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Sample records for common teal anas

  1. Mercury in wetland birds of Iran and Iraq: contrasting resident moorhen, Gallinula chloropus, and migratory Common Teal, Anas crecca, life strategies.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan

    2009-04-01

    We document mercury distribution in tissues of two waterfowls; moorhen (Gallinula chloropus; n=6), and Common Teal (Anas crecca; n=6) from Shadegan wetlands in Southwestern Iran. Mean value of mercury in moorhen liver was (0.36 Hg microg g(-1) dry weight), Common Teal had (4.34 Hg microg g(-1) dry weight) mercury. In all tissues, Common Teals had significantly higher mercury concentrations than moorhens (U test, p Common Teals. These birds have comparable diets but Common Teals are migratory and moorhens are residents of Shadegan wetlands.

  2. Mortality in the endangered Laysan teal, Anas laysanensis: conservation implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, M.H.; Work, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis is an endangered anatid of the Hawaiian Islands, currently restricted to an emergent atoll, Laysan Island. Laysan Island lacks terrestrial mammalian predators, which permits the examination of mortality rates and causes without the anthropogenic effects of introduced predators. Mass and morophometrics were measured during the colour-marking of 297 Laysan Teal between 1998 and 2001. Intensive mark-resighting and recovery methods were used to estimate adult and juvenile mortality. One hundred and nineteen carcasses were collected on Laysan between 1998 and 2003, and systematic gross and microscopic examinations were undertaken on 63 of these. Causes of mortality were categorised as trauma, emaciation, miscellaneous or undetermined. Annual adult mortality rates were low, 0.05-0.10 (s.e. <0.01), but duckling mortality was much higher, varying from approximately 0.7-0.9 during 1998-2000 and 2003. Body condition of both sexes deteriorates during the breeding season, and most adult mortality (88%) occurred during or post-breeding (May-October). Cause of mortality was determined via necropsy in 22 ducks. Of three adults, one died from bacterial infections, one was egg bound, and one died from botulism concomitant with nematode infestation. Fourteen ducklings died from acute trauma, four from emaciation sometimes associated with nematode infection, and one from bacterial pneumonia Trauma is a significant factor in Laysan duckling mortalities, and elucidating the cause of and preventing such trauma may allow for management measures to enhance duckling survivability. High duckling mortality rates and emaciation also indicate that habitat on Laysan Island may have limited capacity to support broods.

  3. Mortality in the endangered Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis: Conservation implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, M.H.; Work, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis is an endangered anatid of the Hawaiian Islands, currently restricted to an emergent atoll, Laysan Island. Laysan Island lacks terrestrial mammalian predators, which permits the examination of mortality rates and causes without the anthropogenic effects of introduced predators. Mass and morphometrics were measured during the colour-marking of 297 Laysan Teal between 1998 and 2001. Intensive mark-resighting and recovery methods were used to estimate adult and juvenile mortality. One hundred and nineteen carcasses were collected on Laysan between 1998 and 2003, and systematic gross and microscopic examinations were undertaken on 63 of these. Causes of mortality were categorised as trauma, emaciation, miscellaneous or undetermined. Annual adult mortality rates were low, 0.05-0.10 (s.e. < 0.01), but duckling mortality was much higher, varying from approximately 0.7-0.9 during 1998-2000 and 2003. Body condition of both sexes deteriorates during the breeding season, and most adult mortality (88%) occurred during or post-breeding (May-October). Cause of mortality was determined via necropsy in 22 ducks. Of three adults, one died from bacterial infections, one was egg bound, and one died from botulism concomitant with nematode infestation. Fourteen ducklings died from acute trauma, four from emaciation sometimes associated with nematode infection, and one from bacterial pneumonia. Trauma is a significant factor in Laysan duckling mortalities, and elucidating the cause of and preventing such trauma may allow for management measures to enhance duckling survivability. High duckling mortality rates and emaciation also indicate that habitat on Laysan Island may have limited capacity to support broods. ?? Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust.

  4. A tangled tale of two teal: Population history of the grey Anas gracilis and chestnut teal a. castanea of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joseph, L.; Adcock, G.J.; Linde, C.; Omland, K.E.; Heinsohn, R.; Terry, Chesser R.; Roshier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two Australian species of teal (Anseriformes: Anatidae: Anas), the grey teal Anas gracilis and the chestnut teal A. castanea, are remarkable for the zero or near-zero divergence recorded between them in earlier surveys of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. We confirmed this result through wider geographical and population sampling as well as nucleotide sampling in the more rapidly evolving mtDNA control region. Any data set where two species share polymorphism as is the case here can be explained by a model of gene flow through hybridization on one hand or by incomplete lineage sorting on the other hand. Ideally, analysis of such shared polymorphism would simultaneously estimate the likelihood of both phenomena. To do this, we used the underlying principle of the IMa package to explore ramifications to understanding population histories of A. gracilis and A. castanea. We cannot reject that hybridization occurs between the two species but an equally or more plausible finding for their nearly zero divergence is incomplete sorting following very recent divergence between the two, probably in the mid-late Pleistocene. Our data add to studies that explore intermediate stages in the evolution of reciprocal monophyly and paraphyletic or polyphyletic relationships in mtDNA diversity among widespread Australian birds. ?? 2009 J. Avian Biol.

  5. Translocation of wild Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis from Laysan Island to Midway Atoll: Project update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, M.H.; Breeden, J.H.; Klavitter, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, where it has been restricted to Laysan Island over the last 150 years. Individuals of this endangered species have recently been translocated to the two largest islands that comprise Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, to reduce the risk of the Laysan Teal becoming extinct. Post-release monitoring with the aid of radio-telemetry was conducted to determine the success of the reintroduction attempt during October 2004-2007. The population was found to have increased after three breeding seasons, from forty-two founders sourced directly from Laysan, to a population of ??? 192 post-fledglings juveniles and adults. ?? Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust.

  6. Experimental functional response and inter-individual variation in foraging rate of teal (Anas crecca).

    PubMed

    Arzel, C; Guillemain, M; Gurd, D B; Elmberg, J; Fritz, H; Arnaud, A; Pin, C; Bosca, F

    2007-05-01

    The functional response, i.e. the change in per capita food intake rate per time unit with changed food availability, is a widely used tool for understanding the ecology and behaviour of animals. However, waterfowl remain poorly explored in this context. In an aviary experiment we derived a functional response curve for teal (Anas crecca) foraging on rice (Oryza sativa) seeds. We found a linear relationship between intake rate and seed density, as expected for a filter-feeder. At high seed densities we found a threshold, above which intake rate still increased linearly but with a lower slope, possibly reflecting a switch from filter-feeding to a scooping foraging mode. The present study shows that food intake rate in teal is linearly related to food availability within the range of naturally occurring seed densities, a finding with major implications for management and conservation of wetland habitats.

  7. Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis nesting phenology and site characteristics on Laysan Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, M.H.; Crampton, L.H.; Vekasy, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Factors influencing breeding initiation of the endangered Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis were studied on Laysan Island in the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge between 1998 and 2006. Sixty-two radio-tagged adult females were tracked for 30-180 days to locate and describe their nest sites. In addition, the Laysan Teal were surveyed daily during the breeding season, and 331 individually colour-ringed females were marked to identify new broods and timing of incubation initiation. Temperature, rainfall, and abundance of Brine Flies (Scatella sexnotata, an important prey) were measured in all years. Females nested on average 213 m (s.e. ?? 37 m) from the lake basin primarily in Eragrostis variablis, a native bunch grass with > 75% cover. The first observation of nesting in marine debris by Laysan Teal was reported. The initiation of incubation, at the start of the breeding season each year, varied from December to July, and differed significantly between years. Brine Fly abundance, temperature, and rainfall also varied significantly between years. The earlier the Brine Fly abundance peaked, the longer the duration of the breeding season. The length of the breeding season, measured as the number of days between the first and last clutches, varied from 83-192 days (mean 116 ?? 14 days). Annual brood production was positively correlated with spring peak abundance of Brine Flies. There was some evidence that it was negatively correlated with the number of adult females in the population. Rainfall, temperature, prey abundance, and the density of other birds on Laysan Island are likely to interact in influencing Laysan Teal's variable nesting phenology and productivity. ?? Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust.

  8. Evidence for seasonal patterns in the relative abundance of avian influenza virus subtypes in blue-winged teal (Anas discors)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andrew M.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; González-Reiche, Ana S.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul; Carter, Deborah L.; Newsome, George M.; Müller, Maria L.; Berghaus, Roy D.; Perez, Daniel R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics of influenza A viruses (IAVs) are driven by host density and population immunity. Through an analysis of subtypic data for IAVs isolated from Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), we present evidence for seasonal patterns in the relative abundance of viral subtypes in spring and summer/autumn.

  9. Evidence for seasonal patterns in the relative abundance of avian influenza virus subtypes in blue-winged teal (Anas discors).

    PubMed

    Ramey, Andrew M; Poulson, Rebecca L; González-Reiche, Ana S; Wilcox, Benjamin R; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul; Carter, Deborah L; Newsome, George M; Müller, Maria L; Berghaus, Roy D; Perez, Daniel R; Hall, Jeffrey S; Stallknecht, David E

    2014-10-01

    Seasonal dynamics of influenza A viruses (IAVs) are driven by host density and population immunity. Through an analysis of subtypic data for IAVs isolated from Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), we present evidence for seasonal patterns in the relative abundance of viral subtypes in spring and summer/autumn.

  10. Evidence for the exchange of blood parasites between North America and the Neotropics in blue-winged teal (Anas discors).

    PubMed

    Ramey, Andrew M; Reed, John A; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul; Schmutz, Joel A; Douglas, David C; Stallknecht, David E; Soos, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) are abundant, small-bodied dabbling ducks that breed throughout the prairies of the northcentral USA and central Canada and that winter in the southern USA and northern Neotropics. Given the migratory tendencies of this species, it is plausible that blue-winged teal may disperse avian pathogens, such as parasites causing avian malaria, between spatially distant areas. To test the hypothesis that blue-winged teal play a role in the exchange of blood parasites between North America and areas further south, we collected information on migratory tendencies of this species and sampled birds at spatially distant areas during breeding and non-breeding periods to diagnose and genetically characterize parasitic infections. Using a combination of band recovery data, satellite telemetry, molecular diagnostics, and genetic analyses, we found evidence for (1) migratory connectivity of blue-winged teal between our sampling locations in the Canadian prairies and along the US Gulf Coast with areas throughout the northern Neotropics, (2) parasite acquisition at both breeding and non-breeding areas, (3) infection of blue-winged teal sampled in Canada and the USA with Plasmodium parasite lineages associated with the Neotropics, and (4) infection of blue-winged teal with parasites that were genetically related to those previously reported in waterfowl in both North America and South America. Collectively, our results suggest that blue-winged teal likely play a role in the dispersal of blood parasites between the Neotropics and North America, and therefore, the targeting of this species in surveillance programs for the early detection of Neotropical-origin avian pathogens in the USA may be informative.

  11. Evidence for the exchange of blood parasites between North America and the Neotropics in blue-winged teal (Anas discors)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reed, John; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul; Schmutz, Joel A.; Douglas, David; Stallknecht, David E.; Soos, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) are abundant, small-bodied dabbling ducks that breed throughout the prairies of the northcentral USA and central Canada and that winter in the southern USA and northern Neotropics. Given the migratory tendencies of this species, it is plausible that blue-winged teal may disperse avian pathogens, such as parasites causing avian malaria, between spatially distant areas. To test the hypothesis that blue-winged teal play a role in the exchange of blood parasites between North America and areas further south, we collected information on migratory tendencies of this species and sampled birds at spatially distant areas during breeding and non-breeding periods to diagnose and genetically characterize parasitic infections. Using a combination of band recovery data, satellite telemetry, molecular diagnostics, and genetic analyses, we found evidence for (1) migratory connectivity of blue-winged teal between our sampling locations in the Canadian prairies and along the US Gulf Coast with areas throughout the northern Neotropics, (2) parasite acquisition at both breeding and non-breeding areas, (3) infection of blue-winged teal sampled in Canada and the USA withPlasmodium parasite lineages associated with the Neotropics, and (4) infection of blue-winged teal with parasites that were genetically related to those previously reported in waterfowl in both North America and South America. Collectively, our results suggest that blue-winged teal likely play a role in the dispersal of blood parasites between the Neotropics and North America, and therefore, the targeting of this species in surveillance programs for the early detection of Neotropical-origin avian pathogens in the USA may be informative.

  12. Genome Sequence of a Novel H14N7 Subtype Influenza A Virus Isolated from a Blue-Winged Teal (Anas discors) Harvested in Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Andrew B.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Carter, Deborah L.; Davis-Fields, Nicholas; Stallknecht, David E.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a novel H14N7 subtype influenza A virus (IAV) isolated from a blue-winged teal (Anas discors) harvested in Texas, USA. The genomic characteristics of this IAV strain with a previously undetected subtype combination suggest recent viral evolution within the New World wild-bird IAV reservoir. PMID:27284136

  13. Blood Parasites of Blue-winged Teal ( Anas discors ) from Two Migratory Corridors, in the Southern USA.

    PubMed

    Garvon, Jason M; Mott, Joanna B; Jacobs, Sandy Serio; Fedynich, Alan M

    2016-07-01

    We collected 180 Blue-winged Teal ( Anas discors ) in September and October 2002 from Florida, US (n=100, representing the eastern migratory corridor) and the Louisiana-Texas, US, border (n=80, representing the western migratory corridor) and examined for blood parasites using thin heart-blood smears. Leucocytozoon simondi, Haemoproteus nettionis, and microfilariae were found in 16, 23, and 27 birds, respectively. Prevalence of L. simondi and H. nettionis did not vary by migratory corridor, but the prevalence of microfilariae was higher in the western corridor (23%) than the eastern corridor (9%). No differences in prevalence of L. simondi, H. nettionis, and microfilariae were observed by host age or sex. The mean density of L. simondi and H. nettionis averaged 1.5±0.3 and 2.3±0.4 (±SE per 3,000 erythrocytes), respectively. Ranked abundance models for main and interactive effects of corridor, age, and sex were not statistically significant for L. simondi or H. nettionis. Low prevalence and abundance of hematozoa in early autumn migrants reflects the likelihood of low exposure probabilities of Blue-winged Teal on the breeding grounds, compared to their congeners.

  14. Isolation of avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus from domestic peafowl (Pavo cristatus) and teal (Anas).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengwang; Chen, Jianfei; Chen, Jinding; Kong, Xiangang; Shao, Yuhao; Han, Zongxi; Feng, Li; Cai, Xuehui; Gu, Shoulin; Liu, Ming

    2005-03-01

    Coronavirus-like viruses, designated peafowl/China/LKQ3/2003 (pf/CH/LKQ3/03) and teal/China/LDT3/2003 (tl/CH/LDT3/03), were isolated from a peafowl and a teal during virological surveillance in Guangdong province, China. Partial genomic sequence analysis showed that these isolates had the S-3-M-5-N gene order that is typical of avian coronaviruses. The spike, membrane and nucleocapsid protein genes of pf/CH/LKQ3/03 had >99 % identity to those of the avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus H120 vaccine strain (Massachusetts serotype) and other Massachusetts serotype isolates. Furthermore, when pf/CH/LKQ3/03 was inoculated experimentally into chickens (specific-pathogen-free), no disease signs were apparent. tl/CH/LDT3/03 had a spike protein gene with 95 % identity to that of a Chinese infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolate, although more extensive sequencing revealed the possibility that this strain may have undergone recombination. When inoculated into chickens, tl/CH/LDT3/03 resulted in the death of birds from nephritis. Taken together, this information suggests that pf/CH/LKQ3/03 might be a revertant, attenuated vaccine IBV strain, whereas tl/CH/LDT3/03 is a nephropathogenic field IBV strain, generated through recombination. The replication and non-pathogenic nature of IBV in domestic peafowl and teal under field conditions raises questions as to the role of these hosts as carriers of IBV and the potential that they may have to transmit virus to susceptible chicken populations.

  15. Genome sequence of a novel H14N7 subtype influenza A virus isolated from a blue-winged teal (Anas discors) harvested in Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Carter, Deborah L.; Davis-Fields, Nicholas; Stallknecht, David E.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a novel H14N7 subtype influenza A virus (IAV) isolated from a blue-winged teal (Anas discors) harvested in Texas, USA. The genomic characteristics of this IAV strain with a previously undetected subtype combination suggest recent viral evolution within the New World wild-bird IAV reservoir.                   

  16. Optimizing Surveillance for South American Origin Influenza A Viruses Along the United States Gulf Coast Through Genomic Characterization of Isolates from Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors).

    PubMed

    Ramey, A M; Walther, P; Link, P; Poulson, R L; Wilcox, B R; Newsome, G; Spackman, E; Brown, J D; Stallknecht, D E

    2016-04-01

    Relative to research focused on inter-continental viral exchange between Eurasia and North America, less attention has been directed towards understanding the redistribution of influenza A viruses (IAVs) by wild birds between North America and South America. In this study, we genomically characterized 45 viruses isolated from blue-winged teal (Anas discors) along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast during March of 2012 and 2013, coincident with northward migration of this species from Neotropical wintering areas to breeding grounds in the United States and Canada. No evidence of South American lineage genes was detected in IAVs isolated from blue-winged teal supporting restricted viral gene flow between the United States and southern South America. However, it is plausible that blue-winged teal redistribute IAVs between North American breeding grounds and wintering areas throughout the Neotropics, including northern South America, and that viral gene flow is limited by geographical barriers further south (e.g., the Amazon Basin). Surveillance for the introduction of IAVs from Central America and northern South America into the United States may be further optimized through genomic characterization of viruses resulting from coordinated, concurrent sampling efforts targeting blue-winged teal and sympatric species throughout the Neotropics and along the United States Gulf Coast.

  17. Optimizing surveillance for South American origin influenza A viruses along the United States Gulf Coast through genomic characterization of isolates from blue-winged teal (Anas discors)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul Karl; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Newsome, George M.; Spackman, Erica; Brown, J.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Relative to research focused on intercontinental viral exchange between Eurasia and North America, less attention has been directed towards understanding the redistribution of influenza A viruses (IAVs) by wild birds between North America and South America. In this study, we genomically characterized 45 viruses isolated from blue-winged teal (Anas discors) along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast during March of 2012 and 2013, coincident with northward migration of this species from Neotropical wintering areas to breeding grounds in the United States and Canada. No evidence of South American lineage genes were detected in IAVs isolated from blue-winged teal supporting restricted viral gene flow between the United States and southern South America. However, it is plausible that blue-winged teal redistribute IAVs between North American breeding grounds and wintering areas throughout the Neotropics, including northern South America, and that viral gene flow is limited by geographical barriers further south (e.g. the Amazon Basin). Surveillance for the introduction of IAVs from Central America and northern South America into the United States may be further optimized through genomic characterization of viruses resulting from coordinated, concurrent sampling efforts targeting blue-winged teal and sympatric species throughout the Neotropics and along the United States Gulf Coast.

  18. Lead concentrations in sediments and blue-winged teals (Anas discors) from El Palmar State Reserve, Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Adán, Echeverría-García; Gerardo, Gold-Bouchot

    2013-10-01

    Reserve regulations at El Palmar State Reserve, Yucatan, Mexico, prohibit the use of lead (Pb) shot, but hunters continue to use it, and no enforcement is implemented. Pb was quantified in sediments and in blue-winged teal Anas discors. No shot pellets were found in the sediment samples, nor were differences in sediment Pb concentrations observed within the reserve between popular hunting sites and those no longer used for hunting. However, there were differences between the hunting sites and sediments from an adjacent area where hunting is prohibited. Average Pb concentrations were highest at hunting entrances (15.69 ± 18.69 mg/kg) and lowest at decoy locations (5.24 ± 4.84 mg/kg). These averages are lower than the lowest effects level (31 mg/kg), although 10 samples exceeded this level. Pb-shot prevalence in gizzards was 4.88% (n = 41). Pb levels exceeded 5.0 mg/kg dry weight in one or more of the tested tissues (liver, gizzard, and bone) in 14 (34.14%; 7 female, 7 male; 11 adult, 3 juvenile) of the total birds. Bird weight, sex, and age had no effect on Pb concentration. Hunting using Pb shot in the reserve clearly affects Pb levels in sediments and in A. discors that winter there.

  19. vidence of low genetic variation and rare alleles in a bottlenecked endangered island endemic, the Lasan Teal (Anas laysanensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Pearce, John M.; Lavretsky, Philip; Peters Jeffrey L,; Courtot, Karen; Seixas, Pedro P.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity is assumed to reflect the evolutionary potential and adaptability of populations, and thus quantifying the genetic diversity of endangered species is useful for recovery programs. In particular, if conservation strategies include reintroductions, periodic genetic assessments are useful to evaluate whether management efforts have resulted in the maximization or loss of genetic variation within populations over generations. In this study, we collected blood, feather, and tissue samples during 1999–2009 and quantified genetic diversity for a critically endangered waterfowl species endemic to the Hawaiian archipelago, the Laysan teal or duck (Anas laysanensis; n = 239 individual birds sampled). The last extant population of this species at Laysan Island was sourced in 2004–2005 for a ‘wild to wild’ translocation of 42 individuals for an experimental reintroduction to Midway Atoll. To inform future management strategies, we compared genetic diversity sampled from the source population (n = 133 Laysan birds) including 23 of Midway’s founders and offspring of the translocated population 2–5 years post release (n = 96 Midway birds). We attempted to identify polymorphic markers by screening nuclear microsatellite (N = 83) and intronic loci (N = 19), as well as the mitochondrial control region (mtDNA) for a subset of samples. Among 83 microsatellite loci screened, six were variable. We found low nuclear variation consistent with the species’ historical population bottlenecks and sequence variation was observed at a single intron locus. We detected no variation within the mtDNA. We found limited but similar estimates of allelic richness (2.58 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity within islands. Two rare alleles found in the Laysan Island source population were not present in the Midway translocated group, and a rare allele was discovered in an individual on Midway in 2008. We found similar genetic diversity and low, but statistically

  20. Weights of wild mallard Anas platyrhynchos, gadwall A. strepera, and blue-winged teal A. discors during the breeding season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, John T.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Sharp, David E.

    1990-01-01

    During 1976-81 we weighed several thousands of wild Mallard, Gadwall, and Blue-winged Teal in central North Dakota to examine duckling growth patterns, adult weights, and the factors influencing them. One-day-old Mallard and Gadwall averaged 32.4 and 30.4 g, respectively, a reduction of 34% and 29% from fresh egg weights. In all three species, the logistic growth curve provided a good fit for duckling growth patterns. Except for the asymptote, there was no difference in growth curves between males and females of a species. Mallard and Gadwall ducklings were heavier in years when wetland area was extensive or had increased from the previous year. Weights of after-second-year females were greater than yearlings for Mallard but not for Gadwall or Blue-winged Teal. Adult Mallard females lost weight continuously from late March to early July. Gadwall and Blue-winged Teal females, which nest later than Mallard, gained weight after spring arrival, lost weight from the onset of nesting until early July, and then regained some weight. Females of all species captured on nests were lighter than those captured off nests at the same time. Male Mallard weights decreased from spring arrival until late May. Male Gadwall and Blue-winged Teal weights increased after spring arrival, then declined until early June. Males of all three species then gained weight until the end of June. Among adults, female Gadwall and male Mallard and Blue-winged Teal were heavier in years when wetland area had increased from the previous year; female Blue-winged Teal were heavier in years with more wetland area.

  1. Population estimates and monitoring guidelines for endangered Laysan Teal, Anas Laysanensis, at Midway Atoll: Pilot study results 2008-2010.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Laniawe, Leona

    2011-01-01

    To improve the Laysan Teal population estimates, we recommend changes to the monitoring protocol. Additional years of data are needed to quantify inter-annual seasonal detection probabilities, which may allow the use of standardized direct counts as an unbiased index of population size. Survey protocols should be enhanced through frequent resights, regular survey intervals, and determining reliable standards to detect catastrophic declines and annual changes in adult abundance. In late 2009 to early 2010, 68% of the population was marked with unique color band combinations. This allowed for potentially accurate adult population estimates and survival estimates without the need to mark new birds in 2010, 2011, and possibly 2012. However, efforts should be made to replace worn or illegible bands so birds can be identified in future surveys. It would be valuable to develop more sophisticated population size and survival models using Program MARK, a state-of-the-art software package which uses likelihood models to analyze mark-recapture data. This would allow for more reliable adult population and survival estimates to compare with the ―source‖ Laysan Teal population on Laysan Island. These models will require additional years of resight data (> 1 year) and, in some cases, an intensive annual effort of marking and recapture. Because data indicate standardized all-wetland counts are a poor index of abundance, monitoring efforts could be improved by expanding resight surveys to include all wetlands, discontinuing the all-wetland counts, and reallocating some of the wetland count effort to collect additional opportunistic resights. Approximately two years of additional bimonthly surveys are needed to validate the direct count as an appropriate index of population abundance. Additional years of individual resight data will allow estimates of adult population size, as specified in recovery criteria, and to track species population dynamics at Midway Atoll.

  2. Identification and intraspecific genetic diversity of Sarcocystis rileyi from ducks, Anas spp., in Lithuania and Finland.

    PubMed

    Prakas, P; Oksanen, A; Butkauskas, D; Sruoga, A; Kutkienė, L; Švažas, S; Isomursu, M; Liaugaudaitė, S

    2014-10-01

    Macroscopic Sarcocystis cysts were detected in the muscles of 28 Mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos ), 1 Eurasian Wigeon ( Anas penelope ), and 1 Common Teal ( Anas crecca ) hunted in Lithuania and Finland. According to the sequences of the 18S rRNA gene, 28S rRNA gene, and ITS-1 region, the macrocysts examined from all 30 ducks belonged to Sarcocystis rileyi. This parasite was found in the Eurasian Wigeon and the Common Teal for the first time. All S. rileyi isolates examined were identical to each other and differed from 2 S. rileyi isolates previously reported from 2 Mallards from the United States only by 1 nucleotide substitution within the ITS-1 region.

  3. Feeding ecology of northern pintails and green-winged teal wintering in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, Ned H.; Harris, Stanley W.

    1987-01-01

    The feeding ecology of northern pintails (Anas acuta) and green-winged teal (A. crecca) was examined from October through February 1979-81 in 4 major seasonal marsh types in the Central Valley, California. The esophagi of 262 pintails contained 72.3% plant seeds and 27.7% animal matter. The esophagi of 173 green-winged teal contained 62.3% plant seeds and 37.6% animal matter. Swamp timothy (Heleochloa schoenoides) caryopses, chironomid midge larvae, and common barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) caryopses formed >50% of the diet of both species. Both species were highly opportunistic and generally shifted their food habits seasonally to the most available foods. Animal matter increased seasonally in the diets of both and formed about 60% of the foods eaten during January and February compared to only about 8% in October and 17% in December. Both species used open water marsh habitats almost exclusively in daytime but they used densely vegetated marshes almost exclusively at night. Management recommendations based on the food habits and habitat use patterns of pintails and green-winged teal are offered.

  4. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Blue-winged teal (breeding)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sousa, Patrick J.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the blue-winged teal (Anas discors). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  5. Peregrine falcon predation of endangered Laysan teal and Laysan Finches on remote Hawaiian atolls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Nash, Sarah A.B.; Courtot, Karen

    2015-01-01

    We report the first records of Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) predation on endangered Laysan teal (or duck; Anas laysanensis) and predation on endangered Laysan finches (Telespiza cantans). At Midway Atoll, vagrant Peregrine falcons killed ≥4% of a newly translocated Laysan teal population in 2006 and ≥2% in 2008. On Laysan Island during 2008–2009, remains of >76 Laysan finches (<1% of the population) were found at peregrine perches. On Midway Atoll, all depredated Laysan teal and other seabirds were recovered at kill sites on tarmac (runways). If the frequency or duration of vagrant raptors visitation increases at small atolls, this could pose a mortality risk to consider, especially during proposed translocations of endangered species. Vegetation restoration of abandoned runways near wetlands at Midway Atoll would provide cover and may help reduce mortality of endangered species due to vagrant raptors.

  6. Diet composition and terrestrial prey selection of the Laysan teal on Laysan Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, M.H.; Slotterback, J.W.; Walters, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The Laysan teal (Anas laysanensis) is an endangered dabbling duck endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago but currently restricted to a single breeding population on Laysan Island. We studied its diet using fecal analysis and behavioral observations. Laysan teal fecal samples (N=118) contained prey items in 15 primary prey categories with a mean of 2.9 (range 0-7) taxa per sample. Sixty-two of these fecal samples were quantified with 2,270 prey items identified (mean items per sample 37; range 0-205). Based on fecal analysis and behavioral observations, we learned that the Laysan teal is not strictly a macroinsectivore as previously reported, but consumed seeds, succulent leaves, and algae, in addition to adult and larval diptera, ants, lepidoptera, coleoptera, and Artemia. We compared abundance of invertebrates from two terrestrial foraging substrates, soil and standing vegetation, to the abundance of invertebrate prey items counted in fecal samples collected from these habitats for the same period. In the soil substrate, Laysan teal selected two of the most abundant invertebrates, lepidoptera larvae and coleoptera. In the standing vegetation, Laysan teal selected the most abundant taxa: coleoptera. Amphipods were consumed in proportion to their abundance, and small gastropods (Tornatellides sp.), isopods, and arachnids were avoided or were identified in fecal matter in disproportion to their abundance in the foraging habitat. We compared fecal composition of samples collected in aquatic and terrestrial habitats and detected significant differences in samples' species compositions. The conservation implications of the adult Laysan teal's diet are positive, since results indicate that the Laysan teal are opportunistic insectivores, and exhibit dietary flexibility that includes seeds and other food. Dietary flexibility improves the possibility of successfully reestablishing populations on other predator-free islands.

  7. Blood parasite infection data from Blue-winged teal, Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and USA (Texas, Louisiana), 2012-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, John

    2017-01-01

    This data set includes age, sex, location, and blood parasite infection data from Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) captured in Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and the USA (Texas, Louisiana) in 2012-2013. Infection data for three different genera of blood parasites are given as are GenBank accession numbers for genetic sequences obtained from positive infections.

  8. Banding reference areas and survival rates of green-winged teal, 1950-1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chu, D.S.; Nichols, J.D.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Hines, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The green-winged teal (Anas crecca carolinensis) is an important harvest species, yet we know relatively little about its population ecology. We investigated aspects of green-winged teal population ecology of potential importance to waterfowl managers. We used recoveries of green-winged teal banded during winter (1950-89) to establish banding reference areas and estimate survival and band recovery rates. We used cluster analysis based on similarities in recovery patterns to group banding degree blocks into 8 minor and 5 major reference areas describing the principal wintering range of green-winged teal in North America. We then estimated survival and recovery rates of green-winged teal banded in these areas. Mean annual survival rate estimates across years and reference areas were similar (P gt 0.05) for males (0.55, cxa SE = 0.022) and females (0.51, cxa SE = 0.057). Mean annual recovery rate estimates were larger for males (0.033, cxa SE = 0.0017) than for females (0.024, cxa SE = 0.0024) (P lt 0.01). There was little evidence of temporal variation in survival or recovery rates for most datasets. There was evidence of geographic variation in survival rates among major reference areas for males (P = 0.04) but not for females (P = 0.30). We recommend that analyses be conducted on greenwinged teal banded during preseason to further investigate possible sex specificity of survival rates and to address questions about the relationship between harvest rates and survival.

  9. Relative costs of prebasic and prealternate molts for male blue-winged teal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hohman, W.L.; Manley, S.W.; Richard, D.

    1997-01-01

    We compared masses of definitive basic and alternate plumages of male Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors) to evaluate the hypothesis that nutritional investments in basic and alternate plumages are related to the duration that plumages are worn and to assess the relative costs of prebasic and prealternate molts. Because these plumages are worn by males for approximately equal durations, we predicted that masses of the basic and alternate body plumages would be similar. To assess nutritional stress (demands greater than available resources) associated with molt, we examined the relation between remigial length and structural size and compared predicted and observed plum-age masses of Blue-winged Teal and other ducks. If birds were nutritionally challenged during remigial molt, then we predicted remigial length would be influenced by nutrition rather than size, and remigial length and size would be unrelated. Alternate body plumage of male Blue-winged Teal weighed about 10% more than the basic body plumage; however, masses of both plumages were less than that predicted on the basis of lean body mass. We argue that deviations between observed and predicted plumage masses were related to factors other than nutrition. Further, remigial lengths were significantly, albeit weakly, related to structural size. We therefore concluded that, although the potential for molt-induced stress may be greatest in small-bodied waterfowl species, there was no clear evidence that molting male Blue-winged Teal were nutritionally stressed. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 1997.

  10. Efficacy of a type C botulism vaccine in green-winged teal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Samuel, M.D.; Swift, P.K.; Yarris, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of a single dose of Botumink toxoid for protecting wild green-winged teal (Anas crecca) during botulism epizootics caused by Clostridium botulinum type C. We challenged control and immunized ducks with four different doses of type C botulinum toxin to determine the LD50 for this species and to evaluate vaccine protection. Fewer immunized ducks were affected with botulism than control ducks, indicating that a single dose of Botumink toxoid could increase the survival of ducks during epizootics. However, the frequency of immunized ducks with signs of botulism increased with the challenge dose of botulinum toxin. Even at doses of botulinum toxin approximately 2 to 4 green-winged teal LD50, about 50% of the immunized ducks were affected. We believe an improved vaccine or a better delivery system is required to justify immunization of wild birds for experimental survival studies.

  11. Broadly targeted multiprobe QPCR for detection of coronaviruses: Coronavirus is common among mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Muradrasoli, Shaman; Mohamed, Nahla; Hornyák, Akos; Fohlman, Jan; Olsen, Björn; Belák, Sándor; Blomberg, Jonas

    2009-08-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause trivial or fatal disease in humans and in animals. Detection methods for a wide range of CoVs are needed, to understand viral evolution, host range, transmission and maintenance in reservoirs. A new concept, "Multiprobe QPCR", which uses a balanced mixture of competing discrete non- or moderately degenerated nuclease degradable (TaqMan) probes was employed. It provides a broadly targeted and rational single tube real-time reverse transcription PCR ("NQPCR") for the generic detection and discovery of CoV. Degenerate primers, previously published, and the new probes, were from a conserved stretch of open reading frame 1b, encoding the replicase. This multiprobe design reduced the degree of probe degeneration, which otherwise decreases the sensitivity, and allowed a preliminary classification of the amplified sequence directly from the QPCR trace. The split probe strategy allowed detection of down to 10 viral nucleic acid equivalents of CoV from all known CoV groups. Evaluation was with reference CoV strains, synthetic targets, human respiratory samples and avian fecal samples. Infectious-Bronchitis-Virus (IBV)-related variants were found in 7 of 35 sample pools, from 100 wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Ducks may spread and harbour CoVs. NQPCR can detect a wide range of CoVs, as illustrated for humans and ducks.

  12. Ecological relationships of breeding blue-winged teal to prairie potholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drewien, R.C.; Springer, P.F.

    1969-01-01

    Ecology of breeding blue-winged teal (Anas discors) was studied on the Waubay Study Area in Day County, South Dakota, in 1965 and 1966. Breeding pair use of the wetland habitat and importance of Type 1 ponds in the wetland complex were evaluated. Changes in breeding pair densities and wetland habitat conditions on the study area were compared for the 16-year period, 1950-66.Blue-winged teal pair densities of 30.7 and 33.0 per square mile in 1965 and 1966, respectively, were above the 16-year average from 1950 to 1966 and near the maximum for this period. Blue-winged teal comprised 46.7 per cent of the waterfowl breeding population in 1965 and 51.7 per cent in 1966. Number of water areas per square mile through mid-spring 1965 was comparable to the average for the 16-year period, whereas during late spring 1965 and throughout the 1966 spring breeding seasons the number of water areas increased to near optimum conditions.Annual breeding-pair densities from 1950 to 1966 appeared to be largely influenced by water conditions, and pair-density fluctuations resulted from changes in number of wet ponds from late April through mid-May. Variations in water conditions after this period did not appear to have as great an effect on numbers of breeding teal.Use of wetland habitat by pairs changed throughout the spring breeding seasons. During the post-arrival period, teal congregated on larger wetlands. With onset of egg-laying, pairs dispersed into ponds throughout the wetland complex to establish breeding home ranges. Other factors that influenced changes in habitat use included: 1) pond type and size, 2) breeding cycle phenology, 3) availability of wet ponds, and 4) land use. Number of blue-winged teal pairs per unit area of water was highest in 1965 and 1966 on Type 1B ponds, followed in decreasing order by Types 3, 1A, and 4 and 5. Greater use of Type 1B ponds was probably related to larger ratio of edge or shore line to unit area of water. Interspersion of many small

  13. Drivers of waterfowl population dynamics: from teal to swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koons, David N.; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Schmutz, Joel A.; Rotella, Jay J.

    2014-01-01

    Waterfowl are among the best studied and most extensively monitored species in the world. Given their global importance for sport and subsistence hunting, viewing and ecosystem functioning, great effort has been devoted since the middle part of the 20th century to understanding both the environmental and demographic mechanisms that influence waterfowl population and community dynamics. Here we use comparative approaches to summarise and contrast our understanding ofwaterfowl population dynamics across species as short-lived as the teal Anas discors and A.crecca to those such as the swans Cygnus sp. which have long life-spans. Specifically, we focus on population responses to vital rate perturbations across life history strategies, discuss bottom-up and top-down responses of waterfowlpopulations to global change, and summarise our current understanding of density dependence across waterfowl species. We close by identifying research needs and highlight ways to overcome the challenges of sustainably managing waterfowl populations in the 21st century.

  14. Influence of space use on fitness and the reintroduction success of the Laysan teal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, M.H.; Hatfield, J.S.; Laniawe, L.P.; Vekasy, M.S.; Klavitter, J.L.; Berkowitz, P.; Crampton, L.H.; Walters, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Translocation is an important tool for wildlife conservation and biodiversity restoration, but an inefficient one because of the unpredictability of success. Predictors of success such as habitat quality of the release site and number of individuals released have been identified, but the dynamics of successful translocations remain poorly understood. In particular, little is known about the relationship of individual post-release movements to population establishment. In 2004, Laysan teal Anas laysanensis were reintroduced by translocating 20 wild birds from Laysan Island to Midway Atoll. Twenty-two additional wild founders were brought the next year. We monitored the survival, reproductive success and movements of the 42 translocated individuals and their offspring for 4 years. Additionally, we monitored population size from 2004 to 2010. Unlike most translocations, we did not observe elevated post-release mortality despite flight-feather trimming to prevent immediate dispersal off-island: first year survival was > 90% and survival rates until 2009 were 0.65±0.08 for founding adults. Laysan teal flew between the two main islands of Midway Atoll, and offspring had significantly larger maximum movement distances than founders. We monitored 84 nests and observed a significant, negative relationship of home range size to productivity for founding females. Flightless founders did not show fidelity to their release sites, but had strong fidelity to annual home ranges after attaining flight. Although we observed a component Allee effect on mate-finding, this did not translate into a demographic Allee effect, and generally, the high fitness of founders contributed substantially to successful population establishment. Laysan teal abundance increased linearly until 2009, but showed evidence of population regulation afterwards. The population estimate was 473 (95% confidence interval 439–508) in 2010. On the much larger main Hawaiian Islands, we expect greater post

  15. Translocation and early post-release demography of endangered Laysan teal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, M.H.; Seavy, N.E.; Vekasy, M.S.; Klavitter, J.L.; Laniawe, L.P.

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce the high extinction risk inherent to small island populations, we translocated wild Laysan teal Anas laysanensis to a portion of its presumed prehistoric range. Most avian translocations lack the strategic post-release monitoring needed to assess early population establishment or failure. Therefore, we monitored the survival and reproduction of all founders, and their first-generation offspring using radio telemetry for 2 years after the first release. Forty-two Laysan teal were sourced directly from the only extant population on Laysan Island and transported 2 days by ship to Midway Atoll. All birds survived the translocation with nutritional and veterinary support, and spent between 4 and 14 days in captivity. Post-release survival of 42 founders was 0.857 (95% CI 0.86-0.99) during 2004-2006 or annualized 0.92 (95% CI 0.83-0.98). Seventeen of 18 founding hens attempted nesting in the first two breeding seasons. Fledgling success was 0.57 (95% CI 0.55-0.60) in 2005 and 0.63 (95% CI 0.62-0.64) in 2006. The effective founding female population (Ne) was 13. We applied these initial demographic rates to model population growth. The nascent population size increased to >100 after only 2 years post-release (?? = 1.73). If this growth rate continues, the size of the Midway population could surpass the source population before 2010. ?? 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2008 The Zoological Society of London.

  16. Homing and reproductive habits of mallards, gadwalls, and blue-winged teal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, John T.; Duebbert, Harold F.; Sharp, David E.

    1990-01-01

    We studied mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (A. strepera), and blue-winged teal (A. discors) populations on 2 study areas of 22.6-km2 each in central North Dakota during 1976-81. Data regarding rates of return of females to natal or previously used nesting areas, nest site selection, and productivity of hens of different ages were collected from 1,166 nasal-marked and 2,142 banded hens of the 3 species and from 740 web-tagged mallard and gadwall young. In spring, yearling mallard and gadwall hens arrived at the breeding site later than older hens. Yearling gadwall hens initiated nesting about 1 week later than 2-year-old hens, and 2-year-old hens began nesting about 1 week later than hens older than 2 years. Gadwall hens older than 2 years also had a longer nesting season. Mallard and gadwall nest densities were highest in those cover types with the highest visual obstruction ratings. Cover preference in descending order of use was seeded nesting cover, odd areas, roadside, dry wetland, and canal-side. Blue-winged teal nest densities were highest in dry wetland and roadside. Nesting success was different among years, but not among cover types. There was no population increase at any cover type due to homing hens. Overall nesting success was 11, 10, and 23% for mallards, gadwalls, and blue-winged teal, respectively. Recruitment of fledged young was similar for yearling and adult mallard females. Production from yearling gadwall hens was a meager 0.2 young fledged/female. Clutch size was not different between yearling and adult mallard and blue-winged teal hens, but clutch size for all 3 species declined as the nesting season advanced. More ≥1-year-mallard hens and ≥2-year-old gadwall hens that nested successfully 1 year returned to the study areas the following year than did unsuccessful hens. Gadwall hen return rates also increased with age. Blue-winged teal hen return rates averaged 4% and were not related to hen success or hen age. Mallard and gadwall

  17. Summer foods of American widgeon, mallards, and a green-winged teal near Great Slave Lake, N.W.T

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, J.C.

    1972-01-01

    Foods found in three species of dabbling ducks collected during summer from bog ponds, and sedge pools in taiga on the north side of Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, are described. Animal material in the esophageal contents of 10 adult American Widgeons (Mareca americana) averaged 31 i?? 34 per cent (P<0.05) by volume. A significantly higher percentage of animal material was found in Class I and II widgeon ducklings (66 i?? 22 per cent) than in Class IIIa ducklings and flying juveniles (12 i?? 20 per cent) of this species. Animal material comprised 87 i?? 35 per cent of esophageal contents from five Class II and flying juvenile Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 100 per cent of that from an adult female Green-winged Teal (A. carolinensis).

  18. Habitat use and home range of the Laysan Teal on Laysan Island, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The 24-hour habitat use and home range of the Laysan Teal (Anas laysanensis), an endemic dabbling duck in Hawaii, was studied using radio telemetry during 1998-2000. Radios were retained for a mean of 40 days (0-123 d; 73 adult birds radio-tagged). Comparisons of daily habitat use were made for birds in the morning, day, evening, and night. Most birds showed strong evidence of selective habitat use. Adults preferred the terrestrial vegetation (88%), and avoided the lake and wetlands during the day. At night, 63% of the birds selected the lake and wetlands. Nocturnal habitat use differed significantly between the non-breeding and breeding seasons, while the lake and wetland habitats were used more frequently during the non-breeding season. Most individuals showed strong site fidelity during the study, but habitat selection varied between individuals. Mean home range size was 9.78 ha (SE ?? 2.6) using the fixed kernel estimator (95% kernel; 15 birds, each with >25 locations). The average minimum convex polygon size was 24 ha (SE ?? 5.6). The mean distance traveled between tracking locations was 178 m (SE ?? 30-5), with travel distances between points ranging up to 1,649 m. Tracking duration varied from 31-121 days per bird (mean tracking duration 75 days).

  19. Blue-winged teals in the waters around KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The furious beating wings of a blue-winged teal launch it from the water as another swims calmly beneath it in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Inhabiting marshes, shallow ponds and lakes from British Columbia, Quebec and Newfoundland to North Carolina, the Gulf Coast and southern California, the teal winters as far south as South America. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  20. Blue-winged teals swim in shallow water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A pair of blue-winged teals glide through the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Inhabiting marshes, shallow ponds and lakes from British Columbia, Quebec and Newfoundland to North Carolina, the Gulf Coast and southern California, the teal winters as far south as South America. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  1. The Santa Ana Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cournoyer, David, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    One of the priority interests of the W.K. Kellogg Foundation is to connect the knowledge and resources of institutions with communities in order to improve the quality of life in community. Partnerships achieve uncommon results. In Santa Ana, California, an unusual partnership of public schools, community college, universities, community…

  2. The Impact of Technology-Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) Implementation on Student Learning and Teachers' Teaching in a High School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Ruey S.

    2012-01-01

    Technology-Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) is a pedagogical innovation established in a technology-enhanced multimedia studio, emphasizing constructivist-oriented teaching and learning. In Taiwan, an increasing number of schools are adopting the TEAL notion to deliver courses. This study examines the impact of TEAL on both student performance and…

  3. Inheritance of duration of fertility in female common ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) inseminated in pure breeding or in inter-generic crossbreeding with Muscovy drakes (Cairina moschata).

    PubMed

    Brun, J M; Mialon, M M; Sellier, N; Brillard, J P; Rouvier, R

    2012-11-01

    Ducks (common, Muscovy and mule ducks) are the third most important bird species in animal production for human consumption worldwide. Our study aimed to improve the efficiency of mule duck breeding, thus contributing to the efficiency of food production in general. In the common duck, females can be bred either with males of the same species (i.e. in pure breeding (PB) subscript p) or in inter-generic crossbreeding (CB; subscript c) with Muscovy drakes to produce the hybrid mule duck. The aim of the present study was to estimate the genetic parameters of several indicators of duration of fertility, considered to be a trait of the female duck, within and between breeding schemes and, in particular, to estimate the purebred-crossbred genetic correlation (rg pc). These indicators were maximum duration of fertility (MD), that is, the time interval between insemination and the last fertilised egg, the number of fertile eggs (F) and of hatched ducklings (H) after a single artificial insemination (AI), and the fertility rate over days 2 to 12 after AI (F 2,12), taking three sub-periods (F 2,4, F 5,8, F 9,12) into account. A total of 494 females and 2655 inseminations were involved. PB resulted in longer duration of fertility (MD p = 8.1 v. MD c = 6.4 days). Heritability (h 2) was higher for MD p (estimate ± s.e.: 0.27 ± 0.04) than for MD c (0.15 ± 0.04), but both traits were highly correlated with each other (rg pc = 0.85 ± 0.07). F p and F c had similar heritability (h 2 around 0.24) and displayed a high genetic correlation (0.78 ± 0.07). The same was true for H p and H c (h 2 around 0.17 and rg pc = 0.88 ± 0.05). The heritability estimates were 0.24 ± 0.03 for F 2,12p and 0.20 ± 0.04 for F 2,12c, with a 0.80 ± 0.07 genetic correlation between each other. Permanent environmental effects influenced MD p far less than MD c, F p less than F c, but H p and H c to the same extent. The high values for rg pc (>0.78) indicated that the same genes are involved in the

  4. Experimental infection with low and high pathogenicity H7N3 Chilean avian influenza viruses in Chiloe Wigeon (Anas sibilatrix) and Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have been associated with natural, lethal infections in wild aquatic birds which have been reproduced experimentally. Some aquatic bird species have been suggested as potential transporters of H5N1 HPAI virus via migration. However, ...

  5. 78 FR 36431 - Safety Zone; Inbound Transit of M/V TEAL, Savannah River; Savannah, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... facilitates the safe transit and offload of four oversized ship to shore (STS) cranes. The moving safety zone... regulated navigation areas and other limited access areas: 33 U.S.C. 1231; 46 U.S.C. Chapter 701, 3306, 3703... safety zone to facilitate the safe transit of the M/V TEAL and four STS cranes on the Savannah River....

  6. A blue-winged teal swims in the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This male blue-winged teal is one of 23 species of migratory waterfowl that winter in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The male is usually identified with pale blue shoulder patches and a white crescent in front of its eye. The blue-winged teal's normal range is from Canada to North Carolina, the Gulf Coast and southern California, preferring marshes, shallow ponds and lakes. It winters as far as northern South America. The refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  7. Blue-winged teals in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Two male blue-winged teals are joined by a female in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The teals inhabit marshes, shallow ponds and lakes from British Columbia, Quebec and Newfoundland to North Carolina, the Gulf Coast and southern California, wintering as far south as South America. The 92,000- acre wildlife refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  8. Santa Ana Forecasting and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolinski, T.; Eichhorn, D.; D'Agostino, B. J.; Vanderburg, S.; Means, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Southern California experiences wildfires every year, but under certain circumstances these fires grow into extremely large and destructive fires, such as the Cedar Fire of 2003 and the Witch Fire of 2007. The Cedar Fire burned over 1100 km2 , destroyed more than 2200 homes and killed 15 people; the Witch fire burned more than 800 km2, destroyed more than 1000 homes and killed 2 people. Fires can quickly become too large and dangerous to fight if they are accompanied by a very strong "Santa Ana" condition, which is a foehn-like wind that may bring strong winds and very low humidities. However there is an entire range of specific weather conditions that fall into the broad category of Santa Anas, from cold and blustery to hot with very little wind. All types are characterized by clear skies and low humidity. Since the potential for destructive fire is dependent on the characteristics of Santa Anas, as well as the level of fuel moisture, there exists a need for further classification, such as is done with tropical cyclones and after-the-fact with tornadoes. We use surface data and fuel moisture combined with reanalysis to diagnose those conditions that result in Santa Anas with the greatest potential for destructive fires. We use this data to produce a new classification system for Santa Anas. This classification system should be useful for informing the relevant agencies for mitigation and response planning. In the future this same classification may be made available to the general public.

  9. ["Pro Ana": Psychodynamic References for Anorexia Nervosa].

    PubMed

    Siefert, Linda

    2017-02-01

    "Pro Ana": Psychodynamic References for Anorexia Nervosa The internet-based phenomenon "Pro Ana" refers to the eating disorder anorexia nervosa in a positive way. To understand what the phenomenon "Pro Ana" represents, the websites are used as a starting point of the current analysis. Based on these results, similarities and differences between "Pro Ana" and the eating disorder anorexia nervosa are discussed. Furthermore psychodynamic references for anorexia nervosa are derived and finally their importance for treatment motivation will be considered.

  10. Commonality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E., Jr.

    Commonality analysis is an attempt to understand the relative predictive power of the regressor variables, both individually and in combination. The squared multiple correlation is broken up into elements assigned to each individual regressor and to each possible combination of regressors. The elements have the property that the appropriate sums…

  11. Purification and Characterization of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) Allergens Ana o 1, Ana o 2, and Ana o 3.

    PubMed

    Reitsma, Marit; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; Sforza, Stefano; van der Valk, Johanna P M; van Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Savelkoul, Huub F J; de Jong, Nicolette W; Wichers, Harry J

    2016-02-10

    In this study a fast and simple purification procedure for the three known allergens from cashew (7S globulin Ana o 1, 11S globulin Ana o 2, and 2S albumin Ana o 3) is described. The purified allergens are characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot, glycoprotein stain, and protein identification. The purified proteins still bind IgE, and this IgE binding varied between different pools of patient serum. Ana o 1 was found to be a glycoprotein. Ana o 3 has been studied more in detail to identify both the small and large subunits, both displaying microheterogeneity, and epitope mapping of Ana o 3 has been performed.

  12. The universe of ANA testing: a case for point-of-care ANA testing.

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, Konstantin N; Rubin, Robert L

    2017-12-01

    Testing for total antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a critical tool for diagnosis and management of autoimmune diseases at both the primary care and subspecialty settings. Repurposing of ANA from a test for lupus to a test for any autoimmune condition has driven the increase in ANA requests. Changes in ANA referral patterns include early or subclinical autoimmune disease detection in patients with low pre-test probability and use of negative ANA results to rule out underlying autoimmune disease. A positive result can lead to further diagnostic considerations. Currently, ANA tests are performed in centralized laboratories; an alternative would be ANA testing at the clinical point-of-care (POC). By virtue of its near real-time data collection capability, low cost, and ease of use, we believe the POC ANA has the potential to enable a new paradigm shift in autoimmune serology testing.

  13. Asthma exacerbations during Santa Ana winds in southern California.

    PubMed

    Corbett, S W

    1996-11-01

    This study investigated the relationship between Santa Ana wind conditions and visits for asthma at a southern California emergency department. Visits to the emergency department for asthma were analyzed retrospectively to determine whether the incidence increased during Santa Ana wind conditions. These northeasterly winds are common during fall and winter in southern California and belong to a class known as Foehn winds. They are characterized by gusty winds, decreased relative humidity, warm temperatures, and decreased levels of airborne pollutants. During a 4-year period, we noted that emergency department visits for asthma increased (3.12 vs. 2.16 visits per day, P < 0.0001) during SantaAna winds compared with other weather conditions. Asthmatics presenting during Santa Ana winds appeared to be more ill, as judged by higher admission rates (21.9 vs. 18.7%, P < 0.05). These winds were also associated with reduced particulate matter (PM10) counts (P < 0.0001). Although the magnitude of the increase in emergency department visits was small, it occurred at a time when typical inciters of respiratory disease should be minimal. An as yet unidentified factor associated with these winds may be a stimulant for some asthmatics. Similar wind patterns in other localities might affect respiratory disease as well.

  14. Body lipids and pesticide burdens of migrant blue-winged teal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; King, K.A.; Mitchell, C.A.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Blue-winged Teal were collected before and after their migration to wintering grounds in Latin America. Pesticide burdens, body weights, and lipid levels of carcasses were determined. Only DDE and dieldrin were detected in a small proportion of the samples and then at concentrations far below known-effect levels. Residue loads, because of their infrequency, were not significantly correlated with overall body weight and percent lipid. Body weights among most age and sex classes did not differ in either fall or spring, nor did percent lipid in any instance. However, body weights and lipid levels were significantly correlated; as body weight increased so did percent lipid. Thus, the extreme variability in body weight appears to be a function of the amount of fat present and not overall body size, age, or sex.

  15. Developing and Validating a Santa Ana Wildfire Threat Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capps, S. B.; Rolinski, T.; DAgostino, B.; Vanderburg, S.; Fovell, R. G.; Cao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Santa Ana winds, common to southern California during the fall through spring, are a type of katabatic wind that originates from a direction generally ranging from 360°/0° to 100° and is usually accompanied by very low humidity. Since fuel conditions tend to be driest from late September through the middle of November, Santa Ana winds occurring during this period have the greatest potential to produce large, devastating fires when an ignition occurs. Such catastrophic fires occurred in 1993, 2003, 2007, and 2008. Because of the destructive nature of these fires, there has been a growing desire to categorize Santa Ana wind events in much the same way that tropical cyclones have been categorized. The Santa Ana Wildfire Threat index (SAWT) is an attempt to categorize such events with respect to fire activity, based on surface wind velocity, dew point depression, and forecasted fuel conditions. The index, a USDA Forest Service product, was developed by the Forest Service in collaboration with San Diego Gas and Electric Utility (SDG&E), the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at UCLA, The Desert Research Institute (DRI), and Vertum Partners. The methodology behind the SAWT index, along with the index itself will be presented in detail. Also, there will be a discussion on the construction of a 30-year climatology of the index, which includes various meteorological and fuel parameters. We will demonstrate the usefulness of the index as another decision support tool for fire agencies and first responders, and how it could assist the general public and private industry in the preparation of critical Santa Ana wind events.

  16. The incidence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) method.

    PubMed

    Karamehic, Jasenko; Subasic, Djemo; Gavrankapetanovic, Faris; Zecevic, Lamija; Eminovic, Izet; Memic, Senaid; Seric, Natasa; Drace, Zahida

    2007-01-01

    Human anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) react specificaly with DNA, RNA, several proteins and ribonucleoproteins. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is the classic type of polysystemic autoimmune disease. The high frequency of ANA is determined in these patients. Actually, all SLE patients are ANA positive. ANA testing by IFA (Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay) is an excellent screening tool for SLE cases, but it is not so highly specific test. Patients with connective tissue diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma and dermatomyositis are also frequently positive. Results of IFA ANA have relative low specific degree, and for this reason the titration of these specimens to the end point is usually recommended. Indirect immunoflourescence is reference method for ANA testing. Common substrates are thin sections of rodent organs or various types of cell lines. The cell line substrates are preferable to organ sections, because these rapidly dividing cells have higher level for detection of certain clinically relevant antigens such as (e.g., centromere, SSA (Ro) and Scl-70). In this paper we present the results evaluation of ANA incidence, detected by IFA in serum specimens of corresponding clinical patients, during 2005 and 2006.

  17. Life history and ecological characteristics of the Santa Ana sucker, Catostomus santaanae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; Knowles, Glen W.; Tennant, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to document the life history and ecological characteristics of the Santa Ana sucker, Catostomus santaanae, within its native range in southern California. Electrofishing surveys were conducted at 3-month intervals from December 1998 to December 1999 at one site on the San Gabriel River and two sites on the Santa Ana River. Suckers were captured in the San Gabriel River (average, 6.6 fish/10-minutes electrofishing) and at an upstream Santa Ana River site (average, 2.3 fish/10-minutes electrofishing) but not at a downstream Santa Ana River site. Length frequency distributions indicated that at least three year classes (modal groups) of suckers were present in the San Gabriel River, whereas one or two year classes were present in the Santa Ana River. Collection of 21-30 mm standard length (SL) juveniles in June in the Santa Ana River and in September in the San Gabriel River indicated that reproduction occurred over several months. In December, Age-0 suckers averaged 36-48 mm SL in the San Gabriel River and 63-65 mm SL in the Santa Ana River, whereas Age-1 suckers averaged 86 mm SL in the San Gabriel River and 115 mm SL in the Santa Ana River. On average, suckers were in better body condition in the San Gabriel River than in the Santa Ana River. Highest abundance of suckers was associated with relativelypristine environmental conditions (especially low specific conductance) where other native fishes were also common or abundant.

  18. Optimizing surveillance for South American origin influenza A viruses along the United States Gulf Coast through genomic characterization of isolates from blue-winged teal (Anas discors)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relative to research focused on intercontinental viral exchange between Eurasia and North America, less attention has been directed towards understanding the redistribution of influenza A viruses (IAVs) by wild birds between North America and South America. In this study, we genomically characterize...

  19. Novel method for quantitative ANA measurement using near-infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lisa K; Wells, Daniel; Shaw, Laura; Velez, Maria-Gabriela; Harbeck, Ronald; Dragone, Leonard L

    2009-09-30

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) have been detected in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases and are used in the screening and/or diagnosis of autoimmunity in patients as well as mouse models of systemic autoimmunity. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on HEp-2 cells is the gold standard for ANA screening. However, its usefulness is limited in diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of disease activity due to the lack of standardization in performing the technique, subjectivity in interpreting the results and the fact that it is only semi-quantitative. Various immunological techniques have been developed in an attempt to improve upon the method to quantify ANA, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), line immunoassays (LIAs), multiplexed bead immunoassays and IIF on substrates other than HEp-2 cells. Yet IIF on HEp-2 cells remains the most common screening method for ANA. In this study, we describe a simple quantitative method to detect ANA which combines IIF on HEp-2 coated slides with analysis using a near-infrared imaging (NII) system. Using NII to determine ANA titer, 86.5% (32 of 37) of the titers for human patient samples were within 2 dilutions of those determined by IIF, which is the acceptable range for proficiency testing. Combining an initial screening for nuclear staining using microscopy with titration by NII resulted in 97.3% (36 of 37) of the titers detected to be within two dilutions of those determined by IIF. The NII method for quantitative ANA measurements using serum from both patients and mice with autoimmunity provides a fast, relatively simple, objective, sensitive and reproducible assay, which could easily be standardized for comparison between laboratories.

  20. 53. NEW BCB AND LIGHTNING ARRESTER ARRANGEMENT, SANTA ANA RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. NEW BCB AND LIGHTNING ARRESTER ARRANGEMENT, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, JAN. 24, 1977. SCE drawing no. 455670-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. 4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT TROUGH FLOOR AND UNFINISHED GRANITE ROOF. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Abandoned Tunnel, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. 53. SIPHON NO. 1, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2 PROJECT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. SIPHON NO. 1, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2 PROJECT, EXHIBIT L, PROJECT 1933, MAY 1973. SCE drawing no. 5110869 (sheet no. 11; for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. 34. ELEVATION OF RELAY AND CONTROL SWITCHBOARD, SANTA ANA RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. ELEVATION OF RELAY AND CONTROL SWITCHBOARD, SANTA ANA RIVER P.H. #3, JUNE 23, 1943. SCE drawing no. 413187-1. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. 2. 'SANTA ANA RIVER AT CHINO CREEK, RIVERSIDE COUNTY.' This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 'SANTA ANA RIVER AT CHINO CREEK, RIVERSIDE COUNTY.' This is an oblique aerial view to the north, looking over the flooded fields between Chino Creek and the Santa Ana River, just upstream of the Prado Dam site. File number written on negative: R & H 80 024. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  5. 51. INTAKE AND POWER HOUSE AREAS, SANTA ANA NO. 1; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. INTAKE AND POWER HOUSE AREAS, SANTA ANA NO. 1; DETAIL MAP OF SANTA ANA NO. 1 AND NO. 2 HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT, EXHIBIT K, APR. 30, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523690 (sheet no. 5; for filing with the Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. 52. POWER HOUSE AREA, SANTA ANA NO. 2; DETAIL MAP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. POWER HOUSE AREA, SANTA ANA NO. 2; DETAIL MAP OF SANTA ANA NO. 1 AND NO. 2 HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT, EXHIBIT K, APR. 30, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523691 (sheet no. 6; for filing with the Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. Automated tests of ANA immunofluorescence as throughput autoantibody detection technology: strengths and limitations.

    PubMed

    Meroni, Pier Luigi; Bizzaro, Nicola; Cavazzana, Ilaria; Borghi, Maria Orietta; Tincani, Angela

    2014-03-03

    Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) assay is a screening test used for almost all autoimmune rheumatic diseases, and in a number of these cases, it is a diagnostic/classification parameter. In addition, ANA is also a useful test for additional autoimmune disorders. The indirect immunofluorescence technique on monolayers of cultured epithelial cells is the current recommended method because it has higher sensitivity than solid phase assays. However, the technique is time-consuming and requires skilled operators. Automated ANA reading systems have recently been developed, which offer the advantage of faster and much easier performance as well as better harmonization in the interpretation of the results. Preliminary validation studies of these systems have given promising results in terms of analytical specificity and reproducibility. However, these techniques require further validation in clinical studies and need improvement in their recognition of mixed or less common staining patterns.

  8. Time lapse seismic observations and effects of reservoir compressibility at Teal South oil field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Nayyer

    One of the original ocean-bottom time-lapse seismic studies was performed at the Teal South oil field in the Gulf of Mexico during the late 1990's. This work reexamines some aspects of previous work using modern analysis techniques to provide improved quantitative interpretations. Using three-dimensional volume visualization of legacy data and the two phases of post-production time-lapse data, I provide additional insight into the fluid migration pathways and the pressure communication between different reservoirs, separated by faults. This work supports a conclusion from previous studies that production from one reservoir caused regional pressure decline that in turn resulted in liberation of gas from multiple surrounding unproduced reservoirs. I also provide an explanation for unusual time-lapse changes in amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) data related to the compaction of the producing reservoir which, in turn, changed an isotropic medium to an anisotropic medium. In the first part of this work, I examine regional changes in seismic response due to the production of oil and gas from one reservoir. The previous studies primarily used two post-production ocean-bottom surveys (Phase I and Phase II), and not the legacy streamer data, due to the unavailability of legacy prestack data and very different acquisition parameters. In order to incorporate the legacy data in the present study, all three post-stack data sets were cross-equalized and examined using instantaneous amplitude and energy volumes. This approach appears quite effective and helps to suppress changes unrelated to production while emphasizing those large-amplitude changes that are related to production in this noisy (by current standards) suite of data. I examine the multiple data sets first by using the instantaneous amplitude and energy attributes, and then also examine specific apparent time-lapse changes through direct comparisons of seismic traces. In so doing, I identify time-delays that, when

  9. From ANA to ENA: how to proceed?

    PubMed

    Damoiseaux, J G M C; Tervaert, J W Cohen

    2006-01-01

    Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), as detected by indirect immuno-fluorescence, are hallmarks of autoimmune connective tissue diseases. Identification of the specificity for extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) is warranted because this may further differentiate between the distinct types of autoimmune connective tissue diseases. In recent years several different ENA, as recognized by ANA, have been identified and the knowledge of the molecular structure has been expanded. Together with technical developments this has enabled the introduction of several new anti-ENA antibody detection systems. In this review we will discuss the main logistic aspects of anti-ENA antibody testing that have to be solved in order to come to a consensus in order to deal with new developments in this field. We conclude that: 1. a positive ANA test should, depending on the titre and pattern, be followed by an anti-ENA antibody assay, 2: to fully appreciate the value of the new anti-ENA antibody detection systems a large, multicenter clinical evaluation is required, and 3: proper interpretation of reported test results requires that the clinician is aware of the way anti-ENA antibodies are detected and reported.

  10. International consensus on ANA patterns (ICAP): the bumpy road towards a consensus on reporting ANA results.

    PubMed

    Damoiseaux, Jan; von Mühlen, Carlos A; Garcia-De La Torre, Ignacio; Carballo, Orlando Gabriel; de Melo Cruvinel, Wilson; Francescantonio, Paulo Luiz Carvalho; Fritzler, Marvin J; Herold, Manfred; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Satoh, Minoru; Andrade, Luis E C; Chan, Edward K L; Conrad, Karsten

    2016-12-01

    The International Consensus on ANA Patterns (ICAP) was initiated as a workshop aiming to thoroughly discuss and achieve consensus regarding the morphological patterns observed in the indirect immunofluorescence assay on HEp-2 cells. One of the topics discussed at the second ICAP workshop, and addressed in this paper, was the harmonization of reporting ANA test results. This discussion centered on the issue if cytoplasmic and mitotic patterns should be reported as positive or negative. This report outlines the issues that impact on two major different reporting methods. Although it was appreciated by all participants that cytoplasmic and mitotic patterns are clinically relevant, implications for existing diagnostic/classification criteria for ANA-associated diseases in particular hampered a final consensus on this topic. Evidently, a more concerted action of all relevant stakeholders is required. Future ICAP workshops may help to facilitate this action.

  11. Novel H5 clade 2.3.4.4 reassortant (H5N1) virus from a green-winged teal in Washington, USA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim Torchetti, Mia; Killian, Mary-Lea; Dusek, Robert J.; Pedersen, Janice C.; Hines, Nichole; Bodenstein, Barbara L.; White, C. LeAnn; Ip, Hon S.

    2015-01-01

    Eurasian (EA)-origin H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 avian influenza viruses were first detected in North America during December 2014. Subsequent reassortment with North American (AM) low-pathogenic wild-bird-origin avian influenza has generated at least two reassortants, including an EA/AM H5N1 from an apparently healthy wild green-winged teal, suggesting continued ongoing reassortment.

  12. 241-AN-A pit leak detection ANA-WT-LDSTA-331 acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    VANDYKE, D.W.

    1999-08-25

    This document describes the method used to test design criteria for Safety Class, Intrinsically Safe leak detector system installed in 241-AN-A Valve Pit located at 200E Tank Farms. The purpose of this Procedure is to demonstrate that the pit leak detection relay cabinet and intrinsically safe probe circuit is fully operable.

  13. Communicating stigma: the pro-ana paradox.

    PubMed

    Yeshua-Katz, Daphna; Martins, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the personal experience of pro-ana bloggers, members of an online community for people with eating disorders. Using Erving Goffman's work on stigma, this study explores the motivations, benefits, and drawbacks of blogging about a stigmatized mental illness, as taken from the bloggers' own perceptive. We conducted 33 interviews with bloggers from seven different countries via phone, Skype, and e-mail. Participants were motivated to blog because they found social support, a way to cope with a stigmatized illness, and means of self-expression. Participants described blogging as a cathartic experience and perceived the social support they received from other members of the pro-ana community as a benefit. The fear that the eating disorder will be revealed if the blog is exposed and the concern that the blog encourages disordered eating were the perceived negative consequences of maintaining such a blog. Thus, blogging about anorexia serves to both alleviate and trigger anxiety about living with this stigmatized illness. Recommendations for future research are made.

  14. 48. MAP OF SANTA ANA RIVER POWER PLANT NO. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. MAP OF SANTA ANA RIVER POWER PLANT NO. 2 OF THE EDISON ELECTRIC CO. THROUGH UNSURVEYED LAND IN THE SAN BERNARDINO FOREST RESERVE, APPROVED MAY 26, 1904, F. C. FINKLE, CHIEF HYDRAULIC ENGINEER. SCE drawing no. 53988. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. 46. GENERAL MAP OF SANTA ANA NO. 3 PROJECT MAP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. GENERAL MAP OF SANTA ANA NO. 3 PROJECT MAP OF ALL THREE POWER HOUSE SYSTEMS, EXHIBIT J, JAN. 25, 1956. SCE drawing no. 535041 (sheet no. 1; for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. Free inside: The Music Class at Santa Ana Jail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierro, Joe

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings of the music class at the Santa Ana Jail in Santa Ana, California. It gives us insight into a jail system and a music class focused on helping inmates position themselves to become productive members of society. In this article I examine how the facility encourages inmates' good behaviour and why the music class…

  17. 29. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PLAN FOR POWER HOUSE, SANTA ANA RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PLAN FOR POWER HOUSE, SANTA ANA RIVER P. H. NO. 3, JUNE 23, 1943; REVISIONS, MAR. 14, 1945 AND MAY 17, 1954. SCE drawing no. 523219-2. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. Novel method for ANA quantitation using IIF imaging system.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaodong; Tang, Jiangtao; Wu, Yongkang; Yang, Bin; Hu, Jing

    2014-02-01

    A variety of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are found in the serum of patients with autoimmune diseases. The detection of abnormal ANA titers is a critical criterion for diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other connective tissue diseases. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF) on HEp-2 cells is the gold standard method to determine the presence of ANA and therefore provides information about the localization of autoantigens that are useful for diagnosis. However, its utility was limited in prognosing and monitoring of disease activity due to the lack of standardization in performing the technique, subjectivity in interpreting the results and the fact that it is only semi-quantitative. On the other hand, ELISA for the detection of ANA can quantitate ANA but could not provide further information about the localization of the autoantigens. It would be ideal to integrate both of the quantitative and qualitative methods. To address this issue, this study was conducted to quantitatively detect ANAs by using IIF imaging analysis system. Serum samples from patients with ANA positive (including speckled, homogeneous, nuclear mixture and cytoplasmic mixture patterns) and negative were detected for ANA titers by the classical IIF and analyzed by an image system, the image of each sample was acquired by the digital imaging system and the green fluorescence intensity was quantified by the Image-Pro plus software. A good correlation was found in between two methods and the correlation coefficients (R(2)) of various ANA patterns were 0.942 (speckled), 0.942 (homogeneous), 0.923 (nuclear mixture) and 0.760 (cytoplasmic mixture), respectively. The fluorescence density was linearly correlated with the log of ANA titers in various ANA patterns (R(2)>0.95). Moreover, the novel ANA quantitation method showed good reproducibility (F=0.091, p>0.05) with mean±SD and CV% of positive, and negative quality controls were equal to 126.4±9.6 and 7.6%, 10.4±1.25 and 12

  19. Comparative toxicity of lead shot in black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Fleming, W.J.; Bunck, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    In winter, pen-reared and wild black ducks (Anas rubripes), and game farm and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), maintained on pelleted feed, were sham-dosed or given one number 4 lead shot. After 14 days, dosed birds were redosed with two or four additional lead shot. This dosing regimen also was repeated in summer using pen-reared black ducks and game farm mallards. Based upon mortality, overt intoxication, weight change, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and protoporphyrin concentration, black ducks and mallards were found to be equally tolerant to lead shot. However, captive wild ducks were more sensitive than their domesticated counterparts, as evidenced by greater mortality and weight loss following lead shot administration. This difference may be related to stress associated with captivity and unnatural diet.

  20. Differential stability of 2'F-ANA*RNA and ANA*RNA hybrid duplexes: roles of structure, pseudohydrogen bonding, hydration, ion uptake and flexibility.

    PubMed

    Watts, Jonathan K; Martín-Pintado, Nerea; Gómez-Pinto, Irene; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Portella, Guillem; Orozco, Modesto; González, Carlos; Damha, Masad J

    2010-04-01

    Hybrids of RNA with arabinonucleic acids 2'F-ANA and ANA have very similar structures but strikingly different thermal stabilities. We now present a thorough study combining NMR and other biophysical methods together with state-of-the-art theoretical calculations on a fully modified 10-mer hybrid duplex. Comparison between the solution structure of 2'F-ANA*RNA and ANA*RNA hybrids indicates that the increased binding affinity of 2'F-ANA is related to several subtle differences, most importantly a favorable pseudohydrogen bond (2'F-purine H8) which contrasts with unfavorable 2'-OH-nucleobase steric interactions in the case of ANA. While both 2'F-ANA and ANA strands maintained conformations in the southern/eastern sugar pucker range, the 2'F-ANA strand's structure was more compatible with the A-like structure of a hybrid duplex. No dramatic differences are found in terms of relative hydration for the two hybrids, but the ANA*RNA duplex showed lower uptake of counterions than its 2'F-ANA*RNA counterpart. Finally, while the two hybrid duplexes are of similar rigidities, 2'F-ANA single strands may be more suitably preorganized for duplex formation. Thus the dramatically increased stability of 2'F-ANA*RNA and ANA*RNA duplexes is caused by differences in at least four areas, of which structure and pseudohydrogen bonding are the most important.

  1. ANA testing in the presence of acute and chronic infections.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Christine M; Binder, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibody testing is performed to help diagnose patients who have clinical symptoms suggestive of possible autoimmune diseases. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are present in many systemic autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, a positive ANA test may also be seen with non-autoimmune inflammatory diseases, including both acute and chronic infections. When the ANA test is used as an initial screen in patients with non-specific clinical symptoms, such as fever, joint pain, myalgias, fatigue, rash, or anemia, the likelihood of a positive result due to infection will increase, especially in children. This article identifies acute and chronic infectious diseases that are likely to produce a positive ANA result and summarizes recent literature addressing both the causes and consequences of these findings.

  2. Meet EPA Scientist Ana Rappold, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Scientist Ana Rappold is a statistician in EPA's Environmental Public Health Division of the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab. Her research is focused on the health effects of air pollution.

  3. The solution structure of double helical arabino nucleic acids (ANA and 2'F-ANA): effect of arabinoses in duplex-hairpin interconversion.

    PubMed

    Martín-Pintado, Nerea; Yahyaee-Anzahaee, Maryam; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Noronha, Anne M; Wilds, Christopher J; Damha, Masad J; González, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    We report here the first structure of double helical arabino nucleic acid (ANA), the C2'-stereoisomer of RNA, and the 2'-fluoro-ANA analogue (2'F-ANA). A chimeric dodecamer based on the Dickerson sequence, containing a contiguous central segment of arabino nucleotides, flanked by two 2'-deoxy-2'F-ANA wings was studied. Our data show that this chimeric oligonucleotide can adopt two different structures of comparable thermal stabilities. One structure is a monomeric hairpin in which the stem is formed by base paired 2'F-ANA nucleotides and the loop by unpaired ANA nucleotides. The second structure is a bimolecular duplex, with all the nucleotides (2'F-ANA and ANA) forming Watson-Crick base pairs. The duplex structure is canonical B-form, with all arabinoses adopting a pure C2'-endo conformation. In the ANA:ANA segment, steric interactions involving the 2'-OH substituent provoke slight changes in the glycosidic angles and, therefore, in the ANA:ANA base pair geometry. These distortions are not present in the 2'F-ANA:2'F-ANA regions of the duplex, where the -OH substituent is replaced by a smaller fluorine atom. 2'F-ANA nucleotides adopt the C2'-endo sugar pucker and fit very well into the geometry of B-form duplex, allowing for favourable 2'F···H8 interactions. This interaction shares many features of pseudo-hydrogen bonds previously observed in 2'F-ANA:RNA hybrids and in single 2'F-ANA nucleotides.

  4. Cultural Resources Investigations at the Lake Traverse-Bois de Sioux Project, Roberts County, South Dakota, Traverse County, Minnesota,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    green- winged teals, 50,000 are gadwalls and 20,000 are shovelers (Bellrose 1968). Lake Traverse is within the Central Flyway (Missouri River Corridor...Gull Chlidonias nigra Black Tern Anas crecca Green- winged Teal Anas americana American Wigeon Anas clypeata Northern Shoveler Oxyura jamaicensis Ruddy...Duck Anas acuta Pintail Fulica americana American Coot ... Anas discors Blue- winged Teal Pelecanus erythrorhynchos White Pelican Podilymbus podiceps

  5. Measurement of anti-DFS70 antibodies in patients with ANA-associated autoimmune rheumatic diseases suspicion is cost-effective.

    PubMed

    Gundín, Simón; Irure-Ventura, Juan; Asensio, Esther; Ramos, David; Mahler, Michael; Martínez-Taboada, Victor; López-Hoyos, Marcos

    2016-12-01

    The presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is associated with a wide range of ANA-associated autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AARD). The most commonly method used for the detection of ANA is indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on HEp-2 cells. This method is very sensitive but unspecific. As a consequence, ANA testing on HEp-2 substrates outside a proper clinical specialist framework may lead to inappropriate referrals to tertiary care specialists and, worst case inappropriate and potentially toxic therapy for the patient. Among ANA, isolated anti-DFS70 antibodies represent a potentially important biomarker that can be clinically used to discriminate AARD from non-AARD patients in ANA IIF positive individuals. Therefore, their presence may avoid unnecessary follow-up testing and referrals. In our study, we investigated if the implementation of a new ANA workup algorithm allowing for the identification of anti-DFS70 antibodies is cost-effective through the reduction of both unnecessary follow-up testing and outpatient clinic visits generated by the clinical suspicion of a potential AARD. None of the 181 patients included with a positive monospecific anti-DFS70 antibody result developed SARD during the follow-up period of 10 years. The reduction in number of tests after ANA and anti-DFS70 positive results was significant for anti-ENA (230 vs. 114 tests; p < 0.001) and anti-dsDNA antibodies (448 vs. 114 tests; p < 0.001). In addition, the outpatient clinic visits decreased by 70 % (p < 0.001). In total, the adoption of the new algorithm including anti-DFS70 antibody testing resulted in a cost saving of 60869.53 € for this pilot study. In conclusion, the use of anti-DFS70 antibodies was clearly cost-efficient in our setting.

  6. Detection and identification of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in a large and consecutive cohort of serum samples referred for ANA testing

    PubMed Central

    Peene, I; Meheus, L; Veys, E; De Keyser, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To provide data on (a) the probability of detecting antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in a large and consecutive cohort of serum samples referred for ANA testing and (b) the probability of detecting more specific antinuclear reactivities (anti-DNA and anti-extractable nuclear antigens (anti-ENA)) in serum samples with a positive screening test (indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells).
METHODS—Serum samples from 10 550 consecutive patients sent to the laboratory for ANA detection were analysed. In ANA positive serum samples (23.5% of referred serum samples), ANA were identified by indirect immunofluorescence on Crithidia, by immunodiffusion, and by line immunoassay. Because anti-SSA antibodies were the most frequently identified ANA, sensitively detected by line immunoassay, additional immunoassays were developed to confirm the specificity of the line immunoassay result.
RESULTS—At least one fine reactivity could be identified in 21.1% of ANA positive serum samples: anti-dsDNA in 3.2%; anti-ENA (anti-SSA 10.5%, anti-SSB 6.7%, anti-RNP 2.7%, anti-Sm 1.8%, anti-Scl70 1.2%, anti-Jo-1 0.2%) in 15.8%, rRNP and anti-Cenp-B in respectively 0.5% and 4.0%. Multiple reactivities were found in 7.9%. For anti-ENA antibodies, line immunoassay was more sensitive than immunodiffusion (15.4% v 7.7%; p<0.0001). The sensitive detection of anti-SSA antibodies by line immunoassay was confirmed by additional assays.
CONCLUSIONS—The data from this analysis are useful in estimating the probabilities of detecting specific ANA. Line immunoassay was shown to be a sensitive test for the detection of anti-ENA antibodies.

 PMID:11709455

  7. ANA-Negative Presentation of SLE in Man with Severe Autoimmune Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, inflammatory, connective tissue disease that commonly affects the joints and a variety of organs due to an overactivation of the body's immune system. There is wide heterogeneity in presentation of SLE patients, including lung, central nervous system, skin, kidney, and hematologic manifestations. Case Presentation. We report a case of atypical manifestation of SLE in a 53-year-old man who presented with neutropenic fever. Physical findings of interest included oral ulcers on the lower lip, a malar-like rash across the bridge of the nose, and a discoid-like rash on extensor surfaces of the elbows and knees. Labs include ANC <100, weakly positive anti-dsDNA, negative ANA, ferritin 1237 ng/mL, low C3/C4, and positive direct Coombs' test. A thorough workup for infection and hematologic malignancy was negative. Two days after initiation of therapy with 25 mg IV solumedrol twice a day, the patient's daily fevers resolved. ANC drastically improved to 2000 after two weeks of steroid treatment. He was later found to have a high titer of anti-neutrophil antibodies. Discussion. Autoimmune leukopenia is a common presentation in SLE, occurring in 50–60% of patients. Severe autoimmune neutropenia is uncommon and may correlate with high anti-neutrophil antibody activity despite a negative ANA. As neutropenia is usually mild, there are currently no guidelines for therapy. For our patient, we started him on low dose IV solumedrol and found that he responded drastically to treatment. Given strongly positive nonspecific anti-neutrophil antibodies in the setting of a negative ANA noted in our patient, it is likely that there are other currently unknown antibodies associated with SLE which may correlate strongly with autoimmune neutropenia. PMID:28077945

  8. ANA-Negative Presentation of SLE in Man with Severe Autoimmune Neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, inflammatory, connective tissue disease that commonly affects the joints and a variety of organs due to an overactivation of the body's immune system. There is wide heterogeneity in presentation of SLE patients, including lung, central nervous system, skin, kidney, and hematologic manifestations. Case Presentation. We report a case of atypical manifestation of SLE in a 53-year-old man who presented with neutropenic fever. Physical findings of interest included oral ulcers on the lower lip, a malar-like rash across the bridge of the nose, and a discoid-like rash on extensor surfaces of the elbows and knees. Labs include ANC <100, weakly positive anti-dsDNA, negative ANA, ferritin 1237 ng/mL, low C3/C4, and positive direct Coombs' test. A thorough workup for infection and hematologic malignancy was negative. Two days after initiation of therapy with 25 mg IV solumedrol twice a day, the patient's daily fevers resolved. ANC drastically improved to 2000 after two weeks of steroid treatment. He was later found to have a high titer of anti-neutrophil antibodies. Discussion. Autoimmune leukopenia is a common presentation in SLE, occurring in 50-60% of patients. Severe autoimmune neutropenia is uncommon and may correlate with high anti-neutrophil antibody activity despite a negative ANA. As neutropenia is usually mild, there are currently no guidelines for therapy. For our patient, we started him on low dose IV solumedrol and found that he responded drastically to treatment. Given strongly positive nonspecific anti-neutrophil antibodies in the setting of a negative ANA noted in our patient, it is likely that there are other currently unknown antibodies associated with SLE which may correlate strongly with autoimmune neutropenia.

  9. Determinants of breeding distributions of ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.; Grier, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The settling of breeding habitat by migratory waterfowl is a topic of both theoretical and practical interest. We use the results of surveys conducted annually during 1955-81 in major breeding areas to examine the factors that affect the distributions of 10 common North American duck species. Three patterns of settling are described: homing, opportunistic, and flexible. Homing is generally more pronounced among species that use more stable (more predictable) wetlands, such as the redhead (Aythya americana), canvasback (A. valisineria), lesser scaup (A. affinis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (Anas strepera), and northern shoveler (Anas clypeata). Opportunistic settling is more prevalent among species that use less stable (less predictable) wetlands, such as northern pintail (Anas acuta) and blue-winged teal (Anas discors). Flexible settling is exhibited to various degrees by most species.The 10 species are shown to fall along a natural ordination reflecting different life history characteristics. Average values of indices of r- and K-selection indicated that pintail, mallard, blue-winged teal, and shoveler have the most features associated with unstable or unpredictable environments. Gadwall, American wigeon (Anas americana), and green-winged teal (Anas crecca) were intermediate, and attributes of the diving ducks were associated with the use of stable or predictable environments.Some species--notably mallard, gadwall, blue-winged teal, redhead, and canvasback--tend to fill available breeding habitat first in the central portions of their range, and secondly in peripheral areas. Other species--American wigeon, green-winged teal, northern shoveler, northern pintail, and lesser scaup--fill their habitat in the order it is encountered during spring migration.Age and sex classes within species vary in their settling pattern. Some of this variation can be predicted from the mating systems of ducks in which breeding females, especially successful ones, have a

  10. 1. RUINED PORTION OF SANTA ANA CANAL INTAKE ALONGSIDE SAR3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RUINED PORTION OF SANTA ANA CANAL INTAKE ALONGSIDE SAR-3 SYSTEM TUNNEL, JUST TO SOUTH OF SAR-2. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Abandoned Tunnel, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. Clinical-laboratory characteristics of ANA-positive chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Magen, Eli; Waitman, Dan-Andrei; Dickstein, Yoav; Davidovich, Valentina; Kahan, Natan R

    2015-01-01

    Despite the established association between chronic idiopathic/spontaneous urticaria (CIU) and presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), the prevalence of autoimmune comorbidities in this population has not been analyzed. Here, we aim to identify clinical and laboratory manifestations associated with ANA-positive CIU. ANA-positive patients were identified via electronic data capture from the electronic patient record database of Leumit Health care Services (LHS) of Israel. Patient characteristics, medical histories, and details of diagnostic workup, medical treatment, and follow-up were retrieved by performing a chart review of electronic patient records (EPRs). The prevalence of target diseases among ANA(+) CIU(+), ANA(+) CIU(-), and ANA(-) CIU(+) patients was calculated. A total of 91 ANA(+) CIU(+), 3131 ANA(+) CIU(-), and 478 ANA(-) CIU(+) patients were identified. The ANA(+) CIU(+) group was characterized by higher prevalence of Sjögren's syndrome (SS)-A 52 antibodies (Ab) (7.7% versus 2.4%; p = 0.008), SS-A 60 Ab (11% versus 2.8%; p = < 0.001), and SS-B Ab (14.3% versus 3.2%; p < 0.001), compared with ANA(-) CIU(+) group. Additionally, ANA(+) CIU(+) patients were more likely to be diagnosed with thyroid autoimmune diseases, higher C-reactive protein (6.4 ± 10.3 versus 4.1 ± 8.8 mg/L; p = 0.027), and more profound basopenia (0.04 ± 0.09 versus 0.15 ± 0.11 cell/mm(3); p < 0.001) than ANA(-) CIU patients. More ANA(+) CIU(+) patients were resistant to four-fold standard licensed doses of antihistamines than ANA(-) CIU(+) patients [11 (12.1%) versus 29 (6.1%); p = 0.046]. ANA-positive CIU is characterized by higher prevalence of SS-A 52, SS-A 60, and SS-B antibodies and poorer clinical response to antihistamine medications.

  12. 21. ORIGINAL COMPANY HOUSE AT CORNER OF SANTA ANA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. ORIGINAL COMPANY HOUSE AT CORNER OF SANTA ANA AND ANAHEIM BLVDS. (BEHIND HOUSE IN CA-242-20), WHICH IS BEING PREPARED FOR DEMOLITION. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. Meet EPA Chemist Ana Rivera-Lupiáñez

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ana Rivera-Lupiáñez is a chemist with EPA's Office of Pesticides Program/Health Effects Division of the Environmental Protection Agency in Washington D.C., where she helps assess the registration and proper use of pesticides.

  14. Gene Flow and Hybridization between Numerically Imbalanced Populations of Two Duck Species on the Subantarctic Island of South Georgia

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Kevin G.; Wilson, Robert E.; Martin, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization is common between species of animals, particularly in waterfowl (Anatidae). One factor shown to promote hybridization is restricted mate choice, which can occur when 2 species occur in sympatry but one is rare. According to the Hubbs principle, or "desperation hypothesis," the rarer species is more likely to mate with heterospecifics. We report the second of 2 independent examples of hybridization between 2 species of ducks inhabiting island ecosystems in the Subantarctic and South Atlantic Ocean. Yellow-billed pintails (Anas georgica) and speckled teal (Anas flavirostris) are abundant in continental South America, where they are sympatric and coexist in mixed flocks. But on South Georgia, an isolated island in the Subantarctic, the pintail population of approximately 6000 pairs outnumbers a small breeding population of speckled teal 300∶1. Using 6 genetic loci (mtDNA and 5 nuclear introns) and Bayesian assignment tests coupled with coalescent analyses, we identified hybrid-origin speckled teal alleles in 2 pintails on South Georgia. While it is unclear whether introgression has also occurred into the speckled teal population, our data suggest that this hybridization was not a recent event, but occurred some time ago. We also failed to identify unequivocal evidence of introgression in a much larger sample of pintails and speckled teal from Argentina using a 3-population "Isolation-with-Migration" coalescent analysis. Combined with parallel findings of hybridization between these same 2 duck species in the Falkland Islands, where population ratios are reversed and pintails are outnumbered by speckled teal 1:10, our results provide further support for the desperation hypothesis, which predicts that scarcity in one population and abundance of another will often lead to hybridization. While the South Georgia pintail population appears to be thriving, it's possible that low density of conspecific mates and inverse density dependence (Allee effect) may be

  15. Native fish population and habitat study, Santa Ana River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulff, Marissa L.; Brown, Larry R.; May, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Collection of additional data on the Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae) and the Arroyo Chub (Gila orcutti) has been identified as a needed task to support development of the upper Santa Ana River Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP; http://www.uppersarhcp.com/). The ability to monitor population abundance and understanding the habitats used by species are important when developing such plans. The Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae) is listed as a threatened species under federal legislation and is considered a species of special concern in California by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (Moyle 2002). The Arroyo Chub (Gila orcutti) is considered a species of special concern in California by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (Moyle 2002). Both species are present in the Santa Ana River watershed in the area being evaluated for establishment of the upper Santa Ana River Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP; http://www.uppersarhcp.com/). The HCP is a collaborative effort involving the water resource agencies of the Santa Ana River Watershed, the US Fish and Wildlife Service, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, and other government agencies and stakeholder organizations. The goals of the HCP are to: 1) enable the water resource agencies to provide a reliable water supply for human uses; 2) conserve and maintain natural rivers and streams that provide habitat for a diversity of unique and rare species; and 3) maintain recreational opportunities for activities such as hiking, fishing, and wildlife viewing, provided by the protection of these habitats and the river systems they depend on. The HCP will specify how species and their habitats will be protected and managed in the future and will provide the incidental take permits needed by the water resource agencies under the federal and State endangered species acts to maintain, operate, and improve their water resource infrastructure. Although the Santa Ana Sucker has been the subject of

  16. Determination of ANA specificity using multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay in patients with ANA positivity at high titres after infliximab treatment: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Caramaschi, Paola; Ruzzenente, Orazio; Pieropan, Sara; Volpe, Alessandro; Carletto, Antonio; Bambara, Lisa Maria; Biasi, Domenico

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate ANA specificity using the fully automated multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay in patients affected either by rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis who developed strong positivity for ANA as assessed by indirect immunofluorescent method on HEp-2 cells during infliximab treatment. Three men affected by ankylosing spondylitis and 12 women affected by rheumatoid arthritis who developed ANA positivity at high titres during infliximab treatment underwent the identification of ANA specificity by multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay; moreover anti-DNA and anti-ENA antibodies were tested by indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA method, respectively. In 4 out of 15 cases, the determination of ANA reactivity by multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay was also performed on the serum collected before infliximab administration. One patient affected by rheumatoid arthritis showed multiple ANA reactivities against SS-A, SS-B, RNP, Sm, Jo-1 and histones; one patient affected by ankylosing spondylitis resulted positive for the same autoantibodies, except for anti-Sm antibody. Moreover, two patients, one with rheumatoid arthritis and one with ankylosing spondylitis, showed single antibody specificity to SS-B and RNP, respectively. The remaining 11 cases did not show any positivity. Instead, all the patients resulted negative for anti-ENA antibodies by the ELISA method. In the four cases tested for ANA specificity by multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay before and after infliximab administration no difference was found. The search for anti-DNA antibody always resulted negative by both the traditional immunofluorescent assay and the novel technique. The use of multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay in patients treated with infliximab with ANA positivity at high titres allowed to find some ANA specificities which were not revealed by ELISA method. Nevertheless, the majority of patients resulted negative in spite of

  17. Online Stigma Resistance in the Pro-Ana Community.

    PubMed

    Yeshua-Katz, Daphna

    2015-10-01

    Media scholars often use concepts from Goffman's dramaturgical approach to study online communities of stigmatized individuals as "backstages," spaces where members take refuge from social disapproval. In this study, I extend this view through an examination of in-depth interviews with bloggers from the "pro-ana" community, an online community for people with eating disorders. To explore how this community uses an online environment that is both anonymous and public, I fuse Goffman's ideas about identity performance and stigma with more recent theories about boundary maintenance. In-depth interviews with "pro-ana" bloggers reveal that to protect this virtual group and resist stigmas associated both with their illness and with their online presence, they construct their own norms and rules in the online realm, and discipline and eject members deemed to be out-group.

  18. DOM in recharge waters of the Santa Ana River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Aiken, G.R.; Woodside, G.; O'Connor-Patel, K.

    2007-01-01

    The urban Santa Ana River in California is the primary source of recharge water for Orange County's groundwater basin, which provides water to more than two million residents. This study was undertaken to determine the unidentified portion of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in various natural surface and reclaimed waters of the Santa Ana River Basin and to assess the potential health risk of this material. The most abundant organic contaminants were anionic detergent degradation products (constituting about 12% of the DOM), which have no known adverse health effects. In addition, high percentages of dissolved colloids from bacterial cell walls were found during storm flows; these colloids foul membranes used in water treatment. Although no significant health risks were ascribed to the newly characterized DOM, the authors note that even the small amounts of humic substances deposited during storm flow periods were responsible for significant increases in disinfection by_product formation potential in these waters.

  19. Molecular characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 viruses isolated from Baikal teals found dead during a 2014 outbreak in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seol-Hee; Hur, Moonsuk; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Woo, Chanjin; Wang, Seung-Jun; Park, Eung-Roh; Hwang, Jongkyung; An, In-Jung; Jo, Seong-Deok; Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Yu, Seung Do; Choi, Kyunghee; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Nineteen highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 viruses were isolated from wild birds in the Donglim reservoir in Gochang, Jeonbuk province, Korea, which was first reported to be an outbreak site on January 17, 2014. Most genes from the nineteen viruses shared high nucleotide sequence identities (i.e., 99.7% to 100%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses were reassortants of the HPAI H5 subtype and the H4N2 strain and that their hemagglutinin clade was 2.3.4.4, which originated from Eastern China. The hemagglutinin protein contained Q222 and G224 at the receptor-binding site. Although the neuraminidase protein contained I314V and the matrix 2 protein contained an S31N substitution, other mutations resulting in oseltamivir and amantadine resistance were not detected. No substitutions associated with increased virulence and enhanced transmission in mammals were detected in the polymerase basic protein 2 (627E and 701D). Non-structural-1 was 237 amino acids long and had an ESEV motif with additional RGNKMAD amino acids in the C terminal region. These viruses caused deaths in the Baikal teal, which was unusual, and outbreaks occurred at the same time in both poultry and wild birds. These data are helpful for epidemiological understanding of HPAI and the design of prevention strategies. PMID:26245355

  20. Ground-water geology of the coastal zone, Long Beach-Santa Ana area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, J.F.; Piper, A.M.

    1956-01-01

    structural features that influence the watertightness of the so-called coastal barrier. The hills and mesas of the Newport-Inglewood belt are cut by six gaps through which tongues of the central lowland extend to the coast. The gaps are trenched in the deformed late Pleistocene surface and are floored with alluvium that is highly permeable in its lower part. The Long Beach-Santa Ana area, with which this report is concerned, encompasses the central and eastern segments of the coastal plain, and includes five of the gaps in succession from northwest to south- east: Dominguez, Alamitos, Sunset, Bolsa, and Santa Ana Gaps. In the Long Beach-Santa Ana area a thick sequence of Quaternary and Tertiary sedimentary rocks has been deposited on a basement of metamorphic and crystalline rocks of pre-Tertiary age. In the broad syncline underlying tl e central part of Downey Plain these sediments probably exceed 20,000 feet in thickness. This report pertains chiefly to the geology and water-bearing character of the rocks that underlie the coastal zone of the Long Beach-Santa Ana area. This area extends some 27 miles from Dominguez Hill on the northwest to Newport Beach on the southeast, has an average width of about 6 miles, includes some 180 square miles, and borders the Pacific Ocean. Of the Quaternary deposits the youngest are of Recent age and comprise silt, sand, gravel, and clay, chiefly of fluvial origin; they are the latest contributions to the alluvial cones of the Los Angeles, San Gabriel, and Santa Ana Rivers; their thickness is as much as 175 feet. The upper division of the Recent deposits, largely fine sand and silt of low permeability, commonly furnishes water only to a few wells of small yield; the lower division is coarse sand and gravel deposited chiefly in two tongues extending respectively, from Whittier Narrows through Dominguez Gap and from Santa Ana Canyon through Santa Ana Gap. These tongues, designated in this report the Gaspur a

  1. Contribution of Doñana Wetlands to Carbon Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Edward P.; Flecha, Susana; Figuerola, Jordi; Costas, Eduardo; Navarro, Gabriel; Ruiz, Javier; Rodriguez, Pablo; Huertas, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Inland and transitional aquatic systems play an important role in global carbon (C) cycling. Yet, the C dynamics of wetlands and floodplains are poorly defined and field data is scarce. Air-water fluxes in the wetlands of Doñana Natural Area (SW Spain) were examined by measuring alkalinity, pH and other physiochemical parameters in a range of water bodies during 2010–2011. Areal fluxes were calculated and, using remote sensing, an estimate of the contribution of aquatic habitats to gaseous transport was derived. Semi-permanent ponds adjacent to the large Guadalquivir estuary acted as mild sinks, whilst temporal wetlands were strong sources of (−0.8 and 36.3 ). Fluxes in semi-permanent streams and ponds changed seasonally; acting as sources in spring-winter and mild sinks in autumn (16.7 and −1.2 ). Overall, Doñana's water bodies were a net annual source of (5.2 ). Up–scaling clarified the overwhelming contribution of seasonal flooding and allochthonous organic matter inputs in determining regional air-water gaseous transport (13.1 ). Nevertheless, this estimate is about 6 times < local marsh net primary production, suggesting the system acts as an annual net sink. Initial indications suggest longer hydroperiods may favour autochthonous C capture by phytoplankton. Direct anthropogenic impacts have reduced the hydroperiod in Doñana and this maybe exacerbated by climate change (less rainfall and more evaporation), suggesting potential for the modification of C sequestration. PMID:23977044

  2. ANA deficiency enhances bone morphogenetic protein-induced ectopic bone formation via transcriptional events.

    PubMed

    Miyai, Kentaro; Yoneda, Mitsuhiro; Hasegawa, Urara; Toita, Sayaka; Izu, Yayoi; Hemmi, Hiroaki; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Ezura, Yoichi; Mizutani, Shuki; Miyazono, Kohei; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Noda, Masaki

    2009-04-17

    Ectopic bone formation after joint replacement or brain injury in humans is a serious complication that causes immobility of joints and severe pain. However, mechanisms underlying such ectopic bone formation are not fully understood. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMPs) are defined as inducers of ectopic bone formation, and they are regulated by several types of inhibitors. ANA is an antiproliferative molecule that belongs to Tob/BTG family, but its activity in bone metabolism has not been known. Here, we examined the role of ANA on ectopic bone formation activity of BMP. In ANA-deficient and wild-type mice, BMP2 was implanted to induce ectopic bone formation in muscle. ANA deficiency increased mass of newly formed bone in vivo compared with wild-type based on 3D-muCT analyses. ANA mRNA was expressed in bone in vivo as well as in osteoblastic cells in vitro. Such ANA mRNA levels were increased by BMP2 treatment in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Overexpression of ANA suppressed BMP-induced expression of luciferase reporter gene linked to BMP response elements in these cells. Conversely, ANA mRNA knockdown by small interference RNA enhanced the BMP-dependent BMP response element reporter expression. It also enhanced BMP-induced osteoblastic differentiation in muscle-derived C2C12 cells. Immunoprecipitation assay indicated that ANA interacts with Smad8. Thus, ANA is a suppressor of ectopic bone formation induced by BMP, and this inhibitory ANA activity is a part of the negative feedback regulation of BMP function.

  3. A Mouse Model for Human Unstable Hemoglobin Santa Ana.

    PubMed

    Miyashiro, Samantha I; Massironi, Silvia M G; Mori, Claudia M C; Cruz, Carolina C; Hagiwara, Mitika K; Maiorka, Paulo C

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, we described the phenotype, histologic morphology, and molecular etiology of a mouse model of unstable hemoglobin Santa Ana. Hematologic evaluation of anemic mice (Anem/+) discovered after N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis revealed moderate anemia with intense reticulocytosis and polychromasia, followed by anisocytosis, macrocytosis, hypochromia, and intraerythrocytic inclusion and Heinz bodies. The mice also demonstrated hemoglobinuria, bilirubinemia, and erythrocytic populations with differing resistance to osmotic lysis. Splenomegaly (particularly in older mutant mice) and jaundice were apparent at necropsy. Histopathologic examination revealed dramatically increased hematopoiesis and hemosiderosis in hematopoietic organs and intracellular iron deposition in tubular renal cells. These data are characteristic of a congenital hemolytic regenerative anemia, similar to human anemias due to unstable hemoglobin. Genetic mapping assigned the affected gene to mouse chromosome 7, approximately 50 cM from the Hbb locus. The sequence of the mutant Hbb gene exhibited a T→C transversion at nucleotide 179 in Hbb-b1, leading to the substitution of proline for leucine at amino acid residue 88 and thus homologous to the genetic defect underlying Santa Ana anemia in humans.

  4. Water Quality, Habitat, and Biological Conditions at Selected Sites in the Highly Urbanized Santa Ana River Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, C. A.; Brown, L. R.

    2001-12-01

    The Santa Ana River Basin of southern California is highly urbanized and is affected by habitat loss, habitat alteration, and changes in water quality of the river and tributary streams. Nineteen sites, selected to represent the range in water source (mountain runoff, ground-water discharge, urban runoff, treated waste water), were sampled during summer 2000, to assess macroinvertebrate community structure and various measures of water quality. Sites were characterized on the basis of water source because much of the water in Santa Ana Basin is imported and does not typically originate within the watershed boundaries. Artificial substrates were employed for biological samples to minimize the effect of channel environments--natural, channelized but unlined, and concrete-lined-- as a confounding variable. The number of benthic macroinvertebrate genera ranged from five to 20 taxa per site. Pesticides were detected at 16 of 19 sites; the number of detections per site ranged from two to nine. Diazinon was the most commonly detected pesticide and was found at 13 of the 16 sites. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected at 9 of 10 sites; the number of detections ranged from 1 to 10 per site. Chloroform and bromodichloromethane, the most commonly detected VOCs, were found at six sites each. Results from a Microtox toxicity test using extracts from semi-permeable membrane devices installed at 14 sites indicated potential toxicity at 10 of the sites. Results suggest that water source and channel modifications associated with urbanization have altered water quality and associated ecological communities in the streams of the Santa Ana Basin.

  5. Mutation of the central nervous system neuroblast proliferation repressor ana leads to defects in larval olfactory behavior.

    PubMed

    Park, Y; Caldwell, M C; Datta, S

    1997-08-01

    In the developing nervous system, interactions between glia and immature neurons or neuroblasts regulate axon pathfinding, migration, and cell division, and therefore affect structure and function. Glial control of neuroblast cell division has been documented by studies of the anachronism (ana) gene of Drosophila melanogaster. ana encodes a glycoprotein which, in the developing larval central nervous system, is secreted by glia that neighbor regulated neuroblasts. Mutations in ana lead to premature neuroblast proliferation in the larval brain. Examination of lacZ expression from an ana enhancer trap line as well as detection of the ana protein show that ana is also expressed in the larval antennal-maxillary complex (AMC) at all larval stages. As previously reported for the central nervous system, ana expression in the AMC appears to be confined to glial cells. Larval olfactory system function in ana mutants was assayed in a behavioral paradigm. When tested with the three different chemoattractants, third instar ana9 mutant larvae showed diminished olfactory response compared to controls. Examination of a second ana allele revealed aberrant olfactory response to ethyl acetate, demonstrating that more than one mutation in ana can give rise to abnormal larval olfactory behavior. Assays of early first instar ana9 mutant larvae revealed defective olfactory behavior, implying that the olfactory phenotype stems from early larval AMC and/or embryonic origins. This is consistent with proliferation analysis in the early larval AMC region which uncovered a significantly higher number of S-phase cells in ana9 mutants.

  6. Identification and Characterization of Ana o 3 Modifications on Arginine-111 Residue in Heated Cashew Nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heating foods can alter the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the proteins we consume. Raw and roasted cashew nut extracts were evaluated for allergen modifications by mass-spectrometry. We did not identify modifications on Ana o 1 or Ana o 2, but we observed two independent mo...

  7. Deficiency of antiproliferative family protein Ana correlates with development of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Toru; Nakamura, Takahisa; Ajima, Rieko; Yoshida, Yutaka; Kakuta, Shigeru; Katsuko, Sudo; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Shibutani, Makoto; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Yokota, Jun; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2009-02-01

    The abundant in neuroepithelium area (ana) gene was originally identified as a member of the tob/btg family of antiproliferative genes. Like the other family members, Ana inhibits growth of NIH3T3 cells when overexpressed. However, whether or not Ana is involved in tumor progression has been elusive. Here, we show that expression of ana is relatively high in the lung, the expression being restricted in type II alveolar epithelial cells. We further show that ana expression is reduced in 97% of the human lung cancer cell lines examined (61/63) and 86% of clinical samples from lung adenocarcinoma patients (36/42). Long-term observation of ana-deficient (ana−/–) mice reveals that 8% of them develop lung tumors (5/66) by 21 months after birth, while 0% of wild-type mice (0/35) develop the same type of tumors. We also show that exogenously expressed ana gene product suppresses the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression in lung cancer cells. Taken together, we propose that ana functions as a tumor suppressor and that its product inhibits tumor progression as well by suppressing angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis.

  8. Choosing wisely: Review and commentary on anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) testing.

    PubMed

    Fritzler, Marvin J

    2016-03-01

    Choosing Wisely®: Next Steps in Improving Healthcare Value is an initiative of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation. The driving forces for the Choosing Wisely (CW) campaign include rising and unstainable health care expenditures and evidence that there is lack of fiscal stewardship of health care resources. The American College of Rheumatology and the Canadian Rheumatology Association published their top five Choosing Wisely recommendations, the first of which pertained to antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and ANA subserology testing. Concerns about the wasteful use of these tests prompted an analysis of the expenditures attributable to ANA testing as a proportion of total health care expenditures and based on a financial model was in the range of 0.00125%. It is suggested that if the sole use of ANA testing is to add evidence to support a diagnosis when the pre-test probability is high, then the ANA test has limited clinical value. Accordingly, the goal of ANA testing needs to be reconsidered and expanded beyond an approach to simply confirming a diagnosis with 'intention to treat' to a goal of case finding of 'pre- or early disease' with an 'intent to prevent' disease. This an area where more significant inroads can be made in preventing end organ disease and thereby reducing health care expenditures HCE. One CW recommendation that bears emphasizing is that, with a few possible exceptions, repeat ANA or ANA subserology testing has little clinical value in monitoring disease activity or predicting a flare.

  9. Evaluation of the LIAISON ANA screen assay for antinuclear antibody testing in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ghillani, P; Rouquette, A M; Desgruelles, C; Hauguel, N; Le Pendeven, C; Piette, J C; Musset, L

    2007-08-01

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are widely detected by immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells in patients with connective tissue diseases and other pathological conditions. We evaluated the first-automated chemiluminescence immunoassay for the detection of ANA (LIAISON ANA screen, DiaSorin). This study was carried out simultaneously in two laboratories by testing 327 patient samples with clinically defined connective diseases, 273 routine samples for ANA screening, and 300 blood donors. A total of 268 out of 337 IIF-positive sera were positive with LIAISON ANA screen (79.5% of agreement) and 240 out of 263 IIF-negative sera were negative with LIAISON ANA screen (91.2% of agreement). After resolution of discrepant results, the concordance reached, respectively, 94.9% and 98.8%. The specificity was 99.3% and the sensitivity was 94%. Unlike results obtained by other ANA screening assays, we observed acceptable sensitivity and specificity. Despite the presence of HEp-2 cell extract, we failed to detect some antibodies as antinucleolar, antinuclear envelope, and antiproliferating cell nuclear antigen. This automated assay allows quick process to results and exhibits satisfactory sensitivity for the detection of the main ANA specificities of connective tissue diseases.

  10. The loss rates of web tags applied to day-old Anas and Aythya ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Mednis, A.; Bauga, I.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Researchers studied the loss rate of web tags on Anas and Aythya ducklings by double marking day-old ducklings of five species with web tags and plasticine-filled rings. Tag loss was examined over three-month, one-year, and three-year periods. Web tag loss was greatest for Anas and occurred mostly in the first three months following tagging.

  11. Characterization of a cashew allergen, 11S globulin (Ana o 2), conformational epitope.

    PubMed

    Robotham, Jason M; Xia, Lixin; Willison, LeAnna N; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2010-05-01

    Both linear and conformational epitopes likely contribute to the allergenicity of tree nut allergens, yet, due largely to technical issues, few conformational epitopes have been characterized. Using the well studied recombinant cashew allergen, Ana o 2, an 11S globulin or legumin, we identified a murine monoclonal antibody which recognizes a conformational epitope and competes with patient IgE Ana o 2-reactive antibodies. This epitope is expressed on the large subunit of Ana o 2, but only when associated with an 11S globulin small subunit. Both Ana o 2 and the homologous soybean Gly m 6 small subunits can foster epitope expression, even when the natural N-terminal to C-terminal subunit order is reversed in chimeric molecules. The epitope, which is also expressed on native Ana o 2, is readily susceptible to destruction by physical and chemical denaturants.

  12. Th17-relevant cytokines vary with sera of different ANA staining patterns.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinhui; Meng, Wei; Zhang, Denghai; Qiu, Chaolin; Hua, Ling; Xie, Qiuhua; He, Xiaoxue; Ye, Hongxing

    2013-04-01

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) react with components located in the cell nucleus and cytoplasm. Differing ANA staining patterns may reflect the specificity of autoantibodies in sera and indicate some autoimmune diseases specifically, to some extent. Th17-relevant cytokines have been shown to be involved in a variety of autoimmune diseases, but not consistently. In this study, we investigated whether differences in Th17-relevant cytokines exist between different ANA pattern sera. Sera of 64 ANA-positive patients (12 homogeneous, 13 speckled particle, 11 nucleolar, 15 centromere, 6 peripheral nuclear) and 16 healthy donors were analyzed for IL-17, IL-6, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23 (p19), and TGF-β, and subsequently correlations between IL-17 and IL-6, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, and TGF-β were analyzed. Results showed that these Th17-relevant cytokines varied with different ANA-positive sera compared with healthy donors, except TGF-β. Among them, IL-21 and IL-22 were higher with all ANA-positive sera and IL-17, IL-6, and IL-23 were higher with three or more ANA staining sera. No significant difference in these cytokines was seen between the different ANA staining sera except IL-17 levels in sera of peripheral nuclear staining positive subjects were higher than nucleolar. Additionally, in ANA-positive sera, IL-17 correlated with IL-6, IL-21, IL-22, and IL-23, but not with TGF-β. Thus, we demonstrated that Th17-relevant cytokines varied with different ANA staining pattern sera, suggesting that Th17-relevant cytokines play differing roles in autoimmune diseases.

  13. 75 FR 17202 - Proposed Establishment of Long Beach, CA, Class C Airspace Area and Revision of Santa Ana (John...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Revision of Santa Ana (John Wayne), CA, Class C Airspace Area; Public Meetings AGENCY: Federal Aviation... establish Class C airspace at Long Beach, CA, and revise the Santa Ana (John Wayne) Class C airspace area... Santa Ana (John Wayne), CA, Class C airspace area will be accepted. (b) The meetings will be open to...

  14. Erythrodiplax ana sp. nov. (Odonata: Libellulidae) from Brazilian palm swamps.

    PubMed

    Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer; Vilela, Diogo S; Del-Claro, Kleber; Bispo, Pitágoras C

    2016-08-29

    Erythrodiplax ana sp. nov. (male holotype, six male and three female paratypes), collected in Vereda wetlands (a unique Neotropical savanna environment) in Uberlândia (Minas Gerais) and Chapada dos Guimarães (Mato Grosso), Brazil, is described and illustrated. The new species fits in Borror's Basalis Group, and can be distinguished from other species by the combination of the following traits: blue pruinosity dorsally on thorax and third to eighth abdominal segments; sides of the thorax olive-green; face ivory or olive-green; wings hyaline with a small apical brown spot on all four wings, well defined in females; male genitalia with sclerotized erectile posterior lobe and inflatable sac-like median process. Last instar larvae were reared in the laboratory, resulting in the description of the larva. We also followed this population for 13 months and present resulting biological notes and comments on ontogenetic color change in males, as well as longevity.

  15. ANA - A framework for building ATHENA on ARM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Hamilton, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    The ATLAS software framework (ATHENA) is large and dynamic, comprised of around 6.5 million lines of code. It is compiled using the ATLAS monitoring system, NICOS which uses tools and scripts located and tuned for the CERN services, LXPLUS and AFS. Furthermore, the constraints placed on the hardware that the software is based, limits compilations to traditional x86 architecture. With the sudden interest in ARM processors for large scale high energy physics computing, a new system needs to be implemented to build ATHENA versions for ARM, on ARM. This letter serves to introduce a building framework called Atlas Nightly on ARM (ANA). This new framework implements patches to suit the ARM architecture with the goal of a final ATHENA version for ARM.

  16. Alignment Sensitivity Study of the St. ANA Beam Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervais, Michelle; Couder, Manoel; Jung, Hyo Soon; Setoodehnia, Kiana

    2014-09-01

    The St. ANA (STable Accelerator for Nuclear Astrophysics) accelerator is being prepared for use with the St. George recoil mass separator. The accelerator is in working condition for use in direct kinematic experiments but the St. George separator works with inverse kinematics and requires a highly controlled beam restricted by severe position and divergence parameters that are not achieved at the present time. A systematic sensitivity study was conducted using a simulation of the beam line in order to assess the impact of a misalignment in each optical element or in the beam itself. Tests were done with the beam to analyze how the beam behaves at various points in the line and to compare this data with simulation results to determine possible causes of misalignment. The results of these tests and simulations are that the beam characteristics are now better understood and the possible causes of the limitations have been narrowed down. The St. ANA (STable Accelerator for Nuclear Astrophysics) accelerator is being prepared for use with the St. George recoil mass separator. The accelerator is in working condition for use in direct kinematic experiments but the St. George separator works with inverse kinematics and requires a highly controlled beam restricted by severe position and divergence parameters that are not achieved at the present time. A systematic sensitivity study was conducted using a simulation of the beam line in order to assess the impact of a misalignment in each optical element or in the beam itself. Tests were done with the beam to analyze how the beam behaves at various points in the line and to compare this data with simulation results to determine possible causes of misalignment. The results of these tests and simulations are that the beam characteristics are now better understood and the possible causes of the limitations have been narrowed down. Project advisor

  17. Failure Mechanisms of Ana Slide, Eivissa Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuerza, S.; Sultan, N.; Canals, M.; Lastras, G.; Cattaneo, A.; Frigola, J.; Costa, S.; Berndt, C.

    2011-12-01

    Fluid seepage has been considered as the most plausible explanation to account for slope instabilities in the Eivissa Channel in between the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean Sea. In situ geotechnical tests and sediment cores obtained in the Ana Slide area, on the Balearic slope of the Eivissa Channel, suggest that the development of the basal failure surface (BFS) was favoured by contrasting hydro-mechanical properties between a coarse unit (U7) charged with methane and a fine-grained unit above (U6). The presence of past methane seepage has been inferred from high magnetic susceptibility values found in sediments from the headwall area and is supported by seismic reflection data. Geotechnical data from piezocone tests, laboratory analyses and numerical calculations indicate degradation of the undrained shear strength generated by methane exsolution and expansion as the only plausible mechanism to explain the origin of Ana Slide. The probability of failure for different critical failure surfaces has been investigated by using the SAMU-3D slope stability model taking into account the role of free gas in the development of the landslide. According to SAMU-3D, the most probable failure surface is related to a minimum degradation of the undrained shear strength of units U6 and U7 of 95% and a basal failure surface developed at the base of U6, which acted as a weak layer. Wheeler's theory suggests that 9% of free-gas saturation in U7 is enough to reduce the undrained shear strength by 95%. However, using the theory of the undrained equilibrium behaviour of gassy sediments we conclude that the excess fluid pressure generated by gas exsolution and expansion is not relevant to bring the slope to fail.

  18. Studies on the hydrolytic stability of 2'-fluoroarabinonucleic acid (2'F-ANA).

    PubMed

    Watts, Jonathan K; Katolik, Adam; Viladoms, Júlia; Damha, Masad J

    2009-05-07

    The stability of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoroarabinonucleic acid (2'F-ANA) to hydrolysis under acidic and basic conditions was compared to that of DNA, RNA and 2'F-RNA. In enzyme-free simulated gastric fluid (pH approximately 1.2), 2'F-ANA was found to have dramatically increased stability (virtually no cleavage observed after 2 days) with respect to both DNA (t(1/2) approximately 2 min) and RNA (t(1/2) approximately 3 h (PO) or 3 days (PS)). These results were observed for both phosphodiester and phosphorothioate backbones and with multiple mixed-base sequences. Under basic conditions, 2'F-ANA also showed good stability. In 1 M NaOH at 65 degrees C, 2'F-ANA had a t(1/2) of approximately 20 h, while RNA was entirely degraded in a few minutes. Furthermore, the nuclease cleavage of phosphorothioate 2'F-ANA and DNA by snake venom phosphodiesterase was studied in detail. One diastereomer of the PS-2'F-ANA linkage was found to be much more vulnerable to enzymatic cleavage than the other, which is parallel to the properties observed for PS-DNA. Additional studies of 2'F-ANA-containing oligonucleotides are warranted based on the excellent stability properties described here.

  19. The concordance of serial ANA tests in an Australian tertiary hospital pathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Adrian Y S; Hudspeth, Andrew R; Adelstein, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    The antinuclear antibody (ANA) tests are some of the more frequently requested tests for the diagnosis of autoimmunity. Although they are used primarily as diagnostic blood tests, multiple requests on the same patient continue to be encountered in the laboratory. This retrospective analysis of serial ANA testing at one pathology laboratory in Australia is the first study that examines the statistical concordance and possible implications of this on clinical practice. High-titred ANA have quite good repeatability for titre and pattern, and low-titred ANA, which can be non-specific, have poor repeatability. Staining patterns are, in general, almost random in nature on serial tests when compared to the first-obtained ANA pattern for each patient. This study confirms that there is little benefit in serial ANA testing, and only if there is a clear change in the patient's clinical picture would repeat of an initial low-titred ANA be useful. The findings reinforce the need for pathology stewardship to minimise costs, wasted resources and unnecessary referrals.

  20. ANA IIF Automation: Moving towards Harmonization? Results of a Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Schouwers, Sofie; Van Blerk, Marjan

    2017-01-01

    Background. Our study aimed to investigate whether the introduction of automated anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) analysis decreases the interlaboratory variability of ANA titer results. Method. Three serum samples were sent to 10 laboratories using the QUANTA-Lyser® in combination with the NOVA View®. Each laboratory performed the ANA IIF analysis 10x in 1 run and 1x in 10 different runs and determined the endpoint titer by dilution. One of the three samples had been sent in 2012, before the era of ANA IIF automation, by the Belgian National External Quality Assessment (EQA) Scheme. Harmonization was evaluated in terms of variability in fluorescence intensity (LIU) and ANA IIF titer. Results. The evaluation of the intra- and interrun LIU variability revealed a larger variability for 2 laboratories, due to preanalytical and analytical problems. Reanalysis of the EQA sample resulted in a lower titer variability. Diluted endpoint titers were similar to the estimated single well titer and the overall median titer as reported by the EQA in 2012. Conclusion. The introduction of automated microscopic analysis allows more harmonized ANA IIF reporting, provided that this totally automated process is controlled by a thorough quality assurance program, covering the total ANA IIF process. PMID:28321418

  1. ANA IIF Automation: Moving towards Harmonization? Results of a Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Van den Bremt, Stefanie; Schouwers, Sofie; Van Blerk, Marjan; Van Hoovels, Lieve

    2017-01-01

    Background. Our study aimed to investigate whether the introduction of automated anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) analysis decreases the interlaboratory variability of ANA titer results. Method. Three serum samples were sent to 10 laboratories using the QUANTA-Lyser® in combination with the NOVA View®. Each laboratory performed the ANA IIF analysis 10x in 1 run and 1x in 10 different runs and determined the endpoint titer by dilution. One of the three samples had been sent in 2012, before the era of ANA IIF automation, by the Belgian National External Quality Assessment (EQA) Scheme. Harmonization was evaluated in terms of variability in fluorescence intensity (LIU) and ANA IIF titer. Results. The evaluation of the intra- and interrun LIU variability revealed a larger variability for 2 laboratories, due to preanalytical and analytical problems. Reanalysis of the EQA sample resulted in a lower titer variability. Diluted endpoint titers were similar to the estimated single well titer and the overall median titer as reported by the EQA in 2012. Conclusion. The introduction of automated microscopic analysis allows more harmonized ANA IIF reporting, provided that this totally automated process is controlled by a thorough quality assurance program, covering the total ANA IIF process.

  2. The ANA-reflex test as a model for improving clinical appropriateness in autoimmune diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Tonutti, Elio; Bizzaro, Nicola; Morozzi, Gabriella; Radice, Antonella; Cinquanta, Luigi; Villalta, Danilo; Tozzoli, Renato; Tampoia, Marilina; Porcelli, Brunetta; Fabris, Martina; Brusca, Ignazio; Alessio, Maria Grazia; Barberio, Giuseppina; Sorrentino, Maria Concetta; Antico, Antonio; Bassetti, Danila; Fontana, Desré Ethel; Imbastaro, Tiziana; Visentini, Daniela; Pesce, Giampaola; Bagnasco, Marcello

    2016-12-01

    Reflex tests are widely used in clinical laboratories, for example, to diagnose thyroid disorders or in the follow-up of prostate cancer. Reflex tests for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) have recently gained attention as a way to improve appropriateness in the immunological diagnosis of autoimmune rheumatic diseases and avoid waste of resources. However, the ANA-reflex test is not as simple as other consolidated reflex tests (the TSH-reflex tests or the PSA-reflex tests) because of the intrinsic complexity of the ANA test performed by the indirect immunofluorescence method on cellular substrates. The wide heterogeneity of the ANA patterns, which need correct interpretation, and the subsequent choice of the most appropriate confirmatory test (ANA subserology), which depend on the pattern feature and on clinical information, hinder any informatics automation, and require the pathologist's intervention. In this review, the Study Group on Autoimmune Diseases of the Italian Society of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine provides some indications on the configuration of the ANA-reflex test, using two different approaches depending on whether clinical information is available or not. We further give some suggestions on how to report results of the ANA-reflex test.

  3. The use of pro-ana blogs for online social support.

    PubMed

    Tong, Stephanie Tom; Heinemann-Lafave, Daria; Jeon, Jehoon; Kolodziej-Smith, Renata; Warshay, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to document the content on pro-ana blogs and to uncover how the unique socio-technical features of blogs (interactivity, self-disclosure, masspersonal communication) facilitate social support among members. A final sample of 48 pro-ana blogs provided 624 individual units for coding. Results indicate that prevalent forms of social support were emotional support, esteem support, and informational support. A new category, reciprocal self-disclosure, was also revealed to be quite frequent. Blogs are spaces where social support is sought and communicated among members of the pro-ana network. Interpretation of blog communication and implications for treatment and research are discussed.

  4. Ground-water quality in the Santa Ana Watershed, California : overview and data summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, Scott N.; Belitz, Kenneth; Kraja, Sarah; Dawson, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    for manganese. Water from production wells sampled in all three subbasins exceeded the proposed MCL for radon (300 pCi/L [picocuries per liter]). Pesticides were detected above the laboratory reporting limit (LRL) in 50 percent of the production and monitoring wells sampled in the Santa Ana Basin. Deethylatrazine, simazine, atrazine, tebuthiuron, and prometon were the five most commonly detected pesticides in the current USGS studies. All pesticide concentrations detected in these studies were below MCLs established by the EPA. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in 115 wells (56 percent) of the 207 wells sampled. Of the 38 VOCs detected, only 13 were detected in more than five wells. The most commonly detected VOCs, in order of detection frequency, were chloroform; trichloroethlyene, TCE; 1,1,1-trichloroethane, TCA; trichlorofluoromethane, CFC 11; 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, CFC 113; tetrachloroethylene, PCE; bromodichloromethane; methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; 1,1-dichloroethene, 1-1-DCE; and 1,2- dichloroethene, 1,2-DCE. The only exceedances of EPA MCLs for VOCs occurred in six irrigation wells and in two deep monitoring wells sampled in the Inland Basin.

  5. Belgian recommendations on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing.

    PubMed

    Van Blerk, M; Bossuyt, X; Humbel, R; Mewis, A; Servais, G; Tomasi, J P; Van Campenhout, C; Van Hoovels, L; Vercammen, M; Damoiseaux, J; Coucke, W; Van de Walle, P

    2014-04-01

    Autoantibodies to nuclear antigens, i.e. antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA), are useful as diagnostic markers for a variety of autoimmune diseases. In March 2010, the Belgian national External Quality Assessment Scheme sent a questionnaire on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing designed by the Dutch EASI (European Autoimmunity Standardization Initiative) team, to all clinical laboratories performing ANA testing. Virtually all laboratories completed the questionnaire (97·7%, 127/130). This paper discusses the results of this questionnaire and provides valuable information on the state-of-the-art of ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing as practiced in the Belgian laboratories. In addition, this work presents practical recommendations developed by the members of the advisory board of the scheme as a result of the outcome of this study.

  6. 75 FR 77961 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for Santa Ana Sucker

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), designate critical habitat for Santa Ana sucker (Catostomus santaanae) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. In total, approximately 9,331 acres (3,776 hectares) of habitat in the Santa Ana River in San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange Counties and the San Gabriel River and Big Tujunga Creek in Los Angeles County in southern......

  7. Migration strategy affects avian influenza dynamics in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, John Y.; Hill, Nichola J.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herring, Garth; Hobson, Keith; Cardona, Carol J.; Runstadler, Jonathan; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of pathogen transmission typically overlook that wildlife hosts can include both migrant and resident populations when attempting to model circulation. Through the application of stable isotopes in flight feathers, we estimated the migration strategy of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) occurring on California wintering grounds. Our study demonstrates that mallards- a principal host of avian influenza virus (AIV) in nature, contribute differently to virus gene flow depending on migration strategy. No difference in AIV prevalence was detected between resident (9.6%), intermediate-distance (9.6%) and long-distance migrants (7.4%). Viral diversity among the three groups was also comparable, possibly owing to viral pool mixing when birds converge at wetlands during winter. However, migrants and residents contributed differently to the virus gene pool at wintering wetlands. Migrants introduced virus from northern breeding grounds (Alaska and the NW Pacific Rim) into the wintering population, facilitating gene flow at continental scales, but circulation of imported virus appeared to be limited. In contrast, resident mallards acted as AIV reservoirs facilitating year-round circulation of limited subtypes (i.e. H5N2) at lower latitudes. This study supports a model of virus exchange in temperate regions driven by the convergence of wild birds with separate geographic origins and exposure histories.

  8. Updating movement estimates for American black ducks (Anas rubripes)

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Conor P.; Devers, Patrick K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding migratory connectivity for species of concern is of great importance if we are to implement management aimed at conserving them. New methods are improving our understanding of migration; however, banding (ringing) data is by far the most widely available and accessible movement data for researchers. Here, we use band recovery data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) from 1951–2011 and analyze their movement among seven management regions using a hierarchical Bayesian framework. We showed that black ducks generally exhibit flyway fidelity, and that many black ducks, regardless of breeding region, stopover or overwinter on the Atlantic coast of the United States. We also show that a non-trivial portion of the continental black duck population either does not move at all or moves to the north during the fall migration (they typically move to the south). The results of this analysis will be used in a projection modeling context to evaluate how habitat or harvest management actions in one region would propagate throughout the continental population of black ducks. This analysis may provide a guide for future research and help inform management efforts for black ducks as well as other migratory species. PMID:26989624

  9. Mycotic Keratitis in a Khaki Campbell Duck ( Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).

    PubMed

    Sadar, Miranda J; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Burton, Andrew G; Byrne, Barbara A; Wiggans, K Tomo; Hollingsworth, Steven R

    2014-12-01

    A 1.5-year-old, intact female khaki Campbell duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) was evaluated for lethargy and a swollen left eye (OS). Mucoid discharge, chemosis, and conjunctival hyperemia with trace aqueous flare, indicating anterior uveitis, in the anterior chamber were evident on ophthalmic examination. There was no fluorescein stain uptake by the cornea. Initial topical antibiotic therapy and systemic anti-inflammatory treatments were unsuccessful, and the lesion progressed to a diffuse, yellow-white plaque, which covered 90%-95% of the cornea 4 days later. There was moderate blepharospasm, mild blepharedema, and epiphora OS. The mobility of the nictitating membrane was impaired because of the presence of the plaque over the cornea. Cytologic examination of a corneal scraping revealed fungal hyphae, and aerobic culture confirmed Aspergillus species. Treatment with topical voriconazole (1 drop OS q4h-q6h) was initiated and was switched to oral voriconazole (20 mg/kg PO q12h) 6 days after initiating treatment. The ocular disease improved during the antifungal treatment period. Eighty-four days after initial presentation (9 days after discontinuation of treatment), there was no clinical evidence of mycotic keratitis on ophthalmic examination.

  10. Duck (Anas platyrhynchos) linkage mapping by AFLP fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chang-Wen; Cheng, Yu-Shin; Rouvier, Roger; Yang, Kuo-Tai; Wu, Chean-Ping; Huang, Hsiu-Lin; Huang, Mu-Chiou

    2009-03-17

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) with multicolored fluorescent molecular markers was used to analyze duck (Anas platyrhynchos) genomic DNA and to construct the first AFLP genetic linkage map. These markers were developed and genotyped in 766 F2 individuals from six families from a cross between two different selected duck lines, brown Tsaiya and Pekin. Two hundred and ninety-six polymorphic bands (64% of all bands) were detected using 18 pairs of fluorescent TaqI/EcoRI primer combinations. Each primer set produced a range of 7 to 29 fragments in the reactions, and generated on average 16.4 polymorphic bands. The AFLP linkage map included 260 co-dominant markers distributed in 32 linkage groups. Twenty-one co-dominant markers were not linked with any other marker. Each linkage group contained three to 63 molecular markers and their size ranged between 19.0 cM and 171.9 cM. This AFLP linkage map provides important information for establishing a duck chromosome map, for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping) and for breeding applications.

  11. Duck (Anas platyrhynchos) linkage mapping by AFLP fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chang-Wen; Cheng, Yu-Shin; Rouvier, Roger; Yang, Kuo-Tai; Wu, Chean-Ping; Huang, Hsiu-Lin; Huang, Mu-Chiou

    2009-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) with multicolored fluorescent molecular markers was used to analyze duck (Anas platyrhynchos) genomic DNA and to construct the first AFLP genetic linkage map. These markers were developed and genotyped in 766 F2 individuals from six families from a cross between two different selected duck lines, brown Tsaiya and Pekin. Two hundred and ninety-six polymorphic bands (64% of all bands) were detected using 18 pairs of fluorescent TaqI/EcoRI primer combinations. Each primer set produced a range of 7 to 29 fragments in the reactions, and generated on average 16.4 polymorphic bands. The AFLP linkage map included 260 co-dominant markers distributed in 32 linkage groups. Twenty-one co-dominant markers were not linked with any other marker. Each linkage group contained three to 63 molecular markers and their size ranged between 19.0 cM and 171.9 cM. This AFLP linkage map provides important information for establishing a duck chromosome map, for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping) and for breeding applications. PMID:19291328

  12. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  13. Exposure of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to the hepatotoxic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sipia, V.O.; Franson, J. Christian; Sjovall, O.; Pflugmacher, S.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Meriluoto, J.A.O.

    2008-01-01

    Nodularin (NODLN) is a cyclic pentapeptide hepatotoxin produced by the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena, which forms extensive blooms during the summer in the Baltic Sea. Nodularin was detected in liver, muscle and/or feather samples of several common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic Sea) in 2002-2005. Published information on the adverse effects of NODLN in marine birds is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of NODLN, and determine the concentrations of NODLN in liver and muscle tissue in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) exposed to N. spumigena. Mallards received a single or multiple exposure via oral gavage with an aqueous slurry containing toxic N. spumigena. Dosages ranged from 200 to 600 ??g NODLN per kg body weight (bw). There were minimal histopathological changes in liver tissue, and brain cholinesterase activity did not differ among treatment groups. Concentrations of NODLN measured by LC-MS in liver varied between approximately 3-120 ??g kg-1 dry weight (dw) and ducks receiving multiple exposures had significantly greater liver toxin levels than ducks receiving the two lowest single exposures. In muscle, NODLN concentrations were approximately 2-6 ??g kg-1 dw, but did not differ significantly among exposure groups. This is the first in vivo lab study examining the effects and bioaccumulation of NODLN from N. spumigena in birds. The mallards in this study were resistant to adverse effects and did not bioaccumulate substantial levels of NODLN at the doses given. ?? 2008 Taylor & Francis.

  14. Report on the second International Consensus on ANA Pattern (ICAP) workshop in Dresden 2015.

    PubMed

    Chan, E K L; Damoiseaux, J; de Melo Cruvinel, W; Carballo, O G; Conrad, K; Francescantonio, P L C; Fritzler, M J; Garcia-De La Torre, I; Herold, M; Mimori, T; Satoh, M; von Mühlen, C A; Andrade, L E C

    2016-07-01

    The second meeting for the International Consensus on Antinuclear antibody (ANA) Pattern (ICAP) was held on 22 September 2015, one day prior to the opening of the 12th Dresden Symposium on Autoantibodies in Dresden, Germany. The ultimate goal of ICAP is to promote harmonization and understanding of autoantibody nomenclature, and thereby optimizing ANA usage in patient care. The newly developed ICAP website www.ANApatterns.org was introduced to the more than 50 participants. This was followed by several presentations and discussions focusing on key issues including the two-tier classification of ANA patterns into competent-level versus expert-level, the consideration of how to report composite versus mixed ANA patterns, and the necessity for developing a consensus on how ANA results should be reported. The need to establish on-line training modules to help users gain competency in identifying ANA patterns was discussed as a future addition to the website. To advance the ICAP goal of promoting wider international participation, it was agreed that there should be a consolidated plan to translate consensus documents into other languages by recruiting help from members of the respective communities.

  15. ANA detected by ELISA using nucleus of egg cell as antigen.

    PubMed

    Hui, Liu; Shijun, Li; Yue, Ma

    2008-01-01

    Antinuclear antibodies, ANA, were usually detected with antigen of somatic cell nucleus. It has not been reported to detect ANA with egg cell nucleus as antigen. Enzyme linked immuosorbent assay, ELISA, coated with yolk was developed to detect ANA in our laboratory. A quality control test, cross absorption test, and cross antibody-induced test with yolk were performed. Results showed a good agreement between our method and IFA through measurement of the same samples from patients suspected of having rheumatic connective tissue diseases (Kappa=0.668, P=0.000). The results were not influenced by the RF and different sources of egg. CVs of inter-assay, were less than 10%. The cross absorption test was negative, as well; the ANA to somatic cell nucleus could be induced with egg cell nucleus. It is implied that there were both cross as well as overlapped Egg-ANA and Somatic-ANA. As egg nucleus, its volume was large, its purification was simple, so the better method might be established.

  16. ASBEL, an ANA/BTG3 antisense transcript required for tumorigenicity of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Satoshi; Taniue, Kenzui; Sugimasa, Hironobu; Nasu, Emiko; Takeda, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Mana; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Okamoto, Aikou; Akiyama, Tetsu

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian genomes encode numerous antisense non-coding RNAs, which are assumed to be involved in the regulation of the sense gene expression. However, the mechanisms of their action and involvement in the development of diseases have not been well elucidated. The ANA/BTG3 protein is an antiproliferative protein whose expression is downregulated in prostate and lung cancers. Here we show that an antisense transcript of the ANA/BTG3 gene, termed ASBEL, negatively regulates the levels of ANA/BTG3 protein, but not of ANA/BTG3 mRNA and is required for proliferation and tumorigenicity of ovarian clear cell carcinoma. We further show that knockdown of ANA/BTG3 rescues growth inhibition caused by ASBEL knockdown. Moreover, we demonstrate that ASBEL forms duplexes with ANA/BTG3 mRNA in the nucleus and suppresses its cytoplasmic transportation. Our findings illustrate a novel function for an antisense transcript that critically promotes tumorigenesis by suppressing translation of the sense gene by inhibiting its cytoplasmic transportation.

  17. Gene Flow and Hybridization between Numerically Imbalanced Populations of Two Duck Species in the Falkland Islands

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Kevin G.; Wilson, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is common in plants and animals, particularly in waterfowl (Anatidae). One factor shown to contribute to hybridization is restricted mate choice, which can occur when two species occur in sympatry but one is rare. The Hubbs principle, or “desperation hypothesis,” states that under such circumstances the rarer species is more likely to mate with heterospecifics. Here we report interspecific hybridization between two waterfowl species that coexist in broad sympatry and mixed flocks throughout southern South America. Speckled teal (Anas flavirostris) and yellow-billed pintails (Anas georgica) are abundant in continental South America, but in the Falkland Islands speckled teal outnumber yellow-billed pintails approximately ten to one. Using eight genetic loci (mtDNA and 7 nuclear introns) coupled with Bayesian assignment tests and relatedness analysis, we identified a speckled teal x yellow-billed pintail F1 hybrid female and her duckling sired by a male speckled teal. Although our sample in the Falkland Islands was small, we failed to identify unequivocal evidence of hybridization or introgression in a much larger sample from Argentina using a three-population “isolation with migration” coalescent analysis. While additional data are needed to determine if this event in the Falkland Islands was a rare singular occurrence, our results provide further support for the “desperation hypothesis,” which states that scarcity in one population and abundance of another will often lead to hybridization. PMID:21887236

  18. Historical Climate and Streamflow Trends in Santa Ana River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia, D.; Sultana, R.; Tang, V.

    2015-12-01

    Santa Ana River watershed, located in Southern California, is the home of more than 5 million people. Population is projected to double within the next 50 years in the 2,650 square miles watershed. With prolonged drought conditions, and projected climate change, a strong concern exists about sustainable water supply of the area. In this study, historic climate and streamflow trend from water year 1965 to 2014 is analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. Climate trends are studied using annual rainfall, and annual average maximum and minimum temperature at 5 and 4 weather stations, respectively. Three of the precipitation stations show precipitation is decreasing in the watershed while minimum and maximum temperature has an increasing trend at three stations (p < 0.05). To assess whether streamflow and stream-channel characteristics are tended to increase or decrease monotonically with time, four variables - (1) annual maximum peak, (2) annual mean, (3) low to moderate and (4) moderate to high maximum peak streamflow were tested at 20 stream gauge sites. Only at 5 stream gage stations, significant streamflow trend is observed. At two stream gages, annual peak and annual average streamflow is increasing and at two stations, annual average streamflow has a decreasing trend. Low to moderate peak streamflow is increasing at two gage locations but there is no monotonic trend in moderate to high flows. As precipitation is decreasing in some part of the watershed, the effect of increasing urbanization in the area can be attributed for the localized increase in mean and peak streamflow. The trend analysis in weather and stream gage data will be presented in detail.

  19. Insights from ANA-grade angiosperms into the early evolution of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON genes

    PubMed Central

    Vialette-Guiraud, Aurélie C. M.; Adam, Hélène; Finet, Cédric; Jasinski, Sophie; Jouannic, Stefan; Scutt, Charles P.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The closely related NAC family genes NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM) and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) regulate the formation of boundaries within and between plant organs. NAM is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR164, whereas CUC3 is not. To gain insight into the evolution of NAM and CUC3 in the angiosperms, we analysed orthologous genes in early-diverging ANA-grade angiosperms and gymnosperms. Methods We obtained NAM- and CUC3-like sequences from diverse angiosperms and gymnosperms by a combination of reverse transcriptase PCR, cDNA library screening and database searching, and then investigated their phylogenetic relationships by performing maximum-likelihood reconstructions. We also studied the spatial expression patterns of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues in female reproductive tissues of Amborella trichopoda, the probable sister to all other flowering plants. Key Results Separate NAM and CUC3 orthologues were found in early-diverging angiosperms, but not in gymnosperms, which contained putative orthologues of the entire NAM + CUC3 clade that possessed sites of regulation by miR164. Multiple paralogues of NAM or CUC3 genes were noted in certain taxa, including Brassicaceae. Expression of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues from Am. trichopoda was found to co-localize in ovules at the developmental boundary between the chalaza and nucellus. Conclusions The NAM and CUC3 lineages were generated by duplication, and CUC3 was subsequently lost regulation by miR164, prior to the last common ancestor of the extant angiosperms. However, the paralogous NAM clade genes CUC1 and CUC2 were generated by a more recent duplication, near the base of Brassicaceae. The function of NAM and CUC3 in defining a developmental boundary in the ovule appears to have been conserved since the last common ancestor of the flowering plants, as does the post-transcriptional regulation in ovule tissues of NAM by miR164. PMID:21320879

  20. ANA-Negative Lupus Presenting with Heart Failure and Severe Valvular Dysfunction: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Vu; Addison, Daniel; Lakkis, Nasser; Tabbaa, Rashed

    2015-01-01

    Antinuclear antibody (ANA) negative lupus is an important subset of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease spectrum. Since the introduction of human cell line for ANA assay, the occurrence of true ANA-negative SLE has been a rare clinical phenomenon. The nature of cardiac involvement in ANA-negative SLE is not well understood, although any cardiac involvement, including valvular dysfunction, should be considered as a presenting manifestation of SLE irrespective of serology status. Early recognition and intervention appears to be associated with decreased morbidity. The following report describes our first case of ANA-negative SLE with an initial presentation of severe cardiac valvular dysfunction and heart failure. It also characterizes the spectrum of disease severity in ANA-negative SLE and demonstrates how aggressive SLE therapy can improve cardiac disease.

  1. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of zinc borophosphates with ANA-zeotype framework by the microwave method

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yu; Ding, Ling; An, Qingda; Zhai, Shangru; Song, Xiaowei

    2013-06-15

    Zinc borophosphate (NH{sub 4}){sub 16}[Zn{sub 16}B{sub 8}P{sub 24}O{sub 96}] (denoted as ZnBP-ANA) with ANA-zeotype structure has been synthesized by employing microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis in the reaction system ZnCl{sub 2}∙6H{sub 2}O-(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}–H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} using ethylene glycol as a co-solvent. The influences of various experimental parameters, such as reaction temperature, solvent ratio, zinc precursors and reactive power, have been systematically investigated. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and so on. Small and homogeneous ZnBP-ANA single crystal with regular cube morphology are crystallized by using microwave solvothermal synthesis method within a shorter time, and its grain size decreases with power. - Graphical abstract: Tailor-made ANA zeolites with varied size can be prepared by simply changing the reaction power. - Highlights: • Zinc borophosphate zeolites with ANA-zeotype structures were prepared by microwave technique. • The size of crystals could be controlled by tuning power. • Synthesis period can be significantly reduced by raising reaction temperature.

  3. Sediment Dynamics Affecting the Threatened Santa Ana Sucker in the Highly-modified Santa Ana River and Inset Channel, Southern California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minear, J. T.; Wright, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the sediment dynamics of the low-flow channel of the Santa Ana River that is formed by wastewater discharges and contains some of the last remaining habitat of the Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae). The Santa Ana River is a highly-modified river draining the San Bernardino Mountains and Inland Empire metropolitan area east of Los Angeles. Home to over 4 million people, the watershed provides habitat for the federally-threatened Santa Ana Sucker, which presently reside within the mainstem Santa Ana River in a reach supported by year-round constant discharges from water treatment plants. The nearly constant low-flow wastewater discharges and infrequent runoff events create a small, approximately 8 m wide, inset channel within the approximately 300 m wide mainstem channel that is typically dry except for large flood flows. The sediment dynamics within the inset channel are characterized by constantly evolving bed substrate and sediment transport rates, and occasional channel avulsions. The sediment dynamics have large influence on the Sucker, which rely on coarse-substrate (gravel and cobble) for their food production. In WY 2013 through the present, we investigated the sediment dynamics of the inset channel using repeat bathymetric and substrate surveys, bedload sampling, and discharge measurements. We found two distinct phases of the inset channel behavior: 1. 'Reset' flows, where sediment-laden mainstem discharges from upstream runoff events result in sand deposition in the inset channel or avulse the inset channel onto previously dry riverbed; and 2. 'Winnowing' flows, whereby the sand within the inset channel is removed by clear-water low flows from the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Thus, in contrast to many regulated rivers where high flows are required to flush fine sediments from the bed (for example, downstream from dams), in the Santa Ana River the low flows from wastewater treatment plants serve as the flushing

  4. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  5. DARPP-32 and Akt regulation in ethanol-preferring AA and ethanol-avoiding ANA rats.

    PubMed

    Nuutinen, Saara; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Panula, Pertti

    2011-09-26

    Ethanol and other addictive drugs affect many intracellular phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cascades. These cascades are thought to be highly important in the regulation of neuronal activity. The present experiments characterized the regulation of three key signaling molecules, DARPP-32 (dopamine and cAMP regulated phosphoprotein, 32kDa), Akt kinase and ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2) in ethanol-preferring AA (Alko, alcohol) and ethanol-avoiding ANA (Alko, non-alcohol) rat lines. Radioactive in situ hybridization was used in drug naïve animals and Western blotting after acute ethanol administration in striatum, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. The mRNA levels of DARPP-32 in striatal areas were higher in ANA rats than in AA rats. There was no difference in the striatal enriched phosphatase (STEP61), the downstream target of DARPP-32 expression between the rat lines. Ethanol (1.5g/kg) increased phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at threonine 34 in both AA and in ANA rats indicating that acute ethanol activates DARPP-32 similarly in these rat lines. The expression of Akt kinase was higher in the CA1 of hippocampus in ANA than in AA rats and acute ethanol activated Akt in hippocampus in ANA but not in AA rats. No significant alterations in the regulation of ERK1/2 were found in either rat line. Our findings suggest that DARPP-32 and Akt are regulated by ethanol and differences in the regulation of these molecules might contribute to the dramatically different ethanol drinking patterns seen in AA and ANA rats.

  6. Santa Ana Winds and Fire Regimes of Southern California National Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendix, J.

    2015-12-01

    In Southern California, it has long been understood that foehn-type Santa Ana winds are an important factor in the occurrence of large wildfires. Although a variety of anecdotal observations and statistical analyses have confirmed the importance of these winds to wildfire, particularly in the Fall months when Santa Ana winds overlap with dry fuels from summer drought, many of the details of those winds' impacts on fire remain obscure. This paper uses data regarding individual fires from California's Fire and Resource Assessment Program database and a compilation of Santa Ana Wind days (SAW days) published by Abatzoglou et al. in 2013 to assess the relationship of Santa Ana winds to fire occurrence and size in Southern California. The analysis included 474 fires larger than 20 ha (~50 acres).that burned on the four Southern California national forests (Angeles, Cleveland, Los Padres and San Bernardino) between 1948 and 2010. Overall, just 10.3% of the fires started on SAW days, and 14.4% experienced at least one SAW day between start and containment dates. The impact of Santa Ana winds is greater, however, with increasing fire size. For fires > 4000 ha, 18.4% began on SAW days, with 30.4% experiencing at least one SAW day before containment. And 20% of fires > 20000 ha started on SAW days, with 50% including one or more SAW days. Fires beginning on SAW days were larger, with a mean of 6239 ha compared to 2150 ha for fires that began on non-SAW days. Only 2% of the fires that began on SAW days were started by lightning, suggesting that the impact of Santa Ana winds on Southern California fire regimes may be enhanced by humans' role in ignitions.

  7. Project W-314 updated acceptance test report HNF-4649 for HNF-4648 241-AN-A pit leak detection ANA-WT-LDSTA-331 for project W-314

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-09-30

    The purpose of the test was to verify that the AN Tank Farm AN-A Pit Leak Detector components are functionally integrated and operate in accordance with engineering design specifications. The Acceptance Test Procedure HNF-4648,24l-AN-A-Pit Leak Detection ANA-WT-LDSTA-331 was conducted between 23 June and 01 July 1999 at the 200E AN Tank Farm. The test has been completed with no open test exceptions. The test was conducted prior to final engineering ''as built'' activities being completed this had no impact on the procedure or test results. All components, identified in the procedure were found to be labeled and identified as written in the procedure.

  8. 241-AN-A valve pit manifold valves and position indication acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    VANDYKE, D.W.

    1999-08-25

    This document describes the method used to test design criteria for gear actuated ball valves installed in 241-AN-A Valve Pit located at 200E Tank Farms. The purpose of this procedure is to demonstrate the following: Equipment is properly installed, labeled, and documented on As-Built drawings; New Manifold Valves in the 241-AN-A Valve Pit are fully operable using the handwheel of the valve operators; New valve position indicators on the valve operators will show correct valve positions; New valve position switches will function properly; and New valve locking devices function properly.

  9. pFlexAna: detecting conformational changes in remotely related proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nigham, Anshul; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa; Mihalek, Ivana; Verma, Chandra; Hsu, David

    2008-01-01

    The pFlexAna (protein flexibility analyzer) web server detects and displays conformational changes in remotely related proteins, without relying on sequence homology. To do so, it first applies a reliable statistical test to align core protein fragments that are structurally similar and then clusters these aligned fragment pairs into ‘super-alignments’, according to the similarity of geometric transformations that align them. The result is that the dominant conformational changes occur between the clusters, while the smaller conformational changes occur within a cluster. pFlexAna is available at http://bigbird.comp.nus.edu.sg/pfa2/. PMID:18477634

  10. Geologic map of the Santa Ana Pueblo quadrangle, Sandoval County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Personius, Stephen F.

    2002-01-01

    The Santa Ana Pueblo quadrangle is located in the northern part of the Albuquerque basin, which is the largest basin or graben within the Rio Grande rift. The quadrangle is underlain by poorly consolidated sedimentary rocks of the Santa Fe Group and is dominated by Santa Ana Mesa, a volcanic tableland underlain by basalt flows of the San Felipe volcanic field. The San Felipe volcanic field is the largest area of basaltic lavas exposed in the Albuquerque basin. The structural fabric of the quadrangle is dominated by dozens of generally north striking, east- and west-dipping normal faults associated with the Neogene Rio Grande rift.

  11. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  12. Mapping the affinity landscape of Thrombin-binding aptamers on 2'F-ANA/DNA chimeric G-Quadruplex microarrays.

    PubMed

    Lietard, Jory; Abou Assi, Hala; Gómez-Pinto, Irene; González, Carlos; Somoza, Mark M; Damha, Masad J

    2017-01-18

    In situ fabricated nucleic acids microarrays are versatile and very high-throughput platforms for aptamer optimization and discovery, but the chemical space that can be probed against a given target has largely been confined to DNA, while RNA and non-natural nucleic acid microarrays are still an essentially uncharted territory. 2'-Fluoroarabinonucleic acid (2'F-ANA) is a prime candidate for such use in microarrays. Indeed, 2'F-ANA chemistry is readily amenable to photolithographic microarray synthesis and its potential in high affinity aptamers has been recently discovered. We thus synthesized the first microarrays containing 2'F-ANA and 2'F-ANA/DNA chimeric sequences to fully map the binding affinity landscape of the TBA1 thrombin-binding G-quadruplex aptamer containing all 32 768 possible DNA-to-2'F-ANA mutations. The resulting microarray was screened against thrombin to identify a series of promising 2'F-ANA-modified aptamer candidates with Kds significantly lower than that of the unmodified control and which were found to adopt highly stable, antiparallel-folded G-quadruplex structures. The solution structure of the TBA1 aptamer modified with 2'F-ANA at position T3 shows that fluorine substitution preorganizes the dinucleotide loop into the proper conformation for interaction with thrombin. Overall, our work strengthens the potential of 2'F-ANA in aptamer research and further expands non-genomic applications of nucleic acids microarrays.

  13. A coordinated set of ecosystem research platforms open to international research in ecotoxicology, AnaEE-France.

    PubMed

    Mougin, Christian; Azam, Didier; Caquet, Thierry; Cheviron, Nathalie; Dequiedt, Samuel; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Guillaume, Olivier; Houot, Sabine; Lacroix, Gérard; Lafolie, François; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Michniewicz, Radika; Pichot, Christian; Ranjard, Lionel; Roy, Jacques; Zeller, Bernd; Clobert, Jean; Chanzy, André

    2015-10-01

    The infrastructure for Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems (AnaEE-France) is an integrated network of the major French experimental, analytical, and modeling platforms dedicated to the biological study of continental ecosystems (aquatic and terrestrial). This infrastructure aims at understanding and predicting ecosystem dynamics under global change. AnaEE-France comprises complementary nodes offering access to the best experimental facilities and associated biological resources and data: Ecotrons, seminatural experimental platforms to manipulate terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, in natura sites equipped for large-scale and long-term experiments. AnaEE-France also provides shared instruments and analytical platforms dedicated to environmental (micro) biology. Finally, AnaEE-France provides users with data bases and modeling tools designed to represent ecosystem dynamics and to go further in coupling ecological, agronomical, and evolutionary approaches. In particular, AnaEE-France offers adequate services to tackle the new challenges of research in ecotoxicology, positioning its various types of platforms in an ecologically advanced ecotoxicology approach. AnaEE-France is a leading international infrastructure, and it is pioneering the construction of AnaEE (Europe) infrastructure in the field of ecosystem research. AnaEE-France infrastructure is already open to the international community of scientists in the field of continental ecotoxicology.

  14. QCI Common

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  15. SN-268 encasement leak detection ANA-WT-LDSTA-335 acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    VANDYKE, D.W.

    1999-08-25

    This document describes the method used to test design criteria for encasement leak detector system installed in 241-AN-A Encasement Line SN-268, located at 200E Tank Farms. This procedure provides instructions for demonstrating that the pit leak detection relay cabinet and intrinsically safe probe circuit is fully operable.

  16. Do You Know Me? E Mohio Ana Koe Ki Ahau? A Resource for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Bill; Haslam, Vicky; Hitaua, Raewyn; Kent, Bruce; Tavui, Esther; Tu'ionetoa, Alison; Crosswell, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    The article shares some of the reflections of the project team who developed the "Do You Know Me? E Mohio Ana Koe Ki Ahau?" resource for educators, which aims to assist educators in both school and early childhood education services to clarify concerns about young children and take appropriate action. Issues discussed include the context…

  17. Apigenin induces the apoptosis and regulates MAPK signaling pathways in mouse macrophage ANA-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yuexia; Shen, Weigan; Kong, Guimei; Lv, Houning; Tao, Wenhua; Bo, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Apigenin is a naturally occurring plant flavonoid that possesses antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. However, there are few reports has been done on the ability of apigenin to induce apoptosis in macrophages. In this study, mouse macrophage ANA-1 cells were incubated with different concentrations of apigenin. The cell viability was determined by an MTT assay. The cell apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometric analysis. Apoptosis were also analyzed using a TUNEL assay and a DNA ladder. The level of intracellular ROS was detected using a dichlorofluorescein -diacetate probe. The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins were detected by western blot analysis. The results showed that apigenin decreased the viability of ANA-1 cells and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Apigenin increased the level of intracellular ROS, downregulated the expression of Bcl-2 and upregulated the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-8 in ANA-1 cells. Furthermore, apigenin downregulated the expression of phospho-ERK and phospho-JNK, upregulated the expression of phospho-p38 and had no significant effect on the expression of Bax, ERK, JNK and p38. The results suggested that apigenin induced cell apoptosis in mouse macrophage ANA-1 cells may via increasing intracellular ROS, regulating the MAPK pathway, and then inhibiting Bcl-2 expression.

  18. U.S. Marine Corps Air Facility, Santa Ana, California hangers no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    U.S. Marine Corps Air Facility, Santa Ana, California hangers no. 1&2-building no. 28 &29. Drawing no. PW-66-044 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  19. U.S. Marine Corps Air Facility, Santa Ana, California hangers no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    U.S. Marine Corps Air Facility, Santa Ana, California hangers no. 1&2-building no. 28 &29. Drawing no. PW-66-044 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, East of Red Hill Avenue between Edinger Avenue & Barranca Parkway, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  20. Synthesis and catalytic properties of metal clusters encapsulated within small-pore (SOD, GIS, ANA) zeolites.

    PubMed

    Goel, Sarika; Wu, Zhijie; Zones, Stacey I; Iglesia, Enrique

    2012-10-24

    The synthesis protocols for encapsulation of metal clusters reported here expand the diversity in catalytic chemistries made possible by the ability of microporous solids to select reactants, transition states, and products on the basis of their molecular size. We report a synthesis strategy for the encapsulation of noble metals and their oxides within SOD (Sodalite, 0.28 nm × 0.28 nm), GIS (Gismondine, 0.45 nm × 0.31 nm), and ANA (Analcime, 0.42 nm × 0.16 nm) zeolites. Encapsulation was achieved via direct hydrothermal synthesis for SOD and GIS using metal precursors stabilized by ammonia or organic amine ligands, which prevent their decomposition or precipitation as colloidal hydroxides at the conditions of hydrothermal synthesis (<380 K) and favor interactions between metal precursors and incipient aluminosilicate nuclei during self-assembly of microporous frameworks. The synthesis of ANA requires higher crystallization temperatures (~415 K) and high pH (>12), thereby causing precipitation of even ligand-stabilized metal precursors as hydroxides. As a result, encapsulation was achieved by the recrystallization of metal clusters containing GIS into ANA, which retained these metal clusters within voids throughout the GIS-ANA transformation.

  1. The Chicana Subject in Ana Castillo's Fiction and the Discursive Zone of Chicana/o Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Benjamin D.

    2007-01-01

    In the world of Chicana fiction, Ana Castillo has achieved the kind of status Maxine Hong Kingston has attained within Asian American discourse. Castillo's work is popular not only with the general reading public but in many academic circles as well. What sets Castillo apart from so many other Chicana fiction writers is that she is also a…

  2. AnaBench: a Web/CORBA-based workbench for biomolecular sequence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Badidi, Elarbi; De Sousa, Cristina; Lang, B Franz; Burger, Gertraud

    2003-01-01

    Background Sequence data analyses such as gene identification, structure modeling or phylogenetic tree inference involve a variety of bioinformatics software tools. Due to the heterogeneity of bioinformatics tools in usage and data requirements, scientists spend much effort on technical issues including data format, storage and management of input and output, and memorization of numerous parameters and multi-step analysis procedures. Results In this paper, we present the design and implementation of AnaBench, an interactive, Web-based bioinformatics Analysis workBench allowing streamlined data analysis. Our philosophy was to minimize the technical effort not only for the scientist who uses this environment to analyze data, but also for the administrator who manages and maintains the workbench. With new bioinformatics tools published daily, AnaBench permits easy incorporation of additional tools. This flexibility is achieved by employing a three-tier distributed architecture and recent technologies including CORBA middleware, Java, JDBC, and JSP. A CORBA server permits transparent access to a workbench management database, which stores information about the users, their data, as well as the description of all bioinformatics applications that can be launched from the workbench. Conclusion AnaBench is an efficient and intuitive interactive bioinformatics environment, which offers scientists application-driven, data-driven and protocol-driven analysis approaches. The prototype of AnaBench, managed by a team at the Université de Montréal, is accessible on-line at: . Please contact the authors for details about setting up a local-network AnaBench site elsewhere. PMID:14678565

  3. Evaluation of the Canadian Rheumatology Association Choosing Wisely recommendation concerning anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) testing.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the Canadian Rheumatology Association Choosing Wisely recommendation concerning anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) testing. Patients with joint pain/stiffness/swelling were assessed to determine if ANA testing was indicated. An a priori threshold was set before ANA testing would be considered. Those who did not have ANA testing ordered were followed for 1 year to determine if any of them went on to have a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or other connective tissue disease. A parallel study was conducted with a similar a priori threshold for the use of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody testing in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and again, patients were followed for 1 year. A total of 866 subjects were examined, 509 females (58.8 %) and 357 males (41.2 %). The mean age of the group was 47.5 ± 16.8 years. The mean duration of symptoms was 12.0 ± 5.6 weeks. Of the 866 subjects, 68 met an a priori threshold for ordering ANA, RF, and anti-CCP testing. Of these 68, there was a newly diagnosed case of SLE, 4 newly diagnosed cases of RA, and 3 cases of polymyalgia rheumatica. The remaining 798 subjects were followed for approximately 1 year and none developed evidence of SLE, RA, or other connective tissue disease. In the evaluation of non-specific musculoskeletal symptoms, setting an a priori threshold for ordering serology in keeping with the spirit of the Canadian Rheumatology Association Choosing Wisely recommendation for antibody testing results in a very low risk of missing a case of systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis.

  4. Preparation of zeolite ANA crystal from zeolite Y by in situ solid phase iso-structure transformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Li, Xuguang; Xue, Zhiyuan; Dai, Linsen; Xie, Songhai; Li, Quanzhi

    2010-05-06

    A new method has been explored to synthesize zeolite ANA crystals with regular icositetrahedron in aqueous media via transformation of zeolite Y under the conditions of low temperature, short reaction time, and without organic template. The products are perfect, almost 100% crystals. The samples prepared at different crystallization stages are measured by XRD, TEM, and SEM to investigate the transformation mechanism from zeolite Y to zeolite ANA. It has been demonstrated for the first time that the mechanism of forming a zeolite ANA polycrystal with sphere or shell morphologies is the in situ solid phase iso-structure transformation (Is-SPIST) of zeolite Y. The Is-SPIST mechanism is also supported by the results of steam-induced crystallization experiments and other assistant means, including the same Si/Al ratio, the same weight, the same particle size, and the same morphology before and after transformation of zeolite Y to zeolite ANA. It is also observed that a spherical or shell ANA polycrystal is constructed via the reconstruction from its exterior to interior, to form an ANA single crystal with a solid or hollow icositetrahedron. The main driving force of the reconstruction is considered to be the grain boundary energy existing between polycrystalline grains. This process also obeys the mechanism of in situ solid phase reconstruction (Is-SPR). Furthermore, the size and morphology of the zeolite ANA single crystal can be modified by surfactants.

  5. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  6. Antibodies to Mycobacterium bovis in wild carnivores from Doñana National Park (Spain).

    PubMed

    Martín-Atance, P; León-Vizcaíno, L; Palomares, F; Revilla, E; González-Candela, M; Calzada, J; Cubero-Pablo, M J; Delibes, M

    2006-07-01

    We conducted a retrospective serologic survey for antibodies against the MPB70 protein of Mycobacterium bovis in wild carnivores from Doñana National Park (southwestern Spain). Serum samples from 118 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 39 Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), 31 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), five Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon), four European genet (Genetta genetta), and one Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) were analyzed using an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. Antibodies against the MPB70 protein of M. bovis were detected in seven badgers, five foxes, and one lynx. The frequency of positive animals was significantly higher in badger (23%) than in lynx (3%) and fox (4%). Antibodies were not detected in other species. Annual antibody frequency peaked at 38% in badgers and 11% for red fox. These species may contribute to persistence of bovine tuberculosis in Doñana.

  7. Project W-314 241-AN-A valve pit upgrade acceptance for beneficial use

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-07-21

    This report identifies the responsibilities and requirements, applicable to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit Upgrades portion of Project W-314, for Acceptance for Beneficial Use in accordance with HNF-IP-0842, Vol IV, Sec 3.12. At project turnover, the end user accepts the affected Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for beneficial use. This checklist is used to help the end user ensure that all documentation, training, and testing requirements are met prior to turnover. This checklist specifically identifies those items related to the upgrading of the 241-AN-A valve pit. The upgrades include: the installation of jumper/valve manifolds with position sensors, replacement pit leak detection systems, construction of replacement cover blocks, and electrical upgrades to support the instrumentation upgrades.

  8. Climate change projected fire weather sensitivity: CaliforniaSanta Ana wind occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Norman L.; Schlegel, Nicole J.

    2006-01-01

    A new methodbased on global climate model pressuregradients was developed for identifying coastal high-wind fire weatherconditions, such as the Santa Ana Occurrence (SAO). Application of thismethod for determining southern California Santa Ana wind occurrenceresulted in a good correlation between derived large-scale SAOs andobserved offshore winds during periods of low humidity. The projectedchange in the number of SAOs was analyzed using two global climatemodels, one a low temperature sensitivity and the other amiddle-temperature sensitivity, both forced with low and high emissionscenarios, for three future time periods. This initial analysis showsconsistent shifts in SAO events from earlier (September-October) to later(November-December) in the season, suggesting that SAOs may significantlyincrease the extent of California coastal areas burned by wildfires, lossof life, and property.

  9. Campylobacter populations in wild and domesticated Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Colles, Frances M; Ali, Jan S; Sheppard, Samuel K; McCarthy, Noel D; Maiden, Martin C J

    2011-10-01

    Identifying the Campylobacter genotypes that colonize farmed and wild ducks will help to assess the proportion of human disease that is potentially attributable to the consumption of duck meat and environmental exposure to duck faeces. Comparison of temporally and geographically matched farmed and wild ducks showed that they had different Campylobacter populations in terms of: (i) prevalence, (ii) Campylobacter species and (iii) diversity of genotypes. Furthermore, 92.4% of Campylobacter isolates from farmed ducks were sequence types (STs) commonly associated with human disease, in contrast to just one isolate from the wild ducks. Only one ST, ST-45, was shared between the two sources, accounting for 0.9% of wild duck isolates and 5% of farmed duck isolates. These results indicate that domestic 'niche' as well as host type may affect the distribution of Campylobacter, and that husbandry practises associated with intensive agriculture may be involved in generating a reservoir of human disease associated lineages.

  10. Campylobacter populations in wild and domesticated Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Colles, Frances M; Ali, Jan S; Sheppard, Samuel K; McCarthy, Noel D; Maiden, Martin C J

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the Campylobacter genotypes that colonize farmed and wild ducks will help to assess the proportion of human disease that is potentially attributable to the consumption of duck meat and environmental exposure to duck faeces. Comparison of temporally and geographically matched farmed and wild ducks showed that they had different Campylobacter populations in terms of: (i) prevalence, (ii) Campylobacter species and (iii) diversity of genotypes. Furthermore, 92.4% of Campylobacter isolates from farmed ducks were sequence types (STs) commonly associated with human disease, in contrast to just one isolate from the wild ducks. Only one ST, ST-45, was shared between the two sources, accounting for 0.9% of wild duck isolates and 5% of farmed duck isolates. These results indicate that domestic ‘niche’ as well as host type may affect the distribution of Campylobacter, and that husbandry practises associated with intensive agriculture may be involved in generating a reservoir of human disease associated lineages. PMID:22164198

  11. Phylogenetic studies of two Anas platyrhynchos (Anatini: Anatinae) in Hunan province of China based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    He, Xi; Lin, Qian; Cao, Rong; Yuan, Ya-Ting; Pan, Di-Zi; Yun, Long; Zhang, Shi-Rui; Hou, De-Xing

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNAs of Chinese duck, Anas platyrhynchos, population from two different areas of Hunan province in China. The Anas platyrhynchos breed Linwu duck (LW) sample was taken from the Linwu county of Chenzhou city, and the Anas platyrhynchos breed Youxian duck (YX) sample was taken from the Youxian county of Zhuzhou city. The lengths of their complete mitochondrial genome were 16,604 bp (LW) and 16,606 bp (YX), respectively. The organization of the two Anas platyrhynchos breed mitochondrial genomes was similar to those reported from other duck mitochondrial genomes. Phylogenetic analyses using N-J computational algorithms showed that the analyzed species are divided into four major clades: Anatinae, Anserinae, Dendrocygninae and Anseranatidae. Also, the Linwu duck and Youxian duck have highly similar phylogenetic relationship.

  12. Extraordinary size and survival of American black duck, Anas rubripes, broods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    Two female American black duck, Anas rubripes, were initially observed during June 1982 with 20 Class Ib or 18-22 Class Ia-b ducklings in two wetlands in Hancock County, Cherryfield, Maine. Fifteen of 20 ducklings (75%) in one brood and 16 of 18-22 ducklings (72-89%) in the other brood survived to fledge. These large broods probably resulted from post-hatch brood amalgamation.

  13. Groundwater quality in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed study unit, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Upper Santa Ana Watershed is one of the study units being evaluated.

  14. Habitat suitability index models: northern pintail (Gulf Coast wintering). [Anas acuta

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, R.J.; Kantrud, H.A.

    1986-07-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a model for evaluatin wintering habitat quality for northern pintail (Anas acuta) along the Gulf of Mexico coast. The model is scaled to produce an index between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimal habitat). Habitat suitability index models are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for measuring model variables are provided.

  15. 2'-F-ANA-guanosine and 2'-F-guanosine as powerful tools for structural manipulation of G-quadruplexes.

    PubMed

    Lech, Christopher Jacques; Li, Zhe; Heddi, Brahim; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2012-12-04

    Here we demonstrate the applicability of 2'-F-ANA-guanosine and 2'-F-guanosine as powerful tools for manipulating G-quadruplex folding by anti-position-favoring substitutions. A single guanine to 2'-F-ANA-guanine substitution can favor a single (3+1) hybrid conformation from a mixture of conformers. Rational substitutions of either type of 2'-F-modified nucleotide enable conformational switching from a (3+1) hybrid to a parallel folding topology.

  16. STAT4 gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility and ANA status in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Joshita, Satoru; Umemura, Takeji; Nakamura, Minoru; Katsuyama, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Soichiro; Kimura, Takefumi; Morita, Susumu; Komatsu, Michiharu; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Yoshizawa, Kaname; Ishibashi, Hiromi; Tanaka, Eiji; Ota, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies suggest that genetic factors contribute to primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) susceptibility. Although several reports have demonstrated that the interleukin (IL) 12 signaling pathway is involved in PBC pathogenesis, its precise genetic factors have not been fully clarified. Here, we performed an association analysis between IL12A, IL12RB, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) genetic variations and susceptibility to PBC. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 395 PBC patients and 458 healthy subjects of Japanese ethnicity and evaluated for associations with PBC susceptibility, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) status, and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) status. We detected significant associations with PBC susceptibility for several STAT4 SNPs (rs10168266; P = 9.4 × 10(-3), rs11889341; P = 1.2 × 10(-3), rs7574865; P = 4.0 × 10(-4), rs8179673; P = 2.0 × 10(-4), and rs10181656; P = 4.2 × 10(-5)). Three risk alleles (rs7574865; P = 0.040, rs8179673; P = 0.032, and rs10181656; P = 0.031) were associated with ANA status, but not with AMA positivity. Our findings confirm that STAT4 is involved in PBC susceptibility and may play a role in ANA status in the Japanese population.

  17. Aesthetic satisfaction scoring - introducing an aesthetic numeric analogue scale (ANA-scale).

    PubMed

    Funk, Wolfgang; Podmelle, Fred; Guiol, Claudia; Metelmann, Hans Robert

    2012-07-01

    To objectively and reproducibly assess the outcome of aesthetic procedures remains one of the major, unmet challenges in maxillo-facial and plastic surgery. Frequently employed scoring systems for the evaluation of aesthetic procedures are confounded by observer bias, be it that of the patient or of the surgeon. A new approach of pragmatic and simple scoring is the ANA [Aesthetic Numeric Analogue] scale, which facilitates the objective, reproducible, standardized and internationally uniform evaluation of aesthetic procedure outcome by converting all ratings for any kind of aesthetic procedures from a subjective value to an objective figure. The intention of the ANA-scale is to relate aesthetic satisfaction from wording to figures and by this create a rating system. The study is arranging matching pairs of verbal description and figures to finally queue up generating a scale. The clinical feasibility of this rating system is demonstrated in a surgical case. As a detail of the results the influence of the viewer's age to the aesthetic benefit assessment is obvious. In summary the ANA-scale looks to be a tool useful in individual treatment protocols as well as analysis of different techniques of aesthetic surgery for rating of the pure aesthetic satisfaction of the patients.

  18. The Reliability of a Novel Automated System for ANA Immunofluorescence Analysis in Daily Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Alsuwaidi, Mohammed; Dollinger, Margit; Fleck, Martin; Ehrenstein, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Automated interpretation (AI) systems for antinuclear antibody (ANA) analysis have been introduced based on assessment of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) patterns. The diagnostic performance of a novel automated IIF reading system was compared with visual interpretation (VI) of IIF in daily clinical practice to evaluate the reduction of workload. ANA-IIF tests of consecutive serum samples from patients with suspected connective tissue disease were carried out using HEp-2 cells according to routine clinical care. AI was performed using a visual analyser (Zenit G-Sight, Menarini, Germany). Agreement rates between ANA results by AI and VI were calculated. Of the 336 samples investigated, VI yielded 205 (61%) negative, 42 (13%) ambiguous, and 89 (26%) positive results, whereas 82 (24%) were determined to be negative, 176 (52%) ambiguous, and 78 (24%) positive by AI. AI displayed a diagnostic accuracy of 175/336 samples (52%) with a kappa coefficient of 0.34 compared to VI being the gold standard. Solely relying on AI, with VI only performed for all ambiguous samples by AI, would have missed 1 of 89 (1%) positive results by VI and misclassified 2 of 205 (1%) negative results by VI as positive. The use of AI in daily clinical practice resulted only in a moderate reduction of the VI workload (82 of 336 samples: 24%).

  19. Defining adaptation measures collaboratively: A participatory approach in the Doñana socio-ecological system, Spain.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Lucia; Hernández-Mora, Nuria; Iglesias, Ana; Sánchez, Berta

    2016-11-08

    The uncertainty associated with the definition of strategies for climate change adaptation poses a challenge that cannot be faced by science alone. We present a participatory experience where, instead of having science defining solutions and eliciting stakeholders' feedback, local actors actually drove the process. While principles and methods of the approach are easily adaptable to different local contexts, this paper shows the contribution of participatory dynamics to the design of adaptation measures in the biodiversity-rich socio-ecological region surrounding the Doñana wetlands (Southern Spain). During the process, stakeholders and scientists collaboratively designed a common scenario for the future in which to define and assess a portfolio of potential adaptation measures, and found a safe, informal space for open dialogue and information exchange. Through this dialogue, points of connection among local actors emerged around the need for more integrated, transparent design of adaptation measures; for strengthening local capacity; and for strategies to diversify economic activities in order to increase the resilience of the region.

  20. The homo-oligomerisation of both Sas-6 and Ana2 is required for efficient centriole assembly in flies.

    PubMed

    Cottee, Matthew A; Muschalik, Nadine; Johnson, Steven; Leveson, Joanna; Raff, Jordan W; Lea, Susan M

    2015-05-23

    Sas-6 and Ana2/STIL proteins are required for centriole duplication and the homo-oligomerisation properties of Sas-6 help establish the ninefold symmetry of the central cartwheel that initiates centriole assembly. Ana2/STIL proteins are poorly conserved, but they all contain a predicted Central Coiled-Coil Domain (CCCD). Here we show that the Drosophila Ana2 CCCD forms a tetramer, and we solve its structure to 0.8 Å, revealing that it adopts an unusual parallel-coil topology. We also solve the structure of the Drosophila Sas-6 N-terminal domain to 2.9 Å revealing that it forms higher-order oligomers through canonical interactions. Point mutations that perturb Sas-6 or Ana2 homo-oligomerisation in vitro strongly perturb centriole assembly in vivo. Thus, efficient centriole duplication in flies requires the homo-oligomerisation of both Sas-6 and Ana2, and the Ana2 CCCD tetramer structure provides important information on how these proteins might cooperate to form a cartwheel structure.

  1. HNA and ANA high-affinity arrays for detections of DNA and RNA single-base mismatches.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Mikhail; Schepers, Guy; Van Aerschot, Arthur; Van Hummelen, Paul; Herdewijn, Piet

    2008-06-15

    DNA microarrays and sensors have become essential tools in the functional analysis of sequence information. Recently we reported that chimeric hexitol (HNA) and altritol (ANA) nucleotide monomers with an anhydrohexitol sugar moiety are easily available and proved their chemistry to be compatible with DNA and RNA synthesis. In this communication we describe a novel analytical platform based on HNA and ANA units to be used as synthetic oligonucleotide arrays on a glass solid support for match/mismatch detection of DNA and RNA targets. Arrays were fabricated by immobilization of diene-modified oligonucleotides on maleimido-activated glass slides. To demonstrate the selectivity and sensitivity of the HNA/ANA arrays and to compare their properties with regular DNA arrays, sequences in the reverse transcriptase gene (codon 74) and the protease gene of HIV-1 (codon 10) were selected. Both, the relative intensity of the signal and match/mismatch discrimination increased up to fivefold for DNA targets and up to 3-3.5-fold for RNA targets applying HNA or ANA arrays (ANA>HNA>DNA). Certainly in the new field of miRNA detection, ANA arrays could prove very beneficial and their properties should be investigated in more detail.

  2. 75 FR 52398 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Management i. September Teal Seasons ii. September Teal/Wood Duck Seasons iii. Black ducks iv. Canvasbacks v... strata 51-72. Estimates of mallards, scaup, scoters (black [Melanitta nigra], white-winged [M. fusca... American black duck (Anas rubripes) estimate was similar to the 2009 estimate and 7 percent below the...

  3. Evaluation of the BioPlex 2200 ANA screen for the detection of antinuclear antibodies and comparison with conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Desplat-Jego, Sophie; Bardin, Nathalie; Larida, Bruno; Sanmarco, Marielle

    2007-08-01

    BioPlex 2200 multiplexed assays system is an automatic method allowing detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). The aim of our study was to evaluate the determination of 13 autoantibodies against chromatinic and nonchromatinic nuclear antigens by the BioPlex 2200 system and to compare the results achieved by this method to those obtained with our routinely used immunoassays. One thousand and four serum samples consecutively sent for ANA detection were routinely tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on HEp2 cells. Among them, 321 were also analyzed by dsDNA enzyme immunoassay (EliA) test and 657 by double immunodiffusion (DID) for extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) antibodies. All the sera were evaluated by the BioPlex 2200 ANA screen kit allowing simultaneous detection of antibodies against the following antigens: dsDNA, chromatin, SSA-52 kDa, SSA-60 kDa, SSB, Sm, Sm/RNP, RNP-A, RNP-68 kDa, Scl70, centromere B, Jo-1, and P ribosomal proteins. The kappa coefficient between BioPlex 2200 and routine tests for detection of ANA on HEp2 cells, anti-dsDNA, and anti-ENA antibodies was, respectively, 0.31, 0.66, and 0.61. The comparison with our routine tests showed numerous discrepancies between IIF ANA screening and BioPlex but a good concordance for detection of anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA specificities. BioPlex 2200 system is a rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous quantitative detection of several autoantibodies. It is perfectly well adapted to determine ANA antigenic specificities of samples found positive using initial IIF screening. The capability of this multiplexed technology to analyze simultaneously 13 ANA autoantibodies leads to the rapid availability of an "autoimmune connective tissue disease serologic profile."

  4. Audiomagnetotelluric exploration across the Waíanae Range, Óahu, Hawaíi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdardottir, T. D.; Thomas, D. M.; Wallin, E.; Winchester, C.; Sinton, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) method is capable of providing direct evidence of a geothermal resource within the extinct Waíanae volcano, Óahu, Hawaíi. Geothermal systems are becoming an increasingly important energy source worldwide. With electric energy costs in Hawaíi the most expensive in the US (30.54 cents/kWh), it is important to investigate the potential of local geothermal resources. Slightly elevated temperature and chloride concentrations, measured in the 1970's at wells in the upper Lualualei Valley indicate the possibility of a geothermal resource. Previous geophysical investigations: self-potential, rotating quadripole resistivity, and shallow soil temperature surveys in the caldera measured low resistivity values. Resistivity is related to rock characteristics (e.g., porosity, saturation, salinity, temperature, chemistry, and the presence of weathered minerals). We are investigating the area further using the AMT method. We have collected profiles of AMT measurements across the Lualualei Valley and the Waíanae caldera boundary. Anthropogenic noise and access in this area is problematic. Electrical noise, originating from power lines along roads and very low frequency radio towers in the vicinity, add noise to the data. Limited access to sites on military lands inhibit data collection. However, preliminary results show that we have successfully imaged the expected higher resistivity values as our profiles cross the mountains bounding the caldera. As data continue to be collected across the Waíanae Caldera and Range and we begin modeling our data in two dimensions, we expect to be able to identify water table elevations, detect lateral variability between salt and fresh water saturation, estimate thickness of the freshwater lens and depth to the transition zone, image fault structures at the caldera boundary, and with enough sensitivity to conductivity, we can identify regions of elevated temperature.

  5. Titan2D Based Pyroclastic Flows Hazard Maps for Santa Ana Volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajo, J. V.; Martinez-Hackert, B.; Escobar, C. D.; Gutierrez, R. E.

    2009-05-01

    Santa Ana Volcano is located in the Apaneca Volcanic Field located to the west of El Salvador, Central America. It is one the six active volcanoes monitor by the Servicios Nacionales de Estudios Territoriales (SNET) in El Salvador, out of twenty that are considered active in this small country by Smithsonian definition. The Santa Ana Volcano is surrounded by rural communities in its proximal areas and in its close distal areas by the second largest city of the country. On October 1st 2005, after a few months of increased fumarolic and seismic activity, it erupted generating a 10 km high steam and ash plume, reportedly seen by some aircraft and estimated using photography by SNET members. Ash was deposited to the west, north-west part of the country, following typical wind pattern for the region, as well as small pyroclastic flows and major lahars in its eastern part. Coffee plantations were lost, as was some crop of coffee in the following season. However, to the west the ash fertilized the land and resulted in an enhanced harvest of coffee beans. Only 2 people were killed from the Blast, thanks to the auto evacuation of proximal communities. Whilst the last eruption had a relatively low human life toll, a stronger eruption spells havoc almost certainly for the region. At this moment no exhaustive study and understanding exists of the pyroclastic flows generated by the Santa Ana Volcano nor a map for this particular hazard. This study proposes the use of Titan2D for those two purposes, using a DEM generated by the SNET using topographic maps as well as DEMs generated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Images (ASTER).

  6. Aquatic assemblages of the highly urbanized Santa Ana River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Burton, C.A.; Belitz, K.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the structure of periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblages and their associations with environmental variables at 17 sites on streams of the highly urbanized Santa Ana River basin in Southern California. All assemblages exhibited strong differences between highly urbanized sites in the valley and the least-impacted sites at the transition between the valley and undeveloped mountains. Results within the urbanized area differed among taxa. Periphyton assemblages were dominated by diatoms (>75% of total taxa). Periphyton assemblages within the urbanized area were not associated with any of the measured environmental variables, suggesting that structure of urban periphyton assemblages might be highly dependent on colonization dynamics. The number of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera (EPT) taxa included in macroinvertebrate assemblages ranged from 0 to 6 at urbanized sites. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages had significant correlations with several environmental variables within the urban area, suggesting that stream size and permanence were important determinants of distribution among the species able to survive conditions in urban streams. Only 4 of 16 fish species collected were native to the drainage. Fish assemblages of urbanized sites included two native species, arroyo chub Gila orcuttii and Santa Ana sucker Catostomus santaanae, at sites that were intermediate in coefficient of variation of bank-full width, depth, bed substrate, and water temperature. Alien species dominated urbanized sites with lesser or greater values for these variables. These results suggest that urban streams can be structured to enhance populations of native fishes. Continued study of urban streams in the Santa Ana River basin and elsewhere will contribute to the basic understanding of ecological principles and help preserve the maximum ecological value of streams in highly urbanized areas.

  7. Hypersensitivity to molybdenum as a possible trigger of ANA-negative systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Federmann, M; Morell, B; Graetz, G; Wyss, M; Elsner, P; von Thiessen, R; Wüthrich, B; Grob, D

    1994-01-01

    After implantation of two metal plates a 24 year old woman developed fever of unknown origin and successively more symptoms of an ANA-negative systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These symptoms resolved after removal of the plates and recurred during patch testing of the metal components, which showed a reaction to molybdenum. A lymphocyte transformation test indicated a delayed-type hypersensitivity to molybdenum. Subsequent progressive flare ups of SLE appeared without molybdenum reexposure. This is the first report suggesting the existence of a hypersensitivity to molybdenum, which may act as another environmental trigger for SLE. PMID:8037499

  8. Dynamics of a thermo-Mediterranean coastal environment the Coto Doñana National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, Geraldine; Finlayson, Clive; Espejo, J. M. Recio

    2008-11-01

    Using data collected from existing habitats found in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, and including data collected in the Biological Reserve of the Parque Nacional de Doñana, Spain, this study considers the seasonal and inter-annual variability of a thermo-Mediterranean, subhumid, environment and the significance of the presence of surface water in the system. This extant environment is then used together with the fossil record from Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar, where Neanderthals lived, as a proxy for the ecology of the emerged landscape outside the cave.

  9. Early imprinting in wild and game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos): genotype and arousal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, K.M.; Shoffner, R.N.; Phillips, R.E.; Shapiro, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    Early imprinting was studied under laboratory conditions in five lines of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) with different degrees of wildness obtained through pedigreed breeding. Data were analyzed by the least squares method. Wild ducklings imprinted better than game-farm (domesticated) ducklings, and heterosis was demonstrated to exist in imprinting traits. Nonadditive genetic variations and genotype-environmental interactions are discussed as possible causes for the heterosis observed. Differences in imprinting between genetic lines are attributed, at least partly, to differences in arousal level during the ducklings' first exposure to the imprinting stimulus.

  10. Mate preference in wild and domesticated (game-farm) mallards (Anas platyrhynchos): I. Initial preference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, K.M.; Shoffner, R.N.; Phillips, R.E.; Lee, F.B.

    1978-01-01

    Wild and game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) raised in pure strain and mixed groups were tested for initial mate preference in a choice test. Female mallards showed no significant preference but males of either strain raised with females of their own strain significantly preferred female models of their own strain during the test. Males raised with females of the other strain merely showed attenuation of their preference for female models of their own strain and did not show preference for female models of the other strain. Game-farm mallards approached models significantly sooner than wild mallards and there was a significant sex X mate interaction.

  11. The Santa AnaWinds of Southern California in the context of Fire Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yang

    The Santa Ana winds represent a high-impact weather event owing to the intimate relationship between the extremely dry, fast winds and the wildfire threat. The winds can be locally gusty, particularly in the complex terrain of San Diego county, where the airflow has characteristics of downslope windstorms. These winds can cause and/or rapidly spread wildfires, the threat of which is particularly acute during the autumn season before the onset of winter rains. It remains a day-to-day challenge to accurately predict wind gust speed, especially in the mountainous regions. Our study employs large physics ensembles composed of high-resolution simulations of severe downslope windstorms that involve an exhaustive examination of available model physical parameterizations. Model results are calibrated and validated against the San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) mesonet observations, a dense, homogenous, and well-positioned network with uniform high quality. Results demonstrate model horizontal resolution, model physics, random perturbations and landuse database can have a material effect on the strength, location and timing of Santa Ana winds in real-data simulations. A large model physics ensemble reveals the land surface model to be most crucial in skillful wind predictions, which are particularly sensitive to the surface roughness length. A surprisingly simple gust parameterization is proposed for the San Diego network, based on the discovery that this homogeneous mesonet has a nearly invariant network-averaged gust factor. The gust forecast technique is of special interest in the context of routine weather combined with atmospheric humidity and fuel moisture information. A real-time wildfire threat warning system, the Santa Ana Wildfire Threat Index (SAWTI), has been developed to effectively communicate the upcoming Santa Ana wind strength with respect to the anticipated fire danger to first responders and the public. In addition to the wind and gust forecast techniques

  12. Survival of female black ducks, Anas rubripes, during the breeding season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringelman, J.K.; Longcore, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The Mayfield method was used to estimate the survival rate of 19 radio-marked, female Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) in southcentral Maine during 1977-80. An overall survival rate of 0.74 was estimated for the 121-day monitoring period that included the pre-laying and laying, incubation, brood rearing, and post-rearing stages. No differences in survival rates were detected among these stages. Two instrumented hens were killed by Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus) and a third was killed by an unknown predator. We found no evidence that the attachment of radio transmitters affected hen survival.

  13. Identification and Characterization of Ana o 3 Modifications on Arginine-111 Residue in Heated Cashew Nuts.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Christopher P; Grimm, Casey C; Li, Yichen; Chial, Heidi J; McCaslin, Darrell R; Chung, Si-Yin; Bren-Mattison, Yvette; Wasserman, Richard L

    2017-01-18

    Raw and roasted cashew nut extracts were evaluated for protein modifications by mass spectrometry. Independent modifications on the Arg-111 residue of Ana o 3 were observed in roasted but not raw cashew nuts. The mass changes of 72.0064 or 53.9529 Da are consistent with the formation of carboxyethyl and hydroimidazolone modifications at the Arg-111 residue. These same modifications were observed in Ana o 3 purified from roasted but not raw cashew nuts, albeit at a relatively low occurrence. Circular dichroism indicated that Ana o 3 purified from raw and roasted cashew nuts had similar secondary structure, and dynamic light scattering analysis indicated there was no observable difference in particle size. The stability of Ana o 3 purified from raw and roasted cashew nuts to trypsin was similar in the absence of or following treatment with a reducing agent. Only minor differences in IgE binding to Ana o 3 were observed by ELISA among a cohort of cashew-allergic patient sera.

  14. Variation in spring migration routes and breeding distribution of northern pintails Anas acuta that winter in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Yamaguchi, Noriyuki; Flint, Paul L.; Pearce, John M.; Tokita, Ken-ichi; Shimada, Tetsuo; Ramey, Andrew M.; Kharitonov, Sergei; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2011-01-01

    In North America, spring migration routes and breeding distribution of northern pintails Anas acuta vary because some individuals opportunistically nest at mid-latitudes in years when ephemeral prairie wetlands are available, whereas others regularly nest in arctic and sub-arctic regions where wetland abundance is more constant. Less was known about migration routes and breeding distribution of pintails in East Asia. From 2007–2009 we marked 198 pintails on their wintering areas in Japan with satellite transmitters to: 1) document spring migration routes and summer distribution, 2) evaluate migratory connections and breeding season sympatry with North American pintails, and 3) determine if pintails used the same migration routes in fall as in spring. Most pintails (67%) migrated to the Kamchatka or Chukotka peninsulas in eastern Russia either directly from Japan or via Sakhalin Island, Russia. Remaining pintails primarily migrated to the Magadan region or Kolyma River Basin in eastern Russia via Sakhalin Island. The Chukotka Peninsula was the most common summer destination, with highest densities in the Anadyr Lowlands; a region also used by pintails that migrate from North America. One pintail migrated to St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, in spring and another briefly migrated to the western coast of Alaska in fall. Autumn migration routes generally mirrored spring migration although most pintails bypassed Sakhalin Island in fall. Compared to North American pintails, pintails that winter in Japan exhibited less variation in migration routes and breeding distribution, and nested at higher latitudes. In the Russian Far East there is no region with habitats comparable in extent to the ephemeral mid-latitude wetlands of North America. Consequently, East Asian pintails mainly nest in arctic and sub-arctic regions where annual consistency in wetlands promotes constancy in migration routes and breeding distribution. Breeding season sympatry between pintails from different

  15. D-penicillamine-induced ANA (+) ANCA (+) vasculitis in pediatric patients with Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonhee; Lee, Sang Taek; Cho, Heeyeon

    2016-05-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are associated with systemic vasculitis. The pathophysiology of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) has not been clearly proven, and drug-induced ANCA-associated vasculitis has been reported. Wilson's disease is an inborn error of copper metabolism caused by a mutation in the copper transporting gene ATP7B, and traditional treatment is based on copper chelation with agents such as D-penicillamine. There have been rare reports that prolonged D-penicillamine therapy might cause adverse renal events such as membranous nephropathy and minimal change disease, but it is questionable if D-penicillamine induces ANCA-associated vasculitis. We describe 2 patients with Wilson's disease treated with D-penicillamine who presented with ANCA (+) vasculitis and renal involvement. The 2 patients also showed positive results for antinuclear antibody (ANA). Their kidney biopsy findings were compatible with crescentic/necrotizing glomerulonephritis, pauci-immune type. After diagnosis of AAV, D-penicillamine was stopped. Patients were then treated with plasmapheresis and immunosuppressants, including methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous cyclophosphamide. One patient progressed to end-stage renal disease and the other showed persistent proteinuria. These cases suggest that D-penicillamine may induce ANA (+) ANCA (+) vasculitis with severe renal involvement in pediatric patients, and plasmapheresis combined with immunosuppressant should be considered.

  16. Toxicological effects of cigarette smoke on Ana-1 macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fengjiao; Dong, Ping; Wang, Xiang; Fu, Xiao; Dai, Mingjun; Zhang, Weiyun

    2013-11-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure is associated with increased risk of different disorders. Immunological dysfunction especially in macrophages is one of important reasons in the initiation, progression and exacerbation of smoke-related pulmonary illnesses. However, it is still obscure how cigarette smoke impacts the vitality and functions of macrophages. In the present study, we examined the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on mouse Ana-1 macrophages and tried to elucidate the involved mechanism. The results showed CSE induced cell apoptosis accompanied by increased releasing of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), mitochondrial injury and oxidative stress. It also inhibited anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 expression and promoted pro-apoptosis protein Bax and Bad expressions. Moreover, low-dose CSE increased nuclear NF-κB levels of macrophages; on the contrary, high-dose CSE or long-time treatment decreased it. These observations were in correspondence with changes of intracellular ROS level and antioxidant enzymes' activity. Furthermore, pretreatment with 10μM of NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) for 1h significantly enhanced macrophage apoptosis. Taken together, these data implied that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress played important roles in the injury of Ana-1 cells caused by CSE, which was related to NF-κB pathway; an anti-apoptotic program played a dominant role at low doses/short-term exposure to CSE, whereas a pro-apoptotic program was initiated at high doses/long-term exposure.

  17. Enzyme profiles of oral spirochetes in RapID-ANA system.

    PubMed Central

    Syed, S A; Salvador, S L; Loesche, W J

    1988-01-01

    Enzyme profiles of oral Treponema species were determined by using RapID-ANA (Innovative Diagnostic System, Atlanta, Ga.), a 4-h test system which detects 18 enzymatic reactions, including aminopeptidases and glycosidases. Seventy-two clinical isolates of Treponema denticola, four reference strains of T. denticola (ATCC 35404, ATCC 35405, ATCC 35520, and ATCC 33521), one strain of T. vincentii (ATCC 35580), and two strains of T. socranskii subspecies (T. socranskii subsp. buccale ATCC 35534 and T. socranskii subsp. socranskii ATCC 35536) were used in this study. All T. denticola strains produced indole and a variety of aminopeptidases and glycosidases. These organisms could be differentiated into two groups on the basis of tetrazolium reductase and serine, phenylalanine, and glycine aminopeptidase activities. T. vincentii produced N-acetylglucosaminidase and arginine aminopeptidase, which facilitated the differentiation of this organism from T. socranskii subspecies and the T. denticola group. T. socranskii subspecies gave positive reactions for alkaline phosphatase only. These findings suggest that the RapID-ANA system is useful for enzymatic characterization and differentiation of oral spirochetes. PMID:3183013

  18. 78 FR 16650 - In the Matter of: Dan Tran Dang, 1010 W. Moore Street, Santa Ana, CA 92707; Order Denying Export...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Dan Tran Dang, 1010 W. Moore Street, Santa Ana, CA... address at: 1010 W. Moore Street, Santa Ana, CA 92707, and when acting for or on behalf of Dang,...

  19. "Houses and Fields and Vineyards Shall Yet Again Be Bought in This Land": The Story of Ana, a Public Kindergarten Teacher in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Teresa Maria Sena

    This study examined the teaching style and methods of Ana, a kindergarten teacher in Portugal, chosen because she is considered a master teacher by colleagues and parents and because she grew up in Portugal before democracy. The study attempted to answer the questions: (1) What are the commitments and competencies that distinguish Ana as a master…

  20. Migration of waterfowl in the east asian flyway and spatial relationship to HPAI H5N1 outbreaks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, J.Y.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.; Prosser, D.J.; Spragens, K.A.; Palm, E.C.; Yan, B.; Li, T.; Lei, F.; Zhao, D.; Douglas, D.C.; Muzaffar, S.B.; Ji, W.

    2010-01-01

    Poyang Lake is situated within the East Asian Flyway, a migratory corridor for waterfowl that also encompasses Guangdong Province, China, the epicenter of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1. The lake is the largest freshwater body in China and a significant congregation site for waterfowl; however, surrounding rice fields and poultry grazing have created an overlap with wild waterbirds, a situation conducive to avian influenza transmission. Reports of HPAI H5N1 in healthy wild ducks at Poyang Lake have raised concerns about the potential of resilient free-ranging birds to disseminate the virus. Yet the role wild ducks play in connecting regions of HPAI H5N1 outbreak in Asia is hindered by a lack of information about their migratory ecology. During 2007-08 we marked wild ducks at Poyang Lake with satellite transmitters to examine the location and timing of spring migration and identify any spatiotemporal relationship with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks. Species included the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope), northern pintail (Anas acuta), common teal (Anas crecca), falcated teal (Anas falcata), Baikal teal (Anas formosa), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), garganey (Anas querquedula), and Chinese spotbill (Anas poecilohyncha). These wild ducks (excluding the resident mallard and Chinese spotbill ducks) followed the East Asian Flyway along the coast to breeding areas in northern China, eastern Mongolia, and eastern Russia. None migrated west toward Qinghai Lake (site of the largest wild bird epizootic), thus failing to demonstrate any migratory connection to the Central Asian Flyway. A newly developed Brownian bridge spatial analysis indicated that HPAI H5N1 outbreaks reported in the flyway were related to latitude and poultry density but not to the core migration corridor or to wetland habitats. Also, we found a temporal mismatch between timing of outbreaks and wild duck movements. These analyses depend on complete or representative reporting of outbreaks, but by

  1. 75 FR 36677 - Temporary Closure to All Public Use on Public Land in Doña Ana County, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Temporary Closure to All Public Use on Public Land in Do a Ana County, NM... closure to all public use, including casual use, to protect person, property, and public land and... Mexico, totaling 67.5 acres. All public use, including casual use, is prohibited on this 67.5-...

  2. Alcohol-preferring (AA) and alcohol-avoiding (ANA) lines of rats after introgression of alien genes.

    PubMed

    Hyytiä, P; Halkka, O; Sarviharju, M; Eriksson, K

    1987-01-01

    Outcrossing has been used as a method for introducing new genetic variability into the high-drinking AA and low-drinking ANA rat lines that had reached their selection limits and were suffering of poor fertility and decreased litter size. The response to the renewed selection for differential alcohol consumption, and the effect of outcrossing upon the components of productivity are reported.

  3. Utilising a Blended Ethnographic Approach to Explore the Online and Offline Lives of Pro-Ana Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The article critically interrogates contemporary discourses and practices around "anorexia nervosa" through an ethnographic study that moves between two sites: an online pro-anorexia (pro-ana) community, and a Local Authority-funded eating disorder prevention project located in schools and youth centres in the north of England. The…

  4. Individual Differences Associated with Exposure to "Ana-Mia" Websites: An Examination of Adolescents from 25 European Countries.

    PubMed

    Almenara, Carlos A; Machackova, Hana; Smahel, David

    2016-08-01

    This study explores the individual differences associated with adolescents' exposure to "ana-mia" websites (i.e., websites where people discuss ways to be very thin, such as being anorexic). Participants were adolescents from a large cross-national survey in 25 European countries (N = 18,709, aged 11-16, 50% girls). Sociodemographic and individual factors (i.e., variables related to Internet use and personality traits) were included in a logistic regression performed separately for girls and boys. The results showed that sensation seeking and online disinhibition were both associated with an increased risk of exposure to "ana-mia" websites in girls as well as in boys, although some gender differences were apparent. In girls, but not in boys, the older the child and higher the socioeconomic status, higher the chance of being exposed to "ana-mia" websites. Further research is recommended to understand the real impact of "ana-mia" website exposure on adolescent health.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocinogenic Strain Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, Isolated from Mallard Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Arbulu, Sara; Jimenez, Juan J.; Borrero, Juan; Sánchez, Jorge; Frantzen, Cyril; Herranz, Carmen; Nes, Ingolf F.; Cintas, Luis M.; Diep, Dzung B.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The assembly contains 2,836,724 bp, with a G+C content of 37.6%. The genome is predicted to contain 2,654 coding DNA sequences (CDSs) and 50 RNAs. PMID:27417838

  6. Conscientizacion of the Oppressed Language and the Politics of Humor in Ana Castillo's "So Far from God"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thananopavarn, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This essay explores the relationship between Ana Castillo's novel "So Far from God" (1993) and her development of an activist poetics inspired by Paulo Freire's influential 1970 treatise "Pedagogy of the Oppressed." "So Far from God" may be understood as the practical application of Castillo's theory of "conscienticized poetics"; that is, the…

  7. Occurrence and risk assessment of free and conjugated hormones in surface water of the Santa Ana River

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study presents a sensitive analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous monitoring of five estrogen conjugates, six estrogens and two progestagens in surface water of the Santa Ana River. Samples at ten representative sites along t...

  8. [Relevance of the immunofluorescence pattern for interpretation of the ANA test--the case of the dense fine speckled pattern].

    PubMed

    Dellavance, Alessandra; Leser, Paulo Guilherme; Andrade, Luís Eduardo Coelho

    2007-01-01

    Determination of autoantibodies against cellular antigens (ANA-HEp-2) has undergone several methodological changes over the decades and for an appropriate evaluation of results requires reflection on its sensitivity and specificity properties. Currently the test is known to have high sensitivity and questionable specificity since it is frequently positive in a considerable number of non-autoimmune subjects. Awareness that a substantial portion of the population has a positive ANA-HEp-2 test demands that characteristics permitting to distinguish positive tests in autoimmune patients from positive tests in non-autoimmune subjects be identified. Among these characteristics are noteworthy the titer and the fluorescence pattern. In particular, one must bear in mind that the fluorescence pattern results from recognition by autoantibodies of distinct cellular structures and, therefore, the fluorescence pattern provides a preliminary indication of possible autoantigens targeted by the sera being tested. An emblematic example is the nuclear dense fine speckled pattern. It was originally studied by Ochs and collaborators in 1994 in a restricted number of patients with interstitial cystitis. Further studies demonstrated its frequent occurrence in laboratory practice in individuals with diverse non-autoimmune clinical conditions. Indeed, this pattern is one of the most frequently observed in non-autoimmune patients with an ANA-HEp-2 positive reaction. The present review intends to provide elements allowing the clinician to perform a critical interpretation of results of an ANA-HE-2 test, including analysis of the titer and the fluorescence pattern.

  9. Antibodies to H5 subtype avian influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled in Japan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blood samples from 105 northern pintails (Anas acuta) captured on Hokkaido, Japan were tested for antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) to assess possible involvement of this species in the transmission and spread of economically impor...

  10. Relationships between wintering waterbirds and invertebrates, sediments and hydrology of coastal marsh ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolduc, F.; Afton, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    We studied relationships among sediment variables (carbon content, C:N, hardness, oxygen penetration, silt-clay fraction), hydrologic variables (dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, transparency, water depth), sizes and biomass of common invertebrate classes, and densities of 15 common waterbird species in ponds of impounded freshwater, oligohaline, mesohaline, and unimpounded mesohaline marshes during winters 1997-98 to 1999-2000 on Rockefeller State Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana, USA. Canonical correspondence analysis and forward selection was used to analyze the above variables. Water depth and oxygen penetration were the variables that best segregated habitat characteristics that resulted in maximum densities of common waterbird species. Most common waterbird species were associated with specific marsh types, except Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca) and Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata). We concluded that hydrologic manipulation of marsh ponds is the best way to manage habitats for these birds, if the hydrology can be controlled adequately.

  11. The susceptibility of the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) to Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, W.I.; Duncan, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Most strains of Clostridium botulinum type C, after having lost their capacity to produce their dominant toxin (C1) as a result of being "cured" of their prophages, continue to produce C2, a trypsin-activable toxin reported by other investigators. While of relatively low toxicity when administered perorally to the adult mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), it was highly toxic when given parenterally. By the intravenous route, for example, it was more than 1,000 times as toxic as C1 toxin by the same route, when compared on the basis of mouse intraperitoneal toxicity. The cause of death in every instance was massive pulmonary edema and hemorrhage rather than the respiratory paralysis that occurs in C1 intoxication.

  12. Inflammatory markers following acute fuel oil exposure or bacterial lipopolysaccharide in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Lee, Kelly A; Tell, Lisa A; Mohr, F Charles

    2012-12-01

    Adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were orally dosed with bunker C fuel oil for 5 days, and five different inflammatory markers (haptoglobin, mannan-binding lectin, ceruloplasmin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and plasma iron) were measured in blood plasma prior to and 8, 24, 48, and 72 hr following exposure. In order to contrast the response to fuel oil with that of a systemic inflammatory response, an additional five ducks were injected intramuscularly with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Oil-treated birds had an inflammatory marker profile that was significantly different from control and LPS-treated birds, showing decreases in mannan-binding lectin-dependent hemolysis and unsaturated iron-binding capacity, but no changes in any of the other inflammatory markers. Birds treated with oil also exhibited increased liver weights, decreased body and splenic weights, and decreased packed cell volume.

  13. Meteorological Controls on Biomass Burning During Santa Ana Events in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veraverbeke, Sander; Capps, Scott; Hook, Simon J.; Randerson, James T.; Jin, Yufang; Hall, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Fires occurring during Santa Ana (SA) events in southern California are driven by extreme fire weather characterized by high temperatures, low humidities, and high wind speeds. We studied the controls on burned area and carbon emissions during two intensive SA burning periods in 2003 and 2007. We therefore used remote sensing data in parallel with fire weather simulations of the Weather and Regional Forecast model. Total carbon emissions were approximately 1800 gigagrams in 2003 and 900 gigagrams in 2007, based on a daily burned area and a fire emission model that accounted for spatial variability in fuel loads and combustion completeness. On a regional scale, relatively strong positive correlations were found between the daily Fosberg fire weather index and burned area/emissions (probability is less than 0.01). Our analysis provides a quantitative assessment of relationships between fire activity and weather during severe SA fires in southern California.

  14. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection of amphibians in the Doñana National Park, Spain.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Vila, Judit; Díaz-Paniagua, Carmen; Marchand, Marc A; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2012-03-20

    Amphibian chytridiomycosis, caused by infection with the non-hyphal, zoosporic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an emerging infectious disease recognised as a cause of recent amphibian population declines and extinctions worldwide. The Doñana National Park (DNP) is located in southwestern Spain, a country with widespread Bd infection. This protected area has a great diversity of aquatic habitats that constitute important breeding habitats for 11 native amphibian species. We sampled 625 amphibians in December 2007 and February to March 2008, months that correspond to the early and intermediate breeding seasons for amphibians, respectively. We found 7 of 9 sampled species to be infected with Bd and found differences in prevalence between sampling periods. Although some amphibians tested had higher intensities of infection than others, all animals sampled were apparently healthy and, so far, there has been no evidence of either unusually high rates of mortality or amphibian population declines in the DNP.

  15. Stratospheric intrusions, the Santa Ana winds, and wildland fires in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, A. O.; Pierce, R. B.; Schultz, P. J.

    2015-07-01

    The Santa Ana winds of Southern California have long been associated with wildland fires that can adversely affect air quality and lead to loss of life and property. These katabatic winds are driven primarily by thermal gradients but can be exacerbated by northerly flow associated with upper level troughs passing through the western U.S. In this paper, we show that the fire danger associated with the passage of upper level troughs can be further increased by the formation of deep tropopause folds that transport extremely dry ozone-rich air from the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere to the surface. Stratospheric intrusions can thus increase surface ozone both directly through transport and indirectly through their influence on wildland fires. We illustrate this situation with the example of the Springs Fire, which burned nearly 25,000 acres in Ventura County during May 2013.

  16. Phenotypic variation of the Mexican duck (Anas platyrhynchos diazi) in Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, N.J.; Reynolds, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    A collection of 98 breeding Mexican Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos diazi) was made in Mexico from six areas between the United States border with Chihuahua and Lake Chapala, Jalisco, in order to study geographic variation. Plumage indices showed a relatively smooth clinal change from north to south; northern populations were most influenced by the Northern Mallard (A. platyrhynchos) phenotype. Measurements of total, wing, and culmen lengths and bill width were usually significantly larger in males at any one site, but showed no regular geographic trends. Hybridization between platyrhynchos and diazi phenotypes may or may not be increasing in the middle Rio Grande and Rio Conchos valleys; available data are insufficient to decide. A spring 1978 aerial census yielded an estimate of 55,500 diazi -like birds in Mexico. Populations of diazi appear to be as large as the available habitat allows; management should be directed towards increasing and stabilizing the nesting habitat; and the stability of the zone of intergradation should be investigated.

  17. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV).

  18. Biomimicry of multifunctional nanostructures in the neck feathers of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos L.) drakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudiyev, Tural; Dogan, Tamer; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-04-01

    Biological systems serve as fundamental sources of inspiration for the development of artificially colored devices, and their investigation provides a great number of photonic design opportunities. While several successful biomimetic designs have been detailed in the literature, conventional fabrication techniques nonetheless remain inferior to their natural counterparts in complexity, ease of production and material economy. Here, we investigate the iridescent neck feathers of Anas platyrhynchos drakes, show that they feature an unusual arrangement of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals and further exhibit a superhydrophobic surface, and mimic this multifunctional structure using a nanostructure composite fabricated by a recently developed top-down iterative size reduction method, which avoids the above-mentioned fabrication challenges, provides macroscale control and enhances hydrophobicity through the surface structure. Our 2D solid core photonic crystal fibres strongly resemble drake neck plumage in structure and fully polymeric material composition, and can be produced in wide array of colors by minor alterations during the size reduction process.

  19. Biomimicry of multifunctional nanostructures in the neck feathers of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos L.) drakes.

    PubMed

    Khudiyev, Tural; Dogan, Tamer; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-04-22

    Biological systems serve as fundamental sources of inspiration for the development of artificially colored devices, and their investigation provides a great number of photonic design opportunities. While several successful biomimetic designs have been detailed in the literature, conventional fabrication techniques nonetheless remain inferior to their natural counterparts in complexity, ease of production and material economy. Here, we investigate the iridescent neck feathers of Anas platyrhynchos drakes, show that they feature an unusual arrangement of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals and further exhibit a superhydrophobic surface, and mimic this multifunctional structure using a nanostructure composite fabricated by a recently developed top-down iterative size reduction method, which avoids the above-mentioned fabrication challenges, provides macroscale control and enhances hydrophobicity through the surface structure. Our 2D solid core photonic crystal fibres strongly resemble drake neck plumage in structure and fully polymeric material composition, and can be produced in wide array of colors by minor alterations during the size reduction process.

  20. Reproductive success and nest attentiveness of mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos fed aroclor 1254

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Heinz, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A dietary dosage of 25 ppm Aroclor 1254 fed to 9 mo. old mallards Anas platyrhynchos for at least 1 mo. before egg-laying had no detrimental effect on reproductive success or nest attentiveness when hens were allowed to incubate their own eggs. The treatment caused no effect on number of hens laying, date of 1st egg laid or clutch size. Fertility of eggs was greater among Aroclor-treated birds (87.7%) than among controls (73.2%). Aroclor may have stimulated males to come into reproductive condition sooner than controls. Hatching of fertile eggs and survival of ducklings to 3 wk of age were similar in treated and control groups. The number of times off the nest per day and total time off the nest per day were the same for control and Aroclor-treated hens in days 14-17 of incubation.

  1. Water Quality in the Santa Ana Basin, California, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belitz, Kenneth; Hamlin, Scott N.; Burton, Carmen A.; Kent, Robert; Fay, Ronald G.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999-2001 assessment of water quality in the Santa Ana River Basin. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live and how that water quality compares to other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Santa Ana River Basin summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed from http://ca.water.usgs.gov/ sana_nawqa/. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to other reports in this series from other basins can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa).

  2. Associations of corticosterone and testosterone with alcohol drinking in F2 populations derived from AA and ANA rat lines.

    PubMed

    Etelälahti, Tiina J; Saarikoski, Sirkku T; Eriksson, C J Peter

    2011-08-01

    In our previous studies on alcohol-preferring AA (Alko alcohol) and nonpreferring ANA (Alko nonalcohol) rats, we have observed that the AA rats exhibit lower endogenous levels of corticosterone, higher testosterone levels, and more frequent alcohol-induced testosterone elevations when compared with ANA rats. The objective of the present study was to get more conclusive evidence for the potential role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axes in alcohol drinking by using the F2 experimental design. Alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-nonpreferring ANA rat lines were crossbred to form a F1 population from which the final F2 population was derived. Male animals were challenged with a priming alcohol dose after which a 3 weeks' voluntary alcohol drinking period took place. After a washout period of 1 week, one-half of the 40 highest and 40 lowest alcohol drinkers were challenged with a second dose of alcohol and the other half with saline. Serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were measured before and during the test. Higher endogenous testosterone levels were detected in the rats of the high alcohol consumption group compared with the low consumption group. Also supporting the original AA/ANA line differences, a trend for lower endogenous corticosterone levels were measured in the high alcohol consumption group compared with the low consumption group. The alcohol challenge test after the drinking period resulted in a higher frequency (38%) of testosterone elevations in the high drinkers compared with the low drinkers (5%). The present data confirms the validity of the positive connections between testosterone elevation and increased alcohol drinking, as well as between testosterone reduction and decreased alcohol drinking, in AA and ANA rats.

  3. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  4. Prevalence of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases and clinical significance of ANA profile: data from a tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zaixing; Ren, Yingpeng; Liu, Donghong; Lin, Feng; Liang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    It is necessary and useful to explore prevalence of various systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) in patients with suspicion of having SARDs and to characterize antinuclear antibodies (ANA) profile for identifying different populations (SARDs and non-SARDs). A total of 5024 consecutive patients with available medical records were investigated, whose sera had been tested for ANA profile, including ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) antibodies, between 31 January 2012 and 26 March 2014. Only 594 (11.8%) patients were diagnosed with SARDs of those suspected with SARDs. The prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was highest (3.2%), followed by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (2.5%), primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) (1.7%), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) (1.5%), etc. Of females, SLE also showed the highest prevalence (6%), while of males, AS showed the highest prevalence (1.9%). The prevalence of most SARDs was closely associated with age, except mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), and the variation characteristics among different age groups were different among various SARDs. The prevalence of ANA was significantly increased in most SARD patients [especially in SLE, systemic sclerosis (SSc) and MCTD]. For anti-ENA antibodies, in contrast to some autoantibodies associated with multiple SARDs (e.g. anti-SSA, SSB, nRNP), others were relatively specific for certain diseases, such as anti-dsDNA, Sm, histone, nucleosome and Rib-P for SLE, anti-SCL-70 for SSc and anti-Jo-1 for polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM). Of note, ANA profile appeared to be of little significance for AS, ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), polymyalgia rheumatic (PMR), adult-onset Still's disease (ASD) and Behcet's disease (BD). The younger were more likely to have the presence of anti-dsDNA, Sm, histone or Rib-P for SLE, and anti-SSA for RA or MCTD. No significant differences for frequencies of ANA and anti-ENA autoantibodies were found between sexes in most SARDs

  5. Latvian Waste Management Modelling in View of Environmental Impact Reduction / Latvijas Atkritumu SAIMNIECĪBAS ATTĪSTĪBA un TĀS RADĪTĀS Ietekmes UZ Vidi SAMAZINĀŠANAS MODELĒŠANA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teibe, I.; Bendere, R.; Arina, D.

    2013-12-01

    In the work, the life-cycle assessment approach is applied to the planning of waste management development in a seaside region (Piejūra) using the Waste Management Planning System (WAMPS) program. In Latvia, the measures to be taken for the climate change mitigation are of utmost importance - especially as related to the WM performance, since a disposal of biodegradable waste presents the primary source of GHG emissions. To reduce the amount of such waste is therefore one of the most significant goals in the State WM plan for 2013-2020, whose adoption is the greatest challenge for municipalities. The authors analyse seven models which involve widely employed biomass processing methods, are based on experimental data and intended for minimising the direct disposal of organic mass at the solid waste landfills. The numerical results obtained evidence that the thermal or biotechnological treatment of organic waste substantially reduces the negative environmental impact of WM practices - by up to 6% as compared with the currently existing. Klimata pārmaiņu samazināšanas pasākumi Latvijā atkritumu saimniecības sektorā ir īpaši svarīgi. jo bioloģiski sadalāmo atkritumu apglabāšana ir viens no būtiskākajiem SEG emisiju avotiem valstī. Pētījumā modelēti virkne sadzīves atkritumu apsaimniekošanas modeļi. kas ietver plašāk izmantotās biomasas pārstrādes metodes un samazina tiešu organiskās masas apglabāšanu cieto sadzīves atkritumu poligonos. Atkritumu apsaimniekošanas modeļu radītās vides ietekmes novērtēšanai izmantota WAMPS (Waste Management Planning System) programma, kas balstīta uz atkritumu apsaimniekošanas procesu dzīves cikla novērtējumu vienā no desmit Latvijas atkritumu apsaimniekošanas reģioniem - Piejūra. Iegūtie kvantitatīvie rezultāti norāda. ka organiskās atkritumu masas pārstrāde un stabilizēšana, izmantojot biotehnoloģijas vai termisko pārstrādi, būtiski samazina atkritumu apsaimniekošanas rad

  6. Role of the all1549 (ana-rsh) gene, a relA/spoT homolog, of the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120.

    PubMed

    Ning, Degang; Qian, Yaru; Miao, Xiaogang; Wen, Chongwei

    2011-06-01

    The role of a single relA/spoT homolog all1549 (designated hereafter as ana-rsh) of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120 was investigated. The complementation test in Escherichia coli showed that the protein encoded by ana-rsh possesses guanosine tetraphosphate (p)ppGpp-synthase/hydrolase activity. Under laboratory growth conditions, a low level of ppGpp was detected in Anabaena sp. PCC7120 and the loss of ana-rsh was lethal. Amino acid starvation induced ppGpp accumulation to an appropriate level, and nitrogen deficiency did not alter the ppGpp concentration in Anabaena cells. These data suggest that ana-rsh is required for cell viability under normal growth conditions and involved in the (p)ppGpp-related stringent response to amino acid deprivation, but not related to heterocyst formation and nitrogen fixation of Anabaena sp. PCC7120.

  7. A hypersensitive biotin-avidin-TRFIA for quantitative detection of ANA-Ig(GAM) and its clinical application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Ye, Yan; Hu, Zhigang; Zou, Yaohong; Chen, Guoqian; Yu, Lei

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate herein a novel time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) with high sensitivity and wide range for quantitative detection of ANA-Ig(GAM) antibodies using a biotin-avidin amplification system. The immunoassay was conducted by following procedures for a typical sandwich immunoreactions with cell nucleus form Hela and the Eu(3+)-labeled biotin combined with biotinylated mouse anti-human Ig(GAM) served as the solid nuclear antigen for ANA and the tracer, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and stability of the kit were evaluated and comparison with the classical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit was also made. The average intra-assay and interassay CVs detected by the established ANA-Ig(GAM) biotin-avidin-TRFIA were 4.21% and 6.34%, respectively. The lower detection limit was 2.24 U/mL, and the mean recovery rate was 100.74%. The good measurable range of the established biotin-avidin-TRFIA was within 1.95-64,000 U/mL, while it was only within 32.5-4000 U/mL using an ELISA kit. The values determined by the biotin-avidin-TRFIA and ELISA correlated well (R2 = 0.989). The positive rate of healthy volunteers and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), Sjögren's syndrome (SS), scleroderma, and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) was 0, 100%, 18.5%, 100%, 37.9%, 90.9%, and 92%, respectively. We conclude that the biotin-avidin-TRFIA we developed gives promise for greater sensitivity and accurate detection for ANA-Ig(GAM) in diagnosing and monitoring autoimmune disorders.

  8. Innate BDNF expression is associated with ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats.

    PubMed

    Raivio, Noora; Miettinen, Pekka; Kiianmaa, Kalervo

    2014-09-04

    We have shown recently that acute administration of ethanol modulates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in several rat brain areas known to be involved in the development of addiction to ethanol and other drugs of abuse, suggesting that BDNF may be a factor contributing to the neuroadaptive changes set in motion by ethanol exposure. The purpose of the present study was to further clarify the role of BDNF in reinforcement from ethanol and in the development of addiction to ethanol by specifying the effect of acute administration of ethanol (1.5 or 3.0 g/kg i.p.) on the expression profile of BDNF mRNA in the ventral tegmental area and in the terminal areas of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway in the brain of alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats, selected for high and low voluntary ethanol intake, respectively. The level of BDNF mRNA expression was higher in the amygdala and ventral tegmental area of AA than in those of ANA rats, and there was a trend for a higher level in the nucleus accumbens. In the amygdala and hippocampus, a biphasic change in the BDNF mRNA levels was detected: the levels were decreased at 3 and 6h but increased above the basal levels at 24h. Furthermore, there was a difference between the AA and ANA lines in the effect of ethanol, the ANA rats showing an increase in BDNF mRNA levels while such a change was not seen in AA rats. These findings suggest that the innate levels of BDNF expression may play a role in the mediation of the reinforcing effects of ethanol and in the control of ethanol intake.

  9. Suspended-sediment rating curve response to urbanization and wildfire, Santa Ana River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Rubin, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    River suspended-sediment concentrations provide insights to the erosion and transport of materials from a landscape, and changes in concentrations with time may result from landscape processes or human disturbance. Here we show that suspended-sediment concentrations in the Santa Ana River, California, decreased 20-fold with respect to discharge during a 34-year period (1968−2001). These decreases cannot be attributed to changes in sampling technique or timing, nor to event or seasonal hysteresis. Annual peak and total discharge, however, reveal sixfold increases over the 34-year record, which largely explain the decreases in sediment concentration by a nonlinear dilution process. The hydrological changes were related to the widespread urbanization of the watershed, which resulted in increases in storm water discharge without detectable alteration of sediment discharge, thus reducing suspended-sediment concentrations. Periodic upland wildfire significantly increased water discharge, sediment discharge, and suspended-sediment concentrations and thus further altered the rating curve with time. Our results suggest that previous inventories of southern California sediment flux, which assume time-constant rating curves and extend these curves beyond the sampling history, may have substantially overestimated loads during the most recent decades.

  10. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Egg surface applications of microliter quantities of crude and refined oils of high aromatic content are embryotoxic to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and other avian species; applications of aliphatic hydrocarbons have virtually no effect. Mallard eggs at 72 h of development were exposed to a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons or to aromatic compounds representative to those present in crude oil to assess their toxicity. The class composition of the mixture was similar to that of South Louisiana crude oil, an American Petroleum Institute reference oil. Application of 20 microliter of the mixture reduced embryonic survival by nearly 70%. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that after exposure to South Louisiana crude oil. Embryonic growth was stunted, as reflected by weight, crown-rump length, and bill length, and there was a significant increase in the incidence of abnormal survivors. When individual classes of aromatic hydrocarbons were tested, tetracyclics caused some embryonic death at the concentrations in the mixture. When classes were tested in all possible combinations of two, no combination appeared to be as toxic as the entire mixture. Addition of the tetracyclic compound chrysene to the aromatic mixture considerably enhanced embryotoxicity, but could not completely account for the toxicity of the crude oil. The presence of additional unidentified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as methylated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic compounds such as chrysene may further account for the embryotoxicity of the crude oil.

  11. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Hoffman, D J

    1979-09-01

    Egg surface applications of microliter quantities of crude and refined oils of high aromatic content are embryotoxic to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and other avian species; applications of aliphatic hydrocarbons have virtually no effect. Mallard eggs at 72 h of development were exposed to a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons or to aromatic compounds representative to those present in crude oil to assess their toxicity. The class composition of the mixture was similar to that of South Louisiana crude oil, an American Petroleum Institute reference oil. Application of 20 microliter of the mixture reduced embryonic survival by nearly 70%. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that after exposure to South Louisiana crude oil. Embryonic growth was stunted, as reflected by weight, crown-rump length, and bill length, and there was a significant increase in the incidence of abnormal survivors. When individual classes of aromatic hydrocarbons were tested, tetracyclics caused some embryonic death at the concentrations in the mixture. When classes were tested in all possible combinations of two, no combination appeared to be as toxic as the entire mixture. Addition of the tetracyclic compound chrysene to the aromatic mixture considerably enhanced embryotoxicity, but could not completely account for the toxicity of the crude oil. The presence of additional unidentified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as methylated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic compounds such as chrysene may further account for the embryotoxicity of the crude oil.

  12. Breeding habitat selection and home range of radio-marked black ducks (Anas rubripes) in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringelman, J.K.; Longcore, J.R.; Owen, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Telemetry techniques were used to monitor the movements and habitat use of 13 female and 7 male black ducks (Anas rubripes) in an inland breeding region of south central Maine in 1977-1980. Black ducks preferred persistent emergent, broad-leaved deciduous forested, and broad-leaved deciduous scrub-shrub wetlands over unconsolidated organic bottom, needle-leaved evergreen forested, and broad-leaved evergreen scrub-shrub ponds. Birds also made frequent use of small ephemeral pools and streams throughout the breeding period. Nests were located in several habitats ranging from wetland sites to upland areas 1.5 km from the most frequently used pond. Home range size averaged 119 ha for females and 231 ha for males and did not differ by reproductive stage. Three pairs used only a single pond during the incubation period. Home ranges were linear (linearity index = 2.8), averaging 1956 m long for females and 2755 m for males. Wetlands used most by hens during incubation recesses were not always those located closest to the nest. Radio-marked ducks that returned in subsequent breeding seasons demonstrated fidelity to the previously used home range. Pair bonds of marked birds lasted until day 19 or 20 of incubation for initial nesting attempts.

  13. [Friends of virtual Ana--the phenomenon of pro-anorexia in the Internet].

    PubMed

    Stochel, Martyna; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is regarded as a serious mental disturbance, where denial of illness and strong resistance to treatment are symptomatic features. In many cases it leads to extreme devastation or even to death. Effective treatment of this disorder still remains a challenge for clinicians and researchers. Since the 90-ies of the previous century there has been a rise in the free access to the internet. At present over a billion people all over the world use it. What young people look for in the internet is not only information, but also friends, support or entertainment. For last a few years, a phenomenon of pro-anorexia has been present in the Internet, connecting people who claim that anorexia is a "lifestyle" rather than a deadly illness, which should be treat. They communicate with each other through the internet blogs, forums and popular social networking sites, creating a virtual community. The pro-ana community is made up of adolescent girls and young women who decide on dieting. Pro-anorexia is still a poorly known phenomenon, especially in Poland. It seems to be very important to take a note on this phenomenon in the face of an increasing prevalence of eating disorders in the last years.

  14. Cutaneous, respiratory and hepatic aspergillosis in Brazilian white Pekin mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Copetti, Marina Venturini; Barcelos, Aleverson da Silva; Kommers, Glaucia Denise; Santurio, Janio Morais; Oliveira, Fabiano Nunes; Lovato, Maristela

    2015-04-01

    Aspergillosis is one of the most frequent mycosis affecting avian species. Here is reported an outbreak of aspergillosis affecting 60-day-old white Pekin mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). About 10% of animals in a lot of 200 mallards from a commercial husbandry presented respiratory disorders and skin lesions at slaughter. Three out of 13 animals sent to diagnosis showed, simultaneously, airsacculitis, lung and liver presenting white nodules with variable diameters and elevated, yellowish brown, crusted, multifocal skin lesions located at the base of the feather follicles in the breast. Histopathological examination of lung and liver samples revealed nodules of different sizes with small areas of necrosis surrounded by intense granulomatous inflammation and the presence of fungal hyphae. The skin samples showed dermatitis surrounding a severe necrotizing folliculitis, associated with fungal hyphae. Mycological evaluation of tissues allowed the isolation of Aspergillus fumigatus from the skin samples and Aspergillus flavus from lungs and liver samples. The application of quicklime (CaO) in the litter as part of the disinfection procedures could have contributed to the development of skin lesion in the mallards, predisposing the fungal installation in the damaged site. The occurrence of cutaneous lesions associated with A. fumigatus is a rare manifestation of aspergillosis in birds, and this appears to be the first case reported in white Pekin mallards.

  15. The identification, characterization, and function of two TREMs genes in Chinese Yangzhou goose (Anas cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huanxi; Liu, Xiaoqian; Du, Jie; Lei, Mingming; Ying, Shijia; Yan, Junshu; Yu, Jianning; Shi, Zhendan; Li, Hui

    2017-03-23

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) is a cell-surface receptor primarily expressed on macrophages. Here, two novel TREM genes, AcTREM1 and AcTREM2, were identified from Anas cygnoides. AcTREM1 cDNA contained a putative signal peptide, two IG domains, and a transmembrane domain. The deduced AcTREM2 sequence also contained a signal peptide, an IG domain, and a transmembrane domain. qRT-PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescence experiments showed that AcTREM1 and AcTREM2 were mainly expressed in the liver and spleen, and both genes and proteins were mainly distributed in cytoplasm. AcTREM1 expression in the liver and spleen was significantly upregulated following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge at an early stage of infection and then decreased at a later stage. Changes in AcTREM2 expression were reciprocal to those of AcTREM1 in the liver and spleen after LPS challenge. Our results indicate that AcTREM1 and AcTREM2 participate in the antibacterial immunity of A. cygnoides.

  16. Health of domestic mallards (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) following exposure to oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Beck, Elizabeth M; Smits, Judit E G; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2014-01-01

    Bitumen extraction from the oil sands of northern Alberta produces large volumes of process-affected water that contains substances toxic to wildlife. Recent monitoring has shown that tens of thousands of birds land on ponds containing this water annually, creating an urgent need to understand its effects on bird health. We emulated the repeated, short-term exposures that migrating water birds are thought to experience by exposing pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) to recycled oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As indicators of health, we measured a series of physiological (electrolytes, metabolites, enzymes, hormones, and blood cells) and toxicological (metals and minerals) variables. Relative to controls, juvenile birds exposed to OSPW had higher potassium following the final exposure, and males had a higher thyroid hormone ratio (T3/T4). In adults, exposed birds had higher vanadium, and, following the final exposure, higher bicarbonate. Exposed females had higher bile acid, globulin, and molybdenum levels, and males, higher corticosterone. However, with the exception of the metals, none of these measures varied from available reference ranges for ducks, suggesting OSPW is not toxic to juvenile or adult birds after three and six weekly, 1 h exposures, but more studies are needed to know the generality of this result.

  17. Isostatic Gravity Map with Geology of the Santa Ana 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Lee, Tien-Chang; Biehler, Shawn; Jachens, R.C.; Morton, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an updated isostatic gravity map, with an accompanying discussion of the geologic significance of gravity anomalies in the Santa Ana 30 by 60 minute quadrangle, southern California. Comparison and analysis of the gravity field with mapped geology indicates the configuration of structures bounding the Los Angeles Basin, geometry of basins developed within the Elsinore and San Jacinto Fault zones, and a probable Pliocene drainage network carved into the bedrock of the Perris block. Total cumulative horizontal displacement on the Elsinore Fault derived from analysis of the length of strike-slip basins within the fault zone is about 5-12 km and is consistent with previously published estimates derived from other sources of information. This report also presents a map of density variations within pre-Cenozoic metamorphic and igneous basement rocks. Analysis of basement gravity patterns across the Elsinore Fault zone suggests 6-10 km of right-lateral displacement. A high-amplitude basement gravity high is present over the San Joaquin Hills and is most likely caused by Peninsular Ranges gabbro and/or Tertiary mafic intrusion. A major basement gravity gradient coincides with the San Jacinto Fault zone and marked magnetic, seismic-velocity, and isotopic gradients that reflect a discontinuity within the Peninsular Ranges batholith in the northeast corner of the quadrangle.

  18. Serum enzymes as indicators of capture myopathy in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Dabbert, C B; Powell, K C

    1993-04-01

    Serum concentrations of the enzymes creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured in captive and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) as indicators of muscle damage. Baseline values for both enzymes were determined from six captive male mallards. During winter 1990 to 1991, six diets (including controls) representative of food available in the Mississippi alluvial valley were fed to captive female mallards housed in an outdoor aviary at the White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas County, Arkansas (USA). Controlled handling of penned mallards resulted in elevated serum CK (means = 1,352 IU/liter; SD = 1,212) and AST (means = 101 IU/liter; SD = 95) concentrations consistent with myopathies. These serum enzyme elevations were not affected (P > 0.3) by dietary selenium concentrations in the six diets or by energy malnutrition suffered by birds fed soybeans. Capture of wild mallards with an entanglement type rocket net resulted in serum CK and AST concentrations (means = 12,035 and 330 IU/liter; SD = 8,125 and 171, respectively) that were higher (P < 0.001) than those reported after capture with an enveloping type rocket net. Baseline values, controlled handling values, and entanglement rocket net values for serum CK and AST all differed (P < 0.0001).

  19. Tracking Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) with GPS Satellite Transmitters Along Their Migration Route Through Northeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Ki-Sup; Kim, Seol-Hee; Hwang, Jong-Kyung; Woo, Chanjin; Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Jeong, Jipseol; Wang, Seung-Jun; Chung, Hyen-Mi; Yu, Seung-do; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Mo, In-Pil

    2016-05-01

    In this study, Global Positioning System satellite transmitters were attached to three mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering in South Korea to track their migration routes, stopover sites, breeding sites, and migration patterns. We successfully tracked only one mallard (no. 108917) from November 15, 2011, to November 29, 2013, and determined separate migration routes in two cases of spring migration and one case of fall migration. The mallard repeatedly migrated to the same final destination, even though the travel path varied. We identified six stopover sites: Hunhe River, Liaohe River, Yinma River, Yalu River, Songjeon Bay, and Dahuofang Reservoir in China and South Korea. The wintering sites of two migration cases were discovered to be identical (Gokgyo River in Asan, South Korea). The terminal sites, which were presumed to be breeding grounds, were the same in both cases (Hinggan League in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China). On the basis of the migration routes identified in this study, we suggest that future efforts to control highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) should not only include avian influenza surveillance but also implement flyway-based strategies, with regard to all countries affected by potential HPAI outbreaks.

  20. Common NICU Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... care unit (NICU) > Common NICU equipment Common NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... understand how they can help your baby. What equipment is commonly used in the NICU? Providers use ...

  1. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  2. Lack of Clinical Relevance of ANA and ASMA Positivity in Patients with Liver Transplantation without a History of Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Lucienne; Parrilli, Gianpaolo; Santonicola, Antonella; Cinquanta, Luigi; Caputo, Cesare; Ciacci, Carolina; Zingone, Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    The relevance of isolated autoimmunity elevation in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients is unknown. Our aim was to analyse how serum autoantibodies change in time and to evaluate their clinical relevance in OLT patients. Patients were invited to provide samples to evaluate ANA, AMA, ASMA, and LKM at the time of enrolment (T0), after 6 months (T6), and after 12 months (T12). We included 114 patients in the study (76% males, median age 62.5 years), finding isolated elevation of at least one serum antibody in up to 80% of them. We described fluctuating positive autoantibodies in the one year of observation, with only 45.6% of patients positive for ANA and less than 2% positive for ASMA, at all three times. Isolated elevation of tissue antibodies was not related to gender, age, HCC at transplant, early rejection, cause of transplantation, immunotherapy taken, and age at the time of the study. We did not detect a higher prevalence of positive autoimmunity in patients with signs of liver injury. ANA and ASMA evaluation in patients with liver transplantation and no history of autoimmune disease has no clinical relevance, since it varies in time and is not related to any risk factors or liver injury. Routine autoimmunity evaluation should be avoided.

  3. Lack of Clinical Relevance of ANA and ASMA Positivity in Patients with Liver Transplantation without a History of Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Lucienne; Parrilli, Gianpaolo; Santonicola, Antonella; Cinquanta, Luigi; Caputo, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    The relevance of isolated autoimmunity elevation in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients is unknown. Our aim was to analyse how serum autoantibodies change in time and to evaluate their clinical relevance in OLT patients. Patients were invited to provide samples to evaluate ANA, AMA, ASMA, and LKM at the time of enrolment (T0), after 6 months (T6), and after 12 months (T12). We included 114 patients in the study (76% males, median age 62.5 years), finding isolated elevation of at least one serum antibody in up to 80% of them. We described fluctuating positive autoantibodies in the one year of observation, with only 45.6% of patients positive for ANA and less than 2% positive for ASMA, at all three times. Isolated elevation of tissue antibodies was not related to gender, age, HCC at transplant, early rejection, cause of transplantation, immunotherapy taken, and age at the time of the study. We did not detect a higher prevalence of positive autoimmunity in patients with signs of liver injury. ANA and ASMA evaluation in patients with liver transplantation and no history of autoimmune disease has no clinical relevance, since it varies in time and is not related to any risk factors or liver injury. Routine autoimmunity evaluation should be avoided. PMID:28337446

  4. Accumbal FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity and conditioned place preference in alcohol-preferring AA rats and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats treated repeatedly with cocaine.

    PubMed

    Marttila, Kristiina; Petteri Piepponen, T; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Ahtee, Liisa

    2007-07-30

    Transcription factor DeltaFosB has been implicated in the psychomotor responses and rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In the present study, we compared the effects of cocaine on the expression of DeltaFosB-like proteins by immunohistochemistry in striatal brain areas of alcohol-preferring (AA) and alcohol-avoiding (ANA) rats. Cocaine was administered using a previously verified treatment paradigm that sensitized the locomotor response to cocaine in AA but not in ANA rats. We also studied the rewarding effects of cocaine with a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in both lines of rats. Cocaine treatment increased the FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity (IR) in the nucleus accumbens of AA rats but not in ANA rats. In addition, after repeated saline injections the accumbal FosB/DeltaFosB IR was significantly greater in saline-injected AA rats than in ANA rats. In the caudate-putamen cocaine significantly increased FosB/DeltaFosB IR, but no differences were found between the rats of two lines. In the CPP experiment, AA rats treated with cocaine 2.5 mg/kg preferred the cocaine-associated compartment, in contrast to ANA rats, which did not show such a preference. In conclusion, our findings show that AA rats are more sensitive to cocaine than ANA rats, and suggest that one possible mediator for this increased sensitivity could be the increased expression of fosB-derived proteins in the nucleus accumbens of AA rats.

  5. Surveillance for Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds in Poland, 2008-2015.

    PubMed

    Świętoń, Edyta; Wyrostek, Krzysztof; Jóźwiak, Michał; Olszewska-Tomczyk, Monika; Domańska-Blicharz, Katarzyna; Meissner, Włodzimierz; Włodarczyk, Radosław; Minias, Piotr; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Minta, Zenon; Śmietanka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-17

    We tested wild birds in Poland during 2008-2015 for avian influenza virus (AIV). We took 10,312 swabs and feces samples from 6,314 live birds representing 12 orders and 84 bird species, mostly from orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, for testing and characterization by various PCR methods. From PCR-positive samples, we attempted to isolate and subtype the virus. The RNA of AIV was detected in 1.8% (95% confidence interval, 1.5%-2.1%) of birds represented by 48 Mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos ), 11 Mute Swans ( Cygnus olor ), 48 Common Teal ( Anas crecca ), three Black-headed Gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus), one Common Coot ( Fulica atra ), one Garganey (Spatula querquedula), and one unidentified bird species. Overall, the prevalence of AIV detection in Mallards and Mute Swans (the most frequently sampled species) was 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4%-2.5%) and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.2%-0.8%), respectively; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.000). Hemagglutinin subtypes from H1 to H13 were identified, including H5 and H7 low pathogenic AIV subtypes. Mallards and Common Teals harbored the greatest diversity of subtypes. We observed seasonality of viral detection in Mallards, with higher AIV prevalence in late summer and autumn than in winter and spring. In addition, two peaks in AIV prevalence in summer (August) and autumn (November) were demonstrated for Mallards. The prevalence of AIV in Mute Swans did not show any statistically significant seasonal patterns.

  6. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  7. Mito-nuclear discord in six congeneric lineages of Holarctic ducks (genus Anas).

    PubMed

    Peters, Jeffrey L; Winker, Kevin; Millam, Kendra C; Lavretsky, Philip; Kulikova, Irina; Wilson, Robert E; Zhuravlev, Yuri N; McCracken, Kevin G

    2014-06-01

    Many species have Holarctic distributions that extend across Europe, Asia and North America. Most genetics research on these species has examined only mitochondrial (mt) DNA, which has revealed wide variance in divergence between Old World (OW) and New World (NW) populations, ranging from shallow, unstructured genealogies to deeply divergent lineages. In this study, we sequenced 20 nuclear introns to test for concordant patterns of OW-NW differentiation between mtDNA and nuclear (nu) DNA for six lineages of Holarctic ducks (genus Anas). Genetic differentiation for both marker types varied widely among these lineages (idiosyncratic population histories), but mtDNA and nuDNA divergence within lineages was not significantly correlated. Moreover, compared with the association between mtDNA and nuDNA divergence observed among different species, OW-NW nuDNA differentiation was generally lower than mtDNA divergence, at least for lineages with deeply divergent mtDNA. Furthermore, coalescent estimates indicated significantly higher rates of gene flow for nuDNA than mtDNA for four of the six lineages. Thus, Holarctic ducks show prominent mito-nuclear discord between OW and NW populations, and we reject differences in sorting rates as the sole cause of the within-species discord. Male-mediated intercontinental gene flow is likely a leading contributor to this discord, although selection could also cause increased mtDNA divergence relative to weak nuDNA differentiation. The population genetics of these ducks contribute to growing evidence that mtDNA can be an unreliable indicator of stage of speciation and that more holistic approaches are needed for species delimitation.

  8. Embryotoxicity of weathered crude oil from the Gulf of Mexico in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Finch, Bryson E; Wooten, Kimberly J; Smith, Philip N

    2011-08-01

    Weathered crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico can result from oil spills such as the Deepwater Horizon incident that occurred on April 20, 2010 or from natural seeps. Adult waterbirds of the Gulf Coast region may become exposed to weathered crude oil while foraging, wading, or resting, and residues can then be transferred to nests, eggs, and hatchlings. Although the toxicity of many types of crude oil to avian embryos has been thoroughly studied, the effects of weathered crude oil on developing avian embryos are not well characterized. The objective of the present study was to examine embryotoxicity of weathered crude oil collected from the Gulf of Mexico in June 2010 using mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) as a model species. Weathered crude oil was applied to fertilized mallard duck eggs by paintbrush in masses ranging from 0.1 to 99.9 mg on day 3 of incubation. Mortality occurred as early as day 7 and the conservatively derived median lethal application of weathered crude oil was 30.8 mg/egg (0.5 mg/g egg) or 30.7 µl/egg (0.5 µl/g egg). Body mass, liver and spleen mass, crown-rump and bill lengths, and frequency of deformities were not significantly different among hatchlings from oiled and control eggs. In comparison to published reports of fresh crude oil embryotoxicity, weathered crude oil was considerably less toxic. We conclude that avian toxicity varies according to the degree of crude oil weathering and the stage of embryonic development at the time of exposure. Results indicate bird eggs exposed to weathered crude oil from the Gulf of Mexico during summer 2010 may have had reduced hatching success.

  9. Hunting influences the diel patterns in habitat selection by northern pintails Anas acuta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Miller, Michael R.; Overton, Cory T.; Yparraguirre, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Northern pintail Anas acuta (hereafter pintail) populations wintering within Suisun Marsh, a large estuarine managed wetland near San Francisco Bay, California,USA, have declined markedly over the last four decades. The reasons for this decline are unclear. Information on how hunting and other factors influence the selection of vegetation types and sanctuaries would be beneficial to manage pintail populations in SuisunMarsh. During 1991-1993, we radio-marked and relocated female pintails (individuals: N = 203, relocations: N = 7,688) within Suisun Marsh to investigate habitat selection during the non-breeding months (winter). We calculated selection ratios for different vegetation types and for sanctuaries, and examined differences in those ratios between hunting season (i.e. hunting and non-hunting), age (hatchyear and after-hatch-year), and time of day (daylight or night hours). We found that diel patterns in selection were influenced by hunting disturbance. For example, prior to the hunting season and during daylight hours, pintails selected areas dominated by brass buttons Cotula coronopifolia, a potentially important food source, usually outside of sanctuary boundaries. However, during the hunting season, pintails did not select brass buttons during daylight hours, but instead highly selected permanent pools, mostly within sanctuaries. Also, during the hunting season, pintails showed strong selection for brass buttons at night. Sanctuaries provided more area of permanent water pools than within hunting areas and appeared to function as important refugia during daylight hours of the hunting season. Wildlife managers should encourage large protected permanent pools adjacent to hunted wetlands to increase pintail numbers within wetland environments and responsibly benefit hunting opportunities while improving pintail conservation.

  10. Experimental reintroduction reveals novel life-history variation in Laysan Ducks (Anas laysanensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Jeffrey R.; Reynolds, Michelle H.

    2013-01-01

    Subfossil remains indicate that the Laysan Duck (Anas laysanensis) formerly occurred throughout the Hawaiian archipelago, but for more than 150 years it has been confined to a single, small atoll in the northwestern chain, Laysan Island. In 2004–2005, 42 ducks were reintroduced from Laysan to Midway Atoll, where they exhibited variation in life history never observed on Laysan. On Laysan, females have never been observed to breed successfully at age 1 year and few attempt it, whereas on Midway, females routinely raised young at <1 year of age. Mean (± SD) clutch size on Midway (7.0 ± 1.1, n = 41) was larger than the maximum clutch size of six eggs observed on Laysan. On Midway, renesting following nest failure (0.55 probability, n = 27) and double brooding (0.50, n = 54) were routine, and two instances of triple brooding were observed, whereas on Laysan, renesting and double brooding are rare (0.05 probability for both during our study; n = 21 and 19, respectively) and triple brooding has never been observed. Other novel life history on Midway included early cessation of parental care to renest. Altered life history on Midway is likely related to better feeding conditions and low population density compared with Laysan. An especially intriguing possibility is that the phenotypic plasticity observed represents exposure of hidden reaction norms evolved when the species inhabited a range of environments, but several alternative explanations exist. Future reintroductions of this species may provide opportunities to test hypotheses about mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity.

  11. Geothermal low-temperature reservoir assessment in northern Dona Ana County, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lohse, R.L.; Schoenmackers, R.

    1985-07-01

    Fifty-four shallow temperature gradient holes were drilled along Interstate Highway 25 and the Rio Grande, from Las Cruces to Rincon, in northern Dona Ana County, New Mexico. This shallow temperature study (a joint exploration program performed with the cooperation and financial assistance of Trans-Pacific Geothermal, Inc. of Oakland, California) resulted in the discovery and confirmation of new and suspected major low-temperature geothermal resources. Elevated temperature and heat flow data suggest a thermal anomaly which can be generally described as being a nearly continuous linear feature which extends some 25 miles in length in a northwest-southeast direction with the only break being a 5-mile gap near the southern end of the study area. The width of the anomaly is only a few miles but tends to thicken around individual anomalies located within this larger anomaly. There are five main individual anomalies situated within the major anomaly and, listed from north to south, they are the: (1) Rincon Anomaly, (2) San Diego Mountain Anomaly, (3) Radium Springs KGRA, (4) Grande Dome Anomaly, and (5) Goat Mountain Anomaly. The main anomaly is well defined by a 4 HFU contour and the individual anomalies range from about 10 HFU to a high of near 30 HFU, estimated for the Rincon Anomaly. A bottom-hole temperature of 54/sup 0/C at 50 meters was also recorded at Rincon. Deeper drilling is certainly warranted and required in the Rincon Anomaly in order to discover and confirm the true commercially exploitable potential of this geothermal resource. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donham, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

  13. Crossbreeding effects on reproductive traits in two strains of duck (Anas platyrhynchos): brown Tsaiya and Pekin.

    PubMed

    Velez, A; Brun, J M; Rouvier, R

    1996-07-01

    1. The reproductive performances of 211 domestic duck females (Anas platyrhynchos) from the pure breeds Brown Tsaiya (Ts) and Pekin (Pk) and their two reciprocal crossbreds were analysed. 2. Differences in the 4 genotypes, additive direct and maternal crossbreeding effects and heterosis were estimated on the following traits: age at first egg, egg production to the ages of 30, 35, 40 and 52 weeks of age, egg weight at 30 weeks of age, and (egg) fertility by artificial insemination with Muscovy drakes' pooled semen. 3. Egg production up to 52 weeks of age was higher in Ts than in Pk (respectively 214 +/- 7 and 150 +/- 8 eggs), but not statistically different from that of the reciprocal crossbreds. The ratio of settable eggs to total eggs was nearly 90%, without any difference between genotypes. 4. Average egg weight at the age of 30 weeks was 75 +/- 0.9 g for Pk, which was higher than the corresponding values for Ts (62 +/- 0.8 g), but not significantly different from the crossbreds. 5. An effect of genotype was found on egg fertility: the Pk strain exhibited the lowest value, 71.3 +/- 3.1% compared with 75.9 +/- 2.1% for Ts, 80.6 +/- 2.6% for Ts x Pk and 74.6 +/- 1.9% for Pk x Ts. 6. Crossbreeding genetic variables showed favourable direct genetic effects for egg production and (egg) fertility in Ts, while Pk had favourable direct genetic effects on egg weight. The Pk genotype had a favourable maternal effect on fertility. Direct heterosis was 34% and 10% for egg production up to 30 and 52 weeks of age respectively, 8.8% for egg weight and 5.4% for (egg) fertility. 7. Crossing Ts with Pk seems profitable for the production of mule ducklings.

  14. The multivariate concentric square field test reveals different behavioural profiles in male AA and ANA rats with regard to risk taking and environmental reactivity.

    PubMed

    Roman, Erika; Meyerson, Bengt J; Hyytiä, Petri; Nylander, Ingrid

    2007-11-02

    The aim of the present investigation was to compare the behavioural profiles in alcohol-preferring AA (Alko, alcohol) and alcohol-avoiding ANA (Alko, non-alcohol) rats. Twelve adult, alcohol-naïve male AA and ANA rats were tested in the recently established multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. The more traditional open field and elevated plus-maze tests were used as reference tests. Six weeks after the initial MCSF test, a repeated testing was used to explore differences in acquired recognition after a previous experience. The results revealed distinct differences between the two lines. The ANA rats were generally more active in the three tests. In the MCSF, parameters of risk taking and shelter seeking indicated differences between the two lines. The ANA rats had higher shelter seeking behaviour and less risk taking behaviour than the AA rats. Repeated exposure to the MCSF caused a general decrease in activity and reduction in the number of visits to the various zones, especially evident in the ANA rats. The ANA rats showed more shelter seeking than the AA rats and also more shelter seeking than in the first trial, supporting an "anxiety-like" profile in these rats. In conclusion, the parameters related to risk taking and shelter seeking revealed obvious differences between AA and ANA rats. The higher risk taking behaviour seen in the AA rats might relate to their innate propensity for high voluntary alcohol intake. The results are discussed in relation to the reported neurobiological differences and in relation to other alcohol-preferring and alcohol-avoiding rat lines.

  15. Prehistoric and Historic Cultural Resources of Selected Sites at Harlan County Lake, Harlan County, Nebraska: Test Excavations and Determination of Significance for 28 Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    1 furcula fragment Level 4 (30-40 cm): 1 scapula fragment Anas discors (Blue- winged Teal) Unit 5, Level 6 (50-60 cm): 1 carpometacarpus fragment Ans...goose (Branta canadensis), mallard (Anas Platvrhynchos), northern pintail (Anas acuta), northern shoveler (Spatula clypeata) and blue- winged teal...Wisconsinan I I I I Bignell IT2a 8,540 B.C. Libby (1955) Loess iI Soil YY I ____(Brady Paleosol) I Medial I I Wisconsinan I Soil X I I I I Soil W I I

  16. Common Tests for Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Tests for Arrhythmia Updated:Dec 21,2016 Several tests can help ... View an animation of arrhythmia . Common Tests for Arrhythmia Holter monitor (continuous ambulatory electrocardiographic monitor) Suspected arrhythmias ...

  17. Finding Common Ground with the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisan, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the Common Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The process raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…

  18. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  19. The Indian Hill Petroglyph Site, 14EW1, Kanopolis Lake: Development of Alternative Mitigation Plans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and blue- winged teal (Anas discors). Game birds likely in the area include the ring...bison scapula hoes; longitudinally grooved arrow shaft smoothers and arrow shaft wrenches of bone or antler; bone awls and fishhooks; stone

  20. Selection for Duration of Fertility and Mule Duck White Plumage Colour in a Synthetic Strain of Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H. C.; Huang, J. F.; Lee, S. R.; Liu, H. L.; Hsieh, C. H.; Huang, C. W.; Huang, M. C.; Tai, C.; Poivey, J. P.; Rouvier, R.; Cheng, Y. S.

    2015-01-01

    A synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) was developed by introducing genes for long duration of fertility to be used as mother of mule ducklings and a seven-generation selection experiment was conducted to increase the number of fertile eggs after a single artificial insemination (AI) with pooled Muscovy semen. Reciprocal crossbreeding between Brown Tsaiya LRI-2 (with long duration of fertility) and Pekin L-201 (with white plumage mule ducklings) ducks produced the G0. Then G1 were intercrossed to produce G2 and so on for the following generations. Each female duck was inseminated 3 times, at 26, 29, and 32 weeks of age. The eggs were collected for 14 days from day 2 after AI. Individual data regarding the number of incubated eggs (Ie), the number of fertile eggs at candling at day 7 of incubation (F), the total number of dead embryos (M), the maximum duration of fertility (Dm) and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H) with plumage colour were recorded. The selection criterion was the breeding values of the best linear unbiased prediction animal model for F. The results show high percentage of exhibited heterosis in G2 for traits to improve (19.1% for F and 12.9% for H); F with a value of 5.92 (vs 3.74 in the Pekin L-201) was improved in the G2. Heritabilities were found to be low for Ie (h2 = 0.07±0.03) and M (h2 = 0.07±0.01), moderately low for Dm (h2 = 0.13±0.02), of medium values for H (h2 = 0.20±0.03) and F (h2 = 0.23±0.03). High and favourable genetic correlations existed between F and Dm (rg = 0.93), between F and H (rg = 0.97) and between Dm and H (rg = 0.90). The selection experiment showed a positive trend for phenotypic values of F (6.38 fertile eggs in G10 of synthetic strain vs 5.59 eggs in G4, and 3.74 eggs in Pekin L-201), with correlated response for increasing H (5.73 ducklings in G10 vs 4.86 in G4, and 3.09 ducklings in Pekin L-201) and maximum duration of the fertile period without increasing the embryo mortality rate. The

  1. Selection for Duration of Fertility and Mule Duck White Plumage Colour in a Synthetic Strain of Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Liu, H C; Huang, J F; Lee, S R; Liu, H L; Hsieh, C H; Huang, C W; Huang, M C; Tai, C; Poivey, J P; Rouvier, R; Cheng, Y S

    2015-05-01

    A synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) was developed by introducing genes for long duration of fertility to be used as mother of mule ducklings and a seven-generation selection experiment was conducted to increase the number of fertile eggs after a single artificial insemination (AI) with pooled Muscovy semen. Reciprocal crossbreeding between Brown Tsaiya LRI-2 (with long duration of fertility) and Pekin L-201 (with white plumage mule ducklings) ducks produced the G0. Then G1 were intercrossed to produce G2 and so on for the following generations. Each female duck was inseminated 3 times, at 26, 29, and 32 weeks of age. The eggs were collected for 14 days from day 2 after AI. Individual data regarding the number of incubated eggs (Ie), the number of fertile eggs at candling at day 7 of incubation (F), the total number of dead embryos (M), the maximum duration of fertility (Dm) and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H) with plumage colour were recorded. The selection criterion was the breeding values of the best linear unbiased prediction animal model for F. The results show high percentage of exhibited heterosis in G2 for traits to improve (19.1% for F and 12.9% for H); F with a value of 5.92 (vs 3.74 in the Pekin L-201) was improved in the G2. Heritabilities were found to be low for Ie (h (2) = 0.07±0.03) and M (h (2) = 0.07±0.01), moderately low for Dm (h (2) = 0.13±0.02), of medium values for H (h (2) = 0.20±0.03) and F (h (2) = 0.23±0.03). High and favourable genetic correlations existed between F and Dm (rg = 0.93), between F and H (rg = 0.97) and between Dm and H (rg = 0.90). The selection experiment showed a positive trend for phenotypic values of F (6.38 fertile eggs in G10 of synthetic strain vs 5.59 eggs in G4, and 3.74 eggs in Pekin L-201), with correlated response for increasing H (5.73 ducklings in G10 vs 4.86 in G4, and 3.09 ducklings in Pekin L-201) and maximum duration of the fertile period without increasing the embryo mortality

  2. Canonical Commonality Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, K. Dawn

    Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor…

  3. Knowledge representation for commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1990-01-01

    Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.

  4. Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Effects of European Union's Regional Development Plans in Doñana National Park (Spain).

    PubMed

    Oñate, Juan José; Pereira, David; Suárez, Francisco

    2003-05-01

    The European Union's Structural Funds are implemented by means of Regional Development Plans (RDP), whose regionally scoped environmental assessment is required. We highlight the deficiencies faced by this approach when subregional areas with high conservation natural values are involved and illustrate it with the case of the RDP of Andalusia region on Doñana National Park area (Spain). Commissioned by the World Wildlife Fund, a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of the Andalusian RDP was carried out focusing on Doñana and its area of influence. This is a complex space where some of the most environmentally valuable features in the continent coexist with a surrounding intense and multi-sector economic activity, threatening its conservation. In the absence of an established sustainability framework in the Region, a "trickle-down" SEA approach evidenced the need to produce a set of environmental, economic and social guidelines for sustainable management of land, against which the RDP objectives were tested for coherence. An "incremental" SEA approach was also tested, which involved the identification of 79 measures and actions stemming from the RDP provisions and other concurrent planning documents reviewed and the qualitative assessment of their individual and cumulative potential impacts on Doñana environments. In the light of the results, a set of complementary mitigating measures was proposed for inclusion in tiered stages of the planning process. Measures to avoid, reduce, remedy and monitor the major types of impact were proposed, including provisions for public participation. SEA emerges as an instrument for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to carry out independent assessment of public development initiatives.

  5. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the western Doñana Region (area of El Abalario), Huelva, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trick, Thomas; Custodio, Emilio

    The Doñana region, in southwestern Spain, comprises a large and important nature reserve, the wetlands of which are affected by human activity. Planting of an extensive eucalyptus forest in the 1950s and, more recently, the use of aquifers for irrigation and water supply for some coastal tourist resorts, have altered the natural groundwater-flow system. The area of the study is the western sector of the region, called El Abalario, which is a gentle topographic elevation between the Atlantic coast and La Rocina Creek (Arroyo de la Rocina). Underneath a variable layer of eolian sands with high dunes near the coast, thick Plio-Quaternary detritic strata, mostly fine silica sands, overlie marls. Near the base there is a variable, deltaic-origin layer of coarse sands and gravels. The dome-shaped water table, inside the sands, is close to the surface everywhere except beneath the dune belt, and small, temporary, shallow lagoons are numerous. The coarse sand and gravel layer conditions groundwater flow and behaves as a semiconfined layer between sands. A cross section through the area was simulated with a model to check the validity of the conceptual groundwater-flow pattern and its sensitivity to the hydraulic parameters. The model was calibrated using parameter values obtained by pumping tests and multilevel piezometric data, and checked against the estimated groundwater discharge into La Rocina Creek. Groundwater flows peripherally to the sea coast, to La Rocina Creek, or directly east and southeastward into the Doñana marshlands, in the Guadalquivir River delta. The average net aquifer recharge rate was calculated to be between 100 and 200 mm year-1 for the area covered by brush, but is remarkably lower in the areas of eucalyptus trees. The transient-state model shows that recharge varies spatially and is not clearly proportional to annual precipitation. Phreatic evapotranspiration plays an important role in decreasing the net value of aquifer recharge to

  6. Application of AnaLig resin for (99m)Tc separation from (100)Mo target irradiated in cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, D W; Wojdowska, W; Parus, L J; Mikołajczak, R

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was the development of procedure for molybdenum metallic target processing after its irradiation in a cyclotron. As a first step the dissolution of molybdenum in various physical forms was investigated. The concentrations of NaOH and (NH4)2CO3 allowing the highest sorption of Tc on AnaLig Tc-02 resin had been found. Based on these results the sintered irradiated Mo pellet was processed. The radionuclidic and radiochemical purities of separated Tc product were evaluated.

  7. Chemical Aerosol Characterization Sampling in Santa Ana during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabe, R.; Castro, T.; Marquez, C.; Cardenas, B.; Salcedo, D.

    2004-12-01

    Aerosol samples were collected during the intensive MCMA-2003 campaign in Santa Ana (19.1772° N, 98.99° W), Mexico City. This small rural town lies near the southeastern border of Mexico City and on the western rim of a mountain pass that channels the southern outflow of air from the city. Particles smaller than 10 μ m in aerodynamic diameter were collected on aluminum foils using three 8-stage micro orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), while fine particles (PM2.5) were collected in quartz fiber filters using manual samplers (MiniVol air samplers, Airmetrics). Samples were taken every 3 days starting at 2am in 6 hr intervals (total time 18 hrs for MOUDI and 24 hrs for MiniVol) from April 10-22, 2003. The MOUDI was operated at a flow rate of 30 l/min with calibrated impaction cut-points in the range of 10 - 0.18 μ m; while the MiniVol operation flow rate was 5 l/min. Prior to sampling, the aluminum foils were pre-conditioned (at 450° C) in a furnace for 8 hrs to eliminate impurities. Both types of filters were weighted using an Ultra Microbalance (Cahn, with a sensitivity of 0.1 μ g) for particulate matter under controlled conditions (20° C and 50% relative humidity). The aluminum foils were cut in halves, one half for Total Carbon (TC) determination with a thermal method, Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA), and the other half for analysis of inorganic ions (Cl-, NO3, SO42-, NA+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg+) by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometer analytic method. Organic and elemental carbon was done according to the IMPROVE Thermal Protocol. Aerosol measurements made with MOUDI showed that the particle size distribution was bimodal in the three sampling periods. During daylight periods, 75% of the collected samples consisted of particles with aerodynamic diameter < 1 μ m whereas the major mass concentration was dominated by particles > 1 μ m during night. PM2.5 results reveal that the highest and lowest levels were obtained during the afternoon (60.6 μ g

  8. Cranial joint histology in the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos): new insights on avian cranial kinesis.

    PubMed

    Bailleul, Alida M; Witmer, Lawrence M; Holliday, Casey M

    2017-03-01

    The evolution of avian cranial kinesis is a phenomenon in part responsible for the remarkable diversity of avian feeding adaptations observable today. Although osteological, developmental and behavioral features of the feeding system are frequently studied, comparatively little is known about cranial joint skeletal tissue composition and morphology from a microscopic perspective. These data are key to understanding the developmental, biomechanical and evolutionary underpinnings of kinesis. Therefore, here we investigated joint microstructure in juvenile and adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos; Anseriformes). Ducks belong to a diverse clade of galloanseriform birds, have derived adaptations for herbivory and kinesis, and are model organisms in developmental biology. Thus, new insights into their cranial functional morphology will refine our understanding of avian cranial evolution. A total of five specimens (two ducklings and three adults) were histologically sampled, and two additional specimens (a duckling and an adult) were subjected to micro-computed tomographic scanning. Five intracranial joints were sampled: the jaw joint (quadrate-articular); otic joint (quadrate-squamosal); palatobasal joint (parasphenoid-pterygoid); the mandibular symphysis (dentary-dentary); and the craniofacial hinge (a complex flexion zone involving four different pairs of skeletal elements). In both the ducklings and adults, the jaw, otic and palatobasal joints are all synovial, with a synovial cavity and articular cartilage on each surface (i.e. bichondral joints) ensheathed in a fibrous capsule. The craniofacial hinge begins as an ensemble of patent sutures in the duckling, but in the adult it becomes more complex: laterally it is synovial; whereas medially, it is synostosed by a bridge of chondroid bone. We hypothesize that it is chondroid bone that provides some of the flexible properties of this joint. The heavily innervated mandibular symphysis is already fused in the

  9. Toxicity and hazard of vanadium to mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; McKernan, M.A.; Eisenreich, K.M.; Link, W.A.; Olsen, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Knowles, K.A.; McGowan, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    A recent Canada goose (Branta canadensis) die-off at a petroleum refinery fly ash pond in Delaware was attributed to vanadium (V) toxicity. Because of the paucity of V toxicity data for wild birds, a series of studies was undertaken using the forms of V believed to have resulted in this incident. In 7-d single oral dose trials with mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos), the estimated median lethal dose (LD50) for vanadium pentoxide was 113 mg/kg body weight, while the LD50 for sodium metavanadate was 75.5 mg/kg. Sodium metavanadate was found to be even more potent (LD50 = 37.2 mg/kg) in male Canada geese. The most distinctive histopathological lesion of both forms of V was Iympho-granulocytic enteritis with hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen. Vanadium accumulation in liver and kidney was proportional to the administered dose, and predictive analyses based on these data suggest that V concentrations of 10 :g/g dry weight (dw) in liver and 25 ug/g dw in kidney are associated with mortality (>90% confidence that exposure is >LD50) in mallards acutely exposed to sodium metavanadate. Chronic exposure to increasing dietary concentrations of sodium metavanadate (38.5 to 2651 ppm) over 67 d resulted in V accumulation in liver and kidney (25.2 and 13.6 ug/g dw, respectively), mild intestinal hemorrhage, blood chemistry changes, and evidence of hepatic oxidative stress in mallards, although some of these responses may have been confounded by food avoidance and weight loss. Dietary exposure of mallards to 250 ppm sodium metavanadate for 4 wk resulted in modest accumulation of V in liver and kidney <5 ug/g dw) and mild intestinal hemorrhage. Based on these data and other observations, it is unlikely that chronic low-level dietary exposure to V poses a direct lethal hazard to wildlife. However, point sources, such as the V-laden fly ash pond encountered by geese at the petroleum refinery in Delaware, may pose a significant hazard to water birds.

  10. Demographic variation, reintroduction, and persistence of an island duck (Anas laysanensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Weiser, Emily; Jamieson, Ian; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Population variation in life history can be important for predicting successful establishment and persistence of reintroduced populations of endangered species. The Laysan duck (Anas laysanensis) is an endangered bird native to the Hawaiian Archipelago that was extirpated from most islands after the introduction of mammalian predators. Laysan ducks were restricted to a single remote island, Laysan Island (4.1 km2), for nearly 150 years. Since the species is not known to disperse between distant Hawaiian Islands today, 42 wild birds from Laysan Island were translocated to another mammalian predator-free low-lying atoll (Midway Atoll; 6.0 km2) to reduce extinction risk. We explored how variation in demography influences establishment and longer-term retention of genetic diversity (rare alleles) for reintroductions of this species. We observed dramatic differences in population growth between the source (λ = 1.18) and reintroduced (λ = 3.28) population. The number of eggs hatched at Midway Atoll was greater than at Laysan Island, however, we found no difference in hatching success (proportion of clutch hatched) between populations. Adult females produced 3 times as many fledglings per breeding year on Midway Atoll compared to Laysan Island. We estimated population abundance of both populations until 2010 and applied a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer density dependence, process variation, observation error, and carrying capacity for the Laysan Island and Midway Atoll populations. The carrying capacity from the Gompertz model for Midway Atoll (K = 883 ± 210 SD) was estimated to be greater than that of Laysan Island (K = 598 ± 76 SD). Translocations with small numbers of founders and no immigration can create population bottlenecks, leading to loss of genetic variation over time, and potentially reducing the reintroduced population's viability or its potential to serve as a source for future translocations. Therefore, we

  11. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  12. Potential vectors of West Nile virus in a semiarid environment: Doña Ana County, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Jimmy B; Byford, Ronnie L; Vuong, Holly B; Steiner, Robert L; Creamer, Rebecca J; Caccamise, Donald F

    2009-11-01

    The potential vectors of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in Doña Ana County, NM, were determined during 2004 and 2005. Trapping was conducted using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light-traps baited with dry ice, and gravid traps baited with a hay infusion. In addition, sentinel chickens were housed at four of the trapping locations to monitor WNV epizootic transmission. In total, 5,576 pools consisting of 115,797 female mosquitoes were tested for WNV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, of which 152 from 13 mosquito species representing six genera were positive. Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex erythrothorax Dyar, Aedes vexans (Meigan), and Psorophora columbiae (Dyar & Knab) accounted for 86% of all detections. Based on the frequency of WNV detection, our data indicate primary and secondary vector roles for Cx. tarsalis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively, with Cx. erythrothorax, Ae. vexans, and Ps. columbiae as occasional vectors of WNV in Dofia Ana County. Other species testing positive for the virus included Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles franciscanus McCracken, Culex stigmatosoma Dyar, Culiseta inornata (Williston), Ochlerotatus dorsalis (Meigan), Ochlerotatus sollicitans (Walker), Ochlerotatus trivittatus (Coquillett), and Psorophora signipennis (Coquillett). Although they occurred after initial WNV detections in mosquitoes, in total, 21 seroconversions in sentinel chickens were detected during the study.

  13. Five Years of Designing Wireless Sensor Networks in the Doñana Biological Reserve (Spain): An Applications Approach

    PubMed Central

    Larios, Diego F.; Barbancho, Julio; Sevillano, José L.; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Molina, Francisco J.; Gasull, Virginia G.; Mora-Merchan, Javier M.; León, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are a technology that is becoming very popular for many applications, and environmental monitoring is one of its most important application areas. This technology solves the lack of flexibility of wired sensor installations and, at the same time, reduces the deployment costs. To demonstrate the advantages of WSN technology, for the last five years we have been deploying some prototypes in the Doñana Biological Reserve, which is an important protected area in Southern Spain. These prototypes not only evaluate the technology, but also solve some of the monitoring problems that have been raised by biologists working in Doñana. This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed during these five years. Here, we demonstrate the enormous potential of using machine learning in wireless sensor networks for environmental and animal monitoring because this approach increases the amount of useful information and reduces the effort that is required by biologists in an environmental monitoring task. PMID:24025554

  14. The microbial food web in the Doñana marshland: Influence of trophic state and hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Àvila, Núria; López-Flores, Rocío; Quintana, Xavier D.; Serrano, Laura

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the composition of the microbial food web in the marshland of Doñana National Park (SW Spain). We analysed factors affecting the predominance of autotrophic (A) or heterotrophic (H) microorganisms in a set of 16 marshland water bodies that differ in their hydrological pattern. Autotrophic organisms were predominant in the Doñana marshland, with autotrophs between 0.3 and 25.3 times higher than heterotrophs in biomass. The variance partitioning analysis using the log A:H biomass ratio (A/H) as a response variable revealed that water body spatial position accounted for the largest portion of total variance (16% of unique effects), followed by environmental variables (13%), with a shared variation of 24%. Zooplankton biomass had no significant influence on A/H ratio. The two first axes of RDA analysis were related to soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations respectively. Cyanobacteria were predominant in waters with high SRP, while other organisms were distributed in relation to DIN by their size, with small organisms predominating with low DIN and large ones with high DIN. Spatial effects reflect the importance of location with respect to the water source in this marshland, where flooding areas are very much dominated by autotrophs, while confined areas, which are a long way from nutrient sources, have a more balanced abundance of autotrophs and heterotrophs.

  15. GC-TOF/MS-based metabolomics approach to study the cellular immunotoxicity of deoxynivalenol on murine macrophage ANA-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jian; Sun, Jiadi; Pi, Fuwei; Zhang, Shuang; Sun, Chao; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2016-08-25

    Gas chromatography-time of fly/mass spectrum (GC-TOF/MS) based complete murine macrophage ANA-1 cell metabolome strategy, including the endo-metabolome and the exo-metabolome, ANA-1 cell viability assays and apoptosis induced by diverse concentrations of DON were evaluated for selection of an optimized dose for in-depth metabolomic research. Using the optimized chromatography and mass spectrometry parameters, the metabolites detected by GC-TOF/MS were identified and processed with multivariate statistical analysis, including principal componentanalysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) analysis. The data sets were screened with a t-test (P) value < 0.05, VIP value > 1, similarity value > 500, leaving 16 exo-metabolite variables and 11 endo-metabolite variables for further pathway analysis. Implementing the integration of key metabolic pathways, the metabolism pathways were categorized into two dominating types, metabolism of amino acid and glycometabolism. Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism were the significant amino acids affected by the metabolic pathways, indicating statistically significant fold changes including pyruvate, serine, glycine, lactate and threonine. Glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and galactose metabolism, belonging to glycometabolism, were the pathways that were found to be primarily affected, resulting in abnormal metabolites such as glucose-1P, Glucose, gluconic acid, myo-inositol, sorbitol and glycerol.

  16. Incorporating Community Knowledge to Lahar Hazard Maps: Canton Buenos Aires Case Study, at Santa Ana (Ilamatepec) Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajo, J. V.; Martinez-Hackert, B.; Polio, C.; Gutierrez, E.

    2015-12-01

    Santa Ana (Ilamatepec) Volcano is an active composite volcano located in the Apaneca Volcanic Field located in western part of El Salvador, Central America. The volcano is surrounded by rural communities in its proximal areas and the second (Santa Ana, 13 km) and fourth (Sonsosante, 15 km) largest cities of the country. On October 1st, 2005, the volcano erupted after months of increased activity. Following the eruption, volcanic mitigation projects were conducted in the region, but the communities had little or no input on them. This project consisted in the creation of lahar volcanic hazard map for the Canton Buanos Aires on the northern part of the volcano by incorporating the community's knowledge from prior events to model parameters and results. The work with the community consisted in several meetings where the community members recounted past events. They were asked to map the outcomes of those events using either a topographic map of the area, a Google Earth image, or a blank paper poster size. These maps have been used to identify hazard and vulnerable areas, and for model validation. These maps were presented to the communities and they accepted their results and the maps.

  17. Anti-dsDNA antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus: A combination of two quantitative methods and the ANA pattern is the most efficient strategy of detection.

    PubMed

    Almeida González, Delia; Roces Varela, Alfredo; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; González Vera, Alexander; Delgado Sánchez, Mónica; Aznar Esquivel, Antonio; Casañas Rodríguez, Carlos; Cabrera de León, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Several methods have been used to measure anti-double-stranded DNA auto-antibody (anti-dsDNA). Our aim was to determine the most efficient strategy to test anti-dsDNA in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, anti-dsDNA and anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) tests were requested for 644 patients. Anti-dsDNA was tested by RIA, ELISA and CLIA in all patients. The results indicated that 78 patients had a positive anti-dsDNA test according to at least one of the methods. After a 3-year follow-up period only 26 patients were diagnosed with SLE. We evaluated each method and combination of methods. Specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) increased with the number of assay methods used (p=0.002 for trend), and PPV was 100% in patients whose results were positive by all three anti-dsDNA assay methods. The proportion of anti-dsDNA-positive patients who had SLE was highest (82%; p b 0.001) among those with a homogeneous pattern of ANA staining, followed by those with a speckled pattern. In ANA positive patients, when only RIA was considered, 59% of anti-dsDNA-positive patients had SLE, but when RIA and CLIA were both considered, all patients with positive results on both tests had SLE. The combination of RIA+CLIA in patients with homogeneous and speckled ANA staining showed a similar cost and higher sensitivity than RIA alone in ANA positive patients (p b 0.001). We conclude that the most efficient strategy was to combine simultaneously two quantitative and sensitive methods but only in patients with a homogeneous or speckled pattern of ANA staining. This approach maximized specificity and PPV, and reduced costs.

  18. Mutational and gene expression analysis of mtrDEF, omcA and mtrCAB during arsenate and iron reduction in Shewanella sp. ANA-3.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Carolina; Murphy, Julie N; Saltikov, Chad W

    2010-07-01

    Arsenate respiration and Fe(III) reduction are important processes that influence the fate and transport of arsenic in the environment. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of arsenate on Fe(III) reduction using arsenate and Fe(III) reduction deficient mutants of Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3. Ferrihydrite reduction in the absence of arsenate was similar for an arsenate reduction mutant (arrA and arsC deletion strain of ANA-3) compared with wild-type ANA-3. However, the presence of arsenate adsorbed onto ferrihydrite impeded Fe(III) reduction for the arsenate reduction mutant but not in the wild-type. In an Fe(III) reduction mutant (mtrDEF, omcA, mtrCAB null mutant of ANA-3), arsenate was reduced similarly to wild-type ANA-3 indicating the Fe(III) reduction pathway is not required for ferrihydrite-associated arsenate reduction. Expression analysis of the mtr/omc gene cluster of ANA-3 showed that omcA and mtrCAB were expressed under soluble Fe(III), ferrihydrite and arsenate growth conditions and not in aerobically grown cells. Expression of arrA was greater with ferrihydrite pre-adsorbed with arsenate relative to ferrihydrite only. Lastly, arrA and mtrA were simultaneously induced in cells shifted to anaerobic conditions and exposed to soluble Fe(III) and arsenate. These observations suggest that, unlike Fe(III), arsenate can co-induce operons (arr and mtr) implicated in arsenic mobilization.

  19. Campus Common Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Gordon Morris

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

  20. Conceptualizing an Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology-management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service-delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment. (Author)

  1. Common Eye Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye,” is the most common cause of vision impairment in children. Amblyopia is the medical term used ... the most common cause of permanent one-eye vision impairment among children and young and middle-aged adults. ...

  2. Ground-water outflow from Chino Basin, Upper Santa Ana Valley, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.

    1972-01-01

    year. Two indirect methods of calculating ground-water outflow were studied as a part of this project: the chemical method and the water-budget method. The chemical method was found to be unsatisfactory. Although the ground-water discharge into the Santa Ana River from Chino basin is quite different in chemical composition from the discharge from Temescal basin, there is no known way to quantitatively separate the total discharge with respect to source. In the water-budget method direct runoff and evapotranspiration were reevaluated, and the ground-water outflow from Temescal basin was calculated by the same direct method employed for Chino basin. Annual ground-water outflow from Temescal basin calculated by the direct method for the period 1930-66 ranged from 11,000 acre-feet in the 1940 and 1945 water years to 3,000 acre-feet in the 1965 water year. Annual ground-water outflow from Chino basin computed by the water-budget method for the period 1933-63 ranged from 45,000 acre-feet in the 1941 water year to 10,000 acre-feet in the 1963 water year.

  3. Communication and common interest.

    PubMed

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Martínez, Manolo

    2013-01-01

    Explaining the maintenance of communicative behavior in the face of incentives to deceive, conceal information, or exaggerate is an important problem in behavioral biology. When the interests of agents diverge, some form of signal cost is often seen as essential to maintaining honesty. Here, novel computational methods are used to investigate the role of common interest between the sender and receiver of messages in maintaining cost-free informative signaling in a signaling game. Two measures of common interest are defined. These quantify the divergence between sender and receiver in their preference orderings over acts the receiver might perform in each state of the world. Sampling from a large space of signaling games finds that informative signaling is possible at equilibrium with zero common interest in both senses. Games of this kind are rare, however, and the proportion of games that include at least one equilibrium in which informative signals are used increases monotonically with common interest. Common interest as a predictor of informative signaling also interacts with the extent to which agents' preferences vary with the state of the world. Our findings provide a quantitative description of the relation between common interest and informative signaling, employing exact measures of common interest, information use, and contingency of payoff under environmental variation that may be applied to a wide range of models and empirical systems.

  4. Effects of Wastewater Discharges on Endocrine and Reproductive Function of Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.) and Implications for the Threatened Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Olivier, Heather M.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Alvarez, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Santa Ana River (SAR) in southern California is impacted by effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), which are sources of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) and urban runoff. The Santa Ana River is one of only three river basins supporting native populations of the federally listed Santa Ana sucker (Catostomus santaanae) at the time the fish was included on the list 2000. In 2004 and 2005, a U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service study was undertaken to determine if the threatened Santa Ana sucker was potentially exposed to OWCs and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the SAR by using the western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as a surrogate fish model. Four Santa Ana River sites were chosen along a gradient of proximity to WWTP effluents: (1) a point source of tertiary treated wastewater effluent (TTWE), (2) Rialto Drain (just below a WWTP), (3) Prado Dam (11 kilometers [km] below WWTPs), and (4) Sunnyslope Creek (no WWTP but having urban runoff influence). A reference site having no WWTPs or urban runoff, Thousand Palms, was also sampled. Chemical analyses of passive sampler extracts results showed that 15 OWCs and EDCs were detected in water from the Santa Ana River sites. Many of these compounds contributed to activity from an estrogenic in-vitro assay that showed a significant potential for impacting endocrine and reproductive systems compared to the 25 organochlorine compounds detected in aquatic biota. The site showing compounds having highest influence on sex steroid hormone activities was the point source for TTWE. Sex steroid hormone levels, secondary sex characteristics, organosomatic indices, and sperm quality parameters indicated impairment of endocrine and reproductive function of male western mosquitofish in the Santa Ana River. Exposure to EDCs and consequent impairment in mosquitofish followed the gradient of proximity to WWTP effluents, where the most significant effects were found at TTWE point source and

  5. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  6. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  7. How Common Is PTSD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... Public, Family, & Friends How Common Is PTSD? Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur after you have been ...

  8. Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

  9. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  10. Common Causes of Stillbirth

    MedlinePlus

    ... one of the most common placental problems. The placenta separates (partially or completely) from the uterine wall ... or abnormal placement of the cord into the placenta. This can deprive the baby of oxygen. Infectious ...

  11. Commonly Consumed Food Commodities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.

  12. Common Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  13. Common peroneal nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - common peroneal nerve; Peroneal nerve injury; Peroneal nerve palsy ... type of peripheral neuropathy (damage to nerves outside the brain ... nerve injuries. Damage to the nerve disrupts the myelin sheath ...

  14. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  15. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  16. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  17. Initial Analysis of Inner Crater Eruptive Deposits and Modeling of the 2005 Eruption of Ilamatepec (Santa Ana) Volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Hackert, B.; Bajo, J. V.; Escobar, D.; Gutierrez, E.

    2011-12-01

    The October 1st, 2005 eruption of Ilamatepec Volcano, also known as Santa Ana Volcano in El Salvador, Central America, was a relatively small phreatic possibly phreatomagmatic eruption that generated an approximately 10km high ash column, with a volume of 1.5 million cubic meters. It generated small pyroclastic density currents, and shortly after the eruption a hot lahar. All of these volcanic products present grat danger to the surrounding population and the surrounding fertile lands growing coffe and sugar cane, the major export products. To better understand the eruptive behavior of this active composite volcano, older deposits need to be studied. An initial analysis of the inner crater eruptive deposits was undertaken in 2011. The many layers that can be seen within the crater suggest that Santa Ana volcano alternates its eruptions from phreatic to phreatomagmatic to magmatic, back to phreatomagmatic to phreatic with a period of rest in between. The last magmatic eruption of the Santa Ana Volcano took place in 1904. There are some historical records of it, and the scoracious materials and lava flows can still be well traced on the flanks and the crater of Ilamatepec, while the 2005 eruption has been eroded away in most areas of the flanks. Observations and data collected in 2005 and 2011 indicate that pyroclastic density currents went not only to the Southeastern flanks of the volcano, but also towards the Northwestern flanks, an area behind the highest rim of the volcano. Deposits up to 0.5 m were found in 2011, after significant erosion already had taken place. We present here the partial stratigraphic column taken within the inner crater walls that indicate alternating eruption styles from eruptions well pre-1904, with radiocarbon dating pending. Additionally, we show the results of the modeling of pyroclastic deposits, and lahars using Titan2D on DEMs extracted from the only topographic map (pre-1980) which has a 10 m resolution of the volcano, and a DEM

  18. Increasing Participation and Success of Minorities and Women at Dona Ana Branch Community College. Submitted to [the] New Mexico Commission on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burr, Marjorie

    In June 1992, Dona Ana Branch Community College (DABCC) in Las Cruces, New Mexico, initiated a self-study to identify changes needed for fuller participation by minorities and women and to establish goals for student, faculty, and staff diversity. The self-study focused on college and program enrollments by gender and ethnicity; recruitment…

  19. The Experience of Bulimic College Students Who Use "Pro-Ana/Pro-Mia" Web Sites: A Two-Phase Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Blair J.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a serious problem in the U.S. due to their rise in prevalence during the 20th century and high morbidity and mortality rates. A relatively new, controversial phenomenon, "pro-Ana" (pro-anorexia) and "pro-Mia" (pro-bulimia) Web sites, came to the public's attention around 2000. These sites are created by and for people…

  20. A Comparative Study of Differences in Perception of Mexican American Students Between Anglo and Mexican American Secondary School Teachers in Dona Ana County (New Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baca, Joseph Donald

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether attitudes toward Mexican American students were associated with the ethnicity, age, and teaching experience of secondary school teachers in Dona Ana County, New Mexico. A 50 item cultural awareness questionnaire was used with a sample of 112 participants. The 6 significant factors studied were…

  1. Discovery of Cyanuric Acid During an Assessment of Natural Organic Matter in Stormflow Water of the Santa Ana River, Southern California, 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, Jerry A.; Izbicki, John A.; Rostad, Colleen E.; Noyes, Ted I.; Woodside, Greg

    2007-01-01

    A stormflow study of natural organic matter and organic contaminants in the Santa Ana River, the Mill Creek tributary, and an urban drain tributary discovered cyanuric acid in variable concentrations up to 510 ?g/L. Cyanuric acid was isolated with a hydrophilic natural organic matter (NOM) fraction, and its identity was confirmed by a combination of infrared spectrometry, 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectrometry, and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. Cyanuric acid concentrations, based upon 13C-NMR spectral quantitation, increased during the peak and recessional flows of the storm hydrographs during three storms at three sites. The greatest fluxes of cyanuric acid were observed in the Santa Ana River during the third storm. The most likely source of cyanuric acid is as a metabolite of triazine herbicides, based on hydrographs, land uses of the drainage basins, and the yearly application rates of triazine herbicides. The daily flux of cyanuric acid in Santa Ana River stormflow during the third storm was calculated to be about 1 percent of the yearly application rate for triazine herbicides. Cyanuric acid was not detected in ground water at wells adjacent to the Santa Ana River.

  2. [Laboratory-based evaluation of "INOVA/QUANTA Lite" to determine antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and autoantibodies to double-stranded DNA, SS-A and SS-B].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Megumi S; Shingaki, Naohiko; Yamane, Nobuhisa

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated QUANTA Lite reagent series (INOVA Diagnostics, CA, USA) to determine antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and autoantibodies to double-stranded (ds) DNA, SS-A and SS-B, in parallel with MESACUP (Medical & Biological Laboratories, Nagoya). Overall agreements between two reagents for qualitative interpretation ranged from 77.5% (ANA) to 99.0%(anti-SS-B antibodies). When we compared to the results by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test on HEp-2 cells, QUANTA Lite ANA demonstrated better sensitivity and specificity; 92.2% versus 76.5% in sensitivity and 92.1% versus 86.8% in specificity. Also, determining anti-chromatin antibodies and IFA test onto Chrithidia luciliae demonstrated greater interpretive correlation to detect anti-ds DNA by QUANTA Lite than by MESACUP. All the discrepant sera to which QUANTA Lite SS-A gave positive interpretations were confirmed to contain the antibodies specific to SS-A 52kDa antigen, which is supplemented to QUANTA Lite capture-probes. With these results, we can conclude that QUANTA Lite has superiorities over MESACUP; (1) to detect a variety of autoantibodies consisting of ANA, (2) to have a better correlation with confirmatory tests to detect anti-ds DNA antibodies, (3)to detect additional autoantibodies specific to SS-A 52kDa antigen, and (4) to have an enough compatibility in determining anti-SS-B antibodies.

  3. Analysis of DFS70 pattern and impact on ANA screening using a novel HEp-2 ELITE/DFS70 knockout substrate.

    PubMed

    Malyavantham, Kishore; Suresh, Lakshmanan

    2017-12-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) using human epithelial cell (HEp-2) substrate is a widely used and the recommended method for screening of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Dense fine speckled (DFS70) pattern on HEp-2 has been widely reported in various healthy and disease groups. Interpretation of DFS70 pattern can be challenging on a conventional HEp-2 substrate due to its similarity to some of the disease associated patterns. The high prevalence of DFS70 autoantibodies in normal population, lack of association with a particular disease group and a general negative association with systemic and ANA associated autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD/AARD) necessitates the confirmation of DFS70 pattern. Results using available commercial assays for confirmation of DFS70 autoantibodies do not always agree with IIF screening results further complicating the lab work flow and ANA algorithms. In this review, we discuss the prevalence of DFS70 antibodies and factors affecting the performance of IIF and DFS70 specific confirmatory assays. Factors that contribute to disagreement between DFS70 suspicion by IIF and confirmatory assays will also be discussed. In addition, we also describe a novel IIF HEp-2 substrate, and its positive impact on DFS70 reporting and ANA screening-confirmation algorithm.

  4. Evaluation of English Language Development Programs in the Santa Ana Unified School District. A Report on Data System Reliability and Statistical Modeling of Program Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Douglas E.; Destino, Tom; Karam, Rita

    In response to concern about the effectiveness of programs for English-as-a-Second-Language students in California's schools, the Santa Ana Unified School District, in which over 80 percent of students are limited-English-proficient (LEP) conducted a study of both the operations and effectiveness of the district's language development program,…

  5. Antibodies to H5 subtype avian influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Spackman, Erica; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Fujita, Go; Konishi, Kan; Reed, John A.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Brown, Justin D.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Blood samples from 105 northern pintails (Anas acuta) captured on Hokkaido, Japan were tested for antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) to assess possible involvement of this species in the spread of economically important and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Antibodies to AIV were detected in 64 of 105 samples (61%). Of the 64 positives, 95% and 81% inhibited agglutination of two different H5 AIV antigens (H5N1 and H5N9), respectively. Antibodies to JEV and WNV were detected in five (5%) and none of the samples, respectively. Results provide evidence for prior exposure of migrating northern pintails to H5 AIV which couldhave implications for viral shedding and disease occurrence. Results also provide evidence for limited involvement of this species in the transmission and spread of flaviviruses during spring migration.

  6. Variability in Lotic Communities in Three Contrasting Stream Environments in the Santa Ana River Basin, California, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.

    2008-01-01

    Biotic communities and environmental conditions can be highly variable between natural ecosystems. The variability of natural assemblages should be considered in the interpretation of any ecological study when samples are either spatially or temporally distributed. Little is known about biotic variability in the Santa Ana River Basin. In this report, the lotic community and habitat assessment data from ecological studies done as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program are used for a preliminary assessment of variability in the Santa Ana Basin. Habitat was assessed, and benthic algae, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish samples were collected at four sites during 1999-2001. Three of these sites were sampled all three years. One of these sites is located in the San Bernardino Mountains, and the other two sites are located in the alluvial basin. Analysis of variance determined that the three sites with multiyear data were significantly different for 41 benthic algae metrics and 65 macroinvertebrate metrics and fish communities. Coefficients of variation (CVs) were calculated for the habitat measurements, metrics of benthic algae, and macroinvertebrate data as measures of variability. Annual variability of habitat data was generally greater at the mountain site than at the basin sites. The mountain site had higher CVs for water temperature, depth, velocity, canopy angle, streambed substrate, and most water-quality variables. In general, CVs of most benthic algae metrics calculated from the richest-targeted habitat (RTH) samples were greater at the mountain site. In contrast, CVs of most benthic algae metrics calculated from depositional-targeted habitat (DTH) samples were lower at the mountain site. In general, CVs of macroinvertebrate metrics calculated from qualitative multihabitat (QMH) samples were lower at the mountain site. In contrast, CVs of many metrics calculated from RTH samples were greater at the mountain site

  7. Santa Ana Winds of Southern California: Their climatology, extremes, and behavior spanning six and a half decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Morales, Janin; Gershunov, Alexander; Theiss, Jurgen; Li, Haiqin; Cayan, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Santa Ana Winds (SAWs) are an integral feature of the regional climate of Southern California/Northern Baja California region, but their climate-scale behavior is poorly understood. In the present work, we identify SAWs in mesoscale dynamical downscaling of a global reanalysis from 1948 to 2012. Model winds are validated with anemometer observations. SAWs exhibit an organized pattern with strongest easterly winds on westward facing downwind slopes and muted magnitudes at sea and over desert lowlands. We construct hourly local and regional SAW indices and analyze elements of their behavior on daily, annual, and multidecadal timescales. SAWs occurrences peak in winter, but some of the strongest winds have occurred in fall. Finally, we observe that SAW intensity is influenced by prominent large-scale low-frequency modes of climate variability rooted in the tropical and north Pacific ocean-atmosphere system.

  8. Genotoxic damage in free-living Algerian mouse (Mus spretus) after the Coto Doñana ecological disaster.

    PubMed

    Tanzarella, C; Degrassi, F; Cristaldi, M; Moreno, S; Lascialfari, A; Chiuchiarelli, G; Ieradi, L A

    2001-01-01

    The Doñana National Park (Spain), one of the most important wildlife sites in the West of Europe, was affected (25 April 1998) by the spill of acidic waste rich in toxic metals (mainly zinc, lead, copper, etc.), arsenic and aromatic amines from the Aznalcollar mine accident. Micronuclei test with May Grunwald-Giemsa and with CREST-antikinetocore staining using DAPI as counter-staining were performed on peripheral blood erythrocytes from Algerian mice to evaluate genotoxic damage. Animals were collected in four locations each differently affected by the disaster. Higher frequencies of micronuclei and CREST-positive micronuclei were observed in the sites, which were reached by toxic sludge and contaminated water in comparison with those located within the park. The results obtained applying the two methods indicate that DAPI staining is more sensitive in detecting micronuclei. Genotoxic biomonitoring should be further carried out in the area to control the mutagenetic level in natural populations.

  9. The environmental quality of Doñana surrounding areas affects the immune transcriptional profile of inhabitant crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Osuna-Jiménez, Inmaculada; Abril, Nieves; Vioque-Fernández, Amalia; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis; Prieto-Álamo, María-José; Pueyo, Carmen

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to identify differentially expressed genes in Procambarus clarkii crayfish collected from locations of different environmental qualities in the Doñana National Park surrounding areas. The pollution sustained by the crayfish was confirmed by their hepatopancreatic metal concentration. We generated forward and reverse libraries by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to analyze the transcriptional profiles of crayfish from moderately and highly polluted zones in comparison with the control site within the Doñana Biological Reserve. Forty-three differentially expressed genes were detected, and most of them were identified as genes involved in a variety of biological functions, particularly in the innate immune response. To verify the SSH results and assess interindividual variability nine transcripts (ALP, AST, BTF3, CHIT, CTS, ferritin, HC, HC2, and SPINK4) were selected for absolute quantification by real-time qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR data revealed substantial differences in the absolute amounts of the nine transcripts and confirmed their up- or down-regulation in the polluted sites. Additionally, a positive and significant linear correlation was found between the hepatopancreatic copper concentration and the levels of the transcripts encoding hemocyanins. Finally, the transcriptomic study was complemented with a detailed analysis of SNP profiles of the selected transcripts that revealed point mutations that might underlie adaptive response to environmental stress in P. clarkii. Overall, this work provides novel insights into the molecular pathways that could mediate the response to environmental pollutants in P. clarkii emphasizing the central role of the immune function and thus, should clearly benefit further immunotoxicological research in this organism.

  10. Occurrence and distribution of pesticide compounds in surface water of the Santa Ana basin, California, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth; Altmann, Andrea J.; Wright, Michael T.; Mendez, Gregory O.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the occurrence and distribution of pesticide compounds in surface water of the highly urbanized Santa Ana Basin, California, was done as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). One-hundred and forty-eight samples were collected from 23 sites, and analyzed for pesticide compounds during the study period from November 1998 to September 2001. Sixty-six different pesticide compounds were detected at varying frequencies and concentrations, and one or more pesticides were detected in 92 percent of the samples. All pesticide concentrations were below maximum levels permitted in drinking water. However, two compounds-diazinon and diuron-exceeded nonenforceable drinking water health-advisory levels in at least one stream sample, and five compounds exceeded guidelines to protect aquatic life-carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, lindane, and malathion. Twenty-two pesticide compounds were detected in at least 25 percent of the samples collected from any one fixed site. These are identified as 'major' pesticide compounds and are emphasized in this report. The degree to which pesticides were used in the basin, as well as their physical-chemical properties, are important explanatory factors in stream pesticide occurrence, and most pesticides probably enter streams with urban runoff. Stormflow substantially increases urban runoff, and storm effects on stream pesticide concentrations sometimes persist for several days or weeks after the storm. Water sources other than urban runoff also deliver pesticide compounds to surface water in the basin. For example, atrazine may enter streams in gaining reaches where ground water carries high loads as a result of historical use in the basin. Also, the data suggest that lindane, and perhaps bromacil, are present in treated wastewater, the predominant source of water to streams in the Santa Ana Basin.

  11. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  12. Biochemical identification of the mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, and black duck, A. rubripes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P.; Noe, L.A.; Henny, C.J.

    1976-01-01

    1. 1. Eleven tissue systems from mallards and black ducks were examined for soluble proteins, lactate dehydrogenases and non-specific esterases through discontinuous polyacrylamide techniques. 2. 2. Biochemical relationships between the black duck and mallard are extremely similar. 3. 3. Hemoglobins and lactate dehydrogenase appear to be common in electrophoretic mobility between the two species. 4. 4. Approximately 89% of the soluble proteins and 58% of the non-specific esterases are common among the two species, indicating both biochemical similarity at the genus level and species-specificity.

  13. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  14. Necrobiosis lipoidica associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and positive detection of ANA and ASMA autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Borgia, Francesco; Russo, Giuseppina T; Villari, Provvidenza; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Cucinotta, Domenico; Cannavò, Serafinella P

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a rare idiopathic cutaneous condition exceptionally associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. We describe the first case of NL, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and positive detection of autoantibodies. Appropriate screening for NL in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis may clarify its real incidence and the existence of a common pathogenetic pathway. PMID:26273437

  15. Necrobiosis lipoidica associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and positive detection of ANA and ASMA autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Borgia, Francesco; Russo, Giuseppina T; Villari, Provvidenza; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Cucinotta, Domenico; Cannavò, Serafinella P

    2015-07-01

    Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a rare idiopathic cutaneous condition exceptionally associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. We describe the first case of NL, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and positive detection of autoantibodies. Appropriate screening for NL in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis may clarify its real incidence and the existence of a common pathogenetic pathway.

  16. Finding the Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dawn

    1980-01-01

    Describes an attempt to combine secondary English instruction emphasizing United States literature with science and history by finding "common ground" between these disciplines in (1) the separation of truth from falsehood and (2) logical thinking. Biographies combined history and literature, and science fiction combined science and English;…

  17. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  18. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  19. Information Commons to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Marc Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

  20. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  1. Commonalities across Effective Collaboratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jill F.; Flynn, Richard B.

    2000-01-01

    Examined effective collaborations involving schools and colleges of education and other organizations, identifying commonly voiced reasons for collaboration and factors perceived as important in collaboration. Data come from research, case descriptions, survey responses, and input from collaborators. Willingness to listen, mutual respect,…

  2. The Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the conflicting principles revealed respectively by those who argue for the common school and by those who seek to promote a system of schools that, though maintained by the state, might reflect the different religious beliefs within the community. The philosopher, John Dewey, is appealed to in defence of the common…

  3. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  4. Pleasure: the common currency.

    PubMed

    Cabanac, M

    1992-03-21

    At present as physiologists studying various homeostatic behaviors, such as thermoregulatory behavior and food and fluid intake, we have no common currency that allows us to equate the strength of the motivational drive that accompanies each regulatory need, in terms of how an animal or a person will choose to satisfy his needs when there is a conflict between two or more of them. Yet the behaving organism must rank his priorities and needs a common currency to achieve the ranking (McFarland & Sibly, 1975, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 270 Biol 265-293). A theory is proposed here according to which pleasure is this common currency. The perception of pleasure, as measured operationally and quantitatively by choice behavior (in the case of animals), or by the rating of the intensity of pleasure or displeasure (in the case of humans) can serve as such a common currency. The tradeoffs between various motivations would thus be accomplished by simple maximization of pleasure. In what follows, the scientific work arising recently on this subject, with be reviewed briefly and our recent experimental findings will be presented. This will serve as the support for the theoretical position formulated in this essay.

  5. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  6. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  7. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  8. Human Commonalities and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

  9. Does Common Enrollment Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Clayton, Grant

    2016-01-01

    In this article, researchers Dick M. Carpenter II and Grant Clayton explore common enrollment systems (CESs)--how they work and what school leaders can learn from districts that have implemented CESs. Denver, New Orleans, and Newark (New Jersey) have rolled out this centralized enrollment process for all district-run and charter schools in their…

  10. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  11. Common File Formats.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  12. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  13. Math, Literacy, & Common Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

  14. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  15. Common medical pains

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Pain in infancy and childhood is extremely common. Sources of pain include illness, injury, and medical and dental procedures. Over the past two decades, tremendous progress has been made in the assessment, prevention and treatment of pain. It is important for the paediatric health care provider to be aware of the implications and consequences of pain in childhood. A multitude of interventions are available to reduce or alleviate pain in children of all ages, including neonates. These include behavioural and psychological methods, as well as a host of pharmacological preparations, which are safe and effective when used as indicated. Many complementary and alternative treatments appear to be promising in treating and relieving pain, although further research is required. The present article reviews the most common sources of pain in childhood and infancy, as well as current treatment strategies and options. PMID:19030348

  16. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  17. Common Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincent C.

    1992-01-01

    Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9 PMID:21221380

  18. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  19. Common neuropathic itch syndromes.

    PubMed

    Oaklander, Anne Louise

    2012-03-01

    Patients with chronic itch are diagnosed and treated by dermatologists. However, itch is a neural sensation and some forms of chronic itch are the presenting symptoms of neurological diseases. Dermatologists need some familiarity with the most common neuropathic itch syndromes to initiate diagnostic testing and to know when to refer to a neurologist. This review summarizes current knowledge, admittedly incomplete, on neuropathic itch caused by diseases of the brain, spinal cord, cranial or spinal nerve-roots, and peripheral nerves.

  20. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  1. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  2. Common Geometry Module

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  3. Geodynamic evolution of the Salinas de Añana diapir in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Western Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankovic, Allen; Eguiluz, Luis; Martínez-Torres, Luis M.

    2016-02-01

    The Salinas de Añana diapir is located in the Basque-Cantabrian basin part of the great evaporite basin, along with the Gulf of Mexico and the Central European basin, when the fragmentation of Pangea started. The evolution of these basins can only be achieved by understanding the control of salt in the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of these basins. Sedimentation began with clastic Buntsandstein sediments and minor Muschelkalk limestones. Subsequent Keuper evaporites are the bottom of sedimentary cover constituted by Jurassic limestones and marls, a clastic Lower Cretaceous and an alternant limestone and marl Upper Cretaceous, whose deposition has been conditioned by salt tectonics. The emplacement of salt extends from the Aptian until now, favored by the duplication of the salt thickness associated with the thrust of Sierra Cantabria, so it is an excellent example to study changes in the regime of intrusion along the time. The geodynamic evolution of the Salinas de Añana diapir was determined through the interpretation of 45 reprocessed seismic lines, along with information from three wells. Migration of the salt in this diapir, conditioned by N120E and N30E pre-Alpine basement lineations, was determined using time isopach maps of the various rock layers. Vertical evolution of the diapir was determined through the reconstruction of a north-south section at various geologic times by flattening the respective seismic horizons. A minimum of salt flow into the diapir coincides with a minimum rate of sedimentation during the Turonian. Similarly, maximum flows of salt into the diapir occurred during the Coniacian and Lower Santonian and again from the end of the Lower Miocene to the present, coinciding with maximum rates of sedimentation during these times. In the Tertiary, probably during the Oligocene, the diapir was displaced to the south by the Sierra Cantabria thrust, maintaining the contact between the evaporites of diapir and the same evaporites of the

  4. Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Biman; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency of young adolescents and adults which also affects the children. The disease remains largely under-diagnosed in India and Southeast Asian countries. Although in majority of cases it is sporadic, disease may be inherited in a autosomal recessive pattern and rarely, in autosomal dominant pattern. Patients, in addition to frequent sino-pulmonary infections, are also susceptible to various autoimmune diseases and malignancy, predominantly lymphoma and leukemia. Other characteristic lesions include lymphocytic and granulomatous interstitial lung disease, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gut. Diagnosis requires reduced levels of at least two immunoglobulin isotypes: IgG with IgA and/or IgM and impaired specific antibody response to vaccines. A number of gene mutations have been described in CVID; however, these genetic alterations account for less than 20% of cases of CVID. Flow cytometry aptly demonstrates a disturbed B cell homeostasis with reduced or absent memory B cells and increased CD21(low) B cells and transitional B cell populations. Approximately one-third of patients with CVID also display T cell functional defects. Immunoglobulin therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Immunologists and other clinicians in India and other South East Asian countries need to be aware of CVID so that early diagnosis can be made, as currently, majority of these patients still go undiagnosed.

  5. Epidemiology of Ancylostoma spp. in the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) in the Doñana National Park, south-west Spain.

    PubMed

    Vicente, J; Palomares, F; Ruiz de Ibañez, R; Ortiz, J

    2004-06-01

    The epidemiology of Ancylostoma spp. was studied in the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) in the Doñana National Park, south-west Spain. Faecal samples were collected throughout a complete annual cycle (August 1997 to September 1998). The overall egg prevalence of Ancylostoma spp. was 57.8%. The pattern of abundance of Ancylostoma spp. eggs in faeces was overdispersed. Juvenile lynx demonstrated a statistically higher prevalence and abundance of Ancylostoma spp. than in adults. These levels of egg output (maximum 21195 epg), as previously reported in free ranging large felid cubs, could be close to disease involvement. The potential pathogenicity of hookworms and the influence of individual and ecological factors on hookworm transmission in the Iberian lynx from the Doñana National Park population are discussed.

  6. Common hair loss disorders.

    PubMed

    Springer, Karyn; Brown, Matthew; Stulberg, Daniel L

    2003-07-01

    Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, dose attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a specific pattern of temporal-frontal loss in men and central thinning in women. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved topical minoxidil to treat men and women, with the addition of finasteride for men. Telogen effluvium is characterized by the loss of "handfuls" of hair, often following emotional or physical stressors. Alopecia areata, trichotillomania, traction alopecia, and tinea capitis have unique features on examination that aid in diagnosis. Treatment for these disorders and telogen effluvium focuses on resolution of the underlying cause.

  7. [Common anemias in neonatology].

    PubMed

    Humbert, J; Wacker, P

    1999-01-28

    We describe the four most common groups of neonatal anemia and their treatments, with particular emphasis on erythropoietin therapy. The hemolytic anemias include the ABO incompatibility (much more frequent, nowadays, than the Rh incompatibility, which has nearly disappeared following the use of anti-D immunoglobulin in postpartum Rh-negative mothers), hereditary spherocytosis and G-6-PD deficiency. Among hypoplastic anemias, that caused by Parvovirus B19 predominates, by far, over Diamond-Blackfan anemia, alpha-thalassemia and the rare sideroblastic anemias. "Hemorrhagic" anemias occur during twin-to-twin transfusions, or during feto-maternal transfusions. Finally, the multifactorial anemia of prematurity develops principally as a result of the rapid expansion of the blood volume in this group of patients. Erythropoietin therapy, often at doses much higher than those used in the adult, should be seriously considered in most cases of non-hypoplastic neonatal anemias, to minimise maximally the use of transfusions.

  8. TMT common software update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Kim; Brighton, Allan; Buur, Hanne

    2016-08-01

    TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their functional roles in the software system. TMT CSW has recently passed its preliminary design review. The unique features of CSW include its use of multiple, open-source products as the basis for services, and an approach that works to reduce the amount of CSW-provided infrastructure code. Considerable prototyping was completed during this phase to mitigate risk with results that demonstrate the validity of this design approach and the selected service implementation products. This paper describes the latest design of TMT CSW, key features, and results from the prototyping effort.

  9. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  10. Design of a Computer-Assisted System to Automatically Detect Cell Types Using ANA IIF Images for the Diagnosis of Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chung-Chuan; Lu, Chun-Feng; Hsieh, Tsu-Yi; Lin, Yaw-Jen; Taur, Jin-Shiuh; Chen, Yung-Fu

    2015-10-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence technique applied on HEp-2 cell substrates provides the major screening method to detect ANA patterns in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. Currently, the ANA patterns are mostly inspected by experienced physicians to identify abnormal cell patterns. The objective of this study is to design a computer-assisted system to automatically detect cell patterns of IIF images for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases in the clinical setting. The system simulates the functions of modern flow cytometer and provides the diagnostic reports generated by the system to the technicians and physicians through the radar graphs, box-plots, and tables. The experimental results show that, among the IIF images collected from 17 patients, 6 were classified as coarse-speckled, 3 as diffused, 2 as discrete-speckled, 1 as fine-speckled, 2 as nucleolar, and 3 as peripheral patterns, which were consistent with the patterns determined by the physicians. In addition to recognition of cell patterns, the system also provides the function to automatically generate the report for each patient. The time needed for the whole procedure is less than 30 min, which is more efficient than the manual operation of the physician after inspecting the ANA IIF images. Besides, the system can be easily deployed on many desktop and laptop computers. In conclusion, the designed system, containing functions for automatic detection of ANA cell pattern and generation of diagnostic report, is effective and efficient to assist physicians to diagnose patients with autoimmune diseases. The limitations of the current developed system include (1) only a unique cell pattern was considered for the IIF images collected from a patient, and (2) the cells during the process of mitosis were not adopted for cell classification.

  11. Temporal Controls on Uplift and Slip Rates for the Puente Hills and Santa Ana Mountains, Southern Los Angeles Basin, Orange County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gath, E. M.; Grant, L. B.; Owen, L. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Puente Hills (PH) are seismically active and tectonically uplifted by the Puente Hills Blind Thrust fault (PHBTF). The rate of uplift, and consequently, the late Quaternary slip rate of the eastern part of the PHBTF, herein named the Santa Ana segment, can be constrained by mapping and dating Quaternary stream terraces and strath surfaces in the Santa Ana River Canyon. The PH are cut by the 2-3 mm/yr right-lateral Whittier fault, itself capable of M6.7-7.2 earthquakes. The 7 mapped terraces and strath surfaces of the PH are cut by the Whittier fault with minimal vertical separation. OSL dating, soil age estimates, and correlation with sea level highstands constrains the PH uplift rate to 0.6-1.4 mm/yr based on OSL dates, and 0.2-0.8 mm/yr from other methods. The rates overlap in the range 0.6-0.8 mm/yr, and we propose that this is the most reliable estimate of uplift rate because it is based on several methods. An uplift rate of 0.6-0.8 mm/yr for the PH is also consistent with a 500 700 ka emergent age based on our geomorphic analysis of PH drainage basin development. Using a 30° dip angle produces a slip rate on the Santa Ana segment of the PHBTF of 1.2-1.6 mm/yr. Preliminary tectonic geomorphic analysis of the Santa Ana Mountains (SAM) suggests that they too are being uplifted and are probably seismically active. Shorelines preserved on the lower foothills of Peralta and Loma Ridges were correlated to eustatic sea levels for age estimations. Mapping and dating of terraces in the Santiago Creek drainage, and the older marine terraces indicates that the SAM are uplifting at 0.2-0.7 mm/yr, probably due to a blind thrust associated with partial termination of the Elsinore fault.

  12. Use of metallomics and metabolomics to assess metal pollution in Doñana National Park (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    García-Sevillano, M A; García-Barrera, T; Navarro, F; Abril, N; Pueyo, C; López-Barea, J; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2014-07-15

    Monitoring organism exposure to heavy metals has acquired increased importance in the last decades. The mouse Mus spretus has been used to assess the biological response to contaminants in the relevant ecological area of Doñana National Park (DNP) and surrounding areas (SW Spain), where many migrating birds land for breeding and feeding every year. A metallomics approach, based on the characterization of metal biomolecules using size exclusion chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) and a metabolomics approach based on direct infusion to a mass spectrometer (DI-ESI-QTOF-MS) followed by a partial linear square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), were used to compare the biological responses of M. spretus living in three areas of DNP (the reference) and surrounding areas (El Partido and El Matochal). The activities of key antioxidant enzymes, such as Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, GR, and guaiacol peroxidase, were also determined in connection with environmental contamination issues. The results show differences caused by the presence of metals in the ecosystem that affected to the levels of metals and metalloproteins, such as MT, Cu/Zn-SOD, or Mn-CA, the breakdown of membrane phospholipids, perturbations in metabolic pathways, related to energy metabolism, and oxidative stress.

  13. Understanding the role of multiheme cytochromes in iron(III) reduction and arsenic mobilization by Shewanella sp. ANA-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, C.; Duenas, R.; Saltikov, C.

    2006-12-01

    The reduction of Fe (III) to Fe (II) and of arsenate (As (V)) to arsenite (As (III)) by Fe (III) reducing and As (V) respiring prokaryotes such as the bacterium Shewanella sp. ANA-3 may contribute to arsenic mobilization in aquifers contaminated with arsenic, specifically in places such as Bangladesh. Under oxic conditions As (V) predominates and is often adsorbed onto mineral surfaces such as amorphous ferrihydrite. However, under anoxic conditions As (III) predominates, sorbs to fewer minerals, and has a greater hydrologic mobility compared to As (V). The genetic mechanism underlying arsenic release from subsurface material most likely involves a combination of respiratory gene clusters (e.g. mtr/omc and arr). In this study, we are investigating the genetic pathways underlying arsenic mobilization. We have generated various mutations in the mtr/omc gene cluster, which encodes several outermembrane decaheme c-type cytochromes. Deletions in one mtr/omc gene did not eliminate iron reduction. However, strains carrying multiple gene deletions were greatly impaired in iron reduction abilities. Work is currently underway to generate combinations of iron reduction and arsenate reduction single and double mutants that will be used to investigate microbial mobilization of arsenic in flow-through columns containing As (V)-HFO coated sand. This work will address the importance of arsenate reduction and iron reduction in the mobilization of arsenic.

  14. Establishing a food-chain link between aquatic plant material and avian vacuolar myelinopathy in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Birrenkott, Anna H; Wilde, Susan B; Hains, John J; Fischer, John R; Murphy, Thomas M; Hope, Charlotte P; Parnell, Pamela G; Bowerman, William W

    2004-07-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease primarily affecting bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and American coots (Fulica americana). The disease was first characterized in bald eagles in Arkansas in 1994 and then in American coots in 1996. To date, AVM has been confirmed in six additional avian species. Attempts to identify the etiology of AVM have been unsuccessful to date. The objective of this study was to evaluate dermal and oral routes of exposure of birds to hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and associated materials to evaluate their ability to induce AVM. Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were used in all trials; bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) also were used in one fresh hydrilla material exposure trial. Five trials were conducted, including two fresh hydrilla material exposure trials, two cyanobacteria exposure trials, and a frozen hydrilla material exposure trial. The cyanobacteria exposure trials and frozen hydrilla material trial involved gavaging mallards with either Pseudanabaena catenata (live culture), Hapalosiphon fontinalis, or frozen hydrilla material with both cyanobacteria species present. With the exception of one fresh hydrilla exposure trial, results were negative or inconclusive. In the 2002 hydrilla material exposure trial, six of nine treated ducks had histologic lesions of AVM. This established the first cause-effect link between aquatic vegetation and AVM and provided evidence supporting an aquatic source for the causal agent.

  15. The changing influences of the AMO and PDO on the decadal variation of the Santa Ana winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Andy K.; Paek, Houk; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2016-06-01

    Santa Ana wind (SAW) events have great implications for the environment of Southern California, but the cause of their decadal variability has not been fully understood. We show with observational analysis that the Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation (AMO) has a stronger influence than the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) in modulating SAW activity through two mechanisms: the Great Basin pressure gradient mechanism, in which a strengthened Great Basin high promotes SAW activity and vice versa through the northeast-southwest pressure gradient across Southern California, and the Pacific jetstream displacement mechanism, in which a strengthened Pacific subtropical high (PSH) prohibits mid-latitude cyclones from traveling toward California, consequently encouraging SAW development and vice versa. While the AMO strengthens or weakens both the Great Basin and PSHs to strongly modulate SAW activity through these two mechanisms, the PDO strengthens one of the highs but weakens the other, causing the two mechanisms to cancel each other, producing little influence on SAW activity. A projection based on the AMO and PDO indicates that the above-average SAW activity observed since the beginning of the 21st century is likely to terminate after 2016, after which Southern California may experience an extended period of below-average SAW activity through 2030.

  16. Santa Ana Winds of Southern California: Their Climatology and Variability Spanning 6.5 Decades from Regional Dynamical Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Morales, J.; Gershunov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Santa Ana Winds (SAWs) are an integral feature of the regional climate of Southern California/Northern Baja California region. In spite of their tremendous episodic impacts on the health, economy and mood of the region, climate-scale behavior of SAW is poorly understood. In the present work, we identify SAWs in mesoscale dynamical downscaling of a global reanalysis product and construct an hourly SAW catalogue spanning 65 years. We describe the long-term SAW climatology at relevant time-space resolutions, i.e, we developed local and regional SAW indices and analyse their variability on hourly, daily, annual, and multi-decadal timescales. Local and regional SAW indices are validated with available anemometer observations. Characteristic behaviors are revealed, e.g. the SAW intensity-duration relationship. At interdecadal time scales, we find that seasonal SAW activity is sensitive to prominent large-scale low-frequency modes of climate variability rooted in the tropical and north Pacific ocean-atmosphere system that are also known to affect the hydroclimate of this region. Lastly, we do not find any long-term trend in SAW frequency and intensity as previously reported. Instead, we identify a significant long-term trend in SAW behavior whereby contribution of extreme SAW events to total seasonal SAW activity has been increasing at the expense of moderate events. These findings motivate further investigation on SAW evolution in future climate and its impact on wildfires.

  17. Levels of persistent organochlorine residues in eggs of greater flamingos from the Guadalquivir marshes (Doñana), Spain.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Raimon; Clavero, Raquel; Mateo, Rafael; Máñez, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residue levels were determined in 53 unhatched eggs from greater roseus flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber). Eggs were collected in 1996 from the National Park of Doñana (Guadalquivir marshes, Southwest Spain), immediately after one breeding colony abandoned the nesting site due to predator attacks. The main metabolite of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, was the OCP residue found at higher concentrations, with a geometric mean of 721 ng/g wet weight. Residues of other pesticides, including some hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, heptachlor, and heptachlor-epoxide, were detected at much lower concentrations. The sum of PCBs was 528 ng/g, with PCB congeners #187 and #153 being the most prominent in eggs. The pattern observed in these compounds of industrial origin corresponded more to Aroclor 1260 than to any other commercial mixture. Levels of organochlorine residues indicate a medium degree of exposure, and they are not considered of any concern for the flamingo population. In particular, neither p,p'-DDE nor PCB levels were found to be correlated with the eggshell thickness.

  18. Genetic evidence of intercontinental movement of avian influenza in a migratory bird: The northern pintail (Anas acuta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koehler, A.V.; Pearce, J.M.; Flint, P.L.; Franson, J.C.; Ip, H.S.

    2008-01-01

    The role of migratory birds in the movement of the highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza H5N1 remains a subject of debate. Testing hypotheses regarding intercontinental movement of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses will help evaluate the potential that wild birds could carry Asian-origin strains of HP avian influenza to North America during migration. Previous North American assessments of LPAI genetic variation have found few Asian reassortment events. Here, we present results from whole-genome analyses of LPAI isolates collected in Alaska from the northern pintail (Anas acuta), a species that migrates between North America and Asia. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the genetic divergence between Asian and North American strains of LPAI, but also suggested inter-continental virus exchange and at a higher frequency than previously documented. In 38 isolates from Alaska, nearly half (44.7%) had at least one gene segment more closely related to Asian than to North American strains of LPAI. Additionally, sequences of several Asian LPAI isolates from GenBank clustered more closely with North American northern pintail isolates than with other Asian origin viruses. Our data support the role of wild birds in the intercontinental transfer of influenza viruses, and reveal a higher degree of transfer in Alaska than elsewhere in North America. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  19. Mortality and hematology associated with the ingestion of one number four lead shot in black ducks, Anas rubripes

    SciTech Connect

    Pain, D.J.; Rattner, B.A.

    1988-02-01

    The black duck (anas rubripes) is a dabbling duck endemic to North America. Since population surveys of this species began in the early 1950's, numbers have declined steadily at the rate of approximately 1.5% a year. In 1980 the North American population was estimated to be only 42% of that recorded in 1952. Several reasons have been suggested for this decline. One environmental contaminant that may be contributing to the decline is spent lead gunshot. The ingestion of gunshot by waterfowl is well documented and is thought to kill an estimated 1.6-3.8 million waterfowl each year in North America. There has been little research concerning the toxicity of lead gunshot to the black duck and the present significance of lead poisoning as a mortality factor in this species. This study reports the results of an experiment in which captive black ducks were dosed with one number four lead shot. Mortality rates and hematological effects are discussed in relation to lead toxicity.

  20. Effects of Pax3 and Pax7 expression on muscle mass in the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica).

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Zhang, R P; Zhao, Y M; Li, Q Q; Yan, X P; Liu, J Y; Gou, H; Li, L

    2015-09-28

    This study aimed to investigate whether the differential expression of muscle development-related genes is one of the reasons why muscle development differs between Pekin, Jianchang, and Heiwu ducks, which are all domesticated duck breeds (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) breeds. At 2 weeks of age, the RNA expression of paired box 7 (Pax7), paired box 3 (Pax3), myogenic differentiation antigen (MYOD), and myogenin (MYOG) genes were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Pax3 and Pax7 protein levels were detected by western blot assay. Myofiber morphology was investigated using paraffin-embedded muscle sections. At 8 weeks of age, 30 ducks of each breed were slaughtered for meat quality determination. The results revealed that Pax3 and Pax7 expression levels at both the RNA and protein levels were high in the Pekin duck. In addition, MYOG expression levels in the Jianchang duck were significantly higher than in the other two duck breeds (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in MYOD expression levels between the breeds (P > 0.05). Myofiber diameter and cross-sectional area were the largest in the Pekin duck and the smallest in the Heiwu duck. There were significant differences in slaughter data between these breeds, and muscle content was greatest in the Pekin duck. The results indicate that the muscle content of three different duck breeds is associated with the expression of satellite-cell marker genes.

  1. Embedding the AnaFocus' Eye-RIS vision system in roving robots to enhance the action-oriented perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alba Soto, Luis; Morillas, Sergio; Listán, Juan; Jiménez, Amanda; Arena, Paolo; Patané, Luca; De Fiore, Sebastiano

    2009-05-01

    This paper aims to describe how the AnaFocus' Eye-RIS family of vision systems has been successfully embedded within the roving robots developed under the framework of SPARK and SPARK II European projects to solve the action-oriented perception problem in real time. Indeed, the Eye-RIS family is a set of vision systems which are conceived for single-chip integration using CMOS technologies. The Eye-RIS systems employ a bio-inspired architecture where image acquisition and processing are truly intermingled and the processing itself is carried out in two steps. At the first step, processing is fully parallel owing to the concourse of dedicated circuit structures which are integrated close to the sensors. These structures handle basically analog information. At the second step, processing is realized on digitally-coded information data by means of digital processors. On the other hand, SPARK I and SPARK II are European research projects which goal is to develop completely new sensing-perceiving-moving artefacts inspired by the basic principles of living systems and based on the concept of "selforganization". As a result, its low-power consumption together with its huge image-processing capabilities makes the Eye-RIS vision system a suitable choice to be embedded within the roving robots developed under the framework of SPARK projects and to implement in real time the resulting mathematical models for action-oriented perception.

  2. Concentrations and activity ratios of uranium isotopes in groundwater from Doñana National Park, South of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolívar, J. P.; Olías, M.; González-García, F.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-01

    The levels and distribution of natural radionuclides in groundwaters from the unconfined Almonte-Marismas aquifer, upon which Doñana National Park is located, have been analysed. Most sampled points were multiple piezometers trying to study the vertical distribution of the hydrogeochemical characteristics in the aquifer. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were determined in the field. A large number of parameters, physico-chemical properties, major and minor ions, trace elements and natural radionuclides (U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, Ra-isotopes and 210Po), were also analysed. In the southern zone, where aeolian sands crop out, water composition is of the sodium chloride type, and the lower U-isotopes concentrations have been obtained. As water circulates through the aquifer, bicarbonate and calcium concentrations increase slightly, and higher radionuclides concentrations were measured. Finally, we have demonstrated that 234U/238U activity ratios can be used as markers of the type of groundwater and bedrock, as it has been the case for old waters with marine origin confined by a marsh in the south-east part of aquifer.

  3. Humid microclimates within the plumage of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) can potentially facilitate long distance dispersal of propagules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlan, Neil E.; Kelly, Tom C.; Davenport, John; Jansen, Marcel A. K.

    2015-05-01

    Birds as carriers of propagules are major agents in the dispersal of plants, animals, fungi and microbes. However, there is a lack of empirical data in relation to bird-mediated, epizoochorous dispersal. The microclimate found within the plumage likely plays a pivotal role in survival during flight conditions. To investigate the potential of epizoochory, we have analysed the microclimatic conditions within the plumage of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Under similar ambient conditions of humidity and temperature, a sample of mallards showed a consistent microclimatic regime with variation across the body surface. The highest (mean) temperature and specific humidity occurred between feathers of the postpatagium. The lowest humidity was found between feathers of the centre back and the lowest temperature in the crissum. Observed differences in plumage depth and density, and distance from the skin, are all likely to be determining factors of microclimate condition. Specific humidity found within the plumage was on average 1.8-3.5 times greater than ambient specific humidity. Thus, the plumage can supply a microclimate buffered from that of the exterior environment. Extrapolating survival data for Lemna minor desiccation at various temperature and humidity levels to the measured plumage microclimatic conditions of living birds, survival for up to 6 h can be anticipated, especially in crissum, crural and breast plumage. The results are discussed in the context of potential long distance epizoochorous dispersal by A. platyrhynchos and similar species.

  4. Antisense 2'-Deoxy, 2'-Fluoroarabino Nucleic Acid (2'F-ANA) Oligonucleotides: In Vitro Gymnotic Silencers of Gene Expression Whose Potency Is Enhanced by Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Souleimanian, Naira; Deleavey, Glen F; Soifer, Harris; Wang, Sijian; Tiemann, Katrin; Damha, Masad J; Stein, Cy A

    2012-01-01

    Gymnosis is the process of the delivery of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to cells, in the absence of any carriers or conjugation, that produces sequence-specific gene silencing. While gymnosis was originally demonstrated using locked nucleic acid (LNA) gapmers, 2'-deoxy-2'fluoroarabino nucleic acid (2'F-ANA) phosphorothioate gapmer oligonucleotides (oligos) when targeted to the Bcl-2 and androgen receptor (AR) mRNAs in multiple cell lines in tissue culture, are approximately as effective at silencing of Bcl-2 expression as the iso-sequential LNA congeners. In LNCaP prostate cancer cells, gymnotic silencing of the AR by a 2'F-ANA phosphorothioate gapmer oligo led to downstream silencing of cellular prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression even in the presence of the androgenic steroid R1881 (metribolone), which stabilizes cytoplasmic levels of the AR. Furthermore, gymnotic silencing occurs in the absence of serum, and silencing by both LNA and 2'F-ANA oligos is augmented in serum-free (SF) media in some cell lines when they are treated with oleic acid and a variety of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-6 PUFAs), but not by an aliphatic (palmitic) fatty acid. These results significantly expand our understanding of and ability to successfully manipulate the cellular delivery of single-stranded oligos in vitro.

  5. Mapping of a conformational epitope on the cashew allergen Ana o 2: a discontinuous large subunit epitope dependent upon homologous or heterologous small subunit association.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lixin; Willison, LeAnna N; Porter, Lauren; Robotham, Jason M; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2010-05-01

    The 11S globulins are members of the cupin protein superfamily and represent an important class of tree nut allergens for which a number of linear epitopes have been mapped. However, specific conformational epitopes for these allergens have yet to be described. We have recently reported a cashew Ana o 2 conformational epitope defined by murine mAb 2B5 and competitively inhibited by a subset of patient IgE antibodies. The 2B5 epitope appears to reside on the large (acidic) subunit, is dependent upon small (basic) subunit association for expression, and is highly susceptible to denaturation. Here we fine map the epitope using a combination of recombinant chimeric cashew Ana o 2-soybean Gly m 6 chimeras, deletion and point mutations, molecular modeling, and electron microscopy of 2B5-Ana o 2 immune complexes. Key residues appear confined to a 24 amino acid segment near the N-terminus of the large subunit peptide, a portion of which makes direct contact with the small subunit. These data provide an explanation for both the small subunit dependence and the structurally labile nature of the epitope.

  6. Analysis and Purification of Bioactive Natural Products: The AnaPurNa Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Based on a meta-analysis of data mined from almost 2000 publications on bioactive natural products (NPs) from >80 000 pages of 13 different journals published in 1998–1999, 2004–2005, and 2009–2010, the aim of this systematic review is to provide both a survey of the status quo and a perspective for analytical methodology used for isolation and purity assessment of bioactive NPs. The study provides numerical measures of the common means of sourcing NPs, the chromatographic methodology employed for NP purification, and the role of spectroscopy and purity assessment in NP characterization. A link is proposed between the observed use of various analytical methodologies, the challenges posed by the complexity of metabolomes, and the inescapable residual complexity of purified NPs and their biological assessment. The data provide inspiration for the development of innovative methods for NP analysis as a means of advancing the role of naturally occurring compounds as a viable source of biologically active agents with relevance for human health and global benefit. PMID:22620854

  7. Molecular modeling and residue interaction network studies on the mechanism of binding and resistance of the HCV NS5B polymerase mutants to VX-222 and ANA598.

    PubMed

    Xue, Weiwei; Jiao, Pingzu; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2014-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B protein is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) with essential functions in viral genome replication and represents a promising therapeutic target to develop direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Multiple nonnucleoside inhibitors (NNIs) binding sites have been identified within the polymerase. VX-222 and ANA598 are two NNIs targeting thumb II site and palm I site of HCV NS5B polymerase, respectively. These two molecules have been shown to be very effective in phase II clinical trials. However, the emergence of resistant HCV replicon variants (L419M, M423T, I482L mutants to VX-222 and M414T, M414L, G554D mutants to ANA598) has significantly decreased their efficacy. To elucidate the molecular mechanism about how these mutations influenced the drug binding mode and decreased drug efficacy, we studied the binding modes of VX-222 and ANA598 to wild-type and mutant polymerase by molecular modeling approach. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations results combined with binding free energy calculations indicated that the mutations significantly altered the binding free energy and the interaction for the drugs to polymerase. The further per-residue binding free energy decomposition analysis revealed that the mutations decreased the interactions with several key residues, such as L419, M423, L474, S476, I482, L497, for VX-222 and L384, N411, M414, Y415, Q446, S556, G557 for ANA598. These were the major origins for the resistance to these two drugs. In addition, by analyzing the residue interaction network (RIN) of the complexes between the drugs with wild-type and the mutant polymerase, we found that the mutation residues in the networks involved in the drug resistance possessed a relatively lower size of topology centralities. The shift of betweenness and closeness values of binding site residues in the mutant polymerase is relevant to the mechanism of drug resistance of VX-222 and ANA598. These results can provide an atomic-level understanding about

  8. The ars detoxification system is advantageous but not required for As(V) respiration by the genetically tractable Shewanella species strain ANA-3.

    PubMed

    Saltikov, Chad W; Cifuentes, Ana; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Newman, Dianne K

    2003-05-01

    Arsenate [As(V); HAsO(4)(2-)] respiration by bacteria is poorly understood at the molecular level largely due to a paucity of genetically tractable organisms with this metabolic capability. We report here the isolation of a new As(V)-respiring strain (ANA-3) that is phylogenetically related to members of the genus Shewanella and that also provides a useful model system with which to explore the molecular basis of As(V) respiration. This gram-negative strain stoichiometrically couples the oxidation of lactate to acetate with the reduction of As(V) to arsenite [As(III); HAsO(2)]. The generation time and lactate molar growth yield (Y(lactate)) are 2.8 h and 10.0 g of cells mol of lactate(-1), respectively, when it is grown anaerobically on lactate and As(V). ANA-3 uses a wide variety of terminal electron acceptors, including oxygen, soluble ferric iron, oxides of iron and manganese, nitrate, fumarate, the humic acid functional analog 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate, and thiosulfate. ANA-3 also reduces As(V) to As(III) in the presence of oxygen and resists high concentrations of As(III) (up to 10 mM) when grown under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. ANA-3 possesses an ars operon (arsDABC) that allows it to resist high levels of As(III); this operon also confers resistance to the As-sensitive strains Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Escherichia coli AW3110. When the gene encoding the As(III) efflux pump, arsB, is inactivated in ANA-3 by a polar mutation that also eliminates the expression of arsC, which encodes an As(V) reductase, the resulting As(III)-sensitive strain still respires As(V); however, the generation time and the Y(lactate) value are two- and threefold lower, respectively, than those of the wild type. These results suggest that ArsB and ArsC may be useful for As(V)-respiring bacteria in environments where As concentrations are high, but that neither is required for respiration.

  9. A multiproxy study of Holocene water-depth and environmental changes in Lake St Ana, Eastern Carpathian Mountains, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyari, E. K.; Buczkó, K.; Braun, M.; Jakab, G.

    2009-04-01

    This study presents the results of a multi-disciplinary investigation carried out on the sediment of a crater lake (Lake Saint Ana, 950 m a.s.l.) from the Eastern Carpathian Mountains. The lake is set in a base-poor volcanic environment with oligotrophic and slightly acidic water. Loss-on-ignition, major and trace element, pollen, plant macrofossil and siliceous algae analyses were used to reconstruct Holocene environmental and water-depth changes. Diatom-based transfer functions were applied to estimate the lake's trophic status and pH, while reconstruction of the water-depth changes was based on the plant macrofossil and diatom records. The lowest Holocene water-depths were found between 9,000 and 7,400 calibrated BP years, when the crater was occupied by Sphagnum-bog and bog-pools. The major trend from 7,400 years BP was a gradual increase, but the basin was still dominated by poor-fen and poor fen-pools. Significant increases in water-depth, and meso/oligotrophic lake conditions were found from 5,350(1), 3,300(2) and 2,700 years BP. Of these, the first two coincided with major terrestrial vegetation changes, namely the establishment of Carpinus betulus on the crater slope (1), and the replacement of the lakeshore Picea abies forest by Fagus sylvatica (2). The chemical record clearly indicated significant soil changes along with the canopy changes (from coniferous to deciduous), that in turn led to increased in-lake productivity and pH. A further increase in water-depth around 2,700 years BP resulted in stable thermal stratification and hypolimnetic anoxia that via P-release further increased in-lake productivity and eventually led to phytoplankton blooms with large populations of Scenedesmus cf. S. brasiliensis. High productivity was depressed by anthropogenic lakeshore forest clearances commencing from ca. 1,000 years BP that led to the re-establishment of Picea abies on the lakeshore and consequent acidification of the lake-water. On the whole, these data

  10. Integration of Long term experiments on terrestrial ecosystem in AnaEE-France Research Infrastructure : concept and adding value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanzy, André; Chabbi, Abad; Houot, Sabine; Lafolie, François; Pichot, Christian; Raynal, Hélène; Saint-André, Laurent; Clobert, Jean; Greiveldinger, Lucile

    2015-04-01

    Continental ecosystems represent a critical zone that provide key ecological services to human populations like biomass production, that participate to the regulation of the global biogeochemical cycles and contribute and contribute to the maintenance of air and water quality. Global changes effects on continental ecosystems are likely to impact the fate of humanity, which is thus facing numerous challenges, such as an increasing demand for food and energy, competition for land and water use, or rapid climate warming. Hence, scientific progress in our understanding of the continental critical zone will come from studies that address how biotic and abiotic processes react to global changes. Long term experiments are required to take into account ecosystem inertia and feedback loops and to characterize trends and threshold in ecosystem dynamics. In France, 20 long-term experiments on terrestrial ecosystems are gathered within a single Research Infrastructure: ANAEE-France (http://www.anaee-s.fr), which is a part of AnaEE-Europe (http://www.anaee.com/). Each experiment consist in applying differentiated pressures on different plot over a long period (>20 years) representative of a range of management options. The originality of such infrastructure is a combination of experimental set up and long-term monitoring of simultaneous measurements of key ecosystem variables and parameters through a multi-disciplinary approach and replications of each treatment that improve the statistical strength of the results. The sites encompass gradients of climate conditions, ecosystem complexity and/or management, and can be used for calibration/validation of ecosystem functioning models as well as for the design of ecosystem management strategies. Gathering those experiments in a single research infrastructure is an important issue to enhance their visibility and increase the number of hosting scientific team by offering a range of services. These are: • Access to the ongoing long

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adult and juvenile mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from the Hudson River, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Madden, Sean S; Skinner, Lawrence C

    2016-09-01

    The Hudson River, NY, USA is contaminated for over 300 km with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) released from two General Electric (GE) capacitor plants. We collected adult and juvenile mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from four different areas of the river; an area upstream of the GE plants (n = 38), two areas directly downstream of the GE plants (n = 41, n = 38), and an area more than 100 km downstream in the freshwater tidal river (n = 20). Collections occurred during July and August (2008) when ducks were flightless to ensure ducks were "resident" and exposures were local. Fat and muscle tissue were analyzed for PCBs. PCBs were detected in all samples, and mallards below the GE plant sites on the Hudson River had orders of magnitude higher concentrations of PCBs than those above the plants. Juvenile mallards from areas directly downstream of the GE plant sites tended to have higher PCB concentrations in fat than adults. The patterns of PCB congeners and homolog groups varied across the study areas, with areas directly downstream of the GE plants dominated by tetra-chloro biphenyls whereas samples from upstream and the freshwater tidal river tended towards higher chlorinated congeners. Congener patterns between male and female and juvenile and adult mallards were generally similar within study areas, with the exception of one area downstream of the GE plants where adult birds exhibited different patterns than juveniles. Evidence of PCBs from the GE plant sites was detected in the tidal Hudson River, more than 100 km downstream of the plant sites. More than 90% of the ducks collected in areas downstream of the GE plants but above the tidally influenced river exceed the USFDA tolerance level for PCBs in poultry, which should be a concern for consumers of waterfowl taken in proximity to the upper Hudson River.

  12. Parent and conjugated estrogens and progestagens in surface water of the Santa Ana River: Determination, occurrence, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Yates, Scott R; Ashworth, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    The present study investigated the occurrence of 13 parent and conjugated estrogens and progestagens in surface water of the Santa Ana River. With the exception of the synthetic hormones 17α-ethynylestradiol and mestranol, other compounds were detected at least twice at 10 representative sites, with the ubiquitous estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol-3-sulfate as the dominant compounds quantified (0.24-6.37 ng/L and 0.49-9.25 ng/L, respectively). Sites near dairy farms exhibited high levels of conjugates, whereas those close to a sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent outlet displayed relatively high concentrations of E1. Principle component analysis coupled with multiple linear regression revealed dairy farms and the STP as the 2 significant contamination sources, accounting for 69.9% and 31.1% of the total hormone burden, respectively. Risk assessment results suggested E1 and 17β-estradiol (E2) as the 2 hormones with the largest risks to aquatic organisms, and which combined, contributed >90% of the total estrogenicity. Most of the sites investigated showed that E1 and E2 posed a medium risk (0.1 < risk quotient < 1), whereas each induced a high risk (risk quotient >1) at sites severely impacted by the STP and dairy farms. These results suggest that river health would benefit from effective treatment of waste at the STP and dairy farms prior to discharge. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2657-2664. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. Sediment phosphate composition in relation to emergent macrophytes in the Doñana Marshes (SW Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reina, M.; Espinar, J.L.; Serrano, L.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the effect of the presence of emergent macrophytes on the sediment phosphate composition of a eutrophic shallow marsh on the NE margin of Doñana (SW Spain). Top sediment and water samples were collected from both the open-water and the vegetated sites at three areas covered by different plant species: Scirpus maritimus, Juncus subulatus and Phragmites australis. The concentration of organic matter was significantly higher in the top sediment of sites covered by vegetation than in their adjacent open-water sites at the three vegetation areas. The P-fractional composition showed that the sediment was dominated by the inorganic P-fractions in all cases, reaching the highest concentration in the Ca-bound P-fraction (281–372 μg g−1 d.w.). The sum of all P-fractions was significantly higher in the top sediment of the sites covered by J. subulatus and S. maritimus than in their adjacent open-water sites, and so were the org-P fraction extracted by hot NaOH and the concentration of phytate within this fraction. Deposition of plant material on the top sediment of areas vegetated by J. subulatus and S. maritimus explains these differences. The P-fractional composition of the seeds from J. subulatus showed that they contained a large proportion of organic P-fractions, particularly of the fraction extracted by hot NaOH (1868 μg g−1 d.w., 85% of which was phytate). The presence of emergent macrophytes, therefore, influenced the distribution of P-fractions in the sediment depending on plant species. The P-bioavailability of shallow aquatic systems must be fully understood if wetlands are to be protected from further eutrophication.

  14. Three novel Anas platyrhynchos avian β-defensins, upregulated by duck hepatitis virus, with antibacterial and antiviral activities.

    PubMed

    Ma, Deying; Lin, Lijuan; Zhang, Kexin; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Liu, Xiaoli; Liu, Shengwang

    2011-10-01

    Three novel Anas platyrhynchos avian β-defensins (Apl_AvBDs), Apl_AvBD4, 7 and 12, were identified successfully and characterized in tissues from Peking ducks in the present study. The cDNA fragment of Apl_AvBD4 contained 171 bp, and encoded 56 amino acids. The complete nucleotide sequences of Apl_AvBD7 and 12 contained 204 bp and 198 bp open reading frames, which encoded 67 and 65 amino acids, respectively. Both recombinant and synthetic forms of the three Apl_AvBDs showed antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria investigated, including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, except for Salmonella choleraesuis. In addition, the antibacterial activity of all the three Apl_AvBDs decreased significantly in 150 mM NaCl. Significant antiviral activity of the three Apl_AvBDs was shown against duck hepatitis virus (DHV). However, none of the Apl_AvBDs showed significant hemolytic activity. Additionally, the expressions of the three Apl_AvBDs in response to DHV infection was highly variable, and significant upregulation of Apl_AvBD7 in liver was found in response to infection at different time points. Expression of Apl_AvBD4 in thymus, and of Apl_AvBD7 in bone marrow was induced in a time-dependent fashion by DHV infection. In contrast, expression of Apl_AvBD12 was found to be significantly decreased, and was hard to detect in cecal tonsil, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus of ducks at some time points after DHV infection. The present results demonstrate that Apl_AvBDs play vital roles in the immune response of ducks against bacterial and viral pathogens.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira spp. isolated from commercial laying hens and free-living wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Jansson, Désirée S; Pringle, Märit

    2011-08-01

    In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility to tylosin, valnemulin, tiamulin, doxycycline, lincomycin and ampicillin was investigated by broth dilution in 48 Brachyspira spp. isolates from commercial laying hens (n=30) and free-living wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) (n=18). Presumed pathogens (Brachyspira alvinipulli, Brachyspira intermedia, Brachyspira pilosicoli), commensals (Brachyspira murdochii, Brachyspira innocens, "Brachyspira pulli"), and isolates of undetermined species affiliation were included. The laying hens had not been exposed to therapeutic levels of antimicrobials for at least 50 weeks before sampling, and low levels of environmental antimicrobial exposure were presumed in mallards. No isolates with decreased susceptibility to tylosin, valnemulin, tiamulin or doxycycline were found. Decreased susceptibility to lincomycin (minimum inhibitory concentration 16 µg/ml) was detected in two isolates (Brachyspira sp.) from laying hens. Five isolates showed decreased susceptibility to ampicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration 16 to >32 µg/ml), including two "B. pulli" and one B. alvinipulli from laying hens, and isolates of B. pilosicoli and "B. pulli" from mallards. Decreased susceptibility to ampicillin was associated with β-lactamase activity in four isolates. A new variant of a class D β-lactamase gene designated bla (oxa-192) was identified in a B. pilosicoli isolate of mallard origin. This is the first time the genetic basis for antimicrobial resistance is described in Brachyspira spp. from a free-living wild bird. Isolates displaying decreased susceptibility to ampicillin were accompanied by fully susceptible isolates of the same species or other genotypes within three laying hen flocks. This underlines the need for performing antimicrobial susceptibility tests on single clones/genotypes, and to analyse multiple isolates from the same flock.

  16. Production of chicken progeny (Gallus gallus domesticus) from interspecies germline chimeric duck (Anas domesticus) by primordial germ cell transfer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhai; Khazanehdari, Kamal A; Baskar, Vijaya; Saleem, Shazia; Kinne, Joerg; Wernery, Ulrich; Chang, Il-Kuk

    2012-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the differentiation of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) primordial germ cells (PGCs) in duck (Anas domesticus) gonads. Chimeric ducks were produced by transferring chicken PGCs into duck embryos. Transfer of 200 and 400 PGCs resulted in the detection of a total number of 63.0 ± 54.3 and 116.8 ± 47.1 chicken PGCs in the gonads of 7-day-old duck embryos, respectively. The chimeric rate of ducks prior to hatching was 52.9% and 90.9%, respectively. Chicken germ cells were assessed in the gonad of chimeric ducks with chicken-specific DNA probes. Chicken spermatogonia were detected in the seminiferous tubules of duck testis. Chicken oogonia, primitive and primary follicles, and chicken-derived oocytes were also found in the ovaries of chimeric ducks, indicating that chicken PGCs are able to migrate, proliferate, and differentiate in duck ovaries and participate in the progression of duck ovarian folliculogenesis. Chicken DNA was detected using PCR from the semen of chimeric ducks. A total number of 1057 chicken eggs were laid by Barred Rock hens after they were inseminated with chimeric duck semen, of which four chicken offspring hatched and one chicken embryo did not hatch. Female chimeric ducks were inseminated with chicken semen; however, no fertile eggs were obtained. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that chicken PGCs could interact with duck germinal epithelium and complete spermatogenesis and eventually give rise to functional sperm. The PGC-mediated germline chimera technology may provide a novel system for conserving endangered avian species.

  17. Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems (AnaEE): a new research distributed infrastructure to tackle ecosystem complexity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabbi, Abad; Roy, Jacques; Beier, Claus; Miglietta, Franco

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems represent a critical zone that provide key ecological services to human populations in the form of food, fibre and energy climate protection or nutrient recycling, to name a few. In this critical zone, human activities are directly or indirectly generating major environmental pressures, such as pollution, global warming, and the destruction and alteration of natural habitats. Altogether, these global changes result in a rapid erosion of biodiversity and a major perturbation of ecological systems and services. It is therefore vital to understand how ecological systems respond and adapt to such pressures and perturbations and to test sustainable land use and innovative green technologies in order to address societal challenges. Today, a major focus in ecological and agricultural sciences is on the production of quantitative, experimentally reproducible and testable approaches using advances in our ability to characterize complex ecological systems from genes to ecosystem levels. The need for experimental approaches that require sophisticated equipment and instruments, technological advances, and strong theoretical foundation through conceptualization and modelling of ecosystem functioning is addressed by a new ESFRI FP7 distributed research infrastructures called AnaEE (Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems). Such approaches are the mechanistic bases of adaptation and impacts on eco- and agrosystem functioning to be deciphered. ANAEE is setting up and offers a distributed infrastructure of open-access platforms providing facilities to conduct experiments and analyse and model complex ecological systems. ANAEE through its integrated and experimental approach to ecosystem functioning will provide a quantum leap in the quality and availability of data and projections on continental ecosystems responses to global changes and to management, enabling policy makers and stakeholders to sustainably manage ecosystem services for all citizens.

  18. Hepatic glutathione metabolism and lipid peroxidation in response to excess dietary selenomethionine and selenite in mallard ducklings. [Anas platyrhynchos

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Krynitsky, A.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Studies were conducted with mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings to determine the effects of excess dietary selenium (Se) on hepatic glatathione concentration and associated enzymes, and lipid peroxidation. Day-old ducklings were fed 0.1, 10, 20, or 40 ppm Se as seleno-DL-methionine or sodium selenite for 6 wk. Selenium from selenomethionine accumulated in a dose-dependent manner in the liver, resulting in a decrease in the concentration of hepatic-reduced glutathione (GSH) and total hepatic thiols (SH). These effects were accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in the ratio of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to GSH, and an increase in malondialdehyde concentration as evidence of lipid peroxidation. Hepatic and plasma GSH peroxidase activity was initially elevated at 10 ppm Se as selenomethionine, whereas GSSG reductase activity was elevated at higher concentrations of Se. Selenium from sodium selenite accumulated in the liver to an apparent maximum at 10 ppm in the diet, resulting in an increase in hepatic GSH and GSSG accompanied by a small decrease in total hepatic SH. Sodium selenite resulted in an increase in hepatic GSSG reductase activity at 10 ppm and in plasm GSSG reductase activity at 40 ppm. A small increase in lipid peroxidation occurred at 40 ppm. These findings indicate that excess dietary Se as selenomethionine has a more pronounced effect on hepatic glutathione metabolism and lipid peroxidation in ducklings than dose selenite, which may be related to the pattern of accumulation. Effects of Se as selenite appear to be less pronounced in ducklings than reported in laboratory rodents. The effects of selenomethionine, which occurs in vegetation, are of particular interest with respect to the health of wild aquatic birds in seleniferous locations.

  19. Cofunctional Subpathways Were Regulated by Transcription Factor with Common Motif, Common Family, or Common Tissue.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Shang, Desi; Xu, Yanjun; Feng, Li; Yang, Haixiu; Liu, Baoquan; Su, Shengyang; Chen, Lina; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Dissecting the characteristics of the transcription factor (TF) regulatory subpathway is helpful for understanding the TF underlying regulatory function in complex biological systems. To gain insight into the influence of TFs on their regulatory subpathways, we constructed a global TF-subpathways network (TSN) to analyze systematically the regulatory effect of common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs on subpathways. We performed cluster analysis to show that the common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs that regulated the same pathway classes tended to cluster together and contribute to the same biological function that led to disease initiation and progression. We analyzed the Jaccard coefficient to show that the functional consistency of subpathways regulated by the TF pairs with common motif, common family, or common tissue was significantly greater than the random TF pairs at the subpathway level, pathway level, and pathway class level. For example, HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha) and NR1I3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3) were a pair of TFs with common motif, common family, and common tissue. They were involved in drug metabolism pathways and were liver-specific factors required for physiological transcription. In short, we inferred that the cofunctional subpathways were regulated by common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs.

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  1. Common Core State Standards 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent the first time that nearly every state has set common expectations for what students should know and be able to do. In the past, each state set its own standards, and the results varied widely. And while states collectively developed these common standards, decisions about the curriculum and…

  2. GC-TOF/MS-based metabolomic strategy for combined toxicity effects of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on murine macrophage ANA-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jian; Zhu, Pei; Pi, Fuwei; Sun, Chao; Jiang, Hui; Sun, Jiadi; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2016-09-15

    The actual health risk from exposure to combined mycotoxins is unknown, and few studies have focused on changes to cellular biological systems (e.g., metabolomics) caused by combined mycotoxic effects. To evaluate the combined mycotoxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on the level of cellular biological systems, gas chromatographic, time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (GC-TOF/MS) of the complete murine macrophage ANA-1 cell metabolome was implemented in this study. Using optimized chromatography and mass spectrometry parameters, the metabolites detected by GC-TOF/MS were identified and processed using multivariate statistical analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection on latent-structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The metabolite sets were screened for further pathway analysis under rules of t-test (P) value < 0.05, VIP value > 1, and similarity value > 500. The mainly interfered metabolism pathways were categorized into two dominant types: amino acid metabolism and glycometabolism. Four metabolites, palmitic acid, 1-monopalmitin, ribose-5-phosphate and 2-deoxy-D-galactose, occur only under combined "DON + ZEN" treatment, indicating abnormal metabolism in ANA-1 cells. The metabolic state of ANA-1 cells under induction by combined "DON + ZEN" illustrates that DON may inhibit the estrogenic effects of ZEN. Thus, the combined effect of "DON + ZEN" may exacerbate toxicity in the pentose phosphate pathway, while palmitic acid metabolism is likely a new pathway effected by the combination, "DON + ZEN."

  3. Accumulation of As, Cd and selected trace elements in tubers of Scirpus aritimus L. from Doñana marshes (South Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madejon, P.; Murillo, J.M.; Maranon, T.; Espinar, J.L.; Cabrera, F.

    2006-01-01

    The collapse of a pyrite-mining, tailing dam on 1998 contaminated an area of 4286 ha along the Agrio and Guadiamar river valleys in southern Spain. Over 2700 ha of the Doñana marshes, an important wintering area for wetland European birds, were contaminated. This study reports analyses of the tubers of Scirpus maritimus (an important food for greylag geese, Anser anser) collected in 2000 in the “Entremuros” (spill-affected area) and in nearby unaffected Doñana marshes (control areas). In the spill-affected area mean tuber tissue concentrations of Cd (0.25 mg kg−1) and Zn (61 mg kg−1) were greater than in those tubers from the control area (0.02 mg kg−1 for Cd, and 22 mg kg−1 for Zn); values of Cd and Zn in “Entremuros” (samples collected two years after the mine spill) were much smaller than those reported only a few months after the accident. Trace elements (As, Fe, Mn and Tl, and to a lesser extent Cd and Pb) showed a preferential accumulation in the outer skin of tubers. Surprisingly, concentrations of As and Fe were greater in tubers from some marsh sites not affected by the mine-spill than in tubers from the “Entremuros”. We suggest that relic river channels within the Doñana marshes may be contaminated by trace elements from historic mining activities. An exhaustive study of macrophytes and other plant species in this area is recommended to identify potential risks to wildlife.

  4. An interview with ANA president Lucille A. Joel: nursing's eye toward current and future health care issues. Interview by Marilyn L. Neff.

    PubMed

    Joel, L A

    1992-04-01

    After two terms as president of the American Nurses Association (ANA), Lucille A. Joel, EdD, RN, FAAN, keynote speaker for ANNA's 23rd National Symposium in Chicago, will share her thoughts on nursing's future role in health care. In this interview, conducted by ANNA President Marilyn L. Neff, MBA, RN, CNN, Dr. Joel discussed current and future issues such as unity among nursing, Nursing's Agenda for Health Care Reform, collective bargaining, equity in workplace settings, community nursing organizations, and nursing faculty shortages.

  5. Project W-314 acceptance test report HNF-4651 for HNF-4650 SN-268 encasement leak detection ANA-WT-LDSTA-335 for project W-314

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-09-30

    The purpose of the test was to verify that the AN Tank Farm Encasement Leak Detector components are functionally integrated and operate in accordance with engineering design specifications The Acceptance Test Procedure HNF-4650, SN-268 Encasement Leak Detection ANA-W-LDSTA-335, was conducted between 22 June and 01 July 1999 at the 200E AN Tank Farm. The test has been completed with no open test exceptions The test was conducted prior to final engineering ''as built'' activities being completed this had no impact on the procedure or test results. All components, identified in the procedure, were found to be labeled and identified as written in the procedure.

  6. The burden of the variability introduced by the HEp-2 assay kit and the CAD system in ANA indirect immunofluorescence test.

    PubMed

    Infantino, M; Meacci, F; Grossi, V; Manfredi, M; Benucci, M; Merone, M; Soda, P

    2016-07-25

    According to the recent recommendations of the American College of Rheumatology, ANA Task Force, IIF technique should be considered the gold standard in antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) testing. To overcome the lack of standardization, biomedical industries have developed several computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. Two hundred and sixty-one consecutive samples with suspected autoimmune diseases were tested for ANA by means of IIF on routinely HEp-2 assay kit (Euroimmun AG). Assignment of result was made if consensus for positive/negative was reached by at least 2 out of 3 expert physicians. ANA-IIF was also carried out using 3 CAD systems: Zenit G-Sight (n = 84), Helios (n = 85) and NOVA View (n = 92); human evaluation was repeated on the same substrate of each CAD system (Immco, Aesku and Inova HEp-2 cells, respectively). To anonymize the results, we randomly named these three systems as A, B and C. We ran a statistical analysis computing several measures of agreement between the ratings, and we also improved the evaluation by using the Wilcoxon's test for nonparametric data. Agreement between the human readings on routinely HEp-2 assay kit and human readings on CAD HEp-2 assay was substantial for A (k = 0.82) and B (k = 0.72), and almost perfect for C (k = 0.89). Such readings were statistically different only in case A. Comparing experts' readings with the readings of CAD systems, when the samples were prepared using CAD HEp-2 assay kits, we found almost perfect agreement for B and C (k = 0.86; k = 0.82) and substantial agreement for A (k = 0.73). Again, human and CAD readings were statistically different only in A. When we compared the readings of medical experts on routinely HEp-2 assay kit with the output of the CAD systems that worked using their own slides, we found substantial agreement for all the systems (A: k = 0.62; B: k = 0.65; C: k = 0.71). Such readings were not statistically different. The change of the assay kit and/or the

  7. Physical And Technical Energy Problems. Factors of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction in the Road Transport of Latvia / Siltumnīcefekta Gāzu Emisiju Samazināšanas Faktori Autotransportā Latvijā

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grackova, L.; Klavs, G.

    2013-02-01

    The admissible scenarios are considered as related to reduction in the greenhouse gas emissions from the road transport in Latvia by 2020. All of the scenarios are analysed, and the proofs are presented for the possibility to reduce such emissions as well as the energy consumption through a more extensive use of efficient cars and biofuel. Izmantojot scenāriju modelēšanas pieeju un COPERT IV modeli, novērtēts siltumnīcefekta gāzu emisiju samazināšanas potenciāls autotransportā Latvijā līdz 2020. gadam. Modelēšanas rezultāti un analīze ļauj secināt, ka neskatoties uz sagaidāmo automašīnu skaita palielināšanos, jaunu energoefektīvu automašīnu ar augstākiem izmešu standartiem izmantošana un biodegvielas piemaisījuma palielināšana autotransportā izmantojamā degvielā ļauj ierobežot siltumnīcefekta gāzu emisiju pieaugumu.

  8. Physical and Technical Energy Problems: Testing of the Prototype for State Estimation of Large-Scale Power Systems / Lielo Energosistēmu Stāvokļa Novērtēšanas Prototipa Testēšana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukov, O.; Briņķis, K.; Mutule, A.

    2013-08-01

    The paper describes the algorithm for distributed state estimation (SE) and is focused on its testing and validation. For this purpose, different events in the modeled power system of the 330-750 kV electrical ring Latvia - Lithuania - Belarus - Smolensk - Moscow - St. Petersburg - Estonia - Latvia were considered. The methods for testing the Inter-TSO SE prototype and dynamic network monitoring & modeling are based on comparison of the available SCADA data about real events with those of SE calculation. In total, four operational states were studied, including initial, accident and two post-accident operational states Rakstā tiek aprakstīti, testēti un novērtēti izkliedēta stāvokļa novērtēšanas algoritmi. Testēšanas nolūkos tika izmantoti dažādi 330-750 kV elektriskā loka Latvija - Lietuva - Baltkrievija - Smoļenska - Maskava - Pēterburga - Igaunija - Latvija modelēti scenāriji. Prototipa testēšanas metodoloģija balstīta uz pieejamo SCADA datu salīdzināšanu ar stāvokļa novērtēšanas prototipa aprēķina rezultātiem. Kopumā apskatīti sākotnējais, avārijas un divi pēcavārijas režīmi

  9. Estimating water retention curves for sandy soils at the Doñana National Park, SW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prados Garcia, M. Luisa; Vanderlinden, Karl; Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; Giraldez Cervera, Juan Vicente; Guber, Andrey K.; Pachepsky, Yakov A.

    2010-05-01

    The determination of soil water retention curves (SWRC) in the laboratory is a slow and tedious task, which is especially challenging for sandy soils due to their low water retention capacity and large water content changes for small pressure head differences. Due to spatial variability within larger areas and difficulties to obtain minimally disturbed soil samples, especially under dry conditions, laboratory measurements of the SWRCs are only suitable for guidance, as a consequence of their low representativity and accuracy. This work was developed within the framework of a research project on the ecohydrological behaviour of the soil-plant-atmosphere system within the Doñana National Park (SW Spain). In order to characterise the hydrological behaviour of the soils, a good estimation of water retention curves and hydraulic parameters is needed. Ten locations within the study area were equipped with soil moisture sensors (ECH2O-EC20, Decagon Devices Inc.) to monitor volumetric water content at different depths throughout the vadose zone. These data allow the estimation of water fluxes and recharge of the underlying aquifer, which plays a crucial role in the wetland system of the Park, declared by UNESCO as Biosphere Reserve. In this work three methods for estimating SWRCs were developed and compared. First, sand and kaolin suction tables were used to obtain SWRCs for both minimally disturbed and disturbed samples. Second, SWRC were estimated with HYDRUS-1D using the monitored volumetric soil water content data. Finally, SWRCs were estimated using the additivity hypothesis, based on the idea that SWRCs can be approximated by summing up SWRCs corresponding to different particle-size and pore-space classes of which the soil is composed. Particle-size distributions were determined in the laboratory while water retention data for the different particle-size classes were taken from literature. The comparison of these three methods allowed us to define their strengths

  10. Ground-water outflow, San Timoteo-Smiley Heights area, upper Santa Ana Valley, Southern California, 1927 through 1968

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutcher, L.C.; Fenzel, F.W.

    1972-01-01

    The San Timoteo-Smiley Heights area is in the upper Santa Ana Valley, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, Calif., where the Yucaipa and San Timoteo-Beaumont ground-water basins border Bunker .Hill basin on the south between the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults. The area is broken by numerous faults, the topography is rough, and in a large part of the area few wells had been drilled prior to 196S. The alluvial deposits, which constitute the aquifers in the area, range in thickness from 0 where they lap onto exposed bedrock hills to about 1,000 feet. Beneath the southern part of the area near the San Jacinto fault the total thickness of alluvial and lacustrine deposits may be as much as 6,000 feet. The purpose of this study was to estimate ground-water outflow by an indirect method not involving balancing of the hydrologic budget. For this purpose it was necessary to estimate the permeability of the aquifer materials, the average annual hydraulic gradient, and the cross-sectional area through which the flow occurs; these values were estimated for five segments along a line of section between the San Jacinto fault and Crafton Hills. To provide data for the outflow estimates, several miles of reflection and refraction seismic traverses were made along and across the outflow section. Nineteen deep and shallow test holes were drilled; one of the deep test holes and several existing wells were pumped to obtain data on aquifer permeability. The estimated average permeabilities of the aquifer materials range from 5 gallons per day per square foot for the lower part of the San Timoteo beds of Frick (1921) and 40 gallons per day per square foot for the older alluvium to 220 gallons per day per square foot for the upper part of the San Timoteo beds. The estimated outflow in 1927 was 8,150 acre-feet. By 1967 the estimated total outflow was 5,350 acre-feet, a reduction of approximately 34 percent. During the 12-year period 1956 through 1967, however, the annual outflow

  11. Transcriptional Profiling Identifies Location-Specific and Breed-Specific Differentially Expressed Genes in Embryonic Myogenesis in Anas Platyrhynchos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong-Ping; Liu, He-He; Liu, Jun-Ying; Hu, Ji-Wei; Yan, Xi-Ping; Wang, Ding-Min-Cheng; Li, Liang; Wang, Ji-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle growth and development are highly orchestrated processes involving significant changes in gene expressions. Differences in the location-specific and breed-specific genes and pathways involved have important implications for meat productions and meat quality. Here, RNA-Seq was performed to identify differences in the muscle deposition between two muscle locations and two duck breeds for functional genomics studies. To achieve those goals, skeletal muscle samples were collected from the leg muscle (LM) and the pectoral muscle (PM) of two genetically different duck breeds, Heiwu duck (H) and Peking duck (P), at embryonic 15 days. Functional genomics studies were performed in two experiments: Experiment 1 directly compared the location-specific genes between PM and LM, and Experiment 2 compared the two breeds (H and P) at the same developmental stage (embryonic 15 days). Almost 13 million clean reads were generated using Illumina technology (Novogene, Beijing, China) on each library, and more than 70% of the reads mapped to the Peking duck (Anas platyrhynchos) genome. A total of 168 genes were differentially expressed between the two locations analyzed in Experiment 1, whereas only 8 genes were differentially expressed when comparing the same location between two breeds in Experiment 2. Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (KEGG) were used to functionally annotate DEGs (differentially expression genes). The DEGs identified in Experiment 1 were mainly involved in focal adhesion, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and ECM-receptor interaction pathways (corrected P-value<0.05). In Experiment 2, the DEGs were associated with only the ribosome signaling pathway (corrected P-value<0.05). In addition, quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm 15 of the differentially expressed genes originally detected by RNA-Seq. A comparative transcript analysis of the leg and pectoral muscles of two duck breeds not only improves our

  12. Transcriptional Profiling Identifies Location-Specific and Breed-Specific Differentially Expressed Genes in Embryonic Myogenesis in Anas Platyrhynchos

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong-Ping; Liu, He-He; Liu, Jun-Ying; Hu, Ji-Wei; Yan, Xi-Ping; Wang, Ding-Min-Cheng; Li, Liang; Wang, Ji-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle growth and development are highly orchestrated processes involving significant changes in gene expressions. Differences in the location-specific and breed-specific genes and pathways involved have important implications for meat productions and meat quality. Here, RNA-Seq was performed to identify differences in the muscle deposition between two muscle locations and two duck breeds for functional genomics studies. To achieve those goals, skeletal muscle samples were collected from the leg muscle (LM) and the pectoral muscle (PM) of two genetically different duck breeds, Heiwu duck (H) and Peking duck (P), at embryonic 15 days. Functional genomics studies were performed in two experiments: Experiment 1 directly compared the location-specific genes between PM and LM, and Experiment 2 compared the two breeds (H and P) at the same developmental stage (embryonic 15 days). Almost 13 million clean reads were generated using Illumina technology (Novogene, Beijing, China) on each library, and more than 70% of the reads mapped to the Peking duck (Anas platyrhynchos) genome. A total of 168 genes were differentially expressed between the two locations analyzed in Experiment 1, whereas only 8 genes were differentially expressed when comparing the same location between two breeds in Experiment 2. Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (KEGG) were used to functionally annotate DEGs (differentially expression genes). The DEGs identified in Experiment 1 were mainly involved in focal adhesion, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and ECM-receptor interaction pathways (corrected P-value<0.05). In Experiment 2, the DEGs were associated with only the ribosome signaling pathway (corrected P-value<0.05). In addition, quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm 15 of the differentially expressed genes originally detected by RNA-Seq. A comparative transcript analysis of the leg and pectoral muscles of two duck breeds not only improves our

  13. Leading the Common Core State Standards: From Common Sense to Common Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkle, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Many educators agree that we already know how to foster student success, so what is keeping common sense from becoming common practice? The author provides step-by-step guidance for overcoming the barriers to adopting the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and achieving equity and excellence for all students. As an experienced teacher and…

  14. ANA (Antinuclear Antibody Test)

    MedlinePlus

    ... patterns include: Homogenous (diffuse)—associated with SLE , mixed connective tissue disease, and drug-induced lupus Speckled—associated with ... Sjögren syndrome , scleroderma , polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis , and ... disease Nucleolar—associated with scleroderma and polymyositis Centromere ...

  15. Northern Pintail (Anas acuta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Miller, M.R.; Poole, A.; Gill, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Northern Pintail is a medium-sized dabbling duck of slender, elegant lines and conservative plumage coloration. It is circumpolar in distribution and abundant in North America, with core nesting habitat in Alaska and the Prairie Pothole Region of southern Canada and the northern Great Plains. Breeders favor shallow wetlands interspersed throughout prairie grasslands or arctic tundra. An early fall migrant, the species arrives on wintering areas beginning in August, after wing molt, often forming large roosting and feeding flocks on open, shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural fields. The birds consume grains, marsh plant seeds, and aquatic invertebrates throughout the fall and winter. Northern Pintails are among the earliest nesting ducks in North America, beginning shortly after ice-out in many northern areas. Individuals form new pair bonds each winter but are highly promiscuous during the nesting season, with mated and unmated males often involved in vigorous, acrobatic Pursuit Flights. Annual nest success and productivity vary with water conditions, predation, and weather. Females build nests on the ground, often long distances from water. Only the female incubates; her mate leaves shortly after incubation begins. Ducklings hatch together in one day, follow the female to water after a day in the nest, and fledge by July or August. Adults and ducklings consume mainly aquatic invertebrates during the breeding season. Predators and farming operations destroy many thousands of Northern Pintail nests annually; farming has also greatly reduced the amount of quality nesting cover available. Winter habitats are threatened by water shortages, agricultural development, contamination, and urbanization. Periods of extended drought in prairie nesting regions have caused dramatic population declines, usually followed by periods of recovery. Over the long term, however, the continental population of Northern Pintails has declined significantly from 6 million birds in the early 1970s to less than 3 million in the late 1980s and early 1990s. However, new conservation measures, such as habitat restoration and enhancement of agricultural lands, as well as prudent harvest restrictions, suggest that Northern Pintails should have a secure future in North America.

  16. Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fellows Evidence-Based Practice for Academic Researchers Responsible Data Management in Research Career Planning Treatments Patient and Caregiver ... Fellows Evidence-Based Practice for Academic Researchers Responsible Data Management in Research Career Planning Treatments Patient and Caregiver ...

  17. A precision bearing gimbal system for the Teal Ruby program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    A precision bearing gimbal system designed to allow a spaceborne infrared sensor to stare at points on the Earth while in orbit is described. The problems encountered, analytical tools and test methods used, and data applicable to users of similar systems are presented. Assembly procedures, bearing preload effects, moisture control, structural analysis, and noise control are specifically examined.

  18. Breeding Common Bean for resistance to Common Blight: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common blight {caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli Smith (Dye) is a major bacterial disease causing >40% seed yield and quality losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. Use of resistant cultivars is crucial for its effective, economical, and environment friendly integarated...

  19. Project W-314 acceptance test report HNF-4643 for HNF-4642 241-AN-A valve pit manifold valves and position indication for project W-314

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-09-22

    The purpose of the test was to verify that the AN Tank Farm Manifold Valves can be manually manipulated to the required operating position and that the electrical and visual indications accurately reflect that position. Physical locking devices were also verified to function. The Acceptance Test Procedure HNF-4642, 241-AN-A Valve Pit Manifold Valves and Position Indication was conducted between 23 June and 10 August 1999 at the 200E AN Tank Farm. The test has no open test exceptions. The test was conducted prior to final engineering ''as built'' activities being completed, this had an impact on the procedure and test results, ECN 653752 was written to correct the mismatch between the procedure and actual field conditions. P&ID H-14-100941 was changed via ECN-W-314-4C-120. All components, identified in the procedure, were not found to be labeled and identified as written in the procedure, temporary tags were used for operational identification. A retest of valve ANA-WT-V 318 was required because it was removed from its installed position and modified after testing was completed.

  20. Mitochondrial D-loop analysis for uncovering the population structure and genetic diversity among the indigenous duck (Anas platyrhynchos) populations of India.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Uma; Tantia, Madhu Sudan; Mishra, Bina; Bharani Kumar, Settypalli Tirumala; Vijh, Ramesh Kumar; Chaudhury, Ashok

    2017-01-24

    The indigenous domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) which is domesticated from Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) contributes significantly to poor farming community in coastal and North Eastern regions of India. For conservation and maintenance of indigenous duck populations it is very important to know the existing genetic diversity and population structure. To unravel the population structure and genetic diversity among the five indigenous duck populations of India, the mitochondrial D-loop sequences of 120 ducks were analyzed. The sequence analysis by comparison of mtDNA D-loop region (470 bp) of five Indian duck populations revealed 25 mitochondrial haplotypes. Pairwise FST value among populations was 0.4243 (p < .01) and the range of nucleotide substitution per site (Dxy) between the five Indian duck populations was 0.00034-0.00555, and the net divergence (Da) was 0-0.00355. The phylogenetic analysis in the present study unveiled three clades. The analysis revealed genetic continuity among ducks of coastal region of the country which formed a separate group from the ducks of the inland area. Both coastal as well as the land birds revealed introgression of the out group breed Khaki Campbell, which is used for breed improvement programs in India. The observations revealed very less selection and a single matrilineal lineage of indigenous domestic ducks.

  1. Determination of Two-Liquid Mixture Composition by Assessing Dielectric Parameters 1. Precise Measuring System / Divu Šķidrumu Maisījuma Sastāva Noteikšana, Izvērtējot to Dielektriskos Parametrus 1. Precīza Mērīšanas Sistēma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilitis, O.; Shipkovs, P.; Merkulovs, D.

    2013-08-01

    Concentration measurements are important in bioethanol industries, in the R&D areas, for chemical, medical and microbiological analyses and processing as well as for diagnostics, manufacturing, etc. The overview shows development of the structural design of a system for measuring the concentration of solutions and mixtures consisting of two dielectric liquids. The basic principles of the system's design are given along with relevant equations. The concentration of dielectric liquids is measured using devices with capacitive sensors (1-300 pF). The operational frequency of the developed measuring system is 100.000 kHz. Configuration of the system excludes some errors usually arising at measurements, and broadens its applicability. For testing, the system was calibrated for measuring the concentration of anhydrous ethanol + de-ionized water mixture. Experimental results have shown a stable resolution of ±0.005 pF at measuring the sensor capacitance and a reproducible resolution better than ±0.01% at measuring the ethanol volume concentration Rakstā esam parādījuši iespējas izveidot augstas precizitātes, kompaktu, lētu un ērtu lietošanai dielektrisku šķidrumu mērīšanas sistēmu koncentrācijas noteikšanai. Šī sistēma ir piemērojama kapacitīviem sensoriem, kuru kapacitāte ir atkarīga no sensora izveidojuma kā arī mērāmā šķidruma dielektriskās konstantes vērtības, un kapacitāte var tikt noteikta pie frekvences 100,000 kHz robežās no 1 F līdz 300 pF. Mērīšanas sistēmas pārbaudei, sistēma tika kalibrēta etanola koncentrācijas mērīšanai tilpuma procentos sertificēta bezūdens etanola un dejonizēta ūdens maisījumiem. Pārbaužu rezultāti pierādīja, ka sensora kapacitātes vērtības ir stabili nosakāmas ar izšķirtspēju ne mazāku par ±0,005 pF. Sensora kapacitāšu vērtībām atbilstošā etanola tilpuma koncentrācijas atkārtojamu mērījumu izšķirtspēja visā mērīšanas diapazonā nebija mazāka par ±0

  2. Remedies for Common Cold Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Penny F.

    1991-01-01

    Individuals suffering from intolerable symptoms of the common cold can now be advised of safe and effective products for symptomatic relief. This article describes and discusses four categories of drugs used to treat the common cold. To simplify the product selection process for family physicians, suggestions are included for possible ingredients for treatments of specific cold symptoms. PMID:21234087

  3. Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.

    PubMed

    Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

    2013-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed.

  4. Common Infant and Newborn Problems

    MedlinePlus

    It is hard when your baby is sick. Common health problems in babies include colds, coughs, fevers, and vomiting. Babies also commonly have skin problems, like diaper rash or cradle cap. Many of these problems are ... are worried about your baby, call your health care provider right away.

  5. Common Pyraloidea species of Dominica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-six adult crambid moths of the superfamily Pyraloidea from Dominica are illustrated and identified. These images are a tool for the identification of large, common species in the Caribbean. The Caribbean is a common entry and pathway of invasive species to southeastern United States....

  6. Learning Words with Common Rimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    An extensive research review by M. Adams (1990) led her to the conclusion that providing instruction and reinforcement in learning common rimes is highly beneficial in fostering growth in learning to read. While substantial amounts of reading, either independent or with partners, is critical in learning words with common rimes, focused study is…

  7. The Tragedy of the Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons is one of the principal tenets of ecology. Recent developments in experiential computer-based simulation of the tragedy of the commons are described. A virtual learning environment is developed using the popular video game "Minecraft". The virtual learning environment is used to experience first-hand depletion…

  8. The Common Denominator of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Hubert C.

    1976-01-01

    The common denominator of learning is conceived as a guideline in organizing the learning material in support of learning continuity. As to its effect, the common denominator is thought of as a habit-forming element in realizing learning as a (continuous) sequence of relative rather than absolute experiences. (Author/HB)

  9. OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarik, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

  10. Personal Finance. Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document provides the common curriculum goals for the state of Oregon in personal finance, an area of study that relates basic economic concepts and practices to the financial concerns of consumers. These goals were designed to define what should be taught in all public school settings. The common curriculum goals in personal finance are…

  11. Concentrations of dissolved solids and nutrients in water sources and selected streams of the Santa Ana Basin, California, Octoger 1998 - September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and nutrients in selected Santa Ana Basin streams were examined as a function of water source. The principal water sources are mountain runoff, wastewater, urban runoff, and stormflow. Rising ground water also enters basin streams in some reaches. Data were collected from October 1998 to September 2001 from 6 fixed sites (including a mountain site), 6 additional mountain sites (including an alpine indicator site), and more than 20 synoptic sites. The fixed mountain site on the Santa Ana River near Mentone appears to be a good representative of reference conditions for water entering the basin. TDS can be related to water source. The median TDS concentration in base-flow samples from mountain sites was 200 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Base-flow TDS concentrations from sites on the valley floor typically ranged from 400 to 600 mg/L; base flow to most of these sites is predominantly treated wastewater, with minor contributions of rising ground water and urban runoff. Sparse data suggest that TDS concentrations in urban runoff are about 300 mg/L. TDS concentrations appear to increase on a downstream gradient along the main stem of the Santa Ana River, regardless of source inputs. The major-ion compositions observed in samples from the different sites can be related to water source, as well as to in-stream processes in the basin. Water compositions from mountain sites are categorized into two groups: one group had a composition close to that of the alpine indicator site high in the watershed, and another group had ionic characteristics closer to those in tributaries on the valley floor. The water composition at Warm Creek, a tributary urban indicator site, was highly variable but approximately intermediate to the compositions of the upgradient mountain sites. Water compositions at the Prado Dam and Imperial Highway sites, located 11 miles apart on the Santa Ana River, were similar to one another and appeared to be a mixture

  12. Trends in nutrient concentrations, loads, and yields in streams in the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Santa Ana Basins, California, 1975-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Charles R.; Kent, Robert; Seleh, Dina K.; Knifong, Donna L.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Orlando, James L.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive database was assembled for the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Santa Ana Basins in California on nutrient concentrations, flows, and point and nonpoint sources of nutrients for 1975-2004. Most of the data on nutrient concentrations (nitrate, ammonia, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus) were from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System database (35.2 percent), the California Department of Water Resources (21.9 percent), the University of California at Davis (21.6 percent), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's STOrage and RETrieval database (20.0 percent). Point-source discharges accounted for less than 1 percent of river flows in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, but accounted for close to 80 percent of the nonstorm flow in the Santa Ana River. Point sources accounted for 4 and 7 percent of the total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads, respectively, in the Sacramento River at Freeport for 1985-2004. Point sources accounted for 8 and 17 percent of the total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads, respectively, in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis for 1985-2004. The volume of wastewater discharged into the Santa Ana River increased almost three-fold over the study period. However, due to improvements in wastewater treatment, the total nitrogen load to the Santa Ana River from point sources in 2004 was approximately the same as in 1975 and the total phosphorus load in 2004 was less than in 1975. Nonpoint sources of nutrients estimated in this study included atmospheric deposition, fertilizer application, manure production, and tile drainage. The estimated dry deposition of nitrogen exceeded wet deposition in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys and in the basin area of the Santa Ana Basin, with ratios of dry to wet deposition of 1.7, 2.8, and 9.8, respectively. Fertilizer application increased appreciably from 1987 to 2004 in all three California basins, although manure production increased in the

  13. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  16. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  17. Genomic Data Commons launches - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  18. Common Difficulties with Probabilistic Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Jack A.; Kelly, Ivan W.

    1983-01-01

    Several common errors reflecting difficulties in probabilistic reasoning are identified, relating to ambiguity, previous outcomes, sampling, unusual events, and estimating. Knowledge of these mistakes and interpretations may help mathematics teachers understand the thought processes of their students. (MNS)

  19. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:Apr 7,2017 Knowing the facts ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  20. Autoimmunity in Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shradha; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common clinically significant primary immune defect. Although the hallmark of CVID is hypogammaglobulinemia, the intrinsic dysregulation of the immune system leads to defective T-cell activation and proliferation, as well as dendritic cell and cytokine defects. Although 70% to 80% of patients have had recurrent sinopulmonary infections, auto-immunity and inflammatory complications are also common. The most common autoimmune conditions are immune thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic anemia, but other autoimmune complications arise, including rheumatoid arthritis, pernicious anemia, primary biliary cirrhosis, thyroiditis, sicca syndrome, systemic lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment of autoimmunity includes high-dose immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, selected immunosuppressants, and other immune modulators. This review focuses on autoimmune conditions associated with CVID, potential mechanisms of immune dysregulation, and therapeutic strategies. PMID:19671377

  1. Common Effects Methodology for Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is exploring how to build on the substantial high quality science developed under both OPP programs to develop additional tools and approaches to support a consistent and common set of effects characterization methods using best available information.

  2. An assessment of optical properties of dissolved organic material as quantitative source indicators in the Santa Ana River basin, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Kalve, Erica; Guenther, Larry; Mendez, Gregory O.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    The ability to rapidly, reliably, and inexpensively characterize sources of dissolved organic material (DOM) in watersheds would allow water management agencies to more quickly identify problems in water sources, and to more efficiently allocate water resources by, for example, permitting real-time identification of high-quality water suitable for ground-water recharge, or poor-quality water in need of mitigation. This study examined the feasibility of using easily measurable intrinsic optical properties' absorbance and fluorescence spectra, as quantitative indicators of DOM sources and, thus, a predictor of water quality. The study focused on the Santa Ana River Basin, in southern California, USA, which comprises an area of dense urban development and an area of intense dairy production. Base flow in the Santa Ana Basin is primarily tertiary treated wastewater discharge. Available hydrologic data indicate that urban and agricultural runoff degrades water quality during storm events by introducing pathogens, nutrients, and other contaminants, including significant amounts of DOM. These conditions provide the basis for evaluating the use of DOM optical properties as a tracer of DOM from different sources. Sample spectra representing four principal DOM sources were identified among all samples collected in 1999 on the basis of basin hydrology, and the distribution of spectral variability within all the sample data. A linear mixing model provided quantitative estimates of relative endmember contribution to sample spectra for monthly, storm, and diurnal samples. The spectral properties of the four sources (endmembers), Pristine Water, Wastewater, Urban Water, and Dairy Water, accounted for 94 percent of the variability in optical properties observed in the study, suggesting that all important DOM sources were represented. The scale and distribution of the residual spectra, that not explained by the endmembers, suggested that the endmember spectra selected did not

  3. Casuistry as common law morality.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    This article elaborates on the relation between ethical casuistry and common law reasoning. Despite the frequent talk of casuistry as common law morality, remarks on this issue largely remain at the purely metaphorical level. The article outlines and scrutinizes Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin's version of casuistry and its basic elements. Drawing lessons for casuistry from common law reasoning, it is argued that one generally has to be faithful to ethical paradigms. There are, however, limitations for the binding force of paradigms. The most important limitations--the possibilities of overruling and distinguishing paradigm norms--are similar in common law and in casuistry, or so it is argued. These limitations explain why casuistry is not necessarily overly conservative and conventional, which is one line of criticism to which casuists can now better respond. Another line of criticism has it that the very reasoning from case to case is extremely unclear in casuistry. I suggest a certain model of analogical reasoning to address this critique. All my suggestions to understand and to enhance casuistry make use of common law reasoning whilst remaining faithful to Jonsen and Toulmin's main ideas and commitments. Further developed along these lines, casuistry can appropriately be called "common law morality."

  4. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-11-11

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions

  5. Intercontinental reassortment and genomic variation of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from northern pintails (Anas acuta) in Alaska: examining the evidence through space and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andrew M.; Pearce, John M.; Flint, Paul L.; Ip, Hon S.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Franson, J. Christian; Petrula, Michael J.; Scotton, Bradley D.; Sowl, Kristine M.; Wege, Michael L.; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Migration and population genetic data for northern pintails (Anas acuta) and phylogenetic analysis of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses from this host in Alaska suggest that northern pintails are involved in ongoing intercontinental transmission of avian influenza. Here, we further refine this conclusion through phylogenetic analyses which demonstrate that detection of foreign lineage gene segments is spatially dependent and consistent through time. Our results show detection of foreign lineage gene segments to be most likely at sample locations on the Alaska Peninsula and least likely along the Southern Alaska Coast. Asian lineages detected at four gene segments persisted across years, suggesting maintenance in avian hosts that migrate to Alaska each year from Asia or in hosts that remain in Alaska throughout the year. Alternatively, live viruses may persist in the environment and re-infect birds in subsequent seasons.

  6. 20 Ne(p, γ)22Na and 22Ne(p, γ)23Na Reaction Study with 5U-4 St. Ana Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Stephanie; Goerres, Joachim; Jung, Hyo Soon; Robertson, Dan; Setoodehnia, Kiana; Stech, Ed; Wiescher, Michael; Kontos, Antonios

    2014-09-01

    Hydrogen burning can proceed via the NeNa cycle in stars whose stellar temperature is greater than 0.05GK. The NeNa cycle is important for the nucleosynthesis of Ne, Na, and Mg isotopes. Direct capture and the high energy tail of a subthreshold resonance dominate the stellar reaction rate for 20Ne(p, γ)21Na. The strength of the non-resonant contributions were measured relative to the resonance at 1.17 MeV. Due to conflicting results, we have remeasured the strength of this resonance relative to the 1.28 MeV resonance in 22Ne(p, γ)23Na using implanted neon targets. Study of this reaction has continued using the newly commissioned 5U-4 St. Ana Accelerator and re-furbished Rhinoceros Gas Target.

  7. Assessment of genotoxic damage by the comet assay in white storks (Ciconia ciconia) after the Doñana Ecological Disaster.

    PubMed

    Pastor, N; López-Lázaro, M; Tella, J L; Baos, R; Hiraldo, F; Cortés, F

    2001-05-01

    Single cell gel electrophoresis, the so-called "Comet" assay, was performed as a genotoxicity test in white storks sampled in an area heavily contaminated after the ecological disaster in south western Spain. This disaster occurred as a consequence of a massive toxic spillage of acid waste rich in heavy metals that impacted on the Doñana National Park. The importance of this protected area as a breeding and wintering site for many endangered bird species makes this analysis of DNA damage of special interest. Our results clearly show that white storks born in the contaminated area 1 year after the toxic spill bear a high burden of genetic damage as compared with control individuals. The possible implications for future survival as well as reproductive rate are discussed.

  8. Anti-ENA profiles related with anti-SS-A/Ro. The detection of Ro52 and Ro60 according to the presence of SS-B/La, and ANA pattern and titer.

    PubMed

    González, D Almeida; Rodríguez, C Casañas; Armas, L Magdalena; Varela, A Roces; Rodríguez, I Marcelino; Duarte, M Troche; de León, A Cabrera

    2014-09-01

    Anti-Ro52 (Ro52) and anti-Ro60 (Ro60) antibodies are associated with different clinical entities. We investigated their relationship with the presence of anti-SS-B/La (SSB) antibody, the pattern and titer of antinuclear antibody (ANA), and the variations in antibody profiles related with anti-SS-A/Ro (SSA) positivity. Our aim was to develop a strategy to increase the efficiency of anti-extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) determinations. Statistical analyses were based on the Chi-squared test for categorical variables, the Mann-Whitney U test to compare profiles, and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) to estimate the risk of variability. We analyzed 800 SSA-positive samples with Ro52 or Ro60 reactivity. The most frequent profiles were Ro52+Ro60+SSB (n=349, 43.6%); Ro52+Ro60 (n=126, 15.8%); Ro52 (n=121, 15.1%) and Ro60 (n=71, 8.9%). In samples positive only for SSA and an ANA titer ≤1:640, the most likely profile was positivity for either Ro52 or Ro60, whereas when the ANA titer was >1:640, positivity for both Ro52 and Ro60 simultaneously was more likely (p<0.001). In samples positive for both SSA and SSB, the most likely profile was Ro52+Ro60+SSB regardless of the ANA titer (p=0.001). When only SSA was positive and the ANA staining pattern was nucleolar, centromeric or cytoplasmic, Ro52 positivity was most likely (p<0.001). When both SSA and SSB were positive, both Ro52 and Ro60 were likely to be positive regardless of the ANA staining pattern. In 28.7% of the patients the profile was variable. Variability was significantly greater in those with the SSA profile (23/67) than with the SSA+SSB profile (15/105; OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.1-3.3; p=0.025), and the difference in variability was greatest between the Ro52+Ro60 profile (8/23) and the Ro52+Ro60+SSB profile (8/68; OR=4.2, 95% CI=1.9-9.5; p<0.001). We conclude that to increase efficiency in the immunology laboratory, positivity for Ro52 and Ro60 individually or simultaneously can be deduced from SSB

  9. Creative Commons and Why It Should Be More Commonly Understood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug

    2009-01-01

    Authors, videographers, musicians, photographers, and almost anyone who creates materials and makes them publicly available has an alternative to standard copyright licensing: Creative Commons (CC). It is a tool that helps the creator display a licensing mark. The creator can assign a variety of rights for others to use his work--rights that are…

  10. Common Ground: Finding Commonalities in Diverse Musical Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching commonalities in diverse musical genres. Teachers need to relate the musical activities performed in class to music that students experience in the world around them since they understand music in relation to history and culture. A key to selecting high-quality musical examples is to find music pieces that contain…

  11. Sharing Common Ground: Texas and the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasinda, Sheri; Grote-Garcia, Stephanie; Durham, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    When browsing through professional catalogs or attending national conferences, one cannot help but notice the growing emphasis on the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). So, what does this mean for Texas teachers? As part of a special four-part series in our Texas Journal of Literacy Education, a special task force from the TALE Board will share…

  12. Surveying the Commons: Current Implementation of Information Commons Web sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeder, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the content of 72 academic library Information Commons (IC) Web sites using content analysis, quantitative assessment and qualitative surveys of site administrators to analyze current implementation by the academic library community. Results show that IC Web sites vary widely in content, design and functionality, with few…

  13. Mineralogical assemblages, geochemistry and fossil associations of Pleistocene-Holocene complex siliciclastic deposits from the Southwestern Doñana National Park (SW Spain): A palaeoenvironmental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, Manuel; Ruiz, Francisco; Carretero, María Isabel; Vidal, Joaquín Rodríguez; Cáceres, Luís Miguel; Abad, Manuel; González-Regalado, María Luz

    2010-03-01

    On the basis of mineralogy, chemical and palaeontological data collected in a long core (93 m) three associations of facies are distinguished in the Late Pleistocene-Late Holocene evolution of the sedimentary infilling in nowadays Doñana National Park. From the lower, middle and upper associations of facies three sedimentological phases have been established. In the oldest phase (> 44 kyr BP), this area was occupied by supratidal, freshwater marshes located close to a brackish lagoon and inundated suddenly by brackish-marine inputs. The following phase (44-7 kyr BP) is characterized by the transition from supratidal to intertidal conditions, with the alternation of freshwater or brackish marshes situated very close or in the margin of the former lagoon and submitted to episodes of desiccation or tidal inundation. The last phase (7-3.0 cal kyr BP) comprised: a) a marine inundation during the maximum of the Flandrian transgression (˜ 7-6.5 cal kyr BP); and b) the progressive infilling of a brackish lagoon with marine connection and permanent fresh water inputs (6.5-3.5 cal kyr BP), partially enclosed by the Doñana spit. The phyllosilicate-rich, clayey-silty sequence of this latter infilling is interrupted by tsunami-like deposits at 4.2-3.6 cal kyr BP and 3.6-3.0 cal kyr BP. These high-energy events are characterized by textural (bimodal grain-size distribution, sorting decrease), mineralogical (crystallochemical changes in illites, increasing dolomite content) and geochemical changes (Ti anomaly), besides a sudden introduction of marine bivalves and microfauna and a strong decrease or the almost disappearance of the brackish ostracode assemblage. Ages of these deposits coincide with those indicated for other tsunamigenic layers detected in the southwestern Spanish coasts and some deep cores collected near the African-European plate boundary.

  14. Assessing water source and channel type as factors affecting benthic macroinvertebrate and periphyton assemblages in the highly urbanized Santa Ana River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, C.A.; Brown, L.R.; Belitz, K.

    2005-01-01

    The Santa Ana River basin is the largest stream system in Southern California and includes a densely populated coastal area. Extensive urbanization has altered the geomorphology and hydrology of the streams, adversely affecting aquatic communities. We studied macroinvertebrate and periphyton assemblages in relation to two categorical features of the highly engineered hydrologic system-water source and channel type. Four water sources were identified-natural, urban-impacted groundwater, urban runoff, and treated wastewater. Three channel types were identified-natural, channelized with natural bottom, and concrete-lined. Nineteen sites, covering the range of these two categorical features, were sampled in summer 2000. To minimize the effects of different substrate types among sites, artificial substrates were used for assessing macroinvertebrate and periphyton assemblages. Physical and chemical variables and metrics calculated from macroinvertebrate and periphyton assemblage data were compared among water sources and channel types using analysis of variance and multiple comparison tests. Macroinvertebrate metrics exhibiting significant (P < 0.05) differences between water sources included taxa and Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera richness, relative richness and abundance of nonchironomid dipterans, orthoclads, oligochaetes, and some functional-feeding groups such as parasites and shredders. Periphyton metrics showing significant differences between water sources included blue-green algae biovolume and relative abundance of nitrogen heterotrophic, eutrophic, motile, and pollution-sensitive diatoms. The relative abundance of trichopterans, tanytarsini chironomids, noninsects, and filter feeders, as well as the relative richness and abundance of diatoms, were significantly different between channel types. Most physical variables were related to channel type, whereas chemical variables and some physical variables (e.g., discharge, velocity, and channel width) were

  15. Enhanced Extracellular Glutamate and Dopamine in the Ventral Pallidum of Alcohol-Preferring AA and Alcohol-Avoiding ANA Rats after Morphine.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Heidi; Nurmi, Harri; Raivio, Noora; Kiianmaa, Kalervo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of ventral pallidal opioidergic mechanisms in the control of ethanol intake by studying the effects of acute administration of morphine on the levels of GABA, glutamate, and dopamine in the ventral pallidum. The study was conducted using the alcohol-preferring Alko Alcohol (AA) and alcohol-avoiding Alko Non-Alcohol (ANA) rat lines that have well-documented differences in their voluntary ethanol intake and brain opioidergic systems. Therefore, examination of neurobiological differences between the lines is supposed to help to identify the neuronal mechanisms underlying ethanol intake, since selection pressure is assumed gradually to lead to enrichment of alleles promoting high or low ethanol intake, respectively. The effects of an acute dose of morphine (1 or 10 mg/kg s.c.) on the extracellular levels of GABA and glutamate in the ventral pallidum were monitored with in vivo microdialysis. The concentrations of GABA and glutamate in the dialyzates were determined with a high performance liquid chromatography system using fluorescent detection, while electrochemical detection was used for dopamine. The levels of glutamate in the rats injected with morphine 1 mg/kg were significantly above the levels found in the controls and in the rats receiving morphine 10 mg/kg. Morphine 10 mg/kg also increased the levels of dopamine. Morphine could not, however, modify the levels of GABA. The rat lines did not differ in any of the effects of morphine. The data suggest that the glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems in the ventral pallidum may mediate some effects of morphine. Since there were no differences between the AA and ANA lines, the basic hypothesis underlying the use of the genetic animal model suggests that the effects of morphine detected probably do not underlie the different intake of ethanol by the lines and contribute to the control of ethanol intake in these animals.

  16. Persistence and molecular evolution of Mycobacterium bovis population from cattle and wildlife in Doñana National Park revealed by genotype variation.

    PubMed

    Romero, Beatriz; Aranaz, Alicia; Sandoval, Angel; Alvarez, Julio; de Juan, Lucía; Bezos, Javier; Sánchez, Celia; Galka, Margarita; Fernández, Pilar; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas

    2008-11-25

    The role of wildlife in tuberculosis epidemiology is being widely studied since it can affect the effectiveness of eradication campaigns in cattle. The health problem is enhanced when it concerns also wildlife welfare and biodiversity conservation. This study was performed to understand the epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis population affecting livestock and wild animals in the Doñana National Park using bacteriology and molecular characterisation techniques. Tuberculosis research was performed on 1209 cattle and wild animals (artiodactyla and carnivore) collected over 6 years in the Park. One hundred and sixty-three animals were found to be infected with M. bovis, comprising 7.96% of the cattle and 20.53% of the wild animals tested. Spoligotyping revealed nine patterns, being SB1232 and SB1230 the most prevalent (77.30% and 15.34% of infected animals, respectively). MIRU-VNTR analysis of a selected panel of 92 isolates showed eight different profiles, including several spoligotypes within the same MIRU-VNTR profile. The discriminatory capacity of both techniques in this panel was similar. The results obtained by combination of both techniques corroborate that wildlife species are infected with the M. bovis strains which are more prevalent in cattle and reveal their persistence. Genotype variation between isolates strongly suggests micro-evolutionary events in the M. bovis population in the same area. This study in the Doñana National Park exposes the risk of introduction of domestic animals into wildlife areas when there is not a warranty of disease freedom, appropriate diagnostic techniques and control measures.

  17. Status of groundwater quality in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed, November 2006--March 2007--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile (2,590-square-kilometer) Upper Santa Ana Watershed (USAW) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in southern California in Riverside and San Bernardino Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA USAW study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems in the study unit. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) are defined as the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the USAW study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from 90 wells during November 2006 through March 2007, and water-quality data from the CDPH database. The status of the current quality of the groundwater resource was assessed based on data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifers of the USAW study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal or California regulatory or

  18. Finding Nested Common Intervals Efficiently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blin, Guillaume; Stoye, Jens

    In this paper, we study the problem of efficiently finding gene clusters formalized by nested common intervals between two genomes represented either as permutations or as sequences. Considering permutations, we give several algorithms whose running time depends on the size of the actual output rather than the output in the worst case. Indeed, we first provide a straightforward O(n 3) time algorithm for finding all nested common intervals. We reduce this complexity by providing an O(n 2) time algorithm computing an irredundant output. Finally, we show, by providing a third algorithm, that finding only the maximal nested common intervals can be done in linear time. Considering sequences, we provide solutions (modifications of previously defined algorithms and a new algorithm) for different variants of the problem, depending on the treatment one wants to apply to duplicated genes.

  19. The last common bilaterian ancestor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Douglas H.; Davidson, Eric H.

    2002-01-01

    Many regulatory genes appear to be utilized in at least superficially similar ways in the development of particular body parts in Drosophila and in chordates. These similarities have been widely interpreted as functional homologies, producing the conventional view of the last common protostome-deuterostome ancestor (PDA) as a complex organism that possessed some of the same body parts as modern bilaterians. Here we discuss an alternative view, in which the last common PDA had a less complex body plan than is frequently conceived. This reconstruction alters expectations for Neoproterozoic fossil remains that could illustrate the pathways of bilaterian evolution.

  20. Functional roles of arcA, etrA, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein, and cya in the arsenate respiration pathway in Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Julie N; Durbin, K James; Saltikov, Chad W

    2009-02-01

    Microbial arsenate respiration can enhance arsenic release from arsenic-bearing minerals--a process that can cause arsenic contamination of water. In Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, the arsenate respiration genes (arrAB) are induced under anaerobic conditions with arsenate and arsenite. Here we report how genes that encode anaerobic regulator (arcA and etrA [fnr homolog]) and carbon catabolite repression (crp and cya) proteins affect arsenate respiration in ANA-3. Transcription of arcA, etrA, and crp in ANA-3 was similar in cells grown on arsenate and cells grown under aerobic conditions. ANA-3 strains lacking arcA and etrA showed minor to moderate growth defects, respectively, with arsenate. However, crp was essential for growth on arsenate. In contrast to the wild-type strain, arrA was not induced in the crp mutant in cultures shifted from aerobic to anaerobic conditions containing arsenate. This indicated that cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cyclic AMP receptor (CRP) activates arr operon transcription. Computation analysis for genome-wide CRP binding motifs identified a putative binding motif within the arr promoter region. This was verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assays with cAMP-CRP and several DNA probes. Lastly, four putative adenylate cyclase (cya) genes were identified in the genome. One particular cya-like gene was differentially expressed under aerobic versus arsenate respiration conditions. Moreover, a double mutant lacking two of the cya-like genes could not grow with arsenate as a terminal electron acceptor; exogenous cAMP could complement growth of the double cya mutant. It is concluded that the components of the carbon catabolite repression system are essential to regulating arsenate respiratory reduction in Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3.

  1. Differences in basal and morphine-induced FosB/DeltaFosB and pCREB immunoreactivities in dopaminergic brain regions of alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats.

    PubMed

    Kaste, Kristiina; Kivinummi, Tanja; Piepponen, T Petteri; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Ahtee, Liisa

    2009-06-01

    Besides alcohol, alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats differ also with respect to other abused drugs. To study the molecular basis of these differences, we examined the expression of two transcription factors implicated in addiction, DeltaFosB and pCREB, in brain dopaminergic regions of AA and ANA rats. The effects of morphine and nicotine were studied to relate the behavioral and molecular changes induced by these drugs. Baseline FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity (IR) in the nucleus accumbens core and pCREB IR in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were elevated in AA rats. Morphine increased DeltaFosB-like IR more readily in the caudate-putamen of AA rats than in ANA rats. In the PFC morphine decreased pCREB IR in AA rats, but increased it in ANA rats. In addition to enhanced locomotor response, the development of place preference to morphine was enhanced in AA rats. The enhanced nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization found in AA compared with ANA rats seems to depend in addition to dopamine and DeltaFosB on other mechanisms. These findings suggest that enhanced sensitivity of AA rats to morphine is related to augmented morphine-induced expression of FosB/DeltaFosB and morphine-induced reduction of pCREB levels. Moreover, altered innate expression of FosB/DeltaFosB and pCREB in AA rats is likely to affect the sensitivity of these rats to abused drugs.

  2. Common Environmental Terms: A Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studdard, Gloria J.

    This glossary is designed fo r students learning and writing about environmental conditions, problems, and solutions. Not primarily intended for use by scientists and technicians, the glossary contains over 400 common terms that are helpful in understanding the environmental literature of today. (MA)

  3. Technology: Technology and Common Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2004-01-01

    The absence of common sense in the world of technology continues to amaze the author. Things that seem so logical to just aren nott for many people. The installation of Voice-over IP (VoIP, with IP standing for Internet Protocol) in many school districts is a good example. Schools have always had trouble with telephones. Many districts don't even…

  4. SARS and Common Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Jill K.; Mark, Jennifer; Gavali, Shilpa S.; Yagi, Shigeo; Espinosa, Alex; Schnurr, David P.; Cossen, Cynthia K.; Isaacson, Erin R.; Glaser, Carol A.; Fischer, Marc; Reingold, Arthur L.; Vugia, Duc J.

    2004-01-01

    In California, molecular testing was useful in decreasing suspicion for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), by detecting common respiratory pathogens (influenza A/B, human metapneumovirus, picornavirus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia spp., parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus) in 23 (45%) of 51 patients with suspected SARS and 9 (47%) of 19 patients with probable SARS. PMID:15207072

  5. Common Ground: Expanding Our Horizons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Michele J.

    In "Common Ground: Dialogue, Understanding, and the Teaching of Composition," Kurt Spellmeyer seeks to familiarize students and teachers with the linguistic and cultural no-man's-land separating them. Reinstating the value of two writing conventions often used by traditional students--expressive and commonplaces--can help expand on the…

  6. Autism: many genes, common pathways?

    PubMed

    Geschwind, Daniel H

    2008-10-31

    Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental syndrome with a complex genetic etiology. It is still not clear whether autism comprises a vast collection of different disorders akin to intellectual disability or a few disorders sharing common aberrant pathways. Unifying principles among cases of autism are likely to be at the level of brain circuitry in addition to molecular pathways.

  7. Common Core: Victory Is Yours!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Jennifer L. W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to implement the Common Core State Standards in the classroom. She presents examples and activities that will leave teachers feeling "rosy" about tackling the new standards. She breaks down important benchmarks and shows how other teachers are doing the Core--and loving it!

  8. Common Chemicals around the House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, David A., Comp.; O'Brien, Thomas, Comp.

    1991-01-01

    Lists 46 household chemicals readily available at local stores by common name, chemical name, chemical formula, and typical commercial source. Suggests that school budgetary constraints can be eased by this practice and that students can become more chemically literate as consumers. (JJK)

  9. Objectification in Common Sense Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In epistemologies of both scientific and common sense thinking "objectification" characterizes the formation of knowledge and concepts, yet in each case its meaning is different. In the former, objectification in acquiring knowledge refers to the individual's rationalistic reification of an object or of another person and to disengagement or…

  10. Community Commons Program Development Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Kieta Osteen

    Community Commons (CC) is a collaborative partnership among Brevard Community College (BCC) (Florida) and over 40 social service organizations and agencies in Florida dedicated to providing education, job training, social services, recreation, and a drug free environment to communities of low income families. The project specifically seeks to…

  11. Common Core: Solve Math Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Erich

    2012-01-01

    The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…

  12. Common Core: Fact vs. Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Despite students' interest in informational text, it has played second fiddle in literacy instruction for years. Now, though, nonfiction is getting its turn in the spotlight. The Common Core State Standards require that students become thoughtful consumers of complex, informative texts--taking them beyond the realm of dry textbooks and…

  13. "Common Core Implementation Best Practices"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    This document presents the testimony of Carmel Martin, Executive Vice President for Policy at the Center for American Progress, delivered at the New York State Office of the Governor Common Core Implementation Panel on Wednesday, February 19, 2014. In this statement, Martin began by saying that The Center for American Progress believes that this…

  14. Health Education. Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This guide presents the common curriculm goals for health education developed by the Oregon State Department of Education. Four content strands--safe living, stressor/risk-taking management, physical fitness, and nutrition--are a synthesis of the traditional health education and health promotion objectives. Knowledge and skills objectives are…

  15. Common Core: Rx for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paige

    2012-01-01

    When David Coleman, one of the authors of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), spoke to New York educators, he stated that over the last forty years 8th grade reading scores have been flat. Despite doubling expenditures on classroom instruction, there has been little growth. Most educators are aware that what worked for the students of the…

  16. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  17. Common and Intraverbal Bidirectional Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2016-01-01

    "Naming" has been defined as a generalized operant that combines speaker and listener behaviors within the individual. The purpose of this paper is to reintroduce the concept of naming and its subtypes, "common" and "intraverbal", distinguish it from other terms such as the tact relation, and discuss the role of…

  18. Azodrin® poisoning of waterfowl in rice fields in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Kolbe, E.J.; Ferguson, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    During the period 2-4 April 1981 about 100 birds, mostly ducks and geese, were found dead and dying in a rice field near Sweet Lake, Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana. Fresh specimens were collected to determine the cause of mortality. Birds were placed individually in polyethylene freezer bags, tagged, and frozen soon after collection. Four snow geese (Chen caerulescens), two blue-winged teal (Anas discors), one green-winged teal (Anas crecca), and one mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) were shipped to the National Wildlife Health Laboratory (NWHL), Madison, Wisconsin, for necropsy and pathological examination. Ten snow geese, 10 blue-winged teal, three green-winged teal, three great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus), and eight red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were transported to the Gulf Coast Field Station, Victoria, Texas, for brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity determinations and preparation for chemical residue analysis. Additionally, apparently healthy specimens of the affected species were collected near Lake Charles, Louisiana, and Victoria, Texas, to serve as controls in the analyses.

  19. Common sense and the common morality in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Daly, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The unfinished nature of Beauchamp and Childress's account of the common morality after 34 years and seven editions raises questions about what is lacking, specifically in the way they carry out their project, more generally in the presuppositions of the classical liberal tradition on which they rely. Their wide-ranging review of ethical theories has not provided a method by which to move beyond a hypothetical approach to justification or, on a practical level regarding values conflict, beyond a questionable appeal to consensus. My major purpose in this paper is to introduce the thought of Bernard Lonergan as offering a way toward such a methodological breakthrough. In the first section, I consider Beauchamp and Childress's defense of their theory of the common morality. In the second, I relate a persisting vacillation in their argument regarding the relative importance of reason and experience to a similar tension in classical liberal theory. In the third, I consider aspects of Lonergan's generalized empirical method as a way to address problems that surface in the first two sections of the paper: (1) the structural relation of reason and experience in human action; and (2) the importance of theory for practice in terms of what Lonergan calls "common sense" and "general bias."

  20. Lipedema: A Relatively Common Disease with Extremely Common Misconceptions

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Lipedema, or adiposis dolorosa, is a common adipose tissue disorder that is believed to affect nearly 11% of adult women worldwide. It is characterized most commonly by disproportionate adipocyte hypertrophy of the lower extremities, significant tenderness to palpation, and a failure to respond to extreme weight loss modalities. Women with lipedema report a rapid growth of the lipedema subcutaneous adipose tissue in the setting of stress, surgery, and/or hormonal changes. Women with later stages of lipedema have a classic “column leg” appearance, with masses of nodular fat, easy bruising, and pain. Despite this relatively common disease, there are few physicians who are aware of it. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed with lifestyle-induced obesity, and/or lymphedema, and subjected to unnecessary medical interventions and fat-shaming. Diagnosis is largely clinical and based on criteria initially established in 1951. Treatment of lipedema is effective and includes lymphatic support, such as complete decongestive therapy, and specialized suction lipectomy to spare injury to lymphatic channels and remove the diseased lipedema fat. With an incidence that may affect nearly 1 in 9 adult women, it is important to generate appropriate awareness, conduct additional research, and identify better diagnostic and treatment modalities for lipedema so these women can obtain the care that they need and deserve. PMID:27757353

  1. Common Mapping System Media Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    CMS standiard, including mission plaMing, intelligence, and avionics systems . The distribution media types supported by CMS will significantly iumat...the utility and cost of CMS for these systems . This paper presents the results of an investigation into the attributes of candidate distribution media...Common Mapping System ( CMS ) defines data formats and standard distribution media for the storage, interchange, and retrieval of MCG&I data. A variety of

  2. The Problem of Common Terminology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    vocabulary .9 This trend is exemplified by, for example, the terms: n transaction strategy n competitive edge n competitive space n leveraging n...commanders and their subordinates, but also a common vocabulary . Indeed, doctrinal documents are the most important means of educating and training...Studienglossary Englisch , vol. 2/3 (Bonn: Bundessprachenamt, January 1993), 1060; “Schwerpunkt,” Hermann Franke, ed., Handbuch der neuzeitlichen

  3. The Common Geometry Module (CGM).

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy James

    2004-12-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also includes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  4. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  5. Sustainability of common pool resources

    PubMed Central

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as “capitalism,” affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies. PMID:28212426

  6. George Combe and common sense.

    PubMed

    Dyde, Sean

    2015-06-01

    This article examines the history of two fields of enquiry in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scotland: the rise and fall of the common sense school of philosophy and phrenology as presented in the works of George Combe. Although many previous historians have construed these histories as separate, indeed sometimes incommensurate, I propose that their paths were intertwined to a greater extent than has previously been given credit. The philosophy of common sense was a response to problems raised by Enlightenment thinkers, particularly David Hume, and spurred a theory of the mind and its mode of study. In order to succeed, or even to be considered a rival of these established understandings, phrenologists adapted their arguments for the sake of engaging in philosophical dispute. I argue that this debate contributed to the relative success of these groups: phrenology as a well-known historical subject, common sense now largely forgotten. Moreover, this history seeks to question the place of phrenology within the sciences of mind in nineteenth-century Britain.

  7. Neurodegenerative diseases: a common etiology and a common therapy.

    PubMed

    Pierpaoli, Walter

    2005-12-01

    The variety of names of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) does not indicate that there is a wide variety of causes and a multiple number of cures. In fact NDDs derive from a common and repetitive, almost monotonous multicausal origin. NDDs are initiated invariably by a sudden or silent insidious decrease in immunologic resistance of the T cell-dependent or delayed type, produced by a large variety of psychological-emotional and/or environmental "stressors" (e.g., social, family-domestic, economic, alimentary, traumatic, and professional). These stressors increase the vulnerability of tissues (in this case, a section of the central or peripheral nervous system) to attack by a common virus (e.g., adenoviruses and herpesviruses). This attack creates a vicious circle leading to emergence of virus-generated tissue autoantigens and then to formation of autoantibodies. Use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs dramatically worsen and "eternalize" the diseases with further immunosuppression. Invariably, onset of NDDs is anticipated by a clear-cut alteration of the hormonal cyclicity, which closely controls immunity. My experience with patients in the last five years indicates a new approach to prevent and cure NDDs, based on a system totally divergent from present therapies. In fact "resetting the hormonal cyclicity clock" results in restoration of hormone-dependent antiviral immunity, arrest of disease progression, and at least partial recovery of neural functions, whatever the origin, anatomic location, and course of pathology.

  8. Monocrotophos and dicrotophos residues in birds as a result of misuse of organophosphates in Matagorda county Texas USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Lamont, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    About 1100 birds of 12 spp. [Red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), mourning dove (Zenaida macrours), Eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna), vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus), common snipe (Gallinago gallinago), blue-winged teal (Anas discors), mottled duck (Anas fulvigula), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), redhead (Aythya americana) and ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres)] died from organophosphate poisoning in Matagorda County on the Texas Gulf Coast in March and May 1982. Birds died from feeding on rice seed that was illegally treated with dicrotophos or monocrotophos and placed near rice fields as bait to attract and kill birds. Brain acetylcholinesterase inhibition of affected birds averaged 87% (range 82-89%), and contents of gastrointestinal tracts contained residues of dicrotophos (5.6-14 ppm) or monocrotophos (2.1-13 ppm). Rice seed collected at mortality sites contained 210 ppm dicrotophos or 950 ppm monocrotophos. Mortality from dicrotophos poisoning continued for almost 3 wk. The practice of illegally treating rice seed with either of the 2 organophosphates appears to be infrequent but widespread at present.

  9. Magnetic Anisotropy and Paleomagnetic Study of Dikes Emplaced in the Wai'anae Volcano, Oahu, Hawaii: a Re-evaluation of the AMS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, B.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2004-12-01

    The Wai'anae Volcano is the older of two shield volcanoes that make up the island of O'ahu. Previous age determinations suggest that the subaerial portion of the edifice erupted between approximately 3.7 and 2.7 Ma. The eroded Wai'anae Volcano had a well-developed caldera centered near the back of its two most prominent valleys, and two major rift zones: a prominent north-west rift zone, well defined by a complex of sub-parallel dikes trending approximately N52W, and a more diffuse south rift zone, trending between S20W to due south. In order to investigate the volcanic evolution, the plumbing and the triggering mechanisms of the catastrophic mass wasting occurred in the volcano we have undertaken a paleomagnetic and AMS study of 7 dikes from the volcano. We drilled the dikes paying special attention to the chilled margins were we recovered a minimum of 8 and up to 23 samples per margin. The width of the dikes ranges between 0.5 to 4 m. In terms of the paleomagnetic results at least 20 samples per intrusive were stepwise demagnetized by a.f. from 5 to 100mT. Companion specimens from the same core were demagnetized at 15 temperature steps. In both cases demagnetization diagrams obtained with each technique showed a stable Characteristic direction of remanence (ChRM) determined with no ambiguity. The ChRM was calculated using principal component analysis for the demagnetization diagrams with a well-defined component trending to the origin. In addition, low field susceptibility vs temperature (k-T) and SIRM experiments were able to identify magnetite (575oC) and a low temperature mineral phase at about 250-300o C which probably reflects the presence of titanomagnetite. The determined directions of the intrusives resulted in normal and reversed polarities indicating that such dikes were emplaced at different periods of time covering a gap of 350 kyrs. Magnetic fabric studies of the dikes along a NW-SE section across the present southwestern part of the Waianae volcano

  10. Occurrence and distribution of volatile organic compounds and pesticides in ground water in relation to hydrogeologic characteristics and land use in the Santa Ana basin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, Scott N.; Belitz, Kenneth; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the occurrence and distribution of VOCs and pesticides in the Santa Ana ground-water basins in relation to two types of explanatory factors: hydrogeologic characteristics and land use. The Santa Ana Basin is subdivided into the San Jacinto, the Inland, and the Coastal ground-water basins. Most wells sampled were deep and used for public supply. Data from regional studies were used to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of pesticides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in relation to hydrogeologic characteristics and land uses that could potentially explain variations between basins. Additional data from special studies (flow path and aquifer susceptibility) were used to evaluate potential factors affecting water quality for individual basins. The hydrogeologic characteristics evaluated in this report were hydrogeologic setting, ground-water age, depth to the top of the well screen (top of well perforations), and proximity to engineered recharge facilities. Urban land use, agricultural land use, and population density were characterized within a 500-meter radius of sampled wells and at the basin scale. Aquifers in the San Jacinto Basin are generally unconfined, and major land-use categories are urban (33 percent), agricultural (37 percent), and undeveloped (25 percent). Recharge is primarily from the overlying landscape, but engineered recharge is locally important in the Hemet area. VOCs and pesticides were detected more frequently in younger ground water (less than 50 years old) than in older ground water, and more frequently in shallower wells than deeper wells; the numbers of VOCs and pesticides detected also were significantly higher in the younger ground water and in the shallower wells. In the Hemet area of the San Jacinto Basin, VOCs and pesticides were detected more frequently in wells proximal to engineered recharge facilities than in distal wells. These patterns illustrate the importance of proximity to sources

  11. Sampled Longest Common Prefix Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirén, Jouni

    When augmented with the longest common prefix (LCP) array and some other structures, the suffix array can solve many string processing problems in optimal time and space. A compressed representation of the LCP array is also one of the main building blocks in many compressed suffix tree proposals. In this paper, we describe a new compressed LCP representation: the sampled LCP array. We show that when used with a compressed suffix array (CSA), the sampled LCP array often offers better time/space trade-offs than the existing alternatives. We also show how to construct the compressed representations of the LCP array directly from a CSA.

  12. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  13. Epigenetics and Common Ophthalmic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wendy; Liu, Ji; Galvin, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    The study of ocular diseases and epigenetic dysregulation is an emerging area of research. The knowledge from the epigenetic mechanisms of DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNAs regarding the pathogenesis of ocular diseases will be helpful for improved treatment modalities for our patients. In particular, we focus upon the how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms impact five common ocular diseases: age related macular degeneration, age-related cataract, pterygium, retinoblastoma, and uveal melanoma. Hence, the foundation of this research paves the way for future specific therapeutic targets to treat and prevent vision loss. PMID:28018148

  14. Vibrios Commonly Possess Two Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kazuhisa; Iida, Tetsuya; Kita-Tsukamoto, Kumiko; Honda, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of the two-chromosome configuration was investigated in 34 species of vibrios and closely related species. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of undigested genomic DNA suggested that vibrios commonly have two chromosomes. The size of the large chromosome is predominantly within a narrow range (3.0 to 3.3 Mb), whereas the size of the small chromosome varies considerably among the vibrios (0.8 to 2.4 Mb). This fact suggests that the structure of the small chromosome is more flexible than that of the large chromosome during the evolution of vibrios. PMID:15629946

  15. Stormflow chemistry in the Santa Ana River below Prado Dam and at the diversion downstream from Imperial Highway, southern California, 1995-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Mendez, Gregory O.; Burton, Carmen A.

    2000-01-01

    The Santa Ana River drains about 2,670 square miles of the densely populated coastal area of southern California, near Los Angeles. Almost all the flow in the river, more than 200,000 acre-feet annually, is diverted into ponds where it infiltrates and recharges underlying aquifers. About 2 million people are dependent on these aquifers for water supply. Stormflow in the Santa Ana River is considered a source of 'high-quality' water suitable for use as a source of ground-water recharge. To test this assumption, stormflow samples were collected at two locations--below Prado Dam and at the diversion point downstream from Imperial Highway--for 12 winter storms between 1995 and 1998. Nitrate concentrations decreased during stormflow from a median concentration of 7.8 milligrams per liter in base flow to concentrations less than 1 milligram per liter in some large storms. Concentrations of chemically reduced forms of nitrogen (nitrite, ammonia, and organic nitrogen) increased during stormflow and are the predominant forms of nitrogen in large stormflows. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations increased from a median concentration of 4.6 milligrams per liter in base flow to more than 20 milligrams per liter in some stormflows. Concentrations of DOC were especially high during the first storm of the rainy season, and large increases in DOC concentrations were measured even as a result of small early season storms that did not cause large increases in streamflow. DOC present during early season stormflow had less ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nanometers (UV254 ) per unit of carbon than did DOC from late season stormflows. DOC in water held in storage behind Prado Dam had the highest UV254 absorbance per unit of carbon. Maximum pesticide concentrations in stormflow did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels. Most pesticide concentrations were less than 1 microgram per liter and less than the detection limits obtained using standard

  16. Evolution of a common controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, D.; Barbour, D.; Gilbreath, G.

    2012-06-01

    Precedent has shown common controllers must strike a balance between the desire for an integrated user interface design by human factors engineers and support of project-specific data requirements. A common user-interface requires the project-specific data to conform to an internal representation, but project-specific customization is impeded by the implicit rules introduced by the internal data representation. Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) developed the latest version of the Multi-robot Operator Control Unit (MOCU) to address interoperability, standardization, and customization issues by using a modular, extensible, and flexible architecture built upon a sharedworld model. MOCU version 3 provides an open and extensible operator-control interface that allows additional functionality to be seamlessly added with software modules while providing the means to fully integrate the information into a layered game-like user interface. MOCU's design allows it to completely decouple the human interface from the core management modules, while still enabling modules to render overlapping regions of the screen without interference or a priori knowledge of other display elements, thus allowing more flexibility in project-specific customization.

  17. Common ecology quantifies human insurgency.

    PubMed

    Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Gourley, Sean; Dixon, Alexander R; Spagat, Michael; Johnson, Neil F

    2009-12-17

    Many collective human activities, including violence, have been shown to exhibit universal patterns. The size distributions of casualties both in whole wars from 1816 to 1980 and terrorist attacks have separately been shown to follow approximate power-law distributions. However, the possibility of universal patterns ranging across wars in the size distribution or timing of within-conflict events has barely been explored. Here we show that the sizes and timing of violent events within different insurgent conflicts exhibit remarkable similarities. We propose a unified model of human insurgency that reproduces these commonalities, and explains conflict-specific variations quantitatively in terms of underlying rules of engagement. Our model treats each insurgent population as an ecology of dynamically evolving, self-organized groups following common decision-making processes. Our model is consistent with several recent hypotheses about modern insurgency, is robust to many generalizations, and establishes a quantitative connection between human insurgency, global terrorism and ecology. Its similarity to financial market models provides a surprising link between violent and non-violent forms of human behaviour.

  18. Vomiting and common paediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Busoni, P; Crescioli, M; Agostino, R; Sestini, G

    2000-01-01

    Postoperative vomiting is a common and unpleasant complication. The purpose of the present study was to verify if dexamethasone reduces the incidence of vomiting when injected IV in children anaesthetized with halothane for common paediatric operations. We also studied the incidence of vomiting when sevoflurane was used instead. Five hundred and 69 boys, aged 2-12 years (ASA physical status I, II), scheduled for inguinal field surgery were randomly assigned to receive halothane, halothane and dexamethasone and sevoflurane in three groups: halothane (n=180), halothane and IV dexamethasone (n=188) and sevoflurane (n=201). Anaesthesia was induced by inhalation of halothane or sevoflurane in oxygen and nitrous oxide and was maintained at minimum alveolar concentration of each agent throughout the surgery. For intra- and postoperative pain control iliac crest block was used in all the boys. Vomiting was defined as any expulsion of liquid gastric contents. The incidence of postoperative vomiting was 23% in the halothane group, which was significantly greater than that in the other groups (halothane and dexamethasone group, 9%; sevoflurane group, 13%). In conclusion, dexamethasone reduces the incidence and frequency of multiple emetic episodes when administered intravenously after halothane anaesthesia; sevoflurane reduces the overall incidence of vomiting, but not multiple emetic episodes.

  19. Obtaining a Well-Aligned ZnO Nanotube Array Using the Hydrothermal Growth Method / Labi Sakārtotu Zno Nanocauruļu Kopu Iegūšana, Izmantojot Hidrotermālo Metodi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasovska, M.; Gerbreders, V.; Paskevics, V.; Ogurcovs, A.; Mihailova, I.

    2015-10-01

    Optimal growing parameters have been found using the hydrothermal method to obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanorod and nanotube arrays. The influence of different growing factors (such as temperature, growing solution concentration, method of obtaining seed layer and condition) on nanotube morphology and size is described in the paper. Well-structured ZnO nanotubes have been obtained by using a selfselective etching method with lowering temperatures of growth during the hydrothermal process. It is shown that the optical properties of the nanostructure arrays obtained are sensitive to the medium in which they are placed, which is why they can be used as sensors for pure substance detection and in different solutions for impurity determination. Dotajā darbā tika noteikti optimāli parametri labi sakārtotu ZnO nanocaurulīšu kopu iegūšanai, izmantojot hidrotermālo metodi ar temperatūras pazemināšanu, jeb t.s. selektīvu pa\\vskodināšanas metodi (self-selective etching), ir uzsvērtas šās metodes priekšrocības salīdzinājumā ar ķīmiskās kodināšanas metodi, kā arī tika aprakstīta dažādu augšanas faktora (tādu, ka darba šķīduma koncentrācija, augšanas temperatūra un laiks, iedīgļu slāņa iegūšanas veids un iegūšanas parametri) ietekme uz iegūtu nanostraktūra morfoloģiju. Tika konstatēts, ka noteicošu lomu ZnO nanocaurulīšu audzēšanas procesā spēlē iedīgļu slāņa graudu izmēri, kas savā staipā nosaka augošu nanostieņu izmērus un to tendenci pie pa\\vskodināšanas. Rentgenogrannnas parāda, ka iegūtām pie noteiktiem parametriem ZnO nanostruktūrām piemīt augsta kristāliskuma pakāpe un sakārtotība vertikālā virzienā. Optiskie mērījumi parāda, ka ZnO nanocauralītes ir jutīgas gan pret tīrām vielām (ūdens, spirts), gan pret dažādiem šķīdumiem, kas ļauj izmantot tos kā pie­jaukumu sensora. Salīdzinājumā ar ZnO nanostieņiem caurulīšu jūtība pieaug, jo pieaug nanostrakt

  20. Impacts of changing irrigation practices on waterfowl habitat use in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnum, D.A.; Euliss, N. H .

    1991-01-01

    We used diurnal aerial census data to examine habitat use patterns of ducks wintering in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California from 1980-87. We calculated densities (birds/ha) for the northern pintail (Anas acuta), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), green-winged teal (A. crecca), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), shoveler (A. clypeata), ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), and total ducks in each of 5 habitats. Densities of pintail and total ducks were greater in September than in other months. From October through January, density of teal and total ducks was greatest on Kern National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Densities of ruddy duck and pintail were greatest on agricultural drainwater evaporation ponds and preirrigated cropland, respectively.

  1. Common sense in nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyle, F.; Hoyle, G.

    1980-01-01

    Public concern about energy resource exhaustion is noted to have developed only after the means (nuclear power) for avoiding this disaster became available and the negative implications of a nuclear society became a focus for anxiety. Ironically, collapse of conventional energy supplies could lead to the nuclear confrontation which anti-nuclear forces claim as the inevitable outcome of nuclear power. A review of the risks, environmental impacts, and political implications of the major energy sources concludes that emotion, not common sense, has made nuclear energy an unpopular option. While the problems of proliferation, radiation protection, waste management, and accident prevention are far from trivial, they will respond to technological improvements and responsible control policies. An historical tradition of fearing new, poorly understood technologies is seen in the reaction to railroads during the early 19th Century. (DCK)

  2. The effects of ingested petroleum on the maphthalene-metabolizing properties of the liver tissue in seawater-adapted mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorsline, J.; Holmes, W.N.; Cronshaw, J.

    1981-01-01

    Hepatic mixed function oxidase activities were estimated in seawater-adapted mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) that had been consuming food contaminated with one of five different types of crude oil. After 50 days of exposure to contaminated food, enzyme activities of liver microsomal preparations were assessed in terms of their naphthalenemetabolizing properties in vitro. Although dose-dependent increases in the total hepatic enzyme activities (nmole naphthalene metabolized per minute per unit mass body weight) were observed in birds consuming food contaminated with each type of crude oil, three patterns of response were apparent. Crude oils from South Louisiana and Kuwait stimulated large and significant increases in the specific activity of the enzyme system (nmole naphthalene metabolized per minute per unit mass microsomal protein), whereas little or no increase in either microsomal protein content or relative liver weight were observed. In contrast, two crude oils from Santa Barbara, Calif., induced only small increases in specific activity but significant increases occurred in hepatic microsomal protein concentration and relative liver weight. The crude oil from Prudhoe Bay, Ala., evoked intermediate patterns of response. The possible significance of these data is discussed in relation to the survival of seabirds consuming petroleum-contaminated food and drinking water.

  3. Influence of a mine tailing accident near Doñana National Park (Spain) on heavy metals and arsenic accumulation in 14 species of waterfowl (1998 to 2000).

    PubMed

    Gómez, G; Baos, R; Gómara, B; Jiménez, B; Benito, V; Montoro, R; Hiraldo, F; González, M J

    2004-11-01

    This article presents the impact on waterbirds in Doñana National Park (Spain) of an accidental release of 5 million m3 acid waste produced by the processing of pyrite ore. Heavy metals (zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead) and arsenic were measured in several soft tissues (liver, kidney, and muscle) taken from 14 waterfowl species collected between April 1998 and May 2000. The main source of copper and zinc found in the waterfowl species examined was the spill waste, whereas cadmium, lead, and arsenic could also came from other sources. Kidney was the primary organ for cadmium and lead accumulation, whereas liver accumulated the most zinc and copper. Arsenic was concentrated in both muscle and liver tissue. The degree of contamination of the area where the birds lived, their age, their sex their size, and the time since the spill were found to have less influence than species and trophic level on the accumulation of metal in organs and tissues. Four species (Anser anser, Ciconia ciconia, Larus ridibundus, and Porphyrio porphyrio) were found to have the highest levels of the 5 elements.

  4. Development and application of an indirect immunoperoxidase assay for the detection of Duck swollen head hemorrhagic disease virus antigen in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanfeng; Shen, Chanjuan; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Zhang, Na; Zhou, Yi; Zhu, Dekang; Jia, Renyong; Luo, Qihui; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2010-01-01

    An improved indirect immunoperoxidase assay (IPA) was developed to detect antigens of Duck swollen head hemorrhagic disease virus (DSHDV) in paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). This technique used an indirect streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase labeling system with polyclonal antiserum developed against purified DSHDV antigens. Specimens from the experimentally inoculated Pekin ducks with DSHDV and archived paraffin-embedded tissues from natural cases of Duck viral swollen head hemorrhagic disease (DVSHD) were examined by clinical and histological criteria. Positive staining was most widely observed in the cytoplasm of the following organs: immune, digestive, and urinary organs, heart, lung, and trachea, which corresponded to the intracellular distribution of reovirus. The DSHDV antigens were first detected at 4 hr postinoculation in the bursa of Fabricius of infected ducks. Therefore, this method was suitable for the early diagnosis of DVSHD. Immunoperoxidase staining was not present in tissues and organs of sham-inoculated ducks (negative control). The IPA developed in the current study is a convenient, sensitive, and specific means of detecting DSHDV and is applicable to routine diagnosis, retrospective studies, and prospective studies of DSHDV infection in ducks.

  5. Utility of proteomics to assess pollutant response of clams from the Doñana bank of Guadalquivir Estuary (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Carrascal, Montserrat; Alhama, José; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis; Abian, Joaquín; López-Barea, Juan

    2006-04-01

    The utility of proteomics to assess pollutant response of Scrobicularia plana clams from three sites of Guadalquivir Estuary at the southern end of the National Park of Doñana (SW Spain) has been studied. Protein expression profiles were analyzed by 2-DE in soluble fractions of S. plana gills. Nearly 2000 well-resolved spots were detected in silver-stained gels, with focused areas in the 4-6.5 pH range. Different protein expression signatures were found at each site, with the highest number of more intense spots in animals with the highest metal content. Nineteen more intense protein spots were analyzed out by nanospray-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry, de novo sequencing and a bioinformatics search for their possible identification. While sequence tags of 16 more intense protein spots were obtained, including several proteins induced by pollutant exposure of model organisms, only 2 proteins were unambiguously identified: hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH). Both enzymes were significantly higher in animals with the highest metal contents. Thus, we propose these two proteins, HPRT and G3PDH, as novel pollution biomarkers.

  6. Evaluation of two different swab transport systems in the detection of avian influenza virus excretion from infected Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Roelandt, Sophie; Outtrim, Linzy; Browning, Clare; Alexander, Dennis J; Brown, Ian H; Irvine, Richard M

    2012-09-01

    The role of wild birds in the epidemiology and ecology of influenza A viruses has long been recognised (Alexander, 2007a). As a result of the emergence of a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus and the apparent role of wild birds in its spread across Asia, Europe and Africa, avian influenza (AI) wild bird surveillance has been implemented in many countries including, since February 2006, a mandatory programme in the European Union (CEC, 2006a). In the present study the detection of virus excreted from Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally with A/mallard/England/2126/07 (H3N6) was investigated over a fourteen day period post-infection using cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs, with (wet) and without (dry) viral transport medium which were collected from each duck in alternating order. For influenza A virus matrix gene RNA detection, wet oropharyngeal swabs were significantly more sensitive than dry oropharyngeal on days 4-5 after infection. For cloacal samples, dry swabs were equivalent or superior to wet swabs throughout the study. Although differences in detection between dry and wet swabs were observed, the qualitative bird-level results were unaffected, meaning that the infection status of individual birds was correctly determined.

  7. Traditional ecological knowledge trends in the transition to a market economy: empirical study in the Doñana natural areas.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Mingorría, Sara; Reyes-García, Victoria; Calvet, Laura; Montes, Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Researchers and conservation managers largely agree on the relevance of traditional ecological knowledge for natural resource management in indigenous communities, but its prevalence and role as societies modernize are contested. We analyzed the transmission of traditional knowledge among rural local people in communities linked to protected areas in Doñana, southwestern Spain. We studied changes in knowledge related to local practices in agriculture and livestock farming among 198 informants from three generations that cover the period in which the area transited from an economy strongly dependent on local ecosystem services to a market economy with intensified production systems. Our results suggest an abrupt loss of traditional agricultural knowledge related to rapid transformations and intensification of agricultural systems, but maintenance of knowledge of traditional livestock farming, an activity allowed in the protected areas that maintains strong links with local cultural identity. Our results demonstrate the potential of protected areas in protecting remaining bodies of traditional ecological knowledge in developed country settings. Nevertheless, we note that strict protection in cultural-landscape-dominated areas can disrupt transmission of traditional knowledge if local resource users and related practices are excluded from ecosystem management.

  8. Common cutaneous disorders in athletes.

    PubMed

    Conklin, R J

    1990-02-01

    Athletic activity may cause or aggravate skin disorders, which in turn may diminish athletic performance. Since many sporting activities necessitate prolonged exposure to the sun, athletes must avoid painful sunburn which will adversely affect their performance. Drugs and chemicals also may cause photoallergic and/or phototoxic reactions, including polymorphous light eruption and athletes should thus avoid photosensitising drugs and chemicals. The effects of chronic ultraviolet exposure include ageing, pigmentation and skin cancers. The most effective protection against excessive exposure to sunlight is the use of sunscreens, although inadequate application and poor protection in the UVA spectrum may diminish their effectiveness and contact allergies may create other problems. Viral, bacterial and fungal infections are common in athletes due to heat, friction and contact with others. Herpes simplex may be treated with any drying agents (e.g. alcohol) as they are as effective as more expensive topical agents such as acyclovir. Molluscum contagiosum may be spread by close contact or water contact and is treated by superficial incision, cryotherapy or standard wart varnishes. Plantar wart infection is transmitted by swimming pool decks, changing rooms and hand-to-hand from weights in gymnasiums. Plantar warts presenting with pain may be aggressively treated, by blunt dissection, but painless ones are best treated conservatively. Impetigo and folliculitis often develop after trauma. Antibiotics are effective against mild infections while abrasions and lacerations should be cleansed and dressed with occlusive dressings. Diphtheroid bacteria in moist footwear may produce pitted keratolysis and erythrasma. Tinea pedis is common in athletes and probably originates in swimming pools, gymnasium floors and locker rooms. Interdigital, dry-moccasin and pustular-midsole forms can be distinguished. The latter two forms respond to topical antifungal agents, while the interdigital

  9. Managing the wildlife tourism commons.

    PubMed

    Pirotta, Enrico; Lusseau, David

    2015-04-01

    The nonlethal effects of wildlife tourism can threaten the conservation status of targeted animal populations. In turn, such resource depletion can compromise the economic viability of the industry. Therefore, wildlife tourism exploits resources that can become common pool and that should be managed accordingly. We used a simulation approach to test whether different management regimes (tax, tax and subsidy, cap, cap and trade) could provide socioecologically sustainable solutions. Such schemes are sensitive to errors in estimated management targets. We determined the sensitivity of each scenario to various realistic uncertainties in management implementation and in our knowledge of the population. Scenarios where time quotas were enforced using a tax and subsidy approach, or they were traded between operators were more likely to be sustainable. Importantly, sustainability could be achieved even when operators were assumed to make simple rational economic decisions. We suggest that a combination of the two regimes might offer a robust solution, especially on a small spatial scale and under the control of a self-organized, operator-level institution. Our simulation platform could be parameterized to mimic local conditions and provide a test bed for experimenting different governance solutions in specific case studies.

  10. Common problems in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Cosca, David D; Navazio, Franco

    2007-07-15

    Endurance athletes alternate periods of intensive physical training with periods of rest and recovery to improve performance. An imbalance caused by overly intensive training and inadequate recovery leads to a breakdown in tissue reparative mechanisms and eventually to overuse injuries. Tendon overuse injury is degenerative rather than inflammatory. Tendinopathy is often slow to resolve and responds inconsistently to anti-inflammatory agents. Common overuse injuries in runners and other endurance athletes include patellofemoral pain syndrome, iliotibial band friction syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, and lower extremity stress fractures. These injuries are treated with relative rest, usually accompanied by a rehabilitative exercise program. Cyclists may benefit from evaluation on their bicycles and subsequent adjustment of seat height, cycling position, or pedal system. Endurance athletes also are susceptible to exercise-associated medical conditions, including exercise-induced asthma, exercise-associated collapse, and overtraining syndrome. These conditions are treatable or preventable with appropriate medical intervention. Dilutional hyponatremia is increasingly encountered in athletes participating in marathons and triathlons. This condition is related to overhydration with hypotonic fluids and may be preventable with guidance on appropriate fluid intake during competition.

  11. Common abdominal emergencies in children.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, James

    2002-02-01

    Because young children often present to EDs with abdominal complaints, emergency physicians must have a high index of suspicion for the common abdominal emergencies that have serious sequelae. At the same time, they must realize that less serious causes of abdominal symptoms (e.g., constipation or gastroenteritis) are also seen. A gentle yet thorough and complete history and physical examination are the most important diagnostic tools for the emergency physician. Repeated examinations and observation are useful tools. Physicians should listen carefully to parents and their children, respect their concerns, and honor their complaints. Ancillary tests are inconsistent in their value in assessing these complaints. Abdominal radiographs can be normal in children with intussusception and even malrotation and early volvulus. Unlike the classic symptoms seen in adults, young children can display only lethargy or poor feeding in cases of appendicitis or can appear happy and playful between paroxysmal bouts of intussusception. The emergency physician therefore, must maintain a high index of suspicion for serious pathology in pediatric patients with abdominal complaints. Eventually, all significant abdominal emergencies reveal their true nature, and if one can be patient with the child and repeat the examinations when the child is quiet, one will be rewarded with the correct diagnosis.

  12. Comparison of Common Tonsillectomy Methods.

    PubMed

    Sattar, M A; Sultana, T

    2016-01-01

    This prospective randomized study was done to compare operative time, intra-operative blood loss, post operative pain, secondary haemorrhage in common tonsillectomy methods. Thirty two (32) paediatric population of age 7-12 years from each group randomly selected, operative techniques adopted consecutively and this study was conducted in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Islami Bank Hospital, Dhaka, and Desh Medical Services, Chittagong, from January 2011 to December 2013. Surgery was performed by single midlevel surgeon. Postoperatively one month was followed the entire patient. Total 96 pediatrics population (32 for each group) was studied. Mean operating time and mean intra-operative blood loss was in cold dissection method 22 min and 15 ml, in bipolar dissection tonsillectomy 18 min and 10 ml & in laser tonsillectomy 17 min and 9 ml. Differences of operating time and variation of blood loss in various methods are not statistically significant. Laser and bipolar electro dissection tonsillectomy are popularized due to its relative less bleeding and quicker methods than that of cold dissection tonsillectomy; there is no significant difference among them.

  13. Common Bolted Joint Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imtiaz, Kauser

    2011-01-01

    Common Bolted Joint Analysis Tool (comBAT) is an Excel/VB-based bolted joint analysis/optimization program that lays out a systematic foundation for an inexperienced or seasoned analyst to determine fastener size, material, and assembly torque for a given design. Analysts are able to perform numerous what-if scenarios within minutes to arrive at an optimal solution. The program evaluates input design parameters, performs joint assembly checks, and steps through numerous calculations to arrive at several key margins of safety for each member in a joint. It also checks for joint gapping, provides fatigue calculations, and generates joint diagrams for a visual reference. Optimum fastener size and material, as well as correct torque, can then be provided. Analysis methodology, equations, and guidelines are provided throughout the solution sequence so that this program does not become a "black box:" for the analyst. There are built-in databases that reduce the legwork required by the analyst. Each step is clearly identified and results are provided in number format, as well as color-coded spelled-out words to draw user attention. The three key features of the software are robust technical content, innovative and user friendly I/O, and a large database. The program addresses every aspect of bolted joint analysis and proves to be an instructional tool at the same time. It saves analysis time, has intelligent messaging features, and catches operator errors in real time.

  14. Common hyperspectral image database design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lixun; Liao, Ningfang; Chai, Ali

    2009-11-01

    This paper is to introduce Common hyperspectral image database with a demand-oriented Database design method (CHIDB), which comprehensively set ground-based spectra, standardized hyperspectral cube, spectral analysis together to meet some applications. The paper presents an integrated approach to retrieving spectral and spatial patterns from remotely sensed imagery using state-of-the-art data mining and advanced database technologies, some data mining ideas and functions were associated into CHIDB to make it more suitable to serve in agriculture, geological and environmental areas. A broad range of data from multiple regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is supported, including ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, thermal infrared, and fluorescence. CHIDB is based on dotnet framework and designed by MVC architecture including five main functional modules: Data importer/exporter, Image/spectrum Viewer, Data Processor, Parameter Extractor, and On-line Analyzer. The original data were all stored in SQL server2008 for efficient search, query and update, and some advance Spectral image data Processing technology are used such as Parallel processing in C#; Finally an application case is presented in agricultural disease detecting area.

  15. Ozonation of Common Textile Auxiliaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskender, Gulen; Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Koyunluoglu, Sebnem; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Germirli Babuna, Fatos

    2016-10-01

    The treatability of four different commonly applied textile auxiliary chemicals, namely two tannin formulations (Tannin 1: a condensation product of aryl sulphonate; Tannin 2: natural tannic acid) and two biocidal finishing agents (Biocide 1: 2,4,4’-trichloro-2’- hydroxydiphenyl ether; Biocide 2: a nonionic diphenyl alkane derivative) with ozone was investigated. Increasing the ozone dose yielded higher COD removals for the natural tannin. Optimum ozone doses of 485 and 662 mg/h were obtained at a pH of 3.5 for natural and synthetic tannin carrying textile bath discharges, respectively. When the reaction pH was increased from 3.5 to 7.0, a slight decrease in COD removal was observed for the natural tannin due to ozone selectivity towards its polyaromatic structure. The same increase in ozonation pH enhanced COD removals for the synthetic tannin as a result of enhanced ozone decomposition rendering free radical chain reactions dominant. Optimum ozone doses of 499 and 563 mg/h were established for Biocide 1 and 2, respectively. With the increase of ozonation, pH exhibited a positive influence on COD removals for both textile tannins. A substantial improvement in terms of TOC removals was observed as the reaction pH was increased from 3.5 to 7.0 for the synthetic tannin, and from 7 to 12 for both textile biocides. Higher AOX removals were evident at pH 7 than at pH 12 for Biocide 1 as a result of the higher selectivity of the dehalogenation reaction at neutral pH.

  16. No ownership of common factors.

    PubMed

    Tryon, Warren W; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2011-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy," by J. Shedler (see record 2010-02208-012). Shedler's informative article raised several issues worthy of comment. His choice of the word distinctive (p. 98) in describing aspects of psychodynamic technique is open to at least two interpretations. On the one hand, distinctive can have a qualitative meaning and indicate the presence of a characteristic that is not shared. For example, a sign in the Bronx Zoo distinguishes birds from all other creatures as follows: "If it has feathers it's a bird, if it doesn't, it isn't." On the other hand, distinctive can have a quantitative meaning and indicate that one practice has more of a common element than another practice. Careful reading of Shedler's article and the article by Blagys and Hilsenroth (2000) that forms the basis of the "seven features [that] reliably distinguished psychodynamic therapies from other therapies" (Shedler, 2010, p. 98) shows that Shedler subscribes to the latter, quantitative, definition of distinctive. In other words, the seven features he presented are present in both psychodynamic therapies and the cognitive-behavioral therapies to which he compares them. For example, although Shedler did not mention it, dialectical behavior therapy explicitly focuses on six of the seven features, namely, "focus on affect and expression of emotion," "exploration of attempts to avoid distressing thoughts and feelings," "identification of recurring themes and patterns," "discussion of past experience," "focus on interpersonal relations," and "focus on the therapy relationship" (Shedler, 2010, p. 99). However, in the articles that Blagys and Hilsenroth reviewed, psychodyamic therapists engaged in more of these behaviors than did cognitive-behavioral therapists.

  17. Common Questions About Chronic Prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Holt, James D; Garrett, W Allan; McCurry, Tyler K; Teichman, Joel M H

    2016-02-15

    Chronic prostatitis is relatively common, with a lifetime prevalence of 1.8% to 8.2%. Risk factors include conditions that facilitate introduction of bacteria into the urethra and prostate (which also predispose the patient to urinary tract infections) and conditions that can lead to chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic prostatitis must be differentiated from other causes of chronic pelvic pain, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and pelvic floor dysfunction; prostate and bladder cancers; benign prostatic hyperplasia; urolithiasis; and other causes of dysuria, urinary frequency, and nocturia. The National Institutes of Health divides prostatitis into four syndromes: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP)/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. CBP and CNP/CPPS both lead to pelvic pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. CBP presents as recurrent urinary tract infections with the same organism identified on repeated cultures; it responds to a prolonged course of an antibiotic that adequately penetrates the prostate, if the urine culture suggests sensitivity. If four to six weeks of antibiotic therapy is effective but symptoms recur, another course may be prescribed, perhaps in combination with alpha blockers or nonopioid analgesics. CNP/CPPS, accounting for more than 90% of chronic prostatitis cases, presents as prostatic pain lasting at least three months without consistent culture results. Weak evidence supports the use of alpha blockers, pain medications, and a four- to six-week course of antibiotics for the treatment of CNP/CPPS. Patients may also be referred to a psychologist experienced in managing chronic pain. Experts on this condition recommend a combination of treatments tailored to the patient's phenotypic presentation. Urology referral should be considered when appropriate treatment is ineffective. Additional treatments include pelvic

  18. The Common Land Model (CLM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Y.; Zeng, X.; Dickinson, R. E.

    2001-05-01

    The Common Land Model (CLM) has recently been developed through a grass-roots collaboration of scientists who have an interest in making a general land model available for public use. Its major components include: (1) Ten prognostic layers in the soil temperature and soil moisture, with a free drainage and a zero heat flux as the bottom boundary conditions; (2) A comprehensive parameterization of snow processes with up to 5 snow layers depending on the total snow depth; (3) Prognostic equations for mass of liquid water and ice water within soil / snow, and explicit treatment of phase changes within soil / snow; (4) Runoff is parameterized from the lowlands in terms of precipitation incident on wet areas and a base flow using ideas from TOPMODEL; (5) Incorporation of a realistic canopy photosynthesis-conductance model to describe the simultaneous transfer of CO2 and water vapor into and out of vegetation, respectively. (6) Its interface with the atmospheric model is characterized by a tiled treatment of subgrid fraction of energy and water balance; (7) Global vegetation cover database derived from satellite AVHRR; Global soil data with vertical profile from IGBP-DIS; and Global survey data for root vertical distribution; (8) The code is based on FORTRAN90. The model has been extensively evaluated in offline tests, land-atmosphere coupled simulations, and in data assimilation. In the presentation, we will discuss the model as well as its offline tests using long observational time series from six different sites: Valdai (grassland), Cabauw (grassland), Hapex-Mobilhy (crop), Amazonian (rainforest), FIFE (grassland) and Tucson (semi-desert).

  19. Designing the Microbial Research Commons

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlir, Paul F.

    2011-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an ever-increasing range and volume of digital data. All elements of the pillars of science--whether observation, experiment, or theory and modeling--are being transformed by the continuous cycle of generation, dissemination, and use of factual information. This is even more so in terms of the re-using and re-purposing of digital scientific data beyond the original intent of the data collectors, often with dramatic results. We all know about the potential benefits and impacts of digital data, but we are also aware of the barriers, the challenges in maximizing the access, and use of such data. There is thus a need to think about how a data infrastructure can enhance capabilities for finding, using, and integrating information to accelerate discovery and innovation. How can we best implement an accessible, interoperable digital environment so that the data can be repeatedly used by a wide variety of users in different settings and with different applications? With this objective: to use the microbial communities and microbial data, literature, and the research materials themselves as a test case, the Board on Research Data and Information held an International Symposium on Designing the Microbial Research Commons at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC on 8-9 October 2009. The symposium addressed topics such as models to lower the transaction costs and support access to and use of microbiological materials and digital resources from the perspective of publicly funded research, public-private interactions, and developing country concerns. The overall goal of the symposium was to stimulate more research and implementation of improved legal and institutional models for publicly funded research in microbiology.

  20. Coordinating towards a Common Good

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2010-09-01

    Throughout their life, humans often engage in collective endeavors ranging from family related issues to global warming. In all cases, the tragedy of the commons threatens the possibility of reaching the optimal solution associated with global cooperation, a scenario predicted by theory and demonstrated by many experiments. Using the toolbox of evolutionary game theory, I will address two important aspects of evolutionary dynamics that have been neglected so far in the context of public goods games and evolution of cooperation. On one hand, the fact that often there is a threshold above which a public good is reached [1, 2]. On the other hand, the fact that individuals often participate in several games, related to the their social context and pattern of social ties, defined by a social network [3, 4, 5]. In the first case, the existence of a threshold above which collective action is materialized dictates a rich pattern of evolutionary dynamics where the direction of natural selection can be inverted compared to standard expectations. Scenarios of defector dominance, pure coordination or coexistence may arise simultaneously. Both finite and infinite population models are analyzed. In networked games, cooperation blooms whenever the act of contributing is more important than the effort contributed. In particular, the heterogeneous nature of social networks naturally induces a symmetry breaking of the dilemmas of cooperation, as contributions made by cooperators may become contingent on the social context in which the individual is embedded. This diversity in context provides an advantage to cooperators, which is particularly strong when both wealth and social ties follow a power-law distribution, providing clues on the self-organization of social communities. Finally, in both situations, it can be shown that individuals no longer play a defection dominance dilemma, but effectively engage in a general N-person coordination game. Even if locally defection may seem