnut populations using 14 neutral microsatellites. By integrating fossil pollen, cultural, and historical data with population genetics, and approximate Bayesian analysis, we reconstructed the demographic history of walnut and its routes of dispersal across Europe. The genetic data confirmed the presence of walnut in glacial refugia in the Balkans and western Europe. We conclude that human-mediated admixture between Anatolian and Balkan walnut germplasm started in the Early Bronze Age, and between western Europe and the Balkans in eastern Europe during the Roman Empire. A population size expansion and subsequent decline in northeastern and western Europe was detected in the last five centuries. The actual distribution of walnut in Europe resulted from the combined effects of expansion/contraction from multiple refugia after the Last Glacial Maximum and its human exploitation over the last 5,000 years. PMID:28257470

  8. Evidence for a Common Origin of Homomorphic and Heteromorphic Sex Chromosomes in Distinct Spinacia Species

    PubMed Central

    Fujito, Satoshi; Takahata, Satoshi; Suzuki, Reimi; Hoshino, Yoichiro; Ohmido, Nobuko; Onodera, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The dioecious genus Spinacia is thought to include two wild relatives (S. turkestanica Ilj. and S. tetrandra Stev.) of cultivated spinach (S. oleracea L.). In this study, nuclear and chloroplast sequences from 21 accessions of Spinacia germplasm and six spinach cultivars or lines were subjected to phylogenetic analysis to define the relationships among the three species. Maximum-likelihood sequence analysis suggested that the Spinacia plant samples could be classified into two monophyletic groups (Group 1 and Group 2): Group 1 consisted of all accessions, cultivars, and lines of S. oleracea L. and S. turkestanica Ilj. and two of five S. tetrandra Stev. accessions, whereas Group 2 was composed of the three remaining S. tetrandra Stev. accessions. By using flow cytometry, we detected a distinct difference in nuclear genome size between the groups. Group 2 also was characterized by a sexual dimorphism in inflorescence structure, which was not observed in Group 1. Interspecific crosses between the groups produced hybrids with drastically reduced pollen fertility and showed that the male is the heterogametic sex (XY) in Group 2, as is the case in S. oleracea L. (Group 1). Cytogenetic and DNA marker analyses suggested that Group 1 and Group 2 have homomorphic and heteromorphic sex chromosome pairs (XY), respectively, and that the sex chromosome pairs of the two groups evolved from a common ancestral pair. Our data suggest that the Spinacia genus may serve as a good model for investigation of evolutionary mechanisms underlying the emergence of heteromorphic sex chromosome pairs from ancestral homomorphic pairs. PMID:26048564

  9. Rethinking the history of common walnut (Juglans regia L.) in Europe: Its origins and human interactions.

    PubMed

    Pollegioni, Paola; Woeste, Keith; Chiocchini, Francesca; Del Lungo, Stefano; Ciolfi, Marco; Olimpieri, Irene; Tortolano, Virginia; Clark, Jo; Hemery, Gabriel E; Mapelli, Sergio; Malvolti, Maria Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its high-quality wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that after the last glaciation J. regia survived and grew in almost completely isolated stands in Asia, and that ancient humans dispersed walnuts across Asia and into new habitats via trade and cultural expansion. The history of walnut in Europe is a matter of debate, however. In this study, we estimated the genetic diversity and structure of 91 Eurasian walnut populations using 14 neutral microsatellites. By integrating fossil pollen, cultural, and historical data with population genetics, and approximate Bayesian analysis, we reconstructed the demographic history of walnut and its routes of dispersal across Europe. The genetic data confirmed the presence of walnut in glacial refugia in the Balkans and western Europe. We conclude that human-mediated admixture between Anatolian and Balkan walnut germplasm started in the Early Bronze Age, and between western Europe and the Balkans in eastern Europe during the Roman Empire. A population size expansion and subsequent decline in northeastern and western Europe was detected in the last five centuries. The actual distribution of walnut in Europe resulted from the combined effects of expansion/contraction from multiple refugia after the Last Glacial Maximum and its human exploitation over the last 5,000 years.

  10. CRISPR1 analysis of naturalized surface water and fecal Escherichia coli suggests common origin.

    PubMed

    Tymensen, Lisa D

    2016-06-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) are part of an acquired bacterial immune system that functions as a barrier to exogenous genetic elements. Since naturalized Escherichia coli are likely to encounter different genetic elements in aquatic environments compared to enteric strains, we hypothesized that such differences would be reflected within the hypervariable CRISPR alleles of these two populations. Comparison of CRISPR1 alleles from naturalized and fecal phylogroup B1 E. coli strains revealed that the alleles could be categorized into four major distinct groups (designated G6-G9), and all four allele groups were found among naturalized strains and fecal strains. The distribution of CRIPSR G6 and G8 alleles was similar among strains of both ecotypes, while naturalized strains tended to have CRISPR G7 alleles rather than G9 alleles. Since CRISPR G7 alleles were not specific to naturalized strains, they, however, would not be useful as a marker for identifying naturalized strains. Notably, CRISPR alleles from naturalized and fecal strains also had similar spacer repertoires. This indicates a shared history of encounter with mobile genetic elements and suggests that the two populations were derived from common ancestors.

  11. A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures.

    PubMed

    Olalde, Iñigo; Schroeder, Hannes; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Vinner, Lasse; Lobón, Irene; Ramirez, Oscar; Civit, Sergi; García Borja, Pablo; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Talamo, Sahra; María Fullola, Josep; Xavier Oms, Francesc; Pedro, Mireia; Martínez, Pablo; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Zilhão, João; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-12-01

    The spread of farming out of the Balkans and into the rest of Europe followed two distinct routes: An initial expansion represented by the Impressa and Cardial traditions, which followed the Northern Mediterranean coastline; and another expansion represented by the LBK (Linearbandkeramik) tradition, which followed the Danube River into Central Europe. Although genomic data now exist from samples representing the second migration, such data have yet to be successfully generated from the initial Mediterranean migration. To address this, we generated the complete genome of a 7,400-year-old Cardial individual (CB13) from Cova Bonica in Vallirana (Barcelona), as well as partial nuclear data from five others excavated from different sites in Spain and Portugal. CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. The Iberian Cardial genome also carries a discernible hunter-gatherer genetic signature that likely was not acquired by admixture with local Iberian foragers. Our results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible.

  12. A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Olalde, Iñigo; Schroeder, Hannes; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Vinner, Lasse; Lobón, Irene; Ramirez, Oscar; Civit, Sergi; García Borja, Pablo; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Talamo, Sahra; María Fullola, Josep; Xavier Oms, Francesc; Pedro, Mireia; Martínez, Pablo; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Zilhão, João; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-01-01

    The spread of farming out of the Balkans and into the rest of Europe followed two distinct routes: An initial expansion represented by the Impressa and Cardial traditions, which followed the Northern Mediterranean coastline; and another expansion represented by the LBK (Linearbandkeramik) tradition, which followed the Danube River into Central Europe. Although genomic data now exist from samples representing the second migration, such data have yet to be successfully generated from the initial Mediterranean migration. To address this, we generated the complete genome of a 7,400-year-old Cardial individual (CB13) from Cova Bonica in Vallirana (Barcelona), as well as partial nuclear data from five others excavated from different sites in Spain and Portugal. CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. The Iberian Cardial genome also carries a discernible hunter–gatherer genetic signature that likely was not acquired by admixture with local Iberian foragers. Our results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible. PMID:26337550

  13. Measurement Sets and Sites Commonly Used for High Spatial Resolution Image Product Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Scientists within NASA's Applied Sciences Directorate have developed a well-characterized remote sensing Verification & Validation (V&V) site at the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC). This site has enabled the in-flight characterization of satellite high spatial resolution remote sensing system products form Space Imaging IKONOS, Digital Globe QuickBird, and ORBIMAGE OrbView, as well as advanced multispectral airborne digital camera products. SSC utilizes engineered geodetic targets, edge targets, radiometric tarps, atmospheric monitoring equipment and their Instrument Validation Laboratory to characterize high spatial resolution remote sensing data products. This presentation describes the SSC characterization capabilities and techniques in the visible through near infrared spectrum and examples of calibration results.

  14. Fundamental limits to the accuracy of deuterium isotopes for identifying the spatial origin of migratory animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farmer, A.; Cade, B.S.; Torres-Dowdall, J.

    2008-01-01

    Deuterium isotope analyses have revolutionized the study of migratory connectivity because global gradients of deuterium in precipitation (??DP) are expressed on a continental scale. Several authors have constructed continental scale base maps of ??DP to provide a spatial reference for studying the movement patterns of migratory species and, although they are very useful, these maps present a static, 40-year average view of the landscape that ignores much underlying inter-annual variation. To more fully understand the consequences of this underlying variation, we analyzed the GNIP deuterium data, the source for all current ??DP maps, to estimate the minimum separation in ??DP (and latitude) necessary to conclude with a given level of confidence that distinct ??DP values represent different geographic sites. Extending analyses of ??DP successfully to deuterium in tissues of living organisms, e.g., feathers in migratory birds (??DF), is dependent on the existence of geographic separation of ??DP, where every geographic location has a distribution of values associated with temporal variability in ??DP. Analyses were conducted for three distinct geographic regions: North America, eastern North America (east of longitude 100??W), and Argentina. At the 80% confidence level, the minimum separation values were 12, 7, and 14?? of latitude (equivalent to 53, 31, and 32???) for North America, eastern North America, and Argentina, respectively. Hence, in eastern North America, for example, one may not be able to accurately assign individual samples to sites separated by less than about 7?? of latitude as the distributions of ??DP were not distinct at latitudes <7?? apart. Moreover, two samples that differ by less than 31??? cannot be confidently said to originate from different latitudes. These estimates of minimum separation for ??DP do not include other known sources of variation in feather deuterium (??D F) and hence are a first order approximation that may be useful, in

  15. An Evolutionary Network of Genes Present in the Eukaryote Common Ancestor Polls Genomes on Eukaryotic and Mitochondrial Origin

    PubMed Central

    Thiergart, Thorsten; Landan, Giddy; Schenk, Marc; Dagan, Tal; Martin, William F.

    2012-01-01

    To test the predictions of competing and mutually exclusive hypotheses for the origin of eukaryotes, we identified from a sample of 27 sequenced eukaryotic and 994 sequenced prokaryotic genomes 571 genes that were present in the eukaryote common ancestor and that have homologues among eubacterial and archaebacterial genomes. Maximum-likelihood trees identified the prokaryotic genomes that most frequently contained genes branching as the sister to the eukaryotic nuclear homologues. Among the archaebacteria, euryarchaeote genomes most frequently harbored the sister to the eukaryotic nuclear gene, whereas among eubacteria, the α-proteobacteria were most frequently represented within the sister group. Only 3 genes out of 571 gave a 3-domain tree. Homologues from α-proteobacterial genomes that branched as the sister to nuclear genes were found more frequently in genomes of facultatively anaerobic members of the rhiozobiales and rhodospirilliales than in obligate intracellular ricketttsial parasites. Following α-proteobacteria, the most frequent eubacterial sister lineages were γ-proteobacteria, δ-proteobacteria, and firmicutes, which were also the prokaryote genomes least frequently found as monophyletic groups in our trees. Although all 22 higher prokaryotic taxa sampled (crenarchaeotes, γ-proteobacteria, spirochaetes, chlamydias, etc.) harbor genes that branch as the sister to homologues present in the eukaryotic common ancestor, that is not evidence of 22 different prokaryotic cells participating at eukaryote origins because prokaryotic “lineages” have laterally acquired genes for more than 1.5 billion years since eukaryote origins. The data underscore the archaebacterial (host) nature of the eukaryotic informational genes and the eubacterial (mitochondrial) nature of eukaryotic energy metabolism. The network linking genes of the eukaryote ancestor to contemporary homologues distributed across prokaryotic genomes elucidates eukaryote gene origins in a

  16. Metrics in the space of orbits and their application to searching for celestial objects of common origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholshevnikov, K. V.; Kokhirova, G. I.; Babadzhanov, P. B.; Khamroev, U. H.

    2016-10-01

    Finding a common origin for various celestial bodies, especially the relations between meteoroid streams, comets and asteroids (possibly extinct comets), remains one of the important problems in Solar system astronomy. Different criteria, starting with one by Southworth and Hawkins, have been used for this purpose. Ideally, they must represent some kind of metric in a five-dimensional space of orbits. Unfortunately, they are not ideal. The majority of the criteria have been examined by us. It turns out that they all represent pseudometrics for which the triangle axiom is not fulfilled. Besides this, they are inapplicable if at least one of the orbits is circular. We propose metrics free of all the aforementioned drawbacks. In addition, the metric properties of three factor-spaces, where orbits are identified irrespective of the values of node longitudes, pericentre arguments or both, are examined. The results are applied to the problem of searching for minor bodies of the Solar system with a common origin. The relationship between comet 96P/Machholz 1 and asteroid 2003EH1, as well as that between comet 2P/Encke and asteroid 2004TG10, has been proved. Using all criteria considered and the new metrics leads to practically identical results. This is explained by the fact that only close and essentially non-circular orbits were analysed. Besides this, the measure of orbit triples for which the triangle axiom failed is likely small, though this problem has not been examined yet.

  17. An ancient common origin of aboriginal Australians and New Guinea highlanders is supported by alpha-globin haplotype analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts-Thomson, J. M.; Martinson, J. J.; Norwich, J. T.; Harding, R. M.; Clegg, J. B.; Boettcher, B.

    1996-01-01

    The origins of aboriginal Australians and their relationship with New Guineans and neighboring Southeast Asians remains controversial. We have studied the alpha-globin haplotype composition of an aboriginal tribe from central Australia, to address some of the ambiguities of previous studies. Australians have a haplotype repertoire that is shared with New Guinea highlanders, a fact that strongly supports a common origin of these two populations. Further, Australians and New Guinea highlanders have a different set of alpha haplotypes from Southeast Asians and a lower genetic diversity. This, coupled with the presence of many locally specific central Australian haplotypes, suggests that much of the original diversity was lost in a population bottleneck prior to or during the early colonization of Sahul and that subsequent recovery of diversity has been accompanied by the generation of new haplotypes. These conclusions contrast with some previous genetic studies suggesting links between Australians, coastal New Guineans, and present-day Southeast Asians. Much of this discrepancy appears to be due to more recent Southeast Asian admixture on the north coast of Australia. PMID:8651262

  18. Spatial regulation of a common precursor from two distinct genes generates metabolite diversity

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Chun -Jun; Sun, Wei -Wen; Bruno, Kenneth S.; ...

    2015-07-13

    In secondary metabolite biosynthesis, core synthetic genes such as polyketide synthase genes usually encode proteins that generate various backbone precursors. These precursors are modified by other tailoring enzymes to yield a large variety of different secondary metabolites. The number of core synthesis genes in a given species correlates, therefore, with the number of types of secondary metabolites the organism can produce. In our study, heterologous expression of all the A. terreus NRPSlike genes showed that two NRPS-like proteins, encoded by atmelA and apvA, release the same natural product, aspulvinone E. In hyphae this compound is converted to aspulvinones whereas inmore » conidia it is converted to melanin. The genes are expressed in different tissues and this spatial control is probably regulated by their own specific promoters. Comparative genomics indicates that atmelA and apvA might share a same ancestral gene and the gene apvA is located in a highly conserved region in Aspergillus species that contains genes coding for life-essential proteins. Our data reveal the first case in secondary metabolite biosynthesis in which the tissue specific production of a single compound directs it into two separate pathways, producing distinct compounds with different functions. Our data also reveal that a single trans-prenyltransferase, AbpB, prenylates two substrates, aspulvinones and butyrolactones, revealing that genes outside of contiguous secondary metabolism gene clusters can modify more than one compound thereby expanding metabolite diversity. Our study raises the possibility of incorporation of spatial, cell-type specificity in expression of secondary metabolites of biological interest and provides new insight into designing and reconstituting their biosynthetic pathways.« less

  19. Spatial regulation of a common precursor from two distinct genes generates metabolite diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Chun -Jun; Sun, Wei -Wen; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Oakley, Berl R.; Keller, Nancy P.; Wang, Clay C. C.

    2015-07-13

    In secondary metabolite biosynthesis, core synthetic genes such as polyketide synthase genes usually encode proteins that generate various backbone precursors. These precursors are modified by other tailoring enzymes to yield a large variety of different secondary metabolites. The number of core synthesis genes in a given species correlates, therefore, with the number of types of secondary metabolites the organism can produce. In our study, heterologous expression of all the A. terreus NRPSlike genes showed that two NRPS-like proteins, encoded by atmelA and apvA, release the same natural product, aspulvinone E. In hyphae this compound is converted to aspulvinones whereas in conidia it is converted to melanin. The genes are expressed in different tissues and this spatial control is probably regulated by their own specific promoters. Comparative genomics indicates that atmelA and apvA might share a same ancestral gene and the gene apvA is located in a highly conserved region in Aspergillus species that contains genes coding for life-essential proteins. Our data reveal the first case in secondary metabolite biosynthesis in which the tissue specific production of a single compound directs it into two separate pathways, producing distinct compounds with different functions. Our data also reveal that a single trans-prenyltransferase, AbpB, prenylates two substrates, aspulvinones and butyrolactones, revealing that genes outside of contiguous secondary metabolism gene clusters can modify more than one compound thereby expanding metabolite diversity. Our study raises the possibility of incorporation of spatial, cell-type specificity in expression of secondary metabolites of biological interest and provides new insight into designing and reconstituting their biosynthetic pathways.

  20. Single-trial detection of visual evoked potentials by common spatial patterns and wavelet filtering for brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yiheng; Huang, Gan; Hung, Yeung Sam; Hu, Li; Hu, Yong; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are widely used in brain-computer interface (BCI) systems as input signals conveying a subject's intention. A fast and reliable single-trial ERP detection method can be used to develop a BCI system with both high speed and high accuracy. However, most of single-trial ERP detection methods are developed for offline EEG analysis and thus have a high computational complexity and need manual operations. Therefore, they are not applicable to practical BCI systems, which require a low-complexity and automatic ERP detection method. This work presents a joint spatial-time-frequency filter that combines common spatial patterns (CSP) and wavelet filtering (WF) for improving the signal-to-noise (SNR) of visual evoked potentials (VEP), which can lead to a single-trial ERP-based BCI.

  1. Spatial regulation of a common precursor from two distinct genes generates metabolite diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Chun-Jun; Sun, Wei-Wen; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Oakley, Berl R.; Keller, Nancy P.; Wang, Clay C.

    2015-07-13

    In secondary metabolite biosynthesis, core synthetic genes such as polyketide synthase genes or non-ribosomal peptide synthase genes usually encode proteins that generate various backbone precursors. These precursors are modified by other tailoring enzymes to yield a large variety of different secondary metabolites. The number of core synthesis genes in a given species correlates, therefore, with the number of types of secondary metabolites the organism can produce. In our study, heterologous expression of all the A. terreus NRPS-like genes showed that two NRPS-like proteins, encoded by atmelA and apvA, release the same natural product, aspulvinone E. More interestingly, further experiments revealed that the aspulvinone E produced by two different genes accumulates in different fungal compartments. And this spatial control of aspulvinone E production is likely to be regulated by their own specific promoters. Comparative genomics indicates that atmelA and apvA might share a same ancestral gene and the gene apvA is inserted in a highly conserved region in Aspergillus species that contains genes coding for life-essential proteins. The study also identified one trans-prenyltransferase AbpB which is capable of prenylating two different substrates aspulvinones and butyrolactones. In total, our study shows the first example in which the locally distribution of the same natural product could lead to its incorporation into different SM pathways.

  2. [Significance of the smell of a conspecific for the spatial distribution of the common shrew Sorex araneus L].

    PubMed

    Tumas'ian, F A; Shchipanova, N A

    2013-01-01

    The significance of smell marks of conspecifics for the spatial distribution of common shrews was studied. The existence of two groups of individuals, which differ in their reaction to the smell of a conspecific, was shown. Individuals with different reactions were shown to have reliable differences in the sizes of the areas visited by them, the mutual location of their plots, and the percent of activity combined with the activity of the neighbor. The significance of such differences in reactions for the formation of the social system of shrews is discussed.

  3. Spatial variation in life history characteristics of common megrim (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis) on the Northern Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, P.; Angus (née Laurenson), C. H.; Marshall, C. T.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years stock structure recommendations for megrim on the Northern Shelf have varied, primarily due to a lack of biological and fishery data. In this study, we compared a number of life history characteristics of the common megrim Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (Walbaum) between the northern North Sea and Rockall, the latitudinal extremes of the species' distribution on the Northern Shelf. Reproductive timing, sex ratio, maturity and growth were different between the two study areas. Reproductive timing in the northern North Sea was more protracted than at Rockall and other areas. There were differences in sex ratio between the study areas and female megrim in the northern North Sea exhibited different growth rates and larger size at maturity than at Rockall. The results of this study support the recent changes to the definition of the Northern Shelf stocks which recommend that the northern North Sea be treated separately to Rockall.

  4. Parenting and later substance use among Mexican-origin youth: Moderation by preference for a common language.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Thomas J; Toro, Rosa I; Parke, Ross D; Cookston, Jeffrey T; Fabricius, William V; Coltrane, Scott

    2017-04-01

    The primary goal of the current study was to test whether parent and adolescent preference for a common language moderates the association between parenting and rank-order change over time in offspring substance use. A sample of Mexican-origin 7th-grade adolescents (Mage = 12.5 years, N = 194, 52% female) was measured longitudinally on use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. Mothers, fathers, and adolescents all reported on consistent discipline and monitoring of adolescents. Both consistent discipline and monitoring predicted relative decreases in substance use into early adulthood but only among parent-offspring dyads who expressed preference for the same language (either English or Spanish). This moderation held after controlling for parent substance use, family structure, having completed schooling in Mexico, years lived in the United States, family income, and cultural values. An unintended consequence of the immigration process may be the loss of parenting effectiveness that is normally present when parents and adolescents prefer to communicate in a common language. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Measuring spatial variation in secondary production and food quality using a common consumer approach in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Larson, James H; Richardson, William B; Evans, Mary Anne; Schaeffer, Jeff; Wynne, Timothy; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Nelson, John C; Vallazza, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Lake Erie is a large lake straddling the border of the USA and Canada that has become increasingly eutrophic in recent years. Eutrophication is particularly focused in the shallow western basin. The western basin of Lake Erie is hydrodynamically similar to a large estuary, with riverine inputs from the Detroit and Maumee Rivers mixing together and creating gradients in chemical and physical conditions. This study was driven by two questions: (1) How does secondary production and food quality for consumers vary across this large mixing zone? and (2) Are there correlations between cyanobacterial abundance and secondary production or food quality for consumers? Measuring spatial and temporal variation in secondary production and food quality is difficult for a variety of logistical reasons, so here a common consumer approach was used. In a common consumer approach, individuals of a single species are raised under similar conditions until placed in the field across environmental gradients of interest. After some period of exposure, the response of that common consumer is measured to provide an index of spatial variation in conditions. Here, a freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was deployed at 32 locations that spanned habitat types and a gradient in cyanobacterial abundance in the western basin of Lake Erie to measure spatial variation in growth (an index of secondary production) and fatty acid (FA) content (an index of food quality). We found secondary production was highest within the Maumee river mouth and lowest in the open waters of the lake. Mussel tissues in the Maumee river mouth also included more eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA and DPA, respectively), but fewer bacterial FAs, suggesting more algae at the base of the food web in the Maumee river mouth compared to open lake sites. The satellite-derived estimate of cyanobacterial abundance was not correlated to secondary production, but was positively related to EPA and DPA content

  6. Measuring spatial variation in secondary production and food quality using a common consumer approach in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Richardson, William B.; Evans, Mary Anne; Schaeffer, Jeff; Wynne, Timothy; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Nelson, J. C.; Vallazza, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Erie is a large lake straddling the border of the U.S. and Canada that has become increasingly eutrophic in recent years. Eutrophication is particularly focused in the shallow western basin. The western basin of Lake Erie is hydrodynamically similar to a large estuary, with riverine inputs from the Detroit and Maumee Rivers mixing together and creating gradients in chemical and physical conditions. This study was driven by two questions: How does secondary production and food quality for consumers vary across this large mixing zone? and Are there correlations between cyanobacterial abundance and secondary production or food quality for consumers? Measuring spatial and temporal variation in secondary production and food quality is difficult for a variety of logistical reasons, so here a common consumer approach was used. In a common consumer approach, individuals of a single species are raised under similar conditions until placed in the field across environmental gradients of interest. After some period of exposure, the response of that common consumer is measured to provide an index of spatial variation in conditions. Here, a freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was deployed at 32 locations that spanned habitat types and a gradient in cyanobacterial abundance in the western basin of Lake Erie to measure spatial variation in growth (an index of secondary production) and fatty acid (FA) content (an index of food quality). We found secondary production was highest within the Maumee rivermouth and lowest in the open waters of the lake. Mussel tissues in the Maumee rivermouth also included more eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA and DPA, respectively), but fewer bacterial FAs, suggesting more algae at the base of the food web in the Maumee rivermouth compared to open lake sites. The satellite-derived estimate of cyanobacterial abundance was not correlated to secondary production, but was positively related to EPA and DPA content in the

  7. Molecular crowding defines a common origin for the Warburg effect in proliferating cells and the lactate threshold in muscle physiology.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Alexei; Oltvai, Zoltán N

    2011-04-29

    Aerobic glycolysis is a seemingly wasteful mode of ATP production that is seen both in rapidly proliferating mammalian cells and highly active contracting muscles, but whether there is a common origin for its presence in these widely different systems is unknown. To study this issue, here we develop a model of human central metabolism that incorporates a solvent capacity constraint of metabolic enzymes and mitochondria, accounting for their occupied volume densities, while assuming glucose and/or fatty acid utilization. The model demonstrates that activation of aerobic glycolysis is favored above a threshold metabolic rate in both rapidly proliferating cells and heavily contracting muscles, because it provides higher ATP yield per volume density than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In the case of muscle physiology, the model also predicts that before the lactate switch, fatty acid oxidation increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases to zero with concomitant increase in glucose utilization, in agreement with the empirical evidence. These results are further corroborated by a larger scale model, including biosynthesis of major cell biomass components. The larger scale model also predicts that in proliferating cells the lactate switch is accompanied by activation of glutaminolysis, another distinctive feature of the Warburg effect. In conclusion, intracellular molecular crowding is a fundamental constraint for cell metabolism in both rapidly proliferating- and non-proliferating cells with high metabolic demand. Addition of this constraint to metabolic flux balance models can explain several observations of mammalian cell metabolism under steady state conditions.

  8. Molecular Crowding Defines a Common Origin for the Warburg Effect in Proliferating Cells and the Lactate Threshold in Muscle Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, Alexei; Oltvai, Zoltán N.

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis is a seemingly wasteful mode of ATP production that is seen both in rapidly proliferating mammalian cells and highly active contracting muscles, but whether there is a common origin for its presence in these widely different systems is unknown. To study this issue, here we develop a model of human central metabolism that incorporates a solvent capacity constraint of metabolic enzymes and mitochondria, accounting for their occupied volume densities, while assuming glucose and/or fatty acid utilization. The model demonstrates that activation of aerobic glycolysis is favored above a threshold metabolic rate in both rapidly proliferating cells and heavily contracting muscles, because it provides higher ATP yield per volume density than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In the case of muscle physiology, the model also predicts that before the lactate switch, fatty acid oxidation increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases to zero with concomitant increase in glucose utilization, in agreement with the empirical evidence. These results are further corroborated by a larger scale model, including biosynthesis of major cell biomass components. The larger scale model also predicts that in proliferating cells the lactate switch is accompanied by activation of glutaminolysis, another distinctive feature of the Warburg effect. In conclusion, intracellular molecular crowding is a fundamental constraint for cell metabolism in both rapidly proliferating- and non-proliferating cells with high metabolic demand. Addition of this constraint to metabolic flux balance models can explain several observations of mammalian cell metabolism under steady state conditions. PMID:21559344

  9. Lack of habituation to shocking words: the attentional bias to their spatial origin is context free.

    PubMed

    Bertels, Julie; Kolinsky, Régine; Morais, José

    2012-01-01

    Following a suggestion made by Aquino and Arnell (2007), we assumed that the processing of emotional words is influenced by their context of presentation. Supporting this idea, previous studies using the emotional Stroop task in its visual or auditory variant revealed different results depending on the mixed versus blocked presentation of the stimuli (Bertels, Kolinsky, Pietrons, & Morais, 2011; Richards, French, Johnson, Naparstek, & Williams, 1992). In the present study, we investigated the impact of these presentation designs on the occurrence of spatial attentional biases in a modified version of the beep-probe task (Bertels, Kolinsky, & Morais, 2010). Attentional vigilance to taboo words as well as non-spatial slowing effects of these words were observed whatever the mixed or blocked design, whereas attentional vigilance to positive words was only observed in the mixed design. Together with the results from our previous study (Bertels et al., 2010), the present data support the reliability of the effects of shocking stimuli, while vigilance to positive words would only be observed in a threatening context.

  10. Molecular markers reveal spatially segregated cryptic species in a critically endangered fish, the common skate (Dipturus batis).

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Andrew M; Sims, David W; Cotterell, Stephen P; El Nagar, Aliya; Ellis, Jim R; Lynghammar, Arve; McHugh, Matthew; Neat, Francis C; Pade, Nicolas G; Queiroz, Nuno; Serra-Pereira, Bárbara; Rapp, Toby; Wearmouth, Victoria J; Genner, Martin J

    2010-05-22

    Many sharks and skates are particularly vulnerable to overfishing because of their large size, slow growth, late maturity and low fecundity. In Europe dramatic population declines have taken place in common skate (Dipturus batis L.), one of the largest demersal fish in regional shelf seas, leading to extirpations from substantial parts of its former range. Here we report the discovery of cryptic species in common skate collected from the northeast Atlantic continental shelf. Data from nuclear microsatellite markers indicated two clearly distinct clades and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences demonstrated monophyly of each one of them. Capture locations showed evidence of strong spatial segregation, with one taxon occurring mainly in waters off the southern British Isles and around Rockall, while the other was restricted to more northerly shelf waters. These apparently cryptic species showed overlapping substrate and depth preferences, but distributional limits were closely related to temperature gradients, potentially indicating thermal limits to their distributions. This discovery of hidden diversity within a large, critically endangered marine vertebrate demonstrates how marine biodiversity can be underestimated, even in such a relatively well-studied and heavily exploited region.

  11. A common evolutionary origin for the ON- and OFF-edge motion detection pathways of the Drosophila visual system

    PubMed Central

    Shinomiya, Kazunori; Takemura, Shin-ya; Rivlin, Patricia K.; Plaza, Stephen M.; Scheffer, Louis K.; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic circuits for identified behaviors in the Drosophila brain have typically been considered from either a developmental or functional perspective without reference to how the circuits might have been inherited from ancestral forms. For example, two candidate pathways for ON- and OFF-edge motion detection in the visual system act via circuits that use respectively either T4 or T5, two cell types of the fourth neuropil, or lobula plate (LOP), that exhibit narrow-field direction-selective responses and provide input to wide-field tangential neurons. T4 or T5 both have four subtypes that terminate one each in the four strata of the LOP. Representatives are reported in a wide range of Diptera, and both cell types exhibit various similarities in: (1) the morphology of their dendritic arbors; (2) their four morphological and functional subtypes; (3) their cholinergic profile in Drosophila; (4) their input from the pathways of L3 cells in the first neuropil, or lamina (LA), and by one of a pair of LA cells, L1 (to the T4 pathway) and L2 (to the T5 pathway); and (5) their innervation by a single, wide-field contralateral tangential neuron from the central brain. Progenitors of both also express the gene atonal early in their proliferation from the inner anlage of the developing optic lobe, being alone among many other cell type progeny to do so. Yet T4 receives input in the second neuropil, or medulla (ME), and T5 in the third neuropil or lobula (LO). Here we suggest that these two cell types were originally one, that their ancestral cell population duplicated and split to innervate separate ME and LO neuropils, and that a fiber crossing—the internal chiasma—arose between the two neuropils. The split most plausibly occurred, we suggest, with the formation of the LO as a new neuropil that formed when it separated from its ancestral neuropil to leave the ME, suggesting additionally that ME input neurons to T4 and T5 may also have had a common origin. PMID:26217193

  12. Bilaterian Giant Ankyrins Have a Common Evolutionary Origin and Play a Conserved Role in Patterning the Axon Initial Segment

    PubMed Central

    Jegla, Timothy; Nguyen, Michelle M.; Feng, Chengye; Goetschius, Daniel J.; van Rossum, Damian B.; Pisupati, Aditya; Milner, Elliott S.

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrate neurons, the axon initial segment (AIS) is specialized for action potential initiation. It is organized by a giant 480 Kd variant of ankyrin G (AnkG) that serves as an anchor for ion channels and is required for a plasma membrane diffusion barrier that excludes somatodendritic proteins from the axon. An unusually long exon required to encode this 480Kd variant is thought to have been inserted only recently during vertebrate evolution, so the giant ankyrin-based AIS scaffold has been viewed as a vertebrate adaptation for fast, precise signaling. We re-examined AIS evolution through phylogenomic analysis of ankyrins and by testing the role of ankyrins in proximal axon organization in a model multipolar Drosophila neuron (ddaE). We find giant isoforms of ankyrin in all major bilaterian phyla, and present evidence in favor of a single common origin for giant ankyrins and the corresponding long exon in a bilaterian ancestor. This finding raises the question of whether giant ankyrin isoforms play a conserved role in AIS organization throughout the Bilateria. We examined this possibility by looking for conserved ankyrin-dependent AIS features in Drosophila ddaE neurons via live imaging. We found that ddaE neurons have an axonal diffusion barrier proximal to the cell body that requires a giant isoform of the neuronal ankyrin Ank2. Furthermore, the potassium channel shal concentrates in the proximal axon in an Ank2-dependent manner. Our results indicate that the giant ankyrin-based cytoskeleton of the AIS may have evolved prior to the radiation of extant bilaterian lineages, much earlier than previously thought. PMID:27911898

  13. High-3He plume origin and temporal-spatial evolution of the Siberian flood basalts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basu, A.R.; Poreda, R.J.; Renne, P.R.; Teichmann, F.; Vasiliev, Y.R.; Sobolev, N.V.; Turrin, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    An olivine nephelinite from the lower part of a thick alkalic ultrabasic and mafic sequence of volcanic rocks of the northeastern part of the Siberian flood basalt province (SFBP) yielded a 40ArX39Ar plateau age of 253.3 ?? 2.6 million years, distinctly older than the main tholeiitic pulse of the SFBP at 250.0 million years. Olivine phenocrysts of this rock showed 3He/4He ratios up to 12.7 times the atmospheric ratio; these values suggest a lower mantle plume origin. The neodymium and strontium isotopes, rare earth element concentration patterns, and cerium/lead ratios of the associated rocks were also consistent with their derivation from a near-cnondritic, primitive plume. Geochemical data from the 250-million-year-old volcanic rocks higher up in the sequence indicate interaction of this high-3He SFBP plume with a suboceanic-type upper mantle beneath Siberia.

  14. High-3He Plume Origin and Temporal-Spatial Evolution of the Siberian Flood Basalts.

    PubMed

    Basu, A R; Poreda, R J; Renne, P R; Teichmann, F; Vasiliev, Y R; Sobolev, N V; Turrin, B D

    1995-08-11

    An olivine nephelinite from the lower part of a thick alkalic ultrabasic and mafic sequence of volcanic rocks of the northeastern part of the Siberian flood basalt province (SFBP) yielded a (40)Ar/(39)Ar plateau age of 253.3 +/- 2.6 million years, distinctly older than the main tholeiitic pulse of the SFBP at 250.0 million years. Olivine phenocrysts of this rock showed (3)He/(4)He ratios up to 12.7 times the atmospheric ratio; these values suggest a lower mantle plume origin. The neodymium and strontium isotopes, rare earth element concentration patterns, and cerium/lead ratios of the associated rocks were also consistent with their derivation from a near-chondritic, primitive plume. Geochemical data from the 250-million-year-old volcanic rocks higher up in the sequence indicate interaction of this high-(3)He SFBP plume with a suboceanic-type upper mantle beneath Siberia.

  15. Spatial decoupling of facilitation and competition at the origin of gapped vegetation patterns.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Nicolas; Couteron, Pierre; Lefever, René; Deblauwe, Vincent; Lejeune, Olivier

    2008-06-01

    Spatially periodic vegetation patterns, forming gaps, bands, labyrinths, or spots, are characteristic of arid and semiarid landscapes. Self-organization models can explain this variety of structures within a unified conceptual framework. All these models are based on the interplay of positive and negative effects of plants on soil water, but they can be divided according to whether they assume the interactions to be mediated by water redistribution through runoff/diffusion or by plants' organs. We carried out a multi-proxy approach of the processes operating in a gapped pattern in southwest Niger dominated by a shrub species. Soil moisture within the root layer was monitored in time and space over one month of the rainy season. Soil water recharge displayed no spatial variation with respect to vegetation cover, but the stock half-life under cover was twice that of bare areas. A kernel of facilitation by the aboveground parts of shrubs was parameterized, and soil water half-life was significantly correlated to the cumulated facilitative effects of shrubs. The kernel range was found to be smaller than the canopy radius (81%). This effect of plants on soil water dynamics, probably through a reduction of evaporation by shading, is shown to be a better explanatory variable than potentially relevant soil and topography parameters. The root systems of five individuals of Combretum micranthum G. Don were excavated. Root density data were used as a proxy to parameterize a kernel function of interplant competition. The range of this kernel was larger than the canopy radius (125%). The facilitation-to-competition range ratio, reflecting the above-to-belowground ratio of plant lateral extent, was smaller than 1 (0.64), a result supporting models assuming that patterning may emerge from an adaptation of plant morphology to aridity and shallow soils by means of an extended lateral root system. Moreover, observed soil water gradients had directions opposite to those assumed by

  16. Holographic common-path interferometer for angular displacement measurements with spatial phase stepping and extended measurement range.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Steven Richard; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    A novel technique for extending the unambiguous measurement range for differential measurements of angular deflections is presented. The technique utilizes a common-path interferometer that simultaneously probes the out-of-plane displacement of three points on the object surface. The system is based on a single laser diode, and all the optical functions of the system are implemented in a dedicated holographic optical element (HOE). The HOE automatically provides spatially phase-stepped interference signals for real-time phase measurement. It is therefore not necessary to employ any polarizing optics or active elements to introduce the phase stepping. The common-path scheme combined with the HOE provides a system that is inherently stable, since the HOE operates as both transmitter and receiver in the system. The system is compact, is robust, and has the potential for being mass-produced at a low cost and is thus well suited for industrial use, such as in commercial vibrometers. The technique is demonstrated in a system for measuring angular deflections of a plane mirror. The technique, however, is not restricted to this use alone and can easily be configured to probe other types of surface displacements, e.g., the deflection of a diaphragm. In the present configuration, the system can measure angular deflections with a sensitivity of 2.5 x 10(-7) rad over a measurement range that is approximately 3.5 x 10(-3) rad, i.e., a dynamic range of approximately 1:14,000. Furthermore, the system can easily be reconfigured for a desired angular sensitivity and measurement range.

  17. ORIGIN OF SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF SCATTERING POLARIZATION IN THE WINGS OF THE Ca I 4227 A line

    SciTech Connect

    Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.; Anusha, L. S.; Stenflo, J. O.; Bianda, M.; Ramelli, R.

    2009-07-10

    Polarization that is produced by coherent scattering can be modified by magnetic fields via the Hanle effect. This has opened a window to explorations of solar magnetism in parameter domains not accessible to the Zeeman effect. According to standard theory the Hanle effect should only be operating in the Doppler core of spectral lines but not in the wings. In contrast, our observations of the scattering polarization in the Ca I 4227 A line reveal the existence of spatial variations of the scattering polarization throughout the far line wings. This raises the question whether the observed spatial variations in wing polarization have a magnetic or nonmagnetic origin. A magnetic origin may be possible if elastic collisions are able to cause sufficient frequency redistribution to make the Hanle effect effective in the wings without causing excessive collisional depolarization, as suggested by recent theories for partial frequency redistribution (PRD) with coherent scattering in magnetic fields. To model the wing polarization we bypass the problem of solving the full polarized radiative transfer equations and instead apply an extended version of the technique based on the 'last scattering approximation'. It assumes that the polarization of the emergent radiation is determined by the anisotropy of the incident radiation field at the last scattering event. We determine this anisotropy from the observed limb darkening as a function of wavelength throughout the spectral line. The empirical anisotropy profile is used together with the single-scattering redistribution matrix, which contains all the PRD, collisional, and magnetic field effects. The model further contains a continuum opacity parameter, which increasingly dilutes the polarized line photons as we move away from the line center, and a continuum polarization parameter that represents the observed polarization level far from the line. This model is highly successful in reproducing the observed Stokes Q

  18. Motor Imagery Classification Using Mu and Beta Rhythms of EEG with Strong Uncorrelating Transform Based Complex Common Spatial Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jiwoo; Kim, Ko Keun; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the disassociation between the mu and beta rhythms of electroencephalogram (EEG) during motor imagery tasks. The proposed algorithm in this paper uses a fully data-driven multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) in order to obtain the mu and beta rhythms from the nonlinear EEG signals. Then, the strong uncorrelating transform complex common spatial patterns (SUTCCSP) algorithm is applied to the rhythms so that the complex data, constructed with the mu and beta rhythms, becomes uncorrelated and its pseudocovariance provides supplementary power difference information between the two rhythms. The extracted features using SUTCCSP that maximize the interclass variances are classified using various classification algorithms for the separation of the left- and right-hand motor imagery EEG acquired from the Physionet database. This paper shows that the supplementary information of the power difference between mu and beta rhythms obtained using SUTCCSP provides an important feature for the classification of the left- and right-hand motor imagery tasks. In addition, MEMD is proved to be a preferred preprocessing method for the nonlinear and nonstationary EEG signals compared to the conventional IIR filtering. Finally, the random forest classifier yielded a high performance for the classification of the motor imagery tasks. PMID:27795702

  19. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Flora in Forest, Grassland and Common Land Ecosystems of Western Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    DANGOL, Dharma Raj; MAHARJAN, Keshav Lall

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes changes of species composition and population of flora in space and time in western Chitwan, Nepal. This paper also discusses on the changes in flora due to flood and human activities. To illustrate these changes, we used survey data collected from January to April of 1996, 2000, and 2007 from the Barandabhar forest, National Park forest and the forests along the Narayani River banks, grasslands of National Park and common lands of western Chitwan as a part of longitudinal study on “reciprocal relation of population and the environment”. From these data, density values were calculated to analyze spatial and temporal changes in flora species composition and population. We also noted the changes of top species in time and space in due course of time. If the species and its rank not changed, their densities (population) values of flora species changed. We found that changes in species composition, population, appearance or disappearance of flora from a particular space (research plot) were noted as a result of natural forces or human activities. PMID:25061414

  20. Motor Imagery Classification Using Mu and Beta Rhythms of EEG with Strong Uncorrelating Transform Based Complex Common Spatial Patterns.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngjoo; Ryu, Jiwoo; Kim, Ko Keun; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P; Park, Cheolsoo

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the disassociation between the mu and beta rhythms of electroencephalogram (EEG) during motor imagery tasks. The proposed algorithm in this paper uses a fully data-driven multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) in order to obtain the mu and beta rhythms from the nonlinear EEG signals. Then, the strong uncorrelating transform complex common spatial patterns (SUTCCSP) algorithm is applied to the rhythms so that the complex data, constructed with the mu and beta rhythms, becomes uncorrelated and its pseudocovariance provides supplementary power difference information between the two rhythms. The extracted features using SUTCCSP that maximize the interclass variances are classified using various classification algorithms for the separation of the left- and right-hand motor imagery EEG acquired from the Physionet database. This paper shows that the supplementary information of the power difference between mu and beta rhythms obtained using SUTCCSP provides an important feature for the classification of the left- and right-hand motor imagery tasks. In addition, MEMD is proved to be a preferred preprocessing method for the nonlinear and nonstationary EEG signals compared to the conventional IIR filtering. Finally, the random forest classifier yielded a high performance for the classification of the motor imagery tasks.

  1. Spatial distribution of ice blocks on Enceladus and implications for their origin and emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Hilary R.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Ewald, Shawn P.; Helfenstein, Paul; Giese, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    We have mapped the locations of over 100,000 ice blocks across the south polar region of Saturn's moon Enceladus, thus generating the first quantitative estimates of ice-block number density distribution in relation to major geological features. Ice blocks were manually identified and mapped from twenty of the highest resolution (4-25 m per pixel) Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) narrow-angle images using ArcGIS software. The 10-100 m-diameter positive-relief features are marginally visible at the resolution of the images, making ice-block identifications difficult but not impossible. Our preliminary results reveal that ice blocks in the southern hemisphere are systematically most concentrated within the geologically active South Polar Terrain (SPT) and exhibit peak concentrations within 20 km of the tiger-stripe fractures as well as close to the south pole. We find that ice blocks are concentrated just as heavily between tiger-stripe fractures as on the directly adjacent margins; although significant local fluctuations in ice-block number density do occur, we observe no clear pattern with respect to the tiger stripes or jet sources. We examine possible roles of several mechanisms for ice-block origin, emplacement, and evolution: impact cratering, ejection from fissures during cryovolcanic eruptions, tectonic disruption of lithospheric ice, mass wasting, seismic disturbance, and vapor condensation around icy fumeroles. We conclude that impact cratering as well as mass wasting, perhaps triggered by seismic events, cannot account for a majority of ice-block features within the inner SPT. The pervasiveness of fracturing at many size scales, the ubiquity of ice blocks in the inner SPT, as well as the occurrence of linear block arrangements that parallel through-cutting crack networks along the flanks of tiger stripes indicate that tectonic deformation is an important source of blocky-ice features in the SPT. Ejection during catastrophic cryovolcanic eruptions

  2. Estimating Common Growth Patterns in Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from Diverse Genetic Stocks and a Large Spatial Extent

    PubMed Central

    Scheuerell, Mark D.; Simenstad, Charles A.; Bottom, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Life history variation in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) supports species resilience to natural disturbances and fishery exploitation. Within salmon species, life-history variation often manifests during freshwater and estuarine rearing, as variation in growth. To date, however, characterizing variability in growth patterns within and among individuals has been difficult via conventional sampling methods because of the inability to obtain repeated size measurements. In this study we related otolith microstructures to growth rates of individual juvenile Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from the Columbia River estuary over a two-year period (2010–2012). We used dynamic factor analysis to determine whether there were common patterns in growth rates within juveniles based on their natal region, capture location habitat type, and whether they were wild or of hatchery origin. We identified up to five large-scale trends in juvenile growth rates depending on month and year of capture. We also found that hatchery fish had a narrower range of trend loadings for some capture groups, suggesting that hatchery fish do not express the same breadth of growth variability as wild fish. However, we were unable to resolve a relationship between specific growth patterns and habitat transitions. Our study exemplifies how a relatively new statistical analysis can be applied to dating or aging techniques to summarize individual variation, and characterize aspects of life history diversity. PMID:27695094

  3. Spatial and temporal variability of marine-origin matter along a transect from Zhongshan Station to Dome A, Eastern Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanjin; Xiao, Cunde; Shi, Guitao; Ding, Minghu; Qin, Dahe; Ren, Jiawen

    2016-08-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution pattern of marine-origin matter on the Antarctica ice sheet was used to study variations in the source regions, transport mechanisms and post-depositional influences. We present data on sea salt ions, sulfur components and stable isotopes from surface and snow pit samples collected along the transect route from Zhongshan Station to Dome A during the austral summer in 2012-2013. A general decreasing trend in the accumulation, sea salt ions and sulfur components occurred with increasing distance from the coast and increasing elevation. However, different sources of the marine components, transport pathways and post-depositional influences were responsible for their different spatial distribution patterns. The marine ions in the coastal snow pit varied seasonally, with higher sea salt ion concentrations in the winter and lower concentrations in the summer; the opposite pattern was found for the sulfur compounds. The sea ice area surrounding Antarctica was the main source region for the deposited sea salt and the open sea water for the sulfur compounds. No significant trends in the marine-origin components were detected during the past 3 decades. Several periods of elevated deposition of sea salt ions were associated with lower temperatures (based on δD and δ(18)O) or intensified wind fields. In comparison to the sea salt ions, the sulfur concentrations exhibited the opposite distribution patterns and were associated with changes in the surrounding sea ice extent.

  4. Examining Temporal Sample Scale and Model Choice with Spatial Capture-Recapture Models in the Common Leopard Panthera pardus

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Joshua F.; Tempa, Tshering; Norbu, Nawang; Hebblewhite, Mark; Mills, L. Scott; Wangchuk, Tshewang R.; Lukacs, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Many large carnivores occupy a wide geographic distribution, and face threats from habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching, prey depletion, and human wildlife-conflicts. Conservation requires robust techniques for estimating population densities and trends, but the elusive nature and low densities of many large carnivores make them difficult to detect. Spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models provide a means for handling imperfect detectability, while linking population estimates to individual movement patterns to provide more accurate estimates than standard approaches. Within this framework, we investigate the effect of different sample interval lengths on density estimates, using simulations and a common leopard (Panthera pardus) model system. We apply Bayesian SCR methods to 89 simulated datasets and camera-trapping data from 22 leopards captured 82 times during winter 2010–2011 in Royal Manas National Park, Bhutan. We show that sample interval length from daily, weekly, monthly or quarterly periods did not appreciably affect median abundance or density, but did influence precision. We observed the largest gains in precision when moving from quarterly to shorter intervals. We therefore recommend daily sampling intervals for monitoring rare or elusive species where practicable, but note that monthly or quarterly sample periods can have similar informative value. We further develop a novel application of Bayes factors to select models where multiple ecological factors are integrated into density estimation. Our simulations demonstrate that these methods can help identify the “true” explanatory mechanisms underlying the data. Using this method, we found strong evidence for sex-specific movement distributions in leopards, suggesting that sexual patterns of space-use influence density. This model estimated a density of 10.0 leopards/100 km2 (95% credibility interval: 6.25–15.93), comparable to contemporary estimates in Asia. These SCR methods provide a guide

  5. Examining Temporal Sample Scale and Model Choice with Spatial Capture-Recapture Models in the Common Leopard Panthera pardus.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Joshua F; Tempa, Tshering; Norbu, Nawang; Hebblewhite, Mark; Mills, L Scott; Wangchuk, Tshewang R; Lukacs, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Many large carnivores occupy a wide geographic distribution, and face threats from habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching, prey depletion, and human wildlife-conflicts. Conservation requires robust techniques for estimating population densities and trends, but the elusive nature and low densities of many large carnivores make them difficult to detect. Spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models provide a means for handling imperfect detectability, while linking population estimates to individual movement patterns to provide more accurate estimates than standard approaches. Within this framework, we investigate the effect of different sample interval lengths on density estimates, using simulations and a common leopard (Panthera pardus) model system. We apply Bayesian SCR methods to 89 simulated datasets and camera-trapping data from 22 leopards captured 82 times during winter 2010-2011 in Royal Manas National Park, Bhutan. We show that sample interval length from daily, weekly, monthly or quarterly periods did not appreciably affect median abundance or density, but did influence precision. We observed the largest gains in precision when moving from quarterly to shorter intervals. We therefore recommend daily sampling intervals for monitoring rare or elusive species where practicable, but note that monthly or quarterly sample periods can have similar informative value. We further develop a novel application of Bayes factors to select models where multiple ecological factors are integrated into density estimation. Our simulations demonstrate that these methods can help identify the "true" explanatory mechanisms underlying the data. Using this method, we found strong evidence for sex-specific movement distributions in leopards, suggesting that sexual patterns of space-use influence density. This model estimated a density of 10.0 leopards/100 km2 (95% credibility interval: 6.25-15.93), comparable to contemporary estimates in Asia. These SCR methods provide a guide to

  6. Common origin of fermion mixing and geometrical CP violation, and its test through Higgs physics at the LHC.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Varzielas, Ivo de Medeiros; Leser, Philipp

    2012-12-14

    We construct for the first time a flavor model, based on the smallest discrete symmetry Δ(27) that implements spontaneous CP violation with a complex phase of geometric origin, which can actually reproduce all quark masses and mixing data. We show that its scalar sector has exotic properties that can be tested at the LHC.

  7. Abundance gradients in low surface brightness spirals: clues on the origin of common gradients in galactic discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresolin, F.; Kennicutt, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    We acquired spectra of 141 H II regions in 10 late-type low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs). The analysis of the chemical abundances obtained from the nebular emission lines shows that metallicity gradients are a common feature of LSBGs, contrary to previous claims concerning the absence of such gradients in this class of galaxies. The average slope, when expressed in units of the isophotal radius, is found to be significantly shallower in comparison to galaxies of high surface brightness. This result can be attributed to the reduced surface brightness range measured across their discs, when combined with a universal surface mass density-metallicity relation. With a similar argument we explain the common abundance gradient observed in high surface brightness galaxy (HSBG) discs and its approximate dispersion. This conclusion is reinforced by our result that LSBGs share the same common abundance gradient with HSBGs, when the slope is expressed in terms of the exponential disc scalelength.

  8. Spatial Drivers in the Origin and Composition of Dissolved Organic Matter in Snow: Implications for Proglacial Stream Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, J.; Hood, E. W.; Raymond, P. A.; Stubbins, A.; Spencer, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Coast Mountains of southeast Alaska are currently experiencing high rates of glacier volume loss. Continued glacier wastage therefore has the potential to decrease the proportion of streamflow derived from glacial runoff, which could alter the nature of dissolved organic matter (DOM) delivered to proglacial streams. We collected snow from ten locations along a transect that extended from the coast 47 km across the Juneau Icefield, southeast Alaska and analyzed the snow for δ18O and DOM for 13C, 14C and fluorescence characteristics. Our goal was to assess the origin and quality of DOM in snow to better understand how continued glacial recession in the region may influence the transfer of organic matter to proglacial aquatic ecosystems. The δ18O of snow decreased with distance from the coast (r2=84, p<0.01) indicative of the natural fractionation or fallout of heavy δ18O that occurs along elevation or spatial gradients. This depletion in the isotopic signature of snow across the Icefield transect was reflected in the origin and quality of DOM. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) varied from 0.13 to 0.29 mg C L-1 and progressively decreased (r2=43, p<0.05) as δ18O became more depleted. The Δ14C-DOC varied from -742 to -420‰ and showed progressive depletion with decreasing δ18O (r2=56, p<0.01). Older DOC corresponded to a decrease in the percent contribution of humic-like fluorescence (r2=74, p<0.01) suggesting an overall decrease in modern continental DOM across the transect. A three-source isotope mixing model showed that DOM in snow originates mainly from anthropogenic aerosols from fossil fuel combustion (45-74%) and marine sources (17-34%). These results suggest that anthropogenic aerosols are a quantitatively important source of relic DOM to the glacier ecosystem. Given relic DOM exported from glaciers is highly bioavailable, anthropogenic aerosols could profoundly influence the transfer of DOM from glaciers to proglacial aquatic

  9. Spatial patterns and origins of heavy metals in Sheyang River catchment in Jiangsu, China based on geographically weighted regression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan-Shan; Yang, Hao; Guo, Fei; Han, Rui-Ming

    2017-02-15

    Multivariate statistical analyses combined with geographically weighted regression (GWR) were used to identify spatial variations of heavy metals in sediments and to examine relationships between metal pollution and land use practices in watersheds, including urban land, agriculture land, forest and water bodies. Seven metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Mn and Fe) of sediments were measured at 31 sampling sites in Sheyang River. Most metals were under a certain degree enrichment based on the enrichment factors. Cluster analysis grouped all sites into four statistically significant cluster, severely contaminated areas were concentrated in areas with intensive human activities. Correlation analysis and PCA indicated Cu, Zn and Pb were derived from anthropogenic activities, while the sources of Cr and Ni were complicated. However, Fe and Mn originated from natural sources. According to results of GWR, there are stronger association between metal pollution with urban land than agricultural land and forest. Moreover, the relationships between land use and metal concentration were affected by the urbanization level of watersheds. Agricultural land had a weak associated with heavy metal pollution and the relationships might be stronger in less-urbanized. This study provided useful information for the assessment and management of heavy metal hazards in studied area.

  10. The origin of life and the last universal common ancestor: do we need a change of perspective?

    PubMed

    Glansdorff, Nicolas; Xu, Ying; Labedan, Bernard

    2009-09-01

    A complete tree with roots, trunk and crown remains an appropriate model to represent all steps of life's development, from the emergence of a unique genetic code up to the last universal common ancestor and its further radiation. Catalytic closure of a mixture of prebiotic polymers is a heuristic alternative to the RNA world. Conjectures about emergence of life in an infinite multiverse should not confuse probability with possibility.

  11. Tracing the Temporal and Spatial Variations in the Origin of Fecal Material in Three Oklahoma Watersheds Using Sterol Fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.; Philp, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Organic wastes, in particular fecal material, are qualified as one of the major causes of water quality deterioration. Their accumulation in water bodies may increase algal proliferation and eutrophication and the number of pathogenic organisms, which are responsible for many intestinal diseases especially when the water is used for recreational activities and/or as a supply for drinking water. In order to estimate the risk level associated with primary body contact in recreational water bodies, enumeration of some specific micro-organisms, such as Enterococci and Escherichia coli, are commonly used. Sterol distributions can provide some relevant information on the origin of fecal material in water system, since they are ubiquitous organic compounds and their distributions in many warm-blooded animal feces can be used as evidence for their source. In this study, we monitored fecal material contamination in three Oklahoma watersheds based on sterol fingerprints over a one-year period (2012 ~ 2013). The sterols from sediments and water samples (sterols associated to suspended particles as well as free sterols in water) were recovered using sonication and solid phase extraction (SPE), respectively, using different organic solvents. They were then identified and quantified by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using an internal standard. The GC-MS was previously calibrated with a sterol mixture injected at different concentrations. Our primary results show that the concentration of total sterols generally increases from the Upper Canadian < Neosho Grand < Cimarron - Upper Arkansas Basins in Oklahoma. The fecal sterols commonly represent a small proportion (<15%) within the total sterols quantified in these three basins. Their distributions show a significant contribution from herbivore feces. By means of this monitoring, we are able to determine the presence of fecal contamination and provide a better understanding on the ability of using sterol

  12. Endogenous origin of endo-β-1,4-glucanase in common woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Kostanjšek, Rok; Milatovič, Maša; Strus, Jasna

    2010-11-01

    Because endogenous cellulases have been observed in arthropods, the potential ability to produce cellulose degrading enzymes was examined in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber, an important decomposer of decayed plant material. cDNA fragments encoding portions of two novel endo-β-1,4-glucanase amino acid sequences were amplified by RT-PCR, and the amino acid sequences predicted were affiliated to endo-β-1,4-glucanases from other arthropods, where they cluster with endo-β-1,4-glucanases of decapod crustaceans. Hybridization in situ reveals the hepatopancreas to be the primary site of gene expression and provides direct evidence of the endogenous origin of endo-β-1,4-glucanase in P. scaber. Conservation of catalytically important amino acid residues suggests that both sequences translate into functional cellulases. Cellulolytic activity was detected in hepatopancreatic extract after separation by SDS-PAGE, which included CMC as substrate. This is the first evidence of endogenous cellulases in peracarid crustaceans and gives strong support for the involvement of isopod endo-β-1,4-glucanases in the degradation of cellulose in their diet.

  13. Shared allelic losses on chromosomes 1p and 19q suggest a common origin of oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, J.A.; Koopmann, J.; Kaskel, P.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in specific chromosomal regions, which are likely to harbor tumor suppressor genes, has been associated with human gliomas. In this study we have analyzed astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors for LOH on chromosomes 1 and 19. By microsatellite analysis LOH was found on chromosome arm 1p in 6/15 oligodendrogliomas WHO grade II and III, 12/25 oligoastrocytomas WHO grade II and III, 6/79 glioblastomas WHO grade IV, 5/44 astrocytomas WHO grade II and III and 0/23 pilocystic astrocytomas WHO grade I. The high incidence of LOH on chromosome arm 1p in oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas indicates that a putative tumor suppressor gene in this region is involved in the formation of gliomas with oligodendroglial features. Furthermore, the frequent involvement of chromosome arm 1p in oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas, but not in astrocytomas, suggests that genetically oligoastrocytoma is more similar to oligodendroglioma than to astrocytoma. In order to support this hypothesis, oligodendroglial and astrocytic areas in three mixed oligoastrocytomas were examined differentially for LOH 1p and for LOH 19q, the second genetic region believed to be affected in these tumors. All three tumors had LOH of 1p and LOH of 19q in both areas of oligodendroglial and of astrocytic differentiation. These findings show that the astrocytic and oligodendroglial portions of oligoastrocytoma share molecular genetic features and probably are of monoclonal origin. 32 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Phylogeny of ultra-rapidly evolving dinoflagellate chloroplast genes: a possible common origin for sporozoan and dinoflagellate plastids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Green, B R; Cavalier-Smith, T

    2000-07-01

    Complete chloroplast 23S rRNA and psbA genes from five peridinin-containing dinoflagellates (Heterocapsa pygmaea, Heterocapsa niei, Heterocapsa rotun-data, Amphidinium carterae, and Protoceratium reticulatum) were amplified by PCR and sequenced; partial sequences were obtained from Thoracosphaera heimii and Scrippsiella trochoidea. Comparison with chloroplast 23S rRNA and psbA genes of other organisms shows that dinoflagellate chloroplast genes are the most divergent and rapidly evolving of all. Quartet puzzling, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and LogDet trees were constructed. Intersite rate variation and invariant sites were allowed for with quartet puzzling and neighbor joining. All psbA and 23S rRNA trees showed peridinin-containing dinoflagellate chloroplasts as monophyletic. In psbA trees they are related to those of chromists and red algae. In 23S rRNA trees, dinoflagellates are always the sisters of Sporozoa (apicomplexans); maximum likelihood analysis of Heterocapsa triquetra 16S rRNA also groups the dinoflagellate and sporozoan sequences, but the other methods were inconsistent. Thus, dinoflagellate chloroplasts may actually be related to sporozoan plastids, but the possibility of reproducible long-branch artifacts cannot be strongly ruled out. The results for all three genes fit the idea that dinoflagellate chloroplasts originated from red algae by a secondary endosymbiosis, possibly the same one as for chromists and Sporozoa. The marked disagreement between 16S rRNA trees using different phylogenetic algorithms indicates that this is a rather poor molecule for elucidating overall chloroplast phylogeny. We discuss possible reasons why both plastid and mitochondrial genomes of alveolates (Dinozoa, Sporozoa and Ciliophora) have ultra-rapid substitution rates and a proneness to unique genomic rearrangements.

  15. A common origin for globular clusters and ultra-faint dwarfs in simulations of the first galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Ricotti, Massimo; Parry, Owen H.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2016-11-09

    In this study, the first in a series on galaxy formation before reionization, we focus on understanding what determines the size and morphology of stellar objects in the first low-mass galaxies, using parsec-scale cosmological simulations performed with an adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code. Although the dense gas in which stars are formed tends to have a disk structure, stars are found in spheroids with little rotation. Halos with masses between ${10}^{6}\\,{M}_{\\odot }$ and $5\\times {10}^{8}\\,{M}_{\\odot }$ form stars stochastically, with stellar masses in the range ${10}^{4}\\,{M}_{\\odot }$ to $2\\times {10}^{6}\\,{M}_{\\odot }$. We observe, nearly independent of stellar mass, a large range of half-light radii for the stars, from a few parsecs to a few hundred parsecs and surface brightnesses and mass-to-light ratios ranging from those typical of globular clusters to ultra-faint dwarfs. In our simulations, stars form in dense stellar clusters with high gas-to-star conversion efficiencies and rather uniform metallicities. A fraction of these clusters remain bound after the gas is removed by feedback, but others are destroyed, and their stars, which typically have velocity dispersions of 20–40 km s–1, expand until they become bound by the dark matter halo. We thus speculate that the stars in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies may show kinematic and chemical signatures consistent with their origin in a few distinct stellar clusters. On the other hand, some globular clusters may form at the center of primordial dwarf galaxies and may contain dark matter, perhaps detectable in the outer parts.

  16. A common origin for globular clusters and ultra-faint dwarfs in simulations of the first galaxies

    DOE PAGES

    Ricotti, Massimo; Parry, Owen H.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2016-11-09

    In this study, the first in a series on galaxy formation before reionization, we focus on understanding what determines the size and morphology of stellar objects in the first low-mass galaxies, using parsec-scale cosmological simulations performed with an adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code. Although the dense gas in which stars are formed tends to have a disk structure, stars are found in spheroids with little rotation. Halos with masses betweenmore » $${10}^{6}\\,{M}_{\\odot }$$ and $$5\\times {10}^{8}\\,{M}_{\\odot }$$ form stars stochastically, with stellar masses in the range $${10}^{4}\\,{M}_{\\odot }$$ to $$2\\times {10}^{6}\\,{M}_{\\odot }$$. We observe, nearly independent of stellar mass, a large range of half-light radii for the stars, from a few parsecs to a few hundred parsecs and surface brightnesses and mass-to-light ratios ranging from those typical of globular clusters to ultra-faint dwarfs. In our simulations, stars form in dense stellar clusters with high gas-to-star conversion efficiencies and rather uniform metallicities. A fraction of these clusters remain bound after the gas is removed by feedback, but others are destroyed, and their stars, which typically have velocity dispersions of 20–40 km s–1, expand until they become bound by the dark matter halo. We thus speculate that the stars in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies may show kinematic and chemical signatures consistent with their origin in a few distinct stellar clusters. On the other hand, some globular clusters may form at the center of primordial dwarf galaxies and may contain dark matter, perhaps detectable in the outer parts.« less

  17. A Common Origin for Globular Clusters and Ultra-faint Dwarfs in Simulations of the First Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricotti, Massimo; Parry, Owen H.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the first in a series on galaxy formation before reionization, we focus on understanding what determines the size and morphology of stellar objects in the first low-mass galaxies, using parsec-scale cosmological simulations performed with an adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code. Although the dense gas in which stars are formed tends to have a disk structure, stars are found in spheroids with little rotation. Halos with masses between {10}6 {M}⊙ and 5× {10}8 {M}⊙ form stars stochastically, with stellar masses in the range {10}4 {M}⊙ to 2× {10}6 {M}⊙ . We observe, nearly independent of stellar mass, a large range of half-light radii for the stars, from a few parsecs to a few hundred parsecs and surface brightnesses and mass-to-light ratios ranging from those typical of globular clusters to ultra-faint dwarfs. In our simulations, stars form in dense stellar clusters with high gas-to-star conversion efficiencies and rather uniform metallicities. A fraction of these clusters remain bound after the gas is removed by feedback, but others are destroyed, and their stars, which typically have velocity dispersions of 20-40 km s-1, expand until they become bound by the dark matter halo. We thus speculate that the stars in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies may show kinematic and chemical signatures consistent with their origin in a few distinct stellar clusters. On the other hand, some globular clusters may form at the center of primordial dwarf galaxies and may contain dark matter, perhaps detectable in the outer parts.

  18. Common Fermi-liquid origin of T2 resistivity and superconductivity in n-type SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marel, D.; van Mechelen, J. L. M.; Mazin, I. I.

    2011-11-01

    A detailed analysis is given of the T2 term in the resistivity observed in electron-doped SrTiO3. Band-structure data are presented that provide values for the bare mass, density of states, and plasma frequency of the quasiparticles as functions of doping. It is shown that these values are renormalized by approximately a factor of two due to electron-phonon interaction. It is argued that the quasiparticles are in the antiadiabatic limit with respect to electron-phonon interaction. The condition of antiadiabatic coupling renders the interaction mediated through phonons effectively nonretarded. We apply Fermi-liquid theory developed in the 70’s for the T2 term in the resistivity of common metals, and combine this with expressions for Tc and with the Brinkman-Platzman-Rice (BPR) sum rule to obtain Landau parameters of n-type SrTiO3. These parameters are comparable to those of liquid 3He, indicating interesting parallels between these Fermi liquids despite the differences between the composite fermions from which they are formed.

  19. Model-dependent spatial skill in pseudoproxy experiments testing climate field reconstruction methods for the Common Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smerdon, Jason E.; Coats, Sloan; Ault, Toby R.

    2016-03-01

    The spatial skill of four climate field reconstruction (CFR) methods is investigated using pseudoproxy experiments (PPEs) based on five last millennium and historical simulations from the Coupled and Paleo Model Intercomparison Projects Phases 5 and 3 (CMIP5/PMIP3) data archives. These simulations are used for the first time in a PPE context, the frameworks of which are constructed to test a recently assembled multiproxy network and multiple CFR techniques. The experiments confirm earlier findings demonstrating consistent methodological performance across the employed methods and spatially dependent reconstruction errors in all of the derived CFRs. Spectral biases in the reconstructed fields demonstrate that CFR methods can alone alter the ratio of spectral power at all locations in the field, independent of whether there are any spectral biases inherent in the underlying pseudoproxy series. The patterns of spectral biases are model dependent and indicate the potential for regions in the derived CFRs to be biased by changes in either low or high-frequency spectral power. CFR methods are also shown to alter the pattern of mean differences in the tropical Pacific during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, with some model experiments indicating that CFR methodologies enhance the statistical likelihood of achieving larger mean differences between independent 300-year periods in the region. All of the characteristics of CFR performance are model dependent, indicating that CFR methods must be evaluated across multiple models and that conclusions from PPEs should be carefully connected to the spatial statistics of real-world climatic fields.

  20. Anomalous Origin of the Left Common Carotid Artery from the Main Pulmonary Artery: A Rare Association in an Infant with CHARGE Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Blaise; Hirsch, Russel

    2016-01-01

    Case Report. Isolated carotid artery originating from the pulmonary trunk is an exceedingly rare anomalous origin of head and neck vessels. We present this finding, along with a persistent embryonic trigeminal artery, in a male infant with multiple cardiac defects and other congenital anomalies associated with CHARGE syndrome. After extensive investigations, cardiac catheterization revealed the anomalous left common carotid artery arising from the cranial aspect of the main pulmonary artery. There was retrograde flow in this vessel, resulting from the lower pulmonary pressure, essentially stealing arterial supply from the left anterior cerebral circulation. The persistent left-sided trigeminal artery provided collateral flow from the posterior circulation to the left internal carotid artery territory, allowing for safe ligation of the anomalous origin of the left common carotid artery, thereby reversing the steal of arterial blood flow into the pulmonary circulation and resulting in a net improvement of cerebral perfusion. Conclusion. The possibility of this vascular anomaly should be considered in all infants with CHARGE syndrome. Surgical repair or ligation should be tailored to the specific patient circumstances, following a careful delineation of all sources of cerebral perfusion. PMID:27974985

  1. The orbital motion of the quintuplet cluster—a common origin for the arches and quintuplet clusters?

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, A.; Hußmann, B.; Habibi, M.; Morris, M. R.; Ghez, A. M.; Brandner, W.; Lu, J. R.; Clarkson, W. I.; Matthews, K. E-mail: ghez@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: brandner@mpia.de E-mail: wiclarks@umich.edu

    2014-07-10

    We investigate the orbital motion of the Quintuplet cluster near the Galactic center with the aim of constraining formation scenarios of young, massive star clusters in nuclear environments. Three epochs of adaptive optics high-angular resolution imaging with the Keck/NIRC2 and Very Large Telescope/NAOS-CONICA systems were obtained over a time baseline of 5.8 yr, delivering an astrometric accuracy of 0.5-1 mas yr{sup –1}. Proper motions were derived in the cluster reference frame and were used to distinguish cluster members from the majority of the dense field star population toward the inner bulge. Fitting the cluster and field proper motion distributions with two-dimensional (2D) Gaussian models, we derive the orbital motion of the cluster for the first time. The Quintuplet is moving with a 2D velocity of 132 ± 15 km s{sup –1} with respect to the field along the Galactic plane, which yields a three-dimensional orbital velocity of 167 ± 15 km s{sup –1} when combined with the previously known radial velocity. From a sample of 119 stars measured in three epochs, we derive an upper limit to the velocity dispersion of σ{sub 1D} < 10 km s{sup –1} in the core of the Quintuplet cluster. Knowledge of the three velocity components of the Quintuplet allows us to model the cluster orbit in the potential of the inner Galaxy. Under the assumption that the Quintuplet is located in the central 200 pc at the present time, these simulations exclude the possibility that the cluster is moving on a circular orbit. Comparing the Quintuplet's orbit with our earlier measurements of the Arches' orbit, we discuss the possibility that both clusters originated in the same area of the central molecular zone (CMZ). According to the model of Binney et al., two families of stable cloud orbits are located along the major and minor axes of the Galactic bar, named x1 and x2 orbits, respectively. The formation locus of these clusters is consistent with the outermost x2 orbit and might

  2. MgrB Inactivation Is a Common Mechanism of Colistin Resistance in KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae of Clinical Origin

    PubMed Central

    Cannatelli, Antonio; Giani, Tommaso; D'Andrea, Marco Maria; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Arena, Fabio; Conte, Viola; Tryfinopoulou, Kyriaki; Vatopoulos, Alkiviadis

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae strains producing KPC-type carbapenemases (KPC-KP) are challenging multidrug-resistant pathogens due to their extensively drug-resistant phenotypes and potential for epidemic dissemination in health care settings. Colistin is a key component of the combination antimicrobial regimens used for treatment of severe KPC-KP infections. We previously reported that insertional inactivation of the mgrB gene, encoding a negative-feedback regulator of the PhoQ-PhoP signaling system, can be responsible for colistin resistance in KPC-KP, due to the resulting upregulation of the Pmr lipopolysaccharide modification system. In this work we investigated the status of the mgrB gene in a collection of 66 colistin-resistant nonreplicate clinical strains of KPC-KP isolated from different hospitals in Italy and Greece. Overall, 35 strains (53%) exhibited alterations of the mgrB gene, including insertions of different types of mobile elements (IS5-like, IS1F-like, or ISKpn14), nonsilent point mutations, and small intragenic deletions. Four additional strains had a larger deletion of the mgrB locus, while the remaining 27 strains (41%) did not show mgrB alterations. Transcriptional upregulation of the phoQ and pmrK genes (part of the phoPQ and pmrHFIJKLM operon, respectively) was observed in all strains with mgrB alterations. Complementation experiments with a wild-type mgrB gene restored colistin susceptibility and basal expression levels of phoQ and pmrK genes in strains carrying different types of mgrB alterations. The present results suggest that mgrB alteration can be a common mechanism of colistin resistance among KPC-KP in the clinical setting. PMID:25022583

  3. MgrB inactivation is a common mechanism of colistin resistance in KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae of clinical origin.

    PubMed

    Cannatelli, Antonio; Giani, Tommaso; D'Andrea, Marco Maria; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Arena, Fabio; Conte, Viola; Tryfinopoulou, Kyriaki; Vatopoulos, Alkiviadis; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2014-10-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae strains producing KPC-type carbapenemases (KPC-KP) are challenging multidrug-resistant pathogens due to their extensively drug-resistant phenotypes and potential for epidemic dissemination in health care settings. Colistin is a key component of the combination antimicrobial regimens used for treatment of severe KPC-KP infections. We previously reported that insertional inactivation of the mgrB gene, encoding a negative-feedback regulator of the PhoQ-PhoP signaling system, can be responsible for colistin resistance in KPC-KP, due to the resulting upregulation of the Pmr lipopolysaccharide modification system. In this work we investigated the status of the mgrB gene in a collection of 66 colistin-resistant nonreplicate clinical strains of KPC-KP isolated from different hospitals in Italy and Greece. Overall, 35 strains (53%) exhibited alterations of the mgrB gene, including insertions of different types of mobile elements (IS5-like, IS1F-like, or ISKpn14), nonsilent point mutations, and small intragenic deletions. Four additional strains had a larger deletion of the mgrB locus, while the remaining 27 strains (41%) did not show mgrB alterations. Transcriptional upregulation of the phoQ and pmrK genes (part of the phoPQ and pmrHFIJKLM operon, respectively) was observed in all strains with mgrB alterations. Complementation experiments with a wild-type mgrB gene restored colistin susceptibility and basal expression levels of phoQ and pmrK genes in strains carrying different types of mgrB alterations. The present results suggest that mgrB alteration can be a common mechanism of colistin resistance among KPC-KP in the clinical setting.

  4. The Orbital Motion of the Quintuplet Cluster—A Common Origin for the Arches and Quintuplet Clusters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolte, A.; Hußmann, B.; Morris, M. R.; Ghez, A. M.; Brandner, W.; Lu, J. R.; Clarkson, W. I.; Habibi, M.; Matthews, K.

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the orbital motion of the Quintuplet cluster near the Galactic center with the aim of constraining formation scenarios of young, massive star clusters in nuclear environments. Three epochs of adaptive optics high-angular resolution imaging with the Keck/NIRC2 and Very Large Telescope/NAOS-CONICA systems were obtained over a time baseline of 5.8 yr, delivering an astrometric accuracy of 0.5-1 mas yr-1. Proper motions were derived in the cluster reference frame and were used to distinguish cluster members from the majority of the dense field star population toward the inner bulge. Fitting the cluster and field proper motion distributions with two-dimensional (2D) Gaussian models, we derive the orbital motion of the cluster for the first time. The Quintuplet is moving with a 2D velocity of 132 ± 15 km s-1 with respect to the field along the Galactic plane, which yields a three-dimensional orbital velocity of 167 ± 15 km s-1 when combined with the previously known radial velocity. From a sample of 119 stars measured in three epochs, we derive an upper limit to the velocity dispersion of σ1D < 10 km s-1 in the core of the Quintuplet cluster. Knowledge of the three velocity components of the Quintuplet allows us to model the cluster orbit in the potential of the inner Galaxy. Under the assumption that the Quintuplet is located in the central 200 pc at the present time, these simulations exclude the possibility that the cluster is moving on a circular orbit. Comparing the Quintuplet's orbit with our earlier measurements of the Arches' orbit, we discuss the possibility that both clusters originated in the same area of the central molecular zone (CMZ). According to the model of Binney et al., two families of stable cloud orbits are located along the major and minor axes of the Galactic bar, named x1 and x2 orbits, respectively. The formation locus of these clusters is consistent with the outermost x2 orbit and might hint at cloud collisions at the

  5. Selection of soil physical attributes spatially related with the grain yield common bean in Chapadão do Sul, MS, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainardi, J. T.; Jung, L. H.; Correa, A. R.; Pellin, D. M. P.; Souza, B. R. F.; Roque, C. G.; Teixeira, R. B.; Minotto, V.; Montanari, R.

    2012-04-01

    In Brazil, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is in one of the most representative farms, not only by the area under cultivation as well as the value of production. Thus, in the agricultural year 2010/2011, the Foundation of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS) Campus de Chapadão do Sul, we studied the variability and spatial dependence between physical properties of the soil and grain yield common bean under conventional tillage in Oxisol of Chapadão do Sul, Northeast region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We also studied the linear and spatial correlations between these attributes, investigating conditions that provide increased agricultural productivity. For this, the area with the cultivation of common bean under conventional tillage installed a mesh containing 121 sampling points, with spacing of 5.0 x 5.0 m between them, a total area of 1600 m2. The grain yield common bean, with high variability, was found to average national standards. However, variability in soil physical attributes was higher, indicating that conventional tillage is a system that generates the heterogeneity of the environment, and the total porosity at a depth of 0.00 to 0.10 m is the attribute that might explain the average variability of grain yield. Index terms: soil management, conventional tillage, soil physical attributes.

  6. Origin of a common trunk for the inferior phrenic arteries from the right renal artery: a new anatomic vascular variant with clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Topaz, On; Topaz, Allyne; Polkampally, Pritam R; Damiano, Thomas; King, Christopher A

    2010-01-01

    The inferior phrenic arteries constitute a pair of important vessels, supplying multiple organs including the diaphragm, adrenal glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, inferior vena cava, and retroperitoneum. The vast majority (80-90%) of inferior phrenic arteries originate as separate vessels with near equal frequency from either the abdominal aorta or the celiac trunk. Infrequently, the right and left inferior phrenic arteries can arise in the form of a common trunk from the aorta or from the celiac trunk. We herein present three patients with a new anatomic vascular variant: a common trunk of the inferior phrenic arteries arising from the right renal artery. In one case, the left inferior phrenic branch of the common trunk provided collaterals connecting with a supra-diaphragmatic branch of the left internal mammary artery and in another with the lateral wall of the pericardium. Angiographic identification of a common trunk for the inferior phrenic arteries arising from the right renal artery is important for proper diagnosis and clinical management. The presence of this unique vascular variant can impact revascularization of the renal arteries.

  7. Spatial and temporal genetic structure of Symbiodinium populations within a common reef-building coral on the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Howells, Emily J; Willis, Bette L; Bay, Line K; van Oppen, Madeleine J H

    2013-07-01

    The dinoflagellate photosymbiont Symbiodinium plays a fundamental role in defining the physiological tolerances of coral holobionts, but little is known about the dynamics of these endosymbiotic populations on coral reefs. Sparse data indicate that Symbiodinium populations show limited spatial connectivity; however, no studies have investigated temporal dynamics for in hospite Symbiodinium populations following significant mortality and recruitment events in coral populations. We investigated the combined influences of spatial isolation and disturbance on the population dynamics of the generalist Symbiodinium type C2 (ITS1 rDNA) hosted by the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora in the central Great Barrier Reef. Using eight microsatellite markers, we genotyped Symbiodinium in a total of 401 coral colonies, which were sampled from seven sites across a 12-year period including during flood plume-induced coral bleaching. Genetic differentiation of Symbiodinium was greatest within sites, explaining 70-86% of the total genetic variation. An additional 9-27% of variation was explained by significant differentiation of populations among sites separated by 0.4-13 km, which is consistent with low levels of dispersal via water movement and historical disturbance regimes. Sampling year accounted for 6-7% of total genetic variation and was related to significant coral mortality following severe bleaching in 1998 and a cyclone in 2006. Only 3% of the total genetic variation was related to coral bleaching status, reflecting generally small (8%) reductions in allelic diversity within bleached corals. This reduction probably reflected a loss of genotypes in hospite during bleaching, although no site-wide changes in genetic diversity were observed. Combined, our results indicate the importance of disturbance regimes acting together with limited oceanographic transport to determine the genetic composition of Symbiodinium types within reefs.

  8. Context-dependent memory traces in the crab's mushroom bodies: Functional support for a common origin of high-order memory centers.

    PubMed

    Maza, Francisco Javier; Sztarker, Julieta; Shkedy, Avishag; Peszano, Valeria Natacha; Locatelli, Fernando Federico; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2016-12-06

    The hypothesis of a common origin for the high-order memory centers in bilateral animals is based on the evidence that several key features, including gene expression and neuronal network patterns, are shared across several phyla. Central to this hypothesis is the assumption that the arthropods' higher order neuropils of the forebrain [the mushroom bodies (MBs) of insects and the hemiellipsoid bodies (HBs) of crustaceans] are homologous structures. However, even though involvement in memory processes has been repeatedly demonstrated for the MBs, direct proof of such a role in HBs is lacking. Here, through neuroanatomical and immunohistochemical analysis, we identified, in the crab Neohelice granulata, HBs that resemble the calyxless MBs found in several insects. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we revealed training-dependent changes in neuronal responses of vertical and medial lobes of the HBs. These changes were stimulus-specific, and, like in the hippocampus and MBs, the changes reflected the context attribute of the memory trace, which has been envisioned as an essential feature for the HBs. The present study constitutes functional evidence in favor of a role for the HBs in memory processes, and provides key physiological evidence supporting a common origin of the arthropods' high-order memory centers.

  9. Neogene paleogeography provides context for understanding the origin and spatial distribution of cryptic diversity in a widespread Balkan freshwater amphipod

    PubMed Central

    Mamos, Tomasz; Bącela-Spychalska, Karolina; Rewicz, Tomasz; Wattier, Remi A.

    2017-01-01

    species or molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), mostly of Miocene origin. A substantial Pleistocene diversification within-MOTUs was observed in several cases. We evidenced secondary contacts between very divergent MOTUs and introgression of nDNA. The Miocene ancestors could live in either lacustrine or riverine habitats yet their presumed geographic localisations overlapped with those of the Neogene lakes. Several extant riverine populations had Pleistocene lacustrine ancestors. Discussion Neogene divergence of lineages resulting in substantial cryptic diversity may be a common phenomenon in extant freshwater benthic crustaceans occupying areas that were not glaciated during the Pleistocene. Evolution of G. roeselii could be associated with gradual deterioration of the paleolakes. The within-MOTU diversification might be driven by fragmentation of river systems during the Pleistocene. Extant ancient lakes could serve as local microrefugia during that time. PMID:28265503

  10. Identical mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in the gliomatous and the sarcomatous components of gliosarcomas suggest a common origin from glial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Biernat, W.; Aguzzi, A.; Sure, U.

    1995-09-01

    Gliosarcomas are morphologically heterogeneous tumors of the central nervous system composed of gliomatous and sarcomatous components. The histogenesis of the latter is still a matter of debate. As mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene represent an early event in the development of gliomas, we attempted to determine whether both components of gliosarcomas share identical alterations of the p53 gene. Using single-strand conformation analysis (SSCA) and direct DNA sequencing of the p53 gene, we analyzed dissected gliomatous and sarcomatous parts of 12 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gliosarcomas. The two tumors that contained a p53 alteration were found to carry the identical mutation (exon 5; codon 151, CCC {r_arrow} TCC; codon 173, GTG {r_arrow} GTA) in the gliomatous and the sarcomatous components. These findings suggest a common origin of the two cellular components from neoplastic glial cells. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The 89 Ma Tortugal komatiitic suite, Costa Rica: Implications for a common geological origin of the Caribbean and Eastern Pacific region from a mantle plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Denyer, Percy; Sinton, Christopher W.

    1997-05-01

    Komatiites are reported for the first time in the northern part of the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. These rocks, dated at 89.7 ± 1.4 Ma (Turonian) by 40Ar/39Ar methods, occur as a large, elongated (14 km long, 1.5 km wide) N60°W striking body in the ophiolitic Nicoya Complex. These lavas have high MgO (26% 29%), Ni, and Cr, have high CaO/Al2O3 (0.98 1.08) and moderate Al2O3/TiO2 (5.55 8.44) ratios, and are depleted in Al2O3 (4% 5.5%), K2O (0.02% 0.37%), and TiO2 (0.59% 0.9%). Although these lavas are cumulates, their geochemical composition indicates an origin from a primary komatiitic magma, with a melting temperature of 1700 °C at a depth of 150 km. Similarities in the petrology and age (88 90 Ma) of Gorgona, Curaìao, and Nicoya-Tortugal mafic and ultramafic volcanic rocks suggest that these rocks had a common origin. These occurrences suggest a single hotspot center over a large area of the Caribbean and Eastern Pacific Mesozoic region due to a major thermal anomaly in the mantle, such as a hot, rising, convective plume.

  12. Sequence homologies between eukaryotic 5.8S rRNA and the 5' end of prokaryotic 23S rRNa: evidences for a common evolutionary origin.

    PubMed Central

    Jacq, B

    1981-01-01

    The question of the evolutionary origin of eukaryotic 5.8S rRNA was re-examined after the recent publication of the E. coli 23S rRNA sequence (26,40). A region of the 23S RNA located at its 5' end was found to be approximately 50% homologous to four different eukaryotic 5.8S rRNAs. A computer comparison analysis indicates that no other region of the E. coli ribosomal transcription unit (greater than 5 000 nucleotides in length) shares a comparable homology with 5.8S rRNA. Homology between the 5' end of e. coli 23S and four different eukaryotic 5.8S rRNAs falls within the same range as that between E. coli 5S RNA from the same four eukaryotic species. All these data strongly suggest that the 5' end of prokaryotic 23S rRNA and eukaryotic 5.8S RNA have a common evolutionary origin. Secondary structure models are proposed for the 5' region of E. coli 23S RNA. Images PMID:7024907

  13. Mesoamerican origin and pre- and post-columbian expansions of the ranges of Acanthoscelides obtectus say, a cosmopolitan insect pest of the common bean.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Márcia Rodrigues Carvalho; Corrêa, Alberto Soares; de Souza, Giselle Anselmo; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; de Oliveira, Luiz Orlando

    2013-01-01

    An unprecedented global transfer of agricultural resources followed the discovery of the New World; one consequence of this process was that staple food plants of Neotropical origin, such as the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), soon expanded their ranges overseas. Yet many pests and diseases were also transported. Acanthoscelides obtectus is a cosmopolitan seed predator associated with P. vulgaris. Codispersal within the host seed seems to be an important determinant of the ability of A. obtectus to expand its range over long distances. We examined the phylogeographic structure of A. obtectus by (a) sampling three mitochondrial gene sequences (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and the gene that encodes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)) throughout most of the species' range and (b) exploring its late evolutionary history. Our findings indicate a Mesoamerican origin for the current genealogical lineages of A. obtectus. Each of the two major centers of genetic diversity of P. vulgaris (the Andes and Mesoamerica) contains a highly differentiated lineage of the bean beetle. Brazil has two additional, closely related lineages, both of which predate the Andean lineage and have the Mesoamerican lineage as their ancestor. The cosmopolitan distribution of A. obtectus has resulted from recent expansions of the two Brazilian lineages. We present additional evidence for both pre-Columbian and post-Columbian range expansions as likely events that shaped the current distribution of A. obtectus worldwide.

  14. In situ lineage tracking of human prostatic epithelial stem cell fate reveals a common clonal origin for basal and luminal cells.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, John K; Williamson, Stuart C; Greaves, Laura C; Wilson, Laura; Rigas, Anastasia C; Sandher, Raveen; Pickard, Robert S; Robson, Craig N; Turnbull, Douglass M; Taylor, Robert W; Heer, Rakesh

    2011-10-01

    Stem cells accumulate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations resulting in an observable respiratory chain defect in their progeny, allowing the mapping of stem cell fate. There is considerable uncertainty in prostate epithelial biology where both basal and luminal stem cells have been described, and in this study the clonal relationships within the human prostate epithelial cell layers were explored by tracing stem cell fate. Fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed histologically-benign prostate samples from 35 patients were studied using sequential cytochrome c oxidase (COX)/succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme histochemistry and COX subunit I immunofluorescence to identify areas of respiratory chain deficiency; mtDNA mutations were identified by whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of laser-captured areas. We demonstrated that cells with respiratory chain defects due to somatic mtDNA point mutations were present in prostate epithelia and clonally expand in acini. Lineage tracing revealed distinct patterning of stem cell fate with mtDNA mutations spreading throughout the whole acinus or, more commonly, present as mosaic acinar defects. This suggests that individual acini are typically generated from multiple stem cells, and the presence of whole COX-deficient acini suggests that a single stem cell can also generate an entire branching acinar subunit of the gland. Significantly, a common clonal origin for basal, luminal and neuroendocrine cells is demonstrated, helping to resolve a key area of debate in human prostate stem cell biology.

  15. Nano-Sized Secondary Organic Aerosol of Diesel Engine Exhaust Origin Impairs Olfactory-Based Spatial Learning Performance in Preweaning Mice

    PubMed Central

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Kyi-Tha-Thu, Chaw; Moe, Yadanar; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Yanagisawa, Rie; Furuyama, Akiko; Tsukahara, Shinji; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro

    2015-01-01

    The aims of our present study were to establish a novel olfactory-based spatial learning test and to examine the effects of exposure to nano-sized diesel exhaust-origin secondary organic aerosol (SOA), a model environmental pollutant, on the learning performance in preweaning mice. Pregnant BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air, diesel exhaust (DE), or DE-origin SOA (DE-SOA) from gestational day 14 to postnatal day (PND) 10 in exposure chambers. On PND 11, the preweaning mice were examined by the olfactory-based spatial learning test. After completion of the spatial learning test, the hippocampus from each mouse was removed and examined for the expressions of neurological and immunological markers using real-time RT-PCR. In the test phase of the study, the mice exposed to DE or DE-SOA took a longer time to reach the target as compared to the control mice. The expression levels of neurological markers such as the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits NR1 and NR2B, and of immunological markers such as TNF-α, COX2, and Iba1 were significantly increased in the hippocampi of the DE-SOA-exposed preweaning mice as compared to the control mice. Our results indicate that DE-SOA exposure in utero and in the neonatal period may affect the olfactory-based spatial learning behavior in preweaning mice by modulating the expressions of memory function–related pathway genes and inflammatory markers in the hippocampus. PMID:28347057

  16. Origin of complex behaviour of spatially discordant alternans in a transgenic rabbit model of type 2 long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Ohad; Morales, Eduardo; Song, Yoon-kyu; Peng, Xuwen; Odening, Katja E; Buxton, Alfred E; Karma, Alain; Koren, Gideon; Choi, Bum-Rak

    2009-10-01

    Enhanced dispersion of repolarization has been proposed as an important mechanism in long QT related arrhythmias. Dispersion can be dynamic and can be augmented with the occurrence of spatially out-of-phase action potential duration (APD) alternans (discordant alternans; DA). We investigated the role of tissue heterogeneity in generating DA using a novel transgenic rabbit model of type 2 long QT syndrome (LQT2). Littermate control (LMC) and LQT2 rabbit hearts (n = 5 for each) were retrogradely perfused and action potentials were mapped from the epicardial surface using di-4-ANEPPS and a high speed CMOS camera. Spatial dispersion (Delta APD and Delta slope of APD restitution) were both increased in LQT2 compared to LMC (Delta APD: 34 +/- 7 ms vs. 23 +/- 6 ms; Delta slope: 1.14 +/- 0.23 vs. 0.59 +/- 0.19). Onset of DA under a ramp stimulation protocol was seen at longer pacing cycle length (CL) in LQT2 compared to LMC hearts (206 +/- 24 ms vs. 156 +/- 5 ms). Nodal lines between regions with APD alternans out of phase from each other were correlated with conduction velocity (CV) alternation in LMC but not in LQT2 hearts. In LQT2 hearts, larger APD dispersion was associated with onset of DA at longer pacing CL. At shorter CLs, closer to ventricular fibrillation induction (VF), nodal lines in LQT2 (n = 2 out of 5) showed persistent complex beat-to-beat changes in nodal line formation of DA associated with competing contribution from CV restitution and tissue spatial heterogeneity, increasing vulnerability to conduction block. In conclusion, tissue heterogeneity plays a significant role in providing substrate for ventricular arrhythmia in LQT2 rabbits by facilitating DA onset and contributing to unstable nodal lines prone to reentry formation.

  17. Spatially resolved chemical imaging of individual atmospheric particles using nanoscale imaging mass spectrometry: insight into particle origin and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosal, Sutapa; Weber, Peter K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-01-14

    Knowledge of the spatially resolved composition of atmospheric particles is essential for differentiating between their surface versus bulk chemistry and understanding particle reactivity and the potential environmental impact. Here, we demonstrate the application of nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (CAMECA NanoSIMS 50 ion probe) for 3D chemical imaging of individual atmospheric particles without any sample pre-treatment, such as sectioning of particles. Use of NanoSIMS depth profile analysis enables elemental mapping of particles with nanometer spatial resolution over a broad range of particle sizes. We have used this technique to probe the spatially resolved composition of ambient particles collected during a field campaign in Mexico City. Particles collected during this campaign have been extensively characterized in the past using other particle analysis techniques and hence offer a unique opportunity for exploring the utility of depth-resolved chemical imaging in ambient particle research. The particles that we examined in our study include those collected during a pollution episode related to urban waste incineration as well as background particles from the same location before the episode. Particles from the pollution episode show substantial intra-particle compositional variability typical of particles resulting from multiple emission sources. In contrast, the background particles have relatively homogeneous compositions with enhanced presence of nitrogen, oxygen, and chlorine at the particle surface. We also observed the surface enhancement of nitrogen and oxygen species is consistent with the presence of surface nitrates resulting from gas–particle heterogeneous interactions and is indicative of atmospheric ageing of the particles. The results presented here illustrate 3D characterization of ambient particles for insight into their chemical history.

  18. Spatially resolved chemical imaging of individual atmospheric particles using nanoscale imaging mass spectrometry: insight into particle origin and chemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Ghosal, Sutapa; Weber, Peter K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-01-14

    Knowledge of the spatially resolved composition of atmospheric particles is essential for differentiating between their surface versus bulk chemistry and understanding particle reactivity and the potential environmental impact. Here, we demonstrate the application of nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (CAMECA NanoSIMS 50 ion probe) for 3D chemical imaging of individual atmospheric particles without any sample pre-treatment, such as sectioning of particles. Use of NanoSIMS depth profile analysis enables elemental mapping of particles with nanometer spatial resolution over a broad range of particle sizes. We have used this technique to probe the spatially resolved composition of ambient particles collected during amore » field campaign in Mexico City. Particles collected during this campaign have been extensively characterized in the past using other particle analysis techniques and hence offer a unique opportunity for exploring the utility of depth-resolved chemical imaging in ambient particle research. The particles that we examined in our study include those collected during a pollution episode related to urban waste incineration as well as background particles from the same location before the episode. Particles from the pollution episode show substantial intra-particle compositional variability typical of particles resulting from multiple emission sources. In contrast, the background particles have relatively homogeneous compositions with enhanced presence of nitrogen, oxygen, and chlorine at the particle surface. We also observed the surface enhancement of nitrogen and oxygen species is consistent with the presence of surface nitrates resulting from gas–particle heterogeneous interactions and is indicative of atmospheric ageing of the particles. The results presented here illustrate 3D characterization of ambient particles for insight into their chemical history.« less

  19. Spatially resolved chemical imaging of individual atmospheric particles using nanoscale imaging mass spectrometry: Insights into particle origin and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosal, S.; Weber, P. K.; Laskin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of the spatially-resolved composition of atmospheric particles is essential for differentiating between their surface versus bulk chemistry, understanding particle reactivity and the potential environmental impact. We demonstrate the application of nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (Cameca NanoSIMS 50 ion probe) for 3D chemical imaging of individual atmospheric particles without any sample pre-treatment, such as the sectioning of particles. Use of NanoSIMS depth profile analysis enables elemental mapping of particles with nanometer spatial resolution over a broad of range of particle sizes. We have used this technique to probe spatially resolved composition of ambient particles collected during a field campaign in Mexico City. Particles collected during this campaign have been extensively characterized in the past using other particle analysis techniques and hence offer a unique opportunity for exploring the utility of depth resolved chemical imaging in ambient particle research. Particles examined in this study include those collected during a pollution episode related to urban waste incineration as well as background particles from the same location prior to the episode. Particles from the pollution episode show substantial intra-particle compositional variability typical of particles resulting from multiple emission sources. In contrast, the background particles have relatively homogeneous compositions with enhanced presence of nitrogen, oxygen and chlorine at the particle surface. The observed surface enhancement of nitrogen and oxygen species is consistent with the presence of surface nitrates resulting from gas-particle heterogeneous interactions and is indicative of atmospheric ageing of the particles. The results presented here illustrate 3D characterization of ambient particles for insights into their chemical history.

  20. Spatial distribution and origin of coalbed gases at the working faces of the Velenje Coal Basin, Slovenia, since the year 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanduč, Tjaša; Zavšek, Simon; Jamnikar, Sergej; Verbovšek, Timotej

    2016-10-01

    Geochemical and isotopic monitoring of coalbed gases at the excavation fields of mining areas in Velenje Coal Basin, Slovenia, has been ongoing since the year 2000 with the aim of obtaining better insights into the distribution and origin of coalbed gases. Results from the mining areas Pesje and Preloge (active excavation fields) are presented here from the year 2000 up to the present. Composition and origin of coalbed gases were determined using mass spectrometry at the Jožef Stefan Institute. From a larger database of geochemical samples, 119 samples were used for analysis and spatial presentation in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. We have used geochemical (CH4, CO2 and N2) and isotopic (δ13CCO2 and δ13CCH4) tracers for geochemical and isotopic characterisation of coalbed gases from the active excavation fields. Concentrations of CO2 and the carbon dioxide-methane indices in the southern part of the basin are higher than in the northern part of the basin due to the vicinity of the active Šoštanj Fault. The value of δ13CCH4 at the active excavation field indicates a bacterial origin, with values greater than -50‰, and only some boreholes show elevated δ13CCH4 quantities as a consequence of the CO2 reduction process in Velenje Coal Basin. The value of δ13CCO2 indicates the bacterial and endogenic origin of carbon.

  1. Two distinct origins of a common BRCA1 mutation in breast-ovarian cancer families: A genetic study of 15 185delAG-mutation kindreds

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, D.B.; Schultz, D.C.; Godwin, A.K.

    1996-06-01

    We screened 163 women from breast-ovarian cancer-prone families, as well as 178 individuals affected with breast and/or ovarian cancer but unselected for family history, for germ-line mutations in exon 2 of BRCA1, by SSCP analysis and direct sequencing. A total of 25 mutations were detected. Thirteen of 64 Jewish Ashkenazi women and 2 non-Jewish individuals were found to possess the 185delAG mutation. Haplotype data for all 15 individuals, with markers intragenic to BRCA1, suggest that the Jewish Ashkenazi individuals share a common ancestry that is distinct from the lineage shared by the other two women. These data provide the first evidence of two distinct lines of transmission for the 185delAG mutation, only one of which has its origins in the Jewish Ashkenazi population. Our screening also uncovered 10 affected individuals with an 11-bp deletion at nucleotide 188 of BRCA1 (188del11), 4 of whom are Ashkenazi Jews. This is only the third reported mutation detected within the Jewish Ashkenazi population and may represent the second most common alteration in BRCA1 found in Ashkenazi Jews in the United States. The observed overrepresentation of specific mutations within a subgroup of the general population may eventually contribute to the development of inexpensive and routine tests for BRCA1 mutations, as well as to the elucidation of other contributory factors (e.g., diet, environment, and chemical exposures) that may play a key role in cancer initiation and development. The implications of the mutational data, as well as the role that founder effect, demographic history, and penetrance play in the resulting observed phenomena, are discussed. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Two distinct origins of a common BRCA1 mutation in breast-ovarian cancer families: a genetic study of 15 185delAG-mutation kindreds.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, D. B.; Wagner-Costalas, J.; Schultz, D. C.; Lynch, H. T.; Daly, M.; Godwin, A. K.

    1996-01-01

    We screened 163 women from breast-ovarian cancer-prone families, as well as 178 individuals affected with breast and/or ovarian cancer but unselected for family history, for germ-line mutations in exon 2 of BRCA1, by SSCP analysis and direct sequencing. A total of 25 mutations were detected. Thirteen of 64 Jewish Ashkenazi women and 2 non-Jewish individuals were found to possess the 185delAG mutation. Haplotype data for all 15 individuals, with markers intragenic to BRCA1, suggest that the Jewish Ashkenazi individuals share a common ancestry that is distinct from the lineage shared by the other two women. These data provide the first evidence of two distinct lines of transmission for the 185delAG mutation, only one of which has its origins in the Jewish Ashkenazi population. Our screening also uncovered 10 affected individuals with an 11-bp deletion at nucleotide 188 of BRCA1 (188del11), 4 of whom are Ashkenazi Jews. This is only the third reported mutation detected within the Jewish Ashkenazi population and may represent the second most common alteration in BRCA1 found in Ashkenazi Jews in the United States. The observed overrepresentation of specific mutations within a subgroup of the general population may eventually contribute to the development of inexpensive and routine tests for BRCA1 mutations, as well as to the elucidation of other contributory factors (e.g., diet, environment, and chemical exposures) that may play a key role in cancer initiation and development. The implications of the mutational data, as well as the role that founder effect, demographic history, and penetrance play in the resulting observed phenomena, are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8651293

  3. A common origin of complex life cycles in parasitic flatworms: evidence from the complete mitochondrial genome of Microcotyle sebastis (Monogenea: Platyhelminthes)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joong-Ki; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Kang, Seokha; Kim, Won; Eom, Keeseon S; Littlewood, DTJ

    2007-01-01

    Background The parasitic Platyhelminthes (Neodermata) contains three parasitic groups of flatworms, each having a unique morphology, and life style: Monogenea (primarily ectoparasitic), Trematoda (endoparasitic flukes), and Cestoda (endoparasitic tapeworms). The evolutionary origin of complex life cyles (multiple obligate hosts, as found in Trematoda and Cestoda) and of endo-/ecto-parasitism in these groups is still under debate and these questions can be resolved, only if the phylogenetic position of the Monogenea within the Neodermata clade is correctly estimated. Results To test the interrelationships of the major parasitic flatworm groups, we estimated the phylogeny of the Neodermata using complete available mitochondrial genome sequences and a newly characterized sequence of a polyopisthocotylean monogenean Microcotyle sebastis. Comparisons of inferred amino acid sequences and gene arrangement patterns with other published flatworm mtDNAs indicate Monogenea are sister group to a clade of Trematoda+Cestoda. Conclusion Results confirm that vertebrates were the first host for stem group neodermatans and that the addition of a second, invertebrate, host was a single event occurring in the Trematoda+Cestoda lineage. In other words, the move from direct life cycles with one host to complex life cycles with multiple hosts was a single evolutionary event. In association with the evolution of life cycle patterns, our result supports the hypothesis that the most recent common ancestor of the Neodermata giving rise to the Monogenea adopted vertebrate ectoparasitism as its initial life cycle pattern and that the intermediate hosts of the Trematoda (molluscs) and Cestoda (crustaceans) were subsequently added into the endoparasitic life cycles of the Trematoda+Cestoda clade after the common ancestor of these branched off from the monogenean lineage. Complex life cycles, involving one or more intermediate hosts, arose through the addition of intermediate hosts and not the

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of spring virema of carp virus reveals distinct subgroups with common origins for recent isolates in North America and the UK.

    PubMed

    Miller, O; Fuller, F J; Gebreyes, W A; Lewbart, G A; Shchelkunov, I S; Shivappa, R B; Joiner, C; Woolford, G; Stone, D M; Dixon, P F; Raley, M E; Levine, J F

    2007-07-16

    Genetic relationships between 35 spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) genogroup Ia isolates were determined based on the nucleotide sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene and glycoprotein (G) genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on P gene sequences revealed 2 distinct subgroups within SVCV genogroup Ia, designated SVCV Iai and Iaii, and suggests at least 2 independent introductions of the virus into the USA in 2002. Combined P- and G-sequence data support the emergence of SVCV in Illinois, USA, and in Lake Ontario, Canada, from the initial outbreak in Wisconsin, USA, and demonstrate a close genetic link to viruses isolated during routine import checks on fish brought into the UK from Asia. The data also showed a genetic link between SVCV isolations made in Missouri and Washington, USA, in 2004 and the earlier isolation made in North Carolina, USA, in 2002. However, based on the close relationship to a 2004 UK isolate, the data suggest than the Washington isolate represents a third introduction into the US from a common source, rather than a reemergence from the 2002 isolate. There was strong phylogenetic support for an Asian origin for 9 of 16 UK viruses isolated either from imported fish, or shown to have been in direct contact with fish imported from Asia. In one case, there was 100% nucleotide identity in the G-gene with a virus isolated in China.

  5. Hopkins-Skellam index and origin of spatial regularity in InAs quantum dot formation on GaAs(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Konishi, Tomoya Tsukamoto, Shiro; Bell, Gavin R.

    2015-04-14

    We investigate the origin of the spatial regularity of arrays of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on GaAs(001). The Hopkins-Skellam index (HSI) is used with a newly developed calculation algorithm to quantify the spatial regularity both of QDs and of nm-sized surface reconstruction territories (SRTs) present in the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As wetting layer prior to QD nucleation. The SRT is the minimum extent of a surface reconstruction region needed for one QD to nucleate. By computing the evolving HSI of SRTs from sequences of in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy images during growth, we find that the spatial regularity of QDs is traced back to that of the (n × 3) SRTs as early as 0.6 monolayers of InAs coverage. This regularity is disturbed by the (n × 4) SRTs which appear at higher coverage. The SRT approach is discussed in comparison to conventional capture zone theories of surface growth.

  6. Origin of Sulfur in Diet Drives Spatial and Temporal Mercury Trends in Seabird Eggs From Pacific Canada 1968-2015.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kyle H; Elliott, John E

    2016-12-20

    Mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin that can be particularly harmful to top predators because it biomagnifies through the food web. Due to variation in the food web structure, variation in Hg exposure in predators may represent variation in diet rather than Hg availability. We measured Hg in eggs from six seabird species (N = 537) over 47 years. In contrast to expectation, storm-petrels feeding partially on invertebrates had the highest Hg burden while herons feeding on large fish had the lowest Hg burden. A multiple regression showed that Hg correlated with δ(34)S (R(2) = 0.86) rather than trophic level (δ(15)N of "trophic" amino acids). Sulfate-rich environments (high δ(34)S) have sulfate-reducing bacteria that produce methylmercury. Variation in Hg within and among seabirds near the top of the food web was associated with variation in δ(34)S at the base of the food web more so than trophic position within the food web. Hg levels in seabirds only changed over time for those species where δ(34)S also varied in tandem; after accounting for diet (δ(34)S), there was no variation in Hg levels. Variation in Hg in seabirds across space and time was associated with the origin of sulfur in the diet.

  7. Spatial Variation in the Origin of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Snow on the Juneau Icefield, Southeast Alaska.

    PubMed

    Fellman, Jason B; Hood, Eran; Raymond, Peter A; Stubbins, Aron; Spencer, Robert G M

    2015-10-06

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays a fundamental role in the biogeochemistry of glacier ecosystems. However, the specific sources of glacier DOC remain unresolved. To assess the origin and nature of glacier DOC, we collected snow from 10 locations along a transect across the Juneau Icefield, Alaska extending from the coast toward the interior. The Δ(14)C-DOC of snow varied from -743 to -420‰ showing progressive depletion across the Icefield as δ(18)O of water became more depleted (R(2) = 0.56). Older DOC corresponded to lower DOC concentrations in snow (R(2) = 0.31) and a decrease in percent humic-like fluorescence (R(2) = 0.36), indicating an overall decrease in modern DOC across the Icefield. Carbon isotopic signatures ((13)C and (14)C) combined with a three-source mixing model showed that DOC deposited in snow across the Icefield reflects fossil fuel combustion products (43-73%) and to a lesser extent marine (21-41%) and terrestrial sources (1-26%). Our finding that combustion aerosols are a large source of DOC to the glacier ecosystem during the early spring (April-May) together with the pronounced rates of glacier melting in the region suggests that the delivery of relic DOC to the ocean may be increasing and consequently impacting the biogeochemistry of glacial and proglacial ecosystems in unanticipated ways.

  8. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Deus, E. G.; Godoy, W. A. C.; Sousa, M. S. M.; Lopes, G. N.; Jesus-Barros, C. R.; Silva, J. G.; Adaime, R.

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae. The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. PMID:27638949

  9. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon.

    PubMed

    Deus, E G; Godoy, W A C; Sousa, M S M; Lopes, G N; Jesus-Barros, C R; Silva, J G; Adaime, R

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement.

  10. High spatial and temporal resolution observations of pulsatile changes in blood echogenicity in the common carotid artery of rats.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Bok, Tae-Hoon; Kong, Qi; Paeng, Dong-Guk

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have found that ultrasound backscatter from blood in vascular flow systems varies under pulsatile flow, with the maximum values occurring during the systolic period. This phenomenon is of particular interest in hemorheology because it is contrary to the well-known fact that red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, which determines the intensity of ultrasound backscatter from blood, decreases at a high systolic shear rate. In the present study, a rat model was used to provide basic information on the characteristics of blood echogenicity in arterial blood flow to investigate the phenomenon of RBC aggregation under pulsatile flow. Blood echogenicity in the common carotid arteries of rats was measured using a high-frequency ultrasound imaging system with a 40-MHz probe. The electrocardiography-based kilohertz visualization reconstruction technique was employed to obtain high-temporal-resolution and high-spatial-resolution time-course B-mode cross-sectional and longitudinal images of the vessel. The experimental results indicate that blood echogenicity in rat carotid arteries varies during a cardiac cycle. Blood echogenicity tends to decrease during early systole and reaches its peak during late systole, followed by a slow decline thereafter. The time delay of the echogenicity peak from peak systole in the present results is the main difference from previous in vitro and in vivo observations of backscattering peaks during early systole, which may be caused by the very rapid heart rates and low RBC aggregation tendency of rats compared with humans and other mammalian species. The present study may provide useful information elucidating the characteristics of RBC aggregation in arterial blood flow.

  11. Fast and Furious: Shock Heated Gas as the Origin of Spatially Resolved Hard X-Ray Emission in the Central 5 kpc of the Galaxy Merger NGC 6240

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Nardini, Emanuele; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Karovska, Margarita; Elvis, Martin; Pellegrini, Silvia; Max, Claire; Risaliti, Guido; U, Vivian; Zezas, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained a deep, subarcsecond resolution X-ray image of the nuclear region of the luminous galaxy merger NGC 6240 with Chandra, which resolves the X-ray emission from the pair of active nuclei and the diffuse hot gas in great detail. We detect extended hard X-ray emission from kT ~ 6 keV (~70 MK) hot gas over a spatial scale of 5 kpc, indicating the presence of fast shocks with a velocity of ~2200 km s-1. For the first time, we obtain the spatial distribution of this highly ionized gas emitting Fe XXV, which shows a remarkable correspondence to the large-scale morphology of H2(1-0) S(1) line emission and Hα filaments. Propagation of fast shocks originating in the starburst-driven wind into the ambient dense gas can account for this morphological correspondence. With an observed L 0.5-8 keV = 5.3 × 1041 erg s-1, the diffuse hard X-ray emission is ~100 times more luminous than that observed in the classic starburst galaxy M82. Assuming a filling factor of 1% for the 70 MK temperature gas, we estimate its total mass (M hot = 1.8 × 108 M ⊙) and thermal energy (E th = 6.5 × 1057 erg). The total iron mass in the highly ionized plasma is M Fe = 4.6 × 105 M ⊙. Both the energetics and the iron mass in the hot gas are consistent with the expected injection from the supernovae explosion during the starburst that is commensurate with its high star formation rate. No evidence for fluorescent Fe I emission is found in the CO filament connecting the two nuclei.

  12. Fast and Furious: Shock heated gas as the origin of spatially resolved hard X-ray emission in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy merger NGC 6240

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Junfeng; Nardini, Emanuele; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Karovska, Margarita; Elvis, Martin; Risaliti, Guido; Zezas, Andreas; Pellegrini, Silvia; Max, Claire; U, Vivian

    2014-01-20

    We have obtained a deep, subarcsecond resolution X-ray image of the nuclear region of the luminous galaxy merger NGC 6240 with Chandra, which resolves the X-ray emission from the pair of active nuclei and the diffuse hot gas in great detail. We detect extended hard X-ray emission from kT ∼ 6 keV (∼70 MK) hot gas over a spatial scale of 5 kpc, indicating the presence of fast shocks with a velocity of ∼2200 km s{sup –1}. For the first time, we obtain the spatial distribution of this highly ionized gas emitting Fe XXV, which shows a remarkable correspondence to the large-scale morphology of H{sub 2}(1-0) S(1) line emission and Hα filaments. Propagation of fast shocks originating in the starburst-driven wind into the ambient dense gas can account for this morphological correspondence. With an observed L {sub 0.5-8} {sub keV} = 5.3 × 10{sup 41} erg s{sup –1}, the diffuse hard X-ray emission is ∼100 times more luminous than that observed in the classic starburst galaxy M82. Assuming a filling factor of 1% for the 70 MK temperature gas, we estimate its total mass (M {sub hot} = 1.8 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}) and thermal energy (E {sub th} = 6.5 × 10{sup 57} erg). The total iron mass in the highly ionized plasma is M {sub Fe} = 4.6 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. Both the energetics and the iron mass in the hot gas are consistent with the expected injection from the supernovae explosion during the starburst that is commensurate with its high star formation rate. No evidence for fluorescent Fe I emission is found in the CO filament connecting the two nuclei.

  13. Sequence similarities of the capsid gene of Chilean and European isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus point towards a common origin.

    PubMed

    Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein

    2011-07-01

    The Chilean salmonid industry was developed by importing breeding materials, a practice still in effect due to deficits in the national supply of roe. Importation of breeding materials is often associated with the transmission of pathogens. The objectives of this study were to compare the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) isolates from Chile to those of European origin and to determine the diversity of the Chilean IPNV. The VP2 genes of IPNV from Chilean fish (whose eggs originated from Scotland, Iceland and Norway) were compared to isolates from fish in Norway and Ireland. The results show that the isolates are identical (97-99%) and cluster into one genogroup. Our findings support previous reports of association between the trade-in breeding materials and transmission of pathogens. Furthermore, our results demonstrate the genotypic diversity of Chilean IPNV isolates. These findings have important implications for IPNV disease diagnosis and control in Chile.

  14. Haplotype variation of Glu-D1 locus and the origin of Glu-D1d allele conferring superior end-use qualities in common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In common wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD), the Glu-D1 locus possesses multiple alleles, with Glu-D1a (coding for 1Dx2 and 1Dy12 subunits) and Glu-D1d (encoding 1Dx5 and 1Dy10 subunits) being intensively used in the genetic improvement of end-use qualities. Here, we studied the molecular variatio...

  15. Management of the accessory or replaced right hepatic artery (A/R RHA) during multiorgan retrieval when the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery shares a common origin with A/R RHA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Li, J; Qi, H

    2013-01-01

    The accessory or replaced right hepatic artery (A/R RHA), which arises from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), represents a challenge to the surgeon during combined procurement of liver and whole pancreas allografts. We have herein described an angiographic investigation of this aberrant artery among 553 patients who underwent angiography of both the celiac axis and SMA trunks to measure the diameters of the arteries to be anastomosed as well as to clarify the locational relationship between the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (IPDA) and A/R RHA. Sixty-nine (12.5%) of 553 patients had an unambiguous site of the A/R RHA. In 6 patients the IPDA was not visible. We separated the remaining 63 patients into 2 groups: group A whose A/R RHA shared a common origin with IPDA, and group B whose A/R RHA had a noncommon origin with IPDA. Fifteen (23.8%) of these 63 patients had a common origin of IPDA and A/R RHA. The results showed that the diameters of A/R RHA and gastroduodenal artery (GDA) were matched in both groups whether or not the IPDA shared a common origin with A/R RHA. The similar vascular diameters between A/R RHA and GDA in these 2 groups simplified the anastomosis, but management of the A/R RHA with different locational relationships between the IPDA and A/R RHA remains a problem. We recommend a safe method to be applied to all donors with an A/R RHA regardless of the origin of the IPDA.

  16. The Temporal Context Model in Spatial Navigation and Relational Learning: Toward a Common Explanation of Medial Temporal Lobe Function Across Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Marc W.; Fotedar, Mrigankka S.; Datey, Aditya V.; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) has been studied extensively at all levels of analysis, yet its function remains unclear. Theory regarding the cognitive function of the MTL has centered along 3 themes. Different authors have emphasized the role of the MTL in episodic recall, spatial navigation, or relational memory. Starting with the temporal…

  17. On the tool use behavior of the bonobo-chimpanzee last common ancestor, and the origins of hominine stone tool use.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The last common ancestor (LCA) shared by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus) was an Early Pleistocene African ape, which, based on the behavior of modern chimpanzees, may be assumed to be a tool-using animal. However, the character of tool use in the Pan lineage prior to the 20th century is largely unknown. Here, I use available data on wild bonobo tool use and emerging molecular estimates of demography during Pan evolution to hypothesise the plausible tool use behavior of the bonobo-chimpanzee LCA (or "Pancestor") at the start of the Pleistocene, over 2 million years ago. This method indicates that the common ancestor of living Pan apes likely used plant tools for probing, sponging, and display, but it did not use stone tools. Instead, stone tool use appears to have been independently invented by Western African chimpanzees (P. t. verus) during the Middle Pleistocene in the region of modern Liberia-Ivory Coast-Guinea, possibly as recently as 200,000-150,000 years ago. If this is the case, then the LCA of humans and chimpanzees likely also did not use stone tools, and this trait probably first emerged among hominins in Pliocene East Africa. This review also suggests that the consistently higher population sizes of Central African chimpanzees (P. t. troglodytes) over the past million years may have contributed to the increased complexity of wild tool use seen in this sub-species today.

  18. The systematic profiling of false identity documents: method validation and performance evaluation using seizures known to originate from common and different sources.

    PubMed

    Baechler, Simon; Terrasse, Vincent; Pujol, Jean-Philippe; Fritz, Thibaud; Ribaux, Olivier; Margot, Pierre

    2013-10-10

    False identity documents constitute a potential powerful source of forensic intelligence because they are essential elements of transnational crime and provide cover for organized crime. In previous work, a systematic profiling method using false documents' visual features has been built within a forensic intelligence model. In the current study, the comparison process and metrics lying at the heart of this profiling method are described and evaluated. This evaluation takes advantage of 347 false identity documents of four different types seized in two countries whose sources were known to be common or different (following police investigations and dismantling of counterfeit factories). Intra-source and inter-sources variations were evaluated through the computation of more than 7500 similarity scores. The profiling method could thus be validated and its performance assessed using two complementary approaches to measuring type I and type II error rates: a binary classification and the computation of likelihood ratios. Very low error rates were measured across the four document types, demonstrating the validity and robustness of the method to link documents to a common source or to differentiate them. These results pave the way for an operational implementation of a systematic profiling process integrated in a developed forensic intelligence model.

  19. Evolution in biosynthetic pathways: two enzymes catalyzing consecutive steps in methionine biosynthesis originate from a common ancestor and possess a similar regulatory region.

    PubMed

    Belfaiza, J; Parsot, C; Martel, A; de la Tour, C B; Margarita, D; Cohen, G N; Saint-Girons, I

    1986-02-01

    The metC gene of Escherichia coli K-12 was cloned and the nucleotide sequence of the metC gene and its flanking regions was determined. The translation initiation codon was identified by sequencing the NH2-terminal part of beta-cystathionase, the MetC gene product. The metC gene (1185 nucleotides) encodes a protein having 395 amino acid residues. The 5' noncoding region was found to contain a "Met box" homologous to sequences suggestive of operator structures upstream from other methionine genes that are controlled by the product of the pleiotropic regulatory metJ gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of beta-cystathionase showed extensive homology with that of the MetB protein (cystathionine gamma-synthase) that catalyzes the preceding step in methionine biosynthesis. The homology strongly suggests that the structural genes for the MetB and MetC proteins evolved from a common ancestral gene.

  20. An USH2A founder mutation is the major cause of Usher syndrome type 2 in Canadians of French origin and confirms common roots of Quebecois and Acadians

    PubMed Central

    Ebermann, Inga; Koenekoop, Robert K; Lopez, Irma; Bou-Khzam, Lara; Pigeon, Renée; Bolz, Hanno J

    2009-01-01

    Congenital hearing loss affects approximately one child in 1000. About 10% of the deaf population have Usher syndrome (USH). In USH, hearing loss is complicated by retinal degeneration with onset in the first (USH1) or second (USH2) decade. In most populations, diagnostic testing is hampered by a multitude of mutations in nine genes. We have recently shown that in French Canadians from Quebec, USH1 largely results from a single USH1C founder mutation, c.216G>A (‘Acadian allele'). The genetic basis of USH2 in Canadians of French descent, however, has remained elusive. Here, we have investigated nine USH2 families from Quebec and New Brunswick (the former Acadia) by haplotype analyses of the USH2A locus and sequencing of the three known USH2 genes. Seven USH2A mutations were identified in eight patients. One of them, c.4338_4339delCT, accounts for 10 out of 18 disease alleles (55.6%). This mutation has previously been reported in an Acadian USH2 family, and it was found in homozygous state in the three Acadians of our sample. As in the case of c.216G>A (USH1C), a common haplotype is associated with c.4338_4339delCT. With a limited number of molecular tests, it will now be possible in these populations to estimate whether children with congenital hearing impairment of different degrees will develop retinal disease – with important clinical and therapeutic implications. USH2 is the second example that reveals a significant genetic overlap between Quebecois and Acadians: in contrast to current understanding, other genetic disorders present in both populations are likely based on common founder mutations as well. PMID:18665195

  1. Bioenergetics in human evolution and disease: implications for the origins of biological complexity and the missing genetic variation of common diseases.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Douglas C

    2013-07-19

    Two major inconsistencies exist in the current neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory that random chromosomal mutations acted on by natural selection generate new species. First, natural selection does not require the evolution of ever increasing complexity, yet this is the hallmark of biology. Second, human chromosomal DNA sequence variation is predominantly either neutral or deleterious and is insufficient to provide the variation required for speciation or for predilection to common diseases. Complexity is explained by the continuous flow of energy through the biosphere that drives the accumulation of nucleic acids and information. Information then encodes complex forms. In animals, energy flow is primarily mediated by mitochondria whose maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) codes for key genes for energy metabolism. In mammals, the mtDNA has a very high mutation rate, but the deleterious mutations are removed by an ovarian selection system. Hence, new mutations that subtly alter energy metabolism are continuously introduced into the species, permitting adaptation to regional differences in energy environments. Therefore, the most phenotypically significant gene variants arise in the mtDNA, are regional, and permit animals to occupy peripheral energy environments where rarer nuclear DNA (nDNA) variants can accumulate, leading to speciation. The neutralist-selectionist debate is then a consequence of mammals having two different evolutionary strategies: a fast mtDNA strategy for intra-specific radiation and a slow nDNA strategy for speciation. Furthermore, the missing genetic variation for common human diseases is primarily mtDNA variation plus regional nDNA variants, both of which have been missed by large, inter-population association studies.

  2. Bioenergetics in human evolution and disease: implications for the origins of biological complexity and the missing genetic variation of common diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Two major inconsistencies exist in the current neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory that random chromosomal mutations acted on by natural selection generate new species. First, natural selection does not require the evolution of ever increasing complexity, yet this is the hallmark of biology. Second, human chromosomal DNA sequence variation is predominantly either neutral or deleterious and is insufficient to provide the variation required for speciation or for predilection to common diseases. Complexity is explained by the continuous flow of energy through the biosphere that drives the accumulation of nucleic acids and information. Information then encodes complex forms. In animals, energy flow is primarily mediated by mitochondria whose maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) codes for key genes for energy metabolism. In mammals, the mtDNA has a very high mutation rate, but the deleterious mutations are removed by an ovarian selection system. Hence, new mutations that subtly alter energy metabolism are continuously introduced into the species, permitting adaptation to regional differences in energy environments. Therefore, the most phenotypically significant gene variants arise in the mtDNA, are regional, and permit animals to occupy peripheral energy environments where rarer nuclear DNA (nDNA) variants can accumulate, leading to speciation. The neutralist–selectionist debate is then a consequence of mammals having two different evolutionary strategies: a fast mtDNA strategy for intra-specific radiation and a slow nDNA strategy for speciation. Furthermore, the missing genetic variation for common human diseases is primarily mtDNA variation plus regional nDNA variants, both of which have been missed by large, inter-population association studies. PMID:23754818

  3. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses of an adenovirus isolated from a corn snake (Elaphe guttata) imply a common origin with members of the proposed new genus Atadenovirus.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Szilvia L; Benko, Mária; Elo, Péter; Ursu, Krisztina; Dán, Adám; Ahne, Winfried; Harrach, Balázs

    2002-10-01

    Approximately 60% of the genome of an adenovirus isolated from a corn snake (Elaphe guttata) was cloned and sequenced. The results of homology searches showed that the genes of the corn snake adenovirus (SnAdV-1) were closest to their counterparts in members of the recently proposed new genus ATADENOVIRUS: In phylogenetic analyses of the complete hexon and protease genes, SnAdV-1 indeed clustered together with the atadenoviruses. The characteristic features in the genome organization of SnAdV-1 included the presence of a gene homologous to that for protein p32K, the lack of structural proteins V and IX and the absence of homologues of the E1A and E3 regions. These characteristics are in accordance with the genus-defining markers of atadenoviruses. Comparison of the cleavage sites of the viral protease in core protein pVII also confirmed SnAdV-1 as a candidate member of the genus ATADENOVIRUS: Thus, the hypothesis on the possible reptilian origin of atadenoviruses (Harrach, Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 48, 484-490, 2000) seems to be supported. However, the base composition of DNA sequence (>18 kb) determined from the SnAdV-1 genome showed an equilibrated GC content of 51%, which is unusual for an atadenovirus.

  4. Evidence for a Common Origin of Blacksmiths and Cultivators in the Ethiopian Ari within the Last 4500 Years: Lessons for Clustering-Based Inference

    PubMed Central

    van Dorp, Lucy; Balding, David; Myers, Simon; Pagani, Luca; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Bekele, Endashaw; Tarekegn, Ayele; Thomas, Mark G.; Bradman, Neil; Hellenthal, Garrett

    2015-01-01

    The Ari peoples of Ethiopia are comprised of different occupational groups that can be distinguished genetically, with Ari Cultivators and the socially marginalised Ari Blacksmiths recently shown to have a similar level of genetic differentiation between them (F ST ≈ 0.023 − 0.04) as that observed among multiple ethnic groups sampled throughout Ethiopia. Anthropologists have proposed two competing theories to explain the origins of the Ari Blacksmiths as (i) remnants of a population that inhabited Ethiopia prior to the arrival of agriculturists (e.g. Cultivators), or (ii) relatively recently related to the Cultivators but presently marginalized in the community due to their trade. Two recent studies by different groups analysed genome-wide DNA from samples of Ari Blacksmiths and Cultivators and suggested that genetic patterns between the two groups were more consistent with model (i) and subsequent assimilation of the indigenous peoples into the expanding agriculturalist community. We analysed the same samples using approaches designed to attenuate signals of genetic differentiation that are attributable to allelic drift within a population. By doing so, we provide evidence that the genetic differences between Ari Blacksmiths and Cultivators can be entirely explained by bottleneck effects consistent with hypothesis (ii). This finding serves as both a cautionary tale about interpreting results from unsupervised clustering algorithms, and suggests that social constructions are contributing directly to genetic differentiation over a relatively short time period among previously genetically similar groups. PMID:26291793

  5. Recognizing the Common Origins of Dystonia and the Development of Human Movement: A Manifesto of Unmet Needs in Isolated Childhood Dystonias

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jean-Pierre; Nardocci, Nardo

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia in childhood may be severely disabling and often unremitting and unrecognized. Considered a rare disorder, dystonic symptoms in childhood are pervasive in many conditions including disorders of developmental delay, cerebral palsy (CP), autism, neurometabolic, neuroinflammatory, and neurogenetic disorders. Collectively, there is a need to recognize the role of early postures and movements which characterize phases of normal fetal, infant, and child development as a backdrop to the many facets of dystonia in early childhood neurological disorders and to be aware of the developmental context of dystonic symptoms. The role of cocontraction is explored throughout infancy, childhood, young adulthood, and in the elderly. Under-recognition of pervasive dystonic disorders of childhood, including within CP is reviewed. Original descriptions of CP by Gowers are reviewed and contemporary physiological demonstrations are used to illustrate support for an interpretation of the tonic labyrinthine response as a manifestation of dystonia. Early recognition and molecular diagnosis of childhood dystonia where possible are desirable for appropriate clinical stratification and future precision medicine and functional neurosurgery where appropriate. A developmental neurobiological perspective could also be useful in exploring new clinical strategies for adult-onset dystonia disorders focusing on environmental and molecular interactions and systems behaviors. PMID:28066314

  6. Prevalence gradients of Friedreich's ataxia and R1b haplotype in Europe co-localize, suggesting a common Palaeolithic origin in the Franco-Cantabrian ice age refuge.

    PubMed

    Vankan, Pierre

    2013-08-01

    Combining data from epidemiological studies in Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA) and patient organization membership lists, shows that FRDA prevalence exhibits large regional differences in Europe with a prevalence gradient from west to east. Highest levels are observed in northern Spain, south of France and Ireland, lowest levels in Scandinavia and Russia. The observed distribution of FRDA in Europe co-localizes with the gradient of the chromosomal R1b marker as detected within west Europe. This gradient is either derived from Palaeolithic migrations out of the Franco-Cantabrian Ice age refuge or from Neolithic migrations entering west Europe with the advance of agriculture. FRDA prevalence may have been increased in this population anytime after its separation from the closely related R1a carrying group. East European populations with a high frequency of the R1a marker show 10 fold lower prevalence of FRDA, indicating that the FRDA mutation was present in the common ancestor and was increased in the R1b carrying group. The FRDA carrying population went through a Palaeolithic population bottleneck supporting the view that the observed FRDA distribution and potentially the R1b distribution are derived from Palaeolithic migrations out of the Franco-Cantabrian ice age refuge.

  7. The Origin of the Common Yearly Counting in the Julian and Gregorian Calendar with Special Attention to the Ancient Astronomy and World View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothwangl, Sepp

    Because of a new consideration and recently revealed new facts and documents it is maintained that Dionysius Exiguus fixed the common Christian yearly count with the aim to mark the begin and end of the age of Pisces. By incorporating of three factors, he precalculated the conjunction of all naked eye planets including Sun and Moon of May 2000. He figured it out with the help of so called eternal planet boards and a ``plotting year calculation'' (Zieljahrberechnung). Then he determined the year 1 A. D. exactly 1999 years before it, due the medieval assumed constant of precession, (66 2/3 years each degree), that was base of calculation of later Arabian and Persian astronomers. Thus he linked the ``Platonic Year'' with the ``Greatest Year''. He did this in order to fulfil the Christian belief of the return of the Lord during a planetary position which is equivalent to the Greek Symposium or the start of the Kali Yuga, calculated by the Indian astronomer Aryabhata. For both calculations actually the alignment of all planets of year 531 CE was the base. In his late antique religious and astronomical world view Dionysius determined the yearly counting such a way, that the year 2000 (2nd millennium) of his count should mark the end of the age of Pisces (ICHTHYS) and the religiously prophesied Christian end time.

  8. Comet 17P/Holmes: originally widely spreading dust particles from the 2007 explosion converge into an observable dust trail near the common nodes of the meteoroids' orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyytinen, Esko; Nissinen, Markku; Lehto, Harry J.

    2013-06-01

    Meteoroids were ejected in the 2007 explosion of comet 17P/Holmes. They experienced a spread into elliptic orbits around the Sun. The cloud widened and apparently vanished altogether. We have now re-discovered this swarm of meteoroids. At exactly the opposite side of the Sun, the meteoroids converge again around the mutual node of the orbits (where the orbital planes cross each other). Later the particles re-converge at the original explosion site, all passing through the ``point of explosion''. Because of differences in the orbits this passage through the convergence point lasts for quite a while, maybe around two years. In spite of the long duration, the increase in surface brightness around these regions is expected to be enough to be observable in visible light. It could be observed as thermal IR in the mid infrared (15-25μm) corresponding to temperatures 200K-120K expected at distances 2AU-5AU, between the perihelion and the aphelion of the comet. We present here our observations on two nights of February 2013. We observed the meteoroids at the far away node, which is opposite of the explosion site relative to the Sun. The comet itself passed the observed region a little more than two-and-a-half months earlier in late December 2012. This is why the February 2013 observations had a better chance of success than observing the same spot on previous years as the meteoroids would have not reached this spot earlier. Another probably more prominent convergence is expected to happen at the 2007 explosion site. As seen from Earth it will appear to be at a different place in the sky than the 2007 outburst. We predict this to be observable starting in the autumn of 2013, probably around November and continuing for about two years. Based on the expected dispersion in the orbits and a purely gravitational solution we expect the effect to last almost two years, but due to solar radiation pressure, it will probably continue longer (Burns & Lamy, 1979). Observing both or

  9. Exploration of the mechanisms of temperature-dependent grain boundary mobility: Search for the common origin of ultrafast grain boundary motion

    SciTech Connect

    O’Brien, C. J.; Foiles, S. M.

    2016-04-19

    The temperature dependence of grain boundary mobility is complex, varied, and rarely fits ideal Arrhenius behavior. This work presents a series of case studies of planar grain boundaries in a model FCC system that were previously demonstrated to exhibit a variety of temperature-dependent mobility behaviors. It is demonstrated that characterization of the mobility versus temperature plots is not sufficient to predict the atomic motion mechanism of the grain boundaries. Herein, the temperature-dependent motion and atomistic motion mechanisms of planar grain boundaries are driven by a synthetic, orientation-dependent, driving force. The systems studied include CSL boundaries with Σ values of 5, 7, and 15, including both symmetric and asymmetric boundaries. These boundaries represent a range of temperature-dependent trends including thermally activated, antithermal, and roughening behaviors. Examining the atomic-level motion mechanisms of the thermally activated boundaries reveals that each involves a complex shuffle, and at least one atom that changes the plane it resides on. The motion mechanism of the antithermal boundary is qualitatively different and involves an in-plane coordinated shuffle that rotates atoms about a fixed atom lying on a point in the coincident site lattice. Furthermore, this provides a mechanistic reason for the observed high mobility, even at low temperatures, which is due to the low activation energy needed for such motion. However, it will be demonstrated that this mechanism is not universal, or even common, to other boundaries exhibiting non-thermally activated motion. This work concludes that no single atomic motion mechanism is sufficient to explain the existence of non-thermally activated boundary motion.

  10. Exploration of the mechanisms of temperature-dependent grain boundary mobility: Search for the common origin of ultrafast grain boundary motion

    DOE PAGES

    O’Brien, C. J.; Foiles, S. M.

    2016-04-19

    The temperature dependence of grain boundary mobility is complex, varied, and rarely fits ideal Arrhenius behavior. This work presents a series of case studies of planar grain boundaries in a model FCC system that were previously demonstrated to exhibit a variety of temperature-dependent mobility behaviors. It is demonstrated that characterization of the mobility versus temperature plots is not sufficient to predict the atomic motion mechanism of the grain boundaries. Herein, the temperature-dependent motion and atomistic motion mechanisms of planar grain boundaries are driven by a synthetic, orientation-dependent, driving force. The systems studied include CSL boundaries with Σ values of 5,more » 7, and 15, including both symmetric and asymmetric boundaries. These boundaries represent a range of temperature-dependent trends including thermally activated, antithermal, and roughening behaviors. Examining the atomic-level motion mechanisms of the thermally activated boundaries reveals that each involves a complex shuffle, and at least one atom that changes the plane it resides on. The motion mechanism of the antithermal boundary is qualitatively different and involves an in-plane coordinated shuffle that rotates atoms about a fixed atom lying on a point in the coincident site lattice. Furthermore, this provides a mechanistic reason for the observed high mobility, even at low temperatures, which is due to the low activation energy needed for such motion. However, it will be demonstrated that this mechanism is not universal, or even common, to other boundaries exhibiting non-thermally activated motion. This work concludes that no single atomic motion mechanism is sufficient to explain the existence of non-thermally activated boundary motion.« less

  11. Differential dynamics of dinophysistoxins and pectenotoxins between blue mussel and common cockle: a phenomenon originating from the complex toxin profile of Dinophysis acuta.

    PubMed

    Vale, Paulo

    2004-08-01

    Different toxin profiles of dinophysistoxins and pectenotoxins have been reported before between blue mussel and other bivalve species, such as common cockle, razor clam, clams, etc. Comparison of toxins present in plankton in mussel growing areas and in cockle growing areas, respectively, showed there was no particular incidence of dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) in plankton from mussel growing areas that could account for the higher percentage of DTX2 in relation to okadaic acid (OA) found in mussels; or of pectenotoxin-2 in cockle growing areas that could explain the higher levels of pectenotoxin-2 seco acid (PTX2sa) found in cockles. A detoxification experiment between mussels and cockles showed the higher percentage of DTX2 in mussels was due to slower elimination of this toxin in relation to OA; while the lower levels of PTX2sa were due to quicker elimination by mussels than by cockles. The slower elimination of DTX2 explains why in late summer and autumn this toxin gradually accumulate in mussels throughout the entire coast, while other bivalves species have a lower percentage of DTX2, very close to the 3:2 OA:DTX2 ratio found in natural plankton assemblages when Dinophysis acuta predominates. In the clam Donax spp., DTX2 concentration also tends to build up in relation to OA, this being made up predominantly by free DTX2 while esterified DTX2 is found only in trace levels (similarly to what is found in mussel for DTX2). We hypothesise that the esterified forms of OA and DTX2 are more easily eliminated than the free forms, by all shellfish species. The free forms are more difficult to eliminate. This is particularly notable in these two species that present a very low conversion of DTX2 into acyl esters. The high pool of free toxins is partially responsible for these two species (mussel and Donax clams) being the sentinel species for DSP contamination throughout the Portuguese coast. Esters of OA and DTX2 were found in a plankton sample where D. acuta was the

  12. The drug:H+ antiporters of family 2 (DHA2), siderophore transporters (ARN) and glutathione:H+ antiporters (GEX) have a common evolutionary origin in hemiascomycete yeasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    siderophore transporters are abundant in the Hemiascomycetes and form an ancient gene lineage extending to the filamentous fungi. Conclusions The evolutionary history of DHA2, ARN and GEX genes was reconstructed and a common evolutionary root shared by the encoded proteins is hypothesized. A new protein family, denominated DAG, is proposed to span these three phylogenetic subfamilies of 14-spanner MFS transporters. PMID:24345006

  13. The Temporal Context Model in spatial navigation and relational learning: Toward a common explanation of medial temporal lobe function across domains

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Marc W.; Fotedar, Mrigankka S.; Datey, Aditya V.; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) has been studied extensively at all levels of analysis, yet its function remains unclear. Theory regarding the cognitive function of the MTL has centered along 3 themes. Different authors have emphasized the role of the MTL in episodic recall, spatial navigation, or relational memory. Starting with the temporal context model (M. W. Howard and M. J. Kahana, 2002), a distributed memory model that has been applied to benchmark data from episodic recall tasks, the authors propose that the entorhinal cortex supports a gradually changing representation of temporal context and the hippocampus proper enables retrieval of these contextual states. Simulation studies show this hypothesis explains the firing of place cells in the entorhinal cortex and the behavioral effects of hippocampal lesion in relational memory tasks. These results constitute a first step towards a unified computational theory of MTL function that integrates neurophysiological, neuropsychological and cognitive findings. PMID:15631589

  14. Using common spatial distributions of atoms to relate functionally divergent influenza virus N10 and N11 protein structures to functionally characterized neuraminidase structures, toxin cell entry domains, and non-influenza virus cell entry domains.

    PubMed

    Weininger, Arthur; Weininger, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to identify the functional correlates of structural and sequence variation in proteins is a critical capability. We related structures of influenza A N10 and N11 proteins that have no established function to structures of proteins with known function by identifying spatially conserved atoms. We identified atoms with common distributed spatial occupancy in PDB structures of N10 protein, N11 protein, an influenza A neuraminidase, an influenza B neuraminidase, and a bacterial neuraminidase. By superposing these spatially conserved atoms, we aligned the structures and associated molecules. We report spatially and sequence invariant residues in the aligned structures. Spatially invariant residues in the N6 and influenza B neuraminidase active sites were found in previously unidentified spatially equivalent sites in the N10 and N11 proteins. We found the corresponding secondary and tertiary structures of the aligned proteins to be largely identical despite significant sequence divergence. We found structural precedent in known non-neuraminidase structures for residues exhibiting structural and sequence divergence in the aligned structures. In N10 protein, we identified staphylococcal enterotoxin I-like domains. In N11 protein, we identified hepatitis E E2S-like domains, SARS spike protein-like domains, and toxin components shared by alpha-bungarotoxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin I, anthrax lethal factor, clostridium botulinum neurotoxin, and clostridium tetanus toxin. The presence of active site components common to the N6, influenza B, and S. pneumoniae neuraminidases in the N10 and N11 proteins, combined with the absence of apparent neuraminidase function, suggests that the role of neuraminidases in H17N10 and H18N11 emerging influenza A viruses may have changed. The presentation of E2S-like, SARS spike protein-like, or toxin-like domains by the N10 and N11 proteins in these emerging viruses may indicate that H17N10 and H18N11 sialidase-facilitated cell

  15. Comparative Genomic and Phylogenetic Analyses of Gammaproteobacterial glg Genes Traced the Origin of the Escherichia coli Glycogen glgBXCAP Operon to the Last Common Ancestor of the Sister Orders Enterobacteriales and Pasteurellales

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Goizeder; Viale, Alejandro M.; Montero, Manuel; Rahimpour, Mehdi; Muñoz, Francisco José; Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Bahaji, Abdellatif; Zúñiga, Manuel; González-Candelas, Fernando; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Production of branched α-glucan, glycogen-like polymers is widely spread in the Bacteria domain. The glycogen pathway of synthesis and degradation has been fairly well characterized in the model enterobacterial species Escherichia coli (order Enterobacteriales, class Gammaproteobacteria), in which the cognate genes (branching enzyme glgB, debranching enzyme glgX, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase glgC, glycogen synthase glgA, and glycogen phosphorylase glgP) are clustered in a glgBXCAP operon arrangement. However, the evolutionary origin of this particular arrangement and of its constituent genes is unknown. Here, by using 265 complete gammaproteobacterial genomes we have carried out a comparative analysis of the presence, copy number and arrangement of glg genes in all lineages of the Gammaproteobacteria. These analyses revealed large variations in glg gene presence, copy number and arrangements among different gammaproteobacterial lineages. However, the glgBXCAP arrangement was remarkably conserved in all glg-possessing species of the orders Enterobacteriales and Pasteurellales (the E/P group). Subsequent phylogenetic analyses of glg genes present in the Gammaproteobacteria and in other main bacterial groups indicated that glg genes have undergone a complex evolutionary history in which horizontal gene transfer may have played an important role. These analyses also revealed that the E/P glgBXCAP genes (a) share a common evolutionary origin, (b) were vertically transmitted within the E/P group, and (c) are closely related to glg genes of some phylogenetically distant betaproteobacterial species. The overall data allowed tracing the origin of the E. coli glgBXCAP operon to the last common ancestor of the E/P group, and also to uncover a likely glgBXCAP transfer event from the E/P group to particular lineages of the Betaproteobacteria. PMID:25607991

  16. 'Berries' and Rock Share Common Origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color composite image, taken at a region of the rock outcrop dubbed 'Shoemaker's Patio' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, shows finely layered sediments, which have been accentuated by erosion. The sphere-like grains or 'blueberries' distributed throughout the outcrop can be seen lining up with individual layers. This observation indicates that the spherules are geologic features called concretions, which form in pre-existing wet sediments. Other sphere-like grains, such as impact spherules or volcanic lapilli (fragments of material etween 2 and 64 millimeters or .08 and 2.5 inches in maximum dimension that are ejected from a volcano) are thought to be deposited with sediments and thus would form layers distinct from those of the rocks. This image was captured by the rover's panoramic camera on the 50th martian day, or sol, of the mission. Data from the camera's infrared, green and violet filters were used to create this false-color picture.

  17. Spatial variation of chemical constituents from the burning of commonly used biomass fuels in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, T.; Saxena, M.; Singh, D. P.; Saraswati; Dahiya, Manisha; Sharma, S. K.; Datta, A.; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T. K.

    2013-06-01

    In the present paper, we have determined emission factor of chemical composition of the emission from the burning of biomass (e.g. Dung cake, Acacia, Neem, Mulberry, Indian Rosewood, Pigeon pea etc.) commonly used as a residential fuel in the rural sector of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) (Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal), India. For comparison, we have selected only those biomass fuels, which are used in at least three of the above mentioned states. Dung cake from all the states reports highest emission of particulate matter (PM) (15.68 g kg-1), Organic Carbon (OC) (4.32 g kg-1) and Elemental Carbon (EC) (0.51 g kg-1). Among all biomass fuels studied, agricultural residue reports substantial amount of emission of Na+ (104 mg kg-1), K+ (331 mg kg-1) and Cl- (447 mg kg-1) particularly in Pigeon pea and Mustard stem. Eucalyptus (fuel wood) emits large amounts of Ca2+ (21.47 mg kg-1) and NO3- (614 mg kg-1). The emission of PM from dung cake is higher in Delhi (19.31 g kg-1) and followed by Uttar Pradesh (17.58 g kg-1) > Haryana (15.46 g kg-1) > Bihar (14.99 g kg-1) > Punjab (12.06 g kg-1) > West Bengal (5.90 g kg-1). Carbonaceous aerosols (OC and EC) and dominant Ionic species (Cl-, K+, SO42-, NO3- and PO43-) are altogether contributing 40-70% of total emissions. Characteristics and ratios of chemical species of emissions may help to develop a methodology of discriminating the sources of ambient particulate matter. Using a laboratory determined emission factor of chemical species, we have determined the emission budget over IGP, India.

  18. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  19. Tracing The Origin Of Methane And Water On Mars: Mapping Regions Of Active Release At Ultra-high Spatial Resolution Using Keck And VLT Under AO Control.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, G. L.; Campbell, R.; Lyke, J.; Conrad, A.; Encrenaz, T.; Hartogh, P.; Kauefl, U.; Novak, R. E.; Tokunaga, A.

    2009-09-01

    Strong release of methane from active regions on Mars has been reported in northern summer (1) and southern spring (2). The spatial resolution of these measurements was about 500 km, sufficient to reveal discrete active regions. Regions of methane release appear mainly over ancient terrain (Noachian/Hesperian) known to have a rich hydration history, and often marked by fossae or other scarps. However, higher resolution is needed to test whether methane release is confined to a small number of narrowly defined vents or is widely distributed over the 500 km footprint. If narrowly confined, the plume should have correspondingly higher local density, enhancing spectral searches for water, methane, their isotopologues, and other trace gases that could reveal aspects of methane generation and depth of release. Ground-based telescopes equipped with both adaptive optics (AO) and high dispersion infrared spectrometers have delivered much higher spatial resolution on planetary bodies, but until now have not been applied to Mars. We acquired images and spectra of Mars under AO control at infrared wavelengths, using Keck-2 and ESO-VLT. In June 2009, we acquired test images with NIRC2/Keck-2 using AO in the natural guide star mode and achieved 0.12” FWHM resolution at 3.0 µm wavelength (Mars diameter was 4.7"). Diffraction-limited performance (0.06” at 3 µm) is expected during follow-up observations in September 2009. We observed Mars with UT1 under AO control (MACAO) in August and September 2009, and acquired spectra with CRIRES. We expect to achieve spatial resolution approaching 40 km in November-December 2009, representing a reduction in area by nearly a factor of 100 compared with earlier non-AO searches. Preliminary results will be presented. This work was funded by NASA grants 08-PAST08-0034 (Planetary Astronomy) and 08-PATM080-0031 (Planetary Atmospheres). 1. Mumma, Villanueva, Novak et al., Science 323, 1041 (2009) 2. Villanueva, Mumma, Novak, (in prep) 2009.

  20. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  1. Orc1 Binding to Mitotic Chromosomes Precedes Spatial Patterning during G1 Phase and Assembly of the Origin Recognition Complex in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Kara, Nihan; Hossain, Manzar; Prasanth, Supriya G; Stillman, Bruce

    2015-05-08

    Replication of eukaryotic chromosomes occurs once every cell division cycle in normal cells and is a tightly controlled process that ensures complete genome duplication. The origin recognition complex (ORC) plays a key role during the initiation of DNA replication. In human cells, the level of Orc1, the largest subunit of ORC, is regulated during the cell division cycle, and thus ORC is a dynamic complex. Upon S phase entry, Orc1 is ubiquitinated and targeted for destruction, with subsequent dissociation of ORC from chromosomes. Time lapse and live cell images of human cells expressing fluorescently tagged Orc1 show that Orc1 re-localizes to condensing chromatin during early mitosis and then displays different nuclear localization patterns at different times during G1 phase, remaining associated with late replicating regions of the genome in late G1 phase. The initial binding of Orc1 to mitotic chromosomes requires C-terminal amino acid sequences that are similar to mitotic chromosome-binding sequences in the transcriptional pioneer protein FOXA1. Depletion of Orc1 causes concomitant loss of the mini-chromosome maintenance (Mcm2-7) helicase proteins on chromatin. The data suggest that Orc1 acts as a nucleating center for ORC assembly and then pre-replication complex assembly by binding to mitotic chromosomes, followed by gradual removal from chromatin during the G1 phase.

  2. The analysis of core and symbiotic genes of rhizobia nodulating Vicia from different continents reveals their common phylogenetic origin and suggests the distribution of Rhizobium leguminosarum strains together with Vicia seeds.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Martínez, Estela R; Valverde, Angel; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; García-Fraile, Paula; Tejedor, Carmen; Mateos, Pedro F; Santillana, Nery; Zúñiga, Doris; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2009-08-01

    In this work, we analysed the core and symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains isolated from Vicia sativa in three soils from the Northwest of Spain, and compared them with other Vicia endosymbionts isolated in other geographical locations. The analysis of rrs, recA and atpD genes and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer showed that the Spanish strains nodulating V. sativa are phylogenetically close to those isolated from V. sativa and V. faba in different European, American and Asian countries forming a group related to Rhizobium leguminosarum. The analysis of the nodC gene of strains nodulating V. sativa and V. faba in different continents showed they belong to a phylogenetically compact group indicating that these legumes are restrictive hosts. The results of the nodC gene analysis allow the delineation of the biovar viciae showing a common phylogenetic origin of V. sativa and V. faba endosymbionts in several continents. Since these two legume species are indigenous from Europe, our results suggest a world distribution of strains from R. leguminosarum together with the V. sativa and V. faba seeds and a close coevolution among chromosome, symbiotic genes and legume host in this Rhizobium-Vicia symbiosis.

  3. Differentiating Spatial Memory from Spatial Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Whitney N.; Wang, Ranxiao Frances

    2014-01-01

    The perspective-taking task is one of the most common paradigms used to study the nature of spatial memory, and better performance for certain orientations is generally interpreted as evidence of spatial representations using these reference directions. However, performance advantages can also result from the relative ease in certain…

  4. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  5. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  6. Recent Origin and Spread of a Common Lithuanian Mutation, G197del LDLR, Causing Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Positive Selection Is Not Always Necessary to Account for Disease Incidence among Ashkenazi Jews

    PubMed Central

    Durst, Ronen; Colombo, Roberto; Shpitzen, Shoshi; Avi, Liat Ben; Friedlander, Yechiel; Wexler, Roni; Raal, Frederick J.; Marais, David A.; Defesche, Joep C.; Mandelshtam, Michail Y.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Leitersdorf, Eran; Meiner, Vardiella

    2001-01-01

    G197del is the most prevalent LDL receptor (LDLR) mutation causing familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in Ashkenazi Jew (AJ) individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine the origin, age, and population distribution of G197del, as well as to explore environmental and genetic effects on disease expression. Index cases from Israel (n=46), South Africa (n=24), Russia (n=7), The Netherlands (n=1), and the United States (n=1) were enlisted. All trace their ancestry to Lithuania. A highly conserved haplotype (D19S221:104-D19S865:208-D19S413:74) was identified in G197del chromosomes, suggesting the occurrence of a common founder. When two methods were used for analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between flanking polymorphic markers and the disease locus and for the study of the decay of LD over time, the estimated age of the deletion was found to be 20 ± 7 generations (the 95% confidence interval is 15–26 generations), so that the most recent common ancestor of the mutation-bearing chromosomes would date to the 14th century. This corresponds with the founding of the Jewish community of Lithuania (1338 a.d.), as well as with the great demographic expansion of AJ individuals in eastern Europe, which followed this settlement. The penetrance of mutation-linked severe hypercholesterolemia is high (94% of heterozygotes have a baseline concentration of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) that is >160 mg/dl), and no significant differences in the mean baseline lipid level of G197del carriers from different countries were found. Polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E and of scavenger-receptor class B type I were observed to have minor effects on the plasma lipid profile. With respect to determinative genetic influences on the biochemical phenotype, there is no evidence that could support the possibility of a selective evolutionary metabolic advantage. Therefore, the founder effect in a rapidly expanding population from a limited number of families remains a simple, parsimonious

  7. Pandemic Swine-Origin H1N1 Influenza Virus Replicates to Higher Levels and Induces More Fever and Acute Inflammatory Cytokines in Cynomolgus versus Rhesus Monkeys and Can Replicate in Common Marmosets.

    PubMed

    Mooij, Petra; Koopman, Gerrit; Mortier, Daniëlla; van Heteren, Melanie; Oostermeijer, Herman; Fagrouch, Zahra; de Laat, Rudy; Kobinger, Gary; Li, Yan; Remarque, Edmond J; Kondova, Ivanela; Verschoor, Ernst J; Bogers, Willy M J M

    2015-01-01

    The close immunological and physiological resemblance with humans makes non-human primates a valuable model for studying influenza virus pathogenesis and immunity and vaccine efficacy against infection. Although both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques are frequently used in influenza virus research, a direct comparison of susceptibility to infection and disease has not yet been performed. In the current study a head-to-head comparison was made between these species, by using a recently described swine-origin pandemic H1N1 strain, A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009. In comparison to rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques developed significantly higher levels of virus replication in the upper airways and in the lungs, involving both peak level and duration of virus production, as well as higher increases in body temperature. In contrast, clinical symptoms, including respiratory distress, were more easily observed in rhesus macaques. Expression of sialyl-α-2,6-Gal saccharides, the main receptor for human influenza A viruses, was 50 to 73 times more abundant in trachea and bronchus of cynomolgus macaques relative to rhesus macaques. The study also shows that common marmosets, a New World non-human primate species, are susceptible to infection with pandemic H1N1. The study results favor the cynomolgus macaque as model for pandemic H1N1 influenza virus research because of the more uniform and high levels of virus replication, as well as temperature increases, which may be due to a more abundant expression of the main human influenza virus receptor in the trachea and bronchi.

  8. Genetic and comparative genomics mapping reveals that a powdery mildew resistance gene Ml3D232 originating from wild emmer co-segregates with an NBS-LRR analog in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongtao; Guan, Haiying; Li, Jingting; Zhu, Jie; Xie, Chaojie; Zhou, Yilin; Duan, Xiayu; Yang, Tsomin; Sun, Qixin; Liu, Zhiyong

    2010-11-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide and breeding for resistance using diversified disease resistance genes is the most promising approach to prevent outbreaks of powdery mildew. A powdery mildew resistance gene, originating from wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides) accessions collected from Israel, has been transferred into the hexaploid wheat line 3D232 through crossing and backcrossing. Inoculation results with 21 B. graminis f. sp. tritici races indicated that 3D232 is resistant to all of the powdery mildew isolates tested. Genetic analyses of 3D232 using an F(2) segregating population and F(3) families indicated that a single dominant gene, Ml3D232, confers resistance in the host seedling stage. By applying molecular markers and bulked segregant analysis (BSA), we have identified polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSR), expressed sequence tags (EST) and derived sequence tagged site (STS) markers to determine that the Ml3D232 is located on chromosome 5BL bin 0.59-0.76. Comparative genetic analyses using mapped EST markers and genome sequences of rice and Brachypodium established co-linearity of the Ml3D232 genomic region with a 1.4 Mb genomic region on Brachypodium distachyon chromosome 4, and a 1.2 Mb contig located on the Oryza sativa chromosome 9. Our comparative approach enabled us to develop new EST-STS markers and to delimit the genomic region carrying Ml3D232 to a 0.8 cM segment that is collinear with a 558 kb region on B. distachyon. Eight EST markers, including an NBS-LRR analog, co-segregated with Ml3D232 to provide a target site for fine genetic mapping, chromosome landing and map-based cloning of the powdery mildew resistance gene. This newly developed common wheat germplasm provides broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew and a valuable resource for wheat breeding programs.

  9. QCI Common

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  10. Spatially-Heterodyned Holography

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Clarence E [Knoxville, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN

    2006-02-21

    A method of recording a spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram, including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis, includes: splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and an object beam; interacting the object beam with an object; focusing the reference beam and the object beam at a focal plane of a digital recorder to form a spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digital recording the spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram; Fourier transforming axes of the recorded spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a heterodyne carrier frequency defined by an angle between the reference beam and the object beam; cutting off signals around an origin; and performing an inverse Fourier transform.

  11. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  12. Task instructions determine the visuospatial and verbal-spatial nature of number-space associations.

    PubMed

    Georges, Carrie; Schiltz, Christine; Hoffmann, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for number-space associations comes from the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect, consisting in faster reaction times to small/large digits with the left/right hand, respectively. Two different proposals are commonly discussed concerning the cognitive origin of the SNARC effect: the visuospatial account and the verbal-spatial account. Recent studies have provided evidence for the relative dominance of verbal-spatial over visuospatial coding mechanisms, when both mechanisms were directly contrasted in a magnitude comparison task. However, in these studies, participants were potentially biased towards verbal-spatial number processing by task instructions based on verbal-spatial labels. To overcome this confound and to investigate whether verbal-spatial coding mechanisms are predominantly activated irrespective of task instructions, we completed the previously used paradigm by adding a spatial instruction condition. In line with earlier findings, we could confirm the predominance of verbal-spatial number coding under verbal task instructions. However, in the spatial instruction condition, both verbal-spatial and visuospatial mechanisms were activated to an equal extent. Hence, these findings clearly indicate that the cognitive origin of number-space associations does not always predominantly rely on verbal-spatial processing mechanisms, but that the spatial code associated with numbers is context dependent.

  13. SPATIALLY RESOLVED [Fe II] 1.64 {mu}m EMISSION IN NGC 5135: CLUES FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ORIGIN OF THE HARD X-RAYS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Colina, L.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Arribas, S.; Bedregal, A. G.

    2012-04-20

    Spatially resolved near-IR and X-ray imaging of the central region of the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) NGC 5135 is presented. The kinematical signatures of strong outflows are detected in the [Fe II] 1.64 {mu}m emission line in a compact region at 0.9 kpc from the nucleus. The derived mechanical energy release is consistent with a supernova rate of 0.05-0.1 yr{sup -1}. The apex of the outflowing gas spatially coincides with the strongest [Fe II] emission peak and with the dominant component of the extranuclear hard X-ray emission. All these features provide evidence for a plausible direct physical link between supernova-driven outflows and the hard X-ray emitting gas in an LIRG. This result is consistent with model predictions of starbursts concentrated in small volumes and with high thermalization efficiencies. A single high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) as the major source of the hard X-ray emission, although not favored, cannot be ruled out. Outside the active galactic nucleus, the hard X-ray emission in NGC 5135 appears to be dominated by the hot interstellar medium produced by supernova explosions in a compact star-forming region, and not by the emission due to HMXBs. If this scenario is common to (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies, the hard X-rays would only trace the most compact ({<=}100 pc) regions with high supernova and star formation densities, therefore a lower limit to their integrated star formation. The star formation rate derived in NGC 5135 based on its hard X-ray luminosity is a factor of two and four lower than the values obtained from the 24 {mu}m and soft X-ray luminosities, respectively.

  14. Terrestrial origin of bacterial communities in complex boreal freshwater networks.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, Clara; Niño-García, Juan Pablo; Del Giorgio, Paul A

    2015-08-25

    Bacteria inhabiting boreal freshwaters are part of metacommunities where local assemblages are often linked by the flow of water in the landscape, yet the resulting spatial structure and the boundaries of the network metacommunity have never been explored. Here, we reconstruct the spatial structure of the bacterial metacommunity in a complex boreal aquatic network by determining the taxonomic composition of bacterial communities along the entire terrestrial/aquatic continuum, including soil and soilwaters, headwater streams, large rivers and lakes. We show that the network metacommunity has a directional spatial structure driven by a common terrestrial origin of aquatic communities, which are numerically dominated by taxa recruited from soils. Local community assembly is driven by variations along the hydrological continuum in the balance between mass effects and species sorting of terrestrial taxa, and seems further influenced by priority effects related to the spatial sequence of entry of soil bacteria into the network.

  15. Common hyperspectral image database design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lixun; Liao, Ningfang; Chai, Ali

    2009-11-01

    This paper is to introduce Common hyperspectral image database with a demand-oriented Database design method (CHIDB), which comprehensively set ground-based spectra, standardized hyperspectral cube, spectral analysis together to meet some applications. The paper presents an integrated approach to retrieving spectral and spatial patterns from remotely sensed imagery using state-of-the-art data mining and advanced database technologies, some data mining ideas and functions were associated into CHIDB to make it more suitable to serve in agriculture, geological and environmental areas. A broad range of data from multiple regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is supported, including ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, thermal infrared, and fluorescence. CHIDB is based on dotnet framework and designed by MVC architecture including five main functional modules: Data importer/exporter, Image/spectrum Viewer, Data Processor, Parameter Extractor, and On-line Analyzer. The original data were all stored in SQL server2008 for efficient search, query and update, and some advance Spectral image data Processing technology are used such as Parallel processing in C#; Finally an application case is presented in agricultural disease detecting area.

  16. Temperature Impacts the Development and Survival of Common Cutworm (Spodoptera litura): Simulation and Visualization of Potential Population Growth in India under Warmer Temperatures through Life Cycle Modelling and Spatial Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Fand, Babasaheb B.; Sul, Nitin T.; Bal, Santanu K.; Minhas, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, has become a major pest of soybean (Glycine max) throughout its Indian range. With a changing climate, there is the potential for this insect to become an increasingly severe pest in certain regions due to increased habitat suitability. To examine this possibility, we developed temperature-based phenology model for S. litura, by constructing thermal reaction norms for cohorts of single life stages, at both constant and fluctuating temperatures within the ecologically relevant range (15–38°C) for its development. Life table parameters were estimated stochastically using cohort updating and rate summation approach. The model was implemented in the geographic information system to examine the potential future pest status of S. litura using temperature change projections from SRES A1B climate change scenario for the year 2050. The changes were visualized by means of three spatial indices demonstrating the risks for establishment, number of generations per year and pest abundance according to the temperature conditions. The results revealed that the development rate as a function of temperature increased linearly for all the immature stages of S. litura until approximately 34–36°C, after which it became non-linear. The extreme temperature of 38°C was found lethal to larval and pupal stages of S. litura wherein no development to the next stage occurred. Females could lay no eggs at the extreme low (15°C) and high (> 35°C) test temperatures, demonstrating the importance of optimum temperature in determining the suitability of climate for the mating and reproduction in S. litura. The risk mapping predicts that due to temperature increase under future climate change, much of the soybean areas in Indian states like Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan, will become suitable for S. litura establishment and increased pest activity, indicating the expansion of the suitable and favourable areas over time. This has serious

  17. Temperature Impacts the Development and Survival of Common Cutworm (Spodoptera litura): Simulation and Visualization of Potential Population Growth in India under Warmer Temperatures through Life Cycle Modelling and Spatial Mapping.

    PubMed

    Fand, Babasaheb B; Sul, Nitin T; Bal, Santanu K; Minhas, P S

    2015-01-01

    The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, has become a major pest of soybean (Glycine max) throughout its Indian range. With a changing climate, there is the potential for this insect to become an increasingly severe pest in certain regions due to increased habitat suitability. To examine this possibility, we developed temperature-based phenology model for S. litura, by constructing thermal reaction norms for cohorts of single life stages, at both constant and fluctuating temperatures within the ecologically relevant range (15-38°C) for its development. Life table parameters were estimated stochastically using cohort updating and rate summation approach. The model was implemented in the geographic information system to examine the potential future pest status of S. litura using temperature change projections from SRES A1B climate change scenario for the year 2050. The changes were visualized by means of three spatial indices demonstrating the risks for establishment, number of generations per year and pest abundance according to the temperature conditions. The results revealed that the development rate as a function of temperature increased linearly for all the immature stages of S. litura until approximately 34-36°C, after which it became non-linear. The extreme temperature of 38°C was found lethal to larval and pupal stages of S. litura wherein no development to the next stage occurred. Females could lay no eggs at the extreme low (15°C) and high (> 35°C) test temperatures, demonstrating the importance of optimum temperature in determining the suitability of climate for the mating and reproduction in S. litura. The risk mapping predicts that due to temperature increase under future climate change, much of the soybean areas in Indian states like Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan, will become suitable for S. litura establishment and increased pest activity, indicating the expansion of the suitable and favourable areas over time. This has serious

  18. Original Misunderstanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Humorist Josh Billings quipped, "About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment." Billings was harsh in his view of originality, but his critique reveals a tension faced by students every time they write a history paper. Research is the essence of any history paper. Especially in high school,…

  19. Enracinement or the earth, the originary ark, does not move: on the phenomenological (historical and ontogenetic) origin of common and scientific sense and the genetic method of teaching (for) understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2015-06-01

    For many students, the experience with science tends to be alienating and uprooting. In this study, I take up Simone Weil's concepts of enracinement (rooting) and déracinement (uprooting) to theorize the root of this alienation, the confrontation between children's familiarity with the world and unfamiliar/strange scientific conceptions. I build on the works of the phenomenological philosopher Edmund Husserl and the German physics educator Martin Wagenschein (who directly refers to Weil's concepts) to make a case for the rooting function of original/originary experiences and the genetic method to science teaching. The genetic approach allows students to retain their foundational familiarity with the world and their descriptions thereof all the while evolving other (more scientific) ways of explaining natural phenomena.

  20. Phylogenetic and molecular analysis of HTLV-1 isolates from a medium sized town in northern of Brazil: tracing a common origin of the virus from the most endemic city in the country.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Themístocles; Mota-Miranda, Aline Cristina; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Olavarria, Viviana; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Rios-Grassi, Maria Fernanda

    2008-11-01

    Salvador-Bahia has the highest prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in Brazil; about 2% of the population is infected. In this city, the prevalence of HTLV in pregnant women is 1%. There is no data of the HTLV-1 prevalence in others cities of the Bahia's Recôncavo, where the population has similar social and demography characteristics to those from Salvador. Our aim was to evaluate the seroprevalence of HTLV in pregnant women in Cruz das Almas-Bahia, a medium-sized city from the Bahia's Recôncavo. All individuals were tested for HTLV (ELISA) and the positive samples were confirmed by Western Blot. Phylogenetic analyses of the total LTR region were performed in all positive samples. We tested 408 samples (45.4% of the estimate pregnant women population) between June 1st and October 31, 2005. The prevalence of HTLV-1 infection was 0.98%. In addition, all isolated virus were grouped in the subtype HTLV-1a, in the Latin American group. Our results suggest that the introduction of HTLV-1 occurred after the slave trade into Salvador. In addition, HTLV-1-infection should be screened during the pregnancy in women originating from HTLV-1 endemic areas.

  1. The Space in Spatial Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Laura A.; Van Deman, Shannon R.

    2004-01-01

    Projective spatial terms such as ''below'' specify the location of one object by indicating its spatial relation with respect to a reference object. These relations are defined via a reference frame that consists of a number of parameters (orientation, direction, origin, and distance) whose settings configure the space surrounding the reference…

  2. Spatial compression algorithm for the analysis of very large multivariate images

    DOEpatents

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2008-07-15

    A method for spatially compressing data sets enables the efficient analysis of very large multivariate images. The spatial compression algorithms use a wavelet transformation to map an image into a compressed image containing a smaller number of pixels that retain the original image's information content. Image analysis can then be performed on a compressed data matrix consisting of a reduced number of significant wavelet coefficients. Furthermore, a block algorithm can be used for performing common operations more efficiently. The spatial compression algorithms can be combined with spectral compression algorithms to provide further computational efficiencies.

  3. Spatial Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    With increasing accessibility to geographic information systems (GIS) software, statisticians and data analysts routinely encounter scientific data sets with geocoded locations. This has generated considerable interest in statistical modeling for location-referenced spatial data. In public health, spatial data routinely arise as aggregates over regions, such as counts or rates over counties, census tracts, or some other administrative delineation. Such data are often referred to as areal data. This review article provides a brief overview of statistical models that account for spatial dependence in areal data. It does so in the context of two applications: disease mapping and spatial survival analysis. Disease maps are used to highlight geographic areas with high and low prevalence, incidence, or mortality rates of a specific disease and the variability of such rates over a spatial domain. They can also be used to detect hot spots or spatial clusters that may arise owing to common environmental, demographic, or cultural effects shared by neighboring regions. Spatial survival analysis refers to the modeling and analysis for geographically referenced time-to-event data, where a subject is followed up to an event (e.g., death or onset of a disease) or is censored, whichever comes first. Spatial survival analysis is used to analyze clustered survival data when the clustering arises from geographical regions or strata. Illustrations are provided in these application domains.

  4. Spectral Preferences and the Role of Spatial Coherence in Simultaneous Integration in Gray Treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis)

    PubMed Central

    Bee, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The perceptual analysis of acoustic scenes may often require the integration of simultaneous sounds arising from a single source. Few studies have investigated the cues that promote simultaneous integration in the context of acoustic communication in nonhuman animals. This study of Cope’s gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) examined female preferences based on spectral features of conspecific male advertisement calls to test the hypothesis that cues related to common spatial origin promote the perceptual integration of simultaneous signal elements (harmonics). The typical advertisement call comprises two harmonically related spectral peaks near 1.1 kHz and 2.2 kHz. Subjects generally exhibited preferences for calls with two spatially coherent harmonics over alternatives with just one harmonic. When given a choice between a spatially coherent call (both harmonics originating from the same speaker) and a spatially incoherent call (each harmonic from different spatially separated speakers), subjects preferentially chose the former in the same relative proportions in which it was chosen over single-harmonic alternatives. Preferences for spatially coherent calls over spatially incoherent alternatives did not appear to result from greater difficulty localizing the spatially incoherent sources. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that spatial coherence promotes perceptual integration of simultaneous signal elements in frogs. PMID:20853948

  5. Spatial cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary Kister; Remington, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Spatial cognition is the ability to reason about geometric relationships in the real (or a metaphorical) world based on one or more internal representations of those relationships. The study of spatial cognition is concerned with the representation of spatial knowledge, and our ability to manipulate these representations to solve spatial problems. Spatial cognition is utilized most critically when direct perceptual cues are absent or impoverished. Examples are provided of how human spatial cognitive abilities impact on three areas of space station operator performance: orientation, path planning, and data base management. A videotape provides demonstrations of relevant phenomena (e.g., the importance of orientation for recognition of complex, configural forms). The presentation is represented by abstract and overhead visuals only.

  6. Originator dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Manapat, Michael; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Bürger, Reinhard; Nowak, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the origin of evolution. Evolution is based on replication, mutation, and selection. But how does evolution begin? When do chemical kinetics turn into evolutionary dynamics? We propose “prelife” and “prevolution” as the logical precursors of life and evolution. Prelife generates sequences of variable length. Prelife is a generative chemistry that proliferates information and produces diversity without replication. The resulting “prevolutionary dynamics” have mutation and selection. We propose an equation that allows us to investigate the origin of evolution. In one limit, this “originator equation” gives the classical selection equation. In the other limit, we obtain “prelife.” There is competition between life and prelife and there can be selection for or against replication. Simple prelife equations with uniform rate constants have the property that longer sequences are exponentially less frequent than shorter ones. But replication can reverse such an ordering. As the replication rate increases, some longer sequences can become more frequent than shorter ones. Thus, replication can lead to “reversals” in the equilibrium portraits. We study these reversals, which mark the transition from prelife to life in our model. If the replication potential exceeds a critical value, then life replicates into existence. PMID:18996397

  7. Planetary Spatial Analyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keely, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    This is a status report for the project entitled Planetary Spatial Analyst (PSA). This report covers activities from the project inception on October 1, 2007 to June 1, 2008. Originally a three year proposal, PSA was awarded funding for one year and required a revised work statement and budget. At the time of this writing the project is well on track both for completion of work as well as budget. The revised project focused on two objectives: build a solid connection with the target community and implement a prototype software application that provides 3D visualization and spatial analysis technologies for that community. Progress has been made for both of these objectives.

  8. Origin of the Metazoa.

    PubMed Central

    Lake, J A

    1990-01-01

    The origin of the multicellular animals has been investigated by rate invariant analysis of 18S rRNA sequences. These analyses indicate that (i) the Metazoa is a monophyletic taxon; (ii) the Deuterostomia is a monophyletic taxon; (iii) the Annelida-Mollusca lineage is the sister group of an arthropod subgroup; and (iv) the last common ancestor of the Annelida-Mollusca lineage is most parsimoniously derived from a segmented, hemocoelic ancestor with an open circulatory system. PMID:2300560

  9. Cosmic Origin of Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calogero, Francesco

    An estimate is presented of the angular momentum associated with the stochastic cosmic tremor, which has been hypothesized to be caused by universal gravitation and by the granularity of matter, and to be itself the cause of quantization ("cosmic origin of quantization"). If that universal tremor has the spatial coherence which is instrumental in order that the estimated action associated with it have the order of magnitude of Planck's constant h, then the estimated order of magnitude of the angular momentum associated with it also has the same value. We moreover indicate how these findings (originally based on a simplified model of the Universe, as being made up only of particles having the nucleon mass) are affected (in fact, essentially unaffected) by the possible presence in the mass of the Universe of a large component made up of particles much lighter than nucleons ("dark", or "missing", mass).

  10. Spatial Displays and Spatial Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R. (Editor); Kaiser, Mary K. (Editor); Grunwald, Arthur J. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The conference proceedings topics are divided into two main areas: (1) issues of spatial and picture perception raised by graphical electronic displays of spatial information; and (2) design questions raised by the practical experience of designers actually defining new spatial instruments for use in new aircraft and spacecraft. Each topic is considered from both a theoretical and an applied direction. Emphasis is placed on discussion of phenomena and determination of design principles.

  11. The origin of lunar concentric craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trang, David; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Hawke, B. Ray

    2016-11-01

    Lunar concentric craters are a unique class of impact craters because the interior of the craters contains a concentric ridge, but their formation mechanism is unknown. In order to determine the origin of concentric craters, we examined multiple working hypotheses, which include eight impact-related and endogenic processes. We analyzed data sets that originated from instruments onboard Clementine, Kaguya, and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to characterize the morphology, spatial distribution, composition, and absolute model ages of 114 concentric craters. Concentric craters contain five key properties: (1) a concentric ridge, (2) anomalously shallow floors, (3) their occurrence is concentrated near mare margins and in mare pond regions (4) the concentric ridge composition is similar to the surrounding area and (5) concentric crater ages are Eratosthenian and older. These five key properties served as constraints for testing impact-related and endogenic mechanisms of formation. We find that most impact-related hypotheses cannot explain the spatial and age distribution of concentric craters. As for endogenic hypotheses, we deduce that igneous intrusions are the likely mechanism that formed concentric craters because of the close relationship between concentric craters and floor-fractured craters and the concentration of both features near mare-highland boundaries and in mare ponds. Furthermore, we observe that floor-fractured craters are common at crater diameters > 15 km, whereas concentric craters are common at crater diameters < 15 km. We suggest that igneous intrusions underneath small craters (<15 km) are likely to form concentric craters, whereas intrusions under large craters (>15 km) produce floor-fractured craters.

  12. Spatial clustering of tuning in mouse primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ringach, Dario L.; Mineault, Patrick J.; Tring, Elaine; Olivas, Nicholas D.; Garcia-Junco-Clemente, Pablo; Trachtenberg, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    The primary visual cortex of higher mammals is organized into two-dimensional maps, where the preference of cells for stimulus parameters is arranged regularly on the cortical surface. In contrast, the preference of neurons in the rodent appears to be arranged randomly, in what is termed a salt-and-pepper map. Here we revisited the spatial organization of receptive fields in mouse primary visual cortex by measuring the tuning of pyramidal neurons in the joint orientation and spatial frequency domain. We found that the similarity of tuning decreases as a function of cortical distance, revealing a weak but statistically significant spatial clustering. Clustering was also observed across different cortical depths, consistent with a columnar organization. Thus, the mouse visual cortex is not strictly a salt-and-pepper map. At least on a local scale, it resembles a degraded version of the organization seen in higher mammals, hinting at a possible common origin. PMID:27481398

  13. Origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Cleaves, H. J.

    2003-10-01

    Deciphering the origin of life requires some knowledge of the early planetary environment. Unfortunately, we lack definitive evidence of the atmospheric composition, surface temperature, oceanic pH, and other environmental conditions that may have been important for the appearance of the first living systems on Earth. The rock remnants of the early Archean are extremely scarce and most of the record has been lost. The first indications of life from carbon inclusions in rocks and the oldest fossil record are currently under debate but there is a consensus that life started during the first billion years after the Earth formed. Life as we know it is a chemical phenomenon. The chemistry that could have produced self-organizing systems is the central problem in the origin of life. There are several competing theories for how this chemistry may have arisen. In spite of their diversity, proposals for a prebiotic "soup", for the role of submarine hydrothermal vents, or for the extraterrestrial origin of organic compounds have as a common background assumption the idea that abiotic organic compounds were necessary for the emergence of life. It is possible that a combination of these sources - exogenous and endogenous - contributed building blocks for the origin of life on Earth. In this paper we provide a review of the main ideas on the origin of life from the astrobiological perspective and discuss the probability of life on extrasolar planets.

  14. Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clear, Sarah-Jane

    1978-01-01

    Explores (1) problems of the validity of tests of spatial ability, and (2) problems of the recessive gene influence theory of the origin of sex differences in spatial ability. Studies of cognitive strategies in spatial problem solving are suggested as a way to further investigate recessive gene influence. (Author/RH)

  15. Common Cause Failures and Ultra Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    A common cause failure occurs when several failures have the same origin. Common cause failures are either common event failures, where the cause is a single external event, or common mode failures, where two systems fail in the same way for the same reason. Common mode failures can occur at different times because of a design defect or a repeated external event. Common event failures reduce the reliability of on-line redundant systems but not of systems using off-line spare parts. Common mode failures reduce the dependability of systems using off-line spare parts and on-line redundancy.

  16. Correlated Raman micro-spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses of flame retardants in environmental samples: a micro-analytical tool for probing chemical composition, origin and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Sutapa; Wagner, Jeff

    2013-07-07

    We present correlated application of two micro-analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) for the non-invasive characterization and molecular identification of flame retardants (FRs) in environmental dusts and consumer products. The SEM/EDS-RMS technique offers correlated, morphological, molecular, spatial distribution and semi-quantitative elemental concentration information at the individual particle level with micrometer spatial resolution and minimal sample preparation. The presented methodology uses SEM/EDS analyses for rapid detection of particles containing FR specific elements as potential indicators of FR presence in a sample followed by correlated RMS analyses of the same particles for characterization of the FR sub-regions and surrounding matrices. The spatially resolved characterization enabled by this approach provides insights into the distributional heterogeneity as well as potential transfer and exposure mechanisms for FRs in the environment that is typically not available through traditional FR analysis. We have used this methodology to reveal a heterogeneous distribution of highly concentrated deca-BDE particles in environmental dust, sometimes in association with identifiable consumer materials. The observed coexistence of deca-BDE with consumer material in dust is strongly indicative of its release into the environment via weathering/abrasion of consumer products. Ingestion of such enriched FR particles in dust represents a potential for instantaneous exposure to high FR concentrations. Therefore, correlated SEM/RMS analysis offers a novel investigative tool for addressing an area of important environmental concern.

  17. Developmental Origins of Common Disease: Epigenetic Contributions to Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kappil, Maya; Wright, Robert O.; Sanders, Alison P.

    2016-01-01

    The perinatal period is a window of susceptibility for later life disease. Recent epigenetic findings are beginning to increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the programming of obesity. This review summarizes recent evidence that supports the role of epigenetically mediated early life programming in the later onset of obesity. Establishing such links between environmental exposures and modifiable molecular changes ultimately holds promise to inform interventional efforts toward alleviating the environmentally mediated onset of obesity. PMID:27216778

  18. Common molecularcytogenetic alterations in tumors originating from the pineal region

    PubMed Central

    BÖHRNSEN, FLORIAN; ENDERS, CHRISTINA; LUDWIG, HANS-CHRISTOPH; BRÜCK, WOLFGANG; FÜZESI, LASZLO; GUTENBERG, ANGELIKA

    2015-01-01

    Tumors of the pineal region (PR) are rare and can be subdivided into four main histomorphological groups: Pineal-parenchymal tumors (PPT), germ cell tumors (GCT), glial tumors and miscellaneous tumors. The appropriate pathological classification and grading of these malignancies is essential for determining the clinical management and prognosis. However, an early diagnosis is often delayed due to unspecific clinical symptoms, and histological support is not always decisive to identify the diversity of tumors of the PR. The present study aimed to characterize 18 tumors of the PR using comparative genomic hybridization. All the tumors were primarily surgically resected without any previous irradiation or chemotherapy. In addition to chromosomal aberrations in PPT and different GCTs of the PR, the present study described, for the first time, the chromosomal changes in a few rare entities (solitary-fibrous and neuroendocrine tumors) of the PR. The tumors in the study, regardless of histology and World Health Organization grade, were characterized by frequent gains at 7, 9q, 12q, 16p, 17 and 22q, and losses at 13q. While the detection of chromosomal aberrations in these tumors appears not to be indicative enough of histological entities and their grade of malignancy, the present data may be of use to select genes of interest for higher resolution genomic analyses. PMID:26622764

  19. Common origin of neutrino mass, dark matter and Dirac leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Debasish; Dasgupta, Arnab

    2016-12-01

    We study the possibility of generating tiny Dirac neutrino masses at one loop level through the scotogenic mechanism such that one of the particles going inside the loop can be a stable cold dark matter (DM) candidate. Majorana mass terms of singlet fermions as well as tree level Dirac neutrino masses are prevented by incorporating the presence of additional discrete symmetries in a minimal fashion, which also guarantee the stability of the dark matter candidate. Due to the absence of total lepton number violation, the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe is generated through the mechanism of Dirac leptogenesis where an equal and opposite amount of leptonic asymmetry is generated in the left and right handed sectors which are prevented from equilibration due to tiny Dirac Yukawa couplings. Dark matter relic abundance is generated through its usual freeze-out at a temperature much below the scale of leptogenesis. We constrain the relevant parameter space from neutrino mass, baryon asymmetry, Planck bound on dark matter relic abundance, and latest LUX bound on spin independent DM-nucleon scattering cross section. We also discuss the charged lepton flavour violation (μ → e γ) and electric dipole moment of electron in this model in the light of the latest experimental data and constrain the parameter space of the model.

  20. Comparing Common Origins: Using Biotechnology To Teach Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, John; Glasson, George

    2001-01-01

    Presents an innovative, inquiry-oriented lesson plan for using biotechnology to teach evolution. Using acrylamide gel electrophoresis, students learn how to isolate and compare different proteins from the muscle tissue of readily available seafood specimens to determine phylogenetic relationships. Uses a 5E (engagement, exploration, explanation,…

  1. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  2. ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT FOR SPATIAL OPERATORS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claire, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    An approach is given that develops spatial operators about the basic geometric elements common to spatial data structures. In this fashion, a single set of spatial operators may be accessed by any system that reduces its operands to such basic generic representations. Algorithms based on this premise have been formulated to perform operations such as separation, overlap, and intersection. Moreover, this generic approach is well suited for algorithms that exploit concurrent properties of spatial operators. The results may provide a framework for a geometry engine to support fundamental manipulations within a geographic information system.

  3. Spatial memory: are lizards really deficient?

    PubMed

    Ladage, L D; Roth, T C; Cerjanic, A M; Sinervo, B; Pravosudov, V V

    2012-12-23

    In many animals, behaviours such as territoriality, mate guarding, navigation and food acquisition rely heavily on spatial memory abilities; this has been demonstrated in diverse taxa, from invertebrates to mammals. However, spatial memory ability in squamate reptiles has been seen as possible, at best, or non-existent, at worst. Of the few previous studies testing for spatial memory in squamates, some have found no evidence of spatial memory while two studies have found evidence of spatial memory in snakes, but have been criticized based on methodological issues. We used the Barnes maze, a common paradigm to test spatial memory abilities in mammals, to test for spatial memory abilities in the side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana). We found the existence of spatial memory in this species using this spatial task. Thus, our study supports the existence of spatial memory in this squamate reptile species and seeks to parsimoniously align this species with the diverse taxa that demonstrate spatial memory ability.

  4. Toothache of cardiac origin.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, M; Okeson, J P

    1999-01-01

    Pain referred to the orofacial structures can sometimes be a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. In some instances, a patient may complain of tooth pain that is completely unrelated to any dental source. This poses a diagnostic and therapeutic problem for the dentist. Cardiac pain most commonly radiates to the left arm, shoulder, neck, and face. In rare instances, angina pectoris may present as dental pain. When this occurs, an improper diagnosis frequently leads to unnecessary dental treatment or, more significantly, a delay of proper treatment. This delay may result in the patient experiencing an acute myocardial infarction. It is the dentist's responsibility to establish a proper diagnosis so that the treatment will be directed toward the source of pain and not to the site of pain. This article reviews the literature concerning referred pain of cardiac origin and presents a case report of toothache of cardiac origin.

  5. Spatial vulnerability assessments by regression kriging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, László; Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Szatmári, Gábor

    2016-04-01

    Two fairly different complex environmental phenomena, causing natural hazard were mapped based on a combined spatial inference approach. The behaviour is related to various environmental factors and the applied approach enables the inclusion of several, spatially exhaustive auxiliary variables that are available for mapping. Inland excess water (IEW) is an interrelated natural and human induced phenomenon causes several problems in the flat-land regions of Hungary, which cover nearly half of the country. The term 'inland excess water' refers to the occurrence of inundations outside the flood levee that originate from sources differing from flood overflow, it is surplus surface water forming due to the lack of runoff, insufficient absorption capability of soil or the upwelling of groundwater. There is a multiplicity of definitions, which indicate the complexity of processes that govern this phenomenon. Most of the definitions have a common part, namely, that inland excess water is temporary water inundation that occurs in flat-lands due to both precipitation and groundwater emerging on the surface as substantial sources. Radon gas is produced in the radioactive decay chain of uranium, which is an element that is naturally present in soils. Radon is transported mainly by diffusion and convection mechanisms through the soil depending mainly on soil physical and meteorological parameters and can enter and accumulate in the buildings. Health risk originating from indoor radon concentration attributed to natural factors is characterized by geogenic radon potential (GRP). In addition to geology and meteorology, physical soil properties play significant role in the determination of GRP. Identification of areas with high risk requires spatial modelling, that is mapping of specific natural hazards. In both cases external environmental factors determine the behaviour of the target process (occurrence/frequncy of IEW and grade of GRP respectively). Spatial auxiliary

  6. SPATIAL NEGLECT AND ATTENTION NETWORKS

    PubMed Central

    Corbetta, Maurizio; Shulman, Gordon L.

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following predominantly right hemisphere injuries to ventral fronto-parietal cortex. We propose that neglect reflects deficits in the coding of saliency, control of spatial attention, and representation within an egocentric frame of reference, in conjunction with non-spatial deficits of reorienting, target detection, and arousal/vigilance. In contrast to theories that link spatial neglect to structural damage of specific brain regions, we argue that neglect is better explained by the physiological dysfunction of distributed cortical networks. The ventral lesions in right parietal, temporal, and frontal cortex that cause neglect directly impair non-spatial functions and hypoactivate the right hemisphere, inducing abnormalities in task-evoked activity and functional connectivity of a dorsal frontal-parietal network that controls spatial attention. The anatomy and right hemisphere dominance of neglect follows from the anatomy and laterality of the ventral regions that interact with the dorsal attention network. PMID:21692662

  7. Common NICU Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... care unit (NICU) > Common NICU equipment Common NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... understand how they can help your baby. What equipment is commonly used in the NICU? Providers use ...

  8. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  9. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  10. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  11. a Novel Approach to Veterinary Spatial Epidemiology: Dasymetric Refinement of the Swiss Dog Tumor Registry Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boo, G.; Fabrikant, S. I.; Leyk, S.

    2015-08-01

    In spatial epidemiology, disease incidence and demographic data are commonly summarized within larger regions such as administrative units because of privacy concerns. As a consequence, analyses using these aggregated data are subject to the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP) as the geographical manifestation of ecological fallacy. In this study, we create small area disease estimates through dasymetric refinement, and investigate the effects on predictive epidemiological models. We perform a binary dasymetric refinement of municipality-aggregated dog tumor incidence counts in Switzerland for the year 2008 using residential land as a limiting ancillary variable. This refinement is expected to improve the quality of spatial data originally aggregated within arbitrary administrative units by deconstructing them into discontinuous subregions that better reflect the underlying population distribution. To shed light on effects of this refinement, we compare a predictive statistical model that uses unrefined administrative units with one that uses dasymetrically refined spatial units. Model diagnostics and spatial distributions of model residuals are assessed to evaluate the model performances in different regions. In particular, we explore changes in the spatial autocorrelation of the model residuals due to spatial refinement of the enumeration units in a selected mountainous region, where the rugged topography induces great shifts of the analytical units i.e., residential land. Such spatial data quality refinement results in a more realistic estimation of the population distribution within administrative units, and thus, in a more accurate modeling of dog tumor incidence patterns. Our results emphasize the benefits of implementing a dasymetric modeling framework in veterinary spatial epidemiology.

  12. Common Tests for Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Tests for Arrhythmia Updated:Dec 21,2016 Several tests can help ... View an animation of arrhythmia . Common Tests for Arrhythmia Holter monitor (continuous ambulatory electrocardiographic monitor) Suspected arrhythmias ...

  13. Finding Common Ground with the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisan, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the Common Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The process raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…

  14. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  15. Canonical Commonality Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, K. Dawn

    Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor…

  16. Knowledge representation for commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1990-01-01

    Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.

  17. Spatial degradation of satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C. O.; Markham, B. L.; Townshend, J. R. G.; Kennard, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to a technique for spatially degrading high-resolution satellite data to produce comparable data sets over a range of coarser resolutions. Landsat MSS data is used to produce seven spatial resolution data sets by applying a spatial filter designed to simulate sensor response. Also, spatial degradation of coarse resolution data to provide data compression for the production of global-scale data sets is examined. NOAA AVHRR Global Area Coverage data is compared to other sampling procedures. It is found that sampling procedures that incorporate averaging result in decreased variance, while sampling procedures adopting single-value selection have higher variances and produce data values comparable with those from the original data.

  18. Spatial features register: toward standardization of spatial features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cascio, Janette

    1994-01-01

    As the need to share spatial data increases, more than agreement on a common format is needed to ensure that the data is meaningful to both the importer and the exporter. Effective data transfer also requires common definitions of spatial features. To achieve this, part 2 of the Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) provides a model for a spatial features data content specification and a glossary of features and attributes that fit this model. The model provides a foundation for standardizing spatial features. The glossary now contains only a limited subset of hydrographic and topographic features. For it to be useful, terms and definitions must be included for other categories, such as base cartographic, bathymetric, cadastral, cultural and demographic, geodetic, geologic, ground transportation, international boundaries, soils, vegetation, water, and wetlands, and the set of hydrographic and topographic features must be expanded. This paper will review the philosophy of the SDTS part 2 and the current plans for creating a national spatial features register as one mechanism for maintaining part 2.

  19. Neurodegenerative diseases: a common etiology and a common therapy.

    PubMed

    Pierpaoli, Walter

    2005-12-01

    The variety of names of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) does not indicate that there is a wide variety of causes and a multiple number of cures. In fact NDDs derive from a common and repetitive, almost monotonous multicausal origin. NDDs are initiated invariably by a sudden or silent insidious decrease in immunologic resistance of the T cell-dependent or delayed type, produced by a large variety of psychological-emotional and/or environmental "stressors" (e.g., social, family-domestic, economic, alimentary, traumatic, and professional). These stressors increase the vulnerability of tissues (in this case, a section of the central or peripheral nervous system) to attack by a common virus (e.g., adenoviruses and herpesviruses). This attack creates a vicious circle leading to emergence of virus-generated tissue autoantigens and then to formation of autoantibodies. Use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs dramatically worsen and "eternalize" the diseases with further immunosuppression. Invariably, onset of NDDs is anticipated by a clear-cut alteration of the hormonal cyclicity, which closely controls immunity. My experience with patients in the last five years indicates a new approach to prevent and cure NDDs, based on a system totally divergent from present therapies. In fact "resetting the hormonal cyclicity clock" results in restoration of hormone-dependent antiviral immunity, arrest of disease progression, and at least partial recovery of neural functions, whatever the origin, anatomic location, and course of pathology.

  20. Estimating Function Approaches for Spatial Point Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Chong

    Spatial point pattern data consist of locations of events that are often of interest in biological and ecological studies. Such data are commonly viewed as a realization from a stochastic process called spatial point process. To fit a parametric spatial point process model to such data, likelihood-based methods have been widely studied. However, while maximum likelihood estimation is often too computationally intensive for Cox and cluster processes, pairwise likelihood methods such as composite likelihood, Palm likelihood usually suffer from the loss of information due to the ignorance of correlation among pairs. For many types of correlated data other than spatial point processes, when likelihood-based approaches are not desirable, estimating functions have been widely used for model fitting. In this dissertation, we explore the estimating function approaches for fitting spatial point process models. These approaches, which are based on the asymptotic optimal estimating function theories, can be used to incorporate the correlation among data and yield more efficient estimators. We conducted a series of studies to demonstrate that these estmating function approaches are good alternatives to balance the trade-off between computation complexity and estimating efficiency. First, we propose a new estimating procedure that improves the efficiency of pairwise composite likelihood method in estimating clustering parameters. Our approach combines estimating functions derived from pairwise composite likeli-hood estimation and estimating functions that account for correlations among the pairwise contributions. Our method can be used to fit a variety of parametric spatial point process models and can yield more efficient estimators for the clustering parameters than pairwise composite likelihood estimation. We demonstrate its efficacy through a simulation study and an application to the longleaf pine data. Second, we further explore the quasi-likelihood approach on fitting

  1. Spatial memory in foraging games.

    PubMed

    Kerster, Bryan E; Rhodes, Theo; Kello, Christopher T

    2016-03-01

    Foraging and foraging-like processes are found in spatial navigation, memory, visual search, and many other search functions in human cognition and behavior. Foraging is commonly theorized using either random or correlated movements based on Lévy walks, or a series of decisions to remain or leave proximal areas known as "patches". Neither class of model makes use of spatial memory, but search performance may be enhanced when information about searched and unsearched locations is encoded. A video game was developed to test the role of human spatial memory in a canonical foraging task. Analyses of search trajectories from over 2000 human players yielded evidence that foraging movements were inherently clustered, and that clustering was facilitated by spatial memory cues and influenced by memory for spatial locations of targets found. A simple foraging model is presented in which spatial memory is used to integrate aspects of Lévy-based and patch-based foraging theories to perform a kind of area-restricted search, and thereby enhance performance as search unfolds. Using only two free parameters, the model accounts for a variety of findings that individually support competing theories, but together they argue for the integration of spatial memory into theories of foraging.

  2. Humanism as a common factor in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wampold, Bruce E

    2012-12-01

    There are many forms of psychotherapies, each distinctive in its own way. From the origins of psychotherapy, it has been suggested that psychotherapy is effective through factors that are common to all therapies. In this article, I suggest that the commonalities that are at the core of psychotherapy are related to evolved human characteristics, which include (a) making sense of the world, (b) influencing through social means, and (c) connectedness, expectation, and mastery. In this way, all psychotherapies are humanistic.

  3. Campus Common Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Gordon Morris

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

  4. Conceptualizing an Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology-management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service-delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment. (Author)

  5. Common Eye Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye,” is the most common cause of vision impairment in children. Amblyopia is the medical term used ... the most common cause of permanent one-eye vision impairment among children and young and middle-aged adults. ...

  6. Spatial continuity measures for probabilistic and deterministic geostatistics

    SciTech Connect

    Isaaks, E.H.; Srivastava, R.M.

    1988-05-01

    Geostatistics has traditionally used a probabilistic framework, one in which expected values or ensemble averages are of primary importance. The less familiar deterministic framework views geostatistical problems in terms of spatial integrals. This paper outlines the two frameworks and examines the issue of which spatial continuity measure, the covariance C(h) or the variogram ..sigma..(h), is appropriate for each framework. Although C(h) and ..sigma..(h) were defined originally in terms of spatial integrals, the convenience of probabilistic notation made the expected value definitions more common. These now classical expected value definitions entail a linear relationship between C(h) and ..sigma..(h); the spatial integral definitions do not. In a probabilistic framework, where available sample information is extrapolated to domains other than the one which was sampled, the expected value definitions are appropriate; furthermore, within a probabilistic framework, reasons exist for preferring the variogram to the covariance function. In a deterministic framework, where available sample information is interpolated within the same domain, the spatial integral definitions are appropriate and no reasons are known for preferring the variogram. A case study on a Wiener-Levy process demonstrates differences between the two frameworks and shows that, for most estimation problems, the deterministic viewpoint is more appropriate. Several case studies on real data sets reveal that the sample covariance function reflects the character of spatial continuity better than the sample variogram. From both theoretical and practical considerations, clearly for most geostatistical problems, direct estimation of the covariance is better than the traditional variogram approach.

  7. Origin and diversification of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Katz, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    The bulk of the diversity of eukaryotic life is microbial. Although the larger eukaryotes-namely plants, animals, and fungi-dominate our visual landscapes, microbial lineages compose the greater part of both genetic diversity and biomass, and contain many evolutionary innovations. Our understanding of the origin and diversification of eukaryotes has improved substantially with analyses of molecular data from diverse lineages. These data have provided insight into the nature of the genome of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Yet, the origin of key eukaryotic features, namely the nucleus and cytoskeleton, remains poorly understood. In contrast, the past decades have seen considerable refinement in hypotheses on the major branching events in the evolution of eukaryotic diversity. New insights have also emerged, including evidence for the acquisition of mitochondria at the time of the origin of eukaryotes and data supporting the dynamic nature of genomes in LECA.

  8. Spatial Processing in Infancy Predicts Both Spatial and Mathematical Aptitude in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Jillian E; Lourenco, Stella F

    2016-10-01

    Despite considerable interest in the role of spatial intelligence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) achievement, little is known about the ontogenetic origins of individual differences in spatial aptitude or their relation to later accomplishments in STEM disciplines. The current study provides evidence that spatial processes present in infancy predict interindividual variation in both spatial and mathematical competence later in development. Using a longitudinal design, we found that children's performance on a brief visuospatial change-detection task administered between 6 and 13 months of age was related to their spatial aptitude (i.e., mental-transformation skill) and mastery of symbolic-math concepts at 4 years of age, even when we controlled for general cognitive abilities and spatial memory. These results suggest that nascent spatial processes present in the first year of life not only act as precursors to later spatial intelligence but also predict math achievement during childhood.

  9. Communication and common interest.

    PubMed

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Martínez, Manolo

    2013-01-01

    Explaining the maintenance of communicative behavior in the face of incentives to deceive, conceal information, or exaggerate is an important problem in behavioral biology. When the interests of agents diverge, some form of signal cost is often seen as essential to maintaining honesty. Here, novel computational methods are used to investigate the role of common interest between the sender and receiver of messages in maintaining cost-free informative signaling in a signaling game. Two measures of common interest are defined. These quantify the divergence between sender and receiver in their preference orderings over acts the receiver might perform in each state of the world. Sampling from a large space of signaling games finds that informative signaling is possible at equilibrium with zero common interest in both senses. Games of this kind are rare, however, and the proportion of games that include at least one equilibrium in which informative signals are used increases monotonically with common interest. Common interest as a predictor of informative signaling also interacts with the extent to which agents' preferences vary with the state of the world. Our findings provide a quantitative description of the relation between common interest and informative signaling, employing exact measures of common interest, information use, and contingency of payoff under environmental variation that may be applied to a wide range of models and empirical systems.

  10. Spatial-heterodyne interferometry for transmission (SHIFT) measurements

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Philip R.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Tobin, Ken W.

    2006-10-10

    Systems and methods are described for spatial-heterodyne interferometry for transmission (SHIFT) measurements. A method includes digitally recording a spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis using a reference beam, and an object beam that is transmitted through an object that is at least partially translucent; Fourier analyzing the digitally recorded spatially-heterodyned hologram, by shifting an original origin of the digitally recorded spatially-heterodyned hologram to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined by an angle between the reference beam and the object beam, to define an analyzed image; digitally filtering the analyzed image to cut off signals around the original origin to define a result; and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result.

  11. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  12. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  13. How Common Is PTSD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... Public, Family, & Friends How Common Is PTSD? Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur after you have been ...

  14. Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

  15. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  16. Common Causes of Stillbirth

    MedlinePlus

    ... one of the most common placental problems. The placenta separates (partially or completely) from the uterine wall ... or abnormal placement of the cord into the placenta. This can deprive the baby of oxygen. Infectious ...

  17. Commonly Consumed Food Commodities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.

  18. Common Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  19. Common peroneal nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - common peroneal nerve; Peroneal nerve injury; Peroneal nerve palsy ... type of peripheral neuropathy (damage to nerves outside the brain ... nerve injuries. Damage to the nerve disrupts the myelin sheath ...

  20. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  1. Proving universal common ancestry with similar sequences

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Leonardo de Oliveira; Posada, David

    2013-01-01

    Douglas Theobald recently developed an interesting test putatively capable of quantifying the evidence for a Universal Common Ancestry uniting the three domains of life (Eukarya, Archaea and Bacteria) against hypotheses of Independent Origins for some of these domains. We review here his model, in particular in relation to the treatment of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) and to the quality of sequence alignment. PMID:23814665

  2. Correlation as Probability of Common Descent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ruma; Well, Arnold D.

    1996-01-01

    One interpretation of the Pearson product-moment correlation ("r"), correlation as the probability of originating from common descent, important to the genetic measurement of inbreeding, is examined. The conditions under which "r" can be interpreted as the probability of "identity by descent" are specified, and the…

  3. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  4. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  5. Did Darwin write the Origin backwards?

    PubMed Central

    Sober, Elliott

    2009-01-01

    After clarifying how Darwin understood natural selection and common ancestry, I consider how the two concepts are related in his theory. I argue that common ancestry has evidential priority. Arguments about natural selection often make use of the assumption of common ancestry, whereas arguments for common ancestry do not require the assumption that natural selection has been at work. In fact, Darwin held that the key evidence for common ancestry comes from characters whose evolution is not caused by natural selection. This raises the question of why Darwin puts natural selection first and foremost in the Origin. PMID:19528655

  6. Spatial Encounters: Exercises in Spatial Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque.

    This series of activities on spatial relationships was designed to help users acquire the skills of spatial visualization and orientation and to improve their effectiveness in applying those skills. The series contains an introduction to spatial orientation with several self-directed activities to help improve that skill. It also contains seven…

  7. Four-dimensional spatial reasoning in humans.

    PubMed

    Aflalo, T N; Graziano, M S A

    2008-10-01

    Human subjects practiced navigation in a virtual, computer-generated maze that contained 4 spatial dimensions rather than the usual 3. The subjects were able to learn the spatial geometry of the 4-dimensional maze as measured by their ability to perform path integration, a standard test of spatial ability. They were able to travel down a winding corridor to its end and then point back accurately toward the occluded origin. One interpretation is that the brain substrate for spatial navigation is not a built-in map of the 3-dimensional world. Instead it may be better described as a set of general rules for manipulating spatial information that can be applied with practice to a diversity of spatial frameworks.

  8. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  9. Latent spatial models and sampling design for landscape genetics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Ephraim M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Knick, Steven T.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Fike, Jennifer A.; Cross, Todd B.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a spatially-explicit approach for modeling genetic variation across space and illustrate how this approach can be used to optimize spatial prediction and sampling design for landscape genetic data. We propose a multinomial data model for categorical microsatellite allele data commonly used in landscape genetic studies, and introduce a latent spatial random effect to allow for spatial correlation between genetic observations. We illustrate how modern dimension reduction approaches to spatial statistics can allow for efficient computation in landscape genetic statistical models covering large spatial domains. We apply our approach to propose a retrospective spatial sampling design for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) population genetics in the western United States.

  10. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  11. Finding the Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dawn

    1980-01-01

    Describes an attempt to combine secondary English instruction emphasizing United States literature with science and history by finding "common ground" between these disciplines in (1) the separation of truth from falsehood and (2) logical thinking. Biographies combined history and literature, and science fiction combined science and English;…

  12. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  13. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  14. Information Commons to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Marc Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

  15. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  16. Commonalities across Effective Collaboratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jill F.; Flynn, Richard B.

    2000-01-01

    Examined effective collaborations involving schools and colleges of education and other organizations, identifying commonly voiced reasons for collaboration and factors perceived as important in collaboration. Data come from research, case descriptions, survey responses, and input from collaborators. Willingness to listen, mutual respect,…

  17. The Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the conflicting principles revealed respectively by those who argue for the common school and by those who seek to promote a system of schools that, though maintained by the state, might reflect the different religious beliefs within the community. The philosopher, John Dewey, is appealed to in defence of the common…

  18. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  19. Pleasure: the common currency.

    PubMed

    Cabanac, M

    1992-03-21

    At present as physiologists studying various homeostatic behaviors, such as thermoregulatory behavior and food and fluid intake, we have no common currency that allows us to equate the strength of the motivational drive that accompanies each regulatory need, in terms of how an animal or a person will choose to satisfy his needs when there is a conflict between two or more of them. Yet the behaving organism must rank his priorities and needs a common currency to achieve the ranking (McFarland & Sibly, 1975, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 270 Biol 265-293). A theory is proposed here according to which pleasure is this common currency. The perception of pleasure, as measured operationally and quantitatively by choice behavior (in the case of animals), or by the rating of the intensity of pleasure or displeasure (in the case of humans) can serve as such a common currency. The tradeoffs between various motivations would thus be accomplished by simple maximization of pleasure. In what follows, the scientific work arising recently on this subject, with be reviewed briefly and our recent experimental findings will be presented. This will serve as the support for the theoretical position formulated in this essay.

  20. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  1. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  2. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  3. Human Commonalities and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

  4. Does Common Enrollment Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Clayton, Grant

    2016-01-01

    In this article, researchers Dick M. Carpenter II and Grant Clayton explore common enrollment systems (CESs)--how they work and what school leaders can learn from districts that have implemented CESs. Denver, New Orleans, and Newark (New Jersey) have rolled out this centralized enrollment process for all district-run and charter schools in their…

  5. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  6. Common File Formats.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  7. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  8. Math, Literacy, & Common Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

  9. Spatial attention systems in spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2015-08-01

    It has been established that processes relating to 'spatial attention' are implemented at cortical level by goal-directed (top-down) and stimulus-driven (bottom-up) networks. Spatial neglect in brain-damaged individuals has been interpreted as a distinguished exemplar for a disturbance of these processes. The present paper elaborates this assumption. Functioning of the two attentional networks seem to dissociate in spatial neglect; behavioral studies of patients' orienting and exploration behavior point to a disturbed stimulus-driven but preserved goal-directed attention system. When a target suddenly appears somewhere in space, neglect patients demonstrate disturbed detection and orienting if it is located in contralesional direction. In contrast, if neglect patients explore a scene with voluntarily, top-down controlled shifts of spatial attention, they perform movements that are oriented into all spatial directions without any direction-specific disturbances. The paper thus argues that not the top-down control of spatial attention itself, rather a body-related matrix on top of which this process is executed, seems affected. In that sense, the traditional role of spatial neglect as a stroke model for 'spatial attention' requires adjustment. Beyond its insights into the human stimulus-driven attentional system, the disorder most notably provides vistas in how our brain encodes topographical information and organizes spatially oriented action - including the top-down control of spatial attention - in relation to body position.

  10. Seeking Fast Radio Burst Origins Using the Very Large Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Bridget Clare; Spolaor, Sarah; Demorest, Paul; Realfast

    2017-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are transient pulses of radio emission lasting on the order of milliseconds. There have been ~25 FRB sources discovered to date with pulse widths ranging from 1 to 15 ms, and flux densities typically ranging from 0.3 to 2.0 Jy (Petroff et al. 2016). These FRBs have dispersion measures (DMs) on the order of hundreds of pc/cc, well in excess of the expected Galactic contribution. This has lead many to believe that FRBs are extragalactic in origin, with leading progenitor theories suggesting some connection to neutron star related events. However, plausible origin theories remain numerous (Popov & Pshirkov 2016). Thus, localization will be a critical contribution to our understanding of FRBs. Spatial identification of a progenitor would not only help us whittle down origin theories but also allow us to utilize FRBs as invaluable cosmological probes of the intergalactic medium. All reported FRBs to date have been discovered with single dish telescopes that have insufficient resolution for confident localization. In contrast, the Very Large Array (VLA) has the capability to detect and localize FRBs to arcsecond precision. Project realfast takes advantage of this unique localization capability to conduct FRB searches at the VLA in quasi-real-time. We present recent realfast data, including the development of FRB visualization using interferometric imaging, and a discussion of thermal noise candidates and common types of radio frequency interference detected by realfast software. We also present the results of the FRB candidate search for the most recent 150 hour VLA observing campaign. This campaign focused on observations of nearby galaxies with high star-formation rates, and we are thus able to perform a sharp test on any correlation between FRB rates and star-forming galaxies, as might be expected if FRBs originate from neutron stars in nearby galaxies. This analysis allows us to put a lower limit on the characteristic distance to FRBs.

  11. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  12. Common medical pains

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Pain in infancy and childhood is extremely common. Sources of pain include illness, injury, and medical and dental procedures. Over the past two decades, tremendous progress has been made in the assessment, prevention and treatment of pain. It is important for the paediatric health care provider to be aware of the implications and consequences of pain in childhood. A multitude of interventions are available to reduce or alleviate pain in children of all ages, including neonates. These include behavioural and psychological methods, as well as a host of pharmacological preparations, which are safe and effective when used as indicated. Many complementary and alternative treatments appear to be promising in treating and relieving pain, although further research is required. The present article reviews the most common sources of pain in childhood and infancy, as well as current treatment strategies and options. PMID:19030348

  13. Approximate spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumitra

    1988-01-01

    A model for approximate spatial reasoning using fuzzy logic to represent the uncertainty in the environment is presented. Algorithms are developed which can be used to reason about spatial information expressed in the form of approximate linguistic descriptions similar to the kind of spatial information processed by humans. Particular attention is given to static spatial reasoning.

  14. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  15. Common Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincent C.

    1992-01-01

    Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9 PMID:21221380

  16. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  17. Common neuropathic itch syndromes.

    PubMed

    Oaklander, Anne Louise

    2012-03-01

    Patients with chronic itch are diagnosed and treated by dermatologists. However, itch is a neural sensation and some forms of chronic itch are the presenting symptoms of neurological diseases. Dermatologists need some familiarity with the most common neuropathic itch syndromes to initiate diagnostic testing and to know when to refer to a neurologist. This review summarizes current knowledge, admittedly incomplete, on neuropathic itch caused by diseases of the brain, spinal cord, cranial or spinal nerve-roots, and peripheral nerves.

  18. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  19. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  20. Common Geometry Module

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  1. Spatial Vision in Bombus terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Aravin; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Kelber, Almut

    2016-01-01

    Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg−1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana) and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens). We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.090 cycles deg−1 and 1.26 for 0.18 cycles deg−1. PMID:26912998

  2. Spatial aggregation: Language and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey-Kellogg, C.; Zhao, F.; Yip, K.

    1996-12-31

    Spatial aggregation is a framework for organizing computations around image-like, analogue representations of physical processes in data interpretation and control tasks. It conceptualizes common computational structures in a class of implemented problem solvers for difficult scientific and engineering problems. It comprises a mechanism, a language, and a programming style. The spatial aggregation mechanism transforms a numerical input field to successively higher-level descriptions by applying a small, identical set of operators to each layer given a metric, neighborhood relation and equivalence relation. This paper describes the spatial aggregation language and its applications. The spatial aggregation language provides two abstract data types - neighborhood graph and field - and a set of interface operators for constructing the transformations of the field, together with a library of component implementations from which a user can mix-and-match and specialize for a particular application. The language allows users to isolate and express important computational ideas in different problem domains while hiding low-level details. We illustrate the use of the language with examples ranging from trajectory grouping in dynamics interpretation to region growing in image analysis. Programs for these different task domains can be written in a modular, concise fashion in the spatial aggregation language.

  3. Swine origin influenza (swine flu).

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Meghna R; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K

    2009-08-01

    Swine origin influenza was first recognized in the border area of Mexico and United States in April 2009 and during a short span of two months became the first pandemic. The currently circulating strain of swine origin influenza virus of the H1N1 strain has undergone triple reassortment and contains genes from the avian, swine and human viruses. It is transmitted by droplets or fomites. Incubation period is 2 to 7 days. Common clinical symptoms are indistinguishable by any viral respiratory illness, and include fever, cough, sore throat and myalgia. A feature seen more frequently with swine origin influenza is GI upset. Less than 10% of patients require hospitalization. Patients at risk of developing severe disease are - younger than five years, elderly, pregnant women, with chronic systemic illnesses, adolescents on aspirin. Of the severe manifestations of swine origin influenza, pneumonia and respiratory failure are the most common. Unusual symptoms reported are conjunctivitis, parotitis, hemophagocytic syndrome. Infants may present with fever and lethargy with no respiratory symptoms. Diagnosis is based on RT PCR, Viral culture or increasing neutralizing antibodies. Principle of treatment consist of isolation, universal precautions, good infection control practices, supportive care and use of antiviral drugs. Antiviral drugs effective against H1N1 virus include: oseltamivir and zamanavir. With good supportive care case fatality is less than 1%. Preventive measures include: social distancing, practicing respiratory etiquette, hand hygiene and use of chemoprohylaxis with antiviral drugs. Vaccine against H1N1 is not available at present, but will be available in near future.

  4. Categorization in Infancy: Labeling Induces a Persisting Focus on Commonalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althaus, Nadja; Plunkett, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies with infants and adults demonstrate a facilitative role of labels in object categorization. A common interpretation is that labels highlight commonalities between objects. However, direct evidence for such a mechanism is lacking. Using a novel object category with spatially separate features that are either of low or high…

  5. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  6. Faster processing of multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Gregory R.; Bingham, Philip R.

    2006-10-03

    Systems and methods are described for faster processing of multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms. A method includes of obtaining multiple spatially-heterodyned holograms, includes: digitally recording a first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digitally recording a second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a first original origin of the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined as a first angle between a first reference beam and a first, object beam; applying a first digital filter to cut off signals around the first original origin and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result; Fourier analyzing the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a second original origin of the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined as a second angle between a second reference beam and a second object beam; and applying a second digital filter to cut off signals around the second original origin and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result, wherein digitally recording the first spatially-heterodyned hologram is completed before digitally recording the second spatially-heterodyned hologram and a single digital image includes both the first spatially-heterodyned hologram and the second spatially-heterodyned hologram.

  7. Faster processing of multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN; Bingham, Philip R [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09

    Systems and methods are described for faster processing of multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms. A method includes of obtaining multiple spatially-heterodyned holograms, includes: digitally recording a first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digitally recording a second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a first original origin of the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined as a first angle between a first reference beam and a first object beam; applying a first digital filter to cut off signals around the first original origin and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result; Fourier analyzing the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a second original origin of the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined as a second angle between a second reference beam and a second object beam; and applying a second digital filter to cut off signals around the second original origin and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result, wherein digitally recording the first spatially-heterodyned hologram is completed before digitally recording the second spatially-heterodyned hologram and a single digital image includes both the first spatially-heterodyned hologram and the second spatially-heterodyned hologram.

  8. Role of origin and release location in pre-spawning distribution and movements of anadromous alewife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, Holly J.; Mather, M. E.; Smith, Joseph M.; Muth, Robert M.; Finn, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Capturing adult anadromous fish that are ready to spawn from a self sustaining population and transferring them into a depleted system is a common fisheries enhancement tool. The behaviour of these transplanted fish, however, has not been fully evaluated. The movements of stocked and native anadromous alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson), were monitored in the Ipswich River, Massachusetts, USA, to provide a scientific basis for this management tool. Radiotelemetry was used to examine the effect of origin (native or stocked) and release location (upstream or downstream) on distribution and movement during the spawning migration. Native fish remained in the river longer than stocked fish regardless of release location. Release location and origin influenced where fish spent time and how they moved. The spatial mosaic of available habitats and the entire trajectory of freshwater movements should be considered to restore effectively spawners that traverse tens of kilometres within coastal rivers.

  9. Managing the wildlife tourism commons.

    PubMed

    Pirotta, Enrico; Lusseau, David

    2015-04-01

    The nonlethal effects of wildlife tourism can threaten the conservation status of targeted animal populations. In turn, such resource depletion can compromise the economic viability of the industry. Therefore, wildlife tourism exploits resources that can become common pool and that should be managed accordingly. We used a simulation approach to test whether different management regimes (tax, tax and subsidy, cap, cap and trade) could provide socioecologically sustainable solutions. Such schemes are sensitive to errors in estimated management targets. We determined the sensitivity of each scenario to various realistic uncertainties in management implementation and in our knowledge of the population. Scenarios where time quotas were enforced using a tax and subsidy approach, or they were traded between operators were more likely to be sustainable. Importantly, sustainability could be achieved even when operators were assumed to make simple rational economic decisions. We suggest that a combination of the two regimes might offer a robust solution, especially on a small spatial scale and under the control of a self-organized, operator-level institution. Our simulation platform could be parameterized to mimic local conditions and provide a test bed for experimenting different governance solutions in specific case studies.

  10. [Origin of biosphere].

    PubMed

    Levchenko, V F; Starobogatov, Ia I

    2010-01-01

    Concepts of origin of life on the planet are briefly considered. The problem of origin of biosphere is discussed, with a suggestion that the origin of living organisms and biosphere are two aspects of the same process. There is put forward a hypothesis of embryosphere--the primary medium, in which preorganisms could appear. The ecosystemic approach to origin of life poses a question about sources of the matter and energy used by the primary life as well as about causes of the biochemical unity that exists in all Earth organisms.

  11. The origins of lactase persistence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Itan, Yuval; Powell, Adam; Beaumont, Mark A; Burger, Joachim; Thomas, Mark G

    2009-08-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) is common among people of European ancestry, but with the exception of some African, Middle Eastern and southern Asian groups, is rare or absent elsewhere in the world. Lactase gene haplotype conservation around a polymorphism strongly associated with LP in Europeans (-13,910 C/T) indicates that the derived allele is recent in origin and has been subject to strong positive selection. Furthermore, ancient DNA work has shown that the--13,910*T (derived) allele was very rare or absent in early Neolithic central Europeans. It is unlikely that LP would provide a selective advantage without a supply of fresh milk, and this has lead to a gene-culture coevolutionary model where lactase persistence is only favoured in cultures practicing dairying, and dairying is more favoured in lactase persistent populations. We have developed a flexible demic computer simulation model to explore the spread of lactase persistence, dairying, other subsistence practices and unlinked genetic markers in Europe and western Asia's geographic space. Using data on--13,910*T allele frequency and farming arrival dates across Europe, and approximate Bayesian computation to estimate parameters of interest, we infer that the--13,910*T allele first underwent selection among dairying farmers around 7,500 years ago in a region between the central Balkans and central Europe, possibly in association with the dissemination of the Neolithic Linearbandkeramik culture over Central Europe. Furthermore, our results suggest that natural selection favouring a lactase persistence allele was not higher in northern latitudes through an increased requirement for dietary vitamin D. Our results provide a coherent and spatially explicit picture of the coevolution of lactase persistence and dairying in Europe.

  12. Molecular origins of the zeta potential

    DOE PAGES

    Predota, Milan; Machesky, Michael L.; Wesolowski, David J.

    2016-09-19

    The zeta potential (ZP) is an oft-reported measure of the macroscopic charge state of solid surfaces and colloidal particles in contact with solvents. However, the origin of this readily measurable parameter has remained divorced from the molecular-level processes governing the underlying electrokinetic phenomena, which limits its usefulness. Here, we connect the macroscopic measure to the microscopic realm through nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of electroosmotic flow between parallel slabs of the hydroxylated (110) rutile (TiO2) surface. These simulations provided streaming mobilities, which were converted to ZP via the commonly used Helmholtz-Smoluchowski equation. A range of rutile surface charge densities (0.1 tomore » –0.4 C/m2), corresponding to pH values between about 2.8 and 9.4, in RbCl, NaCl, and SrCl2 aqueous solutions, were modeled and compared to experimental ZPs for TiO2 particle suspensions. Simulated ZPs qualitatively agree with experiment and show that “anomalous” ZP values and inequalities between the point of zero charge derived from electrokinetic versus pH titration measurements both arise from differing co- and counterion sorption affinities. We show that at the molecular level the ZP arises from the delicate interplay of spatially varying dynamics, structure, and electrostatics in a narrow interfacial region within about 15 Å of the surface, even in dilute salt solutions. This contrasts fundamentally with continuum descriptions of such interfaces, which predict the ZP response region to be inversely related to ionic strength. In reality the properties of this interfacial region are dominated by relatively immobile and structured water. Furthermore, viscosity values are substantially greater than in the bulk, and electrostatic potential profiles are oscillatory in nature.« less

  13. Molecular origins of the zeta potential

    SciTech Connect

    Predota, Milan; Machesky, Michael L.; Wesolowski, David J.

    2016-09-19

    The zeta potential (ZP) is an oft-reported measure of the macroscopic charge state of solid surfaces and colloidal particles in contact with solvents. However, the origin of this readily measurable parameter has remained divorced from the molecular-level processes governing the underlying electrokinetic phenomena, which limits its usefulness. Here, we connect the macroscopic measure to the microscopic realm through nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of electroosmotic flow between parallel slabs of the hydroxylated (110) rutile (TiO2) surface. These simulations provided streaming mobilities, which were converted to ZP via the commonly used Helmholtz-Smoluchowski equation. A range of rutile surface charge densities (0.1 to –0.4 C/m2), corresponding to pH values between about 2.8 and 9.4, in RbCl, NaCl, and SrCl2 aqueous solutions, were modeled and compared to experimental ZPs for TiO2 particle suspensions. Simulated ZPs qualitatively agree with experiment and show that “anomalous” ZP values and inequalities between the point of zero charge derived from electrokinetic versus pH titration measurements both arise from differing co- and counterion sorption affinities. We show that at the molecular level the ZP arises from the delicate interplay of spatially varying dynamics, structure, and electrostatics in a narrow interfacial region within about 15 Å of the surface, even in dilute salt solutions. This contrasts fundamentally with continuum descriptions of such interfaces, which predict the ZP response region to be inversely related to ionic strength. In reality the properties of this interfacial region are dominated by relatively immobile and structured water. Furthermore, viscosity values are substantially greater than in the bulk, and electrostatic potential profiles are oscillatory in nature.

  14. Contour integration across spatial frequency.

    PubMed

    Persike, Malte; Olzak, Lynn A; Meinhardt, Günter

    2009-12-01

    Association field models of contour integration suggest that local band-pass elements are spatially grouped to global contours within limited bands of spatial frequency (Field, Hayes, & Hess, 1993). While results for local orientation and spacing variation render support for AF models, effects of spatial frequency (SF) have rarely been addressed. To explore whether contour integration occurs across SF, we studied human contour detection in Gabor random fields with SF jitter along the contour, and in the embedding field. Results show no impairment of contour detection when the contour elements are 1.25 octaves apart. Even with a SF separation of 2.25 octaves there is only moderate impairment. Because SF tuning functions measured for contextual interactions of neighbored single band-pass elements indicate much smaller bandwidths (Polat & Sagi, 1993), the results imply that contour integration cannot rest solely on local locking among neighbored orientation and SF tuned mechanisms. Robustness across spatial frequency, and across color and depth, as found recently, indicates that local orientation based grouping integrates across other basic features. This suggests an origin in not too distal brain regions.

  15. A new in-situ technique for the determination of small scale spatial distribution of contact angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamparter, Axel; Bachmann, Jörg; Woche, Susanne K.

    2010-05-01

    Water repellency is a common phenomenon in soils around the world. Its hydraulic impact reaches from decreased infiltration rates to preferential flow of water through the soil. The contact angle (CA), that forms at the three phase boundary solid-liquid-gas, has been established to quantify water repellency in soils. However, this CA is generally determined at a small amount of dry soil originating from homogenized samples. Thus, its spatial information is dependent on the size of the homogeneous sample. Information about the small scale spatial distribution of soil water repellency (SWR) cannot be obtained with this kind of sample preparation and thus the hydraulic relevance of the measured CA is questionable. Therefore we suggest a new sample preparation technique for measuring the spatial distribution of SWR of natural soils using the sessile drop method (SDM). Two horizontal and one vertical transects of about 1.2 m length have been measured on a sandy forest soil in northern Germany. The litter layer and vegetation, present at the site have been removed prior to the sampling. One side of a double sided adhesive tape has been pressed against the soil surface. This results in a mono-layer of sand grains attached to the tape that reflect the wetting properties in their original spatial surroundings. Using the Sessile Drop Method (SDM), CA have been measured on a straight line transect every 0.5 cm (Drop size 0.005 mL) in the laboratory with a contact angle microscope. Spatial differences in SWR can be measured at the research site. Results have been analyzed using spectral-analysis to reveal spatial correlations in SWR. Different spatial dependencies can be found in different depths of the soil. Results show that the new sampling technique is capable of detecting the spatial variability in natural soils. Thus, it might improve the hydraulic relevance of the small scale CA.

  16. Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Biman; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency of young adolescents and adults which also affects the children. The disease remains largely under-diagnosed in India and Southeast Asian countries. Although in majority of cases it is sporadic, disease may be inherited in a autosomal recessive pattern and rarely, in autosomal dominant pattern. Patients, in addition to frequent sino-pulmonary infections, are also susceptible to various autoimmune diseases and malignancy, predominantly lymphoma and leukemia. Other characteristic lesions include lymphocytic and granulomatous interstitial lung disease, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gut. Diagnosis requires reduced levels of at least two immunoglobulin isotypes: IgG with IgA and/or IgM and impaired specific antibody response to vaccines. A number of gene mutations have been described in CVID; however, these genetic alterations account for less than 20% of cases of CVID. Flow cytometry aptly demonstrates a disturbed B cell homeostasis with reduced or absent memory B cells and increased CD21(low) B cells and transitional B cell populations. Approximately one-third of patients with CVID also display T cell functional defects. Immunoglobulin therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Immunologists and other clinicians in India and other South East Asian countries need to be aware of CVID so that early diagnosis can be made, as currently, majority of these patients still go undiagnosed.

  17. The Common Sense Guide to the Common Core: Teacher-Tested Tools for Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Based on the original source document for the Common Core State Standards and tested by 1,000 educators in diverse classrooms across the country, these research-based tools will help readers examine their current practices and adapt existing curriculum. Each of the 40 tools is clearly presented, explained, and exemplified, guiding educators…

  18. A photonic analog-to-digital converter using phase modulation and self-coherent detection with spatial oversampling.

    PubMed

    Golani, Ori; Mauri, Luca; Pasinato, Fabiano; Cattaneo, Cristian; Consonnni, Guido; Balsamo, Stefano; Marom, Dan M

    2014-05-19

    We propose a new type of photonic analog-to-digital converter (ADC), designed for high-resolution (>7 bit) and high sampling rates (scalable to tens of GS/s). It is based on encoding the input analog voltage signal onto the phase of an optical pulse stream originating from a mode-locked laser, and uses spatial oversampling as a means to improve the conversion resolution. This paper describes the concept of spatial oversampling and draws its similarities to the commonly used temporal oversampling. The design and fabrication of a LiNbO(3)/silica hybrid photonic integrated circuit for implementing the spatial oversampling is shown, and its abilities are demonstrated experimentally by digitizing gigahertz signals (frequencies up to 18GHz) at an undersampled rate of 2.56GS/s with a conversion resolution of up to 7.6 effective bits. Oversampling factors of 1-4 are demonstrated.

  19. Morphogenetic origin of natural variation.

    PubMed

    Cherdantsev, Vladimir G; Scobeyeva, Victoria A

    2012-09-01

    We studied individual pathways of gastrulation in two related amphibian species making an emphasis on the developmental dynamics of normal variation in the geometry of gastrulation movements. Analyzing the variation dynamics, we show that the linear succession of developmental stages is a secondary phenomenon disguising self-oscillations that lie at the heart of the dorsal blastopore lip morphogenesis. Characteristic features of the equations derived to describe the oscillations are, first, their dependence only on the movement geometry and, second, including of the dynamics of spatial variance directly into the movement equations, making it clear that the reasons for variability of morphogenesis are the same that for morphogenesis itself. The equations describing morphogenetic oscillations are mathematically similar to those describing natural selection in that the system tends to minimize its variance, individual or within-individual one, but the spatially uniform state turns to be unstable. Comparing of the dynamics of natural developmental variation in gastrulation in two frog species shows that, depending on the mechanics and geometry mass cell movements, different types of gastrulation movements have different proportions of the between- to within-individual differences, which strongly influences the choice of characters subject to evolution. Instead of being a source of constraints imposed on externally guided evolutionary trends, morphogenesis becomes a driving force of the adaptively silent, but directional evolution of the developing systems, which seems to be the only possible way of originating of the evolutionary novelties, both in evolution and ontogeny of the biological structures.

  20. Chemical Origins of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J. Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    Reviews ideas and evidence bearing on the origin of life. Shows that evidence to support modifications of Oparin's theories of the origin of biological constituents from inorganic materials is accumulating, and that the necessary components are readily obtained from the simple gases found in the universe. (AL)

  1. The Moon's Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadogan, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Presents findings and conclusions about the origin of the moon, favoring the capture hypothesis of lunar origin. Advantage of the hypothesis is that it allows the moon to have been formed elsewhere, specifically in a hotter part of the solar nebula, accounting for chemical differences between earth and moon. (JN)

  2. Originalism in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, David F.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a detailed legal history of originalism and investigates whether, and to what extent, originalism is a part of law school teaching on the Constitution. He shares the results of an examination of the leading constitutional law textbooks used in the top fifty law schools and a selection of responses gathered from…

  3. Common hair loss disorders.

    PubMed

    Springer, Karyn; Brown, Matthew; Stulberg, Daniel L

    2003-07-01

    Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, dose attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a specific pattern of temporal-frontal loss in men and central thinning in women. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved topical minoxidil to treat men and women, with the addition of finasteride for men. Telogen effluvium is characterized by the loss of "handfuls" of hair, often following emotional or physical stressors. Alopecia areata, trichotillomania, traction alopecia, and tinea capitis have unique features on examination that aid in diagnosis. Treatment for these disorders and telogen effluvium focuses on resolution of the underlying cause.

  4. [Common anemias in neonatology].

    PubMed

    Humbert, J; Wacker, P

    1999-01-28

    We describe the four most common groups of neonatal anemia and their treatments, with particular emphasis on erythropoietin therapy. The hemolytic anemias include the ABO incompatibility (much more frequent, nowadays, than the Rh incompatibility, which has nearly disappeared following the use of anti-D immunoglobulin in postpartum Rh-negative mothers), hereditary spherocytosis and G-6-PD deficiency. Among hypoplastic anemias, that caused by Parvovirus B19 predominates, by far, over Diamond-Blackfan anemia, alpha-thalassemia and the rare sideroblastic anemias. "Hemorrhagic" anemias occur during twin-to-twin transfusions, or during feto-maternal transfusions. Finally, the multifactorial anemia of prematurity develops principally as a result of the rapid expansion of the blood volume in this group of patients. Erythropoietin therapy, often at doses much higher than those used in the adult, should be seriously considered in most cases of non-hypoplastic neonatal anemias, to minimise maximally the use of transfusions.

  5. TMT common software update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Kim; Brighton, Allan; Buur, Hanne

    2016-08-01

    TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their functional roles in the software system. TMT CSW has recently passed its preliminary design review. The unique features of CSW include its use of multiple, open-source products as the basis for services, and an approach that works to reduce the amount of CSW-provided infrastructure code. Considerable prototyping was completed during this phase to mitigate risk with results that demonstrate the validity of this design approach and the selected service implementation products. This paper describes the latest design of TMT CSW, key features, and results from the prototyping effort.

  6. Primary hypersomnias of central origin.

    PubMed

    Frenette, Eric; Kushida, Clete A

    2009-09-01

    Hypersomnia is a frequently encountered symptom in clinical practice. The cardinal manifestation is inappropriate daytime sleepiness, common to all types of hypersomnias. Hypersomnias of central origin are a rare cause of excessive daytime sleepiness, much rarer than the hypersomnia related to other pathologies, such as sleep-disordered breathing. Narcolepsy, with or without cataplexy, remains the most well studied of the primary hypersomnias. Although recognized more than a century ago, it was not until the end of the 20th century that major breakthroughs led to a better understanding of the disease, with hope of more specific therapies. The authors review the major aspects of this disorder, including the newer treatment modalities. Idiopathic hypersomnia is also part of the primary hypersomnias. Although difficult to diagnose, certain peculiarities stand out to help us differentiate it from the more commonly seen narcolepsy. The recurrent hypersomnias, particularly the Kleine-Levin syndrome, will be discussed. This rare disorder has been studied more closely in the last few years with abundant epidemiologic data assembled through literature and worldwide case reviews. Understanding the primary central hypersomnias warrants a thorough look from the original description, as well as a peek at the future, while more efficacious diagnostic and therapeutic interventions are currently being developed.

  7. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  8. Spatial Structure of Evolutionary Models of Dialects in Contact

    PubMed Central

    Murawaki, Yugo

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic models, originally developed to demonstrate evolutionary biology, have been applied to a wide range of cultural data including natural language lexicons, manuscripts, folktales, material cultures, and religions. A fundamental question regarding the application of phylogenetic inference is whether trees are an appropriate approximation of cultural evolutionary history. Their validity in cultural applications has been scrutinized, particularly with respect to the lexicons of dialects in contact. Phylogenetic models organize evolutionary data into a series of branching events through time. However, branching events are typically not included in dialectological studies to interpret the distributions of lexical terms. Instead, dialectologists have offered spatial interpretations to represent lexical data. For example, new lexical items that emerge in a politico-cultural center are likely to spread to peripheries, but not vice versa. To explore the question of the tree model’s validity, we present a simple simulation model in which dialects form a spatial network and share lexical items through contact rather than through common ancestors. We input several network topologies to the model to generate synthetic data. We then analyze the synthesized data using conventional phylogenetic techniques. We found that a group of dialects can be considered tree-like even if it has not evolved in a temporally tree-like manner but has a temporally invariant, spatially tree-like structure. In addition, the simulation experiments appear to reproduce unnatural results observed in reconstructed trees for real data. These results motivate further investigation into the spatial structure of the evolutionary history of dialect lexicons as well as other cultural characteristics. PMID:26221958

  9. Productive Taboos: Cultivating Spatialized Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Zanden, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The fifth grade students in this project were part of a yearlong ethnographic study in an urban elementary school. They engaged in a student initiated inquiry project combining bakeries and mysteries, which culminated in the production of an original film. Situated in a socio-spatialized stance on literacy involving networks of participation and…

  10. Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

  11. Building a North American Spatial Data Infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, D.J.; Nebert, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the state of spatial data infrastructures within North America in late 1997. After providing some background underlying the philosophy and development of the SDI concept, the authors discuss effects of technology, institutions, and standardization that confront the cohesive implementation of a common infrastructure today. The paper concludes with a comparative framework and specific examples of elements and initiatives defining respective spatial data infrastructure initiatives in the United States and Canada.

  12. D1/D5 dopamine receptors modulate spatial memory formation.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Weber C N; Köhler, Cristiano C; Radiske, Andressa; Cammarota, Martín

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effect of the intra-CA1 administration of the D1/D5 receptor antagonist SCH23390 and the D1/D5 receptor agonist SKF38393 on spatial memory in the water maze. When given immediately, but not 3h after training, SCH23390 hindered long-term spatial memory formation without affecting non-spatial memory or the normal functionality of the hippocampus. On the contrary, post-training infusion of SKF38393 enhanced retention and facilitated the spontaneous recovery of the original spatial preference after reversal learning. Our findings demonstrate that hippocampal D1/D5 receptors play an essential role in spatial memory processing.

  13. Spatial Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  14. Can a Place of Origin of the Main Cystic Fibrosis Mutations Be Identified?

    PubMed Central

    Mateu, Eva; Calafell, Francesc; Ramos, Maria Dolors; Casals, Teresa; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2002-01-01

    The genetic background of the mutations that most often cause cystic fibrosis (CF) is different from that of non-CF chromosomes in populations of European origin. It is not known whether these haplotype backgrounds could be found at high frequencies in populations in which CF is, at present, not common; such populations would be candidates for the place of origin of CF mutations. An analysis of haplotypes of CF transmembrane conductance regulator, together with their variation in specific CF chromosomes, in a worldwide survey of normal chromosomes shows (1) a very low frequency or absence of the most common CF haplotypes in all populations analyzed and (2) a strong genetic variability and divergence, among various populations, of the chromosomes that carry disease-causing mutations. The depth of the gene genealogy associated with disease-causing mutations may be greater than that of the evolutionary process that gave rise to present-day human populations. The concept of “population of origin” lacks either spatial or temporal meaning for mutations that are likely to have been present in Europeans before the ethnogenesis of present populations; subsequent population processes may have erased the traces of their geographic origin. PMID:11713719

  15. Spatially Characterizing Effective Timber Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, J. K.; Sailor, J.

    1982-01-01

    The structure of a computer-oriented cartographic model for assessing roundwood supply for generation of base load electricity is discussed. The model provides an analytical procedure for coupling spatial information of harvesting economics and owner willingness to sell stumpages. Supply is characterized in terms of standing timber; of accessibility considering various harvesting and hauling factors; and of availability as affected by ownership and residential patterns. Factors governing accessibility to timber include effective harvesting distance to haulic roads as modified by barriers and slopes. Haul distance is expressed in units that take into account the relative ease of travel along various road types to a central processing facility. Areas of accessible timber are grouped into spatial units, termed 'timbersheds', of common access to particular haul road segments that belong to unique 'transport zones'. Timber availability considerations include size of ownership parcels, housing density and excluded areas. The analysis techniques are demonstrated for a cartographic data base in western Massachusetts.

  16. Spatial prediction and ordinary kriging

    SciTech Connect

    Cressie, N.

    1988-05-01

    Suppose data /Z(s/sub i/):i = 1,...,n/ are observed at spatial locations /s/sub i/:i = 1,...,n/. From these data, an unknown Z(s/sub 0/) is to be predicted at a known location s/sub 0/, or, if Z(s/sub 0/) has a component of measurement error, then a smooth version S(s/sub 0/) should be predicted. This article considers the assumptions needed to carry out the spatial prediction using ordinary kriging, and looks at how nugget effect, range, and sill of the variogram affect the predictor. It is concluded that certain commonly held interpretations of these variogram parameters should be modified.

  17. The Complex Origins of the Registrar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shawn C.

    2012-01-01

    The origins of the registrar's office are complex. According to common tradition, the registrar was, or evolved from, the office of the beadle (sometimes referred to as "bedel") in the medieval university. This tradition is incorrect; the story is more complex. The beadle sometimes performed functions similar to those performed by the…

  18. Origins of organic geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    When organic geochemistry actually began as a recognized geoscience is a matter of definition and perspective. Constraints on its beginning are placed by the historical development of its parent disciplines, geology and organic chemistry. These disciplines originated independently and developed in parallel, starting in the latter half of the 18th century and flourishing thereafter into the 21st century. Organic geochemistry began sometime between 1860 and 1983; I argue that 1930 is the best year to mark its origin.

  19. Back to the Origin

    PubMed Central

    Evertts, Adam G.

    2012-01-01

    In bacteria, replication is a carefully orchestrated event that unfolds the same way for each bacterium and each cell division. The process of DNA replication in bacteria optimizes cell growth and coordinates high levels of simultaneous replication and transcription. In metazoans, the organization of replication is more enigmatic. The lack of a specific sequence that defines origins of replication has, until recently, severely limited our ability to define the organizing principles of DNA replication. This question is of particular importance as emerging data suggest that replication stress is an important contributor to inherited genetic damage and the genomic instability in tumors. We consider here the replication program in several different organisms including recent genome-wide analyses of replication origins in humans. We review recent studies on the role of cytosine methylation in replication origins, the role of transcriptional looping and gene gating in DNA replication, and the role of chromatin’s 3-dimensional structure in DNA replication. We use these new findings to consider several questions surrounding DNA replication in metazoans: How are origins selected? What is the relationship between replication and transcription? How do checkpoints inhibit origin firing? Why are there early and late firing origins? We then discuss whether oncogenes promote cancer through a role in DNA replication and whether errors in DNA replication are important contributors to the genomic alterations and gene fusion events observed in cancer. We conclude with some important areas for future experimentation. PMID:23634256

  20. Joint Service Common Operating Environment (COE) Common Geographic Information System functional requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Meitzler, W.D.

    1992-06-01

    In the context of this document and COE, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are decision support systems involving the integration of spatially referenced data in a problem solving environment. They are digital computer systems for capturing, processing, managing, displaying, modeling, and analyzing geographically referenced spatial data which are described by attribute data and location. The ability to perform spatial analysis and the ability to combine two or more data sets to create new spatial information differentiates a GIS from other computer mapping systems. While the CCGIS allows for data editing and input, its primary purpose is not to prepare data, but rather to manipulate, analyte, and clarify it. The CCGIS defined herein provides GIS services and resources including the spatial and map related functionality common to all subsystems contained within the COE suite of C4I systems. The CCGIS, which is an integral component of the COE concept, relies on the other COE standard components to provide the definition for other support computing services required.

  1. Common cutaneous disorders in athletes.

    PubMed

    Conklin, R J

    1990-02-01

    Athletic activity may cause or aggravate skin disorders, which in turn may diminish athletic performance. Since many sporting activities necessitate prolonged exposure to the sun, athletes must avoid painful sunburn which will adversely affect their performance. Drugs and chemicals also may cause photoallergic and/or phototoxic reactions, including polymorphous light eruption and athletes should thus avoid photosensitising drugs and chemicals. The effects of chronic ultraviolet exposure include ageing, pigmentation and skin cancers. The most effective protection against excessive exposure to sunlight is the use of sunscreens, although inadequate application and poor protection in the UVA spectrum may diminish their effectiveness and contact allergies may create other problems. Viral, bacterial and fungal infections are common in athletes due to heat, friction and contact with others. Herpes simplex may be treated with any drying agents (e.g. alcohol) as they are as effective as more expensive topical agents such as acyclovir. Molluscum contagiosum may be spread by close contact or water contact and is treated by superficial incision, cryotherapy or standard wart varnishes. Plantar wart infection is transmitted by swimming pool decks, changing rooms and hand-to-hand from weights in gymnasiums. Plantar warts presenting with pain may be aggressively treated, by blunt dissection, but painless ones are best treated conservatively. Impetigo and folliculitis often develop after trauma. Antibiotics are effective against mild infections while abrasions and lacerations should be cleansed and dressed with occlusive dressings. Diphtheroid bacteria in moist footwear may produce pitted keratolysis and erythrasma. Tinea pedis is common in athletes and probably originates in swimming pools, gymnasium floors and locker rooms. Interdigital, dry-moccasin and pustular-midsole forms can be distinguished. The latter two forms respond to topical antifungal agents, while the interdigital

  2. Parcellating connectivity in spatial maps

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Diane M.; Fei-Fei, Li

    2015-01-01

    A common goal in biological sciences is to model a complex web of connections using a small number of interacting units. We present a general approach for dividing up elements in a spatial map based on their connectivity properties, allowing for the discovery of local regions underlying large-scale connectivity matrices. Our method is specifically designed to respect spatial layout and identify locally-connected clusters, corresponding to plausible coherent units such as strings of adjacent DNA base pairs, subregions of the brain, animal communities, or geographic ecosystems. Instead of using approximate greedy clustering, our nonparametric Bayesian model infers a precise parcellation using collapsed Gibbs sampling. We utilize an infinite clustering prior that intrinsically incorporates spatial constraints, allowing the model to search directly in the space of spatially-coherent parcellations. After showing results on synthetic datasets, we apply our method to both functional and structural connectivity data from the human brain. We find that our parcellation is substantially more effective than previous approaches at summarizing the brain’s connectivity structure using a small number of clusters, produces better generalization to individual subject data, and reveals functional parcels related to known retinotopic maps in visual cortex. Additionally, we demonstrate the generality of our method by applying the same model to human migration data within the United States. This analysis reveals that migration behavior is generally influenced by state borders, but also identifies regional communities which cut across state lines. Our parcellation approach has a wide range of potential applications in understanding the spatial structure of complex biological networks. PMID:25737822

  3. [Hypotension from endocrine origin].

    PubMed

    Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Douillard, Claire; Balavoine, Anne-Sophie

    2012-11-01

    Hypotension is defined by a low blood pressure either permanently or only in upright posture (orthostatic hypotension). In contrast to hypertension, there is no threshold defining hypotension. The occurrence of symptoms for systolic and diastolic measurements respectively below 90 and 60 mm Hg establishes the diagnosis. Every acute hypotensive event should suggest shock, adrenal failure or an iatrogenic cause. Chronic hypotension from endocrine origin may be linked to adrenal failure from adrenal or central origin, isolated hypoaldosteronism, pseudohypoaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, neuro-endocrine tumors (carcinoïd syndrome) or diabetic dysautonomia. Hypotension related to hypoaldosteronism associates low blood sodium and above all high blood potassium levels. They are generally classified according to their primary (hyperreninism) or secondary (hyporeninism) adrenal origin. Isolated primary hypoaldosteronisms are rare in adults (intensive care unit, selective injury of the glomerulosa area) and in children (aldosterone synthase deficiency). Isolated secondary hypoaldosteronism is related to mellitus diabetes complicated with dysautonomia, kidney failure, age, iatrogenic factors, and HIV infections. In both cases, they can be associated to glucocorticoid insufficiency from primary adrenal origin (adrenal failure of various origins with hyperreninism, among which congenital 21 hydroxylase deficiency with salt loss) or from central origin (hypopituitarism with hypo-reninism). Pseudohypoaldosteronisms are linked to congenital (type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism) or acquired states of resistance to aldosterone. Acquired salt losses from enteric (total colectomy with ileostomy) or renal (interstitial nephropathy, Bartter and Gitelman syndromes…) origin might be responsible for hypotension and are associated with hyperreninism-hyperaldosteronism. Hypotension is a rare manifestation of pheochromocytomas, especially during surgical removal when the patient has not been

  4. No ownership of common factors.

    PubMed

    Tryon, Warren W; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2011-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy," by J. Shedler (see record 2010-02208-012). Shedler's informative article raised several issues worthy of comment. His choice of the word distinctive (p. 98) in describing aspects of psychodynamic technique is open to at least two interpretations. On the one hand, distinctive can have a qualitative meaning and indicate the presence of a characteristic that is not shared. For example, a sign in the Bronx Zoo distinguishes birds from all other creatures as follows: "If it has feathers it's a bird, if it doesn't, it isn't." On the other hand, distinctive can have a quantitative meaning and indicate that one practice has more of a common element than another practice. Careful reading of Shedler's article and the article by Blagys and Hilsenroth (2000) that forms the basis of the "seven features [that] reliably distinguished psychodynamic therapies from other therapies" (Shedler, 2010, p. 98) shows that Shedler subscribes to the latter, quantitative, definition of distinctive. In other words, the seven features he presented are present in both psychodynamic therapies and the cognitive-behavioral therapies to which he compares them. For example, although Shedler did not mention it, dialectical behavior therapy explicitly focuses on six of the seven features, namely, "focus on affect and expression of emotion," "exploration of attempts to avoid distressing thoughts and feelings," "identification of recurring themes and patterns," "discussion of past experience," "focus on interpersonal relations," and "focus on the therapy relationship" (Shedler, 2010, p. 99). However, in the articles that Blagys and Hilsenroth reviewed, psychodyamic therapists engaged in more of these behaviors than did cognitive-behavioral therapists.

  5. Designing the Microbial Research Commons

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlir, Paul F.

    2011-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an ever-increasing range and volume of digital data. All elements of the pillars of science--whether observation, experiment, or theory and modeling--are being transformed by the continuous cycle of generation, dissemination, and use of factual information. This is even more so in terms of the re-using and re-purposing of digital scientific data beyond the original intent of the data collectors, often with dramatic results. We all know about the potential benefits and impacts of digital data, but we are also aware of the barriers, the challenges in maximizing the access, and use of such data. There is thus a need to think about how a data infrastructure can enhance capabilities for finding, using, and integrating information to accelerate discovery and innovation. How can we best implement an accessible, interoperable digital environment so that the data can be repeatedly used by a wide variety of users in different settings and with different applications? With this objective: to use the microbial communities and microbial data, literature, and the research materials themselves as a test case, the Board on Research Data and Information held an International Symposium on Designing the Microbial Research Commons at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC on 8-9 October 2009. The symposium addressed topics such as models to lower the transaction costs and support access to and use of microbiological materials and digital resources from the perspective of publicly funded research, public-private interactions, and developing country concerns. The overall goal of the symposium was to stimulate more research and implementation of improved legal and institutional models for publicly funded research in microbiology.

  6. Hierarchical spatial structure of stream fish colonization and extinction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitt, N.P.; Roberts, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial variation in extinction and colonization is expected to influence community composition over time. In stream fish communities, local species richness (alpha diversity) and species turnover (beta diversity) are thought to be regulated by high extinction rates in headwater streams and high colonization rates in downstream areas. We evaluated the spatiotemporal structure of fish communities in streams originally surveyed by Burton and Odum 1945 (Ecology 26: 182-194) in Virginia, USA and explored the effects of species traits on extinction and colonization dynamics. We documented dramatic changes in fish community structure at both the site and stream scales. Of the 34 fish species observed, 20 (59%) were present in both time periods, but 11 (32%) colonized the study area and three (9%) were extirpated over time. Within streams, alpha diversity increased in two of three streams but beta diversity decreased dramatically in all streams due to fish community homogenization caused by colonization of common species and extirpation of rare species. Among streams, however, fish communities differentiated over time. Regression trees indicated that reproductive life-history traits such as spawning mound construction, associations with mound-building species, and high fecundity were important predictors of species persistence or colonization. Conversely, native fishes not associated with mound-building exhibited the highest rates of extirpation from streams. Our results demonstrate that stream fish colonization and extinction dynamics exhibit hierarchical spatial structure and suggest that mound-building fishes serve as keystone species for colonization of headwater streams.

  7. Origins Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha R.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. I will summarize the OST STDT, mission design and instruments, key science drivers, and the study plan over the next two years.

  8. Cofunctional Subpathways Were Regulated by Transcription Factor with Common Motif, Common Family, or Common Tissue.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Shang, Desi; Xu, Yanjun; Feng, Li; Yang, Haixiu; Liu, Baoquan; Su, Shengyang; Chen, Lina; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Dissecting the characteristics of the transcription factor (TF) regulatory subpathway is helpful for understanding the TF underlying regulatory function in complex biological systems. To gain insight into the influence of TFs on their regulatory subpathways, we constructed a global TF-subpathways network (TSN) to analyze systematically the regulatory effect of common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs on subpathways. We performed cluster analysis to show that the common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs that regulated the same pathway classes tended to cluster together and contribute to the same biological function that led to disease initiation and progression. We analyzed the Jaccard coefficient to show that the functional consistency of subpathways regulated by the TF pairs with common motif, common family, or common tissue was significantly greater than the random TF pairs at the subpathway level, pathway level, and pathway class level. For example, HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha) and NR1I3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3) were a pair of TFs with common motif, common family, and common tissue. They were involved in drug metabolism pathways and were liver-specific factors required for physiological transcription. In short, we inferred that the cofunctional subpathways were regulated by common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs.

  9. A Key Concept: Spatial Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostrowicki, Jerzy

    1975-01-01

    The application of geography to spatial planning is discussed. Concepts presented include the regional concept, the typological concept, and spatial structure, spatial processes, and spatial organization. For address of journal see SO 504 028. (Author/RM)

  10. Triboluminescence Spectroscopy of Common Candies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelos, Rebecca; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Spectroscopic aspects of the triboluminescence spectra of three Lifesaver candies are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the experimental methods of measuring spectra and origins of the tribaluminescence. (SA)

  11. Genetic influences in common respiratory disorders.

    PubMed

    Workman, M Linda; Winkelman, Chris

    2008-06-01

    Respiratory disorders are common problems for adults and children in North America and generally represent the outcome of gene-environment interactions. Some problems are considered genetic in origin, such as cystic fibrosis, and others are considered environmental in origin, such as respiratory infections. Emerging information indicates that even genetic-based disorders are influenced by the environment and that environmental-based disorders are modified by personal genetic factors in individual physiologic responses. An understanding of an individual's personal risk factors for disease or health problem development can allow health care professionals to tailor health promotion strategies and treatment plans with appropriate environmental manipulation. This article explores the genetic influences that may affect the individual's physiologic responses and the consequences of environmental stimuli.

  12. Spatial capture-recapture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Chandler, Richard B.; Sollmann, Rahel; Gardner, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Spatial Capture-Recapture provides a revolutionary extension of traditional capture-recapture methods for studying animal populations using data from live trapping, camera trapping, DNA sampling, acoustic sampling, and related field methods. This book is a conceptual and methodological synthesis of spatial capture-recapture modeling. As a comprehensive how-to manual, this reference contains detailed examples of a wide range of relevant spatial capture-recapture models for inference about population size and spatial and temporal variation in demographic parameters. Practicing field biologists studying animal populations will find this book to be a useful resource, as will graduate students and professionals in ecology, conservation biology, and fisheries and wildlife management.

  13. Spatial dynamics of ecological public goods

    PubMed Central

    Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Nowak, Martin A.; Hauert, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The production, consumption, and exploitation of common resources ranging from extracellular products in microorganisms to global issues of climate change refer to public goods interactions. Individuals can cooperate and sustain common resources at some cost or defect and exploit the resources without contributing. This generates a conflict of interest, which characterizes social dilemmas: Individual selection favors defectors, but for the community, it is best if everybody cooperates. Traditional models of public goods do not take into account that benefits of the common resource enable cooperators to maintain higher population densities. This leads to a natural feedback between population dynamics and interaction group sizes as captured by “ecological public goods.” Here, we show that the spatial evolutionary dynamics of ecological public goods in “selection-diffusion” systems promotes cooperation based on different types of pattern formation processes. In spatial settings, individuals can migrate (diffuse) to populate new territories. Slow diffusion of cooperators fosters aggregation in highly productive patches (activation), whereas fast diffusion enables defectors to readily locate and exploit these patches (inhibition). These antagonistic forces promote coexistence of cooperators and defectors in static or dynamic patterns, including spatial chaos of ever-changing configurations. The local environment of cooperators and defectors is shaped by the production or consumption of common resources. Hence, diffusion-induced self-organization into spatial patterns not only enhances cooperation but also provides simple mechanisms for the spontaneous generation of habitat diversity, which denotes a crucial determinant of the viability of ecological systems. PMID:19416839

  14. Flexible Visual Processing of Spatial Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franconeri, Steven L.; Scimeca, Jason M.; Roth, Jessica C.; Helseth, Sarah A.; Kahn, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    Visual processing breaks the world into parts and objects, allowing us not only to examine the pieces individually, but also to perceive the relationships among them. There is work exploring how we perceive spatial relationships within structures with existing representations, such as faces, common objects, or prototypical scenes. But strikingly,…

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  16. Spatial scale affects community concordance among fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and bryophytes in streams.

    PubMed

    Paavola, Riku; Muotka, Timo; Virtanen, Risto; Heino, Jani; Jackson, Donald; Maki-Petäys, Aki

    2006-02-01

    Owing to the lack of information about the distribution patterns of many taxonomic groups, biodiversity conservation strategies commonly rely on a surrogate taxa approach for identifying areas of maximum conservation potential. Macroinvertebrates or fish are the most likely candidates for such a role in many freshwater systems. The usefulness of the surrogate taxa depends largely on community concordance, i.e., the degree of similarity in community patterns among taxonomic groups across a set of sites. We examined the effect of the spatial scale of a. study on the strength of community concordance among macroinvertebrates, bryophytes, and fish by comparing the concordance between ordinations of these groups in 101 boreal stream sites. We specifically asked if communities spanning several drainages are more concordant than those originating from a single drainage system. Our results indicate that community concordance is affected by spatial extent, being variable and generally weak at the scale of individual drainages, but strong across multiple drainage systems and ecoregions. We attribute this finding to different taxonomic groups responding to similar environmental factors and sharing a similar latitudinal gradient of community structure when viewed across large spatial scales. We also identified a "gradient of concordance," with sites contributing disproportionately to community concordance being in relatively large streams with high microhabitat variability. Overall, our results suggest that the degree of community concordance among freshwater organism groups depends critically on the spatial extent of the study, and surrogate groups at the scale of single river systems should be used with caution.

  17. Evaluation of the Gini Coefficient in Spatial Scan Statistics for Detecting Irregularly Shaped Clusters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyu; Jung, Inkyung

    2017-01-01

    Spatial scan statistics with circular or elliptic scanning windows are commonly used for cluster detection in various applications, such as the identification of geographical disease clusters from epidemiological data. It has been pointed out that the method may have difficulty in correctly identifying non-compact, arbitrarily shaped clusters. In this paper, we evaluated the Gini coefficient for detecting irregularly shaped clusters through a simulation study. The Gini coefficient, the use of which in spatial scan statistics was recently proposed, is a criterion measure for optimizing the maximum reported cluster size. Our simulation study results showed that using the Gini coefficient works better than the original spatial scan statistic for identifying irregularly shaped clusters, by reporting an optimized and refined collection of clusters rather than a single larger cluster. We have provided a real data example that seems to support the simulation results. We think that using the Gini coefficient in spatial scan statistics can be helpful for the detection of irregularly shaped clusters.

  18. Evaluation of the Gini Coefficient in Spatial Scan Statistics for Detecting Irregularly Shaped Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyu; Jung, Inkyung

    2017-01-01

    Spatial scan statistics with circular or elliptic scanning windows are commonly used for cluster detection in various applications, such as the identification of geographical disease clusters from epidemiological data. It has been pointed out that the method may have difficulty in correctly identifying non-compact, arbitrarily shaped clusters. In this paper, we evaluated the Gini coefficient for detecting irregularly shaped clusters through a simulation study. The Gini coefficient, the use of which in spatial scan statistics was recently proposed, is a criterion measure for optimizing the maximum reported cluster size. Our simulation study results showed that using the Gini coefficient works better than the original spatial scan statistic for identifying irregularly shaped clusters, by reporting an optimized and refined collection of clusters rather than a single larger cluster. We have provided a real data example that seems to support the simulation results. We think that using the Gini coefficient in spatial scan statistics can be helpful for the detection of irregularly shaped clusters. PMID:28129368

  19. Maritime Spatial Planning in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Agapiou, Athos; Themistocleous, Kyriakos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Evagorou, Evagoras; Soulis, Giorgos; Xagoraris, Zafeiris; Pilikou, Maria; Aliouris, Kyriakos; Ioannou, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Spatial Planning is a critical tool for land management and is extensively used in all developed nations. The Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), at the European Union (EU) level, is based on Directive 2014/89/EU of the European Parliament and Council of 23rd July 2014 which establishes a common framework for MSP in the EU, which each Member State is called to apply in relation to the maritime space under its jurisdiction (marine waters). In this paper the overall results from the "Cross-Border Cooperation for the development of Marine Spatial Planning" project are presented for the area of Cyprus. A variety of activities fall within the MSP such as maritime transport routes and traffic flows, exploration, exploitation and extraction of energy resources, tourism, underwater cultural heritage etc. In addition, the legal framework, activities maps are also shown. The variety of conflicts maps for the area of Limassol are illustrated both in 2D and 3D. A hypothetical scenario of Limassol town in Cyprus as an energy center is presented based on the overall results. The paper ends with some conclusions regarding the framework of MSP in Cyprus.

  20. Conservative spatial chaos of buckled elastic linkages.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Attila; Károlyi, György

    2006-09-01

    Buckling of an elastic linkage under general loading is investigated. We show that buckling is related to an initial value problem, which is always a conservative, area-preserving mapping, even if the original static problem is nonconservative. In some special cases, we construct the global bifurcation diagrams, and argue that their complicated structure is a consequence of spatial chaos. We characterize spatial chaos by the associated initial value problem's topological entropy, which turns out to be related to the number of buckled configurations.

  1. Building, north side (original front), detail of original entrance. Camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building, north side (original front), detail of original entrance. Camera facing south - Naval Supply Center, Broadway Complex, Administration Storehouse, 911 West Broadway, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  2. Originality and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Shaun

    This paper discusses the creative process of one author, a professional author/illustrator of picture books. The paper muses about the meaning of creativity and originality and states inspiration has to do with careful research and looking for a challenge. Creativity is about testing one proposition against another and seeing how things combine…

  3. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…

  4. The Origins of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmandt-Besserat, Denise

    Writing appears to have originated from a modest system of counters or tokens used to keep track of economic goods and transactions. This system of recording appeared in 8000 B. C. in Mesopotamia, or what is now Iraq. The tokens' consistency in shape and size during the next 4,000 years attests to the stability of the agricultural economy and way…

  5. The Origins of Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-07-30

    The Higgs boson was discovered in July of 2012 and is generally understood to be the origin of mass. While those statements are true, they are incomplete. It turns out that the Higgs boson is responsible for only about 2% of the mass of ordinary matter. In this dramatic new video, Dr. Don Lincoln of Fermilab tells us the rest of the story.

  6. The Origin of Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Sheng Ming

    2012-10-01

    In the natural world, people have discovered four kinds of forces: electromagnetic force, gravitation, weak force, and strong force. Although the gravitation has been discovered more than three hundred years, its mechanism of origin is unclear until today. While investigating the origin of gravitation, I do some experiments discover the moving photons produce gravitation. This discovery shows the origin of gravitation. Meanwhile I do some experiments discover the light interference fringes are produced by the gravitation: my discovery demonstrate light is a particle, but is not a wave-particle duality. Furthermore, applications of this discovery to other moving particles show a similar effect. In a word: the micro particle moving produce gravitation and electromagnetic force. Then I do quantity experiment get a general formula: Reveal the essence of gravitational mass and the essence of electric charge; reveal the origin of gravitation and the essence of matter wave. Along this way, I unify the gravitation and electromagnetic force. Namely I find a natural law that from atomic world to star world play in moving track. See website: https://www.lap-publishing.com/catalog/details/store/gb/book/978-3-8473-2658-8/mechanism-of-interaction-in-moving-matter

  7. The Origins of Mass

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Higgs boson was discovered in July of 2012 and is generally understood to be the origin of mass. While those statements are true, they are incomplete. It turns out that the Higgs boson is responsible for only about 2% of the mass of ordinary matter. In this dramatic new video, Dr. Don Lincoln of Fermilab tells us the rest of the story.

  8. Origins of Coordinate Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, Frederick G.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the origins of post-coordinate searching and emphasizes that the focal point should be on the searcher, not on the item being indexed. Highlights include the history of the term information retrieval; edge notched punch cards; the "peek-a-boo" system; the Uniterm system; and using computers to search for information. (LRW)

  9. Common Core State Standards 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent the first time that nearly every state has set common expectations for what students should know and be able to do. In the past, each state set its own standards, and the results varied widely. And while states collectively developed these common standards, decisions about the curriculum and…

  10. Placing the pieces: Reconstructing the original property mosaic in a warrant and patent watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bain, D.J.; Brush, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research shows that land use history is an important determinant of current ecosystem function. In the United States, characterization of land use change following European settlement requires reconstruction of the original property mosaic. However, this task is difficult in unsystematically surveyed areas east of the Appalachian Mountains. The Gwynns Falls watershed (Baltimore, MD) was originally surveyed in the 1600-1700s under a system of warrants and patents (commonly known as 'metes and bounds'). A method for the reconstruction and mapping of warrant and patent properties is presented and used to map the original property mosaic in the Gwynns Falls watershed. Using the mapped mosaic, the persistence of properties and property lines in the current Gwynns Falls landscape is considered. The results of this research indicate that as in agricultural areas, the original property lines in the Gwynns Falls watershed are persistent. At the same time, the results suggest that the property mosaic in heavily urbanized/suburbanized areas is generally 'reset.' Further, trends in surveying technique, parcel size, and settlement patterns cause property line density and property shape complexity to increase in the less urbanized upper watershed. The persistence of original patterns may be damping expression of heterogeneity gradients in this urban landscape. This spatial pattern of complexity in the original mosaic is directly opposite of hypothesized patterns of landscape heterogeneity arising from urbanization. The technique reported here and the resulting observations are important for landscape pattern studies in areas settled under unsystematic survey systems, especially the heavily urbanized areas of the eastern United States. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  11. Reptile Critical Care and Common Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Music, Meera Kumar; Strunk, Anneliese

    2016-05-01

    Reptile emergencies are an important part of exotic animal critical care, both true emergencies and those perceived as emergencies by owners. The most common presentations for reptile emergencies are addressed here, with information on differential diagnoses, helpful diagnostics, and approach to treatment. In many cases, reptile emergencies are actually acute presentations originating from a chronic problem, and the treatment plan must include both clinical treatment and addressing husbandry and dietary deficiencies at home. Accurate owner expectations must be set in order to have owner compliance to long-term treatment plans.

  12. Smart POI: Open and linked spatial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerba, Otakar; Berzins, Raitis; Charvat, Karel; Mildorf, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    The Smart Point of Interest (SPOI) represents an unique seamless spatial data set based on standards recommended for Linked and open data, which are supported by scientist and researchers as well as by several government authorities and European Union. This data set developed in cooperation of partners of SDI4Apps project contains almost 24 millions points of interest focused mainly on tourism, natural features, transport or citizen services. The SPOI data covers almost all countries and territories over the world. It is created as a harmonized combination of global data resources (selected points from OpenStreetMap, Natural Earth and GeoNames.org) and several local data sets (for example data published by the Citadel on the Move project, data from Posumavi region in the Czech Republic or experimental ontologies developed in the University of West Bohemia including ski regions in Europe or historical sights in Rome). The added value of the SDI4Apps approach in comparison to other similar solutions consists in implementation of linked data approach (several objects are connected to DBpedia or GeoNames.org), using of universal RDF format, using of standardized and respected properties or vocabularies (for example FOAF or GeoSPARQL) and development of the completely harmonized data set with uniform data model and common classification (not only a copy of original resources). The SPOI data is published as SPARQL endpoint as well as in the map client. The SPOI dataset is a specific set of POIs which could be "a data fuel" for applications and services related to tourism, local business, statistics or landscape monitoring. It can be used also as a background data layer for thematic maps.

  13. Architectural Implications for Spatial Object Association Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V S; Kurc, T; Saltz, J; Abdulla, G; Kohn, S R; Matarazzo, C

    2009-01-29

    Spatial object association, also referred to as cross-match of spatial datasets, is the problem of identifying and comparing objects in two or more datasets based on their positions in a common spatial coordinate system. In this work, we evaluate two crossmatch algorithms that are used for astronomical sky surveys, on the following database system architecture configurations: (1) Netezza Performance Server R, a parallel database system with active disk style processing capabilities, (2) MySQL Cluster, a high-throughput network database system, and (3) a hybrid configuration consisting of a collection of independent database system instances with data replication support. Our evaluation provides insights about how architectural characteristics of these systems affect the performance of the spatial crossmatch algorithms. We conducted our study using real use-case scenarios borrowed from a large-scale astronomy application known as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST).

  14. Location, location, location: it's all in the timing for replication origins.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Oscar M

    2013-01-15

    The differential replication timing of eukaryotic replication origins has long been linked with epigenetic regulation of gene expression and more recently with genome stability and mutation rates; however, the mechanism has remained obscure. Recent studies have shed new light by identifying novel factors that determine origin timing in yeasts and mammalian cells and implicate the spatial organization of origins within nuclear territories in the mechanism. These new insights, along with recent findings that several initiation factors are limiting relative to licensed origins, support and shape an emerging model for replication timing control. The mechanisms that control the spatial organization of replication origins have potential impacts for genome regulation beyond replication.

  15. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY AND DRIVERS OF NET ECOSYSTEM METABOLISM IN WESTERN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) is becoming a commonly used ecological indicator of estuarine ecosystem metabolic rates. Estuarine ecosystem processes are spatially and temporally variable, but the corresponding variability in NEM has not been properly assessed. Spatial and temp...

  16. Room 103, transom woodwork and original clock. All clocks are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Room 103, transom woodwork and original clock. All clocks are driven by a common signal. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    MedlinePlus

    ... March 26, 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell ... treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, ...

  18. The origins of cellular life.

    PubMed

    Schrum, Jason P; Zhu, Ting F; Szostak, Jack W

    2010-09-01

    Understanding the origin of cellular life on Earth requires the discovery of plausible pathways for the transition from complex prebiotic chemistry to simple biology, defined as the emergence of chemical assemblies capable of Darwinian evolution. We have proposed that a simple primitive cell, or protocell, would consist of two key components: a protocell membrane that defines a spatially localized compartment, and an informational polymer that allows for the replication and inheritance of functional information. Recent studies of vesicles composed of fatty-acid membranes have shed considerable light on pathways for protocell growth and division, as well as means by which protocells could take up nutrients from their environment. Additional work with genetic polymers has provided insight into the potential for chemical genome replication and compatibility with membrane encapsulation. The integration of a dynamic fatty-acid compartment with robust, generalized genetic polymer replication would yield a laboratory model of a protocell with the potential for classical Darwinian biological evolution, and may help to evaluate potential pathways for the emergence of life on the early Earth. Here we discuss efforts to devise such an integrated protocell model.

  19. Rasdaman for Big Spatial Raster Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, F.; Huang, Q.; Scheele, C. J.; Yang, C. P.; Yu, M.; Liu, K.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial raster data have grown exponentially over the past decade. Recent advancements on data acquisition technology, such as remote sensing, have allowed us to collect massive observation data of various spatial resolution and domain coverage. The volume, velocity, and variety of such spatial data, along with the computational intensive nature of spatial queries, pose grand challenge to the storage technologies for effective big data management. While high performance computing platforms (e.g., cloud computing) can be used to solve the computing-intensive issues in big data analysis, data has to be managed in a way that is suitable for distributed parallel processing. Recently, rasdaman (raster data manager) has emerged as a scalable and cost-effective database solution to store and retrieve massive multi-dimensional arrays, such as sensor, image, and statistics data. Within this paper, the pros and cons of using rasdaman to manage and query spatial raster data will be examined and compared with other common approaches, including file-based systems, relational databases (e.g., PostgreSQL/PostGIS), and NoSQL databases (e.g., MongoDB and Hive). Earth Observing System (EOS) data collected from NASA's Atmospheric Scientific Data Center (ASDC) will be used and stored in these selected database systems, and a set of spatial and non-spatial queries will be designed to benchmark their performance on retrieving large-scale, multi-dimensional arrays of EOS data. Lessons learnt from using rasdaman will be discussed as well.

  20. Dyslexia and Spatial Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    Research on spatial thinking impairments, with special reference to right-left orientation, visuomotor and visuoconstructive performances, and finger recognition are examined. It is concluded that, although some dyslexic children do show spatial disabilities, there is little evidence to support the existence of a visuospatial type of developmental…

  1. Recording multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms in one digital image

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Gregory R.; Bingham, Philip R.

    2008-03-25

    Systems and methods are described for recording multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms in one digital image. A method includes digitally recording, at a first reference beam-object beam angle, a first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a first original origin of the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram to sit on top of a first spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined by the first reference beam-object beam angle; digitally recording, at a second reference beam-object beam angle, a second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a second original origin of the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram to sit on top of a second spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined by the second reference beam-object beam angle; applying a first digital filter to cut off signals around the first original origin and define a first result; performing a first inverse Fourier transform on the first result; applying a second digital filter to cut off signals around the second original origin and define a second result; and performing a second inverse Fourier transform on the second result, wherein the first reference beam-object beam angle is not equal to the second reference beam-object beam angle and a single digital image includes both the first spatially-heterodyned hologram and the second spatially-heterodyned hologram.

  2. Individual Differences in Spatial Text Processing: High Spatial Ability Can Compensate for Spatial Working Memory Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Gyselinck, Valerie; Pazzaglia, Francesca; De Beni, Rossana

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the relation between spatial ability and visuo-spatial and verbal working memory in spatial text processing. In two experiments, participants listened to a spatial text (Experiments 1 and 2) and a non-spatial text (Experiment 1), at the same time performing a spatial or a verbal concurrent task, or no secondary task.…

  3. Effects of habitat fragmentation on the fitness of two common wetland species, Carex davalliana and Succisa pratensis.

    PubMed

    Hooftman, Danny A P; van Kleunen, Mark; Diemer, Matthias

    2003-02-01

    Small habitat size and spatial isolation may cause plant populations to suffer from genetic drift and inbreeding, leading to a reduced fitness of individual plants. We examined the germination, establishment, growth, and reproductive capacity of two characteristic species of mown fen meadows, Carex davalliana, and Succisa pratensis, common in Switzerland. Plants were grown from seeds, which were collected in 18 habitat islands, differing in size and in degree of isolation. We used both common garden and reciprocal transplant experiments to assess effects of habitat fragmentation. In the common garden, plants of Carex originating from small habitat islands yielded 35% less biomass, 30% fewer tillers, and 45% fewer flowering tillers than plants from larger ones. In contrast, plants of Succisa originating from small habitat islands yielded 19% more biomass, 14% more flower heads and 35% more flowers per flower head than plants from larger ones. Moreover, plants of Succisa from small isolated habitats yielded 32% more rosettes than did plants from small connected islands. Reciprocally transplanted plants of Succisa originating from small habitat islands produced 7% more rosettes than plants from larger ones. There was no effect of small habitat size and isolation on germination and establishment of both species in the field. Our results document genetic differences in performance attributable to habitat fragmentation in both species. We suggest that fitness loss in Carex is caused by inbreeding depression, whereas in Succisa the differences in fitness are more likely caused by genetic differentiation. Our study implies that habitat fragmentation affects common habitat-specific species, such as Carex and Succisa, as well as rare ones.

  4. Spatial heterogeneity in medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Morrissy, A Sorana; Cavalli, Florence M G; Remke, Marc; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Shih, David J H; Holgado, Borja L; Farooq, Hamza; Donovan, Laura K; Garzia, Livia; Agnihotri, Sameer; Kiehna, Erin N; Mercier, Eloi; Mayoh, Chelsea; Papillon-Cavanagh, Simon; Nikbakht, Hamid; Gayden, Tenzin; Torchia, Jonathon; Picard, Daniel; Merino, Diana M; Vladoiu, Maria; Luu, Betty; Wu, Xiaochong; Daniels, Craig; Horswell, Stuart; Thompson, Yuan Yao; Hovestadt, Volker; Northcott, Paul A; Jones, David T W; Peacock, John; Wang, Xin; Mack, Stephen C; Reimand, Jüri; Albrecht, Steffen; Fontebasso, Adam M; Thiessen, Nina; Li, Yisu; Schein, Jacqueline E; Lee, Darlene; Carlsen, Rebecca; Mayo, Michael; Tse, Kane; Tam, Angela; Dhalla, Noreen; Ally, Adrian; Chuah, Eric; Cheng, Young; Plettner, Patrick; Li, Haiyan I; Corbett, Richard D; Wong, Tina; Long, William; Loukides, James; Buczkowicz, Pawel; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Tabori, Uri; Rood, Brian R; Myseros, John S; Packer, Roger J; Korshunov, Andrey; Lichter, Peter; Kool, Marcel; Pfister, Stefan M; Schüller, Ulrich; Dirks, Peter; Huang, Annie; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T; Bader, Gary D; Swanton, Charles; Ma, Yusanne; Moore, Richard A; Mungall, Andrew J; Majewski, Jacek; Jones, Steven J M; Das, Sunit; Malkin, David; Jabado, Nada; Marra, Marco A; Taylor, Michael D

    2017-04-10

    Spatial heterogeneity of transcriptional and genetic markers between physically isolated biopsies of a single tumor poses major barriers to the identification of biomarkers and the development of targeted therapies that will be effective against the entire tumor. We analyzed the spatial heterogeneity of multiregional biopsies from 35 patients, using a combination of transcriptomic and genomic profiles. Medulloblastomas (MBs), but not high-grade gliomas (HGGs), demonstrated spatially homogeneous transcriptomes, which allowed for accurate subgrouping of tumors from a single biopsy. Conversely, somatic mutations that affect genes suitable for targeted therapeutics demonstrated high levels of spatial heterogeneity in MB, malignant glioma, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Actionable targets found in a single MB biopsy were seldom clonal across the entire tumor, which brings the efficacy of monotherapies against a single target into question. Clinical trials of targeted therapies for MB should first ensure the spatially ubiquitous nature of the target mutation.

  5. Leading the Common Core State Standards: From Common Sense to Common Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkle, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Many educators agree that we already know how to foster student success, so what is keeping common sense from becoming common practice? The author provides step-by-step guidance for overcoming the barriers to adopting the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and achieving equity and excellence for all students. As an experienced teacher and…

  6. Spatial Variability of Streambed Hydraulic Conductivity of a Lowland River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneidewind, Uwe; Thornton, Steven; Van De Vijver, Ellen; Joris, Ingeborg; Seuntjens, Piet

    2015-04-01

    Streambed hydraulic conductivity K is a key physical parameter, which describes flow processes in the hyporheic zone (HZ), i.e. the dynamic interface between aquifers and streams or rivers. Knowledge of the spatial variability of K is also important for the interpretation of contaminant transport processes in the HZ. Streambed K can vary over several magnitudes at small spatial scales. It depends mostly on streambed sediment characteristics (e.g. effective porosity, grain size, packing), streambed processes (e.g. sedimentation, colmation and erosion) and the development of stream channel geometry and streambed morphology (e.g. dunes, anti-dunes, pool-riffle sequences, etc.). Although heterogeneous in natural streambeds, streambed K is often considered to be a constant parameter due to a lack of information on its spatial distribution. Here we show the spatial variability of streambed K for a small section of the River Tern, a lowland river in the UK. Streambed K was determined for more than 120 vertically and horizontally distributed locations from grain size analyses using four empirical approaches (Hazen, Beyer, Kozeny and the USBR model). Additionally, streambed K was estimated from falling head tests in 36 piezometers installed into the streambed on a 4 m by 16 m grid, by applying the Springer-Gelhar Model. For both methods streambed K followed a log-normal distribution. Variogram analysis was used to deduce the spatial variability of the streambed K values within several streambed profiles parallel and perpendicular to the main flow direction in the stream. Hydraulic conductivity Kg estimated from grain size analyses varied between 1 m/d and 155 m/d with standard deviations of 79% to 99% depending on the empirical approach used. Kh estimated from falling head tests varied between 1 m/d and 22 m/d with a standard deviation of about 50%, depending on the degree of anisotropy assumed. After rescaling the data to obtain a common sample support, Pearson correlation

  7. Spatial-Operator Algebra For Flexible-Link Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Rodriguez, Guillermo

    1994-01-01

    Method of computing dynamics of multiple-flexible-link robotic manipulators based on spatial-operator algebra, which originally applied to rigid-link manipulators. Aspects of spatial-operator-algebra approach described in several previous articles in NASA Tech Briefs-most recently "Robot Control Based on Spatial-Operator Algebra" (NPO-17918). In extension of spatial-operator algebra to manipulators with flexible links, each link represented by finite-element model: mass of flexible link apportioned among smaller, lumped-mass rigid bodies, coupling of motions expressed in terms of vibrational modes. This leads to operator expression for modal-mass matrix of link.

  8. Identifying the origin of waterbird carcasses in Lake Michigan using a neural network source tracking model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, Kevin P.; Ge, Zhongfu; Fara, Luke J.; Houdek, Steven C.; Lubinski, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Avian botulism type E is responsible for extensive waterbird mortality on the Great Lakes, yet the actual site of toxin exposure remains unclear. Beached carcasses are often used to describe the spatial aspects of botulism mortality outbreaks, but lack specificity of offshore toxin source locations. We detail methodology for developing a neural network model used for predicting waterbird carcass motions in response to wind, wave, and current forcing, in lieu of a complex analytical relationship. This empirically trained model uses current velocity, wind velocity, significant wave height, and wave peak period in Lake Michigan simulated by the Great Lakes Coastal Forecasting System. A detailed procedure is further developed to use the model for back-tracing waterbird carcasses found on beaches in various parts of Lake Michigan, which was validated using drift data for radiomarked common loon (Gavia immer) carcasses deployed at a variety of locations in northern Lake Michigan during September and October of 2013. The back-tracing model was further used on 22 non-radiomarked common loon carcasses found along the shoreline of northern Lake Michigan in October and November of 2012. The model-estimated origins of those cases pointed to some common source locations offshore that coincide with concentrations of common loons observed during aerial surveys. The neural network source tracking model provides a promising approach for identifying locations of botulinum neurotoxin type E intoxication and, in turn, contributes to developing an understanding of the dynamics of toxin production and possible trophic transfer pathways.

  9. Bioenergetics and Life's Origins

    PubMed Central

    Deamer, David; Weber, Arthur L.

    2010-01-01

    Bioenergetics is central to our understanding of living systems, yet has attracted relatively little attention in origins of life research. This article focuses on energy resources available to drive primitive metabolism and the synthesis of polymers that could be incorporated into molecular systems having properties associated with the living state. The compartmented systems are referred to as protocells, each different from all the rest and representing a kind of natural experiment. The origin of life was marked when a rare few protocells happened to have the ability to capture energy from the environment to initiate catalyzed heterotrophic growth directed by heritable genetic information in the polymers. This article examines potential sources of energy available to protocells, and mechanisms by which the energy could be used to drive polymer synthesis. PMID:20182625

  10. Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Ashwini Kumar

    2008-10-01

    The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, microbiology and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle is as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of the universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the earth and elsewhere in the universe, the issue, however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life-like abiogenesis, RNA world, iron-sulphur world and panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

  11. Sialosis of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Kim, D; Uy, C; Mandel, L

    1998-01-01

    Sialosis (sialadenosis) is defined as an asymptomatic, non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic parenchymal salivary gland disease accompanied by a persistent painless bilateral swelling of the salivary glands, most commonly involving the parotid glands. There is no sex predilection, and the peak age incidence is between 30 and 70 years of age. Sialosis occurs in three different groups of patients: alcoholics, diabetics and the malnourished. An autonomic neuropathy, seen as a demyelinating polyneuropathy, seems to be the common underlying basis for this seemingly disparate group of patients with sialosis.

  12. Reasoning with inaccurate spatial knowledge. [for Planetary Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doshi, Rajkumar S.; White, James E.; Lam, Raymond; Atkinson, David J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes work in progress on spatial planning for a semiautonomous mobile robot vehicle. The overall objective is to design a semiautonomous rover to plan routes in unknown, natural terrains. The approach to spatial planning involves deduction of common-sense spatial knowledge using geographical information, natural terrain representations, and assimilation of new and possibly conflicting terrain information. This report describes the ongoing research and implementation.

  13. Endosymbionts and mitochondrial origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility is put forth that the mitochondrion did not originate from an endosymbiosis 1-2 billion years ago involving an aerobic bacterium. Rather, it arose by endosymbiosis in a much earlier anaerobic period and was initially a photosynthetic organelle analogous to the modern chloroplast. This suggestion arises from a reconsideration of the nature of endosymbiosis. It explains the remarkable diversity in mitochondrial information storage and processing systems.

  14. [Studies of the herbal and botanical origins of seman Cuscutae].

    PubMed

    Guo, C; Zhang, Z; Zheng, H; Shu, Z; Li, C

    1990-03-01

    Herbalogical study shows that Seman Cuscutae originated from Cuscuta chinensis is one of the most commonly used drugs in ancient times. Survey of botanical origins indicates that there are 9 species in Genus Cuscutae and 4 of them are commodities. The Cuscuta chinensis specified in current Chinese Pharmacopoeia (1985) is not the principal one.

  15. 52. Photocopy of copy of original Officers' Duplex Quarters drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopy of copy of original Officers' Duplex Quarters drawing by Copeland, 7 April 1932 (Original in possession of Veterans Administration, Wichita, Kansas, copy at Ablah Library, Wichita State University). Heating - Veterans Administration Center, Officers Duplex Quarters, 5302 East Kellogg (Legal Address); 5500 East Kellogg (Common Address), Wichita, Sedgwick County, KS

  16. 53. Photocopy of copy of original Officers' Duplex Quarters drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of copy of original Officers' Duplex Quarters drawing by A.G.D., 7 April 1932 (original in possession of Veterans Administration, Wichita, Kansas, copy at Ablah Library, Wichita State University). Electrical - Veterans Administration Center, Officers Duplex Quarters, 5302 East Kellogg (Legal Address); 5500 East Kellogg (Common Address), Wichita, Sedgwick County, KS

  17. Origins of magnetospheric plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.E. )

    1991-01-01

    A review is given of recent (1987-1990) progress in understanding of the origins of plasmas in the earth's magnetosphere. In counterpoint to the early supposition that geomagnetic phenomena are produced by energetic plasmas of solar origin, 1987 saw the publication of a provocative argument that accelerated ionospheric plasma could supply all magnetospheric auroral and ring current particles. Significant new developments of existing data sets, as well as the establishment of entirely new data sets, have improved the ability to identify plasma source regions and to track plasma through the magnetospheric system of boundary layers and reservoirs. These developments suggest that the boundary between ionospheric and solar plasmas, once taken to lie at the plasmapause, actually lies much nearer to the magnetopause. Defining this boundary as the surface where solar wind and ionosphere contribute equally to the plasma, it is referred to herein as the 'geopause'. It is now well established that the infusion of ionospheric O(+) plays a major role in the storm-time distention of the magnetotail and inflation of the inner magnetosphere. After more than two decades of observation and debate, the question remains whether magnetosheric are protons of solar or terrestrial origin. 161 refs.

  18. Spatial Reasoning Influences Students' Performance on Mathematics Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrie, Tom; Logan, Tracy; Ramful, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Although the psychological literature has demonstrated that spatial reasoning and mathematics performance are correlated, there is scant research on these relationships in the middle years. The current study examined the commonalities and differences in students' performance on instruments that measured three spatial reasoning constructs and two…

  19. Conservation and canalization of gene expression during angiosperm diversification accompany the origin and evolution of the flower

    PubMed Central

    Chanderbali, André S.; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Zahn, Laura M.; Brockington, Samuel F.; Wall, P. Kerr; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Albert, Victor A.; Leebens-Mack, James; Altman, Naomi S.; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.

    2010-01-01

    The origin and rapid diversification of the angiosperms (Darwin's “Abominable Mystery”) has engaged generations of researchers. Here, we examine the floral genetic programs of phylogenetically pivotal angiosperms (water lily, avocado, California poppy, and Arabidopsis) and a nonflowering seed plant (a cycad) to obtain insight into the origin and subsequent evolution of the flower. Transcriptional cascades with broadly overlapping spatial domains, resembling the hypothesized ancestral gymnosperm program, are deployed across morphologically intergrading organs in water lily and avocado flowers. In contrast, spatially discrete transcriptional programs in distinct floral organs characterize the more recently derived angiosperm lineages represented by California poppy and Arabidopsis. Deep evolutionary conservation in the genetic programs of putatively homologous floral organs traces to those operating in gymnosperm reproductive cones. Female gymnosperm cones and angiosperm carpels share conserved genetic features, which may be associated with the ovule developmental program common to both organs. However, male gymnosperm cones share genetic features with both perianth (sterile attractive and protective) organs and stamens, supporting the evolutionary origin of the floral perianth from the male genetic program of seed plants. PMID:21149731

  20. Robustness of spatial micronetworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAndrew, Thomas C.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Bagrow, James P.

    2015-04-01

    Power lines, roadways, pipelines, and other physical infrastructure are critical to modern society. These structures may be viewed as spatial networks where geographic distances play a role in the functionality and construction cost of links. Traditionally, studies of network robustness have primarily considered the connectedness of large, random networks. Yet for spatial infrastructure, physical distances must also play a role in network robustness. Understanding the robustness of small spatial networks is particularly important with the increasing interest in microgrids, i.e., small-area distributed power grids that are well suited to using renewable energy resources. We study the random failures of links in small networks where functionality depends on both spatial distance and topological connectedness. By introducing a percolation model where the failure of each link is proportional to its spatial length, we find that when failures depend on spatial distances, networks are more fragile than expected. Accounting for spatial effects in both construction and robustness is important for designing efficient microgrids and other network infrastructure.

  1. Robustness of spatial micronetworks.

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Thomas C; Danforth, Christopher M; Bagrow, James P

    2015-04-01

    Power lines, roadways, pipelines, and other physical infrastructure are critical to modern society. These structures may be viewed as spatial networks where geographic distances play a role in the functionality and construction cost of links. Traditionally, studies of network robustness have primarily considered the connectedness of large, random networks. Yet for spatial infrastructure, physical distances must also play a role in network robustness. Understanding the robustness of small spatial networks is particularly important with the increasing interest in microgrids, i.e., small-area distributed power grids that are well suited to using renewable energy resources. We study the random failures of links in small networks where functionality depends on both spatial distance and topological connectedness. By introducing a percolation model where the failure of each link is proportional to its spatial length, we find that when failures depend on spatial distances, networks are more fragile than expected. Accounting for spatial effects in both construction and robustness is important for designing efficient microgrids and other network infrastructure.

  2. Breeding Common Bean for resistance to Common Blight: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common blight {caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli Smith (Dye) is a major bacterial disease causing >40% seed yield and quality losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. Use of resistant cultivars is crucial for its effective, economical, and environment friendly integarated...

  3. Spatial Relation Predicates in Topographic Feature Semantics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Caro, Holly K.

    2013-01-01

    Topographic data are designed and widely used for base maps of diverse applications, yet the power of these information sources largely relies on the interpretive skills of map readers and relational database expert users once the data are in map or geographic information system (GIS) form. Advances in geospatial semantic technology offer data model alternatives for explicating concepts and articulating complex data queries and statements. To understand and enrich the vocabulary of topographic feature properties for semantic technology, English language spatial relation predicates were analyzed in three standard topographic feature glossaries. The analytical approach drew from disciplinary concepts in geography, linguistics, and information science. Five major classes of spatial relation predicates were identified from the analysis; representations for most of these are not widely available. The classes are: part-whole (which are commonly modeled throughout semantic and linked-data networks), geometric, processes, human intention, and spatial prepositions. These are commonly found in the ‘real world’ and support the environmental science basis for digital topographical mapping. The spatial relation concepts are based on sets of relation terms presented in this chapter, though these lists are not prescriptive or exhaustive. The results of this study make explicit the concepts forming a broad set of spatial relation expressions, which in turn form the basis for expanding the range of possible queries for topographical data analysis and mapping.

  4. [Logic and analogy in psychiatry. Their "common root"].

    PubMed

    Marchais, P; Grize, J B

    1994-02-01

    Logic and analogy pose a fundamental problem in psychiatry. The latter is at the moment renewed by the existence of fuzzy logics. The authors put forward the hypothesis of a common root using the systemal method, an original strategy and a particular test. Several questions are tackled: definitions, hierarchy, linking, linearity or circularity, closed of open aspect of thought process, integration, separation or continuity, ways of appearance, discrete organization or organization in networks, different or common origin, importance of modal and non monotonous logics. A discussion and the consequences of this hypothesis are specified.

  5. Modeling of spatially-restricted intracellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Neves, Susana R

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the signaling capabilities of a cell presents a major challenge, not only due to the number of molecules involved, but also because of the complex network connectivity of intracellular signaling. Recently, the proliferation of quantitative imaging techniques has led to the discovery of the vast spatial organization of intracellular signaling. Computational modeling has emerged as a powerful tool for understanding how inhomogeneous signaling originates and is maintained. This article covers the current imaging techniques used to obtain quantitative spatial data and the mathematical approaches used to model spatial cell biology. Modeling-derived hypotheses have been experimentally tested and the integration of modeling and imaging approaches has led to non-intuitive mechanistic insights.

  6. Spatial Light Amplifier Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, Sverre T.; Olsson, N. Anders

    1992-01-01

    Spatial light amplifier modulators (SLAM's) are conceptual devices that effect two-dimensional spatial modulation in optical computing and communication systems. Unlike current spatial light modulators, these provide gain. Optical processors incorporating SLAM's designed to operate in reflection or transmission mode. Each element of planar SLAM array is optical amplifier - surface-emitting diode laser. Array addressed electrically with ac modulating signals superimposed on dc bias currents supplied to lasers. SLAM device provides both desired modulation and enough optical gain to enable splitting of output signal into many optical fibers without excessive loss of power.

  7. Origin of extra chromosome in Patau syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ishikiriyama, S; Niikawa, N

    1984-01-01

    Five live-born infants with Patau syndrome were studied for the nondisjunctional origin of the extra chromosome. Transmission modes of chromosomes 13 from parents to a child were determined using both QFQ- and RFA-heteromorphisms as markers, and the origin was ascertained in all of the patients. The extra chromosome had originated in nondisjunction at the maternal first meiotic division in two patients, at the maternal second meiosis in other two, and at the paternal first meiosis in the remaining one. Summarizing the results of the present study, together with those of the previous studies on a liveborn and abortuses with trisomy 13, nondisjunction at the maternal and the paternal meiosis occurred in this trisomy in the ratio of 14:3. This ratio is not statistically different from that inferred from the previous studies for Down syndrome. These findings suggest that there may be a fundamental mechanism common to the occurrence of nondisjunction in the acrocentric trisomies.

  8. Volume 89, Issue4 (September 2004)Articles in the Current Issue:Original PaperSpatial Analysis of Twaite Shad, Alosa fallax (Lacepède, 1803), in the Southern North Sea: Application of Non-Linear Geostatistics as a Tool to Search for Special Areas of Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelzenmüller, Vanessa; Maynou, Francesc; Ehrich, Siegfried; Zauke, Gerd-Peter

    2004-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the suitability of non-linear geostatistics and indicator kriging (IK) as a tool in environmental impact assessment and nature conservation, in particular to search for potential Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) for the endangered fish species twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacepède, 1803) within the German Exclusive Economical Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea. To analyse the spatial distribution of this fish species, data on standardised biomass index (catch per unit effort, c.p.u.e., kg × 30 min-1) from 1996 to 2001 were used, regarding the third and fourth quarters of each year, respectively. Thereby we assume that the spatial distribution can be described as a time-invariant process. This assumption is supported by information on annual sampling effort, allocation of hauls and spatial distribution of the positive catches. All indicator variograms obtained for different c.p.u.e. cut-off values displayed distinct spatial structures, clearly indicating that the indicator variables were spatially autocorrelated. Gaussian models were fitted by least-squares methods and were evaluated with a goodness-of-fit statistic. Subsequently, IK was employed to estimate the probability of exceeding the c.p.u.e. cut-off values for the twaite shad in the investigation area. These were highest in the Weser- and Elbe-estuary, probably because of migrations of twaite shad to and from estuaries at the time of investigation due to spawning, while within the German EEZ of the North Sea no such areas with increased probabilities could be discerned. Thus, although available data did not allow to identify and implement any SAC in the German EEZ, the methods employed here can be regarded as a promising management tool in biological conservation issues. (

  9. Impact origin of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, W.L.

    1998-12-31

    A few years after the Apollo flights to the Moon, it became clear that all of the existing theories on the origin of the Moon would not satisfy the growing body of constraints which appeared with the data gathered by the Apollo flights. About the same time, researchers began to realize that the inner (terrestrial) planets were not born quietly -- all had evidences of impacts on their surfaces. This fact reinforced the idea that the planets had formed by the accumulation of planetesimals. Since the Earth`s moon is unique among the terrestrial planets, a few researchers realized that perhaps the Moon originated in a singular event; an event that was quite probable, but not so probable that one would expect all the terrestrial planets to have a large moon. And thus was born the idea that a giant impact formed the Moon. Impacts would be common in the early solar system; perhaps a really large impact of two almost fully formed planets of disparate sizes would lead to material orbiting the proto-earth, a proto-moon. This idea remained to be tested. Using a relatively new, but robust, method of doing the hydrodynamics of the collision (Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics), the author and his colleagues (W. Benz, Univ. of Arizona, and A.G.W. Cameron, Harvard College Obs.) did a large number of collision simulations on a supercomputer. The author found two major scenarios which would result in the formation of the Moon. The first was direct formation; a moon-sized object is boosted into orbit by gravitational torques. The second is when the orbiting material forms a disk, which, with subsequent evolution can form the Moon. In either case the physical and chemical properties of the newly formed Moon would very neatly satisfy the physical and chemical constraints of the current Moon. Also, in both scenarios the surface of the Earth would be quite hot after the collision. This aspect remains to be explored.

  10. Origin of Tektites.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Shute, B E

    1963-03-29

    A comet of the size recently postulated by H. C. Urey would leave a large crater. It is shown, from aerodynamic theory, from observations of distribution around terrestrial impact craters, and from experimental nuclear explosions, that the observed distribution of tektites cannot be the result of impact on the earth, whether cometary or meteoritic. It is further shown, from aerodynamic theory, from observation of a meteor shower, and from study of the breakup of artificial satellites, that the distribution of tektites can be accounted for as a result of fusion stripping of a satellite, as originally suggested by Suess.

  11. The Origin of Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Siddharth; Goyal, Abha

    2007-01-01

    The original description of M-mode echocardiography in 1953, by Inge Edler (1911–2001) and his physicist friend Hellmuth Hertz, marked the beginning of a new diagnostic noninvasive technique. Edler used this technique primarily for the preoperative study of mitral stenosis and diagnosis of mitral regurgitation. His work was carried forward by cardiologists all over the world, who developed Doppler, 2-dimensional, contrast, and transesophageal echocardiography. These are now standard in cardiologic examinations. Edler also influenced neurologists and obstetricians at Lund University (Sweden) to use ultrasound in their fields. For his landmark discovery, Edler is recognized as the “Father of Echocardiography.” PMID:18172524

  12. Origin of earth's moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The major geochemical properties of the moon are briefly considered along with the significant facts of the moon's geologic history, and then the three current hypotheses regarding the moon's origin, namely, fission, capture, and binary accretion, are reviewed. The individual merits and improbabilities associated with each mechanism are taken into consideration. Special attention is given to the binary accretion model as the most promising one. In the variants of this model, of crucial importance is the nature of the more general hypothesis assumed for planetary formation from the solar nebula. The two main models differ considerably in the amount of chemical fractionation they allow to accompany planetary formation.

  13. Molecular origin of friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Yuanzhong

    2004-01-01

    The wearless friction originating from molecular interactions has been discussed in this paper. We find that the frictional properties are closely related to the structural match of two surfaces in relative motion. For the surfaces with incommensurate structure and week inter-surface interaction, zero static and kinetic friction can be achieved. In a sliding considered as in a quasi-static state, the energy dissipation initiates when interfacial particles move in a discontinuous fashion, which gives rise to a finite kinetic friction. The state of superlubricity is a result of computer simulations, but the prediction will encourage people to look for a technical approach to realizing the state of super low friction.

  14. The origin, source, and cycling of methane in deep crystalline rock biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Kietäväinen, Riikka; Purkamo, Lotta

    2015-01-01

    The emerging interest in using stable bedrock formations for industrial purposes, e.g., nuclear waste disposal, has increased the need for understanding microbiological and geochemical processes in deep crystalline rock environments, including the carbon cycle. Considering the origin and evolution of life on Earth, these environments may also serve as windows to the past. Various geological, chemical, and biological processes can influence the deep carbon cycle. Conditions of CH4 formation, available substrates and time scales can be drastically different from surface environments. This paper reviews the origin, source, and cycling of methane in deep terrestrial crystalline bedrock with an emphasis on microbiology. In addition to potential formation pathways of CH4, microbial consumption of CH4 is also discussed. Recent studies on the origin of CH4 in continental bedrock environments have shown that the traditional separation of biotic and abiotic CH4 by the isotopic composition can be misleading in substrate-limited environments, such as the deep crystalline bedrock. Despite of similarities between Precambrian continental sites in Fennoscandia, South Africa and North America, where deep methane cycling has been studied, common physicochemical properties which could explain the variation in the amount of CH4 and presence or absence of CH4 cycling microbes were not found. However, based on their preferred carbon metabolism, methanogenic microbes appeared to have similar spatial distribution among the different sites. PMID:26236303

  15. The origin, source, and cycling of methane in deep crystalline rock biosphere.

    PubMed

    Kietäväinen, Riikka; Purkamo, Lotta

    2015-01-01

    The emerging interest in using stable bedrock formations for industrial purposes, e.g., nuclear waste disposal, has increased the need for understanding microbiological and geochemical processes in deep crystalline rock environments, including the carbon cycle. Considering the origin and evolution of life on Earth, these environments may also serve as windows to the past. Various geological, chemical, and biological processes can influence the deep carbon cycle. Conditions of CH4 formation, available substrates and time scales can be drastically different from surface environments. This paper reviews the origin, source, and cycling of methane in deep terrestrial crystalline bedrock with an emphasis on microbiology. In addition to potential formation pathways of CH4, microbial consumption of CH4 is also discussed. Recent studies on the origin of CH4 in continental bedrock environments have shown that the traditional separation of biotic and abiotic CH4 by the isotopic composition can be misleading in substrate-limited environments, such as the deep crystalline bedrock. Despite of similarities between Precambrian continental sites in Fennoscandia, South Africa and North America, where deep methane cycling has been studied, common physicochemical properties which could explain the variation in the amount of CH4 and presence or absence of CH4 cycling microbes were not found. However, based on their preferred carbon metabolism, methanogenic microbes appeared to have similar spatial distribution among the different sites.

  16. Spatial Data Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajulu, P.; Azeem Saqiq, M.; Yu, F.; McMeekin, D. A.; West, G.; Arnold, L.; Moncrieff, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes current research into the supply of spatial data to the end user in as close to real time as possible via the World Wide Web. The Spatial Data Infrastructure paradigm has been discussed since the early 1990s. The concept has evolved significantly since then but has almost always examined data from the perspective of the supplier. It has been a supplier driven focus rather than a user driven focus. The current research being conducted is making a paradigm shift and looking at the supply of spatial data as a supply chain, similar to a manufacturing supply chain in which users play a significant part. A comprehensive consultation process took place within Australia and New Zealand incorporating a large number of stakeholders. Three research projects that have arisen from this consultation process are examining Spatial Data Supply Chains within Australia and New Zealand and are discussed within this paper.

  17. On the Origin of Hypervelocity Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Q.; Lu, Y.

    2011-05-01

    Hypervelocity stars (HVSs) moving in the Galactic halo are mainly B-type stars with origin of their progenitors unknown. OB stars are also populated in the Galactic Center (GC), with many being hosted in a clockwise rotating young stellar (CWS) disk within half a parsec from the central massive black hole (MBH) and their formation remaining puzzles. We find that the majority of the detected HVSs are spatially correlated with the plane of the stellar disk. By demonstrating that HVSs can well memorize the injecting direction of their progenitors, we conclude that most of the HVSs probably originate from the CWS disk. Our results not only confirm the GC origin of HVSs but also imply that the central disk should persist or be frequently rejuvenated over the past 200 Myr, which adds a new challenge to the stellar disk formation and provides insights to the longstanding problem of gas fueling into MBHs. A future survey of HVSs in the southern hemisphere will provide a check for the origin of HVSs.

  18. Remedies for Common Cold Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Penny F.

    1991-01-01

    Individuals suffering from intolerable symptoms of the common cold can now be advised of safe and effective products for symptomatic relief. This article describes and discusses four categories of drugs used to treat the common cold. To simplify the product selection process for family physicians, suggestions are included for possible ingredients for treatments of specific cold symptoms. PMID:21234087

  19. Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.

    PubMed

    Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

    2013-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed.

  20. Common Infant and Newborn Problems

    MedlinePlus

    It is hard when your baby is sick. Common health problems in babies include colds, coughs, fevers, and vomiting. Babies also commonly have skin problems, like diaper rash or cradle cap. Many of these problems are ... are worried about your baby, call your health care provider right away.

  1. Common Pyraloidea species of Dominica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-six adult crambid moths of the superfamily Pyraloidea from Dominica are illustrated and identified. These images are a tool for the identification of large, common species in the Caribbean. The Caribbean is a common entry and pathway of invasive species to southeastern United States....

  2. Learning Words with Common Rimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    An extensive research review by M. Adams (1990) led her to the conclusion that providing instruction and reinforcement in learning common rimes is highly beneficial in fostering growth in learning to read. While substantial amounts of reading, either independent or with partners, is critical in learning words with common rimes, focused study is…

  3. The Tragedy of the Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons is one of the principal tenets of ecology. Recent developments in experiential computer-based simulation of the tragedy of the commons are described. A virtual learning environment is developed using the popular video game "Minecraft". The virtual learning environment is used to experience first-hand depletion…

  4. The Common Denominator of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Hubert C.

    1976-01-01

    The common denominator of learning is conceived as a guideline in organizing the learning material in support of learning continuity. As to its effect, the common denominator is thought of as a habit-forming element in realizing learning as a (continuous) sequence of relative rather than absolute experiences. (Author/HB)

  5. OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarik, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

  6. Personal Finance. Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document provides the common curriculum goals for the state of Oregon in personal finance, an area of study that relates basic economic concepts and practices to the financial concerns of consumers. These goals were designed to define what should be taught in all public school settings. The common curriculum goals in personal finance are…

  7. Embodied spatial cognition.

    PubMed

    Trafton, J Gregory; Harrison, Anthony M

    2011-10-01

    We present a spatial system called Specialized Egocentrically Coordinated Spaces embedded in an embodied cognitive architecture (ACT-R Embodied). We show how the spatial system works by modeling two different developmental findings: gaze-following and Level 1 perspective taking. The gaze-following model is based on an experiment by Corkum and Moore (1998), whereas the Level 1 visual perspective-taking model is based on an experiment by Moll and Tomasello (2006). The models run on an embodied robotic system.

  8. Spatial network surrogates for disentangling complex system structure from spatial embedding of nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Donges, Jonathan F.; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V.

    2016-04-01

    Networks with nodes embedded in a metric space have gained increasing interest in recent years. The effects of spatial embedding on the networks' structural characteristics, however, are rarely taken into account when studying their macroscopic properties. Here, we propose a hierarchy of null models to generate random surrogates from a given spatially embedded network that can preserve certain global and local statistics associated with the nodes' embedding in a metric space. Comparing the original network's and the resulting surrogates' global characteristics allows one to quantify to what extent these characteristics are already predetermined by the spatial embedding of the nodes and links. We apply our framework to various real-world spatial networks and show that the proposed models capture macroscopic properties of the networks under study much better than standard random network models that do not account for the nodes' spatial embedding. Depending on the actual performance of the proposed null models, the networks are categorized into different classes. Since many real-world complex networks are in fact spatial networks, the proposed approach is relevant for disentangling the underlying complex system structure from spatial embedding of nodes in many fields, ranging from social systems over infrastructure and neurophysiology to climatology.

  9. Spatial language and converseness.

    PubMed

    Burigo, Michele; Coventry, Kenny R; Cangelosi, Angelo; Lynott, Dermot

    2016-12-01

    Typical spatial language sentences consist of describing the location of an object (the located object) in relation to another object (the reference object) as in "The book is above the vase". While it has been suggested that the properties of the located object (the book) are not translated into language because they are irrelevant when exchanging location information, it has been shown that the orientation of the located object affects the production and comprehension of spatial descriptions. In line with the claim that spatial language apprehension involves inferences about relations that hold between objects it has been suggested that during spatial language apprehension people use the orientation of the located object to evaluate whether the logical property of converseness (e.g., if "the book is above the vase" is true, then also "the vase is below the book" must be true) holds across the objects' spatial relation. In three experiments using sentence acceptability rating tasks we tested this hypothesis and demonstrated that when converseness is violated people's acceptability ratings of a scene's description are reduced indicating that people do take into account geometric properties of the located object and use it to infer logical spatial relations.

  10. Acquired spatial dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Siéroff, E

    2015-08-10

    Acquired spatial dyslexia is a reading disorder frequently occurring after left or right posterior brain lesions. This article describes several types of spatial dyslexia with an attentional approach. After right posterior lesions, patients show left neglect dyslexia with errors on the left side of text, words, and non-words. The deficit is frequently associated with left unilateral spatial neglect. Severe left neglect dyslexia can be detected with unlimited exposure duration of words or non-words. Minor neglect dyslexia is detected with brief presentation of bilateral words, one in the left and one in the right visual field (phenomenon of contralesional extinction). Neglect dyslexia can be explained as a difficulty in orienting attention to the left side of verbal stimuli. With left posterior lesions, spatial dyslexia is also frequent but multiform. Right neglect dyslexia is frequent, but right unilateral spatial neglect is rare. Attentional dyslexia represents difficulty in selecting a stimulus, letter or word among other similar stimuli; it is a deficit of attentional selection, and the left hemisphere plays a crucial role in selection. Two other types of spatial dyslexia can be found after left posterior lesions: paradoxical ipsilesional extinction and stimulus-centred neglect dyslexia. Disconnections between left or right parietal attentional areas and the left temporal visual word form area could explain these deficits. Overall, a model of attention dissociating modulation, selection control, and selection positioning can help in understanding these reading disorders.

  11. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  12. The Origins of Neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Barlow, David H; Ellard, Kristen K; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Bullis, Jacqueline R; Carl, Jenna R

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we provide a fresh perspective on the developmental origins of neuroticism--a dimension of temperament marked by elevated stress reactivity resulting in the frequent experience of negative emotions. This negative affectivity is accompanied by a pervasive perception that the world is a dangerous and threatening place, along with beliefs about one's inability to manage or cope with challenging events. Historically, neuroticism has been viewed as a stable, genetically based trait. However, recent understanding of ongoing gene-environment interactions that occur throughout the life span suggests there may be a more complex and dynamic etiology. Thus, the purpose of this article is to offer a theory for understanding the development of neuroticism that integrates genetic, neurobiological, and environmental contributions to this trait. Given the strong correlation between neuroticism and the development of negative health outcomes--most notably, the full range of anxiety and mood disorders--an enhanced understanding of how neuroticism originates has implications for the treatment and prevention of a broad range of pathologies and, perhaps, even for the prevention of neuroticism itself.

  13. Origins of Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Czerniak, Bogdan; Dinney, Colin; McConkey, David

    2016-05-23

    Bladder cancer, one of the most frequently occurring human cancers, develops via two tracks referred to as papillary and nonpapillary that correspond to clinically different forms of the disease. Most bladder cancers are chemically induced, with tobacco smoking being the leading risk factor. Recent advances in bladder cancer research have enhanced our understanding of the origin of this disease from urothelial progenitor cells via field effects along papillary/luminal and nonpapillary/basal pathways. Evident from the outset of the disease, the diversity of the luminal and basal pathways, together with cell lineage tracing studies, postulates the origin of molecularly distinct subtypes from different uroprogenitor cells. The molecular mechanisms initiating field effects involve a new class of genes referred to as forerunner (FR) genes that generally map around major tumor suppressors such as RB1. These genes are silenced, predominantly by hypermethylation and less frequently by mutations, and drive the expansion of intraurothelial preneoplastic cells. Different FR genes are involved in various molecular subtypes of bladder cancer and they sensitize the uroprogenitor cells to the development of luminal and basal bladder cancers in animal models. In human bladder cancer, luminal and basal forms have dissimilar clinical behavior and response to conventional and targeted chemotherapeutic manipulations. These new research developments hold the promise of expanding our armamentarium of diagnostic and treatment options for patients with bladder cancer and improving our ability to select patients most likely to respond to a specific therapy.

  14. The origin of Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Hublin, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    Western Eurasia yielded a rich Middle (MP) and Late Pleistocene (LP) fossil record documenting the evolution of the Neandertals that can be analyzed in light of recently acquired paleogenetical data, an abundance of archeological evidence, and a well-known environmental context. Their origin likely relates to an episode of recolonization of Western Eurasia by hominins of African origin carrying the Acheulean technology into Europe around 600 ka. An enhancement of both glacial and interglacial phases may have played a crucial role in this event, as well as in the subsequent evolutionary history of the Western Eurasian populations. In addition to climatic adaptations and an increase in encephalization, genetic drift seems to have played a major role in their evolution. To date, a clear speciation event is not documented, and the most likely scenario for the fixation of Neandertal characteristics seems to be an accretion of features along the second half of the MP. Although a separation time for the African and Eurasian populations is difficult to determine, it certainly predates OIS 11 as phenotypic Neandertal features are documented as far back as and possibly before this time. It is proposed to use the term “Homo rhodesiensis” to designate the large-brained hominins ancestral to H. sapiens in Africa and at the root of the Neandertals in Europe, and to use the term “Homo neanderthalensis” to designate all of the specimens carrying derived metrical or non-metrical features used in the definition of the LP Neandertals. PMID:19805257

  15. Origin of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia.

    PubMed

    García-Sanz, Ramón; Jiménez, Cristina; Puig, Noemí; Paiva, Bruno; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Rodríguez-Otero, Paula; Almeida, Julia; San Miguel, Jesús; Orfão, Alberto; González, Marcos; Pérez-Andrés, Martín

    2016-06-01

    Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia (WM) is an MYD88(L265P)-mutated lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma that invades bone marrow and secretes monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM). WM cells are usually unable to undergo class switch recombination, and have mutated IGHV, with a typical immunophenotype CD19(+)/CD22(low+)/CD23(-)/CD25(+)/CD27(+)/CD45(+)/CD38(low+)/SmIgM(+) (negative for CD5, CD10, CD11c, CD103). This immunophenotype matches memory B cells (smIgM(-/+)/CD10(-)/CD19(+)/CD20(+)/CD27(+)/CD38(low+)/CD45(+)), representing 30% of B cells in the blood. Fifty percent of them have not undergone class switch recombination and are IgM(+). These cells have suffered somatic hypermutation as WM cells. Genetic abnormalities do not abrogate the capacity to progress to plasma cells that usually belong to the clonal WM compartment, with a normal immunophenotype and functional characteristics. However, some WM cells are CD27(-), MYD88(WT), without somatic hypermutation, or with class switch recombination capable of reactivation. Thus, most data support a B-memory-cell origin for WM, but a small fraction of cases may have a different origin.

  16. The Origins of Options

    PubMed Central

    Smaldino, Paul E.; Richerson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one’s current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options. PMID:22514515

  17. A major Pseudomonas aeruginosa clone common to patients and aquatic habitats.

    PubMed Central

    Römling, U; Wingender, J; Müller, H; Tümmler, B

    1994-01-01

    The genomic relatedness of 573 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from environmental and clinical habitats was examined by digesting the genome with the rare-cutting enzyme SpeI. Thirty-nine strains were collected from environmental habitats mainly of aquatic origin, like rivers, lakes, or sanitary facilities. Four hundred fifty strains were collected from 76 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) treated at four different centers, and 25 additional clinical isolates were collected from patients suffering from other diseases. Twenty-nine P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from the environment of one CF clinic. Thirty strains from culture collections were of environmental and clinic origin. A common macrorestriction fingerprint pattern was found in 13 of 46 CF patients, 5 of 29 environmental isolates from the same hospital, in a single ear infection isolate from another hospital, and 8 of 38 isolates from aquatic habitats about 300 km away from the CF clinic. The data indicate that closely related variants of one major clone (called clone C) persisted in various spatially and temporally separated habitats. Southern analysis of the clonal variants with six gene probes and two probes for genes coding for rRNA revealed almost the same hybridization patterns. With the exception of the phenotypically rapidly evolving CF isolates, the close relatedness of the strains of the clone was also shown by their identical responses in pyocin typing, phage typing, and serotyping. Besides clone C, three other P. aeruginosa clones were isolated from more than one clinical or environmental source. Images PMID:8031075

  18. Teaching Spatial Awareness to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens-Smith, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    An important component in the early stages of skill development is spatial awareness. This article discusses how good spatial awareness in children results from concepts that are reinforced throughout the school's curriculum. Activities for developing spatial awareness are also provided.

  19. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. View of sawmill after earthquake of 1898. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. View of waterfront during World War II; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. View of Franklin D. Roosevelt walking past old Marine Corps Barracks; 1913. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. View of building 133 being moved; 1933. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Photograph of original drawing (original in possession of National Passenger ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photograph of original drawing (original in possession of National Passenger Railroad Corporation). Canopy Plans, Sections, and Details (n.d.) - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 18. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) PLANS AND SECTIONS, MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT-PIERS 2, 3, AND 4 - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  5. 15. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) TYPICAL DETAILS-PIERS 2, 3, AND 4 - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  6. 14. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) SECTIONS AND DETAILS-PIERS 2, 3, AND 4 - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  7. 21. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) ERECTION PLAN-PIER NO. 4 - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 4, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  8. 16. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) DETAILS OF INSHORE ENDS-PIERS 2, 3, AND 4 - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  9. 13. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) ARMY SUPPLY BASE-PLAN OF CONSTRUCTION PLANT - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  10. 17. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) DETAILS OF OUTSHORE ENDS-PIERS 2, 3, AND 4 - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  11. 19. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of original drawing by Cass Gilbert, 1918 (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) BRIDGES BETWEEN WAREHOUSE A AND PIERS - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  12. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Building 253; 1920. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Coal sheds with coals; 1906. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Coal Sheds, Waterfront Avenue, northwest corner of Waterfront Avenue & Fourth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. QUARTERS A IN THE SNOW; 1913. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Commandant's Quarters, Walnut Avenue, west side near Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  16. First molecules, biological chirality, origin(s) of life.

    PubMed

    Caglioti, Luciano; Micskei, Károly; Pályi, Gyula

    2011-01-01

    Origin(s) of biological chirality appear(s) to be intimately connected to origin(s) of life. Prebiotic evolution toward these important turning points can be traced back to single chiral molecules. These can be small (monomeric) units as amino acids or monosaccharides or oligomers as oligo-RNA type molecules. Earlier speculations about these two kinds of entries to biological chirality are critically reviewed.

  17. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining if the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on self-regulation, academic motivation, and internalized compliance/internalization of standards. Based on the accumulated body of evidence, we conclude that self-regulation fosters conscientiousness later in life, both directly and via academic motivation and internalized compliance with norms. We argue that elements of conscientiousness are evident by early childhood, self-regulation skills are likely a core developmental component of conscientiousness, and despite the contribution of heredity to the aforementioned aspects of functioning, environmental factors likely contribute to conscientiousness. PMID:23244405

  18. Mechanical origin of aftershocks

    PubMed Central

    Lippiello, E.; Giacco, F.; Marzocchi, W.; Godano, C.; de Arcangelis, L.

    2015-01-01

    Aftershocks are the most striking evidence of earthquake interactions and the physical mechanisms at the origin of their occurrence are still intensively debated. Novel insights stem from recent results on the influence of the faulting style on the aftershock organisation in magnitude and time. Our study shows that the size of the aftershock zone depends on the fault geometry. We find that positive correlations among parameters controlling aftershock occurrence in time, energy and space are a stable feature of seismicity independently of magnitude range and geographic areas. We explain the ensemble of experimental findings by means of a description of the Earth Crust as an heterogeneous elastic medium coupled with a Maxwell viscoelastic asthenosphere. Our results show that heterogeneous stress distribution in an elastic layer combined with a coupling to a viscous flow are sufficient ingredients to describe the physics of aftershock triggering. PMID:26497720

  19. Origins of Stellar Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Kathryn V.

    2016-08-01

    This contribution reviews ideas about the origins of stellar halos. It includes discussion of the theoretical understanding of and observational evidence for stellar populations formed ``in situ'' (meaning formed in orbits close to their current ones), ``kicked-out'' (meaning formed in the inner galaxy in orbits unlike their current ones) and ``accreted'' (meaning formed in a dark matter halo other than the one they currently occupy). At this point there is general agreement that a significant fraction of any stellar halo population is likely ``accreted''. There is modest evidence for the presence of a ``kicked-out'' population around both the Milky Way and M31. Our theoretical understanding of and the observational evidence for an ``in situ'' population are less clear.

  20. Origins of hydration lubrication.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liran; Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

    2015-01-14

    Why is friction in healthy hips and knees so low? Hydration lubrication, according to which hydration shells surrounding charges act as lubricating elements in boundary layers (including those coating cartilage in joints), has been invoked to account for the extremely low sliding friction between surfaces in aqueous media, but not well understood. Here we report the direct determination of energy dissipation within such sheared hydration shells. By trapping hydrated ions in a 0.4-1 nm gap between atomically smooth charged surfaces as they slide past each other, we are able to separate the dissipation modes of the friction and, in particular, identify the viscous losses in the subnanometre hydration shells. Our results shed light on the origins of hydration lubrication, with potential implications both for aqueous boundary lubricants and for biolubrication.

  1. The origins of informatics.

    PubMed Central

    Collen, M F

    1994-01-01

    This article summarizes the origins of informatics, which is based on the science, engineering, and technology of computer hardware, software, and communications. In just four decades, from the 1950s to the 1990s, computer technology has progressed from slow, first-generation vacuum tubes, through the invention of the transistor and its incorporation into microprocessor chips, and ultimately, to fast, fourth-generation very-large-scale-integrated silicon chips. Programming has undergone a parallel transformation, from cumbersome, first-generation, machine languages to efficient, fourth-generation application-oriented languages. Communication has evolved from simple copper wires to complex fiberoptic cables in computer-linked networks. The digital computer has profound implications for the development and practice of clinical medicine. PMID:7719803

  2. Conscientiousness: origins in childhood?

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L; Spinrad, Tracy L; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on self-regulation, academic motivation, and internalized compliance/internalization of standards. On the basis of the accumulated body of evidence, we conclude that self-regulation fosters conscientiousness later in life, both directly and via academic motivation and internalized compliance with norms. We argue that elements of conscientiousness are evident by early childhood; self-regulation skills are likely a core developmental component of conscientiousness; and despite the contribution of heredity to the aforementioned aspects of functioning, environmental factors likely contribute to conscientiousness.

  3. Mechanical origin of aftershocks.

    PubMed

    Lippiello, E; Giacco, F; Marzocchi, W; Godano, C; de Arcangelis, L

    2015-10-26

    Aftershocks are the most striking evidence of earthquake interactions and the physical mechanisms at the origin of their occurrence are still intensively debated. Novel insights stem from recent results on the influence of the faulting style on the aftershock organisation in magnitude and time. Our study shows that the size of the aftershock zone depends on the fault geometry. We find that positive correlations among parameters controlling aftershock occurrence in time, energy and space are a stable feature of seismicity independently of magnitude range and geographic areas. We explain the ensemble of experimental findings by means of a description of the Earth Crust as an heterogeneous elastic medium coupled with a Maxwell viscoelastic asthenosphere. Our results show that heterogeneous stress distribution in an elastic layer combined with a coupling to a viscous flow are sufficient ingredients to describe the physics of aftershock triggering.

  4. The Origin of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, W.; Anic, A.; Horner, J.; Whitby, J. A.

    Mercury's unusually high mean density has always been attributed to special circumstances that occurred during the formation of the planet or shortly thereafter, and due to the planet's close proximity to the Sun. The nature of these special circumstances is still being debated and several scenarios, all proposed more than 20 years ago, have been suggested. In all scenarios, the high mean density is the result of severe fractionation occurring between silicates and iron. It is the origin of this fractionation that is at the centre of the debate: is it due to differences in condensation temperature and/or in material characteristics (e.g. density, strength)? Is it because of mantle evaporation due to the close proximity to the Sun? Or is it due to the blasting off of the mantle during a giant impact?

  5. Origin of Prometheus Eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappaport, N. J.; Longaretti, P.

    2006-12-01

    A number of Saturn's small satellites, from Atlas to the coorbital satellites Janus and Epimetheus, move on orbits just outside the main rings of the planet. These satellites undergo extremely rapid resonant interaction with the rings and outward motion, strongly suggesting that they originated in Saturn's A ring. However, their eccentricities, of the order of 1/1000 are several orders of magnitude larger than what could be expected if the small satellites formed in the ring. This paper represents a first step to providing an explanation for this phenomenon, by focusing on the dynamical processes that have affected the eccentricity of Prometheus. The explanation invokes past resonances with the coorbital satellites combined with chaos due to overlapping of these resonances.

  6. The origin of humor.

    PubMed

    Howe, N E

    2002-09-01

    Humor is spread throughout every culture on earth and occupies a large portion of our literature and social interaction. It is so deeply rooted in our culture that it may be a defining characteristic of our species. Yet there has been comparatively little effort to understand its origin. According to the Accepted Theory of Humor all jokes begin with a buildup of tension while an initial paradigm is formed. When the punch line occurs the subject must realign his thinking to accommodate the differences between the initial paradigm and the sudden burst of new information. The Mind Reading Hypothesis extends the accepted theory of humor to include a relationship between the observer and the subject of the humor. The actual source of amusement is the observation of the resolution in the mind of the subject of the collision between old perception and new reality.

  7. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  8. Origin and properties of GEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Z R; Bradley, J P

    2006-04-11

    GEMS are to the outer solar system what chondrules are to the inner solar system. Ten years after it was first proposed that GEMS are the long-sought interstellar amorphous silicates, ion microprobe measurements have confirmed that some of them are indeed interstellar amorphous silicates. The new challenges are to obtain even higher precision isotope measurements from these submicrometer-sized objects and to clarify how and where they originally formed. Individual GEMS exhibit a strikingly narrow (0.1-0.5 {micro}m diameter) size distribution and they are systematically depleted from solar abundances in S/Si, Mg/Si, Ca/Si and Fe/Si, implying that they formed by a common mechanism. Mineralogical and petrographic evidence suggest that irradiation processing may be that mechanism. Recent nanometer-scale compositional mapping using new-generation transmission electron microscopes reveals that truly pristine GEMS may be relatively rare and new metrics need to be developed to distinguish the primordial properties of GEMS from more recent secondary alteration effects.

  9. Spatial analysis of time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometric images by ordinary kriging and inverse distance weighted interpolation techniques.

    PubMed

    Milillo, Tammy M; Gardella, Joseph A

    2008-07-01

    Ordinary kriging and inverse distance weighted (IDW) are two interpolation methods for spatial analysis of data and are commonly used to analyze macroscopic spatial data in the fields of remote sensing, geography, and geology. In this study, these two interpolation techniques were compared and used to analyze microscopic chemical images created from time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry images from a patterned polymer sample of fluorocarbon (C(x)F(y)) and poly(aminopropyl siloxane) (APS, a.k.a. siloxane). Data was eliminated from the original high-resolution data set by successive random removal, and the image file was interpolated and reconstructed with a random subset of points using both methods. The statistical validity of the reconstructed image was determined by both standard geographic information system (GIS) validation statistics and evaluating the resolution across an image boundary using ASTM depth and image resolution methodology. The results show that both ordinary kriging and IDW techniques can be used to accurately reconstruct an image using substantially fewer sample points than the original data set. Ordinary kriging performed better than the IDW technique, resulting in fewer errors in predicted intensities and greater retention of original image features. The size of the data set required for the most accurate reconstruction of the original image is directly related to the autocorrelation present within the data set. When 10% of the original siloxane data set was used for an ordinary kriging interpolation, the resulting image still retained the characteristic gridlike pattern. The C(x)F(y) data set exhibited stronger spatial correlation, resulting in reconstruction of the image with only 1% of the original data set. The removal of data points does result in a loss of image resolution; however, the resolution loss is not directly related to the percentage of sample points removed.

  10. High-performance IR thermography system based on Class II Thermal Imaging Common Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Ian G.

    1991-03-01

    The Class II Thermal Imaging Common Modules were originally developed for the U.K. Ministry of Defence as the basis of a number of high performance thermal imaging systems for use by the British Armed Forces. These systems are characterized by high spatial resolution, high thermal resolution and real time thermal image update rate. A TICM II thermal imaging system uses a cryogenically cooled eight element Cadmium- Mercury-Telluride (CMT) SPRITE (Signal PRocessing In The Element) detector which is mechanically scanned over the thermal scene to be viewed. The TALYTHERM system is based on a modified TICM II thermal image connected to an IBM PC-AT compatible computer having image processing hardware installed and running the T.E.M.P.S. (Thermal Emission Measurement and Processing System) software package for image processing and data analysis. The operation of a TICM II thermal imager is briefly described highlighting the use of the SPRITE detector which coupled with a serial/parallel scanning technique yields high temporal, spatial and thermal resolutions. The conversion of this military thermal image into thermography system is described, including a discussion of the modifications required to a standard imager. The technique for extracting temperature information from a real time thermal image and how this is implemented in a TALYTHERM system is described. The D.A.R.T. (Discrete Attenuation of Radiance Thermography) system which is based on an extensively modified TICM II thermal imager is also described. This system is capable of measuring temperatures up to 1000 degrees C whilst maintaining the temporal and spatial resolutions inherent in a TICM II imager. Finally applications of the TALYTHERM in areas such as NDT (Non Destructive Testing), medical research and military research are briefly described.

  11. Actinides and Life's Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uranium- and thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3rd by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  12. Actinides and Life's Origins.

    PubMed

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uraniumand thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3(rd) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  13. Common-path phase-shifting lensless holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Micó, Vicente; García, Javier

    2010-12-01

    We present an approach capable of high-NA imaging in a lensless digital in-line holographic microscopy layout even outside the Gabor's regime. The method is based on spatial multiplexing at the sample plane, allowing a common-path interferometric architecture, where two interferometric beams are generated by a spatial light modulator (SLM) prior to illuminating the sample. The SLM allows phase-shifting interferometry by phase modulation of the SLM diffracted beam. After proper digital processing, the complex amplitude distribution of the diffracted object wavefront is recovered and numerically propagated to image the sample. Experimental results are reported that validate the proposed method.

  14. Intraoperative measurement of mounting parameters for the Taylor Spatial Frame.

    PubMed

    Gantsoudes, George D; Fragomen, Austin T; Rozbruch, S Robert

    2010-04-01

    The Taylor Spatial Frame (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN) is a powerful tool in providing gradual correction of deformity. The Taylor Spatial Frame has the potential to allow for very accurate corrections achieved over one or more schedules through the use of the software on www.spatialframe.com. The accuracy of the frame is contingent upon the input of precise parameters. The correction occurs about a virtual hinge in space called the origin. The location of the origin is defined by its spatial relationship to the reference ring. Mounting parameters are the measurements that define the location of the origin (virtual hinge). We present a simple practical method for obtaining mounting parameters during surgery using standard equipment.

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  16. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  17. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  19. Genomic Data Commons launches - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  20. Common Difficulties with Probabilistic Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Jack A.; Kelly, Ivan W.

    1983-01-01

    Several common errors reflecting difficulties in probabilistic reasoning are identified, relating to ambiguity, previous outcomes, sampling, unusual events, and estimating. Knowledge of these mistakes and interpretations may help mathematics teachers understand the thought processes of their students. (MNS)