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Sample records for common tibial intramedullary

  1. Fatigue strength of common tibial intramedullary nail distal locking screws

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Lanny V; Harris, Robert M; Zubak, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    Background Premature failure of either the nail and/or locking screws with unstable fracture patterns may lead to angulation, shortening, malunion, and IM nail migration. Up to thirty percent of all unreamed nail locking screws can break after initial weight bearing is allowed at 8–10 weeks if union has not occurred. The primary problem this presents is hardware removal during revision surgery. The purposes of our study was to evaluate the relative fatigue resistance of distal locking screws and bolts from representative manufacturers of tibial IM nail systems, and develop a relative risk assessment of screws and materials used. Evaluations included quantitative and qualitative measures of the relative performance of these screws. Methods Fatigue tests were conducted to simulate a comminuted fracture that was treated by IM nailing assuming that all load was carried by the screws. Each screw type was tested ten times in a single screw configuration. One screw type was tested an additional ten times in a two-screw parallel configuration. Fatigue tests were performed using a servohydraulic materials testing system and custom fixturing that simulated screws placed in the distal region of an appropriately sized tibial IM nail. Fatigue loads were estimated based on a seventy-five kilogram individual at full weight bearing. The test duration was one million cycles (roughly one year), or screw fracture, whichever occurred first. Failure analysis of a representative sample of titanium alloy and stainless steel screws included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantitative metallography. Results The average fatigue life of a single screw with a diameter of 4.0 mm was 1200 cycles, which would correspond roughly to half a day of full weight bearing. Single screws with a diameter of 4.5 mm or larger have approximately a 50 percent probability of withstanding a week of weight bearing, whereas a single 5.0 mm diameter screw has greater than 90 percent probability of

  2. Tibial lengthening over intramedullary nails

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, R. D.; Manzotti, A.; Bhave, A.; Paley, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the results and complications of tibial lengthening over an intramedullary nail with treatment using the traditional Ilizarov method. Methods In this matched case study, 16 adult patients underwent 19 tibial lengthening over nails (LON) procedures. For the matched case group, 17 patients who underwent 19 Ilizarov tibial lengthenings were retrospectively matched to the LON group. Results The mean external fixation time for the LON group was 2.6 months and for the matched case group was 7.6 months. The mean lengthening amounts for the LON and the matched case groups were 5.2 cm and 4.9 cm, respectively. The radiographic consolidation time in the LON group was 6.6 months and in the matched case group 7.6 months. Using a clinical and radiographic outcome score that was designed for this study, the outcome was determined to be excellent in 17 and good in two patients for the LON group. The outcome was excellent in 14 and good in five patients in the matched case group. The LON group had increased blood loss and increased cost. The LON group had four deep infections; the matched case group did not have any deep infections. Conclusions The outcomes in the LON group were comparable with the outcomes in the matched case group. The LON group had a shorter external fixation time but experienced increased blood loss, increased cost, and four cases of deep infection. The advantage of reducing external fixation treatment time may outweigh these disadvantages in patients who have a healthy soft-tissue envelope. Cite this article: J. E. Herzenberg. Tibial lengthening over intramedullary nails: A matched case comparison with Ilizarov tibial lengthening. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:1–10. doi: 10.1302/2046-3758.51.2000577 PMID:26764351

  3. Tibial lengthening over humeral and tibial intramedullary nails in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daoyun; Chen, Jianmin; Jiang, Yao; Liu, Fanggang

    2011-06-01

    Leg discrepancy is common after poliomyelitis. Tibial lengthening is an effective way to solve this problem. It is believed lengthening over a tibial intramedullary nail can provide a more comfortable lengthening process than by the conventional technique. However, patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis typically have narrow intramedullary canals allowing limited space for inserting a tibial intramedullary nail and Kirschner wires. To overcome this problem, we tried using humeral nails instead of tibial nails in the lengthening procedure. In this study, we used humeral nails in 20 tibial lengthening procedures and compared the results with another group of patients who were treated with tibial lengthening over tibial intramedullary nails. The mean consolidation index, percentage of increase and external fixation index did not show significant differences between the two groups. However, less blood loss and shorter operating time were noted in the humeral nail group. More patients encountered difficulty with the inserted intramedullary nail in the tibial nail group procedure. The complications did not show a statistically significant difference between the two techniques on follow-up. In conclusion, we found the humeral nail lengthening technique was more suitable in leg discrepancy patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis.

  4. Ideal tibial intramedullary nail insertion point varies with tibial rotation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Richard M; Zdero, Rad; McKee, Michael D; Waddell, James P; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how superior entry point varies with tibial rotation and to identify landmarks that can be used to identify suitable radiographs for successful intramedullary nail insertion. The proximal tibia and knee were imaged for 12 cadaveric limbs undergoing 5° increments of internal and external rotation. Medial and lateral arthrotomies were performed, the ideal superior entry point was identified, and a 2-mm Kirschner wire inserted. A second Kirschner wire was sequentially placed at the 5-mm and then the 10-mm position, both medial and lateral to the initial Kirschner wire. Radiographs of the knee were obtained for all increments. The changing position of the ideal nail insertion point was recorded. A 30° arc (range, 25°-40°) provided a suitable anteroposterior radiograph. On the neutral anteroposterior radiograph, the Kirschner wire was 54% ± 1.5% (range, 51-56%) from the medial edge of the tibial plateau. For every 5° of rotation, the Kirschner wire moved 3% of the plateau width. During external rotation, a misleading medial entry point was obtained. A fibular bisector line correlated with an entry point that was ideal or up to 5 mm lateral to this but never medial. The film that best showed the fibular bisector line was between 0° and 10° of internal rotation of the tibia. The fibula head bisector line can be used to avoid choosing external rotation views and, thus, avoid medial insertion points. The current results may help the surgeon prevent malalignment during intramedullary nailing in proximal tibial fractures.

  5. Interlocking intramedullary nailing in distal tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Tyllianakis, M; Megas, P; Giannikas, D; Lambiris, E

    2000-08-01

    This retrospective study examined the results of non-pilon fractures of the distal part of the tibia treated with interlocking intramedullary nailing. Seventy-three patients with equal numbers of fractures treated surgically between 1990 and 1998 were reviewed. Mean patient age was 39.8 years, and follow-up averaged 34.2 months. The AO fracture classification system was used. Concomitant fractures of the lateral malleolus were fixed. All but three fractures achieved union within 4.2 months on average. Satisfactory or excellent results were obtained in 86.3% of patients. These results indicate interlocking intramedullary nailing is a reliable method of treatment for these fractures and is characterized by high rates of union and a low incidence of complications.

  6. Outcome of intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail in tibial diaphyseal fracture.

    PubMed

    Khan, Irfanullah; Javed, Shahzad; Khan, Gauhar Nawaz; Aziz, Amer

    2013-03-01

    To determine the outcome of intramedullary interlocking surgical implant generation network (SIGN) nail in diaphyseal tibial fractures in terms of union and failure of implant (breakage of nail or interlocking screws). Case series. Orthopaedics and Spinal Surgery, Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, from September 2008 to August 2009. Fifty patients aged 14 - 60 years, of either gender were included, who had closed and Gustilo type I and II open fractures reported in 2 weeks, whose closed reduction was not possible or was unsatisfactory and fracture was located 7 cm below knee joint to 7 cm above ankle joint. Fractures previously treated with external fixator, infected fractures and unfit patients were excluded. All fractures were fixed with intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail and were followed clinically and radiographically for union and for any implant failure. Forty one (88%) patients had united fracture within 6 months, 5 (10%) patients had delayed union while 4 (8%) patients had non-union. Mean duration for achieving union was 163 + 30.6 days. Interlocking screws were broken in 2 patients while no nail was broken in any patient. Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective measure in treating closed and grade I and II open tibial fractures. It provides a high rate of union less complications and early return to function.

  7. Intramedullary nailing in the treatment of aseptic tibial nonunion.

    PubMed

    Megas, P; Panagiotopoulos, E; Skriviliotakis, S; Lambiris, E

    2001-04-01

    Fifty patients suffering from aseptic tibial nonunion underwent reamed intramedullary nailing (I.N.) and were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-six patients were initially treated with external fixation, six with plate and screws, one with a static I.N., and seven with plaster of Paris. Eighteen of the fractures were initially open (A: 5, B: 6, and C: 7 according to the Gustilo classification). In 34 cases a closed procedure was performed, whereas in sixteen, an opening at the nonunion site was unavoidable either to remove metalwork or realign the fragments. Following failed external fixation, secondary I.N. was performed at least 10 days after removal of the device. Bone grafts from the iliac crest were used in three cases, and a fibular osteotomy was performed in 33. Patients were followed up for an average of 2.5 years after nailing, ranging from 10 months to 7 years. A solid union was achieved in all patients within a period of 6 months. One patient developed late infection, which settled after nail removal and one patient developed impending compartment syndrome which was detected on the first post-operative day and was treated with a fasciotomy. Transient peroneal nerve palsy occurred in one patient and this recovered in 3 months, whereas in nine patients a clinically acceptable deformity was noticed. In conclusion, we believe that reamed intramedullary nailing is a highly effective treatment for aseptic tibial nonunions. Early and late complications are rare and bone graft is rarely needed. The method allows early weight bearing even before solid union occurs, short hospitalisation time and early return to work without external support.

  8. Semiextended approach for intramedullary nailing via a patellar eversion technique for tibial-shaft fractures: Evaluation of the patellofemoral joint.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Obara, Shu; Hayashi, Junji; Arai, Masayuki; Sato, Kaoru

    2017-06-01

    Intramedullary nail fixation is a common treatment for tibial-shaft fractures, and it offers a better functional prognosis than other conservative treatments. Currently, the primary approach employed during intramedullary nail insertion is the semiextended position is the suprapatellar approach, which involves a vertical incision of the quadriceps tendon Damage to the patellofemoral joint cartilage has been highlighted as a drawback associated with this approach. To avoid this issue, we perform surgery using the patellar eversion technique and a soft sleeve. This method allows the articular surface to be monitored during intramedullary nail insertion. We arthroscopically assessed the effect of this technique on patellofemoral joint cartilage. The patellar eversion technique allows a direct view and protection of the patellofemoral joint without affecting the patella. Thus, damage to the patellofemoral joint cartilage can be avoided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of retained intramedullary nails on tibial bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Allen, J C; Lindsey, R W; Hipp, J A; Gugala, Z; Rianon, N; LeBlanc, A

    2008-07-01

    Intramedullary nailing has become a standard treatment for adult tibial shaft fractures. Retained intramedullary nails have been associated with stress shielding, although their long-term effect on decreasing tibial bone mineral density is currently unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if retained tibial intramedullary nails decrease tibial mineral density in patients with successfully treated fractures. Patients treated with statically locked intramedullary nails for isolated, unilateral tibia shaft fractures were studied. Inclusion required that fracture had healed radiographically and that the patient returned to the pre-injury activity level. Data on patient demographic, fracture type, surgical technique, implant, and post-operative functional status were tabulated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density in selected regions of the affected tibia and the contralateral intact tibia. Image reconstruction software was employed to ensure symmetry of the studied regions. Twenty patients (mean age 43; range 22-77 years) were studied at a mean of 29 months (range 5-60 months) following intramedullary nailing. There was statistically significant reduction of mean bone mineral density in tibiae with retained intramedullary nails (1.02 g/cm(2) versus 1.06 g/cm(2); P=0.04). A significantly greater decrease in bone mineral density was detected in the reamed versus non-reamed tibiae (-7% versus +6%, respectively; P<0.05). The present study demonstrates a small, but statistically significant overall bone mineral density decrease in healed tibiae with retained nails. Intramedullary reaming appears to be a factor potentiating the reduction of tibia bone mineral density in long-term nail retention.

  10. [Comparison of LCP and locked intramedullary nailing fixation in treatment of tibial diaphysis fractures].

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng; Tang, Peifu; Yao, Qi

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the treatment results of LCP and locked intramedullary nailing for tibial diaphysis fractures. From October 2003 to April 2006, 55 patients with tibial diaphysis fractures (58 fractures) were treated. Of them there were 39 males and 16 females with an average of 39 years years ( 14 to 62 years). The fractures were on the left side in 27 patients and on the right side in 31 patients (3 patients had bilateral involvement). Thirty-four fractures were treated by intramedullary nailing (intramedullary nailing group) and 24 fractures by LCP fixation (LCP group). The average disease course was 3 days (intramedullary nailing group) and 3.1 days (LCP group). The operation time, the range of motion of knee and ankle joints, fracture healing time, and complications were evaluated. The patients were followed up 8-26 months (13 months on average). The operation time was 84.0+/-9.2 min (intramedullary nailing group) and 69.0+/-8.4 min (LCP group); the average cost in hospital was yen 19,297.78 in the intramedullary nailing group and yen 14,116.55 in the LCP group respectively, showing significant differences (P < 0.05). The flexion and extension of knee joint was 139.0 +/- 3.7 degrees and 4.0 +/- 0.7 degrees in intramedullary nailing group and 149.0+/-4.2 degrees and 0+/-0.4 degrees in LCP group, showing no significant difference (P>0.05). The doral flexion and plantar flexion of ankle joint were 13.0+/-1.7 degrees and 41.0+/-2.6 degrees in intramedullary nailing group, and 10.0+/-1.4 degrees and 44.0+/-2.3 degrees in LCP group, showing no significant differences (P>0.05). The mean healing time was 3.3 months in intramedullary nailing group, and 3. 1 months in LCP group. Length discrepancy occurred in 1 case (2.5 cm), delayed union in 1 case and nailing end trouble in 3 cases in intramedullary nailing group; moreover rotation deformity occurred 1 case and anterior knee pain occurred in 6 cases (17.1%). One angulation and open fracture developed osteomyelitis in 1

  11. Distal tibial fractures and non-unions treated with shortened intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Megas, P; Zouboulis, P; Papadopoulos, A X; Karageorgos, A; Lambiris, E

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed 18 patients, 14 with acute fractures and four with non-union of the distal tibia, treated between 1990 and 2001 with a shortened, reamed intramedullary nail. The mean follow-up was 38 (8-144) months. The fractures united at an average of 16 (12-18) weeks and the non-unions at 20 (12-30) weeks. Two patients required nail dynamization. No limb shortening nor material failures were seen. All patients returned to normal daily activities. Although technically demanding, intramedullary nailing for distal tibial fractures and non-unions with a shortened nail represents a safe and reliable method.

  12. Minimizing the complications of intramedullary nailing for distal third tibial shaft and metaphyseal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yaligod, Vishwanath; Rudrappa, Girish H.; Nagendra, Srinivas; Shivanna, Umesh M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The complications of intramedullary nailing of distal third tibial shaft and metaphyseal fractures have a direct impact on ankle and hind foot function. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 28 patients. Unreamed nail was negotiated across the well reduced fracture till subchondral bone and fixed with 2 to 3 distal locking screws in different planes. Results Fracture union rate was 85%. Three out of 28 patients had malalignment. Mean ankle, hindfoot functional score was 85. Conclusion Complications can be minimized by impacting the unreamed nail till the subchondral bone while maintaining the fracture well reduced and by using multiple distal locking screws in different planes. PMID:24719527

  13. Is intramedullary nailing applicable for distal tibial fractures with ankle joint extension?

    PubMed

    Beytemür, Ozan; Albay, Cem; Adanır, Oktay; Yüksel, Serdar; Güleç, Mehmet Akif

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the functional and radiographic results and treatment complications of AO/OTA (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Osteosynthesefragen/Orthopaedic Trauma Association) type 43C1 and C2 fractures treated with intramedullary nailing. We retrospectively evaluated 35 AO/OTA type 43C1 and C2 patients (26 males, 9 females; mean age 39.8±16.9 years; range 19 to 82 years) treated with intramedullary nailing. Two interfragmentary screws out of nail were applied in 10 patients (29%), while one interfragmentary screw out of nail was applied in 17 patients (49%). Intramedullary nailing was applied in eight patients (23%) without external screws. Fracture union, union time, alignment problems, and complications were evaluated. Clinical evaluation of patients was conducted using the Olerud and Molander score and by measuring the ankle joint range of motion. Union was achieved in all 35 patients. Mean union time was 16.5±2.8 weeks (range 12 to 24 weeks) and mean Olerud and Molander score was 88±8.24. Varus deformity was detected in one patient, valgus deformity was detected in two patients, and rotation deformity was detected in one patient. Superficial infection was detected in three patients (9%). Deep infection was not detected in any patient. Intramedullary nailing is not contraindicated for simple intra-articular distal tibial fractures. In these fractures, intramedullary nailing performed in accordance with its technique, with an additional percutaneous screw if necessary, is a successful treatment option with high fracture union rates, high functional results, and low complication rates.

  14. Intramedullary nailing in opening wedge high tibial osteotomy-in vitro test for validation of a method of fixation.

    PubMed

    Burchard, Rene; Katerla, Denise; Hammer, Marina; Pahlkötter, Anke; Soost, Christian; Dietrich, Gerhard; Ohrndorf, Arne; Richter, Wolfgang; Lengsfeld, Markus; Christ, Hans-Jürgen; Graw, Jan Adriaan; Fritzen, Claus-Peter

    2018-02-01

    Opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) as a treatment in unicompartimental osteoarthritis of the knee can significantly relieve pain and prevent or at least delay an early joint replacement. The fixation of the osteotomy has undergone development and refinements during the last years. The angle-stable plate fixator is currently one of the most commonly used plates in HTOs. The angular stable fixation between screws and the plate offers a high primary stability to retain the correction with early weight-bearing protocols. This surgical technique is performed as a standard of care and generally well tolerated by the patients. Nevertheless, some studies observed that many patients complained about discomfort related to the implant. Therefore, the stability of two different intramedullary nails, a short implant used in humeral fractures and a long device used in tibial fractures for stabilization in valgus HTOs, was investigated as an alternative fixation technique. The plate fixator was defined as reference standard. Nine synthetic tibia models were standardly osteotomized and stabilized by one of the fixation devices. Axial compression was realized using a special testing machine and two protocols were performed: a multi-step fatigue test and a load-to-failure test. Overall motion, medial, and lateral displacements were documented. Fractures always occurred at the lateral cortex. Axial cyclic loading up to 800 N was tolerated by all implants without failure. The tibia nail provided highest fatigue strength under the load-to-failure conditions. The results suggest that intramedullary nailing might be used as an alternative concept in HTO.

  15. Role of the fibula in the stability of diaphyseal tibial fractures fixed by intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, John G; Daly, Charles J; Harty, James A; Dailey, Hannah L

    2016-10-01

    For tibial fractures, the decision to fix a concomitant fibular fracture is undertaken on a case-by-case basis. To aid in this clinical decision-making process, we investigated whether loss of integrity of the fibula significantly destabilises midshaft tibial fractures, whether fixation of the fibula restores stability to the tibia, and whether removal of the fibula and interosseous membrane for expediency in biomechanical testing significantly influences tibial interfragmentary mechanics. Tibia/fibula pairs were harvested from six cadaveric donors with the interosseous membrane intact. A tibial osteotomy fracture was fixed by reamed intramedullary (IM) nailing. Axial, torsion, bending, and shear tests were completed for four models of fibular involvement: intact fibula, osteotomy fracture, fibular plating, and resected fibula and interosseous membrane. Overall construct stiffness decreased slightly with fibular osteotomy compared to intact bone, but this change was not statistically significant. Under low loads, the influence of the fibula on construct stability was only statistically significant in torsion (large effect size). Fibular plating stiffened the construct slightly, but this change was not statistically significant compared to the fibular osteotomy case. Complete resection of the fibula and interosseous membrane significantly decreased construct torsional stiffness only (large effect size). These results suggest that fixation of the fibula may not contribute significantly to the stability of diaphyseal tibial fractures and should not be undertaken unless otherwise clinically indicated. For testing purposes, load-sharing through the interosseous membrane contributes significantly to overall construct mechanics, especially in torsion, and we recommend preservation of these structures when possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of suprapatellar and infrapatellar intramedullary nailing for tibial shaft fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liqing; Sun, Yuefeng; Li, Ge

    2018-06-14

    Optimal surgical approach for tibial shaft fractures remains controversial. We perform a meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the clinical efficacy and prognosis between infrapatellar and suprapatellar intramedullary nail in the treatment of tibial shaft fractures. PubMed, OVID, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science were searched up to December 2017 for comparative RCTs involving infrapatellar and suprapatellar intramedullary nail in the treatment of tibial shaft fractures. Primary outcomes were blood loss, visual analog scale (VAS) score, range of motion, Lysholm knee scores, and fluoroscopy times. Secondary outcomes were length of hospital stay and postoperative complications. We assessed statistical heterogeneity for each outcome with the use of a standard χ 2 test and the I 2 statistic. The meta-analysis was undertaken using Stata 14.0. Four RCTs involving 293 participants were included in our study. The present meta-analysis indicated that there were significant differences between infrapatellar and suprapatellar intramedullary nail regarding the total blood loss, VAS scores, Lysholm knee scores, and fluoroscopy times. Suprapatellar intramedullary nailing could significantly reduce total blood loss, postoperative knee pain, and fluoroscopy times compared to infrapatellar approach. Additionally, it was associated with an improved Lysholm knee scores. High-quality RCTs were still required for further investigation.

  17. Tibial lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and an Ilizarov external fixator

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hayoung; Kim, Kap Jung; Ahn, Jae Hoon; Choy, Won Sik; Kim, Yong In; Koo, Jea Yun

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tibial lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and an Ilizarov external fixator for the treatment of leg length discrepancy or short stature. This retrospective study was performed on 18 tibiae (13 patients) in which attempts were made to reduce complications. We used an Ilizarov external fixator and a nail (10 mm diameter in 17 tibiae and 11 mm in one tibia) in combination. Average limb lengthening was 4.19 cm (range, 2.5–5.5). The mean duration of external fixation was 12.58 days per centimetre gain in length, and the mean consolidation index was 40.53 (range, 35.45–51.85). All distracted segments healed spontaneously without refracture or malalignment. Gradual limb lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and circular external fixation in combination was found to be reliable and effective and reduced external fixation time with fewer complications. PMID:18415098

  18. Finite Element Analysis of Absorbable Sheath to Prevent Stress Shielding of Tibial Interlocking Intramedullary Nail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yansheng; Wang, Yongqing; Dong, Limin; Jia, Peng; Lu, Fengcheng

    2017-07-01

    The nail with absorbable sheath (AS nail) is designed to reduce the stress shielding effect of internal fixation with interlocking intramedullary nail. In order to verify its feasibility, two types of the finite element models of internal fixation of tibia with the AS nail and the common metal nail (CM nail) are established using the Softwares of Mimics, Geomagic, SolidWorks and ANSYS according to the CT scanning data of tibia. The result of the finite element analysis shows that the AS nail has great advantages compared with the CM nail in reducing the stress shielding effect in different periods of fracture healing. The conclusion is that the AS nail can realize the static fixation to the dynamic fixation from the early to the later automatically to shorten the time of fracture healing, which also provides a new technique to the interlocking intramedullary nail.

  19. [Clinical application of blocking screws and rooting technique in the treatment of distal tibial fracture with interlocking intramedullary nail].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hai-Bing; Wu, Li-Guo; Fang, Zhi-Song; Luo, Cong-Feng; Wang, Qing-Feng; Ma, Yi-Ping; Gao, Hong; Fu, Guo-Hai; Hu, Cheng-Ting

    2012-07-01

    To introduce the clinical method of blocking screws and rooting technique in the treatment of distal tibial fracture with interlocking intramedullary nails. From June 2006 to March 2011, 26 patients with distal tibial fracture were treated with interlocking intramedullary nails using blocking screws and rooting technique, included 18 males and 8 females with an average age of 46.2 years old ranging from 24 to 64 years. According to AO classification: 10 cases of type A1, 4 cases of type A2, 8 cases of type B1, 4 cases of type B2. The average distance of the fractures end to the ankle joint was 85 mm ranging from 55 to 125 mm, the mean time between injured and operation was 4.5 days. The patients were evaluated with pain, range of motion, walking. All cases were followed-up for 6 to 22 months (averaged 15 months). According to Iowa ankle joint grading system,the score was improved from preoperative (66.8 +/- 8.2) to postoperative (94.6 +/- 4.8). All fractures had united, and got satisfactory reduction and stable fixation with no complications had happen such as breakage of screw. Fixation with interlocking intramedullary nail using blocking screws and rooting technique in treating distal tibial fracture, is a safe and effective technique for the improvement of stability.

  20. [Disruption of the arteria nutricia tibiae by reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing. Study of the vascular architecture of the human tibial intramedullary cavity].

    PubMed

    Paar, O; mon O'Dey, D; Magin, M N; Prescher, A

    2000-01-01

    By reason of the pseudarthrotic healing of fractures due to vascular complications after reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing, the intraosseous course and branching of the tibial nutrient artery and its impairment by nailing procedures needs an actual analysis. The nutrient vessel of 24 tibiae taken from fresh corpses were prepared by injection of Technovit and lead oxide. After this procedure the medullary cavities of 12 bones were opened by a frontal cut. These specimens were subjected to routine maceration. The other 12 tibiae were naed with the unreamed (6) and the reamed nailing (6) techniques. X-rays were also taken routinely. After penetration of the tibial compact bone the main trunk of the nutrient vessel runs through a perforated osseous tunnel (pars tecta arteriae nutriciae tibiae). At its end the vessel divides into a descending branch (obligate) and two ascending branches (facultative). The descending branch lies near to the centromedial region of the medullary cavity which is termed as the pars liberal arteriae nutriciae tibiae. All branches pass through supporting horizontal osseous lamellas. Due to this topography the reamed nailing technique destroyed the nutrient vessel completely in all specimens. In contrast to this observation the unreamed nailing destroyed the vessel completely only in 1 (16.7%) and partially in 3 (50%) bones; 2 (33.3%) specimens exhibited no destruction of the vessel. The unreamed as well as the reamed nailing technique can destroy the intramedullary course of the tibial nutrient artery. Fractures as well as displacement osteotomies or corticotomies are able to diminish the medullary blood supply seriously, if they are localised within the area of the tactic an of the tibial nutrient artery.

  1. Management of Distal Tibial Metaphyseal Bone Defects With an Intramedullary Nitinol Scaffold: A Novel Technique.

    PubMed

    Ford, Samuel E; Ellington, J Kent

    2017-08-01

    Difficult problems that are faced when reconstructing severe pilon fractures include filling metaphyseal defects and supporting an impacted, multifragmented articular surface. Supplements to plate fixation currently available in a surgeon's armamentarium include cancellous bone autograft, structural bone allograft, demineralized bone matrix, and calcium-based cements. Cancellous autograft possesses limited inherent mechanical stability and is associated with graft site morbidity. Structural allografts incorporate inconsistently and are plagued by late resorption. Demineralized bone matrix also lacks inherent structural stability. Calcium phosphate cements are not rigidly fixed to bone unless fixation is applied from cortical bone or through a plate, which must be taken into consideration when planning fixation. The Conventus DRS (Conventus Orthopaedics, Maple Grove, MN) implant is an expandable nitinol scaffold that takes advantage of the elasticity and shape memory of nitinol alloy. Once deployed and locked, it serves as a stable intramedullary base for fragment-specific periarticular fracture fixation, even in the face of metaphyseal bone loss. Two cases of successful implant use are presented. In both cases, the implant is used to fill a metaphyseal void and provide stable articular support to the distal tibial plafond. Therapeutic Level V: Case Report, Expert Opinion.

  2. Plate Versus Intramedullary Nail Fixation of Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures: A Biomechanical Study.

    PubMed

    Markolf, Keith L; Cheung, Edward; Joshi, Nirav B; Boguszewski, Daniel V; Petrigliano, Frank A; McAllister, David R

    2016-06-01

    Anterior midtibial stress fractures are an important clinical problem for patients engaged in high-intensity military activities or athletic training activities. When nonoperative treatment has failed, intramedullary (IM) nail and plate fixation are 2 surgical options used to arrest the progression of a fatigue fracture and allow bone healing. A plate will be more effective than an IM nail in preventing the opening of a simulated anterior midtibial stress fracture from tibial bending. Controlled laboratory study. Fresh-frozen human tibias were loaded by applying a pure bending moment in the sagittal plane. Thin transverse saw cuts, 50% and 75% of the depth of the anterior tibial cortex, were created at the midtibia to simulate a fatigue fracture. An extensometer spanning the defect was used to measure the fracture opening displacement (FOD) before and after the application of IM nail and plate fixation constructs. IM nails were tested without locking screws, with a proximal screw only, and with proximal and distal screws. Plates were tested with unlocked bicortical screws (standard compression plate) and locked bicortical screws; both plate constructs were tested with the plate edge placed 1 mm from the anterior tibial crest (anterior location) and 5 mm posterior to the crest. For the 75% saw cut depth, the mean FOD values for all IM nail constructs were 13% to 17% less than those for the saw cut alone; the use of locking screws had no significant effect on the FOD. The mean FOD values for all plate constructs were significantly less than those for all IM nail constructs. The mean FOD values for all plates were 28% to 46% less than those for the saw cut alone. Anterior plate placement significantly decreased mean FOD values for both compression and locked plate constructs, but the mean percentage reductions for locked and unlocked plates were not significantly different from each other for either plate placement. The percentage FOD reductions for all plate

  3. A prospective multi-center study of intramedullary nailing vs casting of stable tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Obremskey, William T; Cutrera, Norele; Kidd, Christopher M

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine optimal treatment of stable tibial shaft fractures using intramedullary nailing (IMN) or casting. We performed a multi-center prospective study cohort. Patients with stable tibia shaft fractures meeting Sarmiento's criteria (isolated closed fractures with less than 12 mm of shortening and 10° of angulation) were enrolled prospectively and treated with either a reamed IMN with static interlocking screws or closed reduction followed by long-leg casting. Both groups were weight bearing following surgery. Radiographs were taken until union, and range of motion of knee and ankle joints was assessed. Malalignment (>5°) and malunion (>10°) were determined. Functional outcome measures using short musculoskeletal assessment scores (SMFA) and a knee pain score were scheduled at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months. At 3 months, differences between the casting and IMN groups were noted in return to work (6/15 vs 3/17, P < 0.05); ankle dorsiflexion (7° vs 12°, P < 0.05); plantar flexion (28° vs 39°, P < 0.05); and SMFA domains of Dysfunction Index, Bother Index, daily activities, emotional status, and arm/hand function (P < 0.05). The SMFA mobility function demonstrated a significant trend (P = 0.065). At 6 months, malalignment was present in 3/15 in the casting group and in 1/17 in the IMN group (P = 0.02). Malunion was present in 1/15 in the cast group. One fracture in the casting group went on to nonunion and required late IMN placement at 7 months and eventually healed. There were no differences in ankle motion, SMFA scores, or return to work. There was no difference in knee pain between the groups as measured by VAS and Court-Brown pain scale at 6 months. Patients with stable tibia fractures treated with intramedullary nailing have improved clinical and functional outcomes at 3 months compared with those treated with casting, but there are no differences in any other outcome measure. Patients treated in a

  4. Finite element analysis of intramedullary nailing and double locking plate for treating extra-articular proximal tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fancheng; Huang, Xiaowei; Ya, Yingsun; Ma, Fenfen; Qian, Zhi; Shi, Jifei; Guo, Shuolei; Yu, Baoqing

    2018-01-16

    Proximal tibia fractures are one of the most familiar fractures. Surgical approaches are usually needed for anatomical reduction. However, no single treatment method has been widely established as the standard care. Our present study aims to compare the stress and stability of intramedullary nails (IMN) fixation and double locking plate (DLP) fixation in the treatment of extra-articular proximal tibial fractures. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the extra-articular proximal tibial fracture, whose 2-cm bone gap began 7 cm from the tibial plateau articular surface, was created fixed by different fixation implants. The axial compressive load on an adult knee during single-limb stance was imitated by an axial force of 2500 N with a distribution of 60% to the medial compartment, while the distal end was fixed effectively. The equivalent von Mises stress and displacement of the model was used as the output measures for analysis. The maximal equivalent von Mises stress value of the system in the IMN model was 293.23 MPa, which was higher comparing against that in the DLP fixation model (147.04 MPa). And the mean stress of the model in the IMN model (9.25 MPa) was higher than that of the DLP fixation system in terms of equivalent von Mises stress (EVMS) (P < 0.0001). The maximal value of displacement (sum) in the IMN system was 8.82 mm, which was lower than that in the DLP fixation system (9.48 mm). This study demonstrated that the stability provided by the locking plate fixation system was superior to the intramedullary nails fixation system and served as an alternative fixation for the extra-articular proximal tibial fractures of young patients.

  5. Incidence of infection after early intramedullary nailing of open tibial shaft fractures stabilized with pinless external fixators

    PubMed Central

    Kulshrestha, Vikas

    2008-01-01

    Background: A major drawback of conventional fixator system is the penetration of fixator pins into the medullary canal. The pins create a direct link between the medullary cavity and outer environment, leading to higher infection rates on conversion to intramedullary nailing. This disadvantage is overcome by the AO pinless fixator, in which the trocar points are clamped onto the outer cortex without penetrating it. This study was designed to evaluate the role of AO pinless fixators in primary stabilization of open diaphyseal tibial fractures that received staged treatment because of delayed presentation or poor general condition. We also analyzed the rate of infection on early conversion to intramedullary nail. Materials and Methods: This study is a retrospective review of 30 open diaphyseal fractures of tibia, which were managed with primary stabilization with pinless fixator and early exchange nailing. Outcome was evaluated in terms of fracture union and rate of residual infection. The data were compared with that available in the literature. Results: All the cases were followed up for a period of 2 years. The study includes Gustilo type 1 (n=10), 14 Gustilo type 2 (n=14), and type3 (n=6) cases. 6 cases (20%) had clamp site infection, 2 cases (6.7%) had deep infection, and in 28 cases (93%) the fracture healed and consolidated well. Conclusion: This study has highlighted the valuable role of pinless external fixator in the management of open tibial fractures in terms of safety and ease of application as well as the advantage of early conversion to intramedullary implant without the risk of deep infection. PMID:19753227

  6. Intramedullary nailing versus plating for extra-articular distal tibial metaphyseal fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xing-He; Yan, Shi-Gui; Cai, Xun-Zi; Shi, Ming-Min; Lin, Tiao

    2014-04-01

    With development in the techniques of reduction and fixation, there has been a controversy in comparison between intramedullary nailing (IMN) and plating for the treatment of distal tibial metaphyseal fracture (DTF). The study aimed to investigate: (1) which fixation, IMN or plating, was better in the clinical outcomes and in the complications for the treatment of DTF and (2) which modifying variables affected the comparative results between the two modalities. PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and specific orthopaedic journals were searched from inception to July 2013, using the search strategy of '('Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary' [MeSH]) AND ('Tibial Fractures' [MeSH]) AND (plate OR plating)'. All prospective and retrospective controlled trials comparing function, pain, bone union and complications between IMN and plating for DTF were identified. Our analysis had no limitation of the language or the publication year. The primary outcome measurements were complication rate, union time, operation time and hospital stays, while the secondary outcome measurements were functional score and pain score. Fourteen of 6620 studies with 842 patients were included. IMN was probably preferential to plating for DTF given its higher functional score (p=0.01), lower risk of infection (p=0.02) and comparable pain score (p=0.33), total complication rate (p=0.53) and time to union (p=0.86). However, plating had a lower malunion rate than IMN (p<0.0001). All the results were based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) evidence of moderate quality. With a satisfying alignment obtained, IMN may be preferential to plating for fixation of DTF with better function and lower risk of infection. However, IMN showed higher malunion rate for fixation of DTF. With the biases in our meta-analysis, it will ultimately require a rigorous and adequately powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) to

  7. A comparative study of intramedullary interlocking nailing and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in extra articular distal tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Daolagupu, Arup K; Mudgal, Ashwani; Agarwala, Vikash; Dutta, Kaushik K

    2017-01-01

    Extraarticular distal tibial fractures are among the most challenging fractures encountered by an orthopedician for treatment because of its subcutaneous location, poor blood supply and decreased muscular cover anteriorly, complications such as delayed union, nonunion, wound infection, and wound dehiscence are often seen as a great challenge to the surgeon. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) and intramedullary interlocking nail (IMLN) are two well-accepted and effective methods, but each has been historically related to complications. This study compares clinical and radiological outcome in extraarticular distal tibia fractures treated by intramedullary interlocking nail (IMLN) and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO). 42 patients included in this study, 21 underwent IMLN and 21 were treated with MIPO who met the inclusion criteria and operated between June 2014 and May 2015. Patients were followed up for clinical and radiological evaluation. In IMLN group, average union time was 18.26 weeks compared to 21.70 weeks in plating group which was significant ( P < 0.0001). Average time required for partial and full weight bearing in the nailing group was 4.95 weeks and 10.09 weeks respectively which was significantly less ( P < 0.0001) as compared to 6.90 weeks and 13.38 weeks in the plating group. Lesser complications in terms of implant irritation, ankle stiffness, and infection, were seen in interlocking group as compared to plating group. Average functional outcome according to American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score was measured which came out to be 96.67. IMLN group was associated with lesser duration of surgery, earlier weight bearing and union rate, lesser incidence of infection and implant irritation which makes it a preferable choice for fixation of extra-articular distal tibial fractures. However, larger randomized controlled trials are required for confirming the results.

  8. Percutaneous or Open Reduction of Closed Tibial Shaft Fractures During Intramedullary Nailing Does Not Increase Wound Complications, Infection or Nonunion Rates.

    PubMed

    Auston, Darryl A; Meiss, Jordan; Serrano, Rafael; Sellers, Thomas; Carlson, Gregory; Hoggard, Timothy; Beebe, Michael; Quade, Jonathan; Watson, David; Simpson, Robert Bruce; Kistler, Brian; Shah, Anjan; Sanders, Roy; Mir, Hassan R

    2017-04-01

    To compare the incidence of complications (wound, infection, and nonunion) among those patients treated with closed, percutaneous, and open intramedullary nailing for closed tibial shaft fractures. Retrospective review. Multiple trauma centers. Skeletally mature patients with closed tibia fractures amenable to treatment with an intramedullary device. Intramedullary fixation with closed, percutaneous, or open reduction. Superficial wound complication, deep infection, nonunion. A total of 317 tibial shaft fractures in 315 patients were included in the study. Two-hundred fractures in 198 patients were treated with closed reduction, 61 fractures in 61 patients were treated with percutaneous reduction, and 56 fractures in 56 patients were treated with formal open reduction. The superficial wound complication rate was 1% (2/200) for the closed group, 1.6% (1/61) for the percutaneous group, and 3.6% (2/56) for the open group with no statistical difference between the groups (P = 0.179). The deep infection rate was 2% (4/200) for the closed group, 1.6% (1/61) for the percutaneous group, and 7.1% (4/56) for the open group with no significant difference between the groups (P = 0.133). Nonunion rate was 5.0% (10/200) for the closed group, 4.9% (3/61) for the percutaneous group, and 7.1% (4/56) for the open group, with no statistical difference between the groups (P = 0.492). This is the largest reported series of closed tibial shaft fractures nailed with percutaneous and open reduction. Percutaneous or open reduction did not result in increased wound complications, infection, or nonunion rates. Carefully performed percutaneous or open approaches can be safely used in obtaining reduction of difficult tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary devices. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  9. [Pyoderma gangrenosum after intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fracture: A differential diagnosis to necrotizing fasciitis].

    PubMed

    Hackl, S; Merkel, P; Hungerer, S; Friederichs, J; Müller, N; Militz, M; Bühren, V

    2015-12-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare non-infectious neutrophilic dermatitis, whereas necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening bacterial soft tissue infection of the fascia and adjacent skin. As in the case described here after intramedullary nailing, the clinical appearance of both diseases can be similar. Because of the completely different therapeutic approach and a worse outcome in the case of false diagnosis, pyoderma gangrenosum should always be taken into consideration before treating necrotizing fasciitis.

  10. Anterior knee pain and thigh muscle strength after intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture: an 8-year follow-up of 28 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Väistö, Olli; Toivanen, Jarmo; Kannus, Pekka; Järvinen, Markku

    2007-03-01

    Chronic anterior knee pain is a common complication after intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture. The source of pain is often not known, although it correlates with a simultaneous decrease in thigh muscle strength. No long-term follow-up study has assessed whether weakness of the thigh muscles is associated with anterior knee pain after the procedure in question. Prospective study. University Hospital of Tampere, University of Tampere. The muscular performance of 40 consecutive patients with a nailed tibial shaft fracture was tested isokinetically in a follow-up examination an average of 3.2 +/- 0.4 (SD) years after the initial surgery. An 8-year follow-up was possible in 28 of these cases. Isokinetic muscle strength measurements were made in 28 patients at an average 8.1 +/- 0.3 (SD) years after nail insertion and an average 6.6 +/- 0.3 (SD) years after nail extraction. All nails were extracted at an average 1.6 +/- 0.2 years after the nailing. : Seven patients were painless initially and still were at final follow-up (never pain, or NP). In 13 patients, the previous symptom of anterior knee pain was no longer present at final follow-up [pain, no pain (PNP)], and the remaining 8 had anterior knee pain initially and at final follow-up [always pain group (AP)]. With reference to the hamstring muscles, the mean peak torque difference between the injured and uninjured limb was -2.2% +/- 12% in the NP group, 1.6% +/- 15% in the PNP group, and 10.3% +/- 30% in the AP group at a speed of 60 degrees/second (Kruskal-Wallis test; chi(2) = 1.0; P = 0.593). At a speed of 180 degrees/second, the corresponding differences were -2.9% +/- 23% and 7.0% +/- 19% and 4.4% +/- 16% (Kruskal-Wallis test; chi = 1.7; P = 0.429). With reference to the quadriceps muscles, the mean peak torque difference was -2.8% +/- 9% in the NP group, 5.9% +/- 15% in the PNP group, and -13.0% +/- 16% in the AP group at a speed of 60 degrees/second (Kruskal-Wallis test; chi(2) = 7.9; P = 0

  11. [Comparison of effect between early and delayed in primary intramedullary nailing combined with locked plate fixation for the treatment of multi-segments tibial fractures of type].

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei-qiang; Hu, Jiang-hai; Gu, Zhu-chao; Zhang, Huai-xian; Min, Peng; Zhang, Lin-jun; Yu, Wen-wen; Wang, Guang-lin

    2015-02-01

    To compare the clinical results of early and delayed intramedullary nailing and locked plating for the treatment of multi-segments tibial fractures of type AO/ASIF-42C2. Between January 2010 and January 2013,45 patients with multi-segments closed tibial fractures of AO/ASIF-42C2 were treated by early primary intramedullary nailing and locked plating in 20 cases as early group and delayed in 25 cases as delayed group. In early group,20 cases included 13 males and 7 females with an average age of (37.9±14.3) years old ranging from 20 to 56 years;according to soft tissue injury Tscherne classification, 8 fractures were frade I,12 were grade II. In delayed group, 25 cases included 17 males and 8 females with an average age of (38.7±17.2) years old ranging from 24 to 55 years,4 fractures were grade I ,19 were grade II ,2 were grade III. The operative time, blood loss, hospital stay,fracture healing time and complications were recorded. At final follow-up, the Johner-Wruhs score were used to evaluate functional efficacy, and the posterior-anterior and lateral X-ray to evaluate fracture reduction and alignment. All the patients were followed up for (12.5±2.5) months in early group and (13.2±2.8) months in delayed group (P>0.05). No wounds infections were happened. At the last follow-up, the mean range of knee joint was 10°-0°-120°. According to Johner-Wruhs scoring,there were 15 cases in excellent,3 in good,fair in 2 in early group; 21 in excellent,2 in good,2 in fair. The average operative time,blood loss had no significant differences between two groups (P>0.05), but hospital stay in early group was significantly shorter than those in delayed group(P<0.05). Average fracture healing time of early group and delayed group were (5.3±2.6) months and (6.0±2.9) months, respectively (P>0.05). For multi-segments tibial fractures of type AO/ASIF-42C2 with preoperative minor soft tissue injuries lighter of Tscherne grade I or II, early primary intramedullary nailing and

  12. Impact of Use of Intramedullary and Extramedullary Guides on Tibial Component Geometry in Total Knee Replacements: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Iain; Hegarty, Aidan; Hickey, Anne; Glynn, Aaron

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical guides in total knee arthroplasty are divided into intramedullary and extramedullary systems, designed to give accurate reference, to enable the surgeon to perform a tibial cut which is perpendicular to the mechanical axis. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of levels 1 and 2 published data which directly compares the two methods of alignment, with outcomes of interest being the mean tibial component angle to the mechanical axis and the number of outliers from the optimal range. The PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis) guidance was followed. A search was conducted of online databases Medline PubMed; EMBASE; ISI Web of Science, and the Cochrane library, using the Boolean search string ([intramedullary OR extramedullary] AND knee AND [arthroplasty OR replacement]). Numerical data pertaining to tibial component alignment (TCA), the mechanical tibiofemoral angle, the tibial slope, and the number of outliers from optimal TCA were collated, and used to establish pooled results. No constraints on the search in terms of year of publication or language were instituted. Intrastudy bias was assessed using the Jadad score for randomized controlled trials and the Newcastle Ottawa score for prospective cohort studies. A total of 1,896 titles were reviewed. Following abstract review and full review of relevant articles, 10 publications were included for analysis, of which 8 were suitable to include for meta-analysis. No trials showed a significant difference in the mean TCA. Two trials showed an increased number of outliers in the extramedullary group and two studies showed an increased number of outliers in the intramedullary group. Pooled data from studies which included these outcomes showed no advantage for either system in limiting the number of outliers from the optimal TCA (relative risk, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-1.14; p = 0.004), and no significant difference in mean TCA (standardized

  13. Do biodegradable magnesium alloy intramedullary interlocking nails prematurely lose fixation stability in the treatment of tibial fracture? A numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haosen; Hao, Zhixiu; Wen, Shizhu

    2017-01-01

    Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective technique used to treat long bone fractures. Recently, biodegradable metals have drawn increased attention as an intramedullary interlocking nailing material. In this study, numerical simulations were implemented to determine whether the degradation rate of magnesium alloy makes it a suitable material for manufacturing biodegradable intramedullary interlocking nails. Mechano-regulatory and bone-remodeling models were used to simulate the fracture healing process, and a surface corrosion model was used to simulate intramedullary rod degradation. The results showed that magnesium alloy intramedullary rods exhibited a satisfactory degradation rate; the fracture healed and callus enhancement was observed before complete dissolution of the intramedullary rod. Delayed magnesium degradation (using surface coating techniques) did not confer a significant advantage over the non-delayed degradation process; immediate degradation also achieved satisfactory healing outcomes. However, delayed degradation had no negative effect on callus enhancement, as it did not cause signs of stress shielding. To avoid risks of individual differences such as delayed union, delayed degradation is recommended. Although the magnesium intramedullary rod did not demonstrate rapid degradation, its ability to provide high fixation stiffness to achieve earlier load bearing was inferior to that of the conventional titanium alloy and stainless steel rods. Therefore, light physiological loads should be ensured during the early stages of healing to achieve bony healing; otherwise, with increased loading and degraded intramedullary rods, the fracture may ultimately fail to heal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tibial lengthening using a humeral intramedullary nail combined with a single-plane external fixator for leg discrepancy in sequelae of poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daoyun; Chen, Jianmin; Liu, Fanggang; Jiang, Yao

    2011-03-01

    The sequelae of poliomyelitis are the common causes of leg discrepancy. Tibial lengthening is an effective way to solve this problem but it is associated with a high rate of complications. In this study, we combined the use of humeral nail and external fixator in tibial lengthening with the purpose of reducing lengthening complications. Compared with the cases lengthened by a single-plane external fixator alone, this combined strategy was found to be beneficial in maintaining the tibial alignment. Therefore, it can be recommended as a good technique for tibial lengthening in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis.

  15. Individual risk factors for deep infection and compromised fracture healing after intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures: a single centre experience of 480 patients.

    PubMed

    Metsemakers, W-J; Handojo, K; Reynders, P; Sermon, A; Vanderschot, P; Nijs, S

    2015-04-01

    Despite modern advances in the treatment of tibial shaft fractures, complications including nonunion, malunion, and infection remain relatively frequent. A better understanding of these injuries and its complications could lead to prevention rather than treatment strategies. A retrospective study was performed to identify risk factors for deep infection and compromised fracture healing after intramedullary nailing (IMN) of tibial shaft fractures. Between January 2000 and January 2012, 480 consecutive patients with 486 tibial shaft fractures were enrolled in the study. Statistical analysis was performed to determine predictors of deep infection and compromised fracture healing. Compromised fracture healing was subdivided in delayed union and nonunion. The following independent variables were selected for analysis: age, sex, smoking, obesity, diabetes, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) classification, polytrauma, fracture type, open fractures, Gustilo type, primary external fixation (EF), time to nailing (TTN) and reaming. As primary statistical evaluation we performed a univariate analysis, followed by a multiple logistic regression model. Univariate regression analysis revealed similar risk factors for delayed union and nonunion, including fracture type, open fractures and Gustilo type. Factors affecting the occurrence of deep infection in this model were primary EF, a prolonged TTN, open fractures and Gustilo type. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed polytrauma as the single risk factor for nonunion. With respect to delayed union, no risk factors could be identified. In the same statistical model, deep infection was correlated with primary EF. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors of poor outcome after IMN of tibial shaft fractures. The univariate regression analysis showed that the nature of complications after tibial shaft nailing could be multifactorial. This was not confirmed in a multiple logistic regression model, which

  16. Fibular fixation as an adjuvant to tibial intramedullary nailing in the treatment of combined distal third tibia and fibula fractures: a biomechanical investigation.

    PubMed

    Morin, Paul M; Reindl, Rudolf; Harvey, Edward J; Beckman, Lorne; Steffen, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Distal third tibia fractures have classically been treated with standard plating, but intramedullary (IM) nailing has gained popularity. Owing to the lack of interference fit of the nail in the metaphyseal bone of the distal tibia, it may be beneficial to add rigid plating of the fibula to augment the overall stability of fracture fixation in this area. This study sought to assess the biomechanical effect of adding a fibular plate to standard IM nailing in the treatment of distal third tibia and fibula fractures. Eight cadaveric tibia specimens were used. Tibial fixation consisted of a solid titanium nail locked with 3 screws distally and 2 proximally, and fibular fixation consisted of a 3.5 mm low-contact dynamic compression plate. A section of tibia and fibula was removed. Testing was accomplished with an MTS machine. Each leg was tested 3 times; with and without a fibular plate and with a repetition of the initial test condition. Vertical displacements were tested with an axial load up to 500 N, and angular rotation was tested with torques up to 5 N*m. The difference in axial rotation was the only statistically significant finding (p = 0.003), with fibular fixation resulting in 1.1 degrees less rotation through the osteotomy site (17.96 degrees v. 19.10 degrees ). Over 35% of this rotational displacement occurred at the nail-locking bolt interface with the application of small torsional forces. Fibular plating in addition to tibial IM fixation of distal third tibia and fibula fractures leads to slightly increased resistance to torsional forces. This small improvement may not be clinically relevant.

  17. Early Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis Intramedullary Nail for Treatment of a Complex Tibial Pilon Fracture (AO/OTA 43-C).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Andrew R; Szatkowski, Jan P

    2015-06-01

    Management of severely comminuted, complete articular tibial pilon fractures (AO/OTA 43-C) remains a challenge, with few treatment options providing good clinical outcomes. Open reduction and internal fixation of the tibial plafond, tibiotalar arthrodesis, and salvage hindfoot reconstruction procedures are all associated with surgical complications and functional limitations. In this report, we present a case of a complex pilon fracture in a patient with multiple medical comorbidities and socioeconomic disadvantages that was successfully and acutely treated with a retrograde tibiotalocalcaneal hindfoot arthrodesis nail. At final follow-up examination, the patient had decreased pain, a stable plantigrade foot, and could ambulate with normal shoes without any assistive devices. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series. © 2014 The Author(s).

  18. Immediate versus delayed intramedullary nailing for open fractures of the tibial shaft: a multivariate analysis of factors affecting deep infection and fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Kazuhiko; Itoman, Moritoshi; Uchino, Masataka; Fukushima, Kensuke; Nitta, Hiroshi; Kojima, Yoshiaki

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate contributing factors affecting deep infection and fracture healing of open tibia fractures treated with locked intramedullary nailing (IMN) by multivariate analysis. We examined 99 open tibial fractures (98 patients) treated with immediate or delayed locked IMN in static fashion from 1991 to 2002. Multivariate analyses following univariate analyses were derived to determine predictors of deep infection, nonunion, and healing time to union. The following predictive variables of deep infection were selected for analysis: age, sex, Gustilo type, fracture grade by AO type, fracture location, timing or method of IMN, reamed or unreamed nailing, debridement time (< or =6 h or >6 h), method of soft-tissue management, skin closure time (< or =1 week or >1 week), existence of polytrauma (ISS< 18 or ISS> or =18), existence of floating knee injury, and existence of superficial/pin site infection. The predictive variables of nonunion selected for analysis was the same as those for deep infection, with the addition of deep infection for exchange of pin site infection. The predictive variables of union time selected for analysis was the same as those for nonunion, excluding of location, debridement time, and existence of floating knee and superficial infection. Six (6.1%; type II Gustilo n=1, type IIIB Gustilo n=5) of the 99 open tibial fractures developed deep infections. Multivariate analysis revealed that timing or method of IMN, debridement time, method of soft-tissue management, and existence of superficial or pin site infection significantly correlated with the occurrence of deep infection (P< 0.0001). In the immediate nailing group alone, the deep infection rate in type IIIB + IIIC was significantly higher than those in type I + II and IIIA (P = 0.016). Nonunion occurred in 17 fractures (20.3%, 17/84). Multivariate analysis revealed that Gustilo type, skin closure time, and existence of deep infection significantly correlated with

  19. "Clothesline technique" for proximal tibial shaft fracture fixation using conventional intramedullary nail: a simple, useful, and inexpensive technique to prevent fracture malalignment.

    PubMed

    Belangero, William Dias; Santos Pires, Robinson Esteves; Livani, Bruno; Rossi, Felipe Lins; de Andrade, Andre Luis Lugnani

    2018-05-01

    Treatment of proximal tibial shaft fractures is always challenging. Despite the development of modern techniques, the literature still shows high complication rates, especially regarding proximal fragment malalignment. It is well known that knee position in flexion during tibial nailing is responsible for extension and valgus deformities of the proximal fragment. Unlike in tibial shaft fractures, nails do not reduce proximal tibial fractures due to the medullary canal width. This study aims to describe a simple, useful, and inexpensive technique to prevent valgus and extension deformities when treating proximal tibial fractures using conventional nails: the so-called clothesline technique.

  20. [Locked plating with minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis versus intramedullary nailing of distal extra-articular tibial fracture: a retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Yao, Qi; Ni, Jie; Peng, Li-bin; Yu, Da-xin; Yuan, Xiao-ming

    2013-12-17

    To compare the efficacies of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) and interlocking intramedullary nailing (IMN) in the treatment of extra-articular fractures of distal tibia. Retrospective reviews were conducted for 126 patients with extra-articular distal tibia fractures. Treatment was either MIPPO (n = 61) or IMN (n = 65). The outcomes were assessed by comparing operating duration, time to union, the last follow-up American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score and complication rate. The average follow-up period was 23.7 (12-53) months. In the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis group, there were deep infections (n = 2), superficial infections (n = 5), delayed union (n = 2), malunion (n = 2) and knee joint pain (n = 10) were observed. In addition, the average operating duration (85.9 ± 18.9 min), average time to union (17.3 ± 3.8 weeks) and average AOFAS (83.2 ± 11.9) were analyzed. In the interlocking intramedullary nailing group, there were delayed union (n = 3), malunion (n = 12) and knee joint pain (n = 22). And the average operating duration (83.3 ± 15.7 min), average time to union (16.5 ± 3.1 weeks) and average AOFAS (84.9 ± 12.0) were analyzed. No statistical significance existed in operating duration, time to union and the last follow-up AOFAS between two groups (P > 0.05). However, the rates of malformation and knee joint pain were higher in the intramedullary nail group than those in the plate group. And the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.015, P = 0.025). Both MIPPO and IMN are effective for extra-articular fractures of distal tibia. However, the former has the advantage of lowers rate of malformation and knee joint pain. Therefore a surgeon should consider the degree of injury while managing extra-articular fracture of distal tibia.

  1. Dosimetry during intramedullary nailing of the tibia.

    PubMed

    Kirousis, George; Delis, Harry; Megas, Panagiotis; Lambiris, Elias; Panayiotakis, George

    2009-10-01

    Intramedullary nailing under fluoroscopic guidance is a common operation. We studied the intraoperative radiation dose received by both the patient and the personnel. 25 intramedullary nailing procedures of the tibia were studied. All patients suffered from tibial fractures and were treated using the Grosse-Kempf intramedullary nail, with free-hand technique for fixation of the distal screws, under fluoroscopic guidance. The exposure, at selected positions, was recorded using an ion chamber, while the dose area product (DAP) was measured with a DAP meter, attached to the tube head. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to derive the occupational dose to the personnel, and also to monitor the surface dose on the gonads of some of the patients. The mean operation time was 101 (48-240) min, with a mean fluoroscopic time of 72 seconds and a mean DAP value of 75 cGy x cm(2). The surface dose to the gonads of the patients was less than 8.8 mGy during any procedure, and thus cannot be considered to be a contraindication for the use of this technique. Occupational dose differed substantially between members of the operating personnel, the maximum dose recorded being to the operator of the fluoroscopic equipment (0.11 mSv). Our findings underscore the care required by the primary operator not to exceed the dose constraint of 10 mSv per year. The rest of the operating personnel, although they do not receive very high doses, should focus on the dose optimization of the technique.

  2. Dosimetry during intramedullary nailing of the tibia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Intramedullary nailing under fluoroscopic guidance is a common operation. We studied the intraoperative radiation dose received by both the patient and the personnel. Patients and methods 25 intramedullary nailing procedures of the tibia were studied. All patients suffered from tibial fractures and were treated using the Grosse-Kempf intramedullary nail, with free-hand technique for fixation of the distal screws, under fluoroscopic guidance. The exposure, at selected positions, was recorded using an ion chamber, while the dose area product (DAP) was measured with a DAP meter, attached to the tube head. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to derive the occupational dose to the personnel, and also to monitor the surface dose on the gonads of some of the patients. Results The mean operation time was 101 (48–240) min, with a mean fluoroscopic time of 72 seconds and a mean DAP value of 75 cGy·cm2. The surface dose to the gonads of the patients was less than 8.8 mGy during any procedure, and thus cannot be considered to be a contraindication for the use of this technique. Occupational dose differed substantially between members of the operating personnel, the maximum dose recorded being to the operator of the fluoroscopic equipment (0.11 mSv). Interpretation Our findings underscore the care required by the primary operator not to exceed the dose constraint of 10 mSv per year. The rest of the operating personnel, although they do not receive very high doses, should focus on the dose optimization of the technique. PMID:19916691

  3. [Intramedullary stabilisation of clavicula fractures].

    PubMed

    Prokop, A; Schiffer, G; Jubel, A; Chmielnicki, M

    2013-10-01

    With an incidence of 64/100,000, clavicular shaft fractures are one of the most common fractures. Intramedullary fixation with Prevot nails was initially reported in the late 1990s. This procedure offers minimally invasive stabilization of the fracture, thus enabling immediate mobilization and rapid loading capacity. Using a case study, the positioning and procedure are demonstrated on video. The intramedullary implant accommodates the varying tension loading of the clavicle. This treatment is ideal for clavicular fractures with 2-3 fragments. Compared to patients treated conservatively, operated patients achieve more rapid and improved mobility. Employment disability is shorter, and malunion occurs less frequently. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Tibial shaft fractures in football players

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Winston R; Kapasi, Zain; Daisley, Susan; Leach, William J

    2007-01-01

    Background Football is officially the most popular sport in the world. In the UK, 10% of the adult population play football at least once a year. Despite this, there are few papers in the literature on tibial diaphyseal fractures in this sporting group. In addition, conflicting views on the nature of this injury exist. The purpose of this paper is to compare our experience of tibial shaft football fractures with the little available literature and identify any similarities and differences. Methods and Results A retrospective study of all tibial football fractures that presented to a teaching hospital was undertaken over a 5 year period from 1997 to 2001. There were 244 tibial fractures treated. 24 (9.8%) of these were football related. All patients were male with a mean age of 23 years (range 15 to 29) and shin guards were worn in 95.8% of cases. 11/24 (45.8%) were treated conservatively, 11/24 (45.8%) by Grosse Kemp intramedullary nail and 2/24 (8.3%) with plating. A difference in union times was noted, conservative 19 weeks compared to operative group 23.9 weeks (p < 0.05). Return to activity was also different in the two groups, conservative 27.6 weeks versus operative 23.3 weeks (p < 0.05). The most common fracture pattern was AO Type 42A3 in 14/24 (58.3%). A high number 19/24 (79.2%) were simple transverse or short oblique fractures. There was a low non-union rate 1/24 (4.2%) and absence of any open injury in our series. Conclusion Our series compared similarly with the few reports available in the literature. However, a striking finding noted by the authors was a drop in the incidence of tibial shaft football fractures. It is likely that this is a reflection of recent compulsory FIFA regulations on shinguards as well as improvements in the design over the past decade since its introduction. PMID:17567522

  5. Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis using a dynamically locked retrograde intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Pelton, Kevin; Hofer, Jason K; Thordarson, David B

    2006-10-01

    Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis is an important salvage method for patients with complex hindfoot problems, including Charcot arthropathy, osteonecrosis of the talus, combined arthritis of the ankle and subtalar joint, and failed total ankle arthroplasty. This study evaluated the results of a dynamic retrograde intramedullary nail for fixation with posterior to anterior distal interlocking screws placed through the calcaneus for tibiotalocalcaneal fusion. Thirty-three consecutive tibiotalocalcaneal fusions were done by a single surgeon (DBT) and were stabilized with a dynamic retrograde intramedullary nail. Time to fusion, impaction of the nail relative to the intramedullary canal, nail-tibial angle, and complications were noted. Average followup was 14 months. Twenty-nine of 33 feet (88%) fused at an average of 3.7 months after surgery. Average impaction of the nail was 2.3 (0.5 to 5.0) mm. Cortical hypertrophy at the tip of the rod or at the proximal interlocking screw was noted in 13 of 27 patients. A trend toward a higher nonunion rate was noted in patients with an increased nail-tibial angle. Dynamic retrograde intramedullary nailing for fixation of the tibiotalocalcaneal fusions is a good method of stabilizing this complex fusion construct.

  6. Nail or plate in the management of distal extra-articular tibial fracture, what is better? Valutation of outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bisaccia, Michele; Cappiello, Andrea; Meccariello, Luigi; Rinonapoli, Giuseppe; Falzarano, Gabriele; Medici, Antonio; Vicente, Cristina Ibáñez; Piscitelli, Luigi; Stano, Verdiana; Bisaccia, Olga; Caraffa, Auro

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Distal tibial fractures are the most common long bone fractures. Several studies focusing on the methods of treatment of displaced distal tibial fractures have been published. To date, locked plates, intramedullary nails and external fixation are the three most used techniques. The aim of our study was to compare intramedullary nail (IMN) and locked plate (LP) for treatment of this kind of fracture. Materials and methods: We collected data on 81 patients with distal tibial fractures (distance from the joint between 40 and 100 mm) and we divided into two groups: IMN and LP. We compared in the 2 groups the mean operation time, the mean union time, the infection rate the rate of malunion and nonunion, the full weight bearing time. Results: No patient in the two groups developed a nonunion. None of the patients obtained a fair or poor outcome. Overall 52 patients obtained an excellent result (69.3%) and 23 obtained a good result (30.6%). Discussion: Our study results indicate a superiority of IMN over LP in terms of lower rates of infections and statistically significant shorter time to full weight bearing. Whereas LP appeared to be advantageous over IMN in terms of leading to a better anatomical and fixed reductions of the fracture and a lower rate of union complications. The two treatments achieved comparable results in terms of operation time, hospital stay, union time and functional outcomes. PMID:29469802

  7. Microsurgical resection of intramedullary spinal cord ependymoma.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Paul C

    2014-09-01

    Ependymomas are the most commonly occurring intramedullary spinal cord tumor in adults. With few exceptions these tumors are histologically benign, although they exhibit some biologic variability with respect to growth rate. While unencapsulated, spinal ependymomas are non-infiltrative and present a clear margin of demarcation from the surrounding spinal cord that serves as an effective dissection plane. This video demonstrates the technique of microsurgical resection of an intramedullary ependymoma through a posterior midline myelotomy. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/lcHhymSvSqU.

  8. [Intramedullary toxoplasmosis in HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patient].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Lazo, Giancarlo; Castillo-Córdova, Raúl; Maquera-Afaray, Julio

    2017-02-01

    The most common clinical presentation of Toxoplasma gondii in HIV patients is encephalitis; however, the intramedullary involvement has been reported in a few cases. We report a case of intramedullary toxoplasmosis in a female patient diagnosed with HIV/tuberculosis co-infection, and history of poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The patient developed subacute paraparesis with compromise of sensory function and urinary sphincter. The nuclear magnetic resonance evaluation showed a single intramedullary ring-enhanced lesion at the T-8 level which was solved after an anti-Toxoplasma therapy with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

  9. Operative Cost Comparison: Plating Versus Intramedullary Fixation for Clavicle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Hanselman, Andrew E; Murphy, Timothy R; Bal, George K; McDonough, E Barry

    2016-09-01

    Although clavicle fractures often heal well with nonoperative management, current literature has shown improved outcomes with operative intervention for specific fracture patterns in specific patient types. The 2 most common methods of midshaft clavicle fracture fixation are intramedullary and plate devices. Through retrospective analysis, this study performed a direct cost comparison of these 2 types of fixation at a single institution over a 5-year period. Outcome measures included operative costs for initial surgery and any hardware removal surgeries. This study reviewed 154 patients (157 fractures), and of these, 99 had intramedullary fixation and 58 had plate fixation. A total of 80% (79 of 99) of intramedullary devices and 3% (2 of 58) of plates were removed. Average cost for initial intramedullary placement was $2955 (US dollars) less than that for initial plate placement (P<.001); average cost for removal was $1874 less than that for plate removal surgery (P=.2). Average total cost for all intramedullary surgeries was $1392 less than the average cost for all plating surgeries (P<.001). Average cost for all intramedullary surgeries requiring plate placement and removal was $653 less than the average cost for all plating surgeries that involved only placement (P=.04). Intramedullary fixation of clavicle fractures resulted in a statistically significant cost reduction compared with plate fixation, despite the incidence of more frequent removal surgeries. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e877-e882.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Tension band plating of a nonunion anterior tibial stress fracture in an athlete.

    PubMed

    Merriman, Jarrad A; Villacis, Diego; Kephart, Curtis J; Rick Hatch, George F

    2013-07-01

    The authors present a rare technique of tension band plating of the anterior tibia in the setting of a nonunion stress fracture. Surgical management with an intramedullary nail is a viable and proven option for treating such injuries. However, in treating elite athletes, legitimate concerns exist regarding the surgical disruption of the extensor mechanism and the risk of anterior knee pain associated with intramedullary nail use. The described surgical technique demonstrates the use of tension band plating as an effective treatment of delayed union and nonunion anterior tibial stress fractures in athletes without the potential risks of intramedullary nail insertion. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Knee arthodesis using a modular customized intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Letartre, R; Combes, A; Autissier, G; Bonnevialle, N; Gougeon, F

    2009-11-01

    Arthrodesis of the knee, particularly in infectious situations, can be achieved using either an external fixator or an intramedullary device. The objective of this study is to report the clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes of a continuous series of 19 cases of knee arthrodesis using a customized modular intramedullary nailing system. The modular intramedullary nail offers a satisfactory functional result while maintaining limb length, in spite of a nonunion risk, since acting like a true endoprosthesis. In our retrospective series of 19 patients, the main source of patients were infected total knee replacements. The nail was customized from assembling a dual surface-sanded titanium component (femoral and tibial). The Lequesne Algofunctional score and the WOMAC score were recorded, as well as the length discrepancy between the lower extremities. Arthrodesis consolidation and the nail's fit in the shaft were verified on anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral radiographs. Five complications were observed: one anterior cortical break, one excessive tibial rotation, two cases of delayed union, and one nail revision due to residual nail instability. The postoperative Lequesne Algofunctional score was 13/24 and the WOMAC score 57/100. The nonunion rate was 32%. From a functional point of view, the patients who did not achieve complete union and those who did had similar scores. The subjective results were not as good in patients who did not achieve final consolidation. Modular intramedullary nailing simplifies the technique, shortens the procedure, and reduces the amount of blood loss at surgery. Our nonunion rate was high, although the functional result did not seem compromised by such nonunion. The risk of long-term implant failure was not studied and requires longer follow-up studies. Level IV therapeutic study. 2009 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2011-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures.

  13. Asymmetry in gait pattern following tibial shaft fractures - a prospective one-year follow-up study of 49 patients.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter; Laessoe, Uffe; Rasmussen, Sten; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Berre Eriksen, Christian; Elsoe, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high number of studies evaluating the outcomes following tibial shaft fractures, the literature lacks studies including objective assessment of patients' recovery regarding gait pattern. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether gait patterns at 6 and 12 months post-operatively following intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture are different compared with a healthy reference population. The study design was a prospective cohort study. The primary outcome measurement was the gait patterns at 6 and 12 months post-operatively measured with a 6-metre-long pressure-sensitive mat. The mat registers footprints and present gait speed, cadence as well as temporal and spatial parameters of the gait cycle. Gait patterns were compared to a healthy reference population. 49 patients were included with a mean age of 43.1 years (18-79 years). Forty-three patients completed the 12-month follow-up (88%). Gait speed and cadence were significantly increased between the 6- and 12-month follow-up (P<0.001). At 6-month follow-up, patients showed considerable asymmetry in the injured leg compared with the non-injured leg: single-support time 12.8% shorter, swing-time 12.8% longer, step-length 11.9% shorter, and rotation of the foot increased by 32.3%. At the 12-month follow-up, gait asymmetry become almost normalized compared to a healthy reference group. In patients treated by intramedullary nailing following a tibial shaft fracture, gait asymmetry accompanied with slower speed and cadence are common during the first 6 months and become normalized compared with a healthy reference population between 6 and 12 months post-operatively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fat embolism syndrome in an adolescent before surgical treatment of an isolated closed tibial shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Nawaf, Cayce B; Kelly, Derek M; Warner, William C; Beaty, James H; Rhodes, Leslie; Sawyer, Jeffrey R

    2012-12-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) occurs most commonly in adults with high-energy trauma, especially fractures of the long-bones and pelvis. Because of unique age-related physiologic differences in the immature skeleton, as well as differences in fracture management in pediatric patients, FES is rare in children. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of FES occurring before surgical fixation of a closed tibial shaft fracture in an adolescent. A 16-year-old, 109 kg, Caucasian adolescent boy developed FES after closed diaphyseal fractures of the distal tibia and fibula, showing signs of respiratory distress and mental status changes. The FES resolved with supportive respiratory care and intramedullary nailing of the fracture was done without further respiratory compromise. FES is uncommon in children and adolescents. A high index of suspicion is required to make the diagnosis promptly and institute appropriate treatment. Intramedullary nailing of a long-bone fracture can be done safely and successfully after resolution of the FES.

  15. Temporary Fixation Using a Long Femoral-tibial Nail to Treat a Displaced Medial Tibial Plateau Fracture in a 90-year-old Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Batta, V; Sinha, S; Trompeter, A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Tibial plateau fractures are complex injuries in the elderly population. When traditional methods of fixation are not suitable, an alternative method needs to be chosen for a favorable outcome. We demonstrate a previously undescribed treatment for displaced tibial plateau fractures in the very elderly with poor soft-tissue integrity. Case Report: A 90-year-old woman suffered an open, Gustilo Grade IIIA, displaced fracture of the tibial plateau. An intramedullary knee arthrodesis, the femoral-tibial nail was used to temporarily stabilize her fracture. She was able to weight bear immediately postfixation. Conclusion: A long femoral-tibial nail allows favorable fracture and soft tissue healing, ease of nursing and immediate full weight-bearing. It shows good promise and should be considered as a management option when traditional methods are not applicable in select patients. PMID:29181350

  16. Temporary Fixation Using a Long Femoral-tibial Nail to Treat a Displaced Medial Tibial Plateau Fracture in a 90-year-old Patient: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Batta, V; Sinha, S; Trompeter, A

    2017-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are complex injuries in the elderly population. When traditional methods of fixation are not suitable, an alternative method needs to be chosen for a favorable outcome. We demonstrate a previously undescribed treatment for displaced tibial plateau fractures in the very elderly with poor soft-tissue integrity. A 90-year-old woman suffered an open, Gustilo Grade IIIA, displaced fracture of the tibial plateau. An intramedullary knee arthrodesis, the femoral-tibial nail was used to temporarily stabilize her fracture. She was able to weight bear immediately postfixation. A long femoral-tibial nail allows favorable fracture and soft tissue healing, ease of nursing and immediate full weight-bearing. It shows good promise and should be considered as a management option when traditional methods are not applicable in select patients.

  17. Revision Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis With a Pseudoelastic Intramedullary Nail.

    PubMed

    Latt, L Daniel; Smith, Kathryn Elizabeth; Dupont, Kenneth Michael

    2017-02-01

    Hindfoot (tibiotalocalcaneal or TTC) arthrodesis is commonly used to treat concomitant arthritis of the ankle and subtalar joints. Simultaneous fusion of both joints can be difficult to achieve especially in patients with impaired healing due to smoking, diabetes mellitus, or Charcot neuroarthropathy. Conventional intramedullary fixation devices allow for compression to be applied at the time of surgery, but this compression can be lost due to bone resorption or settling, leading to impaired healing. In contrast, the novel pseudoelastic intramedullary nail is designed to maintain compression at the arthrodesis sites throughout the healing process by the use of an internal pseudoelastic element. We present 2 cases of revision TTC arthrodesis using the pseudoelastic intramedullary nail. In the first case, an 80-year-old diabetic man with previous ankle and failed subtalar fusion with screws underwent revision TTC arthrodesis. In the second case, a 66-year-old man with Charcot neuroarthropathy and a failed TTC arthrodesis with a static intramedullary nail underwent revision tibiotalar arthrodesis. In both cases, computed tomography scan demonstrated successful union and patients were allowed full weight bearing by 3 months after surgery. These cases provide early evidence that sustained compression via an intramedullary nail can lead to rapid successful hindfoot fusion when standard approaches have failed. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case study.

  18. Tibial stress injuries: decisive diagnosis and treatment of 'shin splints'.

    PubMed

    Couture, Christopher J; Karlson, Kristine A

    2002-06-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called 'shin splints,' often result when bone remodeling processes adapt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who care for athletic patients need a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are implications for appropriate diagnosis, management, and prevention.

  19. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  20. The role of intramedullary fixation in ankle fractures - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jordan, R W; Chapman, A W P; Buchanan, D; Makrides, P

    2018-02-01

    Ankle fractures are one of the most commonly occurring fractures in the elderly population. The overall incidence has been reported to be up to 184 fractures per 100,000 persons per year, of which 20-30% occur in the elderly. Medical co-morbidities, osteoporosis, suboptimal skin quality and poor toleration of non-weight bearing status all contribute to difficulties in managing these injuries in this population. Intramedullary implants are advantageous as they utilise smaller incisions, minimise soft tissue disruption and may allow early weight bearing. This systematic review aims to analyse the use of both fibula nails and talo-tibial-calcaneal (TTC) implants in the management of fragility ankle fractures. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using the online databases Medline and EMBASE on 26th December 2015. Only studies assessing ankle fractures that were treated with either an intramedullary fibula nail or TTC implant were included. Studies must have reported complications, patient mobility status or a functional outcome measure. Studies were excluded if the intramedullary device utilised was an adjunct to plate fixation or where a variety of surgical treatments were included in the study. The included studies were appraised with respect to a validated quality assessment scale. Our search strategy produced 350 studies although only 17 studies met inclusion criteria; ten assessed a fibula nail and seven assessed a standard hindfoot nail, a TTC implant. 15 studies were case series, the overall quality of the studies was low and only one randomised controlled trial was reviewed. The mean Olerud and Molander Ankle Score for fibula nail studies ranged from 58 to 97 and the complication rate from 0 to 22%. Two comparative studies reported a statistically significant increase in complication rate with plate fixation but similar functional outcomes. Studies assessing TTC implants reported a mean Olerud and Molander Ankle Score of 50-62 and complication

  1. Complications of the Intramedullary Skeletal Kinetic Distractor (ISKD) in distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Ryu, Keun Jung; Song, Hae Ryong; Han, Soo-Hong

    2014-12-01

    differed between normally and abnormally distracting nails (95 mm versus 100 mm; p = 0.03), although this was unlikely to be clinically important. Complications occurred in 10 patients (53%), including five with decreased ankle ROM during distraction, four with delayed bone healing, and one with mechanical device failure during distraction. Rate control was difficult to achieve with the ISKD nail for femoral and tibial lengthenings, complications were relatively common, and among patients in whom rate control was not achieved, pain levels were high. Based on our findings, we believe that surgeons should avoid use of this nail. Level IV, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  2. Thoracic spinal cord intramedullary aspergillus invasion and abscess.

    PubMed

    McCaslin, Addason F; Lall, Rishi R; Wong, Albert P; Lall, Rohan R; Sugrue, Patrick A; Koski, Tyler R

    2015-02-01

    Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is a rare form of fungal infection that presents most commonly in immunocompromised individuals. There have been multiple previous reports of aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis and spinal epidural aspergillus abscess; however to our knowledge there are no reports of intramedullary aspergillus infection. We present a 19-year-old woman with active acute lymphoblastic leukemia who presented with several weeks of fevers and bilateral lower extremity weakness. She was found to have an intramedullary aspergillus abscess at T12-L1 resulting from adjacent vertebral osteomyelitis and underwent surgical debridement with ultra-sound guided aspiration and aggressive intravenous voriconazole therapy. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of spinal aspergillosis invading the intramedullary cavity. Though rare, this entity should be included in the differential for immunocompromised patients presenting with fevers and neurologic deficit. Early recognition with aggressive neurosurgical intervention and antifungal therapy may improve outcomes in future cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microsurgical resection of intramedullary spinal cord hemangioblastoma.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Paul C

    2014-09-01

    Spinal cord hemangioblastomas account for about 10% of spinal cord tumors. They usually arise from the dorsolateral pia mater and are characterized by their significant vascularity. The principles and techniques of safe resection are different than those employed for the more commonly occurring intramedullary glial tumors (e.g. ependymoma, astrocytoma) and consist of circumferential detachment of the tumor margin from the surrounding normal pia. This video demonstrates the microsurgical techniques of resection of a thoracic spinal cord hemangioblastoma. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/yT5KLi4VyAo.

  4. Intramedullary Fixation of Midshaft Clavicle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Erik M; van der Meijden, Olivier A; Hussain, Zaamin B; Pogorzelski, Jonas; Millett, Peter J

    2017-08-01

    Clavicle fractures are among the most common fractures occurring in the general population, and the vast majority are localized in the midshaft portion of the bone. Management of midshaft clavicle fractures remains controversial. Although many can be managed nonoperatively, certain patient populations and fracture patterns, such as completely displaced and shortened fractures, are at risk of less optimal outcomes with nonoperative management; surgical intervention should be considered in such cases. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate our technique of midshaft clavicle fixation using minimally invasive intramedullary fixation.

  5. Intramedullary spinal metastasis of a carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jay I; Yanamadala, Vijay; Shin, John H

    2015-12-01

    We report an intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from a bronchial carcinoid, and discuss its mechanisms and management. Intramedullary spinal cord metastases from any cancer are rare, and bronchial carcinoids account for only a small fraction of lung cancers. To our knowledge, an intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from a bronchial carcinoid has been described only once previously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Technique tip: use of anterior cruciate ligament jig for hindfoot fusion by calcanio-talo-tibial nail.

    PubMed

    Haque, Syed; Sarkar, Jay

    2012-08-01

    The use of intramedullary nail fixation for tibio-talo-calcaneal fusion is gaining popularity. There is chance of failure of procedure following faulty operative technique specially alignment. The article describes a useful application of tibial tunnel jig in inserting the calcanio-talo-tibial guide wire. There is precision of few millimeters in the exit point of guide wire on talus. The authors believe that this helps in better positioning of nail and hence better alignment and better operative outcome.

  7. Morphometry of the human clavicle and intramedullary canal: A 3D, geometry-based quantification.

    PubMed

    Aira, Jazmine R; Simon, Peter; Gutiérrez, Sergio; Santoni, Brandon G; Frankle, Mark A

    2017-10-01

    Midshaft clavicle fractures are a very common occurrence. The current treatment of choice involves internal fixation with superior or anterior clavicle plating, however their clinical success and particularly patient satisfaction are decreasing. The implementation of intramedullary devices is on the rise, but data describing the intramedullary canal parameters are lacking. The aim of this study is to quantify the geometry of the clavicle and its intramedullary canal, and to evaluate the effect of gender and anatomical side. This study used three-dimensional image-based models with novel and automated methods of standardization, normalization, and bone cross-section evaluation. The data obtained in this study present intramedullary canal, and clavicle diameter and center deviation parameterized as a function of clavicle length as well as its radius of curvature and true length. Results showed that both right-sided and female clavicles were shorter and thicker, but only females showed a statistically significant difference in size compared to males (p < 0.0001). The smallest clavicle and intramedullary canal diameters were seen at different clavicle lengths (45% and 52%), suggesting that the narrowest region of intramedullary canal cannot be appreciated based on external visualization of the clavicle alone. The narrowing of the intramedullary canal is of special interest because this is a potential limiting region for surgical planning and intramedullary device design. Furthermore, the location and value of maximum lateral curvature displacement is different in the intramedullary canal, implying there exists an eccentricity of the intramedullary canal center with respect to the clavicle center. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2191-2202, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Proximal Tibial Bone Graft Page Content What is a bone graft? Bone grafts may be needed for various ... the proximal tibia. What is a proximal tibial bone graft? Proximal tibial bone graft (PTBG) is a ...

  9. Hindfoot Valgus following Interlocking Nail Treatment for Tibial Diaphysis Fractures: Can the Fibula Be Neglected?

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Metin; Kara, Adnan; Adaş, Müjdat; Karslioğlu, Bülent; Bülbül, Murat; Beksaç, Burak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated whether intramedullary nail fixation for tibial diaphysis fractures with concomitant fibula fractures (except at the distal one-third level) managed conservatively with an associated fibula fracture resulted in ankle deformity and assessed the impact of the ankle deformity on lower extremity function. Methods. Sixty middle one-third tibial shaft fractures with associated fibular fractures, except the distal one-third level, were included in this study. All tibial shaft fractures were anatomically reduced and fixed with interlocking intramedullary nails. Fibular fractures were managed conservatively. Hindfoot alignment was assessed clinically. Tibia and fibular lengths were compared to contralateral measurements using radiographs. Functional results were evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Foot and Ankle Disability Index Score (FADI). Results. Anatomic union, defined as equal length in operative and contralateral tibias, was achieved in 60 fractures (100%). Fibular shortening was identified in 42 fractures (68%). Mean fibular shortening was 1.2 cm (range, 0.5–2 cm). Clinical exams showed increased hindfoot valgus in 42 fractures (68%). The mean KOOS was 88.4, and the mean FADI score was 90. Conclusion. Fibular fractures in the middle or proximal one-third may need to be stabilized at the time of tibial intramedullary nail fixation to prevent development of hindfoot valgus due to fibular shortening. PMID:25544899

  10. Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with a retrograde intramedullary nail: a biomechanical analysis of the effect of nail length.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Timothy; Pinzur, Michael; Paxinos, Odysseas; Havey, Robert; Patwardhin, Avinash

    2005-04-01

    Fatigue fractures of the tibia have been observed at the level of the proximal end of the nail after successful tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis with a retrograde intramedullary device. To study the effect of nail length, five matched pairs of cadaver tibiae were instrumented with strain gauges and potted in methylmethacrylate from a level 3 cm proximal to the distal medial malleolus to simulate a successful tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis. A standard length (15 cm) ankle arthrodesis nail and an identical longer device terminating in the proximal tibial metaphysis were inserted in each paired tibia using appropriate technique. The strain of the posterior cortex of the tibia was recorded under bending moments of up to 50 Nm for each intact specimen after nail insertion and after proximal locking of the nail. The nails were then exchanged between the specimens of the same pairs and the experiment was repeated to insure uniformity. The standard length locked nail increased the principal strain of the posterior cortex of the tibia at the level of the proximal screw holes 5.3 times more than the locked long nail (353 and 67 microstrains), respectively. This stress concentration was not observed when the proximal extent of the nail terminated within the proximal tibial metaphysis. A successful tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis with a standard length locked intramedullary nail creates stress concentration around the proximal screw holes that may be responsible for the fractures observed clinically. This study supports the use of a "long" retrograde locked intramedullary nail for tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis in patients with systemic or localized osteopenia.

  11. [Knee arthrodesis using a customized intramedullary nail: 14 cases].

    PubMed

    Volpi, R; Dehoux, E; Touchard, P; Mensa, C; Segal, P

    2004-02-01

    We report our experience with knee arthrodesis using a customized intramedullary nail implanted in 14 patients. Indications for knee arthrodesis were: recurrent prosthesis infection (n=11), post-traumatic septic arthritis (n=1), aseptic loosening of a hinge prosthesis (n=1), and nonunion (n=1). A two-stage procedure was used for the 12 patients with infected joints. Mean follow-up was 19 months. Weight bearing began during the first week after arthrodesis in 13 patients. First intention bone healing was achieved in 13 patients. Mean time to healing was three months. All patients rapidly recovered full independence. Complications were: one misinsertion of the tibial stem, one nonunion which fused after repeated grafting, and two recurrent infections (controlled chronic fistulae) which required skin flaps for cover. We have found that this customized nail is a useful method for achieving bone fusion in patients with difficult indications for arthrodesis, particularly recurrent prosthesis infection.

  12. [Tibial periostitis ("medial tibial stress syndrome")].

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-06-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is characterised by complaints along the posteromedial tibia. Runners and athletes involved in jumping activities may develop this syndrome. Increased stress to stabilize the foot especially when excessive pronation is present explain the occurrence this lesion.

  13. Comparison of our self-designed rotary self-locking intramedullary nail and interlocking intramedullary nail in the treatment of long bone fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical effects of our self-designed rotary self-locking intramedullary nail (RSIN) and interlocking intramedullary nail (IIN) for long bone fractures. Methods A retrospective study was performed in 1,704 patients who suffered bone fractures and underwent RSIN or IIN operation in our hospital between March 1999 and March 2013, including 494 with femoral fractures, 572 with humeral fractures, and 638 with tibial fractures. Among them, 634 patients were followed up for more than 1 year. The operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications, healing rate, and the excellent and good rate of functional recovery were compared between two groups. Results Compared with IIN group, RSIN group exhibited significantly shorter operative time and less intraoperative blood loss no matter for humeral, femoral, or tibial fractures (all p < 0.001). The healing rate in patients with more than 1 year follow-up was significantly higher in RSIN group for femoral and tibial fractures (both p < 0.05). In RSIN group, no nail breakage or loosening occurred, but radial nerve injury and incision infection were respectively observed in one patient with humeral fracture. In IIN group, nail breakage or loosening occurred in 7 patients with femoral fractures and 16 patients with tibial fractures, radial nerve injury was observed in 8 patients with humeral fractures, and incision infection was present in 2 patients with humeral fractures and 1 patient with femoral fracture. The complication rate of IIN group was significantly higher than that of RSIN group (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the excellent and good rate of shoulder, elbow, knee, and ankle joint functional recovery between RSIN group and IIN group. Conclusion RSIN may be a reliable and practical alternative method for the treatment of long bone fractures. PMID:25047454

  14. Comparison of our self-designed rotary self-locking intramedullary nail and interlocking intramedullary nail in the treatment of long bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bailian; Xiong, Ying; Deng, Hong; Gu, Shao; Jia, Fu; Li, Qunhui; Wang, Daxing; Gan, Xuewen; Liu, Wei

    2014-07-21

    The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical effects of our self-designed rotary self-locking intramedullary nail (RSIN) and interlocking intramedullary nail (IIN) for long bone fractures. A retrospective study was performed in 1,704 patients who suffered bone fractures and underwent RSIN or IIN operation in our hospital between March 1999 and March 2013, including 494 with femoral fractures, 572 with humeral fractures, and 638 with tibial fractures. Among them, 634 patients were followed up for more than 1 year. The operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications, healing rate, and the excellent and good rate of functional recovery were compared between two groups. Compared with IIN group, RSIN group exhibited significantly shorter operative time and less intraoperative blood loss no matter for humeral, femoral, or tibial fractures (all p < 0.001). The healing rate in patients with more than 1 year follow-up was significantly higher in RSIN group for femoral and tibial fractures (both p < 0.05). In RSIN group, no nail breakage or loosening occurred, but radial nerve injury and incision infection were respectively observed in one patient with humeral fracture. In IIN group, nail breakage or loosening occurred in 7 patients with femoral fractures and 16 patients with tibial fractures, radial nerve injury was observed in 8 patients with humeral fractures, and incision infection was present in 2 patients with humeral fractures and 1 patient with femoral fracture. The complication rate of IIN group was significantly higher than that of RSIN group (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the excellent and good rate of shoulder, elbow, knee, and ankle joint functional recovery between RSIN group and IIN group. RSIN may be a reliable and practical alternative method for the treatment of long bone fractures.

  15. [Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from gastric adenocarcinoma: Case report and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Suárez, Javier; Barrio-Fernández, Patricia; Ibáñez-Plágaro, Francisco Javier; Ribas-Ariño, Teresa; Calvo-Calleja, Pablo; Mostaza-Saavedra, Antonio Luis

    2016-01-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord metastases are very rare and usually associated with lung or breast cancer, with gastric origin being exceptional. Their clinical onset tends to be faster than that of primary intramedullary tumours. The most common early symptoms of intramedullary spinal cord metastasis are motor deficit in one or more limbs, pain, sensory loss, and sphincter disturbances. The appearance of a rapidly progressive Brown-Séquard syndrome in an oncology patient should orientate the diagnosis of this condition. The prognosis is very poor, with a median survival of 4 months. However, recent research has shown that surgery could offer a slight benefit in survival and functionality. The case is reported of a 61-year-old man with an intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from a gastric carcinoma, as well as a literature review of this topic. It has been found that this case is the fourth one reported in the literature. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España.

  16. Refractures of the paediatric forearm with the intramedullary nail in situ.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Pim W; van der Sluijs, Hans A; van Royen, Barend J; Saouti, Rachid

    2013-09-24

    Forearm fractures in children are common. When conservative treatment fails, internal fixation with Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing (ESIN) become the first choice in the operative treatment of diaphyseal forearm shaft fractures. Refractures with the intramedullary nail in situ are known to occur but formal guidelines to guide management in such fractures are lacking. We present a well-documented case of a radius midshaft refracture in a 12-year-old boy with the intramedullary nail in situ, managed by closed reduction. Literature is reviewed for this type of complication, the treatment of 30 similar cases is discussed and a treatment strategy is defined. The refracture of the paediatric forearm fracture with the intramedullary nail in situ is a rare, but probably under recognised complication which is observed in approximately 2.3% of the study population. Closed reduction may be considered in these cases.

  17. Arthrodesis of the knee: experience with intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Incavo, S J; Lilly, J W; Bartlett, C S; Churchill, D L

    2000-10-01

    Knee arthrodesis using an intramedullary nail has gained acceptance as treatment in difficult cases such as infection after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), neuropathic joint, and obesity. A retrospective review of 22 cases treated at our institution using an intramedullary nail for knee arthrodesis was performed. Deep infection after primary (11) or revision (6) TKA was the most common indication for this procedure. A long intramedullary nail was used in 3 cases, a long nail with a proximal interlocking screw was used in 6 cases, and a customized nail with a valgus bend and a proximal interlocking screw was used in 11 cases. A modular knee fusion nail was used in 1 case. Successful fusion occurred in all cases, although 4 patients required additional surgery. Average operative blood loss was 748 mL, and average time to union was 7 months. Shortening of the extremity averaged 3.2 cm. Tibiofemoral alignment was improved by using a customized valgus nail (average, 3.1 valgus; range, 1-5) when compared with a straight nail (average, 0.2 valgus; range, 3 varus to 3 valgus). No patient developed infection in the hip or ankle region as a result of the long intramedullary nail. Intramedullary nailing is an excellent technique for knee arthrodesis in difficult cases. A customized proximal interlocking nail with 5 degrees to 7 degrees of valgus and 5 degrees of anterior angulation improves tibiofemoral alignment and is straightforward to insert or extract should it be necessary. Stability and pain relief are rapid, and the fusion rate is maximized.

  18. [Primary intramedullary lymphoma. Case report].

    PubMed

    Peltier, J; Cretu, I; Fichten, A; Toussaint, P; Desenclos, C; Le Gars, D

    2007-11-01

    A 66-year-old female presented primary intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma. This patient was referred for lower limbs weakness, which had developed six weeks earlier and right C5 radiculalgia. Physical examination revealed a medullary syndrome with Claude-Bernard-Horner syndrome. The diagnosis was established after MRI and biopsy (dorsal myelotomy). The patient was given chemotherapy and craniospinal adjuvant radiotherapy (30 Grays). The clinical, radiological and therapeutic features are discussed.

  19. Does graded reaming affect the composition of reaming products in intramedullary nailing of long bones?

    PubMed

    Kouzelis, Antonis Th; Kourea, Helen; Megas, Panagiotis; Panagiotopoulos, Elias; Marangos, Markos; Lambiris, Elias

    2004-08-01

    Reaming products taken during intramedullary nailing were examined to identify possible differences in their composition depending on the reaming percentage. Reaming products were taken from 39 fresh closed tibial and femoral diaphyseal fractures in patients with an average age of 29 years. According to histology, reaming products mainly consisted of bone trabeculae, viable or nonviable, and bone marrow stroma. A statistically significant reverse correlation exists between viable bone mass percentage and reaming progress. Reaming 1 mm less than the minimum canal diameter provides a higher viable bone mass percentage, which might be an important factor in the bone healing process.

  20. Incidence and epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter; Elsoe, Rasmus; Hansen, Sandra Hope; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Laessoe, Uffe; Rasmussen, Sten

    2015-04-01

    The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large and complete population and report the distribution of fracture classification, trauma mechanism and patient baseline demographics. Retrospective reviews of clinical and radiological records. A total of 196 patients were treated for 198 tibial shaft fractures in the years 2009 and 2010. The mean age at time of fracture was 38.5 (21.2SD) years. The incidence of tibial shaft fracture was 16.9/100,000/year. Males have the highest incidence of 21.5/100,000/year and present with the highest frequency between the age of 10 and 20, whereas women have a frequency of 12.3/100,000/year and have the highest frequency between the age of 30 and 40. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type, representing 34% of all tibial shaft fractures. The majority of tibial shaft fractures occur during walking, indoor activity and sports. The distribution among genders shows that males present a higher frequency of fractures while participating in sports activities and walking. Women present the highest frequency of fractures while walking and during indoor activities. This study shows an incidence of 16.9/100,000/year for tibial shaft fractures. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type, representing 34% of all tibial shaft fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Foot and ankle function after tibial overlengthening.

    PubMed

    Emara, Khaled M; Diab, Ramy Ahmed; El Ghazali, Sherif; Farouk, Amr; El Kersh, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Lengthening the tibia more than 25% of its original length can be indicated for proximal femoral deficiency, poliomyelitis, or femoral infected nonunion. Such lengthening of the tibia can adversely affect the ankle or foot shape and function. The present study aimed to assess the effect of tibial lengthening of more than 25% of its original length on the foot and ankle shape and function compared with the preoperative condition. This was a retrospective study of 13 children with severe proximal focal femoral deficiency, Aitken classification type D, who had undergone limb lengthening from June 2000 to June 2008 using Ilizarov external fixators. The techniques used in tibial lengthening included lengthening without intramedullary rodding and lengthening over a nail. The foot assessment was done preoperatively, at fixator removal, and then annually for 3 years, documenting the range of motion and deformity of the ankle and subtalar joints and big toe and the navicular height, calcaneal pitch angle, and talo-first metatarsal angle. At fixator removal, all cases showed equinocavovarus deformity, with decreased ankle, subtalar, and big toe motion. The mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score was significantly reduced. During follow-up, the range of motion, foot deformity, and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved, reaching nearly to the preoperative condition by 2 years of follow-up. The results of our study have shown that tibial overlengthening has an adverse effect on foot and ankle function. This effect was reversible in the patients included in the present study. Lengthening of more than 25% can be safely done after careful discussion with the patients and their families about the probable effects of lengthening on foot and ankle function. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Surgical treatment of refractory tibial stress fractures in elite dancers: a case series.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Ryan G; Dhotar, Herman S; Rose, Donald J; Egol, Kenneth

    2009-06-01

    Treatment of tibial stress fractures in elite dancers is centered on rest and activity modification. Surgical intervention in refractory cases has important implications affecting the dancers' careers. Refractory tibial stress fractures in dancers can be treated successfully with drilling and bone grafting or intramedullary nailing. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between 1992 and 2006, 1757 dancers were evaluated at a dance medicine clinic; 24 dancers (1.4%) had 31 tibial stress fractures. Of that subset, 7 (29.2%) elite dancers with 8 tibial stress fractures were treated operatively with either intramedullary nailing or drilling and bone grafting. Six of the patients were followed up closely until they were able to return to dance. One patient was available only for follow-up phone interview. Data concerning their preoperative treatment regimens, operative procedures, clinical union, radiographic union, and time until return to dance were recorded and analyzed. The mean age of the surgical patients at the time of stress fracture was 22.6 years. The mean duration of preoperative symptoms before surgical intervention was 25.8 months. Four of the dancers were male and 3 were female. All had failed nonoperative treatment regimens. Five patients (5 tibias) underwent drilling and bone grafting of the lesion, and 2 patients (3 tibias) with completed fractures or multiple refractory stress fractures underwent intramedullary nailing. Clinical union was achieved at a mean of 6 weeks and radiographic union at 5.1 months. Return to full dance activity was at an average of 6.5 months postoperatively. Surgical intervention for tibial stress fractures in dancers who have not responded to nonoperative management allowed for resolution of symptoms and return to dancing with minimal morbidity.

  3. Reamed versus unreamed intramedullary nailing for the treatment of femoral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Li, A-Bing; Zhang, Wei-Jiang; Guo, Wei-Jun; Wang, Xin-Hua; Jin, Hai-Ming; Zhao, You-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective: Intramedullary nailing is commonly used for treating femoral shaft fractures, one of the most common long bone fractures in adults. The reamed intramedullary nail is considered the standard implant for femoral fractures. This meta-analysis was performed to verify the superiority of reamed intramedullary nailing over unreamed intramedullary nailing in fractures of the femoral shaft in adults. Subgroup analysis of implant failure and secondary procedure was also performed. Methods: Electronic literature databases were used to identify relevant publications and included MEDLINE (Ovid interface), EMBASE (Ovid interface), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Wiley Online Library). The versions available on January 30, 2016, were utilized. Only human studies, which were designed as randomized controlled clinical trials, were included. Two authors independently evaluated the quality of original research publications and extracted data from the studies that met the criteria. Results: Around 8 randomized controlled trials involving 1078 patients were included. Reamed intramedullary nailing was associated with shorter time to consolidation of the fracture (SMD = –0.62, 95% CI = –0.89 to –0.35, P < 0.00001), lower secondary procedure rate (OR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.10–0.62, P = 0.003), lower nonunion rate (OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.05–0.40, P < 0.01), and lower delayed-union rate (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.07–0.49, P < 0.01) compared to unreamed intramedullary nailing. The 2 groups showed no significant differences in risk of implant failure (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.14–1.74, P = 0.27), mortality risk (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.19–4.68, P = 0.94), risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; OR = 1.55, 95% CI 0.36–6.57, P = 0.55), or blood loss (SMD = 0.57, 95% CI = –0.22 to 1.36, P = 0.15). Conclusion: Reamed intramedullary nailing

  4. Segmental transports for posttraumatic lower extremity bone defects: are femoral bone transports safer than tibial?

    PubMed

    Liodakis, Emmanouil; Kenawey, Mohamed; Krettek, Christian; Ettinger, Max; Jagodzinski, Michael; Hankemeier, Stefan

    2011-02-01

    The long-term outcomes following femoral and tibial segment transports are not well documented. Purpose of the study is to compare the complication rates and life quality scores of femoral and tibial transports in order to find what are the complication rates of femoral and tibial monorail bone transports and if they are different? We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 8 femoral and 14 tibial consecutive segment transports performed with the monorail technique between 2001 and 2008 in our institution. Mean follow-up was 5.1 ± 2.1 years with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Aetiology of the defects was posttraumatic in all cases. Four femoral (50%) and nine tibial (64%) fractures were open. The Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey was used to compare the life quality after femoral and tibial bone transports. The Mann-Whiney U test, Fisher exact test, and the Student's two tailed t-test were used for statistical analysis. P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The tibial transport was associated with higher rates of severe complications and additional procedures (1.5 ± 0.9 vs. 3.4 ± 2.7, p = 0.048). Three patients of the tibial group were amputated because of recurrent infections and one developed a complete regenerate insufficiency that was treated with partial diaphyseal tibial replacement. Contrary to that none of patients of the femoral group developed a complete regenerate insufficiency or was amputated. Tibial bone transports have a higher rate of complete and incomplete regenerate insufficiency and can more often end in an amputation. The authors suggest systematic weekly controls of the CRP value and of the callus formation in patients with posttraumatic tibia bone transports. Further comparative studies comparing the results of bone transports with and without intramedullary implants are necessary.

  5. Dynamic hydraulic fluid stimulation regulated intramedullary pressure.

    PubMed

    Hu, Minyi; Serra-Hsu, Frederick; Bethel, Neville; Lin, Liangjun; Ferreri, Suzanne; Cheng, Jiqi; Qin, Yi-Xian

    2013-11-01

    Physical signals within the bone, i.e. generated from mechanical loading, have the potential to initiate skeletal adaptation. Strong evidence has pointed to bone fluid flow (BFF) as a media between an external load and the bone cells, in which altered velocity and pressure can ultimately initiate the mechanotransduction and the remodeling process within the bone. Load-induced BFF can be altered by factors such as intramedullary pressure (ImP) and/or bone matrix strain, mediating bone adaptation. Previous studies have shown that BFF induced by ImP alone, with minimum bone strain, can initiate bone remodeling. However, identifying induced ImP dynamics and bone strain factor in vivo using a non-invasive method still remains challenging. To apply ImP as a means for alteration of BFF, it was hypothesized that non-invasive dynamic hydraulic stimulation (DHS) can induce local ImP with minimal bone strain to potentially elicit osteogenic adaptive responses via bone-muscle coupling. The goal of this study was to evaluate the immediate effects on local and distant ImP and strain in response to a range of loading frequencies using DHS. Simultaneous femoral and tibial ImP and bone strain values were measured in three 15-month-old female Sprague Dawley rats during DHS loading on the tibia with frequencies of 1Hz to 10Hz. DHS showed noticeable effects on ImP induction in the stimulated tibia in a nonlinear fashion in response to DHS over the range of loading frequencies, where they peaked at 2Hz. DHS at various loading frequencies generated minimal bone strain in the tibiae. Maximal bone strain measured at all loading frequencies was less than 8με. No detectable induction of ImP or bone strain was observed in the femur. This study suggested that oscillatory DHS may regulate the local fluid dynamics with minimal mechanical strain in the bone, which serves critically in bone adaptation. These results clearly implied DHS's potential as an effective, non-invasive intervention for

  6. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options.

  7. Arthrodesis of the knee with a modular titanium intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J S; Garvin, K L; Neff, J R

    1997-01-01

    We retrospectively studied the results of arthrodesis of the knee with a modular titanium intramedullary nail that couples at the knee. The study group consisted of thirteen patients who had a malignant tumor around the knee, five who had failure of a total knee arthroplasty, and three who had a locally destructive benign tumor about the knee. All of the patients were followed for a minimum of two years. Through a single incision at the knee, one nail was inserted retrograde into the femur and the other, antegrade into the tibia; the two nails were joined at the level of the knee by a conical couple and were secured with locking screws. The diameters of the nails were different, to accommodate the dissimilar sizes of the tibial and femoral intramedullary canals. A solid osseous fusion was achieved in nineteen (90 per cent) of the twenty-one patients (sixteen who had had resection of a tumor and three who had had a failed arthroplasty), at an average of 8.4 months (range, three to nineteen months) after the operation. One patient had a delayed union, but fusion was achieved after additional bone-grafting. Of the sixteen patients who were available for clinical and radiographic evaluation at the time of the study, fifteen were satisfied with the over-all outcome and thirteen had either less pain or the same amount of pain as they had had preoperatively. There were no mechanical failures of the implant and no recurrences of tumor. Complications occurred in eight (38 per cent) of the twenty-one patients: three patients had a stress fracture, three had a peroneal nerve palsy (one of which was transient), one had a superficial wound infection, and one had reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

  8. Management of knee rheumatoid arthritis and tibia nonunion with one-stage total knee arthroplasty and intramedullary nailing: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Fahri; Sarikaya, Ilker Abdullah; Can, Ata; Gorgun, Baris

    2018-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a surgical procedure which is widely used in the treatment of gonarthrosis secondary to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The incidence of stress fractures in tibia in the patients with RA is higher compared to normal patients. In this study, we report two cases of TKA and intramedullary nailing in RA patients with severe knee arthritis and tibial nonunion. Both patients had a satisfactory clinical outcome with radiological healing of the tibial fracture. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rotary self-locking intramedullary nail for long tubular bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhong-lian; Yang, Hai-long; Xu, Jian-kun; Xia, Xue; Wang, Xin-jia; Song, Jian-xin; Hu, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Intramedullary nails had been widely used in the treatment of long-bone fractures because of less interference of fractures and center bearing biomechanical advantage. However, it had been also found many shortcomings such as broken nails, delayed healing and was modified in order to achieve better efficacy and reduce complications. The aim of the present study is to compare the efficacy of rotary self-locking intramedullary nails (RSIN) with that of interlocking intramedullary nails (IIN) in the treatment of long-bone fractures. A retrospective study investigated 129 cases with long-bone fractures (36 with femoral fracture, 81 with tibial fracture, and 12 with humeral fracture). The fractures were fixed using either an RSIN or IIN. All patients underwent followup for 12-30 months. All patients in both groups achieved a clinical fracture healing standard and the postoperative affected limb muscle strength and joint function were well restored. The RSIN group required a shorter operative time and the fracture healed faster. There was no significant difference in the hospital stay, intraoperative blood loss or postoperative complications between the two groups. RSIN is used to treat long-bone fractures. Its healing efficacy is equivalent to the IIN. Moreover, the RSIN method is simpler and causes less tissue damage than the IIN, therefore having the advantage of accelerated healing.

  10. Management of Open Tibial Shaft Fractures: Does the Timing of Surgery Affect Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Duyos, Oscar A; Beaton-Comulada, David; Davila-Parrilla, Ariel; Perez-Lopez, Jose Carlos; Ortiz, Krystal; Foy-Parrilla, Christian; Lopez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2017-03-01

    Open tibial shaft fractures require emergent care. Treatment with intravenous antibiotics and fracture débridement within 6 to 24 hours is recommended. Few studies have examined outcomes when surgical treatment is performed >24 hours after occurrence of the fracture. This retrospective study included 227 patients aged ≥18 years with isolated open tibial shaft fractures in whom the time to initial débridement was >24 hours. The statistical analysis was based on time from injury to surgical débridement, Gustilo-Anderson classification, method of fixation, union status, and infection status. Fractures débrided within 24 to 48 hours and 48 to 96 hours after injury did not show a statistically significant difference in terms of infection rates (P = 0.984). External fixation showed significantly greater infection rates (P = 0.044) and nonunion rates (P = 0.001) compared with intramedullary nailing. Open tibial shaft fractures should be débrided within 24 hours after injury. Our data indicate that after the 24-hour period and up to 4 days, the risk of infection remains relatively constant independent of the time to débridement. Patients treated with external fixation had more complications than did patients treated with other methods of fixation. Primary reamed intramedullary nailing appears to be a reasonable option for the management of Gustilo-Anderson types 1 and 2 open tibial shaft fractures. Level III retrospective study.

  11. Predictive formula for the length of tibial tunnel in anterior crucitate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chernchujit, Bancha; Barthel, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon bone graft is a common procedure in orthopedics. One challenging problem found is a graft-tunnel mismatch. Previous studies have reported the mathematic formula to predict the tibial angle length and angle to avoid graft-tunnel mismatch but these formulas have shown limited predictability. To propose a predictive formula for the length of tibial tunnel and to examine its predictability. Thirty six patients (26 males, 14 females) with ACL injury were included in this study. The preoperativemedial proximal tibial angle was measured. Intraoperatively, the tibial tunnel length and tibial entry point were measured. The postoperative coronal and saggital angle of tibial tunnel were measured from knee radiograph. The data were analysed by using trigonometry correlation and formulate the predictive formula of tibial tunnel length. We found that tibial tunnel length (T) has trigonometric correlation between the location of tibial tunnel entry point (w), coronal angle of tibial tunnel (b), saggital angle of tibial tunnel (a) and the medial proximal tibial slope (c) by using this formula T = Wcos(c)tan(b)/sin(a) This proposed predictive formula can well predict the length of the tibial tunnel at preoperative period to avoid graft-tunnel mismatch.

  12. Prognostic Factors for Predicting Outcomes After Intramedullary Nailing of the Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Sanders, David W.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen D.; Zdero, Rad; Goslings, J.C.; Teague, David; Jeray, Kyle; McKee, Michael D.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Sanders, David W.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen D.; Zdero, Rad; Goslings, J.C.; Teague, David; Jeray, Kyle; McKee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prediction of negative postoperative outcomes after long-bone fracture treatment may help to optimize patient care. We recently completed the Study to Prospectively Evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in Patients with Tibial Fractures (SPRINT), a large, multicenter trial of reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures in 1226 patients. Using the SPRINT data, we conducted an investigation of baseline and surgical factors to determine any associations with an increased risk of adverse events within one year of intramedullary nailing. Methods: Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we investigated fifteen baseline and surgical factors for any associations with an increased risk of negative outcomes. Results: There was an increased risk of negative events in patients with a high-energy mechanism of injury (odds ratio [OR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 2.35), a stainless steel compared with a titanium nail (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.13), a fracture gap (OR = 2.40; 95% CI, 1.47 to 3.94), and full weight-bearing status after surgery (OR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.64). There was no increased risk with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, late or early time to surgery, or smoking status. Open fractures had a higher risk of events among patients treated with reamed nailing (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 2.01 to 5.28) but not in patients treated with unreamed nailing (OR = 1.50; 95% CI, 0.92 to 2.47). Patients with open fractures who had wound management either without any additional procedures or with delayed primary closure had a decreased risk of events compared with patients who required subsequent, more complex reconstruction (OR = 0.18 [95% CI, 0.09 to 0.35] and 0.29 [95% CI, 0.14 to 0.62], respectively). Conclusions: We identified several baseline fracture and surgical characteristics that may increase the risk of adverse events in patients with tibial shaft fractures. Surgeons should consider the

  13. Reducing intraoperative duration and ionising radiation exposure during the insertion of distal locking screws of intramedullary nails: a small-scale study comparing the current fluoroscopic method against radiation-free, electromagnetic navigation.

    PubMed

    Grimwood, Darren; Harvey-Lloyd, Jane

    2016-12-01

    Intramedullary nailing is the standard surgical treatment for mid-diaphyseal fractures of long bones; however, it is also a high radiation dose procedure. Distal locking is regularly cited as a demanding element of the procedure, and there remains a reliance on X-ray fluoroscopy to locate the distal holes. A recently developed electromagnetic navigation (EMN) system allows radiation-free distal locking, with a virtual on-screen image. To compare operative duration, fluoroscopy time and radiation dose when using EMN over fluoroscopy, for the distal locking of intramedullary nails. Consecutive patients with mid-diaphyseal fractures of the tibia and femur, treatable with intramedullary nails, were prospectively enrolled during a 9-month period. The sample consisted of 29 individuals, 19 under fluoroscopic guidance and 10 utilising EMN. Participants were allocated depending on the type of intramedullary nail used and surgeon's preference. These were further divided into tibial and femoral subcategories, relative to the fracture site. EMN reduced fluoroscopy time by 49 (p = 0.038) and 28 s during tibial and femoral nailings, respectively. Radiation dose was reduced by 18 cGy/cm 2 (p = 0.046) during tibial and 181 cGy/cm 2 during femoral nailings when utilising EMN. Operative duration was 11 min slower during tibial nailings using EMN, but 38 min faster in respect of femoral nailings. This study has evidenced statistically significant reductions in both fluoroscopy time and radiation dose when using EMN for the distal locking of intramedullary nails. It is expected that overall operative duration would also decrease in line with similar studies, with increased usage and a larger sample.

  14. Interlocking Nailing Versus Plating in Tibial Shaft Fractures in Adults: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sagnik; Arambam, Mahendra Singh; Waikhom, Sanjib; Santosha; Masatwar, Pranav Vitthal; Maske, Rohan Gautam

    2017-04-01

    Tibial diaphyseal fractures are the commonest long bone fractures in adults, most commonly managed by intramedullary interlocking nailing. However, several meta-analysis show that locking plate osteosynthesis is equally effective in managing tibial diaphyseal fractures and are associated with less number of complications. To compare the results of fixation of tibial fractures following plating and nailing in terms of union, patient satisfaction and complications. A hospital based non randomized clinical trial was performed from September 2013 to August 2016 where closed or open diaphyseal or metaphyseo- diaphyseal fractures of the tibia (closed or open Gustilo Anderson type 1 through 3B) were included. Simple sequential allocation was used for allotting the patients to two groups, one for interlocking nailing and other for plating. The patients were followed up for clinical, radiographic and functional results. Forty patients with 41 involved limbs completed follow up for one year. The duration of surgery and average blood loss during surgery was 75.45±3.03 minutes and 165.00±5.31 ml respectively in case of nailing and 85.05±2.54 minutes and184.29±5.33 ml respectively in case of plating and their difference was statistically significant. In our study union was achieved in less than 20 weeks in 29 (70.8%) of the patients and 25-30 weeks in nine (22%) cases. The average time of union in our study was 19.55±0.69 weeks in case of interlocking nailing and 20.38±1.39 weeks in case of plating and there was no statistically significant difference between the two. However, there is statistically significant difference in the functional score in between the two groups in terms of Lower Extremity Functional Score (LEFS). Delayed union in one case of nailing and two cases of plating, valgus malunion in one case of nailing and joint stiffness in two cases each of nailing and plating were the major complications observed. There was no difference between the two modalities

  15. Interlocking Nailing Versus Plating in Tibial Shaft Fractures in Adults: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Arambam, Mahendra Singh; Waikhom, Sanjib; Santosha; Masatwar, Pranav Vitthal; Maske, Rohan Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Tibial diaphyseal fractures are the commonest long bone fractures in adults, most commonly managed by intramedullary interlocking nailing. However, several meta-analysis show that locking plate osteosynthesis is equally effective in managing tibial diaphyseal fractures and are associated with less number of complications. Aim To compare the results of fixation of tibial fractures following plating and nailing in terms of union, patient satisfaction and complications. Materials and Methods A hospital based non randomized clinical trial was performed from September 2013 to August 2016 where closed or open diaphyseal or metaphyseo- diaphyseal fractures of the tibia (closed or open Gustilo Anderson type 1 through 3B) were included. Simple sequential allocation was used for allotting the patients to two groups, one for interlocking nailing and other for plating. The patients were followed up for clinical, radiographic and functional results. Results Forty patients with 41 involved limbs completed follow up for one year. The duration of surgery and average blood loss during surgery was 75.45±3.03 minutes and 165.00±5.31 ml respectively in case of nailing and 85.05±2.54 minutes and184.29±5.33 ml respectively in case of plating and their difference was statistically significant. In our study union was achieved in less than 20 weeks in 29 (70.8%) of the patients and 25-30 weeks in nine (22%) cases. The average time of union in our study was 19.55±0.69 weeks in case of interlocking nailing and 20.38±1.39 weeks in case of plating and there was no statistically significant difference between the two. However, there is statistically significant difference in the functional score in between the two groups in terms of Lower Extremity Functional Score (LEFS). Delayed union in one case of nailing and two cases of plating, valgus malunion in one case of nailing and joint stiffness in two cases each of nailing and plating were the major complications observed

  16. Models of tibial fracture healing in normal and Nf1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Schindeler, Aaron; Morse, Alyson; Harry, Lorraine; Godfrey, Craig; Mikulec, Kathy; McDonald, Michelle; Gasser, Jürg A; Little, David G

    2008-08-01

    Delayed union and nonunion are common complications associated with tibial fractures, particularly in the distal tibia. Existing mouse tibial fracture models are typically closed and middiaphyseal, and thus poorly recapitulate the prevailing conditions following surgery on a human open distal tibial fracture. This report describes our development of two open tibial fracture models in the mouse, where the bone is broken either in the tibial midshaft (mid-diaphysis) or in the distal tibia. Fractures in the distal tibial model showed delayed repair compared to fractures in the tibial midshaft. These tibial fracture models were applied to both wild-type and Nf1-deficient (Nf1+/-) mice. Bone repair has been reported to be exceptionally problematic in human NF1 patients, and these patients can also spontaneously develop tibial nonunions (known as congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia), which are recalcitrant to even vigorous intervention. pQCT analysis confirmed no fundamental differences in cortical or cancellous bone in Nf1-deficient mouse tibiae compared to wild-type mice. Although no difference in bone healing was seen in the tibial midshaft fracture model, the healing of distal tibial fractures was found to be impaired in Nf1+/- mice. The histological features associated with nonunited Nf1+/- fractures were variable, but included delayed cartilage removal, disproportionate fibrous invasion, insufficient new bone anabolism, and excessive catabolism. These findings imply that the pathology of tibial pseudarthrosis in human NF1 is complex and likely to be multifactorial.

  17. Comparing hospital outcomes between open and closed tibia fractures treated with intramedullary fixation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Evan J; Kuang, Xiangyu; Pandarinath, Rajeev

    2017-07-01

    Tibial shaft fractures comprise a large portion of operatively treated long bone fractures, and present with the highest rate of open injuries. Intramedullary fixation has become the standard of care for both open and closed injuries. The rates of short term complications and hospital length of stay for open and closed fractures treated with intramedullary fixation is not fully known. Previous series on tibia fractures were performed at high volume centers, and data were not generalizable, further they did not report on length of stay and the impact of preoperative variables on infections, complications and reoperation. We used a large surgical database to compare these outcomes while adjusting for preoperative risk factors. Data were extracted from the ACS-NSQIP database from 2005 to 2014. Cases were identified based on CPT codes for intramedullary fixation and categorized as closed vs open based on ICD9 code. In addition to demographic and case data, primary analysis examined correlation between open and closed fracture status with infection, complications, reoperation and hospital length of stay. Secondary analysis examined preoperative variables including gender, race, age, BMI, and diabetes effect on outcomes. There were 272 cases identified. There were no significant demographic differences between open and closed tibia fracture cases. Open fracture status did not increase the rate of infection, 30day complications, reoperation, or length of stay. The only preoperative factor that correlated with length of stay was age. There was no correlation between BMI, presence of insulin dependent and nondependent diabetes, and any outcome measure. When considering the complication rates for open and closed tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary fixation, there is no difference between 30-day complication rate, length of stay, or return to the operating room. Our reported postoperative infection rates were comparable to previous series, adding validity to

  18. Intramedullary spindle cell hemangioma: case report.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Rani; Ashayeri, Kimberly; Legatt, Alan D; Houten, John K

    2016-09-01

    The authors describe the case of a 48-year-old man found to have the first reported intramedullary spinal cord spindle cell hemangioma. Previous research indicates that spindle cell hemangiomas are rarely found in the spine. Only 3 previous cases exist, all in the intradural, extramedullary space. In the present case, gross-total resection of the tumor was possible with no loss of function from baseline. This report presents the successful resection of the first reported intramedullary spindle cell hemangioma and reports 4-month follow-up, demonstrating the biological behavior of this rare tumor.

  19. Spinal Intramedullary Abscess Secondary to Dermal Sinus in Children.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G Lakshmi; Hegde, Ajay; Divya, S

    2018-06-01

     Congenital dermal sinuses (CDS) are uncommon lesions. They are most often noted in lumbosacral region and may lead to meningitis or spinal abscess. Intramedullary spinal cord abscess (IMSCA) due to CDS is rare and often co-exists with an inclusion tumor such as dermoid/epidermoid cyst.  Literature review was done to analyze all cases of pediatric IMSCA secondary to CDS by searching online databases starting from the oldest case reported.  Only 50 cases have been reported and were analyzed. Mean age was 22.6 months (range 1 month-15 years). Fever, acute flaccid lower limb weakness, and urinary disturbances were the most common presenting features. Dermal sinus was commonest in lumbosacral region. Inclusion cysts were observed in 50% of cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most the common organism. Mean follow-up duration was 18.2 months (range 1 week-156 months). Majority of the cases underwent multilevel laminectomy with myelotomy and drainage of abscess. Outcome was good-to-excellent in around 60% cases with four deaths. Presence of fever and limb weakness was significantly associated with poor outcomes.  Intramedullary abscess secondary to CDS is very rare. Complete sinus tract excision, myelotomy and drainage of abscess, and decompression of co-existent inclusion cysts with prolonged antibiotic therapy remain the standard treatment. Approximately 60% cases achieve good outcomes. Fever and limb weakness portend poorer outcomes than those without. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Do modern total knee replacements improve tibial coverage?

    PubMed

    Meier, Malin; Webb, Jonathan; Collins, Jamie E; Beckmann, Johannes; Fitz, Wolfgang

    2018-01-25

    The purpose of the present study is to compare newer designs of various symmetric and asymmetric tibial components and measure tibial bone coverage using the rotational safe zone defined by two commonly utilized anatomic rotational landmarks. Computed tomography scans (CT scans) of one hundred consecutive patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were obtained pre-operatively. A virtual proximal tibial cut was performed and two commonly used rotational axes were added for each image: the medio-lateral axis (ML-axis) and the medial 1/3 tibial tubercle axis (med-1/3-axis). Different symmetric and asymmetric implant designs were then superimposed in various rotational positions for best cancellous and cortical coverage. The images were imported to a public domain imaging software, and cancellous and cortical bone coverage was computed for each image, with each implant design in various rotational positions. One single implant type could not be identified that provided the best cortical and cancellous coverage of the tibia, irrespective of using the med-1/3-axis or the ML-axis for rotational alignment. However, it could be confirmed that the best bone coverage was dependent on the selected rotational landmark. Furthermore, improved bone coverage was observed when tibial implant positions were optimized between the two rotational axes. Tibial coverage is similar for symmetric and asymmetric designs, but depends on the rotational landmark for which the implant is designed. The surgeon has the option to improve tibial coverage by optimizing placement between the two anatomic rotational alignment landmarks, the medial 1/3 and the ML-axis. Surgeons should be careful assessing intraoperative rotational tibial placement using the described anatomic rotational landmarks to optimize tibial bony coverage without compromising patella tracking. III.

  1. Total knee arthroplasty and fractures of the tibial plateau

    PubMed Central

    Softness, Kenneth A; Murray, Ryan S; Evans, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common injuries that occur in a bimodal age distribution. While there are various treatment options for displaced tibial plateau fractures, the standard of care is open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). In physiologically young patients with higher demand and better bone quality, ORIF is the preferred method of treating these fractures. However, future total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a consideration in these patients as post-traumatic osteoarthritis is a common long-term complication of tibial plateau fractures. In older, lower demand patients, ORIF is potentially less favorable for a variety of reasons, namely fixation failure and the need for delayed weight bearing. In some of these patients, TKA can be considered as primary mode of treatment. This paper will review the literature surrounding TKA as both primary treatment and as a salvage measure in patients with fractures of the tibial plateau. The outcomes, complications, techniques and surgical challenges are also discussed. PMID:28251061

  2. Delayed diagnosis of a peroneal artery false aneurysm at a concomitant tibial fracture. A case report.

    PubMed

    Tyllianakis, M; Panagiotopoulos, E; Megas, P; Lambiris, E

    1995-07-01

    A 49-year-old man had posttraumatic persistent calf swelling and a tibial and fibular fracture. Despite the intramedullary nailing of the fracture, the swelling did not improve, and at the 6th postoperative week it was misdiagnosed (using venogram) as deep vein thrombosis. Therefore, it was mistreated with anticoagulants, which led to great deterioration of the local signs. An arteriogram revealed an initially missed false peroneal artery aneurysm. Surgical treatment was performed immediately. The 6-week delay had led to some atrophy of the posterior compartment muscles, fortunately without any permanent disability. The importance of proper and early diagnosis of posttraumatic persistent calf swelling is stressed.

  3. Tension Band Plating for Chronic Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures in High-Performance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Zbeda, Robert M; Sculco, Peter K; Urch, Ekaterina Y; Lazaro, Lionel E; Borens, Olivier; Williams, Riley J; Lorich, Dean G; Wellman, David S; Helfet, David L

    2015-07-01

    Anterior tibial stress fractures are associated with high rates of delayed union and nonunion, which can be particularly devastating to a professional athlete who requires rapid return to competition. Current surgical treatment strategies include intramedullary nailing, which has satisfactory rates of fracture union but an associated risk of anterior knee pain. Anterior tension band plating is a biomechanically sound alternative treatment for these fractures. Tension band plating of chronic anterior tibial stress fractures leads to rapid healing and return to physical activity and avoids the anterior knee pain associated with intramedullary nailing. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between 2001 and 2013, there were 13 chronic anterior tibial stress fractures in 12 professional or collegiate athletes who underwent tension band plating after failing nonoperative management. Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, injury history, and surgical details. Radiographs were used to assess time to osseous union. Follow-up notes and phone interviews were used to determine follow-up time, return to training time, and whether the patient was able to return to competition. Cases included 13 stress fractures in 12 patients (9 females, 3 males). Five patients were track-and-field athletes, 4 patients played basketball, 2 patients played volleyball, and 1 was a ballet dancer. Five patients were Division I collegiate athletes and 7 were professional or Olympic athletes. Average age at time of surgery was 23.6 years (range, 20-32 years). Osseous union occurred on average at 9.6 weeks (range, 5.3-16.9 weeks) after surgery. Patients returned to training on average at 11.1 weeks (range, 5.7-20 weeks). Ninety-two percent (12/13) eventually returned to preinjury competition levels. Thirty-eight percent (5/13) underwent removal of hardware for plate prominence. There was no incidence of infection or nonunion. Anterior tension band plating for chronic tibial stress

  4. The influence of distal locking on the need for fibular plating in intramedullary nailing of distal metaphyseal tibiofibular fractures.

    PubMed

    Attal, R; Maestri, V; Doshi, H K; Onder, U; Smekal, V; Blauth, M; Schmoelz, W

    2014-03-01

    Using human cadaver specimens, we investigated the role of supplementary fibular plating in the treatment of distal tibial fractures using an intramedullary nail. Fibular plating is thought to improve stability in these situations, but has been reported to have increased soft-tissue complications and to impair union of the fracture. We proposed that multidirectional locking screws provide adequate stability, making additional fibular plating unnecessary. A distal tibiofibular osteotomy model performed on matched fresh-frozen lower limb specimens was stabilised with reamed nails using conventional biplanar distal locking (CDL) or multidirectional distal locking (MDL) options with and without fibular plating. Rotational stiffness was assessed under a constant axial force of 150 N and a superimposed torque of ± 5 Nm. Total movement, and neutral zone and fracture gap movement were analysed. In the CDL group, fibular plating improved stiffness at the tibial fracture site, albeit to a small degree (p = 0.013). In the MDL group additional fibular plating did not increase the stiffness. The MDL nail without fibular plating was significantly more stable than the CDL nail with an additional fibular plate (p = 0.008). These findings suggest that additional fibular plating does not improve stability if a multidirectional distal locking intramedullary nail is used, and is therefore unnecessary if not needed to aid reduction.

  5. New Technique for Tibiotalar Arthrodesis Using a New Intramedullary Nail Device: A Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Eisenstein, Emmanuel D.; Rodriguez, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Ankle arthrodesis is performed in a variety of methods. We propose a new technique for tibiotalar arthrodesis using a newly designed intramedullary nail. Methods. We proposed development of an intramedullary device for ankle arthrodesis which spared the subtalar joint using a sinus tarsi approach. Standard saw bones models and computer assisted modeling and stress analysis were used to develop different nail design geometries and determine the feasibility of insertion. After the final design was constructed, the device was tested on three cadaveric specimens. Results. Four basic nail geometries were developed. The optimal design was composed of two relatively straight segments, each with a different radius of curvature for their respective tibial and talar component. We successfully implemented this design into three cadaveric specimens. Conclusion. Our newly designed tibiotalar nail provides a new technique for isolated tibiotalar fusion. It utilizes the advantages of a tibiotalar calcaneal nail and spares the subtalar joint. This design serves as the foundation for future research to include compression options across the tibiotalar joint and eventual transition to clinical practice. PMID:27818800

  6. New Technique for Tibiotalar Arthrodesis Using a New Intramedullary Nail Device: A Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Eisenstein, Emmanuel D; Rodriguez, Mario; Abdelgawad, Amr A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction . Ankle arthrodesis is performed in a variety of methods. We propose a new technique for tibiotalar arthrodesis using a newly designed intramedullary nail. Methods . We proposed development of an intramedullary device for ankle arthrodesis which spared the subtalar joint using a sinus tarsi approach. Standard saw bones models and computer assisted modeling and stress analysis were used to develop different nail design geometries and determine the feasibility of insertion. After the final design was constructed, the device was tested on three cadaveric specimens. Results . Four basic nail geometries were developed. The optimal design was composed of two relatively straight segments, each with a different radius of curvature for their respective tibial and talar component. We successfully implemented this design into three cadaveric specimens. Conclusion . Our newly designed tibiotalar nail provides a new technique for isolated tibiotalar fusion. It utilizes the advantages of a tibiotalar calcaneal nail and spares the subtalar joint. This design serves as the foundation for future research to include compression options across the tibiotalar joint and eventual transition to clinical practice.

  7. Intramedullary knee arthrodesis as a salvage procedure after failed total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulos, E; Kouzelis, A; Matzaroglou, Ch; Saridis, A; Lambiris, E

    2006-12-01

    Septic and aseptic loosening with or without extensive bone loss after total knee replacement are the most common indications for knee fusion. Both external fixation and intramedullary nailing can be used for the treatment, though the latter appears to be the method of choice for most patients. Nine patients were treated after a total knee replacement failure using intramedullary nailing. A long intramedullary nail with a proximal interlocking screw was used in five cases, and a customised nail was used in four cases. Successful fusion occurred in eight of nine patients (89%). Average time for the joint union was 6.5 months, and average operative blood loss was 860 ml. In two patients, iliac crest and patellar bone graft were also used. In conclusion, intramedullary nailing can give excellent results in achieving knee fusion after a failed knee replacement as it allows early weight bearing and at the same time offers stability, pain relief, and a high rate of union, even though the surgical technique is demanding.

  8. Gender differences in passive knee biomechanical properties in tibial rotation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung-Soon; Wilson, Nicole A; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2008-07-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly injured knee ligament with the highest incidence of injury in female athletes who participate in pivoting sports. Noncontact ACL injuries commonly occur with both internal and external tibial rotation. ACL impingement against the lateral wall of the intercondylar notch during tibial external rotation and abduction has been proposed as an injury mechanism, but few studies have evaluated in vivo gender-specific differences in laxity and stiffness in external and internal tibial rotations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these differences. The knees of 10 male and 10 female healthy subjects were rotated between internal and external tibial rotation with the knee at 60 degrees of flexion. Joint laxity, stiffness, and energy loss were compared between male and female subjects. Women had higher laxity (p = 0.01), lower stiffness (p = 0.038), and higher energy loss (p = 0.008) in external tibial rotation than did men. The results suggest that women may be at greater risk of ACL injury resulting from impingement against the lateral wall of the intercondylar notch, which has been shown to be associated with external tibial rotation and abduction.

  9. Free flap reconstructions of tibial fractures complicated after internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, H; Kuokkanen, H; Tukiainen, E; Asko-Seljavaara, S

    1995-04-01

    The cases of 15 patients are presented where microvascular soft-tissue reconstructions became necessary after internal fixation of tibial fractures. Primarily, seven of the fractures were closed. Eleven fractures had originally been treated by open reduction and internal fixation using plates and screws, and four by intramedullary nailing. All of the patients suffered from postoperative complications leading to exposure of the bone or fixation material. The internal fixation material was removed and radical revision of dead and infected tissue was carried out in all cases. Soft tissue reconstruction was performed using a free microvascular muscle flap (11 latissimus dorsi, three rectus abdominis, and one gracilis). In eight cases the nonunion of the fracture indicated external fixation. The microvascular reconstruction was successful in all 15 patients. In one case the recurrence of deep infection finally indicated a below-knee amputation. In another case, chronic infection with fistulation recurred postoperatively. After a mean follow-up of 26 months the soft tissue coverage was good in all the remaining 13 cases. All the fractures united. Microvascular free muscle flap reconstruction of the leg is regarded as a reliable method for salvaging legs with large soft-tissue defects or defects in the distal leg. If after internal fixation of the tibial fracture the osteosynthesis material or fracture is exposed, reconstruction of the soft-tissue can successfully be performed by free flap transfer. By radical revision, external fixation, bone grafting, and a free flap the healing of the fracture can be achieved.

  10. Three-dimensional finite element analysis and comparison of a new intramedullary fixation with interlocking intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-cheng; Xing, Wen-zhao; Zhang, Ya-xing; Pan, Zheng-hua; Feng, Wen-ling

    2015-03-01

    This study was set to introduce a new intramedullary fixation, explore its biomechanical properties, and provide guidance for further biomechanical experiments. With the help of CT scans and finite element modeling software, finite element model was established for a new intramedullary fixation and intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures in a volunteer adult. By finite element analysis software ANSYS 10.0, we conducted 235-2,100 N axial load, 200-1,000 N bending loads and 2-15 Nm torsional loading, respectively, and analyzed maximum stress distribution, size, and displacement of the fracture fragments of the femur and intramedullary nail. During the loading process, the maximum stress of our new intramedullary fixation were within the normal range, and the displacement of the fracture fragments was less than 1 mm. Our new intramedullary fixation exhibited mechanical reliability and unique advantages of anti-rotation, which provides effective supports during fracture recovery.

  11. Comparison of two intramedullary nails for tibiotalocalcaneal fusion: anatomic and radiographic considerations.

    PubMed

    Mückley, Thomas; Ullm, Sebastian; Petrovitch, Alexander; Klos, Kajetan; Beimel, Claudia; Fröber, Rosemarie; Hofmann, Gunther O

    2007-05-01

    Retrograde intramedullary nailing is an established procedure for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis. This study was conducted to see whether, and if so to what extent, nail design modifications would influence the risk to anatomic structures and the bony coverage of the nail base. Six pairs of thawed fresh-frozen cadaver legs received two different intramedullary nails (N1: straight nail, lateral-medial tip locking; N2: valgus-curved nail, medial-lateral tip locking) under simulated operative conditions. The specimens were dissected; distances between the at-risk structures and the hardware were measured. The hindfoot axis and the volume of the intracalcaneal nail portion were determined with CT. At the plantar entry site, N2 was significantly farther from the flexor hallucis longus tendon (p=0.047), the medial plantar artery (p=0.026), and the lateral plantar nerve (p=0.026) than N1. The lateral-medial calcaneal locking screw of N1 damaged significantly more often the peroneus brevis tendon (p=0.03) than N2. The proximal tip-locking screw, N2, was significantly farther from the anterior tibial artery (p=0.075) and the deep (p=0.047) and superficial peroneal nerves (p=0.009) than N1; N1 was significantly farther from the great saphenous vein (p=0.075) than N2. The distal tip-locking screw, N1. damaged significantly more often the extensor digitorum longus (p=0.007), the anterior tibial artery(p = 0.04), and the deep and superficial peroneal nerves (p=0.03) than N2. CT did not show any significant changes in the hindfoot axis with either device; intracalcaneal nail volumes were similar. A curved nail can increase the distance to at-risk plantar structures. Medial-lateral nail-tip locking appears to have less risk to neurovascular structures. Safer retrograde intramedullary nailing for tibiotalocalcaneal fusion requires knowledge of the structures at risk and appropriate operative technique.

  12. Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord lesions: Pathological spectrum and outcome of surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Rajni Kant; Das, Kuntal Kanti; Bhaisora, Kamlesh Singh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mehrotra, Anant; Srivastava, Arun Kumar; Sahu, Rabi Narayan; Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar; Behari, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord lesions are not only rare but also different from adults in a number of aspects. We aimed to study the incidence and the frequencies of various pediatric intramedullary mass lesions, their outcome to treatment and the factors determining their outcome of treatment. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one consecutive children (aged 1–18 years, mean 11.1 years, male: female = 1.8:1) with pathologically proven intramedullary spinal cord lesions treated at our center were studied. Clinico-radiological, histopathological, operative, and outcome data were reviewed retrospectively. The functional status was assessed using the modified McCormick grading system. Results: Gross total tumor excision was performed in 19 patients (61.3%), subtotal in 9 patients (29%), partial excision was performed in 2 (6.5%) patient, and only biopsy was performed in 1 patient (6.5%). There was one peroperative death, 2 patients died at follow-up. Complications included wound related complications (n = 4), transient deterioration in the motor power, and respiratory complication requiring a tracheostomy. Six patients showed recurrence at a mean follow-up of 16.4 months. Developmental tumors, high-grade ependymomas, and incompletely excised grade 2 ependymomas showed a tendency to recur. Conclusions: Children constituted nearly 1/5th (17.4%) of intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Astrocytomas and ependymomas taken together constituted the most common intramedullary spinal lesions in children; however, developmental tumors predominated in the first decade. Children usually presented in good functional grades preoperatively and maintained good grades after surgery. Functional outcome was dependent on the preoperative neurological status and histopathology of the lesions. PMID:26557160

  13. Knee arthrodesis using an intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Crockarell, John R; Mihalko, Marc J

    2005-09-01

    Fifteen knee arthrodeses using an intramedullary nail were performed in 15 patients. Indications included 11 failed total knee arthroplasties (10 of 11 septic). A retrospective review revealed 100% fusion rate. Complications included 4 cases of painful hardware, 1 trochanteric bursitis, and 1 deep infection. Ten patients were available for assessment at 7 years follow-up. Average leg length discrepancy was 3.7 cm. Anatomic axis averaged 1.3 degrees valgus. Flexion angle averaged 3.5 degrees . Compared with age-matched controls, our patients fared significantly worse in physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, vitality, and social functioning. Arthrodesis of the knee with an intramedullary nail provides a reliable means of fusion with reasonable alignment. These patients have high rates of pain and diminished functional status.

  14. Hydrocephalus: a rare initial manifestation of sporadic intramedullary hemangioblastoma : Intramedullary hemangioblastoma presenting as hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Morais, Barbara Albuquerque; Cardeal, Daniel Dante; Ribeiro E Ribeiro, Renan; Frassetto, Fernando Pereira; Andrade, Fernanda Goncalves; Matushita, Hamilton; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2017-08-01

    Intramedullary hemangioblastomas are rare benign vascular tumors, infrequent in pediatric patients. Clinical symptoms vary according to the age of presentation, tumor size, location, and concomitant syringomyelia. This is the second reported case of hemangioblastoma presenting with acute hydrocephalus. A 3-month-old infant with acute hydrocephalus was asymptomatic after a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed. She returned 3 months later with irritability, acute paraplegia, and respiratory distress. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an intramedullary T8-T9 tumor with syringomyelia. She underwent surgical resection with good results during the 6-month follow-up. Intramedullary tumors may present as hydrocephalus and other nonspecific symptoms, with invariably delayed diagnosis in children, but must be considered in suspicious cases.

  15. Spinal intramedullary ependymoma: surgical approaches and outcome.

    PubMed

    Borges, Lawrence F

    2018-02-01

    Intramedullary ependymomas are uncommon tumors that can occur within the medullary substance of the spinal cord. Despite this difficult location, they are typically benign tumors that can most often be removed completely with an acceptable surgical risk. Therefore, the recommended management approach is usually surgical excision. This review will consider the historical context in which surgeons began treating these tumors and then review the more recent literature that guides their current management.

  16. OSTEOSYNTHESIS WITH INTRAMEDULLARY NAILS IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Alvachian Fernandes, Helio Jorge; Saad, Eduardo Abdalla; Reis, Fernando Baldy dos

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive review of the literature emphasizing the use of flexible intramedullary nails in the treatment of fractures in children, focusing the treatment of femoral shaft and forearm fractures and emphasizing the importance of the non-surgical approach. Children's age and weight threshold are not well defined for the use of the method. The removal of implants is a controversial matter in the literature, with a trend towards keeping the implants. PMID:27004183

  17. Segmental transport after unreamed intramedullary nailing. Preliminary report of a "Monorail" system.

    PubMed

    Raschke, M J; Mann, J W; Oedekoven, G; Claudi, B F

    1992-09-01

    The Ilizarov method of segmental bone transport has been shown to be an alternative to more conventional treatments of posttraumatic bony defects. After extensive clinical experience with the unreamed tibial nail in open fractures up to Grade IIIb, a new monorail fixation system for callus distraction and segmental bone transport was devised. This Monorail system is composed of an unreamed intramedullary (IM) nail and a unilateral AO distraction device. The new fixation method and the preliminary clinical experience are reported here. Four patients who previously sustained Grades II-IIIb open tibial fractures had an average bony defect of 9 cm. Two patients had previous bony infections. All patients had had serial debridements and myocutaneous flaps were required in three patients. An unreamed IM nail was inserted, and the transport device was applied. After an osteotomy, segmental transport was carried out until docking was achieved. The external fixator was removed after interlocking of the transported segment. The mean duration of external fixation was 17.9 days/cm and the mean period until roentgenographic consolidation of the distraction and nonunion site was 41.2 days/cm. There were two pin-tract infections but no IM infections. One nail broke after osseous consolidation of the regenerate at the distal interlocking site and required exchange. The goal of transport was achieved in all cases without angular or rotational deformity or length discrepancy. There were no neurovascular injuries.

  18. Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis Using a Nitinol Intramedullary Hindfoot Nail.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Andrew R; Ellington, J Kent; Adams, Samuel B

    2015-10-01

    Tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis using an intramedullary hindfoot nail is a common procedure for deformity correction and the treatment of combined tibiotalar and subtalar end-stage arthritis. Nonunion at one or both fusion sites is a difficult complication that can result in reoperation, significant morbidity, and below-knee amputation. There is currently a need for sustained compression across fusion sites using a TTC hindfoot nail with good mechanical stability. The DynaNail TTC Fusion System (MedShape, Inc, Atlanta, GA) uses an internal nitinol compression element to apply sustained compression across the tibiotalar and subtalar joints after surgery. In preliminary clinical cases, we have found that the nail is safe, reliable, and has promising clinical and radiographic results in settings of hindfoot arthritis, complex deformity, Charcot arthropathy, and talar avascular necrosis. Expert opinion, Level V. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Bilateral tibial lengthening over the nail: our experience of 143 cases.

    PubMed

    Motallebi Zadeh, Nader; Mortazavi, Seyedeh Hamideh; Khaki, Siavash; Heidari, Kazem; Karbasi, Ashraf; Ostad Rahimi, Sedigheh

    2014-09-01

    Using lengthening over an intramedullary nail as a technique for cosmetic purposes improves the individuals' quality of life and provides more satisfactory results due to less external fixator period. This study reports a case series of 143 individuals who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening over an intramedullary nail for cosmetic purposes together with the review of parameters related to the surgery and complications. Level of satisfaction was measured with the standard visual analog scale at least 1 year after removal of external fixator. In this study, mean (SD) age of patients was 26.6 (7.26) years. 85 (59.4%) participants were male and 58 (40.6%) were female. Mean end lengthening of all individuals was 6.65 cm. The mean external fixator period was 93.7 days. Complication rate was 0.74 per segment but it decreased to 0.45 when pin-tract infection was excluded. Complications were categorized based on Paley et al.'s classification as 129 problems, 85 obstacles and no sequelae. Interestingly, 44 (30.8%) individuals had no problem and obstacle. Lengthening over an intramedullary nail provides bone formation in equal quality to that obtained by the conventional Ilizarov method, along with lower rate of complications. The large number of individuals involved in our study is a remarkable benefit which could be used as an appropriate sample to compare results for outcomes and complications.

  20. 21 CFR 888.3020 - Intramedullary fixation rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intramedullary fixation rod. 888.3020 Section 888.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3020 Intramedullary fixation rod. (a...

  1. 21 CFR 888.3020 - Intramedullary fixation rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intramedullary fixation rod. 888.3020 Section 888.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3020 Intramedullary fixation rod. (a...

  2. 21 CFR 888.3020 - Intramedullary fixation rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intramedullary fixation rod. 888.3020 Section 888.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3020 Intramedullary fixation rod. (a...

  3. 21 CFR 888.3020 - Intramedullary fixation rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intramedullary fixation rod. 888.3020 Section 888.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3020 Intramedullary fixation rod. (a...

  4. 21 CFR 888.3020 - Intramedullary fixation rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intramedullary fixation rod. 888.3020 Section 888.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3020 Intramedullary fixation rod. (a...

  5. Intramedullary pressure changes in rats after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Dong, X; Yang, D; Li, J; Liu, C; Yang, M; Du, L; Gu, R; Hu, A; Zhang, H

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the change of intramedullary pressure over time in rats after different degrees of spinal cord contusion injury and to verify the hypothesis that the more serious the injury, the higher the intramedullary pressure. The control group rats underwent laminectomy only, whereas the rats in the three experimental groups were subjected to mild, moderate or severe 10th thoracic cord (T10) contusion injury after laminectomy. In addition, an intramedullary pressure of T10 was measured by a Millar Mikro-Tip pressure catheter (Millar Incorporated Company, Houston, TX, USA) immediately in the control group or at different time points after injury in the experimental groups. The average intramedullary pressure of the rats in the control group was 6.88±1.67 mm Hg, whereas that of the rats in any injury group was significantly higher (P=0.000). There was statistical difference among the different time points in the mild or moderate injury group (P=0.007/0.017), but no in the severe (P=0.374). The curves of intramedullary pressure over time in the mild and moderate injury group were bimodal, peaking at 1 and 48 h after the injury. The intramedullary pressure after injury was positively correlated with the injury degree (r=0.438, P=0.000). The intramedullary pressure of the rats increased after traumatic spinal cord injury. If the injury was not serious, the intramedullary pressure fluctuated with time and peaked at 1 and 48 h after injury. If the injury was serious, the intramedullary pressure remained high. The more serious the injury, the higher the intramedullary pressure.

  6. [Intramedullary nailing in diaphyseal clavicle fractures using minimally invasive percutaneous reduction].

    PubMed

    Müller, M; Freude, T; Stöckle, U; Kraus, T M

    2017-02-01

    Closed reduction and intramedullary nailing is common in diaphyseal clavicle fractures. The aim of this report is to demonstrate a surgical method with minimally invasive percutaneous reduction in cases where closed reduction fails. The procedure is associated with good cosmetic results. Percutaneous reduction using two reduction forceps enables intramedullary nailing without an open procedure. Open, multifragmented or non-dislocated fractures, oblique fractures due to postoperative dislocation or shortening risk, fracture having potential to become compound fractures, neurovascular complications, pseudoarthroses. The patient is in beach-chair position. After an incision, the nail is entered from medial, two reduction forceps are mounted percutaneously at the lateral and medial fragment. After reduction the nail is pushed forward into the lateral fragment. Thereby, the fracture hematoma is not disturbed for the most part. Early functional rehabilitation with maximal abduction and anteversion of 90° for 6 weeks. Anatomic reduction can be achieved with mild cosmetic impairment.

  7. Intramedullary nailing: experience in 427 patients.

    PubMed

    Lambiris, E; Tyllianakis, M; Megas, P; Panagiotopoulos, E

    1996-01-01

    In the Orthopaedic Department in Patras University 427 intramedullary nailings in the lower limbs were performed between 1989 and 1994 and retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the range of complications. One hundred and seventy-two were nailings of the femur; 80 gamma nails mainly for subtrochanteric and intertrochanteric with subtrochanteric extension fractures were included, (total 252/59%); 175 (41%) were nailings of the tibia. Union was achieved in all case. Overall the complication rate in this series was 3.3% (14 cases) and included infection (4 cases), neuropraxia (2 cases), implant failure (5 cases), limb length deficiency (2 cases) and malrotation (1 case).

  8. Flexible intramedullary nailing for the treatment of unicameral bone cysts in long bones.

    PubMed

    Roposch, A; Saraph, V; Linhart, W E

    2000-10-01

    Unicameral bone cyst is characterized by its tenacity and risk of recurrence. Pathological fracture is common and is often the presenting symptom. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the results of flexible intramedullary nailing for the treatment of a unicameral bone cyst with or without a pathological fracture. Flexible intramedullary nailing for the treatment of a unicameral bone cyst was performed in thirty-two patients. Thirty of these patients presented with a pathological fracture; twenty-four were managed immediately with intramedullary nailing, and the other six had been managed conservatively at other clinics before they were referred to our department. The remaining two cysts were detected incidentally. The cyst was located in the humerus in twenty-one patients, in the femur in nine, and in the radius in two. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 9.8 years, and the mean duration of follow-up was 53.7 months. Radiographic evaluation was performed according to the criteria of Capanna et al., and the cyst was classified as completely healed, healed with residual radiolucency (osteolysis), recurred, or having no response. The healing period ranged from three to 105 months. Fourteen cysts healed completely, and sixteen healed with residual radiolucent areas visible on radiographs. There was recurrence of two cysts that had healed with residual radiolucency. All of the cysts in the present study responded to treatment. A change of nails was necessary in nine patients, as the nails had become too short after bone growth. No major complications were observed. Flexible intramedullary nailing provides early stability, which allows early mobilization and thus obviates the need for a plaster cast and decreases the prevalence of the most common complication: a pathological fracture. This method of treatment also allows for an early return to normal activity.

  9. Ketorolac Administered in the Recovery Room for Acute Pain Management Does Not Affect Healing Rates of Femoral and Tibial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Donohue, David; Sanders, Drew; Serrano-Riera, Rafa; Jordan, Charles; Gaskins, Roger; Sanders, Roy; Sagi, H Claude

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether ketorolac administered in the immediate perioperative period affects the rate of nonunion in femoral and tibial shaft fractures. Retrospective comparative study. Single Institution, Academic Level 1 Trauma Center. Three hundred and thirteen skeletally mature patients with 137 femoral shaft (OTA 32) and 191 tibial shaft (OTA 42) fractures treated with intramedullary rod fixation. Eighty patients with 33 femoral shaft and 52 tibial shaft fractures were administered ketorolac within the first 24 hours after surgery (group 1-study group). Two-hundred thirty-three patients with 104 femoral shaft and 139 tibial shaft fractures were not (group 2-control group). Rate of reoperation for repair of a nonunion and time to union. Average time to union of the femur was 147 days for group 1 and 159 days for group 2 (P = 0.57). Average time to union of the tibia was 175 days for group 1 and 175 days for group 2 (P = 0.57). There were 3 femoral nonunions (9%) in group 1 and eleven femoral nonunions (11.6%) in group 2 (P = 1.00). There were 3 tibial nonunions (5.8%) in group 1 and 17 tibial nonunions (12.2%) in group 2 (P = 0.29). The average dose of ketorolac for patients who healed their fracture was 85 mg, whereas it was 50 mg for those who did not (P = 0.27). All patients with a nonunion in the study group were current smokers. Ketorolac administered in the first 24 hours after fracture repair for acute pain management does not seem to have a negative impact on time to healing or incidence of nonunion for femoral or tibial shaft fractures. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  10. Tibial Plateau Fractures in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vemulapalli, Krishna C.; Gary, Joshua L.; Donegan, Derek J.

    2016-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common in the elderly population following a low-energy mechanism. Initial evaluation includes an assessment of the soft tissues and surrounding ligaments. Most fractures involve articular depression leading to joint incongruity. Treatment of these fractures may be complicated by osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and medical comorbidities. Optimal reconstruction should restore the mechanical axis, provide a stable construct for mobilization, and reestablish articular congruity. This is accomplished through a variety of internal or external fixation techniques or with acute arthroplasty. Regardless of the treatment modality, particular focus on preservation and maintenance of the soft tissue envelope is paramount. PMID:27551570

  11. Intramedullary nailing of humeral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Robert M; Crenshaw, Andrew H; Zinar, Daniel M

    2002-01-01

    The development of interlocking humeral nail systems has greatly broadened the indications for nailing of humeral shaft fracture. Rotational control is better than with earlier nail systems, and most nails have an oblong distal hole that allows axial loading of the fracture site with muscle contraction. When nailing is done with closed technique, loss of the fracture hematoma and periosteal stripping are avoided. Even when open reduction is required, periosteal stripping can be kept to a minimum. Surgical wounds are smaller, even when open reduction is necessary, and when closed nailing is done, bone grafting is unnecessary. Intramedullary nails are ideal for segmental fractures, pathologic fractures, and fractures in osteopenic bone. Because the arm usually is not a weight-bearing extremity, hardware failure is rare and union rates are equivalent to those of compression plate and screw fixation. Compression plates and external fixation certainly have their place for some fracture patterns and for severe wounds that are unsuitable for intramedullary nailing. The surgeon should be well versed in all three techniques and should be able to rapidly choose among these, depending upon the fracture pattern, skin wound, associated injuries, and overall condition of the patient.

  12. Intramedullary nails with two lag screws.

    PubMed

    Brown, C J; Wang, C J; Yettram, A L; Procter, P

    2004-06-01

    To investigate the structural integrity of intramedullary nails with two lag screws, and to give guidance to orthopaedic surgeons in the choice of appropriate devices. Alternative designs of the construct are considered, and the use of a slotted upper lag screw insertion hole is analysed. Intramedullary fixation devices with a single lag screw have been known to fail at the lag screw insertion hole. Using two lag screws is considered. It has also been proposed to use a slot in the nail for the upper lag screw to prevent the upper lag screw from sticking. Bending and torsion load cases are analysed using finite element method. Consideration of both load conditions is essential. The results present the overall stiffness of the assembly, the load sharing between lag screws, and the possibility for cut-out to occur. While the slot for the upper lag screw might be advantageous with regard to the stresses in the lag screws, it could be detrimental for cut-out occurring adjacent to the lag screws. Comparative analyses demonstrate that two lag screws may be advantageous in patients whose cancellous bone quality is good and who impose large loads on the lag screw/nail interface. However, the use of two screws might pre-dispose to failure by cut-out of the lag screws. The addition of a slotted hole for the upper lag screw appears to do nothing significant to reduce the risk of such a failure. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Comparison of tibial shaft ski fractures in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Tomo; Matsumoto, Kazu; Ishimaru, Daichi; Sumi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2014-09-01

    To examine whether child and adult skiers have different risk factors or mechanisms of injury for tibial shaft fractures. Descriptive epidemiological study. Prospectively analyzed the epidemiologic factors, injury types, and injury mechanisms at Sumi Memorial Hospital. This study analyzed information obtained from 276 patients with tibial fractures sustained during skiing between 2004 and 2012. We focused on 174 ski-related tibial shaft fractures with respect to the following factors: age, gender, laterality of fracture, skill level, mechanism of fracture (fall vs collision), scene of injury (steepness of slope), snow condition, and weather. Fracture pattern was graded according to Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) classification and mechanical direction [external (ER) or internal rotation (IR)]. Tibial shaft fractures were the most common in both children (89.3%) and adults (47.4%). There were no significant differences in gender, side of fracture, mechanism of fracture, snow condition, or weather between children and adults. Skill levels were significantly lower in children than in adults (P < 0.0001). Type A fractures were more dominant in children (73 cases, 72.3%) than in adults (39 cases, 53.4%). There was significantly more ER in children than in adults (P < 0.0001). Among children, female patients had significantly more IR than ER; in contrast, among adults, women were injured by ER. We found significant differences in some of these parameters, suggesting that child and adult skiers have different risk factors or mechanisms of injury for tibial shaft fractures.

  14. Complications and functional recovery in treatment of femoral shaft fractures with unreamed intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Sadic, Sahmir; Custovic, Svemir; Smajic, Nedim; Fazlic, Mirsad; Vujadinovic, Aleksandar; Hrustic, Asmir; Jasarevic, Mahir

    2014-01-01

    Fracture of the femoral shaft is a common fracture encountered in orthopedic practice. In the 1939, Küntscher introduced the concept of intramedullary nailing for stabilization of long bone fractures. Intramedullary nailing has revolutionized the treatment of fractures. The study included 37 male patients and 13 female patients, averaged 39 +/- 20.5 years (range, 16 to 76 years). There were 31 left femurs and 21 right femurs fractured. 46 fractures were the result of blunt trauma. Low energy trauma was the cause of fractures in six patients, of which five in elderly females. 49 fractures were closed. Healing time given in weeks was 19.36 +/- 6.1. The overall healing rate was 93.6%. There were three (6.25%) major complications nonunion. There were one (2%) delayed union, one (2%) rotational malunion and no infection. The shortening of 1 cm were in two patients. Antercurvatum of 10 degrees was found in one patient. There was no statistically significant reduction of a motion in the hip and knee (p < 0.05). There was statistically significant in the thigh (knee extensors) muscle weakness (p < 0.001). : Intramedullary nailing is the treatment of choice for femoral shaft fractures.

  15. Complications and Functional Recovery in Treatment of Femoral Shaft Fractures with Unreamed Intramedullary Nailing

    PubMed Central

    Sadic, Sahmir; Custovic, Svemir; Smajic, Nedim; Fazlic, Mirsad; Vujadinovic, Aleksandar; Hrustic, Asmir; Jasarevic, Mahir

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Fracture of the femoral shaft is a common fracture encountered in orthopedic practice. In the 1939, Küntscher introduced the concept of intramedullary nailing for stabilization of long bone fractures. Intramedullary nailing has revolutionized the treatment of fractures. Material and methods: The study included 37 male patients and 13 female patients, averaged 39±20,5 years (range, 16 to 76 years). Results and discussion: There were 31 left femurs and 21 right femurs fractured. 46 fractures were the result of blunt trauma. Low energy trauma was the cause of fractures in six patients, of which five in elderly females. 49 fractures were closed. Healing time given in weeks was 19,36 ± 6,1. The overall healing rate was 93,6%. There were three (6,25%) major complications nonunion. There were one (2%) delayed union, one (2%) rotational malunion and no infection. The shortening of 1 cm were in two patients. Antercurvatum of 10 degrees was found in one patient. There was no statistically significant reduction of a motion in the hip and knee (p<0.05). There was statistically significant in the thigh (knee extensors) muscle weakness (p<0.001). Conclusion: Intramedullary nailing is the treatment of choice for femoral shaft fractures. PMID:24783908

  16. Novel Technique: Knee Arthrodesis Using Trabecular Metal Cones with Intramedullary Nailing and Intramedullary Autograft.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Blake E; Bal, Sonny; Aggarwal, Ajay; Crist, Brett D

    2016-08-01

    The failed total knee arthroplasty is a challenge to the surgeon and the patient. Infection, bone loss, and instability lead to a chronically painful and dysfunctional limb. Two-stage revision arthroplasty has been successful in clearing a majority of periprosthetic joint infections. However, there are many cases when the multiply revised and infected total knee arthroplasty cannot be salvaged. We report, a review of knee arthrodesis and a novel technique to manage significant bone loss. The use of trabecular metal cones and a long intramedullary nail can be used in concert with an autologous intramedullary bone graft to provide a stable, length restoring construct with sufficient biology to heal very large bone voids. With this technique we have successfully restored function and stability in the failed knee arthroplasty. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Radiation-free distal locking of intramedullary nails: evaluation of a new electromagnetic computer-assisted guidance system.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, Ioannis; Karampinas, Panagiotis; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios-Stergios; Lampropoulou-Adamidou, Kalliopi; Vlamis, John

    2013-06-01

    Distal locking of intramedullary nails (IMNs) is a difficult part of intramedullary nailing (IMN) that could be time-consuming and expose the surgeon, the surgery personnel and the patient to a considerable amount of radiation as fluoroscopy is usually guiding the procedure. Utilization of electromagnetic fields for that purpose offers an attractive alternative. The SURESHOT™ Distal Targeting System (Smith & Nephew, Inc., Memphis, TN, USA) is a novel commercially available radiation-free aiming system that utilizes computerized electromagnetic field tracking technology for the distal locking of IMNs. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the system we conducted the present study. Nineteen patients (six females-thirteen males, mean age 39.5 years, range 17-85 years) with closed diaphyseal fracture of the femur (eight patients) or the tibia (eleven patients) were treated with IMN using the SURESHOT™ Distal Targeting System for the distal interlocking. All targeting attempts were successful at first try and followed by correct positioning of the screws. Mean time for distal locking of tibial IMNs (two screws) was 219sec (range 200-250sec). Mean time for distal locking of femoral IMNs (two screws) was 249 (range 220-330sec). In the current study the SURESHOT™ Distal Targeting System proved to be accurate, fast and easy to learn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Syringomyelia with intramedullary ectopic choroid plexus: Case report.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongzhou; Zhang, Jiayong; Xu, Feifan; Zhang, Zongqiang; Zhao, Xiaowen

    2018-06-01

    Intramedullary ectopic choroid plexus is rarely reported, here, we reported a rare case of symptomatic syringomyelia resulted of intramedullary ectopic choroid plexus. The patient was a 30-year-old female who presented with a 2-month history of progressive pain of upper back and bilateral ankle joint and progressive loss of upper-extremity function. MRI examination showed an intramedullary cystic lesion at T2-T4 without enhancement. Operative exploration was indicated. A reddish vascular villus-like lesion was found being located in the left dorsal part of the cyst, which was enblock removed and was confirmed as an ectopic choroid plexus tissue by pathological examination. The patient recovered uneventful and the symptom resolved during follow-up. Although ectopic choroid plexus is extremely rare, it should be taken into acount in the differential diagnosis of pathogenesis in syringomyelia or intramedullary cyst, aggressive surgical exploration should be considered when necessary. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pediatric Diaphyseal Femur Fractures: Submuscular Plating Compared With Intramedullary Nailing.

    PubMed

    Sutphen, Sean A; Mendoza, Juan D; Mundy, Andrew C; Yang, Jingzhen G; Beebe, Allan C; Samora, Walter P; Klingele, Kevin E

    2016-11-01

    This study compared the radiographic and clinical outcomes of pediatric diaphyseal femur fractures treated by submuscular plating, flexible retrograde intramedullary nailing, or rigid antegrade intramedullary nailing with a trochanteric entry point in skeletally immature patients who were 8 years and older. A retrospective review was conducted of skeletally immature patients 8 years and older who were treated for femur fracture with submuscular plating, flexible intramedullary nailing, or rigid intramedullary nailing from 2001 to 2014 with a minimum 12-week follow-up. Treatment outcomes were compared for statistical significance, including time to union, malunion, nonunion, heterotopic ossification, avascular necrosis, time to full weight bearing, limb length discrepancy, residual limp, painful hardware, and infection. The study identified 198 femur fractures in 196 patients (mean age, 11.9 years). Each femur fracture was treated with submuscular plating (35), flexible intramedullary nailing (61), or rigid intramedullary nailing (102). Mean follow-up across the cohort was 48 weeks, ranging from 12 to 225 weeks. Flexible nailing was associated with an increased incidence of malunion (P<.0001) and hardware irritation (P=.0204) and longer time to full weight bearing (P=.0018). Rigid nailing was associated with an increased incidence of limp at 12-week followup (P=.0412). Additionally, 23.5% of patients who were treated with rigid nailing had heterotopic ossification. Of all surgical methods, submuscular plating allowed for the most rapid return to full weight bearing (mean, 7 weeks) and offered the fastest healing rate (mean, 6 weeks). Submuscular plating resulted in faster times to union and full weight bearing, with minimal complication rates. Rigid intramedullary nailing with trochanteric entry resulted in a lower incidence of malunion and hardware-related complications; however, these patients had an increased incidence of heterotopic ossification and residual

  20. Recurrent intramedullary epidermoid cyst of conus medullaris

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Christina; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; O’Sullivan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Spinal intramedullary epidermoid cyst is a rare condition. Recurrent epidermoid cyst in the spine cord is known to occur. The authors describe a case of recurrent conus medullaris epidermoid cyst in a 24-year-old female. She initially presented at 7 years of age with bladder disturbance in the form of diurnal enuresis and recurrent urinary tract infection. MRI lumbar spine revealed a 4 cm conus medullaris epidermoid cyst. Since the initial presentation, the cyst had recurred seven times in the same location and she underwent surgical intervention in the form of exploration and debulking. This benign condition, owing to its anatomical location, has posed a surgical and overall management challenge. This occurrence is better managed in a tertiary-care centre requiring multi-disciplinary treatment approach. PMID:22669964

  1. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; De Winter, Theodorus C

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise, with pain on palpation of the tibia over a length of at least 5 cm. Histological studies fail to provide evidence that MTSS is caused by periostitis as a result of traction. It is caused by bony resorption that outpaces bone formation of the tibial cortex. Evidence for this overloaded adaptation of the cortex is found in several studies describing MTSS findings on bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis is made based on physical examination, although only one study has been conducted on this subject. Additional imaging such as bone, CT and MRI scans has been well studied but is of limited value. The prevalence of abnormal findings in asymptomatic subjects means that results should be interpreted with caution. Excessive pronation of the foot while standing and female sex were found to be intrinsic risk factors in multiple prospective studies. Other intrinsic risk factors found in single prospective studies are higher body mass index, greater internal and external ranges of hip motion, and calf girth. Previous history of MTSS was shown to be an extrinsic risk factor. The treatment of MTSS has been examined in three randomized controlled studies. In these studies rest is equal to any intervention. The use of neoprene or semi-rigid orthotics may help prevent MTSS, as evidenced by two large prospective studies.

  2. [Biomechanical research of antegrade intramedullary fixation for the metacarpal fractures].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-shan; Pan, Yong-wei; Tian, Guang-lei; Li, Wen-jun; Xia, Shao-hua; Tao, Jian-feng

    2010-04-15

    To study the biomechanical characteristics of antegrade intramedullary fixation for metacarpal fractures. From March to May 2008, both the 4th and 5th metacarpals from 25 formalin embalmed cadaver hands had three-point bending test after transverse osteotomy followed by randomly fixation with one of the following three methods: plate and screw, antegrade intramedullary K-wire, crossed K-wire. While, both the 2nd and 3rd metacarpals had torsional loading test after the same management as the 4th and 5th metacarpal had undergone. In the three-point bending test, both the maximum bending moment (M(max)) and bending rigidity (EI) of the antegrade intramedullary K-wire were comparable with those of the plate and screw, and were significantly larger than those of the crossed K-wire. In the torsional loading test, the antegrade intramedullary K-wire had a statistically smaller maximum torque (T(max)) than the plate and screw, and had a comparable T(max) with the crossed K-wire; while, the torsional rigidity (GJ) of the intramedullary K-wire was statistically weaker than that of both the plate and screw and the crossed wire. One single antegrade intramedullary K-wire can provide a satisfactory M(max) and EI for metacarpal fixation and shows relatively weak in the torsional loading test. The injured finger should be well protected to avoid torsional deformity in clinical practice.

  3. Management of Gustilo Anderson III B open tibial fractures by primary fascio-septo-cutaneous local flap and primary fixation: The 'fix and shift' technique.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, P R

    2017-01-01

    Open fractures of tibia have posed great difficulty in managing both the soft tissue and the skeletal components of the injured limb. Gustilo Anderson III B open tibial fractures are more difficult to manage than I, II, and III A fractures. Stable skeletal fixation with immediate soft tissue cover has been the key to the successful outcome in treating open tibial fractures, in particular, Gustilo Anderson III B types. If the length of the open wound is larger and if the exposed surface of tibial fracture and tibial shaft is greater, then the management becomes still more difficult. Thirty six Gustilo Anderson III B open tibial fractures managed between June 2002 and December 2013 with "fix and shift" technique were retrospectively reviewed. All the 36 patients managed by this technique had open wounds measuring >5 cm (post debridement). Under fix and shift technique, stable fixation involved primary external fixator application or primary intramedullary nailing of the tibial fracture and immediate soft tissue cover involved septocutaneous shift, i.e., shifting of fasciocutaneous segments based on septocutaneous perforators. Primary fracture union rate was 50% and reoperation rate (bone stimulating procedures) was 50%. Overall fracture union rate was 100%. The rate of malunion was 14% and deep infection was 16%. Failure of septocutaneous shift was 2.7%. There was no incidence of amputation. Management of Gustilo Anderson III B open tibial fractures with "fix and shift" technique has resulted in better outcome in terms of skeletal factors (primary fracture union, overall union, and time for union and malunion) and soft tissue factors (wound healing, flap failure, access to secondary procedures, and esthetic appearance) when compared to standard methods adopted earlier. Hence, "fix and shift" could be recommended as one of the treatment modalities for open III B tibial fractures.

  4. External fixation of tibial pilon fractures and fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Ristiniemi, Jukka

    2007-06-01

    Distal tibial fractures are rare and difficult to treat because the bones are subcutaneous. External fixation is commonly used, but the method often results in delayed union. The aim of the present study was to find out the factors that affect fracture union in tibial pilon fractures. For this purpose, prospective data collection of tibial pilon fractures was carried out in 1998-2004, resulting in 159 fractures, of which 83 were treated with external fixation. Additionally, 23 open tibial fractures with significant > 3 cm bone defect that were treated with a staged method in 2000-2004 were retrospectively evaluated. The specific questions to be answered were: What are the risk factors for delayed union associated with two-ring hybrid external fixation? Does human recombinant BMP-7 accelerate healing? What is the role of temporary ankle-spanning external fixation? What is the healing potential of distal tibial bone loss treated with a staged method using antibiotic beads and subsequent autogenous cancellous grafting compared to other locations of the tibia? The following risk factors for delayed healing after external fixation were identified: post-reduction fracture gap of >3 mm and fixation of the associated fibula fracture. Fracture displacement could be better controlled with initial temporary external fixation than with early definitive fixation, but it had no significant effect on healing time, functional outcome or complication rate. Osteoinduction with rhBMP-7 was found to accelerate fracture healing and to shorten the sick leave. A staged method using antibiotic beads and subsequent autogenous cancellous grafting proved to be effective in the treatment of tibial bone loss. Healing potential of the bone loss in distal tibia was at least equally good as in other locations of the tibia.

  5. Medial tibial stress syndrome: conservative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, R Michael; Lavallee, Mark E

    2009-10-07

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), commonly known as "shin splints," is a frequent injury of the lower extremity and one of the most common causes of exertional leg pain in athletes (Willems T, Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(2):330-339, 2007; Korkola M, Amendola A, Phys Sportsmed 29(6):35-50, 2001; Hreljac A, Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(5):845-849, 2004). Although often not serious, it can be quite disabling and progress to more serious complications if not treated properly. Often, the cause of MTSS is multi-factorial and involves training errors and various biomechanical abnormalities. Few advances have been made in the treatment of MTSS over the last few decades. Current treatment options are mostly based on expert opinion and clinical experience. The purpose of this article is to review published literature regarding conservative treatment options for MTSS and provide recommendations for sports medicine clinicians for improved treatment and patient outcomes.

  6. Paediatric tibial shaft fractures treated by open reduction and stabilization with monolateral external fixation

    PubMed Central

    Simon, A.-L.; Apostolou, N.; Vidal, C.; Ferrero, E.; Mazda, K.; Ilharreborde, B.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Elastic stable intramedullary nailing is increasingly used for surgical treatment of tibial shaft fractures, but frequently requires immobilization and delayed full weight-bearing. Therefore, external fixation remains interesting. The aim was to report clinico-radiological outcomes of monolateral external fixation for displaced and unstable tibial shaft fractures in children. Methods All tibial fractures consecutively treated by monolateral external fixation between 2008 and 2013 were followed. Inclusion criteria included skeletal immaturity and closed and open Gustilo I fractures caused by a direct impact. Patients were seen until two years postoperatively. Demographics, mechanism of injury, surgical data and complications were recorded. Anteroposterior and lateral side radiographs were performed at each visit. Full-limb 3D reconstructions using biplanar stereroradiography was performed for final limb length and alignment measures. Results A total of 45 patients (mean age 9.7 years ± 0.5) were included. In all, 17 were Gustilo I fractures, with no difference between open and closed fractures for any data. Mean time to full weight bearing was 18.2 days ± 0.7. After 15 days, 39 patients returned to school. Hardware removal (mean time to union 15.6 weeks ± 0.8) was performed during consultation under analgesic gas. There were no cases of nonunion. No fracture healed with > 10° of angulation (mean 5.1° ± 0.4°). Leg-length discrepancy > 10 mm was found for six patients. Conclusions This procedure can be a safe and simple surgical treatment for children with tibial shaft fractures. Few complications and early return to school were reported, with the limitations of non-comparative study. Level of Evidence IV PMID:29456750

  7. Defining the Lower Limit of a "Critical Bone Defect" in Open Diaphyseal Tibial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Haines, Nikkole M; Lack, William D; Seymour, Rachel B; Bosse, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    To determine healing outcomes of open diaphyseal tibial shaft fractures treated with reamed intramedullary nailing (IMN) with a bone gap of 10-50 mm on ≥50% of the cortical circumference and to better define a "critical bone defect" based on healing outcome. Retrospective cohort study. Forty patients, age 18-65, with open diaphyseal tibial fractures with a bone gap of 10-50 mm on ≥50% of the circumference as measured on standard anteroposterior and lateral postoperative radiographs treated with IMN. IMN of an open diaphyseal tibial fracture with a bone gap. Level-1 trauma center. Healing outcomes, union or nonunion. Forty patients were analyzed. Twenty-one (52.5%) went on to nonunion and nineteen (47.5%) achieved union. Radiographic apparent bone gap (RABG) and infection were the only 2 covariates predicting nonunion outcome (P = 0.046 for infection). The RABG was determined by measuring the bone gap on each cortex and averaging over 4 cortices. Fractures achieving union had a RABG of 12 ± 1 mm versus 20 ± 2 mm in those going on to nonunion (P < 0.01). This remained significant when patients with infection were removed. Receiver operator characteristic analysis demonstrated that RABG was predictive of outcome (area under the curve of 0.79). A RABG of 25 mm was the statistically optimal threshold for prediction of healing outcome. Patients with open diaphyseal tibial fractures treated with IMN and a <25 mm RABG have a reasonable probability of achieving union without additional intervention, whereas those with larger gaps have a higher probability of nonunion. Research investigating interventions for RABGs should use a predictive threshold for defining a critical bone defect that is associated with greater than 50% risk of nonunion without supplementary treatment. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  8. Intramedullary nailing: evolutions of femoral intramedullary nailing: first to fourth generations.

    PubMed

    Russell, Thomas A

    2011-12-01

    Intramedullary femoral nailing is the gold standard for femoral shaft fixation but only in the past 27 years. This rapid replacement of closed traction and cast techniques in North America was a controversial and contentious evolution in surgery. As we enter the fourth generation of implant design, capabilities, and surgical technique, it is important to understand the driving forces for this technology. These forces included changes in radiographic imaging capabilities, biomaterial design and computer-assisted manufacturing, and the recognition of the importance of mobilization of the trauma patient to avoid systemic complications and optimize functional recovery.

  9. Comparative Study of Intramedullary Hammertoe Fixation.

    PubMed

    Obrador, Caterina; Losa-Iglesias, Marta; Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, Ricardo; Kabbash, Christina A

    2018-04-01

    Temporary Kirschner wire fixation (K-wire) is a widely used, low-cost fixation method for the correction of hammertoe deformity. Reported complications associated with K-wires prompted the development of new implants over the past decade. However, there is a lack of literature on comparative studies analyzing functional outcomes using validated questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to analyze functional outcomes in patients who had undergone proximal interphalangeal joint fusion using 2 types of intramedullary implant, the Smart Toe and the TenFuse, and to compare them with the outcomes in patients treated with standard K-wire fixation. A retrospective review of operative hammertoe correction by a single surgeon was performed in 96 patients followed for more than 12 months. Functional outcome was assessed using the Foot Function Index (FFI), the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and the 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) validated questionnaires. Complications and fusion rates were also evaluated. Several patients in the study underwent corrections in different toes; thus, a total of 186 toes were included in the study. From these, 65 toes (34.9%) were treated with K-wire fixation, 94 (50.5%) with Smart Toe titanium implant, and 27 (14.5%) with TenFuse allograft implant. No statistically significant differences in functional outcome and incidence of complications were observed among the 3 fixation groups, although the 2 intramedullary implants were associated with greater fusion rates and patient satisfaction. Breakage of the Smart Toe implant was significantly higher than that of the other fixations, with 10.6% of implants breaking within the first year postoperatively. SF-36 and VAS scores decreased 12 months after surgery for the 3 types of fixation, with no statistically significant differences observed. The use of Smart Toe and TenFuse implants provided operative outcomes comparable to those obtained using a K-wire fixation and slightly better patient

  10. Study of the anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches in the distal medial leg

    PubMed Central

    Torres, André Leal Gonçalves; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine, through dissection in fresh cadavers, the topographic anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches at the ankle, in relation to the tarsal tunnel. Methods Bilateral dissections were performed on 26 fresh cadavers and the locations of the tibial nerve bifurcation and its branches were measured in millimeters. For the calcaneal branches, the amount and their respective nerves of origin were also analyzed. Results The tibial nerve bifurcation occurred under the tunnel in 88% of the cases and proximally in 12%. As for the calcaneal branches, the medial presented with one (58%), two (34%) and three (8%) branches, with the most common source occurring in the tibial nerve (90%) and the lower with a single branch per leg and lateral plantar nerve as the most common origin (70%). Level of Evidence, V Expert opinion. PMID:24453596

  11. Study of the anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches in the distal medial leg.

    PubMed

    Torres, André Leal Gonçalves; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2012-01-01

    Determine, through dissection in fresh cadavers, the topographic anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches at the ankle, in relation to the tarsal tunnel. Bilateral dissections were performed on 26 fresh cadavers and the locations of the tibial nerve bifurcation and its branches were measured in millimeters. For the calcaneal branches, the amount and their respective nerves of origin were also analyzed. The tibial nerve bifurcation occurred under the tunnel in 88% of the cases and proximally in 12%. As for the calcaneal branches, the medial presented with one (58%), two (34%) and three (8%) branches, with the most common source occurring in the tibial nerve (90%) and the lower with a single branch per leg and lateral plantar nerve as the most common origin (70%). Level of Evidence, V Expert opinion .

  12. Feasibility of purely endoscopic intramedullary fixation of mandibular condyle fractures.

    PubMed

    Frake, Paul C; Goodman, Joseph F; Joshi, Arjun S

    2015-01-01

    The investigators of this study hypothesized that fractures of the mandibular condyle can be repaired using short-segment intramedullary implants and purely endoscopic surgical technique, using a basic science, human cadaver model in an academic center. Endoscopic instrumentation was used through a transoral mucosal incision to place intramedullary implants of 2 cm in length into osteotomized mandibular condyles. The surgical maneuvers that required to insert these implants, including condyle positioning, reaming, implant insertion, and seating of the mandibular ramus, are described herein. Primary outcome was considered as successful completion of the procedure. Ten cadaveric mandibular condyles were successfully repaired with rigid intramedullary internal fixation without the use of external incisions. Both insertion of a peg-type implant and screwing a threaded implant into the condylar head were possible. The inferior portion of the implant remained exposed, and the ramus of the mandible was manipulated into position on the implant using retraction at the sigmoid notch. The results of this study suggest that purely endoscopic repair of fractures of the mandibular condyle is possible by using short-segment intramedullary titanium implants and a transoral endoscopic approach without the need for facial incisions or punctures. The biomechanical advantages of these intramedullary implants, including improved strength and resistance to mechanical failure compared with miniplates, have been recently established. The combination of improved implant design and purely endoscopic technique may allow for improved fixation and reduced surgical- and implant-related morbidity in the treatment of condylar fractures.

  13. The Tibial Slope in Patients With Achondroplasia: Its Characterization and Possible Role in Genu Recurvatum Development.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jaysson T; Bernholt, David L; Tran, Kevin V; Ain, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    Genu recurvatum, a posterior resting position of the knee, is a common lower extremity deformity in patients with achondroplasia and has been thought to be secondary to ligamentous laxity. To the best of our knowledge, the role of the tibial slope has not been investigated, and no studies describe the tibial slope in patients with achondroplasia. Our goals were to characterize the tibial slope in children and adults with achondroplasia, explore its possible role in the development of genu recurvatum, and compare the tibial slope in patients with achondroplasia to that in the general population. We reviewed 252 lateral knee radiographs of 130 patients with achondroplasia seen at our clinic from November 2007 through September 2013. Patients were excluded if they had previous lower extremity surgery or radiographs with extreme rotation. We analyzed patient demographics and, on all radiographs, the tibial slope. We then compared the mean tibial slope to norms in the literature. Tibial slopes >90 degrees had an anterior tibial slope and received a positive prefix. Statistical analysis included intraclass and interclass reliability, Pearson correlation coefficient, and the Student t tests (significance, P<0.05). The overall mean tibial slope for the 252 knees was +1.32±7 degrees, which was significantly more anterior than the normal slopes reported in the literature for adults (7.2 to 10.7 degrees, P=0.0001) and children (10 to 11 degrees, P=0.0001). The Pearson correlation coefficient for mean tibial slope and age showed negative correlations of -0.4011 and -0.4335 for left and right knees, respectively. This anterior tibial slope produces proximal and posterior vector force components, which may shift the knee posteriorly in weightbearing. The mean tibial slope is significantly more anterior in patients with achondroplasia than in the general population; however, this difference diminishes as patients' age. An anterior tibial slope may predispose to a more posterior

  14. Is there a role for intramedullary nails in the treatment of simple pilon fractures? Rationale and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Matthew S; Yoon, Richard S; Langford, Joshua; Kubiak, Erik N; Morris, Andrew J; Koval, Kenneth J; Haidukewych, George J; Liporace, Frank A

    2013-08-01

    Certain patients with pilon fractures present with significant soft-tissue swelling or with a poor soft-tissue envelope typically not amenable to definitive fixation in the early time period. The objective of this study was to review the treatment of simple intra-articular fractures of the tibial plafond (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO/OTA) type 43C1-C2) via intramedullary nailing (IMN) with the assessment of clinical and radiographic results and any associated complications. Retrospective clinical and radiological reviews of 31 patients sustaining AO/OTA type 43C distal tibial fractures treated with IMN were evaluated. Our main outcome measurement included achievable alignment in the immediate postoperative period and at the time of union along with complications or need for secondary procedures within the first year of follow-up. Seven patients were lost to follow-up. All the remaining patients achieved bony union at a mean union time of 14.1 ± 4.9 weeks with no evidence of malunion or malrotation. All patients were at full-weight-bearing status at 1-year follow-up. Complications were notable for one delayed union, one non-union, one patient with superficial wound drainage, two with deep infection, one with symptomatic hardware and one with deep vein thrombosis. Simple articular fractures of the tibial plafond (AO/OTA type 43C) treated via IMN can achieve excellent alignment and union rates with proper patient selection and surgical indication. One should not hesitate to use additional bone screws or plating options to help achieve better anatomic reduction. However, larger, prospective randomised trials comparing plating versus nailing, in experienced hands, are needed to completely delineate the utility of this treatment modality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tibial Acceleration and Spatiotemporal Mechanics in Distance Runners During Reduced-Body-Weight Conditions.

    PubMed

    Moran, Matthew F; Rickert, Brendan J; Greer, Beau K

    2017-05-01

    Treadmills that unload runners via a differential air-pressure (DAP) bladder (eg, AlterG Anti-Gravity Treadmill) are commonly used to reduce effective body weight (BW) in a clinical setting. However, the relationship between the level of unloading and tibial stress is currently unknown. To determine the relationship between tibial impact acceleration and level of BW unloading during running. Cross-sectional. University motion-analysis laboratory. 15 distance runners (9 male, 6 female; 20.4 ± 2.4 y, 60.1 ± 12.6 kg). Peak tibial acceleration and peak-to-peak tibial acceleration were measured via a uniaxial accelerometer attached to the tibia during a 37-min continuous treadmill run that simulated reduced-BW conditions via a DAP bladder. The trial began with a 10-min run at 100% BW followed by nine 3-min stages where BW was systematically reduced from 95% to 60% in 5% increments. There was no significant relationship between level of BW and either peak tibial acceleration or peak-to-peak tibial acceleration (P > .05). Both heart rate and step rate were significantly reduced with each 5% reduction in BW level (P < .01). Although ground-reaction forces are reduced when running in reduced-BW conditions on a DAP treadmill, tibial shock magnitudes are unchanged as an alteration in spatiotemporal running mechanics (eg, reduced step rate) and may nullify the unloading effect.

  16. Immediate effects of modified landing pattern on a probabilistic tibial stress fracture model in runners.

    PubMed

    Chen, T L; An, W W; Chan, Z Y S; Au, I P H; Zhang, Z H; Cheung, R T H

    2016-03-01

    Tibial stress fracture is a common injury in runners. This condition has been associated with increased impact loading. Since vertical loading rates are related to the landing pattern, many heelstrike runners attempt to modify their footfalls for a lower risk of tibial stress fracture. Such effect of modified landing pattern remains unknown. This study examined the immediate effects of landing pattern modification on the probability of tibial stress fracture. Fourteen experienced heelstrike runners ran on an instrumented treadmill and they were given augmented feedback for landing pattern switch. We measured their running kinematics and kinetics during different landing patterns. Ankle joint contact force and peak tibial strains were estimated using computational models. We used an established mathematical model to determine the effect of landing pattern on stress fracture probability. Heelstrike runners experienced greater impact loading immediately after landing pattern switch (P<0.004). There was an increase in the longitudinal ankle joint contact force when they landed with forefoot (P=0.003). However, there was no significant difference in both peak tibial strains and the risk of tibial stress fracture in runners with different landing patterns (P>0.986). Immediate transitioning of the landing pattern in heelstrike runners may not offer timely protection against tibial stress fracture, despite a reduction of impact loading. Long-term effects of landing pattern switch remains unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Osteoinductive composite coatings for flexible intramedullary nails.

    PubMed

    Bolbasov, E N; Popkov, A V; Popkov, D A; Gorbach, E N; Khlusov, I A; Golovkin, A S; Sinev, A; Bouznik, V M; Tverdokhlebov, S I; Anissimov, Y G

    2017-06-01

    This work presents composite coatings based on a copolymer of vinylidene fluoride with tetrafluoroethylene (VDF-TeFE) and hydroxyapatite (HA) for flexible intramedullary nails (FIN). The effect of the proportion of VDF-TeFE (100-25% wt.) on physicochemical and biological properties of the composite coatings was investigated. It was shown that a decrease of VDF-TeFE in the coating hinders its crystallization in β and γ forms which have piezoelectric properties. The decrease also reduces an adhesive strength to 9.9±2.4MPa and a relative elongation to 5.9±1.2%, but results in increased osteogenesis. It was demonstrated that the composite coatings with 35% VDF-TeFE has the required combination of physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity. Comparative studies of composite coatings (35% VDF-TeFE) and calcium phosphate coatings produced using micro-arc oxidation, demonstrated comparable results for strength of bonding of these FINs with trabecular bones (~530MPa). It was hypothesized that the high osteoinductive properties of the composite coatings are due to their piezoelectric properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Influencing factors for trauma-induced tibial infection in underground coal mine].

    PubMed

    Meng, W Z; Guo, Y J; Liu, Z K; Li, Y F; Wang, G Z

    2016-07-20

    Objective: To investigate the influencing factors for trauma-induced tibial infection in underground coal mine. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 1 090 patients with tibial fracture complicated by bone infection who were injured in underground coal mine and admitted to our hospital from January 1995 to August 2015, including the type of trauma, injured parts, severity, and treatment outcome. The association between risk factors and infection was analyzed. Results: Among the 1 090 patients, 357 had the clinical manifestations of acute and chronic bone infection, 219 had red and swollen legs with heat pain, and 138 experienced skin necrosis, rupture, and discharge of pus. The incidence rates of tibial infection from 1995 to 2001, from 2002 to 2008, and from 2009 to 2015 were 31%, 26.9%, and 20.2%, respectively. The incidence rate of bone infection in the proximal segment of the tibia was significantly higher than that in the middle and distal segments (42.1% vs 18.9%/27.1%, P <0.01) . As for patients with different types of trauma (Gustilo typing) , the patients with type III fracture had a significantly higher incidence rate of bone infection than those with type I/II infection (52.8% vs 21.8%/24.6%, P <0.01) . The incidence rates of bone infection after bone traction, internal fixation with steel plates, fixation with external fixator, and fixation with intramedullary nail were 20.7%, 43.5%, 21.4%, and 26.1%, respectively, suggesting that internal fixation with steel plates had a significantly higher incidence rate of bone infection than other fixation methods ( P <0.01) . The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the position of tibial fracture and type of fracture were independent risk factors for bone infection. Conclusion: There is a high incidence rate of trauma-induced tibial infection in workers in underground coal mine. The position of tibial fracture and type of fracture are independent risk factors

  19. Cranial tibial wedge osteotomy: a technique for eliminating cranial tibial thrust in cranial cruciate ligament repair.

    PubMed

    Slocum, B; Devine, T

    1984-03-01

    Cranial tibial wedge osteotomy, surgical technique for cranial cruciate ligament rupture, was performed on 19 stifles in dogs. This procedure leveled the tibial plateau, thus causing weight-bearing forces to be compressive and eliminating cranial tibial thrust. Without cranial tibial thrust, which was antagonistic to the cranial cruciate ligament and its surgical reconstruction, cruciate ligament repairs were allowed to heal without constant loads. This technique was meant to be used as an adjunct to other cranial cruciate ligament repair techniques.

  20. Tibial nerve (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... nerve is commonly injured by fractures or other injury to the back of the knee or the lower leg. It may be affected by systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. The nerve can also be damaged by pressure from a tumor, abscess, or bleeding into the ...

  1. Measurement of bone adjacent to tibial shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Findlay, S C; Eastell, R; Ingle, B M

    2002-12-01

    Delayed union and non-union are common complications after fracture of the tibial shaft. Response of the surrounding bone as a fracture heals could be monitored using techniques currently used in the study of osteoporosis. The aims of our study were to: (1) evaluate the decrement in bone measurements made close to the fracture using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT); (2) compare values for fractured versus non-fractured leg to determine the duration of decrement in bone measurements; and (3) calculate short-term precision in DXA, QUS and pQCT in order to calculate the ratio of decrement to precision (response ratio, RR) to determine the optimal test for monitoring changes after tibial fracture. The biggest decrement in bone measurements at the ipsilateral limb of 28 patients with tibial shaft fracture was observed at the pQCT tibial trabecular sites (distal = 19%, p<0.0001; proximal 5% = 21%, p<0.001; proximal 10% = 28%, p<0.001) and the ultradistal tibia/fibula measured by DXA (19%, p<0.0001). When comparing Z-scores, the magnitude of decrements at the ipsilateral limb was bigger for variables measured directly at the tibia, both proximal and distal to the fracture. The magnitude of the decrement in ultradistal tibia/fibula BMD decreased as the time since fracture increased ( r = 0.55). When response ratios are considered, pQCT measurements at the distal tibia (RR 6-8) and proximal 5% and 10% trabecular sites (RR 5 and 9 respectively) were found to be the most sensitive to change. Therefore, pQCT of the trabecular regions of either the proximal or distal tibia should prove the most sensitive measurement for monitoring changes in bone adjacent to a tibial shaft fracture.

  2. Knee fusion--a new technique using an old Belgian surgical approach and a new intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Alt, V; Seligson, D

    2001-02-01

    Knee arthrodesis is a useful procedure in difficult cases such as failed total knee arthroplasty, severe articular trauma, bone tumors, and infected knee joints. The most common techniques for knee fusion include external fixation and intramedullary nailing. Küntscher's nail is driven antegrade from the intertrochanteric region into the knee. We describe a new technique for knee arthrodesis using a new intramedullary nail and an old Belgian surgical approach to the knee joint published by Lambotte in 1913. This approach provides excellent exposure for the implantation of the nail by osteotomizing the patella vertically. The nail is implanted using HeyGroves method, whereby the nail is inserted retrograde into the femur and pulled distally anterograde into the tibia. We now use this technique as our standard procedure for knee fusion.

  3. Effects of long-term administration of carprofen on healing of a tibial osteotomy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Hiroki; Hara, Yasushi; Asou, Yoshinori; Harada, Yasuji; Nezu, Yoshinori; Yogo, Takuya; Shinomiya, Kenichi; Tagawa, Masahiro

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate effects of long-term administration of carprofen on healing of a tibial osteotomy in dogs. 12 healthy female Beagles. A mid-diaphyseal transverse osteotomy (stabilized with an intramedullary pin) of the right tibia was performed in each dog. The carprofen group (n = 6 dogs) received carprofen (2.2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 120 days; the control group (6) received no treatment. Bone healing and change in callus area were assessed radiographically over time. Dogs were euthanized 120 days after surgery, and tibiae were evaluated biomechanically and histologically. The osteotomy line was not evident in the control group on radiographs obtained 120 days after surgery. In contrast, the osteotomy line was still evident in the carprofen group. Callus area was significantly less in the carprofen group, compared with the area in the control group, at 20, 30, and 60 days after surgery. At 120 days after surgery, stiffness, elastic modulus, and flexural rigidity in the carprofen group were significantly lower than corresponding values in the control group. Furthermore, histologic evaluation revealed that the cartilage area within the callus in the carprofen group was significantly greater than that in the control group. Long-term administration of carprofen appeared to inhibit bone healing in dogs that underwent tibial osteotomy. We recommend caution for carprofen administration when treating fractures that have delays in healing associated with a reduction in osteogenesis as well as fractures associated with diseases that predispose animals to delays of osseous repair.

  4. Primary Spinal Intramedullary Neurocysticercosis: A Report of 3 Cases.

    PubMed

    Datta, Subramanya G S; Mehta, Ritu; Macha, Shrikant; Tripathi, Sanjog

    2017-09-01

    We describe a series of 3 cases of the rare intramedullary form of primary spinal neurocysticercosis. The cases were seen in varied age groups and showed different profiles at presentation. All the cases were thoroughly evaluated clinically and radiologically. Serologic tests were not conducted. In all cases, magnetic resonance imaging showed a large intramedullary lesion in the thoracic spinal cord consisting of a cystic lesion with a well-defined intramural nodule. One case was managed with steroids and cysticidal therapy, a second case was managed with steroids and surgery (2 emergency procedures), while the third case was managed without any medical or surgical intervention, as the patient was unwilling for either. All cases showed good neurologic recovery. In the second case where surgery was done, histologic examination of the resected specimen demonstrated the cysticercal parasite surrounded by mixed inflammatory infiltrate. As there were no intracranial lesions in all 3 cases, the final diagnosis was primary isolated intramedullary neurocysticercosis. Primary isolated intramedullary-neurocysticercosis remains a rare condition afflicting the spinal cord. It forms a small subset of cysticercal infestation of the neuraxis. Such evidence is rare, and only anecdotal reports are available. Our case series captures the wide spectrum of presentations, as well as the management options, and highlights the varied ways in which these cases were managed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intramedullary reduction and stabilisation of adult radial neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Keller, H W; Rehm, K E; Helling, J

    1994-05-01

    We report the treatment of six adult patients with displaced fractures of the radial neck by intramedullary reduction and stabilisation. Nine months after operation all the patients had good joint function, little or no pain, complete healing and no significant periarticular calcification. This simple semi-closed procedure may help to avoid resection of the radial head in some cases.

  6. Freezing of Rat Tibiae at -20°C Does Not Affect the Mechanical Properties of Intramedullary Bone/Implant-Interface: Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Diefenbeck, Michael; Mückley, Thomas; Zankovych, Sergiy; Bossert, Jörg; Jandt, Klaus D; Schrader, Christian; Schmidt, Jürgen; Finger, Ulrich; Faucon, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    Background: The effects of freezing-thawing cycles on intramedullary bone-implant interfaces have been studied in a rat model in mechanical pull-out tests. Implants: Twenty TiAl6V4 rods (Ø 0.8 mm, length 10 mm) implanted in rat tibiae Methods: 10 rats underwent bilateral tibial implantation of titanium rods. At eight weeks, the animals were sacrificed and tibiae harvested for biomechanical testing. Eight tibiae were frozen and stored at -20°C for 14 days, the remaining eight were evaluated immediately post-harvest. Pull-out tests were used to determine maximum force and interfacial shear strength. Results: There were no significant differences between fresh and those of the frozen-thawed group in maximum force or in interfacial shear strength. Conclusion: Frozen Storage of rat tibiae containing implants at -20° C has no effects on the biomechanical properties of Bone/ Implant interface. PMID:21760868

  7. Transverse pinning versus intramedullary pinning in fifth metacarpal's neck fractures: A randomized controlled study with patient-reported outcome.

    PubMed

    Galal, Sherif; Safwat, Wael

    2017-01-01

    The 5th metacarpal fractures accounts for 38% of all hand fractures given that the neck is the weakest point in metacarpals, so neck fracture is the most common metacarpal fracture. Surgical fixation is also advocated for such fractures to prevent mal-rotation of the little finger which will lead to fingers overlap in a clenched fist. Various methods are available for fixation of such fractures, like intramedullary & transverse pinning. There are very few reports in the literature comparing both techniques. Authors wanted to compare outcomes and complications of transverse pinning versus intramedullary pinning in fifth metacarpal's neck fractures. A single-center, parallel group, prospective, randomized study was conducted at an academic Level 1 Trauma Center from October 2014 to December 2016. A total of 80 patients with 5th metacarpal's neck fractures were randomized to pinning using either transverse pinning (group A) or intramedullary pinning (group B). Patients were assessed clinically on range of motion, patient-reported outcome using the Quick-DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) questionnaire & radiographically. Two blinded observers assessed outcomes. At final follow up for each patient (12 months) the statistically significant differences were observed in operative time, the transverse pinning group showed shorter operative time, as well as complication rate as complications were observed only in intramedullary pinning group. No differences were found in range of motion or the Quick -DASH score. Both techniques are equally safe and effective treatment option for 5th metacarpal's neck fractures. The only difference was shorter operative time & less incidence of complications in transverse pinning group. Level II, Therapeutic study.

  8. Tibial Lengthening: Extraarticular Calcaneotibial Screw to Prevent Ankle Equinus

    PubMed Central

    Belthur, Mohan V.; Paley, Dror; Jindal, Gaurav; Burghardt, Rolf D.; Specht, Stacy C.

    2008-01-01

    Between 2003 and 2006, we used an extraarticular, cannulated, fully threaded posterior calcaneotibial screw to prevent equinus contracture in 10 patients (four male and six female patients, 14 limbs) undergoing tibial lengthening with the intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractor. Diagnoses were fibular hemimelia (two), mesomelic dwarfism (two), posteromedial bow (one), hemihypertrophy (one), poliomyelitis (one), achondroplasia (one), posttraumatic limb-length discrepancy (one), and hypochondroplasia (one). Average age was 24.5 years (range, 15–54 years). The screw (length, typically 125 mm; diameter, 7 mm) was inserted with the ankle in 10° dorsiflexion. Gastrocnemius soleus recession was performed in two patients to achieve 10° dorsiflexion. Average lengthening was 4.9 cm (range, 3–7 cm). Screws were removed after a mean 3.3 months (range, 2–6 months). Preoperative ankle range of motion was regained within 6 months of screw removal. No neurovascular complications were encountered, and no patients experienced equinus contracture. We also conducted a cadaveric study in which one surgeon inserted screws in eight cadaveric legs under image intensifier control. The flexor hallucis longus muscle belly was the closest anatomic structure noted during dissection. The screw should be inserted obliquely from upper lateral edge of the calcaneus and aimed lateral in the tibia to avoid the flexor hallucis longus muscle. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18800215

  9. Tibial periosteal ganglion cyst: The ganglion in disguise.

    PubMed

    Reghunath, Anjuna; Mittal, Mahesh K; Khanna, Geetika; Anil, V

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue ganglions are commonly encountered cystic lesions around the wrist presumed to arise from myxomatous degeneration of periarticular connective tissue. Lesions with similar pathology in subchondral location close to joints, and often simulating a geode, is the less common entity called intraosseous ganglion. Rarer still is a lesion produced by mucoid degeneration and cyst formation of the periostium of long bones, rightly called the periosteal ganglion. They are mostly found in the lower extremities at the region of pes anserinus, typically limited to the periosteum and outer cortex without any intramedullary component. We report the case of a 62 year-old male who presented with a tender swelling on the mid shaft of the left tibia, which radiologically suggested a juxtacortical lesion extending to the soft tissue or a soft tissue neoplasm eroding the bony cortex of tibia. It was later diagnosed definitively as a periosteal ganglion in an atypical location, on further radiologic work-up and histopathological correlation.

  10. The healing stages of an intramedullary implanted tibia: A stress strain comparative analysis of the calcification process

    PubMed Central

    Filardi, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Aims The extended usage of unreamed tibial nailing resulted in reports of an increased rate of complications, especially for the distal portion of the tibia. Unreamed nailing favours biology at the expense of the achievable mechanical stability, it is therefore of interest to define the limits of the clinical indications for this method. Extra-articular fractures of the distal tibial metaphysis, meta-diaphyseal junction, and adjacent diaphysis are distinct in their management from impaction derived ‘‘pilon’’ type fractures and mid-diaphyseal fractures. The goals of this work were to gain a thorough understanding of the load-sharing mechanism between unreamed nail and bones in a fractured tibia. With this purpose a complete model of the human leg was realised, simulating a mid-diaphyseal fracture, classified as A2 type 1, according to the AO classification. The analysis of the entire chain allows to have a complete picture of the stress distribution and of the most stressed bones and soft tissues, but, more importantly can overcome problems connected with boundary conditions imposed at single bony components. Methods Model consists of six bony structures: pelvis, femur, patella, fibula, tibia, and a simplified lump of the feet, configured in a standing up position. Their articular cartilage layers, were simulated by 3D membranes of opportune stiffness connecting the different segments. Moreover an unreamed intra-medullary nail Expert Tibial Nail (DePuy Synthes®) stabilized the fractured tibia. A load of 700 N has been applied at the top of pelvis and a part the feet, at the tip, was rigidly fixed. Five different contact interfaces have been imposed at the different bony surfaces in contact. Results Three different conditions were analysed: the initially healthy tibia, the A2 type 1 fractured tibia with the Expert tibial nail implanted, and the follow up stage after complete healing of tibia. Non-linear finite element analysis of the models were performed

  11. Elastic intramedullary nailing and DBM-Bone marrow injection for the treatment of simple bone cysts

    PubMed Central

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios D; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2007-01-01

    Background Simple or unicameral bone cysts are common benign fluid-filled lesions usually located at the long bones of children before skeletal maturity. Methods We performed demineralized bone matrix and iliac crest bone marrow injection combined with elastic intramedullary nailing for the treatment of simple bone cysts in long bones of 9 children with a mean age of 12.6 years (range, 4 to 15 years). Results Two of the 9 patients presented with a pathological fracture. Three patients had been referred after the failure of previous treatments. Four patients had large lesions with impending pathological fractures that interfered with daily living activities. We employed a ratio to ascertain the severity of the lesion. The extent of the lesion on the longitudinal axis was divided with the normal expected diameter of the long bone at the site of the lesion. The mean follow-up was 77 months (range, 5 to 8 years). All patients were pain free and had full range of motion of the adjacent joints at 6 weeks postoperatively. Review radiographs showed that all 7 cysts had consolidated completely (Neer stage I) and 2 cysts had consolidated partially (Neer stage II). Until the latest examination there was no evidence of fracture or re-fracture. Conclusion Elastic intramedullary nailing has the twofold benefits of continuous cyst decompression, and early immediate stability to the involved bone segment, which permits early mobilization and return to the normal activities of the pre-teen patients. PMID:17916249

  12. Acute changes in foot strike pattern and cadence affect running parameters associated with tibial stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Yong, Jennifer R; Silder, Amy; Montgomery, Kate L; Fredericson, Michael; Delp, Scott L

    2018-05-18

    Tibial stress fractures are a common and debilitating injury that occur in distance runners. Runners may be able to decrease tibial stress fracture risk by adopting a running pattern that reduces biomechanical parameters associated with a history of tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that converting to a forefoot striking pattern or increasing cadence without focusing on changing foot strike type would reduce injury risk parameters in recreational runners. Running kinematics, ground reaction forces and tibial accelerations were recorded from seventeen healthy, habitual rearfoot striking runners while running in their natural running pattern and after two acute retraining conditions: (1) converting to forefoot striking without focusing on cadence and (2) increasing cadence without focusing on foot strike. We found that converting to forefoot striking decreased two risk factors for tibial stress fracture: average and peak loading rates. Increasing cadence decreased one risk factor: peak hip adduction angle. Our results demonstrate that acute adaptation to forefoot striking reduces different injury risk parameters than acute adaptation to increased cadence and suggest that both modifications may reduce the risk of tibial stress fractures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ground reaction forces and bone parameters in females with tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Bennell, Kim; Crossley, Kay; Jayarajan, Jyotsna; Walton, Elizabeth; Warden, Stuart; Kiss, Z Stephen; Wrigley, Tim

    2004-03-01

    Tibial stress fracture is a common overuse running injury that results from the interplay of repetitive mechanical loading and bone strength. This research project aimed to determine whether female runners with a history of tibial stress fracture (TSF) differ in ground reaction force (GRF) parameters during running, regional bone density, and tibial bone geometry from those who have never sustained a stress fracture (NSF). Thirty-six female running athletes (13 TSF; 23 NSF) ranging in age from 18 to 44 yr were recruited for this cross-sectional study. The groups were well matched for demographic, training, and menstrual parameters. A force platform measured selected GRF parameters (peak and time to peak for vertical impact and active forces, and horizontal braking and propulsive forces) during overground running at 4.0 m.s.(-1). Lumbar spine, proximal femur, and distal tibial bone mineral density were assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Tibial bone geometry (cross-sectional dimensions and areas, and second moments of area) was calculated from a computerized tomography scan at the junction of the middle and distal thirds. There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the GRF, bone density, or tibial bone geometric parameters (P > 0.05). Both TSF and NSF subjects had bone density levels that were average or above average compared with a young adult reference range. Factor analysis followed by discriminant function analysis did not find any combinations of variables that differentiated between TSF and NSF groups. These findings do not support a role for GRF, bone density, or tibial bone geometry in the development of tibial stress fractures, suggesting that other risk factors were more important in this cohort of female runners.

  14. Outcomes of Surgical Treatment for Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures in Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Zaira S; Raikin, Steven M; Harwood, Marc I; Bishop, Meghan E; Ciccotti, Michael G; Hammoud, Sommer

    2017-12-01

    Although most anterior tibial stress fractures heal with nonoperative treatment, some may require surgical management. To our knowledge, no systematic review has been conducted regarding surgical treatment strategies for the management of chronic anterior tibial stress fractures from which general conclusions can be drawn regarding optimal treatment in high-performance athletes. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the surgical outcomes of anterior tibial stress fractures in high-performance athletes. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. In February 2017, a systematic review of the PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL databases was performed to identify studies that reported surgical outcomes for anterior tibial stress fractures. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened, and reported outcome measures were documented. A total of 12 studies, published between 1984 and 2015, reporting outcomes for the surgical treatment of anterior tibial stress fractures were included in this review. All studies were retrospective case series. Collectively, surgical outcomes for 115 patients (74 males; 41 females) with 123 fractures were evaluated in this review. The overall mean follow-up was 23.3 months. The most common surgical treatment method reported in the literature was compression plating (n = 52) followed by drilling (n = 33). Symptom resolution was achieved in 108 of 123 surgically treated fractures (87.8%). There were 32 reports of complications, resulting in an overall complication rate of 27.8%. Subsequent tibial fractures were reported in 8 patients (7.0%). Moreover, a total of 17 patients (14.8%) underwent a subsequent procedure after their initial surgery. Following surgical treatment for anterior tibial stress fracture, 94.7% of patients were able to return to sports. The available literature indicates that surgical treatment of anterior tibial stress fractures is associated with a high rate of symptom resolution and return

  15. Comparison of long-term results between osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis and tibial bone keratoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Charoenrook, Victor; Michael, Ralph; de la Paz, Maria Fideliz; Temprano, José; Barraquer, Rafael I

    2018-04-01

    To compare the anatomical and the functional results between osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) and keratoprosthesis using tibial bone autograft (Tibial bone KPro). We reviewed the charts of 258 patients; 145 had OOKP whereas 113 had Tibial bone KPro implanted. Functional success was defined as best corrected visual acuity ≥0.05 on decimal scale and anatomical success as retention of the keratoprosthesis lamina. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were calculated for anatomical and functional survival as well as to estimate the probability of post-op complications. The anatomical survival for both KPro groups was not significantly different and was estimated as 67% for OOKP and 54% for Tibial bone KPro at 10 years after surgery. There was also no difference found after subdividing for primary diagnosis groups such as chemical injury, thermal burn, trachoma and all autoimmune cases combined. Estimated functional survival at 10 years post-surgery was 49% for OOKP and 25% for Tibial bone KPro, which was significantly different. The probability of patients with Tibial bone KPro developing one or more post-operative complications at 10 years after surgery (65%) was significantly higher than those with OOKP (40%). Mucous membrane necrosis and retroprosthetic membrane formation were more common in Tibial bone KPro than OOKP. Both types of autologous biological KPro, OOKP and Tibial bone KPro, had statistically similar rate of keratoprosthesis extrusion. Although functional success rate was significantly higher in OOKP, it may have been influenced by a better visual potential in the patients in this group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anthropometric measurements of tibial plateau and correlation with the current tibial implants.

    PubMed

    Erkocak, Omer Faruk; Kucukdurmaz, Fatih; Sayar, Safak; Erdil, Mehmet Emin; Ceylan, Hasan Huseyin; Tuncay, Ibrahim

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to make an anthropometric analysis at the resected surfaces of the proximal tibia in the Turkish population and to compare the data with the dimensions of tibial components in current use. We hypothesized that tibial components currently available on the market do not fulfil the requirements of this population and a new tibial component design may be required, especially for female patients with small stature. Anthropometric data from the proximal tibia of 226 knees in 226 Turkish subjects were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. We measured the mediolateral, middle anteroposterior, medial and lateral anteroposterior dimensions and the aspect ratio of the resected proximal tibial surface. All morphological data were compared with the dimensions of five contemporary tibial implants, including asymmetric and symmetric design types. The dimensions of the tibial plateau of Turkish knees demonstrated significant differences according to gender (P < 0.05). Among the different tibial implants reviewed, neither asymmetric nor symmetric designs exhibited a perfect conformity to proximal tibial morphology in size and shape. The vast majority of tibial implants involved in this study tend to overhang anteroposteriorly, and a statistically significant number of women (21 %, P < 0.05) had tibial anteroposterior diameters smaller than the smallest available tibial component. Tibial components designed according to anthropometric measurements of Western populations do not perfectly meet the requirements of Turkish population. These data could provide the basis for designing the optimal and smaller tibial component for this population, especially for women, is required for best fit. II.

  17. Modulation of the intramedullary pressure responses by calcium dobesilate in a rabbit knee model of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose The presence of bone marrow edema in patients with osteoarthritis is associated with pain and disease progression. Management of bone edema with the synthetic prostacyclin iloprost may be complicated by side effects. Calcium dobesilate, a treatment for chronic venous disease, shares some pharmacological actions with iloprost but appears to be better tolerated. Anecdotal reports have suggested that calcium dobesilate may be useful for medical management of osteoarthritis, possibly by reducing bone marrow edema, and this study was performed to investigate possible benefits of treatment. Methods The effects of a 6-week period of oral calcium dobesilate administration on tibial intramedullary pressure dynamics and physical joint characteristics were evaluated in 20 rabbits with unilaterally induced knee osteoarthritis that were randomly allocated to either a treatment group or a placebo control group. Treatment or placebo started 8 weeks after induction of osteoarthritis, and was followed by a 4-week washout period. Results Calcium dobesilate did not affect joint thickness or range of motion, nor individual pressure measurements, compared to placebo. Pressure ranges in the operated limb were greater than in the intact limb after 8 weeks, and approached those of the intact limb after 6 weeks of treatment with calcium dobesilate but not with placebo. Inter-limb differences were lower (p = 0.02) in the dobesilate group following the washout period. Interpretation Calcium dobesilate had a detectable effect on pressure dynamics in the subchondral bone of osteoarthritic joints in this model. The significance of these effects for pain and function should be established. PMID:21895501

  18. Intramedullary nail fixation of non-traditional fractures: Clavicle, forearm, fibula.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Niloofar; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2017-06-01

    Locked intramedullary fixation is a well-established technique for managing long-bone fractures. While intramedullary nail fixation of diaphyseal fractures in the femur, tibia, and humerus is well established, the same is not true for other fractures. Surgical fixations of clavicle, forearm and ankle are traditionally treated with plate and screw fixation. In some cases, fixation with an intramedullary device is possible, and may be advantageous. However, there is however a concern regarding a lack of rotational stability and fracture shortening. While new generation of locked intramedullary devices for fractures of clavicle, forearm and fibula are recently available, the outcomes are not as reliable as fixation with plates and screws. Further research in this area is warranted with high quality comparative studies, to investigate the outcomes and indication of these fractures treated with intramedullary nail devices compared to intramedullary nail fixation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trifurcation of the tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Develi, Sedat

    2018-05-01

    The tibial nerve is the larger terminal branch of the sciatic nerve and it terminates in the tarsal tunnel by giving lateral and medial plantar nerves. We present a rare case of trifurcation of the tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel. The variant nerve curves laterally after branching from the tibial nerve and courses deep to quadratus plantae muscle. Interestingly, posterior tibial artery was also terminating by giving three branches. These branches were accompanying the terminal branches of the tibial nerve.

  20. Bilateral double level tibial lengthening in dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Rolf D; Yoshino, Koichi; Kashiwagi, Naoya; Yoshino, Shigeo; Bhave, Anil; Paley, Dror; Herzenberg, John E

    2015-12-01

    Outcome assessment after double level tibial lengthening in patients with dwarfism. Fourteen patients with dwarfism were analyzed after bilateral simultaneous double level tibial lengthening. Average age was 15.1 years. Average lengthening was 13.5 cm. The two levels were lengthened by an average of 7.5 cm proximally and 6.0 cm distally. Concomitant deformities were also addressed during lengthening. External fixation treatment time averaged 8.8 months. Healing index averaged 0.7 months/cm. Bilateral tibial lengthening for dwarfism is difficult, but the results are usually quite gratifying.

  1. The effect of plate position and size on tibial slope in high tibial osteotomy: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Rubino, L Joseph; Schoderbek, Robert J; Golish, S Raymond; Baumfeld, Joshua; Miller, Mark D

    2008-01-01

    Opening wedge high tibial osteotomies are performed for degenerative changes and varus. Opening wedge osteotomies can change proximal tibial slope in the sagittal plane, possibly imparting stability in the ACL-deficient knee. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of plate position and size on change in tibial slope. Eight cadaveric knees underwent opening wedge high tibial osteotomy with Puddu plates of each different size. Plates were placed anterior, central, and posterior for each size used. Lateral radiographs were obtained. Tibial slope was measured and compared with baseline slope. Tibial slope was affected by plate position (P < 0.05) and size (P < 0.001). Smaller, posterior plates had less effect on tibial slope. However, anterior and central plates increased tibial slope over all plate sizes (P < 0.05). This study found that tibial slope increases with opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. Larger corrections and anterior placement of the plate are associated with larger increases in slope.

  2. Case report: comprehensive management of medial tibial stress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krenner, Bernard John

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Activity or exercise-induced leg pain is a common complication among competitive and “weekend warrior” athletes. Shin splints is a term that has been used to describe all lower leg pain as a result of activity. There are many different causes of “shin splints,” one of which is medial tibial stress syndrome, and the treating clinician must be aware of potentially serious causes of activity related leg pain. Restoring proper biomechanics to the entire kinetic chain and rehabilitation of the injured area should be the primary aim of treatment to optimize shock absorption. The role inflammation plays in medial tibial stress syndrome is controversial, but in this case, seemed to be a causative factor as symptomatology was dramatically decreased with the addition of proteolytic enzymes. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be quite difficult to treat and keeping athletes away from activities that will slow healing or aggravate the condition can be challenging. “Active” rest is the best way in which to allow proper healing while allowing the athlete to maintain their fitness. PMID:19674573

  3. Fat embolism syndrome after nailing an isolated open tibial fracture in a stable patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Gustavo; Soler, Isabel; López-Durán, Luis

    2014-04-14

    Fat embolism syndrome is a potentially fatal complication of long bone fractures. It is usually seen in the context of polytrauma or a femoral fracture. There are few reports of fat embolism syndrome occurring after isolated long bone fractures other than those of the femur. We describe a case of fat embolism syndrome in a 33-year-old Caucasian man. He was being seen for an isolated Gustilo's grade II open tibial fracture. He was deemed clinically stable, so we proceeded to treat the fracture with intramedullary reamed nailing. He developed fat embolism syndrome intraoperatively and was treated successfully. This case caused us to question the use of injury severity scoring for isolated long bone fractures. It suggests that parameters that have been described in the literature other than that the patient is apparently clinically stable should be used to establish the best time for nailing a long bone fracture, thereby improving patient safety.

  4. Fat embolism syndrome after nailing an isolated open tibial fracture in a stable patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fat embolism syndrome is a potentially fatal complication of long bone fractures. It is usually seen in the context of polytrauma or a femoral fracture. There are few reports of fat embolism syndrome occurring after isolated long bone fractures other than those of the femur. Case presentation We describe a case of fat embolism syndrome in a 33-year-old Caucasian man. He was being seen for an isolated Gustilo’s grade II open tibial fracture. He was deemed clinically stable, so we proceeded to treat the fracture with intramedullary reamed nailing. He developed fat embolism syndrome intraoperatively and was treated successfully. Conclusion This case caused us to question the use of injury severity scoring for isolated long bone fractures. It suggests that parameters that have been described in the literature other than that the patient is apparently clinically stable should be used to establish the best time for nailing a long bone fracture, thereby improving patient safety. PMID:24731759

  5. Open unstable metaphyseo-diaphyseal fractures of the tibia in adolescents: treatment by flexible intramedullary nails augmented by external fixator.

    PubMed

    Atef, Ashraf; El Tantawy, Ahmad

    2015-05-01

    The treatment of open and unstable metaphyseo-diaphyseal fractures of the tibia in adolescents is challenging. It is important to choose a fixation method that can maintain alignment, allow wound care and not violate the growth plate. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of using flexible intramedullary nails (FIN) augmented by external fixator (EF) in the management of such fractures. A total of 26 males, with a mean age of 14.08 years and average body weight of 49.8 kg, presented with open metaphyseo-diaphyseal tibial fractures. All cases were treated using FIN augmented by mono-lateral EF. The fractures were located at the upper third in 17 cases and at the lower third in nine cases. The fracture pattern was spiral in eight cases, oblique in seven and multi-fragmentary in 11. The results were evaluated according to the scoring system for femoral TENs. All fractures united primarily after an average eight to 12 weeks with no evident angular deformity or limb-length discrepancy. None of the cases required cast immobilization or revision procedure. Twenty patients had excellent results, six patients showed good results and none had poor results. Fracture characteristics as well as patients' characteristics had no statistically significant effect (p > 0.005) on the final end results. The use of FIN augmented by EF is a good alternative in the management of open metaphyseo-diaphyseal tibial fractures in adolescents. This fixation provides more stability, allows easy access to the wound and early patients' ambulation.

  6. [RESEARCH PROGRESS IN COMPLICATIONS OF RETROGRADE INTRAMEDULLARY NAIL FIXATION FOR TIBIOTALOCALCANEAL ARTHRODESIS].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun; Yu, Guangrong

    2015-09-01

    To review the cause, treatment, and prevention of complications of retrograde intramedullary nail fixation for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis and enhance the recognition on the complications of tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis. The recent literature concerning intramedullary nail fixation for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis was consulted and reviewed. There are intraoperative and postoperative complications of intramedullary nail fixation for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis, and the causes, treatment, and prevention of complications are various. Progress of retrograde intramedullary nail fixation increases the successful rate of tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis. However, there is still a high complication rate, so strict preoperative assessment and skilled surgical technique are necessary to prevent complications.

  7. Long-term complications following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy in small dogs with tibial plateau angles > 30°.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rebekah; Danielski, Alan

    2018-04-21

    Tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) is commonly performed for surgical management of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease. It has been suggested that small dogs may have steeper tibial plateau angles (TPAs) than large dogs, which has been associated with increased complication rates after TPLO. A retrospective study was performed to assess the rate and nature of long-term complications following TPLO in small dogs with TPAs>30°. Medical records were reviewed for dogs with TPAs>30° treated for CCL rupture by TPLO with a 2.0 mm plate over a five-year period. Radiographs were assessed to determine TPA, postoperative tibial tuberosity width and to identify any complication. Up-to-date medical records were obtained from the referring veterinary surgeon and any complications in the year after surgery were recorded. The effects of different variables on complication rate were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Minor complications were reported in 22.7 per cent of cases. This is similar to or lower than previously reported complication rates for osteotomy techniques in small dogs and dogs with steep TPAs. A smaller postoperative TPA was the only variable significantly associated with an increased complication rate. No major complications were identified. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Bypass grafting to the anterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Armour, R H

    1976-01-01

    Four patients with severe ischaemia of a leg due to atherosclerotic occlusion of the tibial and peroneal arteries had reversed long saphenous vein grafts to the patent lower part of the anterior tibial artery. Two of these grafts continue to function 19 and 24 months after operation respectively. One graft failed on the fifth postoperative day and another occluded 4 months after operation. The literature on femorotibial grafting has been reviewed. The early failure rate of distal grafting is higher than in the case of femoropopliteal bypass, but a number of otherwise doomed limbs can be salvaged. Contrary to widely held views, grafting to the anterior tibial artery appears to give results comparable to those obtained when the lower anastomosis is made to the posterior tibial artery.

  9. Induced membrane technique combined with two-stage internal fixation for the treatment of tibial osteomyelitis defects.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fei; Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Shulin; Fu, Jingshu; Xie, Zhao

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of induced membrane technique combined with two-stage internal fixation in the treatment of tibial osteomyelitis defects. A retrospective analyses for 67 cases of tibialosteomyelitis defects were admitted to our department between September 2012 to February 2015, which were treated with induced membrane technique. At the first stage, implanted with a PMMA cement spacer in the defects after radical debridement and fixed with reconstructive locked plate. Bone grafting and exchanged the plate with intramedullary nail at the second stage. In current study, all patients were followed up for 18-35 months. Sixty-six patients achieved bone union with the average radiographic and clinical healing times of 5.55±2.19 and 7.45±1.69months, respectively. Seven patients required a second debridement before grafting, while four patients experienced a recurrence of infection or a relapse following second stage treatment. Twelve patients experienced either knee or ankle dysfunctions and 2 patients faced delayed wound healing. Donor site complications includes pain and infection were found in 7 and 3 patients, respectively with delayed stress fracture in 1 patient only. Induced membrane technique for the treatment of tibial osteomyelitis defects, seems a reliable method. The use of reconstructive locked plate as a temporary internal fixation at the first stage and exchanged with intramedullary nail at the second stage, potentially achieves good clinical efficacy. Care should be taken to restore the joint function especially in distal tibia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Knee arthrodesis with an intramedullary nail: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    De Vil, Jeroen; Almqvist, Karl Fredrik; Vanheeren, Philippe; Boone, Barbara; Verdonk, René

    2008-07-01

    A group of 19 patients who underwent knee arthrodesis with use of an intramedullary nail between 1996 and 2005, was studied. In the majority of patients knee arthrodesis was performed as a salvage procedure for the limb following an infected total knee arthroplasty. The outcome of the procedure was evaluated with radiographs, the SF-36 score and the Oxford 12-item knee score. The functional result of a successful arthrodesis was found to be comparable with that of a revised hinged total knee arthroplasty. Knee arthrodesis with an intramedullary nail allows weightbearing within 1 week and is accompanied by a high rate of pain relief. However, recurrence of infection is the most challenging problem.

  11. The use of intramedullary nails in tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ruth L; Sathe, Vinayak; Habib, Syed I

    2012-01-01

    Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis is a salvage procedure undertaken for hindfoot problems that affect both the ankle and subtalar joints (eg, two-joint arthritis, severe acute trauma, osteonecrosis of the talus, severe malalignment deformities, significant hindfoot bone loss). Methods of achieving fusion include Steinmann pins, screws, plates, external fixators, and retrograde intramedullary nailing. Retrograde intramedullary nailing provides a load-sharing fixation device with superior biomechanical properties and is an excellent choice for use in tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis. This technique can be performed through relatively small incisions. In addition, recent design modifications include the availability of dynamization and the choice of curved or straight nails. Contraindications to the technique include the presence of infection, severe vascular disease, and severe malalignment of the tibia.

  12. Objective guidelines for removing an external fixator after tibial lengthening using pixel value ratio: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Fan, Qing; Venkatesh, K P; Park, Man S; Song, Hae Ryong

    2009-12-01

    During limb lengthening over an intramedullary nail, decisions regarding external fixator removal and weightbearing depend on the amount of callus seen at the lengthening area on radiographs. However, this method is subjective and objective evaluation of the amount of callus likely would minimize nail or interlocking screw breakage and refracture after fixator removal. We asked how many cortices with full corticalization of the newly formed bone at the lengthening area are needed to allow fixator removal and full weightbearing and how to radiographically determine the stage of corticalization. We retrospectively reviewed 17 patients (34 lengthenings) who underwent bilateral tibial lengthenings over an intramedullary nail. The average gain in length was 7.2 +/- 3.4 cm. We determined the pixel value ratio (ratio of pixel value of regenerate versus the mean pixel value of adjacent bone) of the lengthened area on radiographs. There were no nail or screw breakage and refracture. Partial weightbearing with crutches was permitted when the pixel value ratio was 1 in two cortices and full weightbearing without crutches was permitted when the pixel value ratio was 1 in three cortices. The pixel value ratio on radiographs can be an objective parameter for callus measurement and may provide guidelines for the timing of external fixator removal. We cannot determine from our limited data the minimum pixel value in how many cortices would suggest safe removal, but we can say our criteria were not associated with subsequent refracture.

  13. Aseptic nonunion of the tibia treated by intramedullary osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gualdrini, G; Rollo, G; Montanari, A; Zinghi, G F

    1996-01-01

    The authors report 52 cases of aseptic nonunion of the tibia treated by intramedullary osteosynthesis. The means of synthesis used were the Küntscher nail, the Eiffel Tower Rush nail, and the Grosse-Kempf nail. Which means of synthesis was used depended on the site and the features of the nonunion. Healing occurred in all of the cases after an average of 5 months. Mean follow-up was 4.5 years.

  14. Etiologic factors in the development of medial tibial stress syndrome: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tweed, Jo L; Avil, Steven J; Campbell, Jackie A; Barnes, Mike R

    2008-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is a type of exercise-induced leg pain that is common in recreational and competitive athletes. Although various studies have attempted to find the exact pathogenesis of this common condition, it remains unknown. Various theories in literature from 1976 to 2006 were reviewed using key words. Until recently, inflammation of the periosteum due to excessive traction was thought to be the most likely cause of medial tibial stress syndrome. This periostitis has been hypothesized by some authors to be caused by the tearing away of the muscle fibers at the muscle-bone interface, although there are several suggestions as to which, if any, muscle is responsible. Recent studies have supported the view that medial tibial stress syndrome is not an inflammatory process of the periosteum but instead a stress reaction of bone that has become painful.

  15. Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis using an intramedullary nail: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Francesco; Franceschetti, Edoardo; Torre, Guglielmo; Papalia, Rocco; Samuelsson, Kristian; Karlsson, Jón; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis is aimed to block the ankle joint motion in cases of severe osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis of the talus and/or failure of arthroplasty operations. This systematic review was carried out to evaluate the clinical outcome after tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis using intramedullary nail either open and arthroscopically assisted. Focus was on the success rate of the procedure in terms of union and complications and on the comparison between the techniques. The databases PubMed (Medline), EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched in order to retrieve relevant studies. All therapeutic level 1-4 studies involving humans with intramedullary nail fixation technique were included. Only studies written in English, Italian, French, Spanish and German were included. Data related to the type of surgery, complications and clinical outcomes were extracted and analysed. A total of 83 studies were identified, of which 32 studies were eligible for inclusion; 31 case series and one randomized controlled trial. The main reported outcome score was the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scale. Almost, all the included studies reported higher than 50% union rates and a significant improvement in terms of the clinical and mechanical ankle function after treatment. Results suggest that satisfactory outcomes can be achieved by tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis using intramedullary nailing. Low complication rates contribute to make this a safe procedure. No comparison can be done between arthroscopic and open technique, due to the lack of scientific works on the first one. IV.

  16. Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with a curved, interlocking, intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Budnar, Vijaya M; Hepple, Steve; Harries, William G; Livingstone, James A; Winson, Ian

    2010-12-01

    Tibiotalocalcaneal fusion with a straight rod has a risk of damaging the lateral plantar neurovascular structures and may interfere with maintaining normal heel valgus position.We report the results of a prospective study of tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis with a short, anatomically curved interlocking, intramedullary nail. Forty-five arthrodesis in 42 patients, performed between Jan 2003 and Oct 2008, were prospectively followed. The mean followup was 48 (range, 10 to 74) months. The main indications for the procedure were failed ankle arthrodesis with progressive subtalar arthritis, failed ankle arthroplasty and complex hindfoot deformity. The outcome was measured by a combination of pre and postoperative clinical examination, AOFAS hindfoot scores, SF-12 scores and radiological assessment. Union rate was 89% (40/45). Eighty-two percent (37/45) reported improvement in pain and 73% (33/45) had improved foot function. Satisfactory hindfoot alignment was achieved in 84% (38/45). Postoperatively there was a mean improvement in the AOFAS score of 37. Complications included a below knee amputation for persistent deep infection, five nonunions, and three delayed unions. Four nails, six proximal and six distal locking screws were removed for various causes. Other complications included two perioperative fractures, four superficial wound infections and one case of lateral plantar nerve irritation. With a short, anatomically curved intramedullary nail, we had a high rate of tibiotalocalcaneal fusion with minimal plantar neurovascular complications. We believe a short, curved intramedullary nail, with its more lateral entry point, helped maintain hindfoot alignment.

  17. Next generation distal locking for intramedullary nails using an electromagnetic X-ray-radiation-free real-time navigation system.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Michael; Schröder, Malte; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Kammal, Michael; Rueger, Johannes Maria; Herrman Ruecker, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Distal locking marks one challenging step during intramedullary nailing that can lead to an increased irradiation and prolonged operation times. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and efficacy of an X-ray-radiation-free real-time navigation system for distal locking procedures. A prospective randomized cadaver study with 50 standard free-hand fluoroscopic-guided and 50 electromagnetic-guided distal locking procedures was performed. All procedures were timed using a stopwatch. Intraoperative fluoroscopy exposure time and absorbed radiation dose (mGy) readings were documented. All tibial nails were locked with two mediolateral and one anteroposterior screw. Successful distal locking was accomplished once correct placement of all three screws was confirmed. Successful distal locking was achieved in 98 cases. No complications were encountered using the electromagnetic navigation system. Eight complications arose during free-hand fluoroscopic distal locking. Undetected secondary drill slippage on the ipsilateral cortex accounted for most problems followed by undetected intradrilling misdirection causing a fissural fracture of the contralateral cortex while screw insertion in one case. Compared with the free-hand fluoroscopic technique, electromagnetically navigated distal locking provides a median time benefit of 244 seconds without using ionizing radiation. Compared with the standard free-hand fluoroscopic technique, the electromagnetic guidance system used in this study showed high reliability and was associated with less complications, took significantly less time, and used no radiation exposure for distal locking procedures. Therapeutic study, level II.

  18. Outcomes following femoral lengthening: An initial comparison of the Precice intramedullary lengthening nail and the LRS external fixator monorail system.

    PubMed

    Laubscher, M; Mitchell, C; Timms, A; Goodier, D; Calder, P

    2016-10-01

    Patients undergoing femoral lengthening by external fixation tolerate treatment less well when compared to tibial lengthening. Lengthening of the femur with an intramedullary device may have advantages. We reviewed all cases of simple femoral lengthening performed at our unit from 2009 to 2014. Cases of nonunions, concurrent deformities, congenital limb deficiencies and lengthening with an unstable hip were excluded, leaving 33 cases (in 22 patients; 11 patients had bilateral procedures) for review. Healing index, implant tolerance and complications were compared. In 20 cases (15 patients) the Precice lengthening nail was used and in 13 cases (seven patients) the LRS external fixator system. The desired length was achieved in all cases in the Precice group and in 12 of 13 cases in the LRS group. The mean healing index was 31.3 days/cm in the Precice and 47.1 days/cm in the LRS group (p < 0.001). This was associated with an earlier ability to bear full weight without aids in the Precice group. There were more complications with LRS lengthening, including pin site infections and regenerate deformity. Implant tolerance and the patients' perception of the cosmetic result were better with the Precice treatment. Femoral lengthening with the Precice femoral nail achieved excellent functional results with fewer complications and greater patient satisfaction when compared with the LRS system in our patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1382-8. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  19. A modification of Chopart's amputation with ankle and subtalar arthrodesis by using an intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    DeGere, Michael W; Grady, John F

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on 7 patients who underwent a new technique for Chopart amputation that includes ankle and subtalar arthrodesis using an intramedullary nail. This method affords rigid control to the rearfoot and appears to avoid the most common complications historically associated with Chopart amputations. All 6 surviving patients achieved successful outcomes within 1 year of their surgery. All are community ambulators who are able to walk short distances within the home without a prosthesis. One patient, who had undergone a previous vascular bypass, died in the early postoperative period after developing an infection that required an above-knee amputation. A second patient developed an infection that resolved with intravenous antibiotics. This new technique reintroduces the Chopart-level amputation as a valuable intermediate between the transmetatarsal and below-knee amputation levels.

  20. Knee arthrodesis after infected tumor mega prosthesis of the knee using an intramedullary nail for callus distraction.

    PubMed

    Kühne, C A; Taeger, G; Nast-Kolb, D; Ruchholtz, S

    2003-03-01

    Infected tumor endoprosthesis of the knee in young patients can prove to be challenging. Common procedures are débridement and prosthesis reimplantation, amputation, revision arthroplasty, and arthrodesis. We report the case of a 44-year-old man treated by arthrodesis followed by callus distraction after removal of an infected tumor mega prosthesis (Kotz type). Callus distraction was performed over a distance of 11 cm in 4 months using a femorotibial intramedullary nail with an external traction rope-winch system. The clinical, radiological, technical, and therapeutic features are discussed.

  1. Intramedullary capillary hemangioma of the thoracic spine: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kasukurthi, Rahul; Ray, Wilson Z; Blackburn, Spiros L; Lusis, Eriks A; Santiago, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Capillary hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms. When associated with the spine, these growths frequently involve the vertebral body, but rarely have they been reported to occur as intradural lesions, while even more rarely occurring in a true intramedullary location. We report a rare case of an intramedullary capillary hemangioma of the thoracic spinal cord and a review of the literature. PMID:21139881

  2. Case reports: A subtrochanteric femur fracture with long intramedullary femorotibial nail for knee arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Torga-Spak, Roger; Gugala, Zbigniew; Lindsey, Ronald W

    2006-03-01

    We present a case report of a patient who had a transverse subtrochanteric femur fracture develop 2 months after uneventful placement of a long femorotibial intramedullary nail for knee arthrodesis. To date, diaphyseal fracture of a femur already stabilized with an intramedullary nail has not been reported. The possible etiology for this unusual complication is discussed.

  3. [Tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis by retrograde intramedullary nail--a case report].

    PubMed

    Lipiński, Łukasz; Synder, Marek; Sibiński, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    We described a case of 64 year old overweight women, who was treated with revision tibio-talo-calcaneal artrodesis with the use of retrograde intramedullary nail. The procedure was performed after failed primary arthrodesis with the use of lateral approach and fibula osteotomy. Stabilization with intramedullary nail gave good clinical and functional result with a good bone healing.

  4. Total knee arthroplasty after high tibial osteotomy. A comparison study in patients who had bilateral total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Meding, J B; Keating, E M; Ritter, M A; Faris, P M

    2000-09-01

    The outcome of total knee replacement after high tibial osteotomy remains uncertain. We hypothesized that the results of total knee replacement with or without a previous high tibial osteotomy are similar. The results of a consecutive series of thirty-nine bilateral total knee arthroplasties performed with cement at an average of 8.7 years after unilateral high tibial osteotomy were reviewed. There were twenty-seven men and twelve women. Preoperatively, the knee scores according to the system of the Knee Society were similar for all of the knees; however, valgus alignment and patella infera were more common in the knees with a previous high tibial osteotomy. Bilateral total knee replacement was staged in seven patients and was simultaneous in thirty-two patients. The results of the total knee arthroplasties were retrospectively reviewed with respect to the knee and function scores according to the system of the Knee Society, the radiographic findings, and the complications. Intraoperatively, no notable differences were identified in the number of medial, lateral, or lateral patellar releases required. However, less lateral tibial bone was resected in the group with a previous high tibial osteotomy (average, 3.3 millimeters) than in the group without a high tibial osteotomy (average, 7.5 millimeters). The average duration of follow-up was 7.5 years (range, three to sixteen years) in the group with a previous high tibial osteotomy and 6.8 years (range, two to ten years) in the group without a high tibial osteotomy. At the time of the final follow-up, the knee and function scores were similar for the two groups (89.0 and 81.0 points, respectively, for the group with a previous high tibial osteotomy, and 89.6 and 83.9 points, respectively, for the group without a high tibial osteotomy). Although more knees were free of pain in the group without a previous high tibial osteotomy (thirty-six) than in the group with a previous osteotomy (thirty-three), this difference was

  5. Does Tibial Slope Affect Perception of Coronal Alignment on a Standing Anteroposterior Radiograph?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Adam J; Ravi, Bheeshma; Kransdorf, Mark J; Clarke, Henry D

    2017-07-01

    A standing anteroposterior (AP) radiograph is commonly used to evaluate coronal alignment following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The impact of coronal alignment on TKA outcomes is controversial, perhaps due to variability in imaging and/or measurement technique. We sought to quantify the effect of image rotation and tibial slope on coronal alignment. Using a standard extramedullary tibial alignment guide, 3 cadaver legs were cut to accept a tibial tray at 0°, 3°, and 7° of slope. A computed tomography scan of the entire tibia was obtained for each specimen to confirm neutral coronal alignment. Images were then obtained at progressive 10° intervals of internal and external rotation up to 40° maximum in each direction. Images were then randomized and 5 blinded TKA surgeons were asked to determine coronal alignment. Continuous data values were transformed to categorical data (neutral [0], valgus [L], and varus [R]). Each 10° interval of external rotation of a 7° sloped tibial cut (or relative internal rotation of a tibial component viewed in the AP plane) resulted in perception of an additional 0.75° of varus. The slope of the proximal tibia bone cut should be taken into account when measuring coronal alignment on a standing AP radiograph. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The location of the tibial accelerometer does influence impact acceleration parameters during running.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Encarnación-Martínez, Alberto; Camacho-García, Andrés; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro

    2017-09-01

    Tibial accelerations have been associated with a number of running injuries. However, studies attaching the tibial accelerometer on the proximal section are as numerous as those attaching the accelerometer on the distal section. This study aimed to investigate whether accelerometer location influences acceleration parameters commonly reported in running literature. To fulfil this purpose, 30 athletes ran at 2.22, 2.78 and 3.33 m · s -1 with three accelerometers attached with double-sided tape and tightened to the participants' tolerance on the forehead, the proximal section of the tibia and the distal section of the tibia. Time-domain (peak acceleration, shock attenuation) and frequency-domain parameters (peak frequency, peak power, signal magnitude and shock attenuation in both the low and high frequency ranges) were calculated for each of the tibial locations. The distal accelerometer registered greater tibial acceleration peak and shock attenuation compared to the proximal accelerometer. With respect to the frequency-domain analysis, the distal accelerometer provided greater values of all the low-frequency parameters, whereas no difference was observed for the high-frequency parameters. These findings suggest that the location of the tibial accelerometer does influence the acceleration signal parameters, and thus, researchers should carefully consider the location they choose to place the accelerometer so that equivalent comparisons across studies can be made.

  7. Outcomes assessment in the SPRINT multicenter tibial fracture trial: Adjudication committee size has trivial effect on trial results.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Nicole; Walter, Stephen; Devereaux, P J; Sprague, Sheila; Guyatt, Gordon H; Schemitsch, Emil; Tornetta, Paul; Sanders, David; Swiontkowski, Marc; Bhandari, Mohit

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate how the size of an outcome adjudication committee, and the potential for dominance among its members, potentially impacts a trial's results. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from the six-member adjudication committee in the Study to Prospectively Evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in Patients with Tibial Fractures (SPRINT) Trial. We modeled the adjudication process, predicted the results and costs if smaller committees had been used, and tested for the presence of a dominant adjudicator. Use of smaller committee sizes (one to five members) would have had little impact on the final study results, although one analysis suggested that the benefit in reduction of reoperations with reamed nails in closed tibial fractures would have lost significance if committee sizes of three or less were used. We identified a significant difference between adjudicators in the number of times their original minority decisions became the final consensus decision (χ(2)=9.67, P=0.046), suggesting that dominant adjudicators were present. However, their impact on the final study results was trivial. Reducing the number of adjudicators from six to four would have led to little change in the final SPRINT study results irrespective of the significance of the original trial results, demonstrating the potential for savings in trial resources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Condylar intramedullary intraosseous lipoma: Contribution of a new case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Alicia; Garcia, Blas; Alamillos, Francisco; Roldan, Elisa; Blanco, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background Lipoma is the most common benign tumour of the human body, being intraosseous involvement very rare. Just 1 to 4% of all cases of lipoma are located in the oral cavity, only 0.1% being intraosseous. The jaw is its most uncommon bone location. Etiology of intraosseous lipoma (IOL) is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. Usually asymptomatic, the symptoms, when present, will depend on its location and size. Its origin may be intraosseous or juxtacortical. A biopsy is essential for diagnosis, and definitive treatment involves resection or curettage of the lesion. The aim of this paper is to present a new case of intramedullary intraosseous lipoma of the mandible with involvement of the left mandibular ramus and condylar neck. Material and Methods A case of intramedullary intraosseous lipoma (IOL) on the left mandibular ramus and condyle is presented. No history of trauma in temporomandibular joint existed. The radiology showed a radiolucent multi-lobulated lesion with values of attenuation in the range of fat. Curettage is performed and the histopathology showed a conglomerate of adipocytes without trabeculae, calcifications or atypia. Results According to the bibliography 24 cases of mandibular IOL have been described. This is the second reported case of condylar involvement and the first with cortical expansion. Conclusions Lipoma intraosseous is a very rare benign bone neoplasm. Histology is required for the differential diagnosis from other radiolucent lesions. The IOL treatment is the curettage with a good prognosis, although malignant transformation to liposarcoma has been reported in other locations. It is a disease with a difficult differential diagnosis, therefore the publication of new cases is important. Key words:Intraosseous lipoma, lipoma, jaw tumour, condylar tumour. PMID:28298998

  9. Are there any advantages in using a distal aiming device for tibial nailing? Comparing the Centro Nailing System with the Unreamed Tibia Nail.

    PubMed

    Veen, Egbert J D; Ettema, Harmen B; Zuurmond, Rutger G; Mostert, Adriaan K

    2011-10-01

    The distal locking of an intramedullary tibial nail can be challenging and time consuming when performed freehand. This study was conducted to evaluate if a distal aiming device would reduce surgical time. A case-controlled study was performed between 2007 and 2009 with 30 patients receiving a reamed tibial nail (Centronail) with the use of a distal aiming device and 30 patients who were treated with an Unreamed Tibia Nail (UTN), with freehand distal locking, in the same period. The primary outcome in this study was operative time. Secondary outcomes were the need for fluoroscopy, time to consolidation and complications. Operation time was longer in the Centronail group compared with the UTN group (126 min vs. 96 min, p=0.000). Use of fluoroscopy for distal locking was needed in half of the cases (n=16) using a distal aiming device. No differences were found regarding time to consolidation, time to removal of the nail and complications. The use of an aiming device for distal locking of a tibia nail lengthens operation time rather than reducing it. Fluoroscopy was still needed in about half of the cases. No difference was seen in clinical outcomes. The use of a distal aiming device to lock a tibial nail appears to have no benefit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Medial Tibial Stress Shielding: A Limitation of Cobalt Chromium Tibial Baseplates.

    PubMed

    Martin, J Ryan; Watts, Chad D; Levy, Daniel L; Kim, Raymond H

    2017-02-01

    Stress shielding is a well-recognized complication associated with total knee arthroplasty. However, this phenomenon has not been thoroughly described. Specifically, no study to our knowledge has evaluated the radiographic impact of utilizing various tibial component compositions on tibial stress shielding. We retrospectively reviewed 3 cohorts of 50 patients that had a preoperative varus deformity and were implanted with a titanium, cobalt chromium (CoCr), or an all polyethylene tibial implant. A radiographic comparative analysis was performed to evaluate the amount of medial tibial bone loss in each cohort. In addition, a clinical outcomes analysis was performed on the 3 cohorts. The CoCr was noted to have a statistically significant increase in medial tibial bone loss compared with the other 2 cohorts. The all polyethylene cohort had a statistically significantly higher final Knee Society Score and was associated with the least amount of stress shielding. The CoCr tray is the most rigid of 3 implants that were compared in this study. Interestingly, this cohort had the highest amount of medial tibial bone loss. In addition, 1 patient in the CoCr cohort had medial soft tissue irritation which was attributed to a prominent medial tibial tray which required revision surgery to mitigate the symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tibial bone fractures occurring after medioproximal tibial bone grafts for oral and maxillofacial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Kyu; Cho, Hyun-Young; Pae, Sang-Pill; Jung, Bum-Sang; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Ji-Hoon

    2013-12-01

    Oral and maxillofacial defects often require bone grafts to restore missing tissues. Well-recognized donor sites include the anterior and posterior iliac crest, rib, and intercalvarial diploic bone. The proximal tibia has also been explored as an alternative donor site. The use of the tibia for bone graft has many benefits, such as procedural ease, adequate volume of cancellous and cortical bone, and minimal complications. Although patients rarely complain of pain, swelling, discomfort, or dysfunction, such as gait disturbance, both patients and surgeons should pay close attention to such after effects due to the possibility of tibial fracture. The purpose of this study is to analyze tibial fractures that occurring after osteotomy for a medioproximal tibial graft. An analysis was intended for patients who underwent medioproximal tibial graft between March 2004 and December 2011 in Inha University Hospital. A total of 105 subjects, 30 females and 75 males, ranged in age from 17 to 78 years. We investigated the age, weight, circumstance, and graft timing in relation to tibial fracture. Tibial fractures occurred in four of 105 patients. There were no significant differences in graft region, shape, or scale between the fractured and non-fractured patients. Patients who undergo tibial grafts must be careful of excessive external force after the operation.

  12. Maximizing tibial coverage is detrimental to proper rotational alignment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stacey; Saurez, Alex; Ismaily, Sabir; Ashfaq, Kashif; Noble, Philip; Incavo, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, the placement of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has focused on maximizing coverage of the tibial surface. However, the degree to which maximal coverage affects correct rotational placement of symmetric and asymmetric tibial components has not been well defined and might represent an implant design issue worthy of further inquiry. Using four commercially available tibial components (two symmetric, two asymmetric), we sought to determine (1) the overall amount of malrotation that would occur if components were placed for maximal tibial coverage; and (2) whether the asymmetric designs would result in less malrotation than the symmetric designs when placed for maximal coverage in a computer model using CT reconstructions. CT reconstructions of 30 tibial specimens were used to generate three-dimensional tibia reconstructions with attention to the tibial anatomic axis, the tibial tubercle, and the resected tibial surface. Using strict criteria, four commercially available tibial designs (two symmetric, two asymmetric) were placed on the resected tibial surface. The resulting component rotation was examined. Among all four designs, 70% of all tibial components placed in orientation maximizing fit to resection surface were internally malrotated (average 9°). The asymmetric designs had fewer cases of malrotation (28% and 52% for the two asymmetric designs, 100% and 96% for the two symmetric designs; p < 0.001) and less malrotation on average (2° and 5° for the asymmetric designs, 14° for both symmetric designs; p < 0.001). Maximizing tibial coverage resulted in implant malrotation in a large percentage of cases. Given similar amounts of tibial coverage, correct rotational positioning was more likely to occur with the asymmetric designs. Malrotation of components is an important cause of failure in TKA. Priority should be given to correct tibial rotational positioning. This study suggested that it is easier to balance rotation and

  13. The Outcomes of Nonelongating Intramedullary Fixation of the Lower Extremity for Pediatric Osteogenesis Imperfecta Patients: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Scollan, Joseph P; Jauregui, Julio J; Jacobsen, Christina M; Abzug, Joshua M

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is usually due to autosomal dominant mutations in type I collagen, leading to an increase in fractures and bone deformities, especially in the long bones of the lower extremities. The use of nonelongating intramedullary rods is an established surgical intervention to address such deformities. The rate of surgical complications has been reported to be as high as 187%, with revision rates as high as 90%, although exact global rates are unknown. As such, we sought to determine the published rates of (1) bone-related complications (including both fracture and deformity), (2) rod migration, and (3) complications that require reoperation. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, 1295 studies were evaluated. After cross-referencing, and applying specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 7 studies were included in the final cohort. Data were extracted from the studies and analyzed. Random effect models determined the complication rates of intramedullary nonelongating rod procedures. A total of 359 primary nonelongating intramedullary rod procedures of tibiae and femurs, in patients with a mean age of 6 years (5.2 to 7.3 y), at a mean follow-up of 63 months (24 to 118 mo), were evaluated. 60% of the surgical procedures were on femurs, and 40% were on tibiae. The reoperation rate was 39.4%. The most common complication was rod migration, with a rate of 25.7%. The rate of bone-related complications was 19.5% including fractures (15.0%) and worsening bone deformity (4.3%). This is the first meta-analysis to identify the rates of complication and reoperation in lower limb intramedullary fixation for pediatric osteogenesis imperfecta patients. This study has shown that rod migration is the most common complication, followed by bone-related complications including fractures and deformity. Reoperations occur after nearly 40% of all procedures due to rod migration or bone

  14. Proximal tibial osteotomy. A survivorship analysis.

    PubMed

    Ritter, M A; Fechtman, R A

    1988-01-01

    Proximal tibial osteotomy is generally accepted as a treatment for the patient with unicompartmental arthritis. However, a few reports of the long-term results of this procedure are available in the literature, and none have used the technique known as survivorship analysis. This technique has an advantage over conventional analysis because it does not exclude patients for inadequate follow-up, loss to follow-up, or patient death. In this study, survivorship analysis was applied to 78 proximal tibial osteotomies, performed exclusively by the senior author for the correction of a preoperative varus deformity, and a survival curve was constructed. It was concluded that the reliable longevity of the proximal tibial osteotomy is approximately 6 years.

  15. [Surgical approaches to tibial plateau fractures].

    PubMed

    Krause, Matthias; Müller, Gunnar; Frosch, Karl-Heinz

    2018-06-06

    Intra-articular tibial plateau fractures can present a surgical challenge due to complex injury patterns and compromised soft tissue. The treatment goal is to spare the soft tissue and an anatomical reconstruction of the tibial articular surface. Depending on the course of the fracture, a fracture-specific access strategy is recommended to provide correct positioning of the plate osteosynthesis. While the anterolateral approach is used in the majority of lateral tibial plateau fractures, only one third of the joint surface is visible; however, posterolateral fragments require an individual approach, e. g. posterolateral or posteromedial. If necessary, osteotomy of the femoral epicondyles can improve joint access for reduction control. Injuries to the posterior columns should be anatomically reconstructed and biomechanically correctly addressed via posterior approaches. Bony posterior cruciate ligament tears can be refixed via a minimally invasive posteromedial approach.

  16. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture☆

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  17. Anatomic compatibility of femoral intramedullary implants: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Biçer, Ömer Sunkar; Huri, Gazi; Tekin, Mustafa; Mirioğlu, Akif; Aydın, Ahmet; Tan, İsmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the morphology of the proximal and diaphysis of femur, distribution of neck version, neck-shaft angles, and radius of anterior curvature in a Turkish population to compare with that of femoral intramedullary implants. Using 84 cadaveric femora, three-dimensional (3D) modeling was performed with a light scanner, data were transferred to Solidworks 2013 software (Solidworks, Waltham, MA, USA) to determine the variability in the femoral length (FL), neck version, neck-shaft angle (NSA), and anterior bow. Three independent observers' measurements were tested with a reliability analysis and then evaluated using Cronbach's alpha value, after which they were compared with the neck-shaft angles, and the radii of curvature (RAC) of intramedullary femoral nails, as stated on the official manufacturer websites. Mean FL, femoral neck anteversion (FNA), and NSA had ranges of 346.1-454.1 mm, -11.3-40.4°, and 105.9-149.0°, respectively, and RAC was between 1.0 and 1.2 m. The correlation coefficient and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 0.89 (CI 0.849-0.928), 0.86 (CI 0.799-0.904), and 0.85 (95% CI 0.785-0.898) for FL, FNA, and NSA, respectively. FNA was <10° in 32 femora (37.6%) and >14° 38 (44.7%). NSA was between 130° and 135° in 40 femora (47.1%), and RAC ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 m in 76 femora (91.6%), <1 m in 38 (45.8%), and >1.5 m in 7 (8.4%). FNA and NSA show a wide distribution, mostly out of the range of intramedullary implants. There is a need for implants that are compatible with a range of NSAs and versions, so that they are suitable for use with a variety of morphologies.

  18. Practical Aspects of Posttrauma Reconstruction With an Intramedullary Lengthening Nail

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Limb equalization using the Ilizarov method has evolved and adapted the use of internal lengthening devices. One of the newest devices, termed “PRECICE,” is a magnetically controlled telescoping nail. Complications such as pin site infection and skin irritation are eliminated. Despite trauma surgeons’ familiarity with intramedullary nailing, the Ilizarov method requires sound knowledge of deformity analysis and awareness of specific complications associated with distraction osteogenesis. This manuscript discusses some of the practical preoperative and intraoperative components of limb lengthening. PMID:28486286

  19. Transitioning to an Intramedullary Lengthening and Compression Nail

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Summary: The magnetic intramedullary lengthening nail is an innovative technology that allows for creative ways to treat difficult problems. The lengthening option has revolutionized femur fracture management with bone loss and malunion therapy. The compression version of this nail has provided a gradual method to compress nonunions and difficult fractures that may obviate the need for many current uses of external fixation. Three cases are presented in this manuscript demonstrating a new paradigm in the management of bone loss/shortening of the tibia and femur, and recalcitrant nonunions. PMID:28486284

  20. Catastrophic Intramedullary Abscess Caused by a Missed Congenital Dermal Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Dho, Yun-Sik; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Congenital dermal sinus (CDS) is a type of occult spinal dysraphism characterized by a midline skin dimple. A 12-month-old girl presented with fever and ascending quadriparesis. She had a midline skin dimple in the upper sacral area that had been discovered in her neonatal period. Imaging studies revealed a holocord intramedullary abscess and CDS. Overlooking CDS or misdiagnosing it as benign sacrococcygeal dimple may lead to catastrophic infection and cause serious neurological deficits. Therefore, further imaging work-up or consultation with a pediatric neurosurgeon is recommended following discovery of any atypical-looking dimples in the midline. PMID:25810867

  1. A pilot study on the use of cerebrospinal fluid cell-free DNA in intramedullary spinal ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Ian David; Li, Yingmei; Pan, Wenying; Johnson, Eli; You, Linya; Vogel, Hannes; Ratliff, John; Hayden Gephart, Melanie

    2017-10-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) represents a promising source of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) for tumors of the central nervous system. A CSF-based liquid biopsy may obviate the need for riskier tissue biopsies and serve as a means for monitoring tumor recurrence or response to therapy. Spinal ependymomas most commonly occur in adults, and aggressive resection must be delicately balanced with the risk of injury to adjacent normal tissue. In patients with subtotal resection, recurrence commonly occurs. A CSF-based liquid biopsy matched to the patient's spinal ependymoma mutation profile has potential to be more sensitive then surveillance MRI, but the utility has not been well characterized for tumors of the spinal cord. In this study, we collected matched blood, tumor, and CSF samples from three adult patients with WHO grade II intramedullary spinal ependymoma. We performed whole exome sequencing on matched tumor and normal DNA to design Droplet Digital™ PCR (ddPCR) probes for tumor and wild-type mutations. We then interrogated CSF samples for tumor-derived cfDNA by performing ddPCR on extracted cfDNA. Tumor cfDNA was not reliably detected in the CSF of our cohort. Anatomic sequestration and low grade of intramedullary spinal cord tumors likely limits the role of CSF liquid biopsy.

  2. Tibial plateau fracture following gracilis-semitendinosus anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: The tibial tunnel stress-riser.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, R O; Cohen, D; Barton-Hanson, N

    2006-06-01

    Tibial plateau fractures following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are extremely rare. This is the first reported case of a tibial plateau fracture following four-strand gracilis-semitendinosus autograft ACL reconstruction. The tibial tunnel alone may behave as a stress riser which can significantly reduce bone strength.

  3. Rap system of stress stimulation can promote bone union after lower tibial bone fracture: a clinical research.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jian-fei; Shen, Jia-zuo; Li, Da-kun; Lin, Da-sheng; Li, Lin; Li, Qiang; Qi, Peng; Lian, Ke-jian; Ding, Zhen-qi

    2012-01-01

    Lower tibial bone fracture may easily cause bone delayed union or nonunion because of lacking of dynamic mechanical load. Research Group would design a new instrument as Rap System of Stress Stimulation (RSSS) to provide dynamic mechanical load which would promote lower tibial bone union postoperatively. This clinical research was conducted from January 2008 to December 2010, 92 patients(male 61/female 31, age 16-70 years, mean 36.3 years) who suffered lower tibial bone closed fracture were given intramedullary nail fixation and randomly averagely separated into experimental group and control group(according to the successively order when patients went for the admission procedure). Then researchers analysed the clinical healing time, full weight bearing time, VAS (Visual Analogue Scales) score and callus growth score of Lane-Sandhu in 3,6,12 months postoperatively. The delayed union and nonunion rates were compared at 6 and 12 months separately. All the 92 patients had been followed up (mean 14 months). Clinical bone healing time in experimental group was 88.78±8.80 days but control group was 107.91±9.03 days. Full weight bearing time in experimental group was 94.07±9.81 days but control group was 113.24±13.37 days respectively (P<0.05). The delayed union rate in 6 months was 4.3% in experimental group but 10.9% in control group(P<0.05). The nonunion rate in 12 months was 6.5% in experimental group but 19.6% in control group(P<0.05). In 3, 6, 12 months postoperatively, VAS score and Lane-Sandhu score in experimental group had more significantly difference than them in control group. RSSS can intermittently provide dynamic mechanical load and stimulate callus formation, promote lower tibial bone union, reduce bone delayed union or nonunion rate. It is an adjuvant therapy for promoting bone union after lower tibial bone fracture.

  4. Ipsilateral intact fibula as a predictor of tibial plafond fracture pattern and severity.

    PubMed

    Luk, Pamela C; Charlton, Timothy P; Lee, Jackson; Thordarson, David B

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in fracture pattern and severity of comminution between tibial plafond fractures with and without associated fibular fractures using computed tomography (CT). We hypothesized that the presence of an intact fibula was predictive of increased tibial plafond fracture severity. This was a case control, radiographic review performed at a single level I university trauma center. Between November 2007 and July 2011, 104 patients with 107 operatively treated tibial pilon fractures and preoperative CT scans were identified: 70 patients with 71 tibial plafond fractures had associated fibular fractures, and 34 patients with 36 tibial plafond fractures had intact fibulas. Four criteria were compared between the 2 groups: AO/OTA classification of distal tibia fractures, Topliss coronal and sagittal fracture pattern classification, plafond region of greatest comminution, and degree of proximal extension of fracture line. The intact fibula group had greater percentages of AO/OTA classification B2 type (5.5 vs 0, P = .046) and B3 type (52.8 vs 28.2, P = .013). Conversely, the percentage of AO/OTA classification C3 type was greater in the fractured fibula group (53.5 vs 30.6, P = .025). Evaluation using the Topliss sagittal and coronal classifications revealed no difference between the 2 groups (P = .226). Central and lateral regions of the plafond were the most common areas of comminution in fractured fibula pilons (32% and 31%, respectively). The lateral region of the plafond was the most common area of comminution in intact fibula pilon fractures (42%). There was no statistically significant difference (P = .71) in degree of proximal extension of fracture line between the 2 groups. Tibial plafond fractures with intact fibulas were more commonly associated with AO/OTA classification B-type patterns, whereas those with fractured fibulas were more commonly associated with C-type patterns. An intact fibula

  5. Strength of titanium intramedullary implant versus miniplate fixation of mandibular condyle fractures.

    PubMed

    Frake, Paul C; Howell, Rebecca J; Joshi, Arjun S

    2012-07-01

    To test the strength of internal fixation of mandibular condyle fractures repaired with titanium miniplates versus titanium intramedullary implants. Prospective laboratory experimentation in urethane mandible models and human cadaveric mandibles. Materials testing laboratory at an academic medical center. Osteotomies of the mandibular condyle were created in 40 urethane hemimandible models and 24 human cadaveric specimens. Half of the samples in each group were repaired with traditional miniplates, and the other half were repaired with intramedullary titanium implants. Anteroposterior and mediolateral loads were applied to the samples, and the displacement was measured with reference to the applied force. Titanium intramedullary implants demonstrated statistically significant improved strength and stiffness versus miniplates in the urethane model experimental groups. Despite frequent plastic deformation and mechanical failures of the miniplates, a 1.6-mm-diameter titanium intramedullary pin did not mechanically fail in any of the cases. Intramedullary implantation failures were due to secondary fracture of the adjacent cortical bone or experimental design limitations including rotation of the smooth pin implant. Mechanical implant failures that were encountered with miniplate fixation were not seen with titanium intramedullary implants. These intramedullary implants provide stronger and more rigid fixation of mandibular condyle fractures than miniplates in this in vitro model.

  6. Concomitant intramedullary arteriovenous malformation and a vertebral hemangioma of cervical spine discovered by a pathologic fracture during bicycle accident.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, Selim; Palaoglu, Selcuk; Geyik, Serdar; Saatci, Isil; Onal, Mehmet Bulent

    2015-01-01

    Spinal intramedullary arteriovenous malformations are uncommon and a challenging type of neurosurgical entities. They are rarely located to cervical segment. On the other hand, although hemangiomas are relatively common bone tumors, cervical involvement is again rare and clinically significant ones are infrequent. A 14 year-old-male patient referred to an academic tertiary care unit and presented with neck pain and left hand weakness. Neurological examination revealed motor strength deficit at intrinsic muscles and hyperesthesia at the left hand. Furthermore the pathological reflexes were positive on the left hand side. Imaging studies showed compression fracture, lytic changes resembling a hemangioma at C7 vertebra, and also an intramedullary vascular pathology at C5-6 level which was shown to be an intradural-intramedullary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) on digital subtraction angiography. Based on neurological and radiological findings, the decision was to treat the patient. After embolization of the AVM, the neurological condition of the patient deteriorated and immediate MRI scan of the cervical spine revealed edema of the spinal cord at the C5-6 level. Thus an emergent surgery was performed and C5-6-7 laminectomies with C5-T2 posterior fixation and arthrodesis were implemented. A second stage operation was carried out as C7 corpectomy with a distractable titanium cage 2 weeks after initial surgery. A follow-up evaluation at five years revealed 4/5 motor strength on his left intrinsic hand muscles and mild hyperactive deep tendon reflexes. Imaging studies at the postoperative period showed stable placement of the construct and no evidence of contrast enhancement at the C5-6 level inside the spinal cord. A rare case of multiple pathologies affecting the cervical spine, coincidentally diagnosed after a pathological fracture during a bicycle accident as vertebral hemangioma and intradural-intramedullary AVM that was successfully treated with early detection

  7. Do running speed and shoe cushioning influence impact loading and tibial shock in basketball players?

    PubMed Central

    Liebenberg, Jacobus; Woo, Jeonghyun; Park, Sang-Kyoon; Yoon, Suk-Hoon; Cheung, Roy Tsz-Hei; Ryu, Jiseon

    2018-01-01

    Background Tibial stress fracture (TSF) is a common injury in basketball players. This condition has been associated with high tibial shock and impact loading, which can be affected by running speed, footwear condition, and footstrike pattern. However, these relationships were established in runners but not in basketball players, with very little research done on impact loading and speed. Hence, this study compared tibial shock, impact loading, and foot strike pattern in basketball players running at different speeds with different shoe cushioning properties/performances. Methods Eighteen male collegiate basketball players performed straight running trials with different shoe cushioning (regular-, better-, and best-cushioning) and running speed conditions (3.0 m/s vs. 6.0 m/s) on a flat instrumented runway. Tri-axial accelerometer, force plate and motion capture system were used to determine tibial accelerations, vertical ground reaction forces and footstrike patterns in each condition, respectively. Comfort perception was indicated on a 150 mm Visual Analogue Scale. A 2 (speed) × 3 (footwear) repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine the main effects of shoe cushioning and running speeds. Results Greater tibial shock (P < 0.001; η2 = 0.80) and impact loading (P < 0.001; η2 = 0.73–0.87) were experienced at faster running speeds. Interestingly, shoes with regular-cushioning or best-cushioning resulted in greater tibial shock (P = 0.03; η2 = 0.39) and impact loading (P = 0.03; η2 = 0.38–0.68) than shoes with better-cushioning. Basketball players continued using a rearfoot strike during running, regardless of running speed and footwear cushioning conditions (P > 0.14; η2 = 0.13). Discussion There may be an optimal band of shoe cushioning for better protection against TSF. These findings may provide insights to formulate rehabilitation protocols for basketball players who are recovering from TSF. PMID:29770274

  8. Chronic shin splints. Classification and management of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Detmer, D E

    1986-01-01

    A clinical classification and treatment programme has been developed for chronic medial tibial stress syndrome. Medial tibial stress syndrome has been reported to be either tibial stress fracture or microfracture, tibial periostitis, or distal deep posterior chronic compartment syndrome. Three chronic types exist and may coexist: Type I (tibial microfracture, bone stress reaction or cortical fracture); type II (periostalgia from chronic avulsion of the periosteum at the periosteal-fascial junction); and type III (chronic compartment syndrome syndrome). Type I disease is treated nonoperatively. Operations for resistant types II and III medial tibial stress syndrome were performed in 41 patients. Bilaterality was common (type II, 50% type III, 88%). Seven had coexistent type II/III; one had type I/II. Preoperative symptoms averaged 24 months in type II, 6 months in type III, and 33 months in types II/III. Mean age was 22 years (15 to 51). Resting compartment pressures were normal in type II (mean 12 mm Hg) and elevated in type III and type II/III (mean 23 mm Hg). Type II and type II/III patients received fasciotomy plus periosteal cauterisation. Type III patients had fasciotomy only. All procedures were performed on an outpatient basis using local anaesthesia. Follow up was complete and averaged 6 months (2 to 14 months). Improved performance was as follows: type II, 93%, type III, 100%; type II/III, 86%. Complete cures were as follows: type II, 78%; type III, 75%; and type II/III, 57%. This experience suggests that with precise diagnosis and treatment involving minimal risk and cost the athlete has a reasonable chance of return to full activity.

  9. Kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and abnormal tibial contact kinematics during passive flexion.

    PubMed

    Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2018-06-01

    Following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), high tibial forces, large differences in tibial forces between the medial and lateral compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion indicate abnormal knee function. Because the goal of kinematically aligned TKA is to restore native knee function without soft tissue release, the objectives were to determine how well kinematically aligned TKA limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion. Using cruciate retaining components, kinematically aligned TKA was performed on thirteen human cadaveric knee specimens with use of manual instruments without soft tissue release. The tibial forces and tibial contact locations were measured in both the medial and lateral compartments from 0° to 120° of passive flexion using a custom tibial force sensor. The average total tibial force (i.e. sum of medial + lateral) ranged from 5 to 116 N. The only significant average differences in tibial force between compartments occurred at 0° of flexion (29 N, p = 0.0008). The contact locations in both compartments translated posteriorly in all thirteen kinematically aligned TKAs by an average of 14 mm (p < 0.0001) and 18 mm (p < 0.0001) in the medial and lateral compartments, respectively, from 0° to 120° of flexion. After kinematically aligned TKA, average total tibial forces due to the soft tissue restraints were limited to 116 N, average differences in tibial forces between compartments were limited to 29 N, and a net posterior translation of the tibial contact locations was observed in all kinematically aligned TKAs during passive flexion from 0° to 120°, which are similar to what has been measured previously in native knees. While confirmation in vivo is warranted, these findings give

  10. Arthrodesis of the knee with intramedullary nail fixation.

    PubMed

    Puranen, J; Kortelainen, P; Jalovaara, P

    1990-03-01

    Thirty-three patients had an arthrodesis of the knee by means of an intramedullary nail introduced through the greater trochanter. Fifteen of the procedures were done for a failed knee arthroplasty; eight had failed because of infection and seven, because of aseptic loosening. Twenty-nine of the thirty-three knees united three to four months after the first attempt at arthrodesis and three united after technical errors were corrected. One knee had a broken nail and a non-union; this was still untreated at the time of writing. Four nails broke: three in the line of fusion and one in the line of an infected supracondylar pseudarthrosis of the femur. No new infections developed after the arthrodesis. Three patients had had an infection and a chronic fistula before the arthrodesis, and the fistulae healed six, fourteen, and eighteen months postoperatively. In another patient, who had had infection and necrosis of the skin preoperatively, the wound healed in six months. All of these knees healed without an additional major operation. The functional result was satisfactory in all patients. After the arthrodesis, seventeen of the thirty-three patients needed less aid when walking, and no patient needed more aid. Fusion of the knee with a long intramedullary nail can be safe and effective, even in the presence of infection, if the revision is performed properly and certain technical principles are followed. It is especially important to establish good contact between the resected bones.

  11. Retrograde intramedullary nail arthrodesis for avascular necrosis of the talus.

    PubMed

    Devries, J George; Philbin, Terrence M; Hyer, Christopher F

    2010-11-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the talus from any etiology is a devastating pathology. There are few salvage options available and controversy exists as to the surgical management for patients with talar AVN. The authors present their results of tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with a retrograde nail. A comprehensive chart and radiographic review was pulled from our database for patients with AVN of the talus, who were treated by tibiotalocalcaneal fusion with retrograde intramedullary nail. Primary outcome was union, with time to clinical union as a secondary endpoint. Fourteen patients were included. The average age at surgery was 47.4 ± 12.8 years, there were nine female patients, and the average Body Mass Index was 33.5 ± 6.0. Surgical risk factors included two patients who smoked, one was diabetic, and one had a preoperative ulceration. The average time to partial weightbearing was 70.6 ± 25.4 days, and the average time to full weightbearing was 100.6 ± 35.5 days. Four patients had postoperative complications, while no patients required major revision surgery. Twelve patients went on to solid fusion, while two went on to a stable, braceable pseudoarthrosis. Eight patients were able to return to shoes, and eight were able to walk unaided at final followup. Salvage of talar AVN is possible by tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with an intramedullary nail. Physicians may offer this as a salvage option to patients with a high likelihood of successful fusion.

  12. Comparative study between biologic plating and intramedullary nailing for the treatment of subtrochanteric fractures: Is biologic plating using LCP-DF superior to intramedullary nailing?

    PubMed

    Shin, Won Chul; Moon, Nam Hoon; Jang, Jae Hoon; Lee, Hee Jin; Suh, Kuen Tak

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the outcome measures of subtrochanteric fractures between biologic plating and intramedullary nailing and determine if biologic plating is superior to intramedullary nailing. Between March 2009 and December 2015, 81 patients with subtrochanteric fractures were enrolled (52 males and 29 females; 31 treated with biologic plating and 50 with intramedullary nailing). Biologic plating was conducted consecutively between May 2011 and March 2013 and intramedullary nailing was performed for the rest of period. Perioperative outcomes including operation time and blood loss during the operation; postoperative radiologic outcomes including union, time to union, coronal alignment, and shortening of the femur; and clinical outcomes including walking ability and pain were evaluated. The biologic plating group was compared with the intramedullary nailing group as a historical control. No significant differences were identified for bony union and time to union between the two different fixation methods Coronal alignment was significantly better in the biologic plating group than in the intramedullary nailing group (p<0.016). Postoperative coronal alignment was the only risk factor associated with the nonunion of subtrochanteric fractures (unadjusted OR: 1.915, 95% CI: 0.190 - 19.273; adjusted OR: 0.042, 95% CI: 0.000 - 21.517; p=0.320). Surgical outcomes using LCP-DF are comparable to those using intramedullary nailing. Further clinical studies with a larger sample size are required to show the advantage of biologic plating for the treatment of subtrochanteric fractures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of shepherd’s crook deformity in patients with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia using a new type of custom made retrograde intramedullary nail: a technical note

    PubMed Central

    Hefti, F.; Donnan, L.; Krieg, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Aims The severe form of coxa vara, the ‘shepherd’s crook deformity’, is always a consequence of a locally extensive form of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (or McCune-Albright syndrome). Treatment of this deformity is a challenge. The soft bone does not tolerate any implant that depends on the stability of the cortical bone (like plates or external fixators). Intramedullary nails are the most appropriate implants for stabilisation, but if they are inserted from the greater trochanter, they cannot correct the varus deformity enough. Patients and Methods We have developed a special intramedullary nail that can be inserted from the osteotomy site and can be driven retrograde into the femoral neck in an appropriate valgus position. We have operated 15 legs in 13 patients. The average age at surgery was 14 years and 5 months (6 to 28.9). In all, 11 femora had been operated before (unsuccessfully) with various implants. Results The average follow-up was 54.2 months (7 to 132). The average correction of the neck/(distal) shaft angle was 57.5° (10° to 80°) ( = 72.8%). While pre-operatively none of the patients was able to walk without aid, at follow-up only one patient was unable to walk, three used the aid of crutches because of tibial lesions and one patient had an increased external rotation of the leg. At follow-up, most patients were free of pain. One implant broke and had to be replaced. Conclusion This new operative method offers the possibility of efficient correction and stabilisation of this severe and difficult deformation. PMID:28439311

  14. Suprapatellar Versus Infrapatellar Tibial Nail Insertion: A Prospective Randomized Control Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Daniel S; Serrano-Riera, Rafael; Griffing, Rebecca; Steverson, Barbara; Infante, Anthony; Watson, David; Sagi, H Claude; Sanders, Roy W

    2016-03-01

    (45 vs. 36, P = 0.035). All 11 SP patients obtained MRIs at 1 year. Five of these patients had evidence of chondromalacia on MRI. These findings did not correlate with either the prenail or postnail insertion arthroscopy. Importantly, no patient in the SP group with postnail insertion arthroscopic changes had PF joint pain at 1 year. Overall, there seemed to be no significant differences in pain, disability, or knee range of motion between these 2 tibial intramedullary nail insertion techniques after 12 months of follow-up. Based on this pilot study data, larger prospective trial with long-term follow-up is warranted. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  15. Osteogenic Protein-1 (Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7) in the Treatment of Tibial Nonunions

    PubMed Central

    FRIEDLAENDER, GARY E.; PERRY, CLAYTON R.; DEAN COLE, J.; COOK, STEPHEN D.; CIERNY, GEORGE; MUSCHLER, GEORGE F.; ZYCH, GREGORY A.; CALHOUN, JASON H.; LAFORTE, AMY J.; YIN, SAMUEL

    2005-01-01

    Background: The role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in osseous repair has been demonstrated in numerous animal models. Recombinant human osteogenic protein-1 (rhOP-1 or BMP-7) has now been produced and was evaluated in a clinical trial conducted under a Food and Drug Administration approved Investigational Device Exemption to establish both the safety and efficacy of this BMP in the treatment of tibial nonunions. The study also compared the clinical and radiographic results with this osteogenic molecule and those achieved with fresh autogenous bone. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-two patients (with 124 tibial nonunions) were enrolled in a controlled, prospective, randomized, partially blinded, multi-center clinical trial between February, 1992, and August, 1996, and were followed at frequent intervals over 24 months. Each patient was treated by insertion of an intramedullary rod, accompanied by rhOP-1 in a type I collagen carrier or by fresh bone autograft. Assessment criteria included the severity of pain at the fracture site, the ability to walk with full weight-bearing, the need for surgical re-treatment of the nonunion during the course of this study, plain radiographic evaluation of healing, and physician satisfaction with the clinical course. In addition, adverse events were recorded, and sera were screened for antibodies to OP-1 and type-I collagen at each outpatient visit. Results: At 9 months following the operative procedures (the primary end-point of this study), 81% of the OP-1-treated nonunions (n = 63) and 85% of those receiving autogenous bone (n = 61) were judged by clinical criteria to have been treated successfully (p = 0.524). By radiographic criteria, at this same time point, 75% of those in the OP-1-treated group and 84% of the autograft-treated patients had healed fractures (p = 0.218). These clinical results continued at similar levels of success throughout 2 years of observation, and there was no statistically

  16. Effect of Tibial Plateau Levelling Osteotomy on Cranial Tibial Subluxation in the Feline Cranial Cruciate Deficient Stifle Joint: An Ex Vivo Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Bilmont, A; Retournard, M; Asimus, E; Palierne, S; Autefage, A

    2018-06-11

     This study evaluated the effects of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy on cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle in a model of feline cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle joint.  Quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles were simulated with cables, turnbuckles and a spring in an ex vivo limb model. Cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle were measured radiographically before and after cranial cruciate ligament section, and after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy, at postoperative tibial plateau angles of +5°, 0° and -5°.  Cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle were not significantly altered after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy with a tibial plateau angle of +5°. Additional rotation of the tibial plateau to a tibial plateau angle of 0° and -5° had no significant effect on cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle, although 2 out of 10 specimens were stabilized by a postoperative tibial plateau angle of -5°. No stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle was observed in this model of the feline stifle, after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy.  Given that stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle was not obtained in this model, simple transposition of the tibial plateau levelling osteotomy technique from the dog to the cat may not be appropriate. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  17. Effect of interstitial low level laser therapy on tibial defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangyeob; Ha, Myungjin; Hwang, Donghyun; Yu, Sungkon; Jang, Seulki; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    Tibial defect is very common musculoskeletal disorder which makes patient painful and uncomfortable. Many studies about bone regeneration tried to figure out fast bone healing on early phase. It is already known that low level laser therapy (LLLT) is very convenient and good for beginning of bone disorder. However, light scattering and absorption obstruct musculoskeletal therapy which need optimal photon energy delivery. This study has used an interstitial laser probe (ILP) to overcome the limitations of light penetration depth and scattering. Animals (mouse, C57BL/6) were divided into three groups: laser treated test group 1 (660 nm; power 10 mW; total energy 5 J) and test group 2 (660 nm; power 20 mW; total energy 10 J); and untreated control group. All animals were taken surgical operation to make tibial defect on right crest of tibia. The test groups were treated every 48 hours with ILP. Bone volume and X-ray attenuation coefficient were measured on 0, 14th and 28th day with u-CT after treatment and were used to evaluate effect of LLLT. Results show that bone volume of test groups has been improved more than control group. X-ray attenuation coefficients of each groups have slightly different. The results suggest that LLLT combined with ILP may affect on early phase of bone regeneration and may be used in various musculoskeletal disease in deep tissue layer.

  18. Tibial periosteal ganglion cyst: The ganglion in disguise

    PubMed Central

    Reghunath, Anjuna; Mittal, Mahesh K; Khanna, Geetika; Anil, V

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue ganglions are commonly encountered cystic lesions around the wrist presumed to arise from myxomatous degeneration of periarticular connective tissue. Lesions with similar pathology in subchondral location close to joints, and often simulating a geode, is the less common entity called intraosseous ganglion. Rarer still is a lesion produced by mucoid degeneration and cyst formation of the periostium of long bones, rightly called the periosteal ganglion. They are mostly found in the lower extremities at the region of pes anserinus, typically limited to the periosteum and outer cortex without any intramedullary component. We report the case of a 62 year-old male who presented with a tender swelling on the mid shaft of the left tibia, which radiologically suggested a juxtacortical lesion extending to the soft tissue or a soft tissue neoplasm eroding the bony cortex of tibia. It was later diagnosed definitively as a periosteal ganglion in an atypical location, on further radiologic work-up and histopathological correlation. PMID:28515597

  19. Flexible intramedullary nailing for unicameral cysts in children's long bones : Level of evidence: lV, case series.

    PubMed

    Glanzmann, Michael C; Campos, Lautaro

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of flexible intramedullary nailing for unicameral bone cysts in terms of function and osseous consolidation. Twenty-two unicameral bone cysts in children's long bones were treated by flexible intramedullary nailing. In 13 cases the bone cyst was diagnosed in a traumatic event leading to a pathologic fracture. Fifteen patients were referred to our clinic after failed conservative treatment. In 16 patients the cyst was located in the humerus, and in 6 patients in the femur. Mean duration of follow-up after surgery was 24 months. According to Capanna's criteria healing was obtained in 20 cases with a mean time of 16 months. Sixteen cysts healed completely. Four lesions were classified as grade 2, meaning that residual radiolucencies were radiographically visible at the latest follow-up. Two recurrences of humeral cysts were seen at 16 and 18 months postoperatively. The complication rate was minimal. Due to the immediate stabilization of the lesion aftercare becomes facile. This method allows prompt mobilization and early weight bearing without the necessity of a plaster cast. Further it prevents effectively the most common complication, a re-fracture or a pathologic fracture. Therefore we propose this surgical procedure as the treatment of choice for unicameral bone cysts in children's long bones.

  20. [Treatment of multi-segment fracture of complex femoral shaft with instrument-assisted reduction combined with intramedullary interlocking nail fixation].

    PubMed

    Fan, Ke-Jie; Chen, Ke; Ma, Wen-Long; Tian, Ke-Wei; Ye, Ye; Chen, Hong-Gan; Tang, Yan-Feng; Cai, Hong-Min

    2018-05-25

    To investigate the effect of minimally invasive mini-incision and instrumented reduction combined with interlocking intramedullary nailing in the treatment of patients with multi-segment fracture of complex femoral shaft. From January 2013 to January 2016, 32 patients with multiple fractures segments of femoral shaft were treated with instrumentation-assisted reduction combined with interlocking intramedullary nailing, including 22 males and 10 females with an average age of 45 years old ranging 17 to 68 years old. The time from injured to operation was 5 to 10 days with an average of 7 days. After admission, routine tibial tubercle or supracondylar bone traction was performed. The patient's general condition was evaluated, the operation time and intraoperative blood loss were recorded. According to Thorsen femoral fracture morphology evaluation criteria and Hohl knee function evaluation of postoperative efficacy, postoperative fracture healing, complications and postoperative recovery of limb function were observed. All patients were followed up for 6 to 24 months with an average of 12 months. The operative time ranged from 48 to 76 minutes with an average of 67 min. The intraoperative blood loss was 150 to 400 ml with an average of 220 ml. The surgical incisions all achieved grade A healing. The fractures reached the clinical standard of healing. The fracture healing time ranged from 4.2 to 10.8 months with an average of 5.7 months. There were no nonunion, incision infection and internal fixation fracture, failure and other complications. According to Thorsen femoral fracture morphology evaluation criteria, the result was excellent in 28 cases, good in 3 cases, fair in 1 case. According to Hohl knee function evaluation criteria, the result was excellent in 30 cases, good in 2 cases. Instrument-assisted reduction combined with interlocking intramedullary nail fixation is a safe and effective method for the treatment of complex femoral shaft fractures. It has

  1. [Application of tibial mechanical axis locator in tibial extra-articular deformity in total knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Li, Guoliang; Han, Guangpu; Zhang, Jinxiu; Ma, Shiqiang; Guo, Donghui; Yuan, Fulu; Qi, Bingbing; Shen, Runbin

    2013-07-01

    To explore the application value of self-made tibial mechanical axis locator in tibial extra-articular deformity in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for improving the lower extremity force line. Between January and August 2012, 13 cases (21 knees) of osteoarthritis with tibial extra-articular deformity were treated, including 5 males (8 knees) and 8 females (13 knees) with an average age of 66.5 years (range, 58-78 years). The disease duration was 2-5 years (mean, 3.5 years). The knee society score (KSS) was 45.5 +/- 15.5. Extra-articular deformities included 1 case of knee valgus (2 knees) and 12 cases of knee varus (19 knees). Preoperative full-length X-ray films of lower extremities showed 10-21 degrees valgus or varus deformity of tibial extra joint. Self-made tibial mechanical axis locator was used to determine and mark coronal tibial mechanical axis under X-ray before TKA, and then osteotomy was performed with extramedullary positioning device according to the mechanical axis marker.' All incisions healed by first intention, without related complications of infection and joint instability. All patients were followed up 5-12 months (mean, 8.3 months). The X-ray examination showed < 2 degrees knee deviation angle in the others except 1 case of 2.9 degrees knee deviation angle at 3 days after operation, and the accurate rate was 95.2%. No loosening or instability of prosthesis occurred during follow-up. KSS score was 85.5 +/- 15.0 at last follow-up, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative score (t=12.82, P=0.00). The seft-made tibial mechanical axis locator can improve the accurate rate of the lower extremity force line in TKA for tibia extra-articular deformity.

  2. Permanent antibiotic impregnated intramedullary nail in diabetic limb salvage: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Jason B.; Lowery, Nicholas J.; Burns, Patrick R.

    2012-01-01

    Managing complications after attempted hind foot and ankle arthrodesis with intramedullary nail fixation is a challenge. This situation becomes more problematic in the patient with diabetes mellitus and multiple comorbidities. Infection and subsequent osteomyelitis can be a devastating, limb threatening complication associated with these procedures. The surgeon must manage both the infectious process and the skeletal instability concurrently. This article provides a literature review and detailed management strategies for a modified technique of employing antibiotic impregnated polymethylmethacrylate-coated intramedullary nailing. PMID:22396833

  3. Arthroscopic evaluation of soft tissue injuries in tibial plateau fractures: retrospective analysis of 98 cases.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed Zaki; Chang, Chung-Hsun; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Lo, Yang-Pin; Huang, Jau-Wen; Hsu, Kuo-Yao; Wang, Ching-Jen

    2006-06-01

    This investigation arthroscopically assesses the frequency of soft tissue injury in tibial plateau fracture according to the severity of fracture patterns. We hypothesized that use of arthroscopy to evaluate soft tissue injury in tibial plateau fractures would reveal a greater number of associated injuries than have previously been reported. From March 1996 to December 2003, 98 patients with closed tibial plateau fractures were treated with arthroscopically assisted reduction and osteosynthesis, with precise diagnosis and management of associated soft tissue injuries. Arthroscopic findings for associated soft tissue injuries were recorded, and the relationship between fracture type and soft tissue injury was then analyzed. The frequency of associated soft tissue injury in this series was 71% (70 of 98). The menisci were injured in 57% of subjects (56 in 98), the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in 25% (24 of 98), the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in 5% (5 of 98), the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in 3% (3 of 98), the medial collateral ligament (MCL) in 3% (3 of 98), and the peroneal nerve in 1% (1 of 98); none of the 98 patients exhibited injury to the arteries. No significant association was noted between fracture type and incidence of meniscus, PCL, LCL, MCL, artery, and nerve injury. However, significantly higher injury rates for the ACL were observed in type IV and VI fractures. Soft tissue injury was associated with all types of tibial plateau fracture. Menisci (peripheral tear) and ACL (bony avulsion) were the most commonly injured sites. A variety of soft tissue injuries are common with tibial plateau fracture; these can be diagnosed with the use of an arthroscope. Level III, diagnostic study.

  4. High altitude hypoxia as a factor that promotes tibial growth plate development in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shucheng; Zhang, Lihong; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Lan, Yanfang; Mehmood, Khalid; Zhang, Hui; Qiu, Gang; Nabi, Fazul; Yao, Wangyuan; Wang, Meng; Li, Jiakui

    2017-01-01

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is one of the most common problems in the poultry industry and leads to lameness by affecting the proximal growth plate of the tibia. However, due to the unique environmental and geographical conditions of Tibet, no case of TD has been reported in Tibetan chickens (TBCs). The present study was designed to investigate the effect of high altitude hypoxia on blood parameters and tibial growth plate development in chickens using the complete blood count, morphology, and histological examination. The results of this study showed an undesirable impact on the overall performance, body weight, and mortality of Arbor Acres chickens (AACs) exposed to a high altitude hypoxic environment. However, AACs raised under hypoxic conditions showed an elevated number of red blood cells (RBCs) and an increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit values on day 14 compared to the hypobaric normoxia group. Notably, the morphology and histology analyses showed that the size of tibial growth plates in AACs was enlarged and that the blood vessel density was also higher after exposure to the hypoxic environment for 14 days, while no such change was observed in TBCs. Altogether, our results revealed that the hypoxic environment has a potentially new role in increasing the blood vessel density of proximal tibial growth plates to strengthen and enhance the size of the growth plates, which may provide new insights for the therapeutic manipulation of hypoxia in poultry TD. PMID:28282429

  5. Distinct hip and rearfoot kinematics in female runners with a history of tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Milner, Clare E; Hamill, Joseph; Davis, Irene S

    2010-02-01

    Cross-sectional controlled laboratory study. To investigate the kinematics of the hip, knee, and rearfoot in the frontal and transverse planes in female distance runners with a history of tibial stress fracture. Tibial stress fractures are a common overuse injury in runners, accounting for up to half of all stress fractures. Abnormal kinematics of the lower extremity may contribute to abnormal musculoskeletal load distributions, leading to an increased risk of stress fractures. Thirty female runners with a history of tibial stress fracture were compared to 30 age-matched and weekly-running-distance-matched control subjects with no previous lower extremity bony injuries. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected using a motion capture system and a force platform, respectively, as subjects ran in the laboratory. Selected variables of interest were compared between the groups using a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Peak hip adduction and peak rearfoot eversion angles were greater in the stress fracture group compared to the control group. Peak knee adduction and knee internal rotation angles and all joint angles at impact peak were similar between the groups. Runners with a previous tibial stress fracture exhibited greater peak hip adduction and rearfoot eversion angles during the stance phase of running compared to healthy controls. A consequence of these mechanics may be altered load distribution within the lower extremity, predisposing individuals to stress fracture.

  6. Bactericidal properties of silver films on intramedullary implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, C.; Walker, C.; Cortes, E.; Hettinger, Jeffrey; Krchnavek, R.; Caputo, G. A.; Ostrum, R.

    2011-03-01

    We report on investigations of silver films on titanium and stainless steel substrates as anti-bacterial coatings for intramedullary nails used in orthopedic trauma. Silver films are deposited using a magnetron sputtering technique from a single elemental target. The deposition parameter (energy, pressure, and temperature) dependence of the silver film microstructure and adhesion will be presented. Preliminary measurements of the effectiveness of the silver films as a bactericide on S. aureus bacteria demonstrate that the films are effective destroying the bacteria. The process of this investigation will be presented. Preliminary transmission electron microscopy measurements will also presented which image healthy and damaged bacteria helping to identify the fundamental mechanism leading to the effectiveness of silver as an anti-bacterial coating. We acknowledge the support of Rowan University, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences.

  7. A Midterm Review of Lesser Toe Arthrodesis With an Intramedullary Implant.

    PubMed

    Harmer, James Lee; Wilkinson, Anthony; Maher, Anthony John

    2017-10-01

    Lesser toe deformities are one of the most common conditions encountered by podiatric surgeons. When conservative treatments fail surgical correction is indicated. Many surgical options have been described to address the complex nature of these deformities but no perfect solution has been reported to date. However, with the continued advancement of internal fixation technology, interphalangeal joint (IPJ) arthrodesis with an intramedullary implant may be a good option. This retrospective study presents patient reported outcomes and complications at 6 months and 3 years following lesser toe proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) arthrodesis with a polyketone intrameduallary implant (Toe Grip, Orthosolutions, UK). Between September 2011 and November 2012, a total of 38 patients attended for second toe PIPJ arthrodesis by means of the Toe Grip device. At 6 months postoperation, 94.7% of patients and at 3 years postoperation, 92.8% of patients felt that their original complaint was better or much better. Health-related quality of life scores continued to improve overtime as measured by the Manchester Oxford Foot Questionnaire. Complications were generally observational and asymptomatic. The most common complications were floating toes (17.8%), mallet deformities (14.2%), metatarsalgia (17.8%), and transverse plane deformity of the toe (10.7%). This study demonstrates excellent patient-eported outcomes with minimal symptomatic complications making the "Toe Grip" implant a safe and effective alternative fixation device for IPJ arthrodesis when dealing with painful digital deformities. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series.

  8. Effects of a telescopic intramedullary rod for treating patients with osteogenesis imperfecta of the femur

    PubMed Central

    Rosemberg, D. L.; Goiano, E. O.; Akkari, M.; Santili, C.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To introduce a new model of telescopic intramedullary rod (TIR), evaluate its effects on treating patients presenting with moderate and severe osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and to compare the findings with those of other telescopic rods. Methods A total of 21 patients (nine girls and 12 boys; mean age at first operation, 6.6 years, 1.52 to 13.18) who underwent 52 femoral operations were monitored during a mean of 9.96 years (3.39 to 14.54). Patient characteristics, telescoping rod capability and its complications were examined. Results According to the Sillence classification, we investigated one patient with type I, nine with type III and 11 with type IV OI. Revision rates at up to five years (36%) were inferior to those found for the Fassier-Duval rod (46%). The main cause of revision was fracture (15 patients), followed by rod migration (nine), and infection (two). The rod exhibited higher telescopic capacity in boys than girls. Type III most commonly required an operation; the age group with the highest number of procedures was five to ten years. Male migration was the main cause of rod migration. Conclusion The TIR has a satisfactory cost-benefit ratio with less complication rates and low production costs. The TIR is a feasible alternative to the commonly used Fassier-Duval rod. Level of Evidence IV PMID:29456761

  9. [Magnetic resonance imaging of tibial periostitis].

    PubMed

    Meyer, X; Boscagli, G; Tavernier, T; Aczel, F; Weber, F; Legros, R; Charlopain, P; Martin, J P

    1998-01-01

    Tibial periostitis frequently occurs in athletes. We present our experience with MRI in a series of 7 patients (11 legs) with this condition. The clinical presentation and scintigraphic scanning suggested the diagnosis. MRI exploration of 11 legs demonstrated a high band-like juxta-osseous signal enhancement of SE and IR T2 weighted sequences in 6 cases, a signal enhancement after i.v. contrast administration in 4. Tibial periostitis is a clinical diagnosis and MRI and scintigraphic findings can be used to assure the differential diagnosis in difficult cases with stress fracture. MRI can visualize juxta-osseous edematous and inflammatory reactions and an increased signal would appear to be characteristic when the band-like image is fixed to the periosteum.

  10. Effect on dynamic mechanical stability and interfragmentary movement of angle-stable locking of intramedullary nails in unstable distal tibia fractures: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Gueorguiev, Boyko; Wähnert, Dirk; Albrecht, Daniel; Ockert, Ben; Windolf, Markus; Schwieger, Karsten

    2011-02-01

    Unstable distal tibia fractures are challenging injuries that require surgery. Increasingly, intramedullary nails are being used. However, fracture site anatomy may cause distal-fragment stabilization and fixation problems and lead to malunion/nonunion. We studied the influence of angle-stable nail locking on fracture gap movement and other biomechanical parameters. Eight pairs of fresh human cadaver tibiae were used. The bone mineral density (BMD) was determined. All tibiae were nailed with a Synthes Expert tibial nail. Within each pair, one tibia was randomized to receive conventional locking screws; the other, angle-stable screws with sleeves. A 7-mm osteotomy was created 10 mm above the upper distal locking screw, to simulate an AO 42-A3 fracture. Biomechanical testing involved nondestructive mediolateral and anteroposterior pure bending, followed by cyclic combined axial and torsional loading to catastrophic failure. The neutral zone was determined. Fracture gap movement was monitored with 3-D motion tracking. The angle-stable locked constructs had a significantly smaller mediolateral neutral zone (mean: 0.04 degree; p=0.039) and significantly smaller fracture gap angulation (p=0.043). The number of cycles to failure did not differ significantly between the locking configurations. BMD was a significant covariate affecting the number of cycles to failure (p=0.008). However, over the first 20,000 cycles, there was no significant correlation in the angle-stable construct. Angle-stable locking of the Expert tibial nail was associated with a significant reduction in the mediolateral neutral zone and in fracture gap movement. Angle-stable fixation also reduced the influence of BMD over the first 20,000 cycles.

  11. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fracture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    Relationship between Loading Rates and Tibial Accelerometry in Forefoot Strike Runners. Presented at the Annual American Society of Biomechanics Mtg...of the APTA, Seattle, WA, 2/99. McClay, IS, Williams, DS, and Manal, KT. Lower Extremity Mechanics of Runners with a Converted Forefoot Strike ...Management, Inc, 1998-1999 The Effect of Different Orthotic Devices on Lower Extremity Mechanics of Rearfoot and Forefoot Strikers, $3,500. Foot Management

  12. Cranial tibial thrust: a primary force in the canine stifle.

    PubMed

    Slocum, B; Devine, T

    1983-08-15

    A cranially directed force identified within the canine stifle joint was termed cranial tibial thrust. It was generated during weight bearing by tibial compression, of which the tarsal tendon of the biceps femoris is a major contributor, and by the slope of the tibial plateau, found to have a mean cranially directed inclination of 22.6 degrees. This force may be an important factor in cranial cruciate ligament rupture and in generation of cranial drawer sign.

  13. Minimally-invasive plate osteosynthesis in distal tibial fractures: Results and complications.

    PubMed

    Vidović, Dinko; Matejčić, Aljoša; Ivica, Mihovil; Jurišić, Darko; Elabjer, Esmat; Bakota, Bore

    2015-11-01

    at 24 weeks because of plate impingement. There was one case of wound breakdown at 11 weeks. One patient had fracture union with tibial recurvatum of approximately 10°, without functional impairment. Two patients had delayed union. MIPO is a reliable method of treatment for distal tibial fractures; it provides a high union rate and good functional outcome with minimal soft tissue complications. Skin impingement remains a common complication with MIPO, but this can be solved by timely plate removal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improvement of the knee center of rotation during walking after opening wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungsoo; Feng, Jun; Nha, Kyung Wook; Park, Won Man; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2015-06-01

    Accurate measurement of the center of rotation of the knee joint is indispensable for prediction of joint kinematics and kinetics in musculoskeletal models. However, no study has yet identified the knee center of rotations during several daily activities before and after high tibial osteotomy surgery, which is one surgical option for treating knee osteoarthritis. In this study, an estimation method for determining the knee joint center of rotation was developed by applying the optimal common shape technique and symmetrical axis of rotation approach techniques to motion-capture data and validated for typical activities (walking, squatting, climbing up stairs, walking down stairs) of 10 normal subjects. The locations of knee joint center of rotations for injured and contralateral knees of eight subjects with osteoarthritis, both before and after high tibial osteotomy surgery, were then calculated during walking. It was shown that high tibial osteotomy surgery improved the knee joint center of rotation since the center of rotations for the injured knee after high tibial osteotomy surgery were significantly closer to those of the normal healthy population. The difference between the injured and contralateral knees was also generally reduced after surgery, demonstrating increased symmetry. These results indicate that symmetry in both knees can be recovered in many cases after high tibial osteotomy surgery. Moreover, the recovery of center of rotation in the injured knee was prior to that of symmetry. This study has the potential to provide fundamental information that can be applied to understand abnormal kinematics in patients, diagnose knee joint disease, and design a novel implants for knee joint surgeries. © IMechE 2015.

  15. Tibial tunnel aperture location during single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: comparison of tibial guide positions.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Soo; Han, Seung-Beom; Hwang, Yeok-Ku; Suh, Dong-Won; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to compare posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tibial tunnel location after tibial guide insertion medial (between the PCL remnant and the medial femoral condyle) and lateral (between the PCL remnant and the anterior cruciate ligament) to the PCL stump as determined by in vivo 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). Tibial tunnel aperture location was analyzed by immediate postoperative in vivo CT in 66 patients who underwent single-bundle PCL reconstruction, 31 by over-the-PCL and 35 by under-the-PCL tibial guide insertion techniques. Tibial tunnel positions were measured in the medial to lateral and proximal to distal directions of the posterior proximal tibia. The center of the tibial tunnel aperture was located more laterally (by 2.7 mm) in the over-the-PCL group than in the under-the-PCL group (P = .040) and by a relative percentage (absolute value/tibial width) of 3.2% (P = .031). Tibial tunnel positions in the proximal to distal direction, determined by absolute value and relative percentage, were similar in the 2 groups. Tibial tunnel apertures were located more laterally after lateral-to-the-PCL tibial guide insertion than after medial-to-the-PCL tibial guide insertion. There was, however, no significant difference between these techniques in distance from the joint line to the tibial tunnel aperture. Insertion lateral to the PCL stump may result in better placement of the PCL in its anatomic footprint. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anatomic tibial component design can increase tibial coverage and rotational alignment accuracy: a comparison of six contemporary designs.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yifei; Scuderi, Giles R; Bischoff, Jeffrey E; Bertin, Kim; Tarabichi, Samih; Rajgopal, Ashok

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate contemporary tibial component designs against global tibial anatomy. We hypothesized that anatomically designed tibial components offer increased morphological fit to the resected proximal tibia with increased alignment accuracy compared to symmetric and asymmetric designs. Using a multi-ethnic bone dataset, six contemporary tibial component designs were investigated, including anatomic, asymmetric, and symmetric design types. Investigations included (1) measurement of component conformity to the resected tibia using a comprehensive set of size and shape metrics; (2) assessment of component coverage on the resected tibia while ensuring clinically acceptable levels of rotation and overhang; and (3) evaluation of the incidence and severity of component downsizing due to adherence to rotational alignment and overhang requirements, and the associated compromise in tibial coverage. Differences in coverage were statistically compared across designs and ethnicities, as well as between placements with or without enforcement of proper rotational alignment. Compared to non-anatomic designs investigated, the anatomic design exhibited better conformity to resected tibial morphology in size and shape, higher tibial coverage (92% compared to 85-87%), more cortical support (posteromedial region), lower incidence of downsizing (3% compared to 39-60%), and less compromise of tibial coverage (0.5% compared to 4-6%) when enforcing proper rotational alignment. The anatomic design demonstrated meaningful increase in tibial coverage with accurate rotational alignment compared to symmetric and asymmetric designs, suggesting its potential for less intra-operative compromises and improved performance. III.

  17. Tibial Tray Thickness Significantly Increases Medial Tibial Bone Resorption in Cobalt-Chromium Total Knee Arthroplasty Implants.

    PubMed

    Martin, J Ryan; Watts, Chad D; Levy, Daniel L; Miner, Todd M; Springer, Bryan D; Kim, Raymond H

    2017-01-01

    Stress shielding is an uncommon complication associated with primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients are frequently identified radiographically with minimal clinical symptoms. Very few studies have evaluated risk factors for postoperative medial tibial bone loss. We hypothesized that thicker cobalt-chromium tibial trays are associated with increased bone loss. We performed a retrospective review of 100 posterior stabilized, fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty where 50 patients had a 4-mm-thick tibial tray (thick tray cohort) and 50 patients had a 2.7-mm-thick tibial tray (thin tray cohort). A clinical evaluation and a radiographic assessment of medial tibial bone loss were performed on both cohorts at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Mean medial tibial bone loss was significantly higher in the thick tray cohort (1.07 vs 0.16 mm; P = .0001). In addition, there were significantly more patients with medial tibial bone loss in the thick tray group compared with the thin tray group (44% vs 10%, P = .0002). Despite these differences, there were no statistically significant differences in range of motion, knee society score, complications, or revision surgeries performed. A thicker cobalt-chromium tray was associated with significantly more medial tibial bone loss. Despite these radiographic findings, we found no discernable differences in clinical outcomes in our patient cohort. Further study and longer follow-up are needed to understand the effects and clinical significance of medial tibial bone loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Metacarpal Locked Intramedullary Nail: Comparative Biomechanical Evaluation of New Implant Design for Metacarpal Fractures.

    PubMed

    Boonyasirikool, Chinnakart; Tanakeatsakul, Sakkarin; Niempoog, Sunyarn

    2015-04-01

    The optimal fixation of metacarpal fracture should provide sufficient stability to permit early functionfor all types of fracture. However; it must preserve surrounding soft tissue during application and not require secondary removal due to its prominence. The prototype of metacarpal locked intramedullary nail (MCLN) was designed by our institute aiming to achieve those allfeatures. To biomechanically test our newly designed, locked metacarpal nail and compare with common current available fixation methods. Thirty chicken humeri were devided into 3 groups (n = 1 per group) according tofixation techniques: MCLN, 1.5 mm miniplate (Synthes), and Kirschner wire. After complete fixation, all specimens were osteotomized at mid-shaft creating transverse fractures. Five specimens from each group were tested by load of failure under axial compression, and another five under bending force. In axial compression model, the loads tofailure in MCLN group was greatest (460 ± 17 N), which was significant higher than the Kirschner wire group. The MCLN group also showed the highest load to failure in bending test (341 ± 10 N). This value reaches statistical significance when compared with plate and Kirschner wire groups. The MCLN construct provided higher stability than miniplate and Kirschner wire fixation both in axial and bending mode. Together with the minimally invasive and soft tissue-friendly design concept, this study suggests that MCLN is promising fixation option for metacarpal fracture.

  19. Histopathological examination of bone debris from reaming of interlocking intra-medullary nail fixation of long bone fractures with concomitant head injury.

    PubMed

    Khallaf, Fathy G; Kehinde, Elijah O

    2015-12-01

    The aim of study was to test, for the presence of osteoblasts in the reaming debris of intramedullary nailing of femoral and tibial fracture in patients with and without severe head injury. Two groups of patients were studied. Group A (n = 32) had long bone fractures in addition to having head injuries. Group B (n = 35) had only long bone fractures. The fractures in the 2 groups of patients was treated by inter medullary nailing. Osteoblasts in the debris of the inter medullary nailing was compared between the 2 groups of patients. The results demonstrated that histopathological specimens from reaming debris of fractured femur and tibia in patients with head injury showed osteoblasts in (82.9%) and in (27.5%) of patients with isolated long bone fractures (p < 0.001). Healing indicators in diaphyseal fractures and concomitant head injury confirm fast and adequate healing in these patients and the presence of plenty of osteoblasts in their reaming debris may reflect a proof of accelerated fracture healing environment.

  20. Histological analysis of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament insertion.

    PubMed

    Oka, Shinya; Schuhmacher, Peter; Brehmer, Axel; Traut, Ulrike; Kirsch, Joachim; Siebold, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the morphology of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) by histological assessment. The native (undissected) tibial ACL insertion of six fresh-frozen cadaveric knees was cut into four sagittal sections parallel to the long axis of the medial tibial spine. For histological evaluation, the slices were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O and Russell-Movat pentachrome. All slices were digitalized and analysed at a magnification of 20×. The anterior tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge. The most medial ACL fibres inserted from the medial tibial spine and were adjacent to the articular cartilage of the medial tibial plateau. Parts of the bony insertions of the anterior and posterior horns of the lateral meniscus were in close contact with the lateral part of the tibial ACL insertion. A small fat pad was located just posterior to the functional ACL fibres. The anterior-posterior length of the medial ACL insertion was an average of 10.8 ± 1.1 mm compared with the lateral, which was only 6.2 ± 1.1 mm (p < 0.001). There were no central or posterolateral inserting ACL fibres. The shape of the bony tibial ACL insertion was 'duck-foot-like'. In contrast to previous findings, the functional mid-substance fibres arose from the most posterior part of the 'duck-foot' in a flat and 'c-shaped' way. The most anterior part of the tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge and the most medial by the medial tibial spine. No posterolateral fibres nor ACL bundles have been found histologically. This histological investigation may improve our understanding of the tibial ACL insertion and may provide important information for anatomical ACL reconstruction.

  1. [Surgical treatment of midshaft clavicular fractures using intramedullary nail].

    PubMed

    Vlček, M; Niedoba, M; Jakubička, J; Pech, J; Kalvach, J

    2018-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess treatment outcomes in fractures of the middle part of the clavicle using an intramedullary nail. We have evaluated a total of 58 patients with a clavicle bone fracture stabilized by the Hofer Clavicula Pin implant (HCP, Hofer GmbH & Co KG, Fürstenfeld, Germany). A static implant was used in 43 cases, and a dynamic implant was used in the remaining 15. The mean age of patients was 39.1 years (range 1871, SD 4.4), the male-to-female ratio being 43:15. The right collarbone was broken in 26 patients, the left one in 32. The average time between accident and surgery was 10.2 days (range 2-19, SD 4.4). The set included 24 two-, 14 three- and 20 four-fragment fractures of the clavicle midshaft. Open reduction was used in all the cases. The implant was introduced by the indirect method: first, insertion of the pin from the fracture antegrade into the lateral fragment took place, then it was inserted retrogradely into the medial fragment. The average patient follow-up was 7.1 months (range 623, SD 5.5). X-ray signs of healing were evident in all cases, with healing occurring at 8.4 weeks on average (range 620, SD 4.1). In one case (1.7%), however, healing did not occur - refracture was diagnosed 18 days following pin extraction with no clear mechanism of injury; two more refractures were caused by a new accident. The apex of the pin was broken in four cases (6.9%). In two cases (3.4%), angulation of the pin occurred; however, full fracture healing was satisfactorily achieved. Pin prominence was observed in a total of 23 cases (39.7%), requiring premature extraction of the implant due to perforation or irritation of skin and pain in 13 (22.4%) cases. 10 cases (17.2%) of prominence were asymptomatic. Six cases with skin perforation by the implant developed clinical signs of infection, wound healing was always achieved after extraction of the pin and application of antibiotics. A very good functional finding in the shoulder joint was

  2. The effect of muscle fatigue on in vivo tibial strains.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Charles; Radeva-Petrova, Denitsa R; Finestone, Aharon; Nyska, Meir; Mendelson, Stephen; Benjuya, Nisim; Simkin, Ariel; Burr, David

    2007-01-01

    Stress fracture is a common musculoskeletal problem affecting athletes and soldiers. Repetitive high bone strains and strain rates are considered to be its etiology. The strain level necessary to cause fatigue failure of bone ex vivo is higher than the strains recorded in humans during vigorous physical activity. We hypothesized that during fatiguing exercises, bone strains may increase and reach levels exceeding those measured in the non-fatigued state. To test this hypothesis, we measured in vivo tibial strains, the maximum gastrocnemius isokinetic torque and ground reaction forces in four subjects before and after two fatiguing levels of exercise: a 2km run and a 30km desert march. Strains were measured using strain-gauged staples inserted percutaneously in the medial aspect of their mid-tibial diaphysis. There was a decrease in the peak gastrocnemius isokinetic torque of all four subjects' post-march as compared to pre-run (p=0.0001), indicating the presence of gastrocnemius muscle fatigue. Tension strains increased 26% post-run (p=0.002, 95 % confidence interval (CI) and 29% post-march (p=0.0002, 95% CI) as compared to the pre-run phase. Tension strain rates increased 13% post-run (p=0.001, 95% CI) and 11% post-march (p=0.009, 95% CI) and the compression strain rates increased 9% post-run (p=0.0004, 95% CI) and 17% post-march (p=0.0001, 95% CI). The fatigue state increases bone strains well above those recorded in rested individuals and may be a major factor in the stress fracture etiology.

  3. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Tibial Attachment Preserving Hamstring Graft without Implant on Tibial Side

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Skand; Naik, Ananta Kumar; Maheshwari, Mridul; Sandanshiv, Sumedh; Meena, Durgashankar; Arya, Rajendra K

    2018-01-01

    Background: Tibial attachment preserving hamstring graft could prevent potential problems of free graft in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction such as pull out before graft-tunnel healing or rupture before ligamentization. Different implants have been reportedly used for tibial side fixation with this technique. We investigated short-term outcome of ACL reconstruction (ACLR) with tibial attachment sparing hamstring graft without implant on the tibial side by outside in technique. Materials and Methods: Seventy nine consecutive cases of ACL tear having age of 25.7 ± 6.8 years were included after Institutional Board Approval. All subjects were male. The mean time interval from injury to surgery was of 7.5 ± 6.4 months. Hamstring tendons were harvested with open tendon stripper leaving the tibial insertion intact. The free ends of the tendons were whip stitched, quadrupled, and whip stitched again over the insertion site of hamstring with fiber wire (Arthrex). Single bundle ACLR was done by outside in technique and the femoral tunnel was created with cannulated reamer. The graft was pulled up to the external aperture of femoral tunnel and fixed with interference screw (Arthrex). The scoring was done by Lysholm, Tegner, and KT 1000 by independent observers. All cases were followed up for 2 years. Results: The mean length of quadrupled graft attached to tibia was 127.65 ± 7.5 mm, and the mean width was 7.52 ± 0.78 mm. The mean preoperative Lysholm score of 47.15 ± 9.6, improved to 96.8 ± 2.4 at 1 year. All cases except two returned to the previous level of activity after ACLR. There was no significant difference statistically between preinjury (5.89 ± 0.68) and postoperative (5.87 ± 0.67) Tegner score. The anterior tibial translation (ATT) (KT 1000) improved from 11.44 ± 1.93 mm to 3.59 ± 0.89 mm. The ATT of operated knee returned to nearly the similar value as of the opposite knee (3.47 ± 1.16 mm). The Pivot shift test was negative in all cases

  4. The Valgus Inclination of the Tibial Component Increases the Risk of Medial Tibial Condylar Fractures in Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shinji; Akagi, Masao; Asada, Shigeki; Mori, Shigeshi; Zaima, Hironori; Hashida, Masahiko

    2016-09-01

    Medial tibial condylar fractures (MTCFs) are a rare but serious complication after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Although some surgical pitfalls have been reported for MTCFs, it is not clear whether the varus/valgus tibial inclination contributes to the risk of MTCFs. We constructed a 3-dimensional finite elemental method model of the tibia with a medial component and assessed stress concentrations by changing the inclination from 6° varus to 6° valgus. Subsequently, we repeated the same procedure adding extended sagittal bone cuts of 2° and 10° in the posterior tibial cortex. Furthermore, we calculated the bone volume that supported the tibial component, which is considered to affect stress distribution in the medial tibial condyle. Stress concentrations were observed on the medial tibial metaphyseal cortices and on the anterior and posterior tibial cortices in the corner of cut surfaces in all models; moreover, the maximum principal stresses on the posterior cortex were larger than those on the anterior cortex. The extended sagittal bone cuts in the posterior tibial cortex increased the stresses further at these 3 sites. In the models with a 10° extended sagittal bone cut, the maximum principal stress on the posterior cortex increased as the tibial inclination changed from 6° varus to 6° valgus. The bone volume decreased as the inclination changed from varus to valgus. In this finite element method, the risk of MTCFs increases with increasing valgus inclination of the tibial component and with increased extension of the sagittal cut in the posterior tibial cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. David Stevenson CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Utah SALT LAKE CITY...COVERED 1 April 2013 - 31 March 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Anterolateral tibial bowing is a morbid skeletal manifestation observed in 5% of children with neurofibromatosis

  6. High tibial osteotomy in knee laxities: Concepts review and results

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jonathan G.; Neyret, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Patients with unstable, malaligned knees often present a challenging management scenario, and careful attention must be paid to the clinical history and examination to determine the priorities of treatment. Isolated knee instability treated with ligament reconstruction and isolated knee malalignment treated with periarticular osteotomy have both been well studied in the past. More recently, the effects of high tibial osteotomy on knee instability have been studied. Lateral closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy tends to reduce the posterior tibial slope, which has a stabilising effect on anterior tibial instability that occurs with ACL deficiency. Medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy tends to increase the posterior tibia slope, which has a stabilising effect in posterior tibial instability that occurs with PCL deficiency. Overall results from recent studies indicate that there is a role for combined ligament reconstruction and periarticular knee osteotomy. The use of high tibial osteotomy has been able to extend the indication for ligament reconstruction which, when combined, may ultimately halt the evolution of arthritis and preserve their natural knee joint for a longer period of time. Cite this article: Robin JG, Neyret P. High tibial osteotomy in knee laxities: Concepts review and results. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:3-11. doi: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000001. PMID:28461908

  7. The soleal line: a cause of tibial pseudoperiostitis.

    PubMed

    Levine, A H; Pais, M J; Berinson, H; Amenta, P S

    1976-04-01

    An unusually prominent soleal line (a normal anatomic variant) may mimic periosteal reaction along the posterior margin of the proximal tibial shaft. This area of pseudoperiostitis is differentiated from hyperostoses arising from the anterior tibial tubercle and the interosseous membrane. It is always associated with normal, undisturbed architecture of the underlying bone.

  8. A comparison of bicortical and intramedullary screw fixations of Jones' fractures.

    PubMed

    Husain, Zeeshan S; DeFronzo, Donna J

    2002-01-01

    Two different fixations for treatment of Jones' fracture were tested in bone models and cadaveric specimens to determine the differences in the stability of the constructs. A bicortical 3.5-mm cannulated cortical screw and an intramedullary 4.0-mm partially threaded cancellous screw were tested using physiologic loads with an Instron 8500 servohydraulic tensiometer (Instron Corporation, Canton, MA). In bone models, the bicortical construct (n = 5, 87+/-23 N) showed superior fixation strength (p = .0009) when compared to the intramedullary screw fixation (n = 5, 25+/-13 N). Cadaveric testing showed similar statistical significance (p = .0124) with the bicortical construct (n = 5, 152+/-71 N) having greater load resistance than the intramedullary screw fixation (n = 4, 29+/-20 N). In bone models, the bicortical constructs (23+/-9 N/mm) showed over twice the elastic modulus than the intramedullary screw fixations (9+/-4 N/mm) with statistical significance (p = .0115). The elastic modulus in the cadaveric group showed a similar pattern between the bicortical (19+/-17 N/mm) and intramedullary (9+/-6 N/mm) screw constructs. Analysis of the bicortical screw failure patterns revealed that screw orientation had a critical impact on fixation stability. The more distal the exit site of the bicortical screw was from the fracture site, the greater the load needed to displace the fixation.

  9. Return to Sport After Tibial Shaft Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Greg A. J.; Wood, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Acute tibial shaft fractures represent one of the most severe injuries in sports. Return rates and return-to-sport times after these injuries are limited, particularly with regard to the outcomes of different treatment methods. Objective: To determine the current evidence for the treatment of and return to sport after tibial shaft fractures. Data Sources: OVID/MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration Database, Web of Science, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Google Scholar were all searched for articles published from 1988 to 2014. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria comprised studies of level 1 to 4 evidence, written in the English language, that reported on the management and outcome of tibial shaft fractures and included data on either return-to-sport rate or time. Studies that failed to report on sporting outcomes, those of level 5 evidence, and those in non–English language were excluded. Study Design: Systematic review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Data Extraction: The search used combinations of the terms tibial, tibia, acute, fracture, athletes, sports, nonoperative, conservative, operative, and return to sport. Two authors independently reviewed the selected articles and created separate data sets, which were subsequently combined for final analysis. Results: A total of 16 studies (10 retrospective, 3 prospective, 3 randomized controlled trials) were included (n = 889 patients). Seventy-six percent (672/889) of the patients were men, with a mean age of 27.7 years. Surgical management was assessed in 14 studies, and nonsurgical management was assessed in 8 studies. Return to sport ranged from 12 to 54 weeks after surgical intervention and from 28 to 182 weeks after nonsurgical management (mean difference, 69.5 weeks; 95% CI, –83.36 to −55.64; P < 0.01). Fractures treated surgically had a return-to-sport rate of 92%, whereas those treated nonsurgically had a return rate of 67% (risk ratio, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.57; P < 0

  10. Influence of knee flexion and atraumatic mobilisation of infrapatellar fat pad on incidence and severity of anterior knee pain after tibial nailing.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Andrija; Korac, Zelimir; Bozic, Nenad-Bozo; Stedul, Ivan

    2013-09-01

    We evaluated the incidence and aetiology of anterior knee pain (AKP) in a series of patients that underwent intramedullary nailing for stabilisation of tibial fractures. During the preparation of the entry site no excision of the infrapatellar fat was allowed and electrical haemostasis was kept at the lowest level. Medullary canal was reamed and the nails inserted in position of knee flexion over 100 degrees. All fractures were fixed using medial paratendinous approach. Functional outcome was measured using Lysholm knee score. The knee range of movement and return to previous level of activity were also documented and analysed. Mean follow up was 38.9 months (range 12-84 months). In total 60 patients with 62 tibial shaft fractures were analysed. The mean age at the time of final follow up was 49.4 years (range 20-87). In 22 (35.5%) a newly developed and persisting pain in the anterior region of the operated knee was reported. According to VAP scale, the pain was mild (VAS 1-3) in 12 cases (19.4%) and moderate (VAS 4-6) in 10 (16.1%). In 16 cases (73%) the pain was noticed 6-12 months after injury and subjectively related to return to full range of working and recreational activities. The mean Lysholm knee score in the group without AKP was 90.8. In the AKP group with mild pain it was 88.4 and in the group with moderate AKP it was 79.9. Complete return to previous professional and recreational activities occurred in 49/60 patients (81.7%). Content with the treatment regarding expectations in recovery dynamics and return to desired level of activity was present in 98.3% of patients; one patient was unsatisfied with the treatment. Our results indicate that respecting the physiological motion of Hoffa pad and menisci during knee flexion, accompanied with atraumatic mobilisation of retrotendinous fat, reduces incidence and severity of anterior knee pain following intramedullary fixation of tibial shaft fractures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Knee arthrodesis for limb salvage with an intramedullary coupled nail.

    PubMed

    Senior, Colin J; da Assunção, Ruy E; Barlow, Ian W

    2008-07-01

    The demand for revision and salvage procedures after knee arthroplasty is increasing as the number of primary procedures increases. Surgical salvage techniques when revision arthroplasty is contra-indicated include above knee amputation and arthrodesis. The results of arthrodesis are functionally superior to those of amputation but not all techniques of arthrodesis are associated with good results. We present a single surgeon series of 14 consecutive patients who underwent arthrodesis of the knee with a customised intramedullary coupled nail (Mayday arthrodesis nail, Orthodesign Ltd, UK). All patients had a failed knee arthroplasty due to persistent sepsis. Pre-operative scaled radiographs were used to design and manufacture a custom-made implant for each patient. An identical surgical technique and post-operative rehabilitation regime were used in each case. The mean hospital stay was 12 days (range 6-24). Union was achieved in all but one patient at a mean of 4 months (range 3-10). One diabetic patient required subsequent above knee amputation for infected non-union. Two other patients had significant transient complications. We have found that the Mayday nail offers a straightforward, reproducible surgical option for difficult salvage surgery. Good results have been obtained in the majority of cases, avoiding the devastating consequences of above knee amputation.

  12. Arthrodesis of the knee with an intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Donley, B G; Matthews, L S; Kaufer, H

    1991-07-01

    The cases of twenty patients who had an arthrodesis in which an intramedullary nail was used for stabilization were reviewed at an average follow-up of six years. The predominant indications were infection after total knee arthroplasty and post-traumatic pain and instability. Other indications included aseptic loosening of the components of a total knee arthroplasty, reconstruction after resection of a giant-cell tumor, non-union of a fracture of the distal part of the femur or the proximal part of the tibia, and failed external-compression arthrodesis. Success was achieved in seventeen patients (85 per cent), and functional stability immediately postoperatively was gained in all twenty. Of the three patients in whom the arthrodesis failed, all had sustained an intraoperative fracture, and infection eventually developed. Of the twelve nails that were secured to the greater trochanter with a loop of stainless-steel wire, none showed evidence of proximal migration. Of the eight nails that were not thus secured, two migrated proximally, necessitating removal of the nail. Two drawbacks to this operation are the long duration and the large amount of blood that is lost. The major advantage is that a high percentage of patients have progression to a stable fusion despite serious problems. Furthermore, all but seven patients (including the six who had a tumor or who had sustained an intraoperative fracture) were able to bear full weight by the second postoperative week. Only a few patients needed an external support for walking.

  13. Intramedullary osteosynthesis versus plate osteosynthesis in subtrochanteric fractures.

    PubMed

    Burnei, C; Popescu, Gh; Barbu, D; Capraru, F

    2011-11-14

    Due to an ever-aging population and a growing prevalence of osteoporosis and motor vehicle accidents, the number of subtrochanteric fractures is increasing worldwide. The choice of the appropriate implant continues to be critical for fixation of unstable hip fractures. The subtrochanteric region has certain anatomical and biomechanical features that can make fractures in this region difficult to treat. The preferred type of device is a matter of debate. Increased understandings of biomechanical characteristics of the hip and improvement of the implant materials have reduced the incidence of complications. The surgeons choose between the two methods according to Seinsheimer's classification and also to their personal preferences. As a general principle, the open reduction and internal fixation were performed in stable fractures, and the closed reduction and internal fixation were performed in unstable fractures. The advantages of intramedullary nailing consist in a small skin incision, lower operating times, preservation of fracture hematoma and the possibility of early weight bearing. The disadvantages consist in a difficult closed reduction due to important muscular forces, although the nail can be used as a reduction instrument, and higher implant cost. In open reduction internal fixation techniques, the advantage is represented by anatomical reduction which, in our opinion, is not necessary. The disadvantages are represented by: higher operating time, demanding surgery, large devascularization, higher infection rates, late weight bearing, medial instability, refracture after plate removal and inesthetic approach.

  14. Intramedullary osteosynthesis versus plate osteosynthesis in subtrochanteric fractures

    PubMed Central

    Burnei, C; Popescu, Gh; Barbu, D; Capraru, F

    2011-01-01

    Due to an ever-aging population and a growing prevalence of osteoporosis and motor vehicle accidents, the number of subtrochanteric fractures is increasing worldwide. The choice of the appropriate implant continues to be critical for fixation of unstable hip fractures. The subtrochanteric region has certain anatomical and biomechanical features that can make fractures in this region difficult to treat. The preferred type of device is a matter of debate. Increased understandings of biomechanical characteristics of the hip and improvement of the implant materials have reduced the incidence of complications. The surgeons choose between the two methods according to Seinsheimer's classification and also to their personal preferences. As a general principle, the open reduction and internal fixation were performed in stable fractures, and the closed reduction and internal fixation were performed in unstable fractures. The advantages of intramedullary nailing consist in a small skin incision, lower operating times, preservation of fracture hematoma and the possibility of early weight bearing. The disadvantages consist in a difficult closed reduction due to important muscular forces, although the nail can be used as a reduction instrument, and higher implant cost. In open reduction internal fixation techniques, the advantage is represented by anatomical reduction which, in our opinion, is not necessary. The disadvantages are represented by: higher operating time, demanding surgery, large devascularization, higher infection rates, late weight bearing, medial instability, refracture after plate removal and inesthetic approach. PMID:22514563

  15. Pseudoelastic intramedullary nailing for tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Yakacki, Christopher M; Gall, Ken; Dirschl, Douglas R; Pacaccio, Douglas J

    2011-03-01

    Tibio-talo-calcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis is a procedure to treat severe ankle arthropathy by providing a pain-free and stable fusion. Intramedullary (IM) nails offer a method of internal fixation for TTC arthrodesis by providing compressive stability, as well as shear and torsional rigidity. IM nails have been developed to apply compression to the TTC complex during installation; however, current designs are highly susceptible to a loss of compression when exposed to small amounts of bone resorption and cyclic loading. Nickel titanium (NiTi) is a shape-memory alloy capable of recovering large amounts of deformation via shape-memory or pseudoelasticity. Currently, the next generation of IM nails is being developed to utilize the adaptive, pseudoelastic properties of NiTi and provide a fusion nail that is resistant to loss of compression or loosening. Specifically, the pseudoelastic IM nail contains an internal NiTi compression element that applies sustained compression during the course of fusion, analogous to external fixators. © 2011 Expert Reviews Ltd

  16. [Intramedullary nailing of the distal tibia illustrated with the Expert(TM) tibia nail].

    PubMed

    El Attal, R; Hansen, M; Rosenberger, R; Smekal, V; Rommens, P M; Blauth, M

    2011-12-01

    Restoration of axis, length, and rotation of the lower leg. Sufficient primary stability of the osteosynthesis for functional aftercare and to maintain joint mobility. Good bony healing in closed and open fractures. Closed and open fractures of the tibia and complete lower leg fractures distal to the isthmus (AO 42), extraarticular fractures of the distal tibia (AO 43 A1/A2/A3), segmental fractures of the tibia with a fracture in the distal tibia, and certain intraarticular fractures of the distal tibia without impression of the joint line with the use of additional implants (AO 43 C1) Patient in reduced general condition (e.g., bed ridden), flexion of the knee of less than 90°, patients with knee arthroplasty of the affected leg, infection in the area of the nail's insertion, infection of the tibial cavity, complex articular fractures of the proximal or distal tibia with joint depression. Closed reduction of the fracture preferably on a fracture table or using a distractor or an external fixation frame. If necessary, use pointed reduction clamps or sterile drapery. In some cases, additional implants like percutaneous small fragment screws, poller screws or k-wires are helpful. Open reduction is rarely necessary and must be avoided. Opening of the proximal tibia in line with the medullary canal. Canulated insertion of the Expert(TM) tibia nail (ETN; Synthes GmbH, Oberdorf, Switzerland) with reaming of the medullary canal. Control of axis, length, and rotation. Distal interlocking with the radiolucent drill and proximal interlocking with the targeting device. Immediate mobilization of ankle and knee joint. Mobilization with 20 kg weight-bearing with crutches. X-ray control 6 weeks postoperatively and increased weight-bearing depending on the fracture status. In cases with simple fractures, good bony contact, or transverse fracture pattern, full weight-bearing at the end of week 6 is targeted. Between July 2004 and May 2005, 180 patients were included in a

  17. Post-traumatic cerebral fat embolism prior to operative repair of femoral and tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Cheon; Hwang, Deuk-Soo; Shin, Hyun-Dae

    2008-02-01

    Rare cases of primary cerebral fat embolism as a postoperative complication have been reported. In addition, cerebral fat embolism occurring before operative repair without shunt lesion are more rarely reported. We report a patient with a posttraumatic cerebral fat embolism resulting in severe neurologic dysfunction without right to left shunt. A 25-year-old man was brought to the hospital immediately after a traffic accident. He sustained a right segmental femoral shaft fracture and a left tibial shaft fracture. The patient was alert with no neurological deficits. Approximately 13 hours after injury, the patient developed acute mental status deterioration and dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed extensive multifocal infarction owing to embolic showering throughout nearly the entire brain parenchyma. Computed tomography with intravenous contrast revealed no evidence of embolism in the lung, abdomen, and pelvis. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiogram revealed no circulating embolic particles or intracardiac shunt. The patient underwent closed reduction and internal fixation with a reamed intramedullary nail in the tibia and underwent open reduction and internal fixation with a reamed nail in the femur at 5 days after injury. We performed decompression of a hematoma containing a large number of lipid droplets via a small incision in the femur shaft fracture, established suction drainage of the tibia medullar cavity, and applied a tourniquet to the thigh in the tibia shaft fracture. Supportive medical treatment included endotracheal ventilatory support and tracheostomy. The patient was discharged from the hospital 50 days after admission. On follow-up 2 months later, he had returned to activities of daily living, however a speech disturbance remained.

  18. Which Surgical Treatment for Open Tibial Shaft Fractures Results in the Fewest Reoperations? A Network Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Foote, Clary J; Guyatt, Gordon H; Vignesh, K Nithin; Mundi, Raman; Chaudhry, Harman; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Thabane, Lehana; Tornetta, Paul; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-07-01

    shaft fractures. Moderate confidence evidence showed that unreamed nailing may reduce the likelihood of reoperation compared with external fixation (network odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% CI, 0.23-0.62; p < 0.05), although not necessarily compared with reamed nailing (direct OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.45-1.24; p = 0.25). Only low- or very low-quality evidence informed the primary outcome for other treatment comparisons, such as those involving internal plate fixation, Ilizarov external fixation, and Ender nailing. Method ranking based on reoperation data showed that unreamed nailing had the highest probability of being the best treatment, followed by reamed nailing, external fixation, and plate fixation. CIs around pooled estimates of malunion and infection risk were very wide, and therefore no conclusive results could be made based on these data. Current evidence suggests that intramedullary nailing may be superior to other fixation strategies for open tibial shaft fractures. Use of unreamed nails over reamed nails also may be advantageous in the setting of open fractures, but this remains to be confirmed. Unfortunately, these conclusions are based on trials that have had high risk of bias and poor precision. Larger and higher-quality head-to-head randomized controlled trials are required to confirm these conclusions and better inform clinical decision-making. Level I, therapeutic study.

  19. Concomitance of cervical intramedullary traumatic neuroma and cervical cord herniation in a tetraplegic woman.

    PubMed

    Su, Hui-Yi; Wu, Yung-Tsan; Liu, Ming-Ying; Lin, Yu-Chun; Chu, Heng-Yi; Chang, Shin-Tsu

    2013-01-01

    We present the first case of concomitant intramedullary traumatic neuroma and spinal cord herniation. A 57-year-old woman injured her cervical spine with subluxation and cord compression at the C5-C6 level. After the operation, the patient received intensive rehabilitation for one year with well response. Unfortunately, she experienced weakness and progressive numbness extending to all the limbs later. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging revealed spinal cord herniation at the C5-C6 level and pathology proved intramedullary traumatic neuroma. After the second operation, the paresthesia over the trunk and limbs persisted, and the patient was nearly totally assisted in her activities of daily living. The intramedullary traumatic neuroma and spinal cord herniation are rare causes in patients with spinal cord dysfunction. The case presented here indicates the possibility of the coexisting conditions leading to progressive neurologic deficits in patients with old spinal cord injury.

  20. [Operative treatment for complex tibial plateau fractures].

    PubMed

    Song, Qi-Zhi; Li, Tao

    2012-03-01

    To explore the surgical methods and clinical evaluation of complex tibial plateau fractures resulted from high-energy injuries. From March 2006 to May 2009,48 cases with complex tibial plateau fractures were treated with open reduction and plate fixation, including 37 males and 11 females, with an average age of 37 years (ranged from 18 to 63 years). According to Schatzker classification, 16 cases were type IV, 20 cases type V and 12 cases type VI. All patients were examined by X-ray flim and CT scan. The function of knee joint were evaluated according to postoperative follow-up X-ray and Knee Merchant Rating. Forty-eight patients were followed up with a mean time of 14 months. According to Knee Merchant Rating, 24 cases got excellent results, 16 cases good, 6 cases fair and 2 cases poor. Appropriate operation time, anatomical reduction, suitable bone graft and reasonable rehabilitation exercises can maximally recovery the function of knee joint.

  1. A Biomechanical Study of Posteromedial Tibial Plateau Fracture Stability: Do They All Require Fixation?

    PubMed

    Cuéllar, Vanessa G; Martinez, Danny; Immerman, Igor; Oh, Cheongeun; Walker, Peter S; Egol, Kenneth A

    2015-07-01

    Although the posteromedial fragment in tibial plateau fractures is often considered unstable, biomechanical evidence supporting this view is lacking. We aimed to evaluate the stability of the fragment in a cadaver model. Our hypothesis was that under the expected small axial force during rehabilitation and the combined effects of this force with shear force, internal rotation torque, and varus moment, the most common posteromedial tibial fragment morphology could maintain stability in early flexion. Axial compression force alone or combined with posterior shear, internal rotation torque, or varus moment was applied to the femurs of 5 fresh cadaveric knees. A Tekscan pressure mapping system was used to measure pressure and contact area between the femoral condyles, meniscus, and tibial plateau. A Microscribe 3D digitizer was used to define the 3-dimensional positions of the femur and tibia. A 10-mm and then a 20-mm osteotomy was created with a saw at an angle of 30 degrees in the axial plane with respect to the tangent of the posterior tibial plateau and 75 degrees in the sagittal plane, representing a typical posteromedial fracture fragment. At each flexion angle (15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 degrees) and loading condition (axial compression only, compression with shear force, torque, and varus moment), distal displacement of the medial femoral condyle and the tibial fracture fragments was determined. For the 10-mm fragment, medial femoral condyle displacement was little affected up to approximately 30-degree flexion, after which it increased. For the 20-mm fragment, there was progressive medial femoral condyle displacement with increasing flexion from baseline. However, for the 10- and 20-mm fragments themselves, displacements were noted at every flexion angle, starting at 1.7 mm inferior displacement with 15 degrees of flexion and internal rotation torque and up to 10.2 mm displacement with 90 degrees of flexion and varus bending moment. In this cadaveric model of a

  2. Isolated, extra-articular neck and shaft fractures of the 4th and 5th metacarpals: a comparison of transverse and bouquet (intra-medullary) pinning in 67 patients.

    PubMed

    Sletten, I N; Nordsletten, L; Husby, T; Ødegaard, R A; Hellund, J C; Kvernmo, H D

    2012-06-01

    Although extra-articular metacarpal fractures are common, there is no consensus on the mode of treatment. We evaluated the outcome in 67 patients operated for isolated, extra-articular fractures in the neck or shaft of the ulnar two metacarpals 28 months post-operatively. There were 22 bouquet (intra-medullary) pinnings and 45 transverse pinnings; 11 were lost to follow-up. Overall, hand function was good, and no difference was detected between the two methods (QuickDASH, grip strength, range of motion, VAS pain and VAS satisfaction). Many patients suffered complications: 12% had a superficial infection (all treated with transverse pinning with wires left exposed); 39% had some impairment in skin sensation; 29% reported cold intolerance; and 10% had other complications. Due to the potential risk of a secondary fracture of the neighbouring metacarpal after transverse pinning, we recommend bouquet (intra-medullary) pinning. We also recommend burying wires beneath the skin surface to avoid infection.

  3. Intramedullary spinal immature teratoma: resolution of quadriplegia following resection in a 4-week-old infant.

    PubMed

    Nickols, Hilary Highfield; Chambless, Lola B; Carson, Robert P; Coffin, Cheryl M; Pearson, Matthew M; Abel, Ty W

    2010-12-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord teratomas are rare entities in infants. Management of these lesions is primarily surgical, with outcome dependent on rapid surgical decompression and complete gross-total tumor resection. The lesions are typically of the mature type, with immature teratomas displaying unique pathological features. The authors report a case of an extensive intramedullary immature teratoma in an infant with resolution of quadriplegia following gross-total radical resection. At the 1-year follow-up, there was radiographic evidence of tumor, and surgical reexploration yielded portions of immature teratoma and extensive gliosis.

  4. Fixation of a human rib by an intramedullary telescoping splint anchored by bone cement.

    PubMed

    Liovic, Petar; Šutalo, Ilija D; Marasco, Silvana F

    2016-09-01

    A novel concept for rib fixation is presented that involves the use of a bioresorbable polymer intramedullary telescoping splint. Bone cement is used to anchor each end of the splint inside the medullary canal on each side of the fracture site. In this manner, rib fixation is achieved without fixation device protrusion from the rib, making the splint completely intramedullary. Finite element analysis is used to demonstrate that such a splint/cement composite can preserve rib fixation subjected to cough-intensity force loadings. Computational fluid dynamics and porcine rib experiments were used to study the anchor formation process required to complete the fixation.

  5. Intramedullary cyst formation after removal of multiple intradural spinal arachnoid cysts: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Zekaj, Edvin; Saleh, Christian; Servello, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Background: A rare cause of spinal cord compression is spinal arachnoid cysts. Symptoms are caused by spinal cord compression, however, asymptomatic patients have been also reported. Treatment options depend upon symptom severity and clinical course. Case Description: We report the case of a 47-year-old patient who developed an intramedullary arachnoid cyst after removal of an intradural extramedullary cyst. Conclusion: Surgery should be considered early in a symptomatic disease course. Longstanding medullary compression may reduce the possibility of neurological recovery as well as secondary complications such as intramedullary cyst formation. PMID:27512608

  6. Biomechanical comparison of blade plate and intramedullary nail fixation for tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Arthur T; Sundberg, Eric B; Lindsey, Derek P; Harris, Alex H S; Chou, Loretta B

    2010-02-01

    Tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis is an uncommon salvage procedure used for complex problems of the ankle and hindfoot. A biomechanical evaluation of the fixation constructs of this procedure has not been studied previously. The purpose of this study was to compare intramedullary nail to blade plate fixation in a deformity model in fatigue endurance testing and load to failure. Nine matched pairs of fresh frozen cadaveric legs underwent talectomy followed by fixation with a blade plate and 6.5-mm fully threaded cancellous screw or an ankle arthrodesis intramedullary nail. The specimens were loaded to 270 N at a rate of 3 Hz for a total of 250,000 cycles, followed by loading to failure. Intramedullary nail fixation demonstrated greater mean stiffness throughout the fatigue endurance testing, from cycles 10 through 250,000 (blade plate versus intramedullary nail; cycle 10, 93 +/- 34 N/mm versus 117 +/- 40 N/mm (t = 2.33, p = 0.04); cycle 100, 89 +/- 34 N/mm versus 118 +/- 42 N/mm (t = 3.16, p = 0.01); cycle 1000, 86 +/- 32 N/mm versus 120 +/- 45 N/mm (t = 3.52, p = 0.01); cycle 10,000, 83 +/- 36 N/mm versus 128 +/- 50 N/mm (t = 3.80, p = 0.01); cycle 100,000, 82 +/- 34 N/mm versus 126 +/- 52 N/mm (t = 3.70, p = 0.01); cycle 250,000, 80 +/- 31 N/mm versus 125 +/- 49 N/mm (t = 4.2, p = 0.003). There was no statistically significant difference between the intramedullary nail and blade plate fixation in cycle one or in load to failure; cycle 10, blade plate 70 +/- 38 N/mm and intramedullary nail 67 +/- 20 N/mm (t = 0.60, p = 0.56); load to failure, blade plate 808 +/- 193 N, IMN 1074 +/- 290 N) (p = 0.15). Intramedullary nail fixation was biomechanically superior to blade plate and screw fixation in a tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis construct. The ankle arthrodesis intramedullary nail provides greater stiffness for fixation in tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis, which may improve healing.

  7. Atrophic, aseptic, tibial nonunion: how effective is modified Judet's osteoperiosteal decortication technique and buttress plating?

    PubMed

    Binod, Bijukachhe; Nagmani, Singh; Bigyan, Bhandari; Rakesh, John; Prashant, Adhikari

    2016-08-01

    Tibial nonunion is the most common nonunion encountered by the orthopedic surgeon. Repeated surgeries, cost, increased duration of hospital stay, disability, pain all contribute to the increased morbidity. Many methods have been used to treat nonunion of tibia with variable results and none of them are 100 % successful. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of modification of Judet's decortication technique and buttress plating, without bone graft, in the treatment of aseptic, atrophic tibial nonunion. Also, to find the correlation between time of achieving union and time since injury to decortication. Ours is a retrospective study conducted at a Level I trauma center. A total of 35 cases of atrophic tibial nonunion, irrespective of the cause, was treated by modifying Judet's osteoperiosteal decortication and plating during the time period January 2006 to July 2013. Demographic data, range of motion, time of achieving union and clinico-radiological evaluation for union of fracture were included as main outcome measurements. Union was achieved in all cases with a mean duration of 8.34 months. Pain and stiffness of joints were not reported in any case on long-term follow-up and the patients had satisfactory range of motion. Implant removal was done in three cases after fracture union. Treatment of atrophic tibial nonunion is challenging and management of each nonunion has to be customized based on the biological and mechanical characteristics of the nonunion. Plating with osteoperiosteal decortication is an effective and simple technique, which in our hands has shown to result in 100 % union rates without the need of additional bone healing augmentation procedures like bone grafting. Level II.

  8. Technical note: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the presence of an intramedullary femoral nail using anteromedial drilling.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Matthew; Lamplot, Joseph; Walley, Kempland C; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Ramappa, Arun J

    2017-05-18

    To describe an approach to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using autologous hamstring by drilling via the anteromedial portal in the presence of an intramedullary (IM) femoral nail. Once preoperative imagining has characterized the proposed location of the femoral tunnel preparations are made to remove all of the hardware (locking bolts and IM nail). A diagnostic arthroscopy is performed in the usual fashion addressing all intra-articular pathology. The ACL remnant and lateral wall soft tissues are removed from the intercondylar, to provide adequate visualization of the ACL footprint. Femoral tunnel placement is performed using a transportal ACL guide with desired offset and the knee flexed to 2.09 rad. The Beath pin is placed through the guide starting at the ACL's anatomic footprint using arthroscopic visualization and/or fluoroscopic guidance. If resistance is met while placing the Beath pin, the arthroscopy should be discontinued and the obstructing hardware should be removed under fluoroscopic guidance. When the Beath pin is successfully placed through the lateral femur, it is overdrilled with a 4.5 mm Endobutton drill. If the Endobutton drill is obstructed, the obstructing hardware should be removed under fluoroscopic guidance. In this case, the obstruction is more likely during Endobutton drilling due to its larger diameter and increased rigidity compared to the Beath pin. The femoral tunnel is then drilled using a best approximation of the graft's outer diameter. We recommend at least 7 mm diameter to minimize the risk of graft failure. Autologous hamstring grafts are generally between 6.8 and 8.6 mm in diameter. After reaming, the knee is flexed to 1.57 rad, the arthroscope placed through the anteromedial portal to confirm the femoral tunnel position, referencing the posterior wall and lateral cortex. For a quadrupled hamstring graft, the gracilis and semitendinosus tendons are then harvested in the standard fashion. The tendons are whip

  9. Outcome predictors in the management of intramedullary classic ependymoma: An integrative survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinqing; Cai, Ranze; Wang, Rui; Wang, Chunhua; Chen, Chunmei

    2018-06-01

    This is a retrospective study.The aim of this study was to illustrate the survival outcomes of patients with classic ependymoma (CE) and identify potential prognostic factors.CE is the most common category of spinal ependymomas, but few published studies have discussed predictors of the survival outcome.A Boolean search of the PubMed, Embase, and OVID databases was conducted by 2 investigators independently. The objects were intramedullary grade II ependymoma according to 2007 WHO classification. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis and Log-Rank tests were performed to identify variables associated with progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS). Multivariate Cox regression was performed to assess hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version 23.0 (IBM Corp.) with statistical significance defined as P < .05.A total of 35 studies were identified, including 169 cases of CE. The mean follow-up time across cases was 64.2 ± 51.5 months. Univariate analysis showed that patients who had undergone total resection (TR) had better PFS and OS than those with subtotal resection (STR) and biopsy (P = .002, P = .004, respectively). Within either univariate or multivariate analysis (P = .000, P = .07, respectively), histological type was an independent prognostic factor for PFS of CE [papillary type: HR 0.002, 95% CI (0.000-0.073), P = .001, tanycytic type: HR 0.010, 95% CI (0.000-0.218), P = .003].It was the first integrative analysis of CE to elucidate the correlation between kinds of factors and prognostic outcomes. Definite histological type and safely TR were foundation of CE's management. 4.

  10. [Management of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: surgical considerations and results in 45 cases].

    PubMed

    Berhouma, M; Bahri, K; Houissa, S; Zemmel, I; Khouja, N; Aouidj, L; Jemel, H; Khaldi, M

    2009-06-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) are relatively rare neoplasms, accounting for less than 5% of all central nervous system tumors. The optimum management of these tumors still remains controversial. Many decades ago, partial surgical resection followed by radiotherapy was the conventional management for IMSCT. Nowadays, maximal surgical resection of IMSCT without adjuvant therapy is the rule. We discuss the management of our cohort of 45 patients and review retrospectively the surgical outcome and survival. We reviewed the charts of 45 patients who underwent surgery for IMSCT in our institution since 1990. The study included 23 female and 22 male with a mean age of 28.7 years (range: 18 months-64 years). In 40 patients, the final diagnosis was based on the results of MR imaging. The cervical location of the tumor was the most common (20 cases). Surgical procedures included a gross-total resection in 31 cases, subtotal resection in six cases, partial resection in five cases and a biopsy in three cases. The large majority of patients had histologically-proven low-grade tumors composed essentially of astrocytomas (44,4%) and ependymomas (28,8%). There was no mortality related to surgery. Concerning the functional outcome at six months, we noted that 22.2% of our patients deteriorated, 47.3% stayed the same and 30.5% improved. We found that patients with mild or no preoperative deficits were exceptionally damaged by the surgical procedure. The gold-standard treatment of IMSCT remains maximal microsurgical resection without adjuvant therapy. For malignant or rapidly recurrent IMSCT, the optimum management is still controversial. Determinant predictors for a good outcome after surgery of IMSCT are histological type of lesion, total removal of the tumor and a satisfactory neurological status before surgery.

  11. Robust identification and localization of intramedullary nail holes for distal locking using CBCT: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Kamarianakis, Z; Buliev, I; Pallikarakis, N

    2011-05-01

    Closed intramedullary nailing is a common technique for treatment of femur and tibia fractures. The most challenging step in this procedure is the precise placement of the lateral screws that stabilize the fragmented bone. The present work concerns the development and the evaluation of a method to accurately identify in the 3D space the axes of the nail hole canals. A limited number of projection images are acquired around the leg with the help of a C-arm. On two of them, the locking hole entries are interactively selected and a rough localization of the hole axes is performed. Perpendicularly to one of them, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstructions are produced. The accurate identification and localization of the hole axes are done by an identification of the centers of the nail holes on the tomograms and a further 3D linear regression through principal component analysis (PCA). Various feature-based approaches (RANSAC, least-square fitting, Hough transform) have been compared for best matching the contours and the centers of the holes on the tomograms. The robustness of the suggested method was investigated using simulations. Programming is done in Matlab and C++. Results obtained on synthetic data confirm very good localization accuracy - mean translational error of 0.14 mm (std=0.08 mm) and mean angular error of 0.84° (std=0.35°) at no radiation excess. Successful localization can be further used to guide a surgeon or a robot for correct drilling the bone along the nail openings. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased wound complication with intramedullary screw fixation of clavicle fractures: Is it thermal necrosis?

    PubMed

    Domos, Peter; Tytherleigh-Strong, Graham; Van Rensburg, Lee

    2017-01-01

    Adult mid-shaft clavicle fractures are common injuries. For displaced fractures, open reduction with plate or intramedullary (IM) fixation is the widely used techniques. All methods have their own potential drawbacks, especially related to local soft tissue complications. There is little information about outcome and management of local wound complications after clavicle fracture fixations. Ninety-seven patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation, 17 were treated with IM screw fixation and 80 with plate fixation. Wound complication occurred in eight patients (8.2%) and rates differed significantly between IM and plate fixations (29.4% vs. 3.8%). Patients were assessed on average 58.3 months with visual analogue pain scores (VASs), Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), and QuickDash (QD) score. Five patients had wound breakdown and three patients had wound erythema. In seven patients with stable fixation, it was possible to "dress and suppress" with average 3 weeks of oral antibiotics. One patient had unstable fixation and required longer antibiotic treatment with early screw removal. One patient developed a chronic discharging wound, requiring debridement and later plate removal. At final follow-up, all wounds remained healed, bony union was achieved in all. The average scores were: VAS 1, OSS 46, and QD 4.5. Good function with dry healed wound and united clavicle can be achieved. Further studies are required to investigate the difference in soft tissue complication rates, which may be due to the IM technique of retrograde drilling with a guide wire and due to aseptic thermal bone necrosis, rather than true infection.

  13. Lung adenocarcinoma presenting as intramedullary spinal cord metastasis: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Majmundar, Neil; Shao, Belinda; Assina, Rachid

    2018-06-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis (IMSCM) is a rare entity which lacks well-defined treatment guidelines, yet sees rising incidence. We report a case of a 67-year-old man who presented with severe neck pain and numbness in his right fourth and fifth digits, and was found to have a C5-7 IMSCM of previously unknown lung adenocarcinoma. He underwent gross total resection of the IMSCM, afatinib, and radiation treatment. He had full reversal of his pain and sensory deficit, and remained ambulatory without any focal neurological deficit. Additionally, we conducted a literature review of original case series of IMSCM published between 1983 and 2016, representing 138 unique cases, and discuss various treatments with a focus on surgical resection and general treatment of stage IV lung adenocarcinoma. 18.75% of cases of IMSCM were an initial presentation of underlying malignancy. Rapidly progressive pain and weakness was the most common presentation, often compromising ambulatory status. Median survival ranged from 3.8 to 11.6 months after treatment in patients who were deceased at time of publication. Treatments included corticosteroids, chemotherapy, various radiotherapies, and surgical resection. Surgical resection was found to greatly improve symptoms and preserve ambulatory status, and was associated with increased survival time up to double that of non-surgical treatments. Most authors recommended surgical resection only in symptomatic patients with reversible deficits, to palliate symptoms and preserve ambulation. IMSCM can herald an underlying malignancy, and surgical resection can preserve ambulatory status and palliate symptoms as well increase survival time in a subset of patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one tibial tunnel provides equal stability compared to two tibial tunnels.

    PubMed

    Drews, Björn Holger; Seitz, Andreas Martin; Huth, Jochen; Bauer, Gerhard; Ignatius, Anita; Dürselen, Lutz

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) double-bundle reconstruction with one tibial tunnel displays the same in vitro stability as a conventional double-bundle reconstruction with two tibial tunnels when using the same tensioning protocol. In 11 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees, ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one and two tibial tunnels was performed. The two grafts were tightened using 80 N in different flexion angles (anteromedial-bundle at 60° and posterolateral-bundle at 15°). Anterior tibial translation (134 N) and translation with combined rotatory and valgus loads (10 Nm valgus stress and 4 Nm internal tibial torque) were determined at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° flexion. Measurements were taken in intact ACL, resected ACL, three-tunnel reconstruction and four-tunnel reconstruction. Additionally, the tension on the grafts was determined. Student's t test was performed for statistical analysis of the related samples. Significance was set at p < 0.017 according to Bonferroni correction. The two reconstructive techniques displayed no significant differences in comparison with the intact ACL in anterior tibial translation at 0°, 60° and 90° of flexion. The same results were obtained for the anterior tibial translation with a combined rotatory load at 60° and 90°. When directly comparing both reconstructive techniques, there were no significant differences for the anterior tibial translation and combined rotatory load at all flexion angles. The measured tension on grafts displayed similar load sharing between both bundles. Except at full extension, both grafts displayed a significantly different tension increase under anterior tibial translation for both techniques (p = 0.0086). Tightening both bundles in ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one or two tibial tunnels in different flexion angles achieved comparable restoration of stability, although there was different load sharing on the bundles

  15. Arthrodesis in septic knees using a long intramedullary nail: 17 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Leroux, B; Aparicio, G; Fontanin, N; Ohl, X; Madi, K; Dehoux, E; Diallo, S

    2013-06-01

    Intramedullary nailing using long or modular nails is the most reliable mean of achieving femorotibial fusion. Here, we report the operative, clinical, functional, and radiological outcomes of 17 long intramedullary nail arthodeses in patients with infection. Clinical and functional outcomes after long intramedullary nailing are at least as good as those obtained using other implants. We retrospectively reevaluated 17 patients after unilateral two-stage knee arthrodesis with a long titanium intramedullary nail and autologous bone grafting. We evaluated satisfaction, leg length discrepancy, and function (Lequesne and WOMAC indices). Radiographs were obtained to assess fusion, time to fusion, and femorotibial angles. No cases of material failure were recorded. One or more complications occurred in seven patients. Mean limb shortening was 27.6mm. Of the 17 patients, 15 were satisfied with the procedure. The mean Lequesne index was 10.5/24 and the mean overall WOMAC score was 26/88. Fusion was achieved in 16 patients, with a mean time to fusion of 5 months. Mean femorotibial angles were 178.6° of varus and 1.9° of flexion. This simple and rapid surgical technique provides functional outcomes similar to those obtained using modular nails. The fusion rate is high. Nail extraction is simple and causes minimal damage, in contrast to modular nails. Increased attention to misalignment is needed. Level IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [Knee arthrodesis performed with intramedullary nailing technique in failed total knee replacement--a preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Gaździk, Tadeusz Szymon; Kotas-Strzoda, Justyna; Bozek, Marek

    2004-01-01

    Knee arthrodesis is the method of choice in treatment of failed total knee replacement. It is recommended when revisory total knee replacement is impossible. The authors present 2 cases of knee fusions using intramedullary nails after prosthesis loosening (1 aseptic, 1 septic). In both cases good results were achieved, with no complications observed during convalescence.

  17. Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with a compressive retrograde intramedullary nail: a report of 34 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Niinimäki, Tuukka Timo; Klemola, Tero-Matti; Leppilahti, Juhana Ilmari

    2007-04-01

    Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis is a treatment modality for severe arthrosis and malalignment of the hindfoot. Complications, such as delayed union and nonunion, are well-known risks of the procedure. Arthrodesis can be done with a plate, screws, an external fixator, or an intramedullary nail. Compression with an intramedullary nail was the focus of this report. Thirty-four consecutive patients (23 men and 11 women) with an average age range of 57 (range 25-77) years had tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis using retrograde intramedullary compression nail fixation. Mean followup was 24 (range 6 to 43) months. One patient died of an unrelated cause, but 30 (91%) of the remaining 33 patients answered the questionnaire. Bony consolidation was achieved in 26 (76%) patients, the mean time to fusion being 16 weeks. Five patients (15%) had complications and seven (20%) had repeat surgery. Of the 30 patients who responded to the questionnaire, three patients (10%) evaluated the overall result subjectively as being of no benefit and 27 (90%) as improved. The visual analog scale (VAS) score for preoperative pain was 66 at rest and 83 when walking, and the mean postoperative scores were 19 and 32, respectively (p<0.001). Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with a compressive retrograde intramedullary nail is an effective and safe procedure for patients with severe malalignment or arthrosis of the hindfoot. It is essentially a salvage procedure, and most patients benefit from it, but excellent results are rare.

  18. Management of comminuted proximal ulna fracture-dislocations using a multiplanar locking intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Scott G; Argintar, Evan; Lamb, Joshua

    2011-06-01

    Intramedullary nails have been used for the fixation of olecranon fractures in an attempt to reduce the soft tissue irritation and resulting need for hardware removal seen with plating and tension banding. Further benefits include preservation of vascular supply, and increase stability and improved compression over some alternative techniques. Most intramedullary nails have been limited to simple olecranon fractures or osteotomies. One novel multiplanar, locking intramedullary nail, however, is indicated to stabilize all fracture patterns of the proximal ulna, including the coronoid. This particular locking nail has screws that radiate in multiple planes and form a fixed-angle lattice throughout the bone. The nail also has fixed-angle screws dedicated to the 3 parts of the coronoid: process tip, medial facet, and medial wall. This allows the nail to secure multiple fragments regardless of the fracture pattern's extent of instability. The objective of this article is to illustrate the recommended steps in reducing and stabilizing a comminuted proximal ulna fracture-dislocation using this multiplanar locking intramedullary nail.

  19. Tibial stress fracture after computer-navigated total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Massai, F; Conteduca, F; Vadalà, A; Iorio, R; Basiglini, L; Ferretti, A

    2010-06-01

    A correct alignment of the tibial and femoral component is one of the most important factors determining favourable long-term results of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The accuracy provided by the use of the computer navigation systems has been widely described in the literature so that their use has become increasingly popular in recent years; however, unpredictable complications, such as displaced or stress femoral or tibial fractures, have been reported to occur a few weeks after the operation. We present a case of a stress tibial fracture that occurred after a TKA performed with the use of a computer navigation system. The stress fracture, which eventually healed without further complications, occurred at one of the pinhole sites used for the placement of the tibial trackers.

  20. Histological Analysis of the Tibial Anterior Cruciate Ligament Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Siebold, Rainer; Oka, Shinya; Traut, Ulrike; Schuhmacher, Peter; Kirsch, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the morphology of the tibial ACL insertion by histological assessment in the sagittal plane. Methods: For histology the native (undissected) tibial ACL insertion of 6 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees was cut into 4 sagittal sections parallel to the long axis of the medial tibial spine. The slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O and Russell-Movat pentachrome. All slices were digitalized and analyzed at a magnification of ×20. Results: From medial to lateral the anterior-posterior lengths of the ACL insertion were an average of 10.2, 9.3, 7.6 and 5.8 mm. The anterior margin of the tibial ACL insertion raised from an anterior ridge. The most medial ACL fibers rose along with a peak of the anterior part of the medial tibial spine in which the direct insertion was adjacent to the articular cartilage. Parts of the bony insertions of the anterior and posterior horns of the lateral meniscus were in close contact to the lateral ACL insertion. A small fat pad was located just posterior to the tibial ACL insertion. There were no central or posterolateral inserting ACL fibers in the area intercondylaris anterior. Conclusion: The functional intraligamentous midsubstance ACL fibers arose from the most posterior part of its bony tibial insertion in a flat and “C-shape” way. The anterior border of this functional ACL started from a bony ‘anterior ridge’ and the medial border was along with a peak of the medial tibial spine.

  1. Physeal growth arrest after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Bilateral tibial lengthening has become one of the standard treatments for upper segment-lower segment disproportion and to improve quality of life in achondroplasia. We determined the effect of tibial lengthening on the tibial physis and compared tibial growth that occurred at the physis with that in non-operated patients with acondroplasia. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of serial radiographs until skeletal maturity in 23 achondroplasia patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening before skeletal maturity (lengthening group L) and 12 achondroplasia patients of similar height and age who did not undergo tibial lengthening (control group C). The mean amount of lengthening of tibia in group L was 9.2 cm (lengthening percentage: 60%) and the mean age at the time of lengthening was 8.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.8 years. Results Skeletal maturity (fusion of physis) occurred at 15.2 years in group L and at 16.0 years in group C. The actual length of tibia (without distraction) at skeletal maturity was 238 mm in group L and 277 mm in group C (p = 0.03). The mean growth rates showed a decrease in group L relative to group C from about 2 years after surgery. Physeal closure was most pronounced on the anterolateral proximal tibial physis, with relative preservation of the distal physis. Interpretation Our findings indicate that physeal growth rate can be disturbed after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia, and a close watch should be kept for such an occurrence—especially when lengthening of more than 50% is attempted. PMID:22489887

  2. Measurement of Posterior Tibial Slope Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Elham; Norouzian, Mohsen; Birjandinejad, Ali; Zandi, Reza; Makhmalbaf, Hadi

    2017-11-01

    Posterior tibial slope (PTS) is an important factor in the knee joint biomechanics and one of the bone features, which affects knee joint stability. Posterior tibial slope has impact on flexion gap, knee joint stability and posterior femoral rollback that are related to wide range of knee motion. During high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery, proper retaining the mechanical and anatomical axis is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of posterior tibial slope in medial and lateral compartments of tibial plateau and to assess the relationship among the slope with age, gender and other variables of tibial plateau surface. This descriptive study was conducted on 132 healthy knees (80 males and 52 females) with a mean age of 38.26±11.45 (20-60 years) at Imam Reza hospital in Mashhad, Iran. All patients, selected and enrolled for MRI in this study, were admitted for knee pain with uncertain clinical history. According to initial physical knee examinations the study subjects were reported healthy. The mean posterior tibial slope was 7.78± 2.48 degrees in the medial compartment and 6.85± 2.24 degrees in lateral compartment. No significant correlation was found between age and gender with posterior tibial slope ( P ≥0.05), but there was significant relationship among PTS with mediolateral width, plateau area and medial plateau. Comparison of different studies revealed that the PTS value in our study is different from other communities, which can be associated with genetic and racial factors. The results of our study are useful to PTS reconstruction in surgeries.

  3. The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, S J; Gould, R N; Lee, Y F; Schmidt, D A; Hargens, A R

    1982-01-01

    The medial tibial stress syndrome is a symptom complex seen in athletes who complain of exercise-induced pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of the tibia. Intramuscular pressures within the posterior compartments of the leg were measured in 12 patients with this disorder. These pressures were not elevated and therefore this syndrome is a not a compartment syndrome. Available information suggests that the medial tibial stress syndrome most likely represents a periostitis at this location of the leg.

  4. Percutaneous Intramedullary Screw Fixation of Distal Fibula Fractures: A Case Series and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Loukachov, Vladimir V; Birnie, Merel F N; Dingemans, Siem A; de Jong, Vincent M; Schepers, Tim

    The current reference standard for unstable ankle fractures is open reduction and internal fixation using a plate and lag screws. This approach requires extensive dissection and wound complications are not uncommon. The use of intramedullary screw fixation might overcome these issues. The aim of our study was to provide an overview of the published data regarding intramedullary screw fixation of fibula fractures combined with a small consecutive case series. We performed a search of published studies to identify the studies in which fibula fractures were treated with percutaneous intramedullary screw fixation. Additionally, all consecutive patients treated for an unstable ankle fracture in a level 1 trauma center using an intramedullary screw were retrospectively included. The literature search identified 6 studies with a total of 180 patients. Wound infection was seen in 1 patient (0.6%), anatomic reduction was achieved in 168 patients (93.3%), and a loss of reduction was seen in 2 patients (1.1%). Implant removal was deemed necessary in 3 patients (1.7%) and nonunion was seen is 2 patients (1.1%). A total of 11 patients, in whom no wound complications occurred, were included in our study. The follow-up duration was a minimum of 12 months. A secondary dislocation was seen in 1 patient, and delayed union was observed after 7.5 months in 1 other patient. In conclusion, intramedullary screw fixation is a safe and adequate method to use for fibula fractures, with a low risk of wound complications. Additional research regarding functional outcome is warranted. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Results of femoral lengthening over an intramedullary nail and external fixator].

    PubMed

    Jasiewicz, Barbara; Kacki, Wojciech; Tesiorowski, Maciej; Potaczek, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    Current techniques of operative limb lengthening usually are based on distraction osteogenesis. One of the techniques is limb lengthening over an intramedullary nail. The goal of this study is to evaluate the results of femoral lengthening over an intramedullary nail. Between 1999 and 200619 femoral "over nail" lengthenings were performed. There were 7 males and 12 females. Mean patients' age at surgery was 15.8 years, and mean initial femoral shortening was 5.1 cm. Operative technique consisted of one-stage implantation of intramedullary nail and external fixator. Ilizarov apparatus was used in 9 patients, monolateral fixator in 10 cases--ORTHOFIX in 9 patients, Wagner fixator--in 1 patient. Intramedullary nail was locked proximally with screws or Schanz pins from external fixator. After distraction phase, external fixator was removed and distal locking screws were applied. Evaluation criteria: obtained lengthening, time of external fixator, treatment time, healing index, external fixation index, range of motion in hip and knee joints and complications according to Paley. The mean lengthening was 4.6 cm, and mean distraction time was 66.6 days. Mean time of external fixation was 115.5 days, and external fixation index was 26.2 days for centimeter. Healing index was 36.9 days for centimeter. In cases with monolateral fixator, healing index did not differ with the whole group. During treatment 18 complications occurred, for a rate of 0.9 complication per segment. Lengthening over an intramedullary nail reduces the time of external fixator. Over nail femoral lengthening can prevent axis deviation following regenerate bending. Complication rate is similar to lengthenings with the classic Ilizarov technique. There are no differences in the treatment time in relation to the type of external fixator.

  6. [Comparison of mid-term surgical results between plate and intramedullary nail for humeral shaft fracture].

    PubMed

    Zhao, G; Liu, H N; Li, N; He, L; Wu, X B

    2016-10-11

    Objective: To evaluate the mid-term clinical efficacy of plate and intramedullary nail for humeral shaft fracture. Methods: In this retrospective study a total of 122 patients with humeral shaft fracture were divided into 2 groups according to surgery type from May 2010 to July 2012. There were 63 patients in plate group and 59 patients in intramedullary nail group. The factors related to the operation for each group were compared respectively. The clinical outcome was evaluated by the Neer scores, Myao scores and EuroQol 5 dimensions scores (EQ-5D). All the patients were followed up periodically in the next 3 years. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups on hospital stay and time of returning to work ( P >0.05). While the operation time, amount of intraoperative blood loss and complication rate were less in intramedullary nail group. The mean follow-up duration was (41.2±4.2) months in plate group and (42.1±4.7) months in intramedullary nail group respectively. At the last follow-up the postoperative Neer scores, Myao scores and EQ-5D scores showed no significant differences between the 2 groups[Neer: (93.8±6.1) vs(92.1±4.2); Myao: (94.9±2.9) vs(96.2±1.5), P >0.05]. There were no cases complicated with nonunion, delayed union, infection and deformity during the follow-up period. Conclusions: The mid-term outcome of open reduction and internal fixation with plate and close reduction with intramedullary nail for humeral shaft fracture is satisfactory. Although both surgeries are safe and effective, they also have some defaults. The doctors should choose the right surgery carefully according to the actual situation of the patients.

  7. Understanding the etiology of the posteromedial tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Charles; Burr, David B; Finestone, Aharon S; Voloshin, Arkady

    2015-09-01

    Previous human in vivo tibial strain measurements from surface strain gauges during vigorous activities were found to be below the threshold value of repetitive cyclical loading at 2500 microstrain in tension necessary to reduce the fatigue life of bone, based on ex vivo studies. Therefore it has been hypothesized that an intermediate bone remodeling response might play a role in the development of tibial stress fractures. In young adults tibial stress fractures are usually oblique, suggesting that they are the result of failure under shear strain. Strains were measured using surface mounted unstacked 45° rosette strain gauges on the posterior aspect of the flat medial cortex just below the tibial midshaft, in a 48year old male subject while performing vertical jumps, staircase jumps and running up and down stadium stairs. Shear strains approaching 5000 microstrain were recorded during stair jumping and vertical standing jumps. Shear strains above 1250 microstrain were recorded during runs up and down stadium steps. Based on predictions from ex vivo studies, stair and vertical jumping tibial shear strain in the test subject was high enough to potentially produce tibial stress fracture subsequent to repetitive cyclic loading without necessarily requiring an intermediate remodeling response to microdamage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bilateral Posterior Tibial Tendon and Flexor Digitorum Longus Dislocations.

    PubMed

    Padegimas, Eric M; Beck, David M; Pedowitz, David I

    2017-04-01

    The authors present a case of a previously healthy and athletic 17-year-old female who presented with a 3.5-year history of medial left ankle pain after sustaining an inversion injury while playing basketball. Prior to presentation, she had failed prior immobilization and physical therapy for a presumed ankles sprain. Physical examination revealed a dislocated posterior tibial tendon (PTT) that was temporarily reducible, but would spontaneously dislocate immediately after reduction. She had pain and snapping of the PTT with resisted ankle plantar flexion and resisted inversion as well as 4/5 strength in ankle inversion. The diagnosis of dislocated PTT was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The patient underwent suture anchor repair of the medial retinaculum of the left ankle. At the time of surgery both the PTT and flexor digitorum longus (FDL) were dislocated. Three months postoperatively, the patient represented with PTT dislocation of the right (nonoperative) ankle confirmed by MRI. After failure of immobilization, physical therapy, and oral anti-inflammatory medications, the patient underwent suture anchor repair of the medial retinaculum of the right ankle. At 6 months postoperatively, the patient has 5/5 strength inversion bilaterally, no subluxation of either PTT, and has returned to all activities without limitation. The authors present this unique case of bilateral PTT dislocation and concurrent PTT/FDL dislocation along with review of the literature for PTT dislocation. The authors highlight the common misdaiganosis of this injury and highlight the successful results of surgical intervention. Level V: Case report.

  9. Increased revision rate with posterior tibial tunnel placement after using the 70-degree tibial guide in ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Inderhaug, Eivind; Raknes, Sveinung; Østvold, Thomas; Solheim, Eirik; Strand, Torbjørn

    2017-01-01

    To map knee morphology radiographically in a population with a torn ACL and to investigate whether anatomic factors could be related to outcomes after ACL reconstruction at mid- to long-term follow-up. Further, we wanted to assess tibial tunnel placement after using the 70-degree "anti-impingement" tibial tunnel guide and investigate any relation between tunnel placement and revision surgery. Patients undergoing ACL reconstruction involving the 70-degree tibial guide from 2003 to 2008 were included. Two independent investigators analysed pre- and post-operative radiographs. Demographic data and information on revision surgery were collected from an internal database. Anatomic factors and post-operative tibial tunnel placements were investigated as predictors of revision. Three-hundred and seventy-seven patients were included in the study. A large anatomic variation with significant differences between men and women was seen. None of the anatomic factors could be related to a significant increase in revision rate. Patients with a posterior tibial tunnel placement, defined as 50 % or more posterior on the Amis and Jakob line, did, however, have a higher risk of revision surgery compared to patients with an anterior tunnel placement (P = 0.03). Use of the 70-degree tibial guide did result in a high incidence (47 %) of posterior tibial tunnel placements associated with an increased rate of revision surgery. The current study was, however, not able to identify any anatomic variation that could be related to a higher risk of revision surgery. Avoiding graft impingement from the femoral roof in anterior tibial tunnel placements is important, but the insight that overly posterior tunnel placement can lead to inferior outcome should also be kept in mind when performing ACL surgery. IV.

  10. Coronal tibial slope is associated with accelerated knee osteoarthritis: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Driban, Jeffrey B; Stout, Alina C; Duryea, Jeffrey; Lo, Grace H; Harvey, William F; Price, Lori Lyn; Ward, Robert J; Eaton, Charles B; Barbe, Mary F; Lu, Bing; McAlindon, Timothy E

    2016-07-19

    Accelerated knee osteoarthritis may be a unique subset of knee osteoarthritis, which is associated with greater knee pain and disability. Identifying risk factors for accelerated knee osteoarthritis is vital to recognizing people who will develop accelerated knee osteoarthritis and initiating early interventions. The geometry of an articular surface (e.g., coronal tibial slope), which is a determinant of altered joint biomechanics, may be an important risk factor for incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis. We aimed to determine if baseline coronal tibial slope is associated with incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis or common knee osteoarthritis. We conducted a case-control study using data and images from baseline and the first 4 years of follow-up in the Osteoarthritis Initiative. We included three groups: 1) individuals with incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis, 2) individuals with common knee osteoarthritis progression, and 3) a control group with no knee osteoarthritis at any time. We did 1:1:1 matching for the 3 groups based on sex. Weight-bearing, fixed flexion posterior-anterior knee radiographs were obtained at each visit. One reader manually measured baseline coronal tibial slope on the radiographs. Baseline femorotibial angle was measured on the radiographs using a semi-automated program. To assess the relationship between slope (predictor) and incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis or common knee osteoarthritis (outcomes) compared with no knee osteoarthritis (reference outcome), we performed multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusted for sex. The mean baseline slope for incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis, common knee osteoarthritis, and no knee osteoarthritis were 3.1(2.0), 2.7(2.1), and 2.6(1.9); respectively. A greater slope was associated with an increased risk of incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis (OR = 1.15 per degree, 95 % CI = 1.01 to 1.32) but not common knee osteoarthritis (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI = 0

  11. Biomechanical Comparison of an Intramedullary and Extramedullary Free-Tissue Graft Reconstruction of the Acromioclavicular Joint Complex

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Rishi; Javidan, Pooya; Lee, Thay Q.

    2013-01-01

    Background Several different surgical techniques have been described to address the coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments in acromioclavicular (AC) joint injuries. However, very few techniques focus on reconstructing the AC ligaments, despite its importance in providing stability. The purpose of our study was to compare the biomechanical properties of two free-tissue graft techniques that reconstruct both the AC and CC ligaments in cadaveric shoulders, one with an extramedullary AC reconstruction and the other with an intramedullary AC reconstruction. We hypothesized intramedullary AC reconstruction will provide greater anteroposterior translational stability and improved load to failure characteristics than an extramedullary technique. Methods Six matched cadaveric shoulders underwent translational testing at 10 N and 15 N in the anteroposterior and superoinferior directions, under AC joint compression loads of 10 N, 20 N, and 30 N. After the AC and CC ligaments were transected, one of the specimens was randomly assigned the intramedullary free-tissue graft reconstruction while its matched pair received the extramedullary graft reconstruction. Both reconstructed specimens then underwent repeat translational testing, followed by load to failure testing, via superior clavicle distraction, at a rate of 50 mm/min. Results Intramedullary reconstruction provided significantly greater translational stability in the anteroposterior direction than the extramedullary technique for four of six loading conditions (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in translational stability in the superoinferior direction for any loading condition. The intramedullary reconstructed specimens demonstrated improved load to failure characteristics with the intramedullary reconstruction having a lower deformation at yield and a higher ultimate load than the extramedullary reconstruction (p < 0.05). Conclusions Intramedullary reconstruction of the AC joint provides greater stability in the

  12. Computational comparison of tibial diaphyseal fractures fixed with various degrees of prebending of titanium elastic nails and with and without end caps.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Nien; Lee, Pei-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Han; Chang, Chih-Wei; Ho, Yi-Hung; Li, Chun-Ting; Peng, Yao-Te

    2016-10-01

    Elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) is a treatment strategy for the management of diaphyseal long-bone fractures in adolescents and children, but few studies have investigated the mechanical stability of tibial diaphyseal fractures treated with various degrees of prebending of the elastic nails. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the mechanical stability, including the gap deformation and nail dropping, of a tibia fracture with various fracture sites and fixed with various degrees of prebending of the elastic nails by the finite element method. Furthermore, the contribution of end caps to stability was taken into consideration in the simulation. A tibia model was developed with a transverse fracture at the proximal, middle and distal parts of the diaphysis, and fixed with three degrees of prebending of elastic nails, including those equal to, two times and three times the diameter of the intramedullary canal. The outer diameter of the nail used in the computation was 3.5mm, and the fractured tibia was fixed with two elastic double C-type nails. Furthermore, the proximal end of each nail was set to free or being tied to the surrounding bone by a constraint equation to simulate with or without using end caps. The results indicated that using end caps can prevent the fracture gap from collapsing by stopping the ends of the nails from dropping back in all prebending conditions and fracture patterns, and increasing the prebending of the nails to a degree three times the diameter of the canal reduced the gap shortening and the dropping distance of the nail end in those without using end caps under axial compression and bending. Insufficient prebending of the nails and not using end caps caused the gap to collapse and the nail to drop back at the entry point under loading. Using end caps or increasing the prebending of the nails to three times the diameter of the canal is suggested to stop the nail from dropping back and thus produce a more stable

  13. Intramedullary Recurrence of a Thoracic Meningioma-Presentation of an Unusual Case and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Matthew A; Ramayya, Ashwin G; Geiger, Geoffrey A; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle; Nasrallah, MacLean P; Welch, William C; Ozturk, Ali K

    2016-08-01

    Spinal meningiomas are typically extra-axial, slow-growing, benign tumors that arise from the arachnoid cap cells. Intramedullary spinal meningiomas are exceedingly rare with few cases reported in the literature. A 64-year-old man with a history of grade I thoracic meningioma at the T4 level resected initially in 1989 and who required reoperation in 2013 for intradural, extramedullary recurrence of tumor presented again in 2015 with gait difficulty. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a soft tissue mass at the T3 to T4 levels on the left side of the canal that was mildly enhancing on T1 contrasted sequences. The patient was taken to the operating room, where a purely intramedullary recurrence was discovered without extramedullary extension or a dural-based attachment. The intramedullary tumor was completely resected, and postoperatively the patient recovered well and was at his neurologic baseline. The patient ultimately underwent proton beam radiotherapy because this tumor, although benign, had recurred twice. Intramedullary spinal meningiomas, particularly intramedullary low-grade recurrence of a previously extramedullary tumor, are rare phenomena. Although the pathogenic mechanisms are not well understood, intramedullary recurrence as described in this patient may reflect extrinsic factors related to prior surgical resections in addition to histologic progression. When operating on recurrent extramedullary lesions, aggressive arachnoid dissection may predispose patients to unusual patterns of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Shape optimization of tibial prosthesis components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    NASA technology and optimal design methodologies originally developed for the optimization of composite structures (engine blades) are adapted and applied to the optimization of orthopaedic knee implants. A method is developed enabling the shape tailoring of the tibial components of a total knee replacement implant for optimal interaction within the environment of the tibia. The shape of the implant components are optimized such that the stresses in the bone are favorably controlled to minimize bone degradation, to improve the mechanical integrity of the implant/interface/bone system, and to prevent failures of the implant components. A pilot tailoring system is developed and the feasibility of the concept is demonstrated and evaluated. The methodology and evolution of the existing aerospace technology from which this pilot optimization code was developed is also presented and discussed. Both symmetric and unsymmetric in-plane loading conditions are investigated. The results of the optimization process indicate a trend toward wider and tapered posts as well as thicker backing trays. Unique component geometries were obtained for the different load cases.

  15. Preserving the PCL during the tibial cut in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, G; Sessa, P; Amato, M; Ripani, F R; Giannicola, G

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the PCL insertion may be damaged during the tibial cut performed in total knee arthroplasty. We investigated the maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserves the PCL insertion and to what extent the posterior slope of the tibial cut and that of the patient's tibial plateaus affect the outcome. MR images of 83 knees were analysed. The maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserves the PCL using a posterior slope of 0°, 3°, 5° and parallel to the patient's slope of the tibial plateau, was evaluated. Correlations between the results and the degrees of the posterior slope of the patient's tibial plateaus were also investigated. The maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserves the entire PCL insertion was, on average, 5.5, 4.7, 4.2 and 3.1 mm when a posterior slope of 0°, 3°, 5° and parallel to the patients' tibial plateaus was used, respectively. When the 25th percentile was considered, the maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserved the PCL was 4 and 3 mm with a tibial cut of 0° and 5° of posterior slope, respectively. The maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserved the PCL was significantly greater in patients with a sagittal slope of the tibial plateaus more than 8° than in those with a sagittal slope less than 8°. In cruciate retaining implants, the PCL insertion may be spared in the majority of patients by performing a tibial cut of 4 mm, or even less when a posterior slope of 3°-5° is used. The clinical relevance of our study is that the execution of a conservative tibial cut, followed by a second tibial resection to achieve the thickness required for the tibial component to be implanted, may be an alternative technique to spare the PCL in CR TKA. II.

  16. Intramedullary Mg2Ag nails augment callus formation during fracture healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Jähn, Katharina; Saito, Hiroaki; Taipaleenmäki, Hanna; Gasser, Andreas; Hort, Norbert; Feyerabend, Frank; Schlüter, Hartmut; Rueger, Johannes M; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Hesse, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Intramedullary stabilization is frequently used to treat long bone fractures. Implants usually remain unless complications arise. Since implant removal can become technically very challenging with the potential to cause further tissue damage, biodegradable materials are emerging as alternative options. Magnesium (Mg)-based biodegradable implants have a controllable degradation rate and good tissue compatibility, which makes them attractive for musculoskeletal research. Here we report for the first time the implantation of intramedullary nails made of an Mg alloy containing 2% silver (Mg2Ag) into intact and fractured femora of mice. Prior in vitro analyses revealed an inhibitory effect of Mg2Ag degradation products on osteoclast differentiation and function with no impair of osteoblast function. In vivo, Mg2Ag implants degraded under non-fracture and fracture conditions within 210days and 133days, respectively. During fracture repair, osteoblast function and subsequent bone formation were enhanced, while osteoclast activity and bone resorption were decreased, leading to an augmented callus formation. We observed a widening of the femoral shaft under steady state and regenerating conditions, which was at least in part due to an uncoupled bone remodeling. However, Mg2Ag implants did not cause any systemic adverse effects. These data suggest that Mg2Ag implants might be promising for intramedullary fixation of long bone fractures, a novel concept that has to be further investigated in future studies. Biodegradable implants are promising alternatives to standard steel or titanium implants to avoid implant removal after fracture healing. We therefore developed an intramedullary nail using a novel biodegradable magnesium-silver-alloy (Mg2Ag) and investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of the implants on bone remodeling under steady state and fracture healing conditions in mice. Our results demonstrate that intramedullary Mg2Ag nails degrade in vivo over time without

  17. Effect of tibial plateau leveling on stability of the canine cranial cruciate-deficient stifle joint: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Reif, Ullrich; Hulse, Donald A; Hauptman, Joe G

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of tibial plateau leveling on joint motion in canine stifle joints in which the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) had been severed. In vitro cadaver study. Six canine cadaver hind legs. Radiographs of the stifle joints were made to evaluate the tibial plateau angle with respect to the long axis of the tibia. The specimens were mounted in a custom-made testing device to measure cranio-caudal translation of the tibia with respect to the femur. An axial load was applied to the tibia, and its position was recorded in the normal stifle, after transection of the CCL, and after tibial plateau leveling. Further, the amount of caudal tibial thrust was measured in the tibial plateau leveled specimen while series of eight linearly increasing axial tibial loads were applied. Transection of the CCL resulted in cranial tibial translation when axial tibial load was applied. After tibial plateau leveling, axial loading resulted in caudal translation of the tibia. Increasing axial tibial load caused a linear increase in caudal tibial thrust in all tibial plateau-leveled specimens. After tibial plateau leveling, axial tibial load generates caudal tibial thrust, which increases if additional axial load is applied. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy may prevent cranial translation during weight bearing in dogs with CCL rupture by converting axial load into caudal tibial thrust. The amount of caudal tibial thrust seems to be proportional to the amount of weight bearing. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  18. Proximal tibial fracture following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: a biomechanical analysis of the tibial tunnel as a stress riser.

    PubMed

    Aldebeyan, Wassim; Liddell, Antony; Steffen, Thomas; Beckman, Lorne; Martineau, Paul A

    2017-08-01

    This is the first biomechanical study to examine the potential stress riser effect of the tibial tunnel or tunnels after ACL reconstruction surgery. In keeping with literature, the primary hypothesis tested in this study was that the tibial tunnel acts as a stress riser for fracture propagation. Secondary hypotheses were that the stress riser effect increases with the size of the tunnel (8 vs. 10 mm), the orientation of the tunnel [standard (STT) vs. modified transtibial (MTT)], and with the number of tunnels (1 vs. 2). Tibial tunnels simulating both single bundle hamstring graft (8 mm) and bone-patellar tendon-bone graft (10 mm) either STT or MTT position, as well as tunnels simulating double bundle (DB) ACL reconstruction (7, 6 mm), were drilled in fourth-generation saw bones. These five experimental groups and a control group consisting of native saw bones without tunnels were loaded to failure on a Materials Testing System to simulate tibial plateau fracture. There were no statistically significant differences in peak load to failure between any of the groups, including the control group. The fracture occurred through the tibial tunnel in 100 % of the MTT tunnels (8 and 10 mm) and 80 % of the DB tunnels specimens; however, the fractures never (0 %) occurred through the tibial tunnel of the standard tunnels (8 or 10 mm) (P = 0.032). In the biomechanical model, the tibial tunnel does not appear to be a stress riser for fracture propagation, despite suggestions to the contrary in the literature. Use of a standard, more vertical tunnel decreases the risk of ACL graft compromise in the event of a fracture. This may help to inform surgical decision making on ACL reconstruction technique.

  19. Fractures of the Tibial Plateau Involve Similar Energies as the Tibial Pilon but Greater Articular Surface Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Dibbern, Kevin; Kempton, Laurence B.; Higgins, Thomas F.; Morshed, Saam; McKinley, Todd O.; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Anderson, Donald D.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with tibial pilon fractures have a higher incidence of post-traumatic osteoarthritis than those with fractures of the tibial plateau. This may indicate that pilon fractures present a greater mechanical insult to the joint than do plateau fractures. We tested the hypothesis that fracture energy and articular fracture edge length, two independent indicators of severity, are higher in pilon than plateau fractures. We also evaluated if clinical fracture classification systems accurately reflect severity. Seventy-five tibial plateau fractures and fifty-two tibial pilon fractures from a multi-institutional study were selected to span the spectrum of severity. Fracture severity measures were calculated using objective CT-based image analysis methods. The ranges of fracture energies measured for tibial plateau and pilon fractures were 3.2 to 33.2 Joules (J) and 3.6 to 32.2 J, respectively, and articular fracture edge lengths were 68.0 to 493.0 mm and 56.1 to 288.6 mm, respectively. There were no differences in the fracture energies between the two fracture types, but plateau fractures had greater articular fracture edge lengths (p<0.001). The clinical fracture classifications generally reflected severity, but there was substantial overlap of fracture severity measures between different classes. Clinical Significance Similar fracture energies with different degrees of articular surface involvement suggest a possible explanation for dissimilar rates of post-traumatic osteoarthritis for fractures of the tibial plateau compared to the tibial pilon. The substantial overlap of severity measures between different fracture classes may well have confounded prior clinical studies relying on fracture classification as a surrogate for severity. PMID:27381653

  20. Posterior tibial slope in medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy: 2-D versus 3-D navigation.

    PubMed

    Yim, Ji Hyeon; Seon, Jong Keun; Song, Eun Kyoo

    2012-10-01

    Although opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is used to correct deformities, it can simultaneously alter tibial slope in the sagittal plane because of the triangular configuration of the proximal tibia, and this undesired change in tibial slope can influence knee kinematics, stability, and joint contact pressure. Therefore, medial opening-wedge HTO is a technically demanding procedure despite the use of 2-dimensional (2-D) navigation. The authors evaluated the posterior tibial slope pre- and postoperatively in patients who underwent navigation-assisted opening-wedge HTO and compared posterior slope changes for 2-D and 3-dimensional (3-D) navigation versions. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups based on the navigation system used: group A (2-D guidance for coronal alignment; 17 patients) and group B (3-D guidance for coronal and sagittal alignments; 17 patients). Postoperatively, the mechanical axis was corrected to a mean valgus of 2.81° (range, 1°-5.4°) in group A and 3.15° (range, 1.5°-5.6°) in group B. A significant intergroup difference existed for the amount of posterior tibial slope change (Δ slope) pre- and postoperatively (P=.04).Opening-wedge HTO using navigation offers accurate alignment of the lower limb. In particular, the use of 3-D navigation results in significantly less change in the posterior tibial slope postoperatively than does the use of 2-D navigation. Accordingly, the authors recommend the use of 3-D navigation systems because they provide real-time intraoperative information about coronal, sagittal, and transverse axes and guide the maintenance of the native posterior tibial slope. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Modified arthroscopic suture fixation of a displaced tibial eminence fracture.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Ronald A; Murphy, Kevin P; Machen, M Shaun; Kuklo, Timothy R

    2003-02-01

    This study describes a new arthroscopic method using a whip-stitch technique for treating a displaced type III tibial eminence fracture. A 12-year-old girl who sustained a displaced type III tibial eminence fracture was treated with arthroscopic fixation using the Arthrosew disposable suture device (Surgical Dynamics, Norwalk, CT) to place a whip stitch into the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The Arthrex ACL guide (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to reduce the avulsed tibial spine fragment. Sutures were then passed through the tibial tunnel and secured over a bony bridge with the knee in 20 degrees of flexion. At 9 months, the patient has a full range of motion with normal Lachman and anterior drawer testing, and she has returned to competitive basketball. Radiographs show complete fracture healing. KT-1000 and isokinetic testing at 9-month follow-up show only minimal side-to-side differences. The Arthrosew device provides a significant advantage in the treatment of type III and IV fractures of the tibial eminence by obtaining arthroscopic fixation within the substance of the ACL, thus obviating arthrotomy and hardware placement. This technique also restores the proper length and tension to the ACL, and provides a simplified, reproducible method of treatment for this injury.

  2. Can the tibial slope be measured on lateral knee radiographs?

    PubMed

    Faschingbauer, M; Sgroi, M; Juchems, M; Reichel, H; Kappe, T

    2014-12-01

    The posterior tibial slope influences both the natural knee stability as well as the stability and kinematics after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Exact definition of the posterior tibial slope (PTS) requires lateral radiographs of the lower limb. Only lateral knee radiographs are routinely obtained after TKA, however. The purpose of the present study therefore was to analyse the relationship between PTS measurement results on short and expanded lateral knee radiographs. The PTS was measured on 100 consecutive lateral radiographs of the lower limb using the mechanical and three diaphyseal axes with various distances below the tibial plateau. Significant differences between PTS results were found for all three diaphyseal axes, with the smallest differences and the strongest correlation for a diaphyseal axis at 16 and 20 cm below the tibial plateau. Using short distances below the tibial plateau (6 and 10 cm) resulted in an overestimation of the PTS of 3°, on average. The PTS measurements in long lateral knee radiographs are more accurate compared to short radiographs. On short lateral knee radiographs, only a estimation of the PTS can be carried out. Diagnostic study, Level II.

  3. Resection of a ventral intramedullary cervical spinal cord cavernous malformation through an anterior approach.

    PubMed

    Weil, Alexander G; Bhatia, Sanjiv

    2014-09-01

    Ventrally-located intramedullary cervical spinal cord cavernomas are rare entities in the pediatric population. Surgical access to these lesions is challenging. The authors present the complete resection of a symptomatic ventral cervical intramedullary cavernoma through an anterior approach in a 15-year-old boy. The lesion was accessed following left anterolateral dissection, C3-4 discectomy and C3/C4 partial corpectomy. The authors will discuss the rationale for intervening in this patient and for selecting this anterior approach over other approaches, such as the anterolateral, posterolateral or posterior approach. The steps, pitfalls and pearls of this surgical approach will be demonstrated in a detailed video. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/-ARTp6g13hgs.

  4. Management of simple (types A and B) closed tibial shaft fractures using percutaneous lag-screw fixation and Ilizarov external fixation in adults.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mohamed; Atef, Ashraf

    2012-10-01

    Although intramedullary fixation of closed simple (type A or B) diaphyseal tibial fractures in adults is well tolerated by patients, providing lower morbidity rates and better mobility, it is associated with some complications. This study evaluated the results of managing these fractures using percutaneous minimal internal fixation using one or more lag screws, and Ilizarov external fixation. This method was tested to evaluate its efficacy in immediate weight bearing, fracture healing and prevention of any post-immobilisation stiffness of the ankle and knee joints. This randomised blinded study was performed at a referral, academically supervised, level III trauma centre. Three hundred and twenty-four of the initial 351 patients completed this study and were followed up for a minimum of 12 (12-88) months. Patient ages ranged from 20 to 51 years, with a mean of 39 years. Ankle and knee movements and full weight bearing were encouraged immediately postoperatively. Solid union was assessed clinically and radiographically. Active and passive ankle and knee ranges of motion were measured and compared with the normal side using the Wilcoxon signed rank test for matched pairs. Subjective Olerud and Molander Ankle Score was used to detect any ankle joint symptoms at the final follow-up. No patient showed delayed or nonunion. All fractures healed within 95-129 days. Based on final clinical and radiographic outcomes, this technique proves to be adequate for managing simple diaphyseal tibial fractures. On the other hand, it is relatively expensive, technically demanding, necessitates exposure to radiation and patients are expected to be frame friendly.

  5. [Leptomeningeal spread of an intramedullary cervical pilocytic astrocytoma: case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Jusué-Torres, I; Alcázar-Vaquerizo, L; Gómez-Angulo, J C; Navarro-Torres, R; López-Serrano, R; García-Miralles, N

    2011-10-01

    BACKGROUND. The rarest location of pilocytic astrocytoma is intramedullary. Gliomas represent up to 24 - 30% of intramedullary tumors in adulthood and are second only after ependymomas. Leptomeningeal dissemination through cerebrospinal fluid is unusual and occurs predominantly in medulloblastomas, ependymoblastomas, central neuroblastomas, ependymomas, germ cell tumors and high-grade gliomas. The majority of spinal cord gliomas reporting metastasis were anaplastic astrocytomas or glioblastomas multiforme and relatively few were low-grade gliomas. The incidence of leptomeningeal spread of low-grade tumors is rare. A rare cranial extension of brain leptomeningeal dissemination in an intramedullary pilocytic astrocytoma during adulthood is reported. CASE REPORT. A 51 year-old-man with a recurrent intramedullary mass at C5-C7 level operated 4 times with all pathological anatomy reports describing the lesion as Pilocytic Astrocytoma developed, after 15 years from the diagnosis, visual hallucinations and his level of consciousness worsened to Glasgow coma score 13/15. The MRI showed highly enhanced cranial and spinal leptomeninges and paquimeninges with a micro nodular-granulomatous aspect associated with intense affectation of basal cisterns, subarachnoid spaces and convexity of both cerebral hemispheres suggestive of leptomeningeal spread of the spinal mass. The patient expired after three days. CONCLUSION. Leptomeningeal spread is a rare phenomenon and when it happens usually doesn't change the primary tumor's behavior. In our case the aggressiveness could be explained by a potential malignization of the primary tumor that it was not documented because of the partial resections from the lasts surgeries or instead the tumor was actually a monomorphous pilomyxoid tumor.

  6. Rotation of intramedullary alignment rods affects distal femoral cutting plane in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Maderbacher, Günther; Matussek, Jan; Keshmiri, Armin; Greimel, Felix; Baier, Clemens; Grifka, Joachim; Maderbacher, Hermann

    2018-02-17

    Intramedullary rods are widely used to align the distal femoral cut in total knee arthroplasty. We hypothesised that both coronal (varus/valgus) and sagittal (extension/flexion) cutting plane are affected by rotational changes of intramedullary femoral alignment guides. Distal femoral cuts using intramedullary alignment rods were simulated by means of a computer-aided engineering software in 4°, 6°, 8°, 10°, and 12° of valgus in relation to the femoral anatomical axis and 4° extension, neutral, as well as 4°, 8°, and 12° of flexion in relation to the femoral mechanical axis. This reflects the different angles between anatomical and mechanical axis in coronal and sagittal planes. To assess the influence of rotation of the alignment guide on the effective distal femoral cutting plane, all combinations were simulated with the rod gradually aligned from 40° of external to 40° of internal rotation. Rotational changes of the distal femoral alignment guides affect both the coronal and sagittal cutting planes. When alignment rods are intruded neutrally with regards to sagittal alignment, external rotation causes flexion, while internal rotation causes extension of the sagittal cutting plane. Simultaneously the coronal effect (valgus) decreases resulting in an increased varus of the cutting plane. However, when alignment rods are intruded in extension or flexion partly contradictory effects are observed. Generally the effect increases with the degree of valgus preset, rotation and flexion. As incorrect rotation of intramedullary alignment guides for distal femoral cuts causes significant cutting errors, exact rotational alignment is crucial. Coronal cutting errors in the distal femoral plane might result in overall leg malalignment, asymmetric extension gaps and subsequent sagittal cutting errors.

  7. Surgical management of spinal intramedullary tumors: radical and safe strategy for benign tumors.

    PubMed

    Takami, Toshihiro; Naito, Kentaro; Yamagata, Toru; Ohata, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Surgery for spinal intramedullary tumors remains one of the major challenges for neurosurgeons, due to their relative infrequency, unknown natural history, and surgical difficulty. We are sure that safe and precise resection of spinal intramedullary tumors, particularly encapsulated benign tumors, can result in acceptable or satisfactory postoperative outcomes. General surgical concepts and strategies, technical consideration, and functional outcomes after surgery are discussed with illustrative cases of spinal intramedullary benign tumors such as ependymoma, cavernous malformation, and hemangioblastoma. Selection of a posterior median sulcus, posterolateral sulcus, or direct transpial approach was determined based on the preoperative imaging diagnosis and careful inspection of the spinal cord surface. Tumor-cord interface was meticulously delineated in cases of benign encapsulated tumors. Our retrospective functional analysis of 24 consecutive cases of spinal intramedullary ependymoma followed for at least 6 months postoperatively demonstrated a mean grade on the modified McCormick functional schema of 1.8 before surgery, deteriorating significantly to 2.6 early after surgery (< 1 month after surgery), and finally returning to 1.7 in the late postoperative period (> 6 months after surgery). The risk of functional deterioration after surgery should be taken into serious consideration. Functional deterioration after surgery, including neuropathic pain even long after surgery, significantly affects patient quality of life. Better balance between tumor control and functional preservation can be achieved not only by the surgical technique or expertise, but also by intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, vascular image guidance, and postoperative supportive care. Quality of life after surgery should inarguably be given top priority.

  8. Primary Ankle Arthrodesis for Severely Comminuted Tibial Pilon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Al-Ashhab, Mohamed E

    2017-03-01

    Management of severely comminuted, complete articular tibial pilon fractures (Rüedi and Allgöwer type III) remains a challenge, with few treatment options providing good clinical outcomes. Twenty patients with severely comminuted tibial pilon fractures underwent primary ankle arthrodesis with a retrograde calcaneal nail and autogenous fibular bone graft. The fusion rate was 100% and the varus malunion rate was 10%. Fracture union occurred at a mean of 16 weeks (range, 13-18 weeks) postoperatively. Primary ankle arthrodesis is a successful method for treating highly comminuted tibial pilon fractures, having a low complication rate and a high satisfaction score. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e378-e381.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Finite element analysis of a pseudoelastic compression-generating intramedullary ankle arthrodesis nail.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ryan T; Pacaccio, Douglas J; Yakacki, Christopher M; Carpenter, R Dana

    2016-09-01

    Tibio-talo-calcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis is an end-stage treatment for patients with severe degeneration of the ankle joint. This treatment consists of using an intramedullary nail (IM) to fuse the calcaneus, talus, and tibia bones together into one construct. Poor bone quality within the joint prior to surgery is common and thus the procedure has shown complications due to non-union. However, a new FDA-approved IM nail has been released that houses a nickel titanium (NiTi) rod that uses its inherent pseudoelastic material properties to apply active compression across the fusion site. Finite element analysis was performed to model the mechanical response of the NiTi within the device. A bone model was then developed based on a quantitative computed tomography (QCT) image for anatomical geometry and bone material properties. A total bone and device system was modeled to investigate the effect of bone quality change and gather load-sharing properties during gait loading. It was found that during the highest magnitude loading of gait, the load taken by the bone was more than 50% higher than the load taken by the nail. When comparing the load distribution during gait, results from this study would suggest that the device helps to prevent stress shielding by allowing a more even distribution of load between bone and nail. In conditions where bone quality may vary patient-to-patient, the model indicates that a 10% decrease in overall bone modulus (i.e. material stiffness) due to reduced bone mineral density would result in higher stresses in the nail (3.4%) and a marginal decrease in stress for the bone (0.5%). The finite element model presented in this study can be used as a quantitative tool to further understand the stress environment of both bone and device for a TTC fusion. Furthermore, the methodology presented gives insight on how to computationally program and use the unique material properties of NiTi in an active compression state useful for bone fracture healing

  10. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted...

  11. [Extramedullary fixation combined with intramedullary fixation in the surgical reduction of sagittal mandibular condylar fractures].

    PubMed

    Chuanjun, Chen; Xiaoyang, Chen; Jing, Chen

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of extramedullary fixation combined with intramedullary fixation during the surgical reduction of sagittal mandibular condylar fractures. Twenty-four sagittal fractures of the mandibular condyle in18 patients were fixed by two appliances: intramedullary with one long-screw osteosynthesis or Kirschner wire and extramedullary with one micro-plate. The radiologically-recorded post-operative stability-associated com-plications included the screw/micro-plate loosening, micro-plate twisting, micro-plate fractures, and fragment rotation. The occluding relations, the maximalinter-incisal distances upon mouth opening, and the mandibular deflection upon mouth opening were evaluated based on follow-up clinical examination. Postoperative panoramic X-ray and CT scans showed good repositioning of the fragment, with no redislocation or rotation, no screw/plate loosening, and no plate-twisting or fracture. Clinical examination showed that all patients regained normal mandibular movements, ideal occlusion, and normal maximal inter-incisal distances upon mouth opening. Extramedullary fixation combined with intramedullary fixation is highly recommended for sagittal condylar fractures because of the anti-rotation effect of the fragment and the reasonable place-ment of the fixation appliances.

  12. In Vivo Caprine Model for Osteomyelitis and Evaluation of Biofilm-Resistant Intramedullary Nails

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nhiem; Tran, Phong A.; Jarrell, John D.; Engiles, Julie B.; Thomas, Nathan P.; Young, Matthew D.; Hayda, Roman A.; Born, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Bone infection remains a formidable challenge to the medical field. The goal of the current study is to evaluate antibacterial coatings in vitro and to develop a large animal model to assess coated bone implants. A novel coating consisting of titanium oxide and siloxane polymer doped with silver was created by metal-organic methods. The coating was tested in vitro using rapid screening techniques to determine compositions which inhibited Staphylococcus aureus growth, while not affecting osteoblast viability. The coating was then applied to intramedullary nails and evaluated in vivo in a caprine model. In this pilot study, a fracture was created in the tibia of the goat, and Staphylococcus aureus was inoculated directly into the bone canal. The fractures were fixed by either coated (treated) or non-coated intramedullary nails (control) for 5 weeks. Clinical observations as well as microbiology, mechanical, radiology, and histology testing were used to compare the animals. The treated goat was able to walk using all four limbs after 5 weeks, while the control was unwilling to bear weight on the fixed leg. These results suggest the antimicrobial potential of the hybrid coating and the feasibility of the goat model for antimicrobial coated intramedullary implant evaluation. PMID:23841085

  13. A rare case of multifocal intramedullary germinoma in cervical spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Wang, R; Fan, X; Zhang, B

    2014-06-01

    Case report. We present for the first time a patient with multifocal intramedullary cervical spinal cord germ cell tumors with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China. A 19-year-old girl experienced numbness in her right leg 10 months before diagnosis. The numbness gradually became severe and extended up to the thorax. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visualized several intramedullary masses with intensive enhancement and extensive peritumoral edema in the spinal cord at the C3-T1 vertebral body levels. Administration of methylprednisolone caused no treatment effect. The largest mass, which was located at the T1 level inside the normal spinal cord and confirmed by naked eye observation, was completely extracted under a microscope. Postoperative pathological examination demonstrated the so-called 'two-cell pattern,' which is typical of germinoma with placental alkaline phosphatase expression. The serum level of AFP was 64.50 ng ml(-1) (normal range: 0-5 ng ml(-1)). The residual tumor was eliminated through radiation therapy (local 30 Gy) following surgery. Afterward, the patient's neurological deficits were improved but not resolved. Six years after surgery, no recurrence was encountered and the patient remained stable. Radiotherapy is the salvage therapy for spinal cord germinoma. Steroids were of no therapeutic value in the treatment of intramedullary spinal cord germinoma.

  14. Treatment of Displaced Intra-articular Calcaneal Fractures by Intramedullary Nail. Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Falis, Mirosław; Pyszel, Krystian

    2016-03-23

    Open reduction and plate stabilisation is a recognised method of treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures. The surgical approach to the calcaneal bone used in these procedures is associated with a high risk of complications. The aim of this paper is to present the author's experience with a new surgical method and analyse early outcomes of the treatment of calcaneal fractures by Calcanail intramedullary nailing. The study encompassed 17 patients (5 women and 12 men) with 18 calcaneal fractures (5 in the right foot and 13 in the left foot). The mean age of the patients was 47 years (range: 22-68 years). The mean time between the injury and surgery was 6 days (range: 3-14 days). The mean duration of follow-up was 12 months (range: 6-18 months). The fractures were classified according to the system presented by Guy Utheza. Bone union was achieved in all patients within 12 weeks of surgery. No infectious complications were observed. The mean AOFAS score was 82/100. Mean Bohler's angle was -3 degrees pre-operatively and +29 degrees post-operatively. 1. The use of Calcanail intramedullary nailing in the treatment of displaced intra-articular fractures is a minimally invasive procedure associated with a low risk of complications. 2. The innovative posterior approach allows for the intrafocal reduction of an articular surface fracture through the prepared intramedullary canal.

  15. [Intramedullary nailing combined with cannulated screw in treating femoral condyles fractures].

    PubMed

    Shen, Guo-Qing; Zhang, Hao; Long, Da-Fu; Li, Zheng-Wen; Tan, Ying-Dong

    2017-07-25

    To observe the clinical effects of retrograde intramedullary nailing and cannulated screws in the treatment of femoral condylar fracture. From June 2009 to June 2015, 13 patients with femoral condyles fracture were treated by retrograde intramedullary nailing and cannulated screws including 6 males and 7 females with an average age of 46.1 years old ranging from 16 to 76 years old. There were 10 cases of closed fractures, 3 cases of open fraetures. According to AO classification criteriam, 4 cases were type C1, 7 cases were type C2, 2 cases were type C3. Postoperative reduction of fracture and the knee joint function recovery were observed. All patients were followed up for 12 to 36 months with a mean of 24 months. X-ray examination showed that the union time of fracture was 18 to 24 weeks, 21 weeks on average. There were no cases of loosening, breakage of internal fixators and re-fracture. Hospital for Special Surgery(HSS) knee score was 90.07±4.99 at 1 year after the operation. The clinical efficacy for retrograde intramedullary nailing and cannulated screw for the treatment of femoral condyles fracture was excellent. It can improve the anatomical reattachment rate and reduce the complications and promote the knee functional recovery.

  16. Bone stress in runners with tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Meardon, Stacey A; Willson, John D; Gries, Samantha R; Kernozek, Thomas W; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-11-01

    Combinations of smaller bone geometry and greater applied loads may contribute to tibial stress fracture. We examined tibial bone stress, accounting for geometry and applied loads, in runners with stress fracture. 23 runners with a history of tibial stress fracture & 23 matched controls ran over a force platform while 3-D kinematic and kinetic data were collected. An elliptical model of the distal 1/3 tibia cross section was used to estimate stress at 4 locations (anterior, posterior, medial and lateral). Inner and outer radii for the model were obtained from 2 planar x-ray images. Bone stress differences were assessed using two-factor ANOVA (α=0.05). Key contributors to observed stress differences between groups were examined using stepwise regression. Runners with tibial stress fracture experienced greater anterior tension and posterior compression at the distal tibia. Location, but not group, differences in shear stress were observed. Stepwise regression revealed that anterior-posterior outer diameter of the tibia and the sagittal plane bending moment explained >80% of the variance in anterior and posterior bone stress. Runners with tibial stress fracture displayed greater stress anteriorly and posteriorly at the distal tibia. Elevated tibial stress was associated with smaller bone geometry and greater bending moments about the medial-lateral axis of the tibia. Future research needs to identify key running mechanics associated with the sagittal plane bending moment at the distal tibia as well as to identify ways to improve bone geometry in runners in order to better guide preventative and rehabilitative efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Outcome reporting following navigated high tibial osteotomy of the knee: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yan, James; Musahl, Volker; Kay, Jeffrey; Khan, Moin; Simunovic, Nicole; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2016-11-01

    This systematic review evaluates radiographic and clinical outcome reporting following navigated high tibial osteotomy (HTO). Conventional HTO was used as a control to compare outcomes and furthermore investigate the quality of evidence in studies reporting outcomes for navigated HTO. It was hypothesized that navigated HTO will show superior clinical and radiographic outcomes compared to conventional HTO. Two independent reviewers searched PubMed, Ovid (MEDLINE), EMBASE, and Cochrane databases for studies reporting outcomes following navigated HTO. Titles, abstracts, and full-text were screened in duplicate using an a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Descriptive statistics were calculated using Minitab ® statistical software. Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies (MINORS) and Cochrane Risk of Bias Scores were used to evaluate methodological quality. Thirty-four studies which involved 2216 HTOs were analysed in this review, 1608 (72.6 %) navigated HTOs and 608 (27.4 %) conventional HTOs. The majority of studies were of level IV evidence (16). Clinical outcomes were reported in knee and function scores or range of motion comparisons. Postoperative clinical and functional scores were improved by navigated HTO although it is not demonstrated if there is significant improvement compared to conventional HTO. Most common clinical outcome score reported was Lysholm scores (6) which report postoperative scores of 87.8 (standard deviation 5.9) and 88.8 (standard deviation 5.9) for conventional and navigation-assisted HTO, respectively. Radiographic outcomes reported commonly were weight-bearing mechanical axis, coronal plane angle, and posterior tibial slope angle in the sagittal plane. Studies have shown HTO gives significant correction of mechanical alignment and navigated HTO produces significantly less change in posterior tibial slope postoperatively compared to conventional. The mean MINORS for the 17 non-comparative studies was 9/16, and 15/24 for

  18. Intramedullary Solitary Fibrous Tumor--A Benign Form of Hemangiopericytoma? Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Markus; Tews, Dominique; Mittelbronn, Michel; Capper, David; Seifert, Volker; Marquardt, Gerhard

    2015-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are benign tumors of the soft tissue occurring anywhere in the human body but arise predominantly in the visceral pleura. SFTs of the central nervous system are rare, especially when they occur within the spinal cord. We present a case of an 83-year-old female patient presenting with acute spastic paralysis of the lower extremities after a history of progressive weakness and incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were typical for meningioma, but an intradural, mainly intramedullary tumor was found at the first operation. A second operation was performed under neurophysiological monitoring, and complete removal of the tumor was achieved. Neurological conditions improved after the procedure, but the patient remained paraparetic. Histological and immunohistochemical findings revealed an SFT. There is evidence that SFTs and hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are not different entities but should be considered as different graduations of a common spectrum. The extent of resection is a prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival in SFT; therefore we recommend surgery with complete resection whenever possible depending on the results of mandatory intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in these cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome: Evidence-Based Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Debbie I

    2008-01-01

    Reference: Thacker SB, Gilchrist J, Stroup DF, Kimsey CD. The prevention of shin splints in sports: a systematic review of literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(1):32–40. Clinical Question: Among physically active individuals, which medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) prevention methods are most effective to decrease injury rates? Data Sources: Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (1966–2000), Current Contents (1996–2000), Biomedical Collection (1993–1999), and Dissertation Abstracts. Reference lists of identified studies were searched manually until no further studies were identified. Experts in the field were contacted, including first authors of randomized controlled trials addressing prevention of MTSS. The Cochrane Collaboration (early stage of Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) was contacted. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria included randomized controlled trials or clinical trials comparing different MTSS prevention methods with control groups. Excluded were studies that did not provide primary research data or that addressed treatment and rehabilitation rather than prevention of incident MTSS. Data Extraction: A total of 199 citations were identified. Of these, 4 studies compared prevention methods for MTSS. Three reviewers independently scored the 4 studies. Reviewers were blinded to the authors' names and affiliations but not the results. Each study was evaluated independently for methodologic quality using a 100-point checklist. Final scores were averages of the 3 reviewers' scores. Main Results: Prevention methods studied were shock-absorbent insoles, foam heel pads, Achilles tendon stretching, footwear, and graduated running programs. No statistically significant results were noted for any of the prevention methods. Median quality scores ranged from 29 to 47, revealing flaws in design, control for bias, and statistical methods. Conclusions: No current evidence supports any single prevention method for MTSS. The most

  20. Medial tibial stress syndrome: evidence-based prevention.

    PubMed

    Craig, Debbie I

    2008-01-01

    Thacker SB, Gilchrist J, Stroup DF, Kimsey CD. The prevention of shin splints in sports: a systematic review of literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(1):32-40. Among physically active individuals, which medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) prevention methods are most effective to decrease injury rates? Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (1966-2000), Current Contents (1996-2000), Biomedical Collection (1993-1999), and Dissertation Abstracts. Reference lists of identified studies were searched manually until no further studies were identified. Experts in the field were contacted, including first authors of randomized controlled trials addressing prevention of MTSS. The Cochrane Collaboration (early stage of Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) was contacted. Inclusion criteria included randomized controlled trials or clinical trials comparing different MTSS prevention methods with control groups. Excluded were studies that did not provide primary research data or that addressed treatment and rehabilitation rather than prevention of incident MTSS. A total of 199 citations were identified. Of these, 4 studies compared prevention methods for MTSS. Three reviewers independently scored the 4 studies. Reviewers were blinded to the authors' names and affiliations but not the results. Each study was evaluated independently for methodologic quality using a 100-point checklist. Final scores were averages of the 3 reviewers' scores. Prevention methods studied were shock-absorbent insoles, foam heel pads, Achilles tendon stretching, footwear, and graduated running programs. No statistically significant results were noted for any of the prevention methods. Median quality scores ranged from 29 to 47, revealing flaws in design, control for bias, and statistical methods. No current evidence supports any single prevention method for MTSS. The most promising outcomes support the use of shock-absorbing insoles. Well-designed and controlled trials are critically needed

  1. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for grade III open segmental tibial fractures from combat injuries in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Kuklo, T R; Groth, A T; Anderson, R C; Frisch, H M; Islinger, R B

    2008-08-01

    This is a retrospective consecutive case series of 138 Gustillo-Anderson type IIIB and IIIC segmental tibial fractures treated at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in soldiers injured in Iraq between March 2003 and March 2005. Five patients with a head injury and four who were lost to follow-up were excluded. The patients were treated definitively with either a ringed external fixator or a reamed intramedullary nail, evaluated in terms of supplementary bone grafting with either autogenous bone (group 1, 67 patients) or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 at 1.50 mg/ml applied to an absorbable collagen sponge (group 2, 62 patients). The mechanism of injury, defect size and classification, associated injuries, presence of infection, preliminary treatment/fixation, number of procedures before definitive management, time to and details of definitive management, subsequent infection, re-operation, smoking history and other complications were noted. Radiographs were assessed for union, delayed union or nonunion by an independent investigator. All the patients were male. Their mean age was 26.6 years (20 to 42) and the mean follow-up was for 15.6 months (12 to 32). Group 2 had a slightly higher profile of concomitant injuries and a slightly worse fracture classification, but these were not significant. The rate of union was 76% (51 of 67) for group 1 and 92% for group 2 (57 of 62; p = 0.015). There was also a higher rate of subsequent infection in group 1 (14.9%) compared with group 2 (3.2%; p = 0.001) and a higher rate of re-operation (28%) in group 1 (p = 0.003). There were no observed hypersensitivity reactions to the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 implant.

  2. Functional outcome of tibial fracture with acute compartment syndrome and correlation to deep posterior compartment pressure.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Saumitra; Naik, Monappa A; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Rao, Sharath K

    2017-05-18

    To measure single baseline deep posterior compartment pressure in tibial fracture complicated by acute compartment syndrome (ACS) and to correlate it with functional outcome. Thirty-two tibial fractures with ACS were evaluated clinically and the deep posterior compartment pressure was measured. Urgent fasciotomy was needed in 30 patients. Definite surgical fixation was performed either primarily or once fasciotomy wound was healthy. The patients were followed up at 3 mo, 6 mo and one year. At one year, the functional outcome [lower extremity functional scale (LEFS)] and complications were assessed. Three limbs were amputated. In remaining 29 patients, the average times for clinical and radiological union were 25.2 ± 10.9 wk (10 to 54 wk) and 23.8 ± 9.2 wk (12 to 52 wk) respectively. Nine patients had delayed union and 2 had nonunion who needed bone grafting to augment healing. Most common complaint at follow up was ankle stiffness (76%) that caused difficulty in walking, running and squatting. Of 21 patients who had paralysis at diagnosis, 13 (62%) did not recover and additional five patients developed paralysis at follow-up. On LEFS evaluation, there were 14 patients (48.3%) with severe disability, 10 patients (34.5%) with moderate disability and 5 patients (17.2%) with minimal disability. The mean pressures in patients with minimal disability, moderate disability and severe disability were 37.8, 48.4 and 58.79 mmHg respectively ( P < 0.001). ACS in tibial fractures causes severe functional disability in majority of patients. These patients are prone for delayed union and nonunion; however, long term disability is mainly because of severe soft tissue contracture. Intra-compartmental pressure (ICP) correlates with functional disability; patients with relatively high ICP are prone for poor functional outcome.

  3. [Intramedullary nailing of the tibia with the expert tibia nail].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Matthias; El Attal, René; Blum, Jochen; Blauth, Michael; Rommens, Pol Maria

    2009-12-01

    Restoration of axis, length, and rotation of the lower leg. Sufficient primary stability of the osteosynthesis for functional aftercare. Early functional aftercare to maintain joint mobility. Good bony healing in closed and open fractures. All closed and open fractures of the tibia and complete lower leg fractures (AO 42). Certain extraarticular fractures of the proximal and distal tibia (AO 41 A2/A3; AO 43 A1/A2/A3). Segmental fractures of the tibia. Certain intraarticular fractures of the tibia with use of additional implants (AO 41 C1/C2; AO 43 C1/C2). Stabilization during and after segmental bone transport or callus distraction of the tibia. Patients in poor general condition (e.g., bedridden). Flexion of the knee of less than 90 degrees . Infection in the nail's insertion area. Infection of the tibial cavity. Complex articular fractures of the proximal or distal tibia with joint depression. Closed reduction of the fracture. If necessary, use of reduction clamps through additional stab incisions or open surgical procedures. In some cases, additional osteosynthesis procedures are necessary (e.g., screws). Positioning of the patient may be performed on a radiolucent table or a traction table. Opening of the proximal tibia in line with the medullary canal. Cannulated or noncannulated insertion of the Expert Tibia Nail((R)) with or without reaming of the medullary canal depending on the fracture type and soft-tissue condition. Control of axis, length, and rotation. Distal interlocking with the radiolucent drill and proximal interlocking with the targeting device. Immediate mobilization of ankle joint and knee joint. Depending on the type of fracture, mobilization with 20 kg partial weight bearing or pain-dependent full weight bearing with crutches. X-ray control 6 weeks postoperatively and increased weight bearing depending on the fracture status. In a prospective, international multicentric study, 181 patients with 186 fractures were included between July 2004 and

  4. A novel combined method of osteosynthesis in treatment of tibial fractures: a comparative study on sheep with application of rod-through-plate fixator and bone plating.

    PubMed

    Tralman, G; Andrianov, V; Arend, A; Männik, P; Kibur, R T; Nõupuu, K; Uksov, D; Aunapuu, M

    2013-04-01

    The study compares the efficiency of a new bone fixator combining periostal and intramedullary osteosynthesis to bone plating in treatment of tibial fractures in sheep. Experimental osteotomies were performed in the middle third of the left tibia. Animals were divided into two groups: in one group (four animals) combined osteosynthesis (rod-through-plate fixator, RTP fixator) was applied, and in the other group (three animals) bone plating was used. The experiments lasted for 10 weeks during which fracture union was followed by radiography, and the healing process was studied by blood serum markers reflecting bone turnover and by histological and immunohistochemical investigations. In the RTP fixator group, animals started to load body weight on the operated limbs the next day after the surgery, while in the bone plating group, this happened only on the seventh day. In the RTP fixator group, consolidation of fractures was also faster, as demonstrated by radiographical, histological, and immunohistochemical investigations and in part by blood serum markers for bone formation. It can be concluded that application of RTP fixation is more efficient than plate fixation in the treatment of experimental osteotomies of long bones in sheep. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. A high rate of tibial plateau fractures after early experience with patient-specific instrumentation for unicompartmental knee arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Leenders, A M; Schotanus, M G M; Wind, R J P; Borghans, R A P; Kort, N P

    2018-04-30

    Patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been available for a few years. However, limited literature is available on this subject. Hence, the aim of this cohort study is to evaluate the 2 years' results of our first experiences with the use of PSI in UKA. It is hypothesised that there is no advantage in rate of adverse events and in radiological and functional outcomes in comparison to literature on the conventional method. This cohort included 129 knees of 122 patients, operated by one surgeon. Outcome measures were the rate of adverse events (AEs); implant position as determined on radiographs; the accuracy of the default and approved planning of the implant sizes and the patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) preoperatively, and at 3, 12 and 24 months, postoperatively. A total of 6 (4.9%) AEs were observed in this study, with 4 (3.3%) tibial fractures being the main complication. The mean postoperative biomechanical axis was 176.4° and in the majority of cases, the radiographic criteria, as determined by the manufacturer, were met. The tibial component showed 20 (16.4%) outliers in the sagittal and 3 (2.5%) outliers in the frontal plane. There were no outliers of the femoral component. For the femoral and tibial components, respectively, in 125 (96.9%) and 79 (61.7%) cases, there was an agreement between approved planning and implanted component size. All PROMs improved significantly after surgery. Tibial fracture was the most common AE, probably related to the transition from cemented to uncemented UKA. Perioperative modifications to the surgical technique were made in order to prevent this AE. Improvements should be made to the operation technique of the uncemented tibial plateau to obtain an adequate placement and at the same time reduce the risk for tibial fracture. The PSI technique was a reliable tool for the placement of the femoral component. Functional outcome was in line with literature on the

  6. Patient reported health related quality of life early outcomes at 12 months after surgically managed tibial plafond fracture.

    PubMed

    Bonato, Luke J; Edwards, Elton R; Gosling, Cameron McR; Hau, Raphael; Hofstee, Dirk Jan; Shuen, Alex; Gabbe, Belinda J

    2017-04-01

    Tibial plafond fractures represent a small but complex subset of fractures of the lower limb. The aim of this study was to describe the health related quality of life, pain and return to work outcomes 12 months following surgically managed tibial plafond fracture. The Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR) database was used to identify patients with tibial plafond fractures. All patients captured by VOTOR with a tibial plafond fracture between September 2003 and July 2009, were identified consecutively and comprised the initial cohort. The radiographs of all identified patients were classified using the AO/OTA fracture classification. A review of the included patient's medical records was performed. Data were collected on the injury event, management and complications. Outcomes at 12 months were prospectively collected by telephone interview and included return to work, a numerical rating scale for assessment of pain and the Short Form 12 (SF-12). There were 98 unilateral tibial plafond fractures; 91 fractures were managed operatively, 4 non-operatively and 3 underwent amputation. The 91 operatively managed patients were the focus of this study. A two-stage management approach, involving temporary external fixation, followed by definitive open reduction and internal fixation, was the most common operative treatment. The follow-up rate at 12 months was 70%. 57% had returned to work by 12 months post-injury, the median (IQR) pain score was 2 (0-5) and 27% reported moderate to severe persistent pain. Mean PCS-12 scores were significantly lower than Australian norms (p=0.99), 38.2 for males and 37.5 for females. The presence of persistent pain, loss of physical health and a low return to work rate highlights the profound impact of tibial plafond fractures on patients' lives. Although this study looked at the early 12 month results, it is expected these outcomes will continue to improve over time. Further studies, with larger patient numbers, must focus

  7. Tibial Inlay Press-fit Fixation Versus Interference Screw in Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Max; Büermann, Sarah; Calliess, Tilman; Omar, Mohamed; Krettek, Christian; Hurschler, Christof; Jagodzinski, Michael; Petri, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    Reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) by a tibial press-fit fixation of the patellar tendon with an accessory bone plug is a promising approach because no foreign materials are required. Until today, there is no data about the biomechanical properties of such press-fit fixations. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical qualities of a bone plug tibial inlay technique with the commonly applied interference screw of patellar tendon PCL grafts. Twenty patellar tendons including a bone block were harvested from ten human cadavers. The grafts were implanted into twenty legs of adult German country pigs. In group P, the grafts were attached in a press-fit technique with accessory bone plug. In group S, the grafts were fixed with an interference screw. Each group consisted of 10 specimens. The constructs were biomechanically analyzed in cyclic loading between 60 and 250 N for 500 cycles recording elongation. Finally, ultimate failure load and failure mode were analyzed. Ultimate failure load was 598.6±36.3 N in group P and 653.7±39.8 N in group S (not significant, P>0.05). Elongation during cyclic loading between the 1(st) and the 20(th) cycle was 3.4±0.9 mm for group P and 3.1±1 mm for group S. Between the 20(th) and the 500(th) cycle, elongation was 4.2±2.3 mm in group P and 2.5±0.9 mm in group S (not significant, P>0.05). This is the first study investigating the biomechanical properties of tibial press-fit fixation of the patellar tendon with accessory bone plug in posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The implant-free tibial inlay technique shows equal biomechanical characteristics compared to an interference screw fixation. Further in vivo studies are desirable to compare the biological behavior and clinical relevance of this fixation device.

  8. Tibial interface wear in retrieved total knee components and correlations with modular insert motion.

    PubMed

    Rao, Anand R; Engh, Gerard A; Collier, Matthew B; Lounici, Smain

    2002-10-01

    Wear occurring at the interface between the polyethylene insert and metal baseplate of a modular tibial component has become an increasingly common finding at the time of revision total knee arthroplasty. Although this so-called backside wear on retrieved polyethylene inserts has been evaluated in prior studies, wear on retrieved metal baseplates has not been described, to our knowledge. The purposes of the present study were to characterize backside wear on retrieved polyethylene inserts and on the mating surfaces of their corresponding baseplates and to investigate if there is a relationship between backside wear and relative motion of the modular elements. Twenty-nine retrieved modular tibial components of twelve fixed-bearing designs were analyzed in vitro with regard to backside wear and relative motion between the polyethylene insert and the metal baseplate. We graded the backside of each polyethylene insert and the mating surface of the metal baseplate for wear with use of a scoring system that consisted of three modes of wear and three levels of severity of wear. Relative motion between the insert and the baseplate was measured in the transverse plane with use of a mechanical testing machine. These measurements were used to compute the insert motion index, which served to quantify unrestricted motion of the insert with respect to the baseplate. The mean insert motion index for the tibial components was 416 micro m (range, 104 micro m to 760 micro m). On a wear-grading scale ranging from 0 to 54 (with 0 indicating no wear), the mean backside wear score was 30 (range, 12 to 48) for the inserts and 28 (range, 7 to 51) for the baseplates. Insert motion was positively correlated with backside polyethylene wear (p = 0.003) and baseplate wear (p < 0.001). Baseplate wear was strongly correlated with backside polyethylene wear (p < 0.001). Backside wear was correlated with the relative motion between the polyethylene insert and the metal baseplate. New locking

  9. Medial tibial plateau morphology and stress fracture location: A magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Yukata, Kiminori; Yamanaka, Issei; Ueda, Yuzuru; Nakai, Sho; Ogasa, Hiroyoshi; Oishi, Yosuke; Hamawaki, Jun-Ichi

    2017-06-18

    To determine the location of medial tibial plateau stress fractures and its relationship with tibial plateau morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was performed for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients [three female and 11 male, with an average age of 36.4 years (range, 15-50 years)], who underwent knee MRI, were included. The appearance of the tibial plateau stress fracture and the geometry of the tibial plateau were reviewed and measured on MRI. Thirteen of 14 stress fractures were linear, and one of them stellated on MRI images. The location of fractures was classified into three types. Three fractures were located anteromedially (AM type), six posteromedially (PM type), and five posteriorly (P type) at the medial tibial plateau. In addition, tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau tended to be larger when the fracture was located more posteriorly on MRI. We found that MRI showed three different localizations of medial tibial plateau stress fractures, which were associated with tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau.

  10. Medial tibial plateau morphology and stress fracture location: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Yukata, Kiminori; Yamanaka, Issei; Ueda, Yuzuru; Nakai, Sho; Ogasa, Hiroyoshi; Oishi, Yosuke; Hamawaki, Jun-ichi

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the location of medial tibial plateau stress fractures and its relationship with tibial plateau morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS A retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was performed for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients [three female and 11 male, with an average age of 36.4 years (range, 15-50 years)], who underwent knee MRI, were included. The appearance of the tibial plateau stress fracture and the geometry of the tibial plateau were reviewed and measured on MRI. RESULTS Thirteen of 14 stress fractures were linear, and one of them stellated on MRI images. The location of fractures was classified into three types. Three fractures were located anteromedially (AM type), six posteromedially (PM type), and five posteriorly (P type) at the medial tibial plateau. In addition, tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau tended to be larger when the fracture was located more posteriorly on MRI. CONCLUSION We found that MRI showed three different localizations of medial tibial plateau stress fractures, which were associated with tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau. PMID:28660141

  11. Comparison of volumetric bone mineral density in the tibial region of interest for ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Klein, Scott A; Nyland, John; Caborn, David N M; Kocabey, Yavuz; Nawab, Akbar

    2005-12-01

    Adequate tibial bone mineral density (BMD) is essential to soft tissue graft fixation during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to compare volumetric bone plug density measurements at the tibial region of interest for ACL reconstruction using a standardized immersion technique and Archimedes' principle. Cancellous bone cores were harvested from the proximal, middle, and distal metaphyseal regions of the lateral tibia and from the standard tibial tunnel location used for ACL reconstruction of 18 cadaveric specimens. Proximal tibial cores displayed 32.6% greater BMD than middle tibial cores and 31.8% greater BMD than distal tibial cores, but did not differ from the BMD of the tibial tunnel cores. Correlational analysis confirmed that the cancellous BMD in the tibial tunnel related to the cancellous BMD of the proximal and distal lateral tibial metaphysis. In conjunction with its adjacent cortical bone, the cancellous BMD of the region used for standard tibial tunnel placement provides an effective foundation for ACL graft fixation. In tibia with poor BMD, bicortical fixation that incorporates cortical bone from the distal tibial tunnel region is recommended.

  12. Tibial dyschondroplasia associated proteomic changes in chicken growth plate cartilage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a poultry leg problem that affects the proximal growth plate of tibia preventing its transition to bone. To understand the disease-induced proteomic changes we compared the protein extracts of cartilage from normal and TD- affected growth plates. TD was induced by fe...

  13. Anatomy, function, and pathophysiology of the posterior tibial tendon.

    PubMed

    Smith, C F

    1999-07-01

    The posterior tibial tendon is vital for the structure and function of the foot and ankle. Dysfunction of the tendon can be debilitating and devastating. In recent years, much attention had been directed toward the diagnosis and treatment of PTTD. To properly diagnose and devise an appropriate treatment regimen, the anatomy, function, and pathophysiology associated with PTTD need to be thoroughly understood.

  14. Tibial and fibular nerves evaluation using intraoperative electromyography in rats.

    PubMed

    Nepomuceno, André Coelho; Politani, Elisa Landucci; Silva, Eduardo Guandelini da; Salomone, Raquel; Longo, Marco Vinicius Losso; Salles, Alessandra Grassi; Faria, José Carlos Marques de; Gemperli, Rolf

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate a new model of intraoperative electromyographic (EMG) assessment of the tibial and fibular nerves, and its respectives motor units in rats. Eight Wistar rats underwent intraoperative EMG on both hind limbs at two different moments: week 0 and week 12. Supramaximal electrical stimulation applied on sciatic nerve, and compound muscle action potential recorded on the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) and the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDLM) through electrodes at specifics points. Motor function assessment was performaced through Walking Track Test. Exposing the muscles and nerves for examination did not alter tibial (p=0.918) or fibular (p=0.877) function between the evaluation moments. Electromyography of the GM, innervated by the tibial nerve, revealed similar amplitude (p=0.069) and latency (p=0.256) at week 0 and at 12 weeks, creating a standard of normality. Meanwhile, electromyography of the EDLM, innervated by the fibular nerve, showed significant differences between the amplitudes (p=0.003) and latencies (p=0.021) at the two different moments of observation. Intraoperative electromyography determined and quantified gastrocnemius muscle motor unit integrity, innervated by tibial nerve. Although this study was not useful to, objectively, assess extensor digitorum longus muscle motor unit, innervated by fibular nerve.

  15. Automated Measurement of Patient-Specific Tibial Slopes from MRI

    PubMed Central

    Amerinatanzi, Amirhesam; Summers, Rodney K.; Ahmadi, Kaveh; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Nyman, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multi-planar proximal tibial slopes may be associated with increased likelihood of osteoarthritis and anterior cruciate ligament injury, due in part to their role in checking the anterior-posterior stability of the knee. Established methods suffer repeatability limitations and lack computational efficiency for intuitive clinical adoption. The aims of this study were to develop a novel automated approach and to compare the repeatability and computational efficiency of the approach against previously established methods. Methods: Tibial slope geometries were obtained via MRI and measured using an automated Matlab-based approach. Data were compared for repeatability and evaluated for computational efficiency. Results: Mean lateral tibial slope (LTS) for females (7.2°) was greater than for males (1.66°). Mean LTS in the lateral concavity zone was greater for females (7.8° for females, 4.2° for males). Mean medial tibial slope (MTS) for females was greater (9.3° vs. 4.6°). Along the medial concavity zone, female subjects demonstrated greater MTS. Conclusion: The automated method was more repeatable and computationally efficient than previously identified methods and may aid in the clinical assessment of knee injury risk, inform surgical planning, and implant design efforts. PMID:28952547

  16. Posterior tibial slope as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament rupture in soccer players.

    PubMed

    Senişik, Seçkin; Ozgürbüz, Cengizhan; Ergün, Metin; Yüksel, Oğuz; Taskiran, Emin; Işlegen, Cetin; Ertat, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the primary stabilizer of the knee. An impairment of any of the dynamic or static stability providing factors can lead to overload on the other factors and ultimately to deterioration of knee stability. This can result in anterior tibial translation and rupture of the ACL. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of tibial slope on ACL injury risk on soccer players. A total of 64 elite soccer players and 45 sedentary controls were included in this longitudinal and controlled study. The angle between the tibial mid-diaphysis line and the line between the anterior and posterior edges of the medial tibial plateau was measured as the tibial slope via lateral radiographs. Individual player exposure, and injuries sustained by the participants were prospectively recorded. Eleven ACL injuries were documented during the study period. Tibial slope was not different between soccer players and sedentary controls. Tibial slope in the dominant and non-dominant legs was greater for the injured players compared to the uninjured players. The difference reached a significant level only for the dominant legs (p < 0.001). While the tibial slopes of the dominant and non-dominant legs were not different on uninjured players (p > 0.05), a higher tibial slope was observed in dominant legs of injured players (p < 0.05). Higher tibial slope on injured soccer players compared to the uninjured ones supports the idea that the tibial slope degree might be an important risk factor for ACL injury. Key pointsDominant legs' tibial slopes of the injured players were significantly higher compared to the uninjured players (p < 0.001).Higher tibial slope was determined in dominant legs compared to the non-dominant side, for the injured players (p = 0.042). Different tibial slope measures in dominant and non-dominant legs might be the result of different loading and/or adaptation patterns in soccer.

  17. Pathomorphism of spiral tibial fractures in computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    Spiral fractures of the tibia are virtually homogeneous with regard to their pathomorphism. The differences that are seen concern the level of fracture of the fibula, and, to a lesser extent, the level of fracture of the tibia, the length of fracture cleft, and limb shortening following the trauma. While conventional radiographs provide sufficient information about the pathomorphism of fractures, computed tomography can be useful in demonstrating the spatial arrangement of bone fragments and topography of soft tissues surrounding the fracture site. Multiple cross-sectional computed tomography views of spiral fractures of the tibia show the details of the alignment of bone chips at the fracture site, axis of the tibial fracture cleft, and topography of soft tissues that are not visible on standard radiographs. A model of a spiral tibial fracture reveals periosteal stretching with increasing spiral and longitudinal displacement. The cleft in tibial fractures has a spiral shape and its line is invariable. Every spiral fracture of both crural bones results in extensive damage to the periosteum and may damage bellies of the long flexor muscle of toes, flexor hallucis longus as well as the posterior tibial muscle. Computed tomography images of spiral fractures of the tibia show details of damage that are otherwise invisible on standard radiographs. Moreover, CT images provide useful information about the spatial location of the bone chips as well as possible threats to soft tissues that surround the fracture site. Every spiral fracture of the tibia is associated with disruption of the periosteum. 1. Computed tomography images of spiral fractures of the tibia show details of damage otherwise invisible on standard radiographs, 2. The sharp end of the distal tibial chip can damage the tibialis posterior muscle, long flexor muscles of the toes and the flexor hallucis longus, 3. Every spiral fracture of the tibia is associated with disruption of the periosteum.

  18. Initial mechanical stability of cementless highly-porous titanium tibial components

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Timothy Brandon; Amer, Luke D; Warren, Christopher P

    Cementless fixation in total knee replacement has seen limited use since reports of early failure surfaced in the late 80s and early 90s. However the emergence of improved biomaterials, particularly porous titanium and tantalum, has led to a renewed interest in developing a cementless tibial component to enhance long-term survivorship of the implants. Cement is commonly employed to minimize micromotion in new implants but represents a weak interface between the implant and bone. The elimination of cement and application of these new biomaterials, which theoretically provide improved stability and ultimate osseointegration, would likely result in greater knee replacement success. Additionally,more » the removal of cement from the procedure would help minimize surgical durations and get rid of the time needed for curing, thereby the chance of infection. The purpose of this biomechanical study was twofold. The first goal was to assess whether vibration analysis techniques can be used to evaluate and characterize initial mechanical stability of cementless implants more accurately than the traditional method of micromotion determination, which employs linear variable differential transducers (LVDTs). Second, an evaluative study was performed to determine the comparative mechanical stability of five designs of cementless tibial components under mechanical loading designed to simulate in vivo forces. The test groups will include a cemented Triathlon Keeled baseplate control group, three different 2-peg cementless baseplates with smooth, mid, and high roughnesses and a 4-peg cement/ess baseplate with mid-roughness.« less

  19. Tibial component coverage based on bone mineral density of the cut tibial surface during unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: clinical relevance of the prevention of tibial component subsidence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Seuk; Yun, Ji Young; Lee, Beom Koo

    2014-01-01

    An optimally implanted tibial component during unicompartmental knee arthroplasty would be flush with all edges of the cut tibial surface. However, this is often not possible, partly because the tibial component may not be an ideal shape or because the ideal component size may not be available. In such situations, surgeons need to decide between component overhang and underhang and as to which sites must be covered and which sites could be undercovered. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the bone mineral density of the cut surface of the proximal tibia around the cortical rim and to compare the bone mineral density according to the inclusion of the cortex and the site-specific matched evaluation. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients (100 men and 50 women) were enrolled in this study. A quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the bone density of the cut tibial surface. Medial and lateral compartments were divided into anterior, middle, and posterior regions, and these three regions were further subdivided into two regions according to containment of cortex. The site-specific matched comparison (medial vs. lateral) of bone mineral density was performed. In medial sides, the mid-region, including the cortex, showed the highest bone mineral density in male and female patients. The posterior region showed the lowest bone mineral density in male patients, and the anterior and posterior regions showed the lowest bone mineral density in female patients. Regions including cortex showed higher bone mineral density than pure cancellous regions in medial sides. In lateral sides, posterior regions including cortex showed highest bone mineral density with statistical significance in both male and female patients. The anterior region showed the lowest bone mineral density in both male and female patients. The mid-region of the medial side and the posterior region of the lateral side are relatively safe without cortical coverage when the component

  20. Antinociceptive and antiallodynic effects of Momordica charantia L. in tibial and sural nerve transection-induced neuropathic pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vivek; Pareek, Ashutosh; Paliwal, Nishant; Ratan, Yashumati; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal

    2014-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Momordica charantia L. (MC) in tibial and sural nerve transection (TST)-induced neuropathic pain in rats. TST was performed by sectioning tibial and sural nerve portions (2 mm) of the sciatic nerve, and leaving the common peroneal nerve intact. Acetone drop, pin-prick, hot plate, paint-brush, and walking track tests were performed to assess cold allodynia, mechanical and heat hyperalgesia, and dynamic mechanical allodynia and tibial functional index, respectively. The levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in the sciatic nerve as an index of inflammation and oxidative stress. MC (all doses, orally, once daily) was administered to the rats for 24 consecutive days. TST led to significant development of cold allodynia, mechanical and heat hyperalgesia, dynamic mechanical allodynia, and functional deficit in walking along with rise in the levels of TBARS and TNF-alpha. Administration of MC (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) significantly attenuated TST-induced behavioural and biochemical changes. Furthermore, pretreatment of BADGE (120 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) abolished the protective effect of MC in TST-induced neuropathic pain. Collectively, it is speculated that PPAR-gamma agonistic activity, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative potential is critical for antinociceptive effect of MC in neuropathic pain.

  1. A kick in the shins: the financial impact of uncontrolled warfarin use in pre-tibial haematomas.

    PubMed

    Thomson, W L; Pujol-Nicolas, A; Tahir, A; Siddiqui, H

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin is increasingly prescribed in the elderly population for a number of medical conditions. Pre-tibial haematomas are a common cause of morbidity in this group. The aim of the study was to identify the proficiency of INR monitoring at a primary care level in correlation with their recommended INR range and to study the treatment outcome in this group. A retrospective single-centre study of patients diagnosed with pre-tibial haematomas was conducted over a two-year period. Length of hospital stay, time delay until operative intervention, blood transfusion and warfarin reversal requirements, social care input and cost to the NHS were considered. A total of 62 patients were admitted with pre-tibial haematomas of which 20 were on Warfarin. Females were predominantly more affected (5.6:1). The mechanism of injury was as a result of minor trauma. The mean INR level was 3.8 with a standard deviation of 3.1. Mean length of hospital stay was 11 days with a standard deviation of 13.6. Nine patients required skin grafting. Average cost for the acute episode was £3500 per patient. INR levels were significantly outwith the target range causing substantial patient morbidity and imposing a significant financial burden on the NHS. Tighter regulation at a primary care level should help reduce this risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiological study of the knee joint line position measured from the fibular head and proximal tibial landmarks.

    PubMed

    Havet, Eric; Gabrion, Antoine; Leiber-Wackenheim, Frederic; Vernois, Joël; Olory, Bruno; Mertl, Patrice

    2007-06-01

    Restoring the joint line level is one of the surgical challenges during revision of total knee arthroplasty. The position of the tibial surface is commonly estimated by its distance to the apex of fibular head, but no study evaluating this distance accurately has been published yet. The purpose of this work was to study the distance between the knee joint line and the apex of the fibular head and the proximal tibia, particularly the tibial tuberosity. Variability with clinical data and relations with other local measurements have been evaluated on knee radiographs (an antero-posterior view, a medio-lateral view and an anteroposterior full length view) of 100 subjects (125 knees). Results showed no correlation between the joint line-fibular head apex distance and any clinical data of the patients, or any other performed measurements. Relations between tibial measurements and the sexe or the height of the subjects were noted. Besides, the review of the 25 bilateral cases did not show statistically significant side difference but the descriptive analysis showed too large discrepancies for the joint line-fibular head apex distance to be used as a landmark. We conclude that the fibular head apex cannot be used as a morphologic landmark to determine the knee joint line position. Its interest in clinical and surgical practice must be discussed.

  3. Variation in the shape of the tibial insertion site of the anterior cruciate ligament: classification is required.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Daniel; Irarrázaval, Sebastian; Nishizawa, Yuichiro; Vernacchia, Cara; Thorhauer, Eric; Musahl, Volker; Irrgang, James J; Fu, Freddie H

    2017-08-01

    To propose a classification system for the shape of the tibial insertion site (TIS) of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and to demonstrate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this system. Due to variation in shape and size, different surgical approaches may be feasible to improve reconstruction of the TIS. One hundred patients with a mean age of 26 ± 11 years were included. The ACL was cut arthroscopically at the base of the tibial insertion site. Arthroscopic images were taken from the lateral and medial portal. Images were de-identified and duplicated. Two blinded observers classified the tibial insertion site according to a classification system. The tibial insertion site was classified as type I (elliptical) in 51 knees (51 %), type II (triangular) in 33 knees (33 %) and type III (C-shaped) in 16 knees (16 %). There was good agreement between raters when viewing the insertion site from the lateral portal (κ = 0.65) as well as from the medial portal (κ = 0.66). Intra-rater reliability was good to excellent. Agreement in the description of the insertion site between the medial and lateral portals was good for rater 1 and good for rater 2 (κ = 0.74 and 0.77, respectively). There is variation in the shape of the ACL TIS. The classification system is a repeatable and reliable tool to summarize the shape of the TIS using three common patterns. For clinical relevance, different shapes may require different types of reconstruction to ensure proper footprint restoration. Consideration of the individual TIS shape is required to prevent iatrogenic damage of adjacent structures like the menisci. III.

  4. Effectiveness of various isometric exercises at improving bone strength in cortical regions prone to distal tibial stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Florio, C S

    2018-06-01

    A computational model was used to compare the local bone strengthening effectiveness of various isometric exercises that may reduce the likelihood of distal tibial stress fractures. The developed model predicts local endosteal and periosteal cortical accretion and resorption based on relative local and global measures of the tibial stress state and its surface variation. Using a multisegment 3-dimensional leg model, tibia shape adaptations due to 33 combinations of hip, knee, and ankle joint angles and the direction of a single or sequential series of generated isometric resultant forces were predicted. The maximum stress at a common fracture-prone region in each optimized geometry was compared under likely stress fracture-inducing midstance jogging conditions. No direct correlations were found between stress reductions over an initially uniform circular hollow cylindrical geometry under these critical design conditions and the exercise-based sets of active muscles, joint angles, or individual muscle force and local stress magnitudes. Additionally, typically favorable increases in cross-sectional geometric measures did not guarantee stress decreases at these locations. Instead, tibial stress distributions under the exercise conditions best predicted strengthening ability. Exercises producing larger anterior distal stresses created optimized tibia shapes that better resisted the high midstance jogging bending stresses. Bent leg configurations generating anteriorly directed or inferiorly directed resultant forces created favorable adaptations. None of the studied loads produced by a straight leg was significantly advantageous. These predictions and the insight gained can provide preliminary guidance in the screening and development of targeted bone strengthening techniques for those susceptible to distal tibial stress fractures. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Tibial component considerations in bicruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty: A 3D MRI evaluation of proximal tibial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Vishal; Anari, Jason B; Ruutiainen, Alexander T; Voleti, Pramod B; Stephenson, Jason W; Lee, Gwo-Chin

    2016-08-01

    Restoration of normal anatomy and proper ligament balance are theoretical prerequisites for reproducing physiological kinematics with bicruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to use a 3D MRI technique to evaluate the topography of the proximal tibia and outline considerations in tibial component design for bicruciate-retaining TKA. We identified 100 consecutive patients (50 males and 50 females) between ages 20 and 40 years with knee MRIs without arthritis, dysplasia, ACL tears, or prior knee surgery. A novel 3D MRI protocol coordinating axial, coronal, and sagittal images was used to measure: 1) medial and lateral posterior tibial slopes; 2) medial and lateral coronal slopes; and 3) distance from the anterior tibia to the ACL footprint. There was no overall difference in medial and lateral posterior tibial slopes (5.5° (95% CI 5.0 to 6.0°) vs. 5.4° (95% CI 4.8 to 6.0°), respectively (p=0.80)), but 41 patients had side-to-side differences greater than 3°. The medial coronal slope was greater than the lateral coronal slope (4.6° (95% CI 4.0 to 5.1°) vs. 3.3° (95% CI 2.9 to 3.7°), respectively (p<0.0001)). Females had less clearance between the anterior tibia and ACL footprint than males (10.8mm (95% CI 10.4 to 11.2mm) vs. 13.0mm (95% CI 12.5 to 13.5mm), respectively (p<0.0001)). Due to highly variable proximal tibial topography, a monoblock bicruciate-retaining tibial baseplate may not reproduce normal anatomy in all patients. Level IV - Anatomic research study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Knee arthrodesis with a long intramedullary nail as limb salvage for complex periprosthetic infections.

    PubMed

    Razii, Nima; Abbas, Ammar M I; Kakar, Rahul; Agarwal, Sanjeev; Morgan-Jones, Rhidian

    2016-12-01

    Periprosthetic infection following total knee arthroplasty is a devastating complication, which is not always satisfactorily resolved by revision surgery. Arthrodesis is a salvage alternative to above-knee amputation or permanent resection arthroplasty. Fixation options include internal compression plating, external fixation, and intramedullary nails. We retrospectively reviewed twelve consecutive cases (9 males, 3 females; mean age, 67 years) of knee arthrodesis with a long intramedullary nail, performed at a single institution between 2003 and 2014. Desired outcomes were the ability to mobilize without pain, solid radiographic fusion, and the eradication of infection. Mean follow-up was 48.5 months (range, 9-120 months). Eleven patients (92 %) demonstrated stable fusion, ten patients (83 %) were ambulatory without pain, and ten patients (83 %) remained without infection at most recent follow-up. Eight patients (67 %) achieved union at an average of 12 months; three required repeat procedures, achieving union at an average of 9 months. There was a significant difference (P < 0.01) between the numbers of previous operations amongst the eight patients who initially achieved union (mean, 3.25) and three who subsequently required repeat procedures (mean, 8.33). In contrast to similar studies, we performed a single-stage exchange where possible, while comparable ambulatory and fusion rates were observed. Numerous previous attempts at revision arthroplasty, co-morbidities, and infections with highly resistant organisms have been associated with further complications. Although technically challenging, knee arthrodesis with a long intramedullary nail offers an acceptable limb salvage procedure for carefully selected patients with complex periprosthetic infections.

  7. Intramedullary Arthrodesis of the Knee in the Treatment of Sepsis After TKR

    PubMed Central

    Bono, James V.; Figgie, Mark P.; Sculco, Thomas P.; Laskin, Richard S.; Windsor, Russell E.

    2007-01-01

    Infection is a devastating complication following total knee replacement (TKR). In the majority of cases, single- or two-stage revision has excellent results in eradicating infection and restoring function. Rarely, recurrent infection requires alternative treatments such as resection, amputation, or arthrodesis. A review of infections following TKR treated at two joint replacement centers identified 29 cases of resistant knee sepsis treated with a long intramedullary fusion nail. Clinical outcome and radiographs were reviewed at an average follow-up of 48 months (13–114). After the initial intramedullary arthrodesis union occurred in 24 of 29 patients (83%). The average time to fusion was 6 months (3–18 months). Failures included two cases of nail breakage, one of which subsequently achieved fusion following revision nailing, and three cases of recurrent infection requiring nail removal and permanent resection. At a minimum 2-year follow-up, 28% of the patients that achieved fusion complained of pain in the fused knee, 28% complained of ipsilateral hip pain, and two patients complained of contralateral knee pain. Four of the 25 fused patients (16%) remained nonambulatory after fusion, 17 required walking aids (68%) and only four ambulated unassisted. There was no association between age, number of previous procedures, the use of two-stage versus single stage technique, or infecting organism and failure of arthrodesis. Intramedullary arthrodesis is a viable treatment for refractory infection after TKR. Patients undergoing fusion should be informed of the potential for nonunion, recurrence of infection, pain in the ipsilateral extremity, and the long-term need for walking aids. PMID:18751775

  8. Intramedullary arthrodesis of the knee in the treatment of sepsis after TKR.

    PubMed

    Talmo, Carl T; Bono, James V; Figgie, Mark P; Sculco, Thomas P; Laskin, Richard S; Windsor, Russell E

    2007-02-01

    Infection is a devastating complication following total knee replacement (TKR). In the majority of cases, single- or two-stage revision has excellent results in eradicating infection and restoring function. Rarely, recurrent infection requires alternative treatments such as resection, amputation, or arthrodesis. A review of infections following TKR treated at two joint replacement centers identified 29 cases of resistant knee sepsis treated with a long intramedullary fusion nail. Clinical outcome and radiographs were reviewed at an average follow-up of 48 months (13-114). After the initial intramedullary arthrodesis union occurred in 24 of 29 patients (83%). The average time to fusion was 6 months (3-18 months). Failures included two cases of nail breakage, one of which subsequently achieved fusion following revision nailing, and three cases of recurrent infection requiring nail removal and permanent resection. At a minimum 2-year follow-up, 28% of the patients that achieved fusion complained of pain in the fused knee, 28% complained of ipsilateral hip pain, and two patients complained of contralateral knee pain. Four of the 25 fused patients (16%) remained nonambulatory after fusion, 17 required walking aids (68%) and only four ambulated unassisted. There was no association between age, number of previous procedures, the use of two-stage versus single stage technique, or infecting organism and failure of arthrodesis. Intramedullary arthrodesis is a viable treatment for refractory infection after TKR. Patients undergoing fusion should be informed of the potential for nonunion, recurrence of infection, pain in the ipsilateral extremity, and the long-term need for walking aids.

  9. Incidence of Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head After Intramedullary Nailing of Femoral Shaft Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Wan; Oh, Jong-Keon; Byun, Young-Soo; Shon, Oog-Jin; Park, Jai Hyung; Oh, Hyoung Keun; Shon, Hyun Chul; Park, Ki Chul; Kim, Jung Jae; Lim, Seung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVNFH) after intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures and to identify risk factors for developing AVNFH. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with femoral shaft fractures treated with antegrade intramedullary nailing at 10 institutions. Among the 703 patients enrolled, 161 patients were excluded leaving 542 patients in the study. Average age was 42.1 years with average follow-up of 26.3 months. Patient characteristics and fracture patterns as well as entry point of femoral nails were identified and the incidence of AVNFH was investigated. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to open versus closed physis, open versus closed fractures, and age (<20 versus ≥20 years). Overall incidence of AVNFH was 0.2% (1 of 542): the patient was 15-year-old boy. Of 25 patients with open physis, the incidence of AVNFH was 4%, whereas none of 517 patients with closed physis developed AVNFH (P < 0.001). The incidence of AVNFH in patients aged < 20 versus ≥20 years was 1.1% (1 of 93) and 0.0% (0 of 449), respectively (P = 0.172), which meant that the incidence of AVNFH was 0% in adult with femur shaft fracture. Of 61 patients with open fractures, the incidence of AVNFH was 0%. The number of cases with entry point at the trochanteric fossa or tip of the greater trochanter (GT) was 324 and 218, respectively, and the incidence of AVNFH was 0.3% and 0.0%, respectively (P = 0.412). In patients aged ≥20 years with isolated femoral shaft fracture, there was no case of AVNFH following antegrade intramedullary nailing regardless of the entry point. Therefore, our findings suggest that the risk of AVNFH following antegrade femoral nailing is extremely low in adult patients. PMID:26844518

  10. Optimizing intramedullary entry location on the proximal humerus based on variations of neck-shaft angle.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jinyoung; Jung, Hyun-Woo

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the relationship between the humeral neck-shaft angle (NSA) and variations in the ideal entry portal aligned with the long axis of the intramedullary canal of the proximal humerus. Three-dimensional images of 36 cadaveric humeri with various NSAs were reconstructed by a computerized surgical simulation program. The anteroposterior, mediolateral, and linear distances between a line from the center of the proximal medullary canal to the bicipital groove were measured. Differences among humeri with various NSAs were analyzed. The intramedullary axis line was located a mean of 9 ± 2 mm posteriorly and 11 ± 3 mm medially from the bicipital groove. The axis line was 9 ± 2 mm posterior and 11 ± 2 mm medial with a standard NSA. The axis line in humeri with a varus NSA was 8 ± 2 mm posteriorly and 9 ± 2 mm medially, whereas the axis line was 10 ± 3 mm posteriorly and 14 ± 3 mm medially with a valgus NSA. The differences in the mediolateral distances between the groups were significant (P < .00009). Care should be taken in choosing the entry portal position in humeri with various NSAs as the entry portal position differs according to the NSA. It is recommended that the location of the entry portal be moved toward the center of the humeral head to align with the centerline of the intramedullary canal in humeri with a valgus NSA in particular. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pain outcomes after surgery in patients with intramedullary spinal cord cavernous malformations.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Harel

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the study was to quantify the improvement in pain levels for patients who have undergone surgery for intramedullary spinal cord cavernous malformations (SCCMs). The author reviewed medical records of patients who underwent surgery for an intramedullary SCCM between 2003 and 2010. Numerical pain scores (range 0-10) were recorded preoperatively and at follow-up. The follow-up period exceeded 1 year. Neurological status and subjective outcomes were assessed. Each patient underwent follow-up MR imaging. Five patients were identified with SCCMs who underwent surgery: 4 with thoracic and 1 with cervical lesions. Patients had been conservatively managed for an average of 5 years prior to surgery, and none had a history of acute hemorrhage or neurological deterioration during the observation period. The primary indication for surgery in each patient was pain, although 4 of 5 patients had some evidence of myelopathy on examination. Pain improved from a mean preoperative score of 8.6 to mean score of 2.0 (p < 0.01) at 1 month. Pain scores then increased to 3.7 (p < 0.01) at 1 year. All patients had some improvement in pain. No new motor weakness was noted, but all patients had increased symptoms of posterior-column dysfunction and numbness after surgery. Spinal cord intramedullary cavernous malformations are increasingly being diagnosed early with patients presenting with mostly pain symptoms. Removal of the lesion is reliably associated with improvement in pain scores but often the pain improvement is transient. While long-term worsening of pain scores occurs, at 1-year follow-up, patients reported pain scores were improved over preoperative scores. In all patients some degree of postoperative posterior-column dysfunction was present. Some of the immediate pain relief may be due to analgesia related to the myelotomy of newly described posterior column pain pathways. In patients with severe pain, surgery to remove SCCMs reduced the overall pain level at 1

  12. Outcomes of long retrograde intramedullary nailing for periprosthetic supracondylar femoral fractures following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-San; Lim, Seung-Jae; Moon, Young-Wan; Seo, Jai-Gon

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of periprosthetic supracondylar femoral fractures following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is challenging because of osteopenia and the limited bone available for distal fixation. The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of periprosthetic supracondylar femoral fractures treated with long retrograde intramedullary nailing. We conducted a retrospective review of 25 patients who were treated with a long retrograde intramedullary nail for periprosthetic supracondylar femoral fractures following TKA. Clinical evaluation included range of motion of knee, Knee Society Score (KSS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis (WOMAC) score, and radiologic evaluation including time to union, coronal and sagittal alignment of femoral component, lower limb alignment, and implant loosening. The mean duration of follow-up after the fracture repair was 39 months (range 12-47). All 25 fractures were united with a mean time of 12 weeks (range 8-20). At the last follow-up, the mean knee flexion was 111° (range 60°-130°), the mean KSS was 81.5 (range 50-100), and the mean WOMAC score was 30.2 (range 5-55). Four (16%) of the 25 patients developed malalignment according to Rorabeck and Taylor criteria, but all patients had a knee flexion of more than 90°. Coronal and sagittal alignments of femoral component and lower limb alignment did not differ significantly between before and after the fracture repair. Complications included the loosening or breakage of distal interlocking screws in three patients. No deep infection or prosthesis loosening was detected at the last follow-up. Surgical treatment of periprosthetic supracondylar femoral fractures following TKA with long retrograde intramedullary nailing resulted in high union rates and encouraging functional outcomes.

  13. Intramedullary Percutaneous Fixation of Extra-Articular Proximal and Middle Phalanx Fractures.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Nebojsa; Aldlyami, Ehab; Saraj, Basem; Fm Seidam, Mohamed; Badawi, Hamed; Shaat, Ahmed; Alawadi, Khalid; Dodakundi, Chaitanya

    2018-06-01

    Multiple methods have been described for treating unstable proximal and middle phalangeal fractures. Irrespective of using an open or closed technique of fixation, stiffness and extensor lag at the proximal/distal interphalangeal joint almost always occur. This issue can be avoided by allowing the patients to mobilize the fingers out of plaster or splint as early as possible from the day of surgery. We describe a technique of intramedullary percutaneous fixation of extra-articular proximal and middle phalanx fractures allowing immediate mobilization of fingers, concurrent stabilization with progressive healing and thus preventing such complications.

  14. Knee arthrodesis using a customised modular intramedullary nail in failed infected total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Putman, S; Kern, G; Senneville, E; Beltrand, E; Migaud, H

    2013-06-01

    Knee arthrodesis is used to treat patients with failed infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Among fixation methods, intramedullary nailing increases the chances of bone union but may carry a risk of infection around the nail. This risk is not well understood, because available case-series studies were not confined to patients with knee infection. Infection recurrence rates after knee arthrodesis with intramedullary nailing used to treat failed infected TKA are similar to those seen with other fixation methods. We retrospectively reviewed 31 cases of knee arthrodesis with fixation by a modular intramedullary nail performed at a subspecialized center treating complex osteoarticular infections (CRIOAC). The antibiotic regimen was determined based on multidisciplinary discussions and microbiological studies of preoperative and intraoperative specimens. Mean follow-up was 50 ± 22 months (range, 28-90 months). Arthrodesis was performed in one stage (n=6) or two stages (n=25). Success was defined as presence, after a postoperative follow-up of at least 24 months, based on the following criteria: normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate and/or C-reactive protein, no wound inflammation or sinus tract, no revision surgery, and no antibiotic treatment. Bone union was not a criterion for a successful arthrodesis procedure. Removal of the fixation material was required in three patients and long-term palliative antibiotic therapy in three patients (fixation material in place with repeated positive specimens) for a total of six failures due to infection (6/31, 19.4%). None of the patients experienced mechanical failure (no breakage of the material and no fixation failure of the nails designed to allow osteointegration). The mean leg length discrepancy was 10 ± 10 mm (range, 5-34 mm) and the mean Oxford score was 41 ± 11 (range, 23-58). The 50-month rate of arthrodesis survival to revision surgery for nail removal was 77.8 ± 4% and the 50-month rate of arthrodesis survival

  15. The efficacy of single-stage open intramedullary nailing of neglected femur fractures.

    PubMed

    Boopalan, P R J V C; Sait, Azad; Jepegnanam, Thilak Samuel; Matthai, Thomas; Varghese, Viju Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Neglected femur fractures are not rare in the developing world. Treatment options include single-stage open reduction and intramedullary nailing, or open release, skeletal traction, and then second-stage open intramedullary nailing, with bone grafting. Single-stage procedures have the potential advantage of avoiding neurovascular complications secondary to acute lengthening, but they require a second operation, with potentially increased resource use and infection risk. We sought to determine the (1) likelihood of union, (2) complications and reoperations, and (3) functional results with single-stage open intramedullary nailing without bone grafting in patients with neglected femur fractures. Between January 2003 and December 2007, 17 consecutive patients presented to our practice with neglected femoral shaft fractures. All were treated with single-stage nailing without bone grafting. There were 15 men and two women with a median age of 27 years. The average time from fracture to treatment was 13 weeks (range, 4-44 weeks). Eleven patients underwent open nailing with interlocked nails and six were treated with cloverleaf Kuntscher nails. Patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months (mean, 33 months; range, 6-72 months). The mean preoperative ROM of the knee was 28° (range, 10°-150°) and femoral length discrepancy was 3.1 cm (range, 1-5 cm). All fractures united and the mean time to union was 16 weeks (range, 7-32 weeks). There were no neurologic complications secondary to acute lengthening. The mean postoperative ROM of the knee was 130° (range, 60°-150°). All patients were able to return to preinjury work. Sixteen patients regained their original femoral length. One-stage open intramedullary nailing of neglected femoral diaphyseal fractures without bone grafting was safe and effective, and obviated the need for a two-stage approach. Although the findings need to be replicated in larger numbers of patients, we believe this technique may be useful in

  16. A 51-year-old man with intramedullary spinal cord abscess having a patent foramen ovale

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Kanako; Ishihara, Hiroyuki; Okuda, Shiho; Kanda, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 51-year-old man with intramedullary spinal cord abscess (ISCA) having a patent foramen ovale (PFO). He developed fever and tetraplegia after a recent dental treatment. MRI showed ISCA with longitudinal swelling from the upper cervical to the lumbar spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis indicated bacterial meningitis, and the culture of CSF revealed Streptococcus viridans. Transoesophageal echocardiography revealed the existence of a PFO. We suspected another possibility other than systemic bacteraemia, that paradoxical bacteric embolisation through PFO after the dental treatment caused ISCA. While several reports of brain abscess with PFO are available, this is the first report of ISCA with PFO. PMID:22696715

  17. Periarticular locking plate vs intramedullary nail for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis: a biomechanical investigation.

    PubMed

    Ohlson, Blake L; Shatby, Meena W; Parks, Brent G; White, Kacey L; Schon, Lew C

    2011-02-01

    Augmented retrograde intramedullary (IM) nail fixation was compared with augmented periarticular locking- plate fixation for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis. Specimens in 10 matched pairs were randomly assigned to a fixation construct and loaded cyclically in dorsiflexion. The groups did not differ in initial or final stiffness, load to failure, or construct deformation. No correlation was found between bone mineral density and construct deformation for either group. A humeral locking plate may be a viable alternative to an IM nail for tibiotalocalcaneal fixation in cases not amenable to IM nailing.

  18. Tibial Eminence Involvement With Tibial Plateau Fracture Predicts Slower Recovery and Worse Postoperative Range of Knee Motion.

    PubMed

    Konda, Sanjit R; Driesman, Adam; Manoli, Arthur; Davidovitch, Roy I; Egol, Kenneth A

    2017-07-01

    To examine 1-year functional and clinical outcomes in patients with tibial plateau fractures with tibial eminence involvement. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Academic Medical Center. All patients who presented with a tibial plateau fracture (Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) 41-B and 41-C). Patients were divided into fractures with a tibial eminence component (+TE) and those without (-TE) cohorts. All patients underwent similar surgical approaches and fixation techniques for fractures. No tibial eminence fractures received fixation specifically. Short musculoskeletal functional assessment (SMFA), pain (Visual Analogue Scale), and knee range-of-motion (ROM) were evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and compared between cohorts. Two hundred ninety-three patients were included for review. Patients with OTA 41-C fractures were more likely to have an associated TE compared with 41-B fractures (63% vs. 28%, P < 0.01). At 3 months postoperatively, the +TE cohort was noted to have worse knee ROM (75.16 ± 51 vs. 86.82 ± 53 degree, P = 0.06). At 6 months, total SMFA and knee ROM was significantly worse in the +TE cohort (29 ± 17 vs. 21 ± 18, P ≤ 0.01; 115.6 ± 20 vs. 124.1 ± 15, P = 0.01). By 12 months postoperatively, only knee ROM remained significantly worse in the +TE cohort (118.7 ± 15 vs. 126.9 ± 13, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial eminence involvement was a significant predictor of ROM at 6 and 12 months and SFMA at 6 months. Body mass index was found to be a significant predictor of ROM and age was a significant predictor of total SMFA at all time points. Knee ROM remains worse throughout the postoperative period in the +TE cohort. Functional outcome improves less rapidly in the +TE cohort but achieves similar results by 1 year. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. Open Tibial Inlay PCL Reconstruction: Surgical Technique and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vellios, Evan E; Jones, Kristofer J; McAllister, David R

    2018-06-01

    To review the current literature on clinical outcomes following open tibial inlay posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction and provide the reader with a detailed description of the author's preferred surgical technique. Despite earlier biomechanical studies which demonstrated superiority of the PCL inlay technique when compared to transtibial techniques, recent longitudinal cohort studies have shown no significant differences in clinical or functional outcomes at 10-year follow-up. Furthermore, no significant clinical differences have been shown between graft types used and/or single- versus double-bundle reconstruction methods. The optimal treatment for the PCL-deficient knee remains unclear. Open tibial inlay PCL reconstruction is safe, reproducible, and avoids the "killer turn" that may potentially lead to graft weakening and failure seen in transtibial reconstruction methods. No significant differences in subjective outcomes or clinical laxity have been shown between single-bundle versus double-bundle reconstruction methods.

  20. Posterior tibial vein aneurysm presenting as tarsal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Micheal; Whisenhunt, Anumeha; Hong, EnYaw; Heller, Josh; Salvatore, Dawn; Abai, Babak; DiMuzio, Paul J

    2015-06-01

    Tarsal tunnel syndrome is a compressive neuropathy of the posterior tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel. Its etiology varies, including space occupying lesions, trauma, inflammation, anatomic deformity, iatrogenic injury, and idiopathic and systemic causes. Herein, we describe a 46-year-old man who presented with left foot pain. Work up revealed a venous aneurysm impinging on the posterior tibial nerve. Following resection of the aneurysm and lysis of the nerve, his symptoms were alleviated. Review of the literature reveals an association between venous disease and tarsal tunnel syndrome; however, this report represents the first case of venous aneurysm causing symptomatic compression of the nerve. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Spinal perimedullary vein enlargement sign: an added value for the differentiation between intradural-extramedullary and intramedullary tumors on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tao; Liu, Yubo; Wang, Guangbin; Yang, Li; Chen, Weibo; Gao, Fei; Chen, Xin

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the added value of the perimedullary spinal vein enlargement sign on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in distinguishing intradural-extramedullary tumors (IDEMTs) from intramedullary spinal tumors (IMTs). Two hundred and eight consecutive spinal intradural tumors with histopathologic confirmation (21 IMTs, 187 IDEMTs) were enrolled. Two readers blinded to the final pathological diagnosis and clinical data independently assessed the venous enlargement sign to determine the agreement between them and jointly distinguished IDEMTs from IMTs according to the common MRI findings. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of IDEMTs were calculated for the common MRI findings, vein enlargement sign, and a combination of both. Intraobserver agreement and interobserver agreement for both readers was excellent. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of common MRI findings for differentiating IDEMTs from IMTs were 83.4, 95.2, and 89.3 %, respectively. Thirty-one IDEMTs were mistakenly diagnosed as IMTs, in which seven were cases with vein enlargement signs. By applying the vein enlargement sign to the common MRI findings, the specificity remained at 95.2 %, while the sensitivity improved to 89.3 % and the accuracy increased to 92.3 %. The spinal perimedullary vein enlargement sign is useful in assessing intradural tumors and to differentiate IDEMTs from IMTs.

  2. Comparison of Posterior Approach With Intramedullary Nailing Versus Lateral Transfibular Approach With Fixed-Angle Plating for Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Ryan P; Adams, Samuel B; Easley, Mark E; DeOrio, James K; Nunley, James A

    2017-12-01

    A variety of operative approaches and fixation techniques have been described for tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis. The intramedullary (IM) nail and lateral, fixed-angle plating are commonly used because of ease of use and favorable biomechanical properties. A lateral, transfibular (LTF) approach allows for direct access to the tibiotalar and subtalar joints, but the posterior, Achilles tendon-splitting (PATS) approach offers a robust soft tissue envelope. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of TTC arthrodesis with either a PATS approach with IM nailing or LTF approach with fixed-angle plating. A retrospective review was performed on all patients who underwent simultaneous TTC arthrodesis with minimum 1 year clinical and radiographic follow up. Patients were excluded if they underwent TTC arthrodesis through an approach other than PATS or LTF, and received fixation without an IM nail or fixed-angle plate. Primary outcomes examined were union rate, revisions, and complications. Thirty-eight patients underwent TTC arthrodesis with a PATS approach and IM nailing, and 28 with a LTF approach and lateral plating. The overall union rate was 71%; 76% (29 of 38 patients) for the PATS/IM nail group, and 64% (18 of 28) for LTF/plating group ( P = .41). Symptomatic nonunion requiring revision arthrodesis occurred in 16% (6 of 38) of the PATS/IM nail group versus 7% (2 of 28) in the LTF/lateral plating group ( P = .45). There were no significant differences in individual tibiotalar or subtalar union rates, superficial wound problems, infection, symptomatic hardware, stress fractures, or nerve irritations. Union, revision, and complication rates were similar for TTC arthrodesis performed with a PATS approach and IM nail compared with an LTF approach and fixed-angle plate in a complex patient population. Both techniques were adequate, especially when prior incisions, preexisting hardware, or deformity preclude options. Level III, retrospective comparative

  3. Is intramedullary nailing more effective than non-operative treatment in adults with displaced middle-third clavicle fractures?

    PubMed

    Hill, Christopher Edward

    2014-09-01

    Clavicle fractures are common, accounting for 5-12 % of all fractures. Traditionally, displaced middle-third clavicle fractures have been managed non-operatively but the associated displacement often leads to mal-union with shortening, cosmetic deformity and occasionally non-union, with clinicians looking towards alternative operative methods such as intramedullary nailing (IMN). However, such methods have their own complications. In order to ascertain the effectiveness of IMN in the management of middle-third clavicle fractures compared with non-operative treatment, analysis of recent evidence is required and this review aims to achieve that, focusing on relevant, contemporary randomised-control trials. Essential search-terms identified from the research question were used to formulate a search strategy. A systematic search of multiple databases was then performed from 1966 until present and appropriate papers for appraisal identified. Thirteen papers were identified, with 10 excluded using appropriate eligibility criteria. The remaining papers were then critically appraised. With regards shoulder function, all papers demonstrated an association between IMN and a significantly (P < 0.05) superior shoulder function score, but no consensus with regards to complication rates. However, all have identified limitations; therefore, their overall findings must be considered conservatively. Further, high-quality research, ideally in the form of well-designed, multi-centre RCTs is required to allow acceptable implementation of IMN of middle-third clavicle fractures into widespread practice. However, early results demonstrate that in young patients with displaced middle-third clavicle fractures, who are motivated to return to work, IMN provides superior functional results and should be considered. However, the importance of considering each patient individually as to their suitability for each management option, before coming to an informed decision with the patient

  4. Leg Muscle Usage on Tibial Elasticity During Running

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    relative risk of forefoot versus heel- strike running. In summary, there is no evidence in the literature that either study arm is at more risk than...tested in TSF, or even studied in runners. These basic validation studies will determine if modulators of tibial stress, .such as heel- strike mechanics...the other for acute injuries, although it was agreed that forefoot runners will be periodically evaluated for injuries to the Achilles tendon. After

  5. Treatment of segmental tibial fractures with supercutaneous plating.

    PubMed

    He, Xianfeng; Zhang, Jingwei; Li, Ming; Yu, Yihui; Zhu, Limei

    2014-08-01

    Segmental tibial fractures usually follow a high-energy trauma and are often associated with many complications. The purpose of this report is to describe the authors' results in the treatment of segmental tibial fractures with supercutaneous locking plates used as external fixators. Between January 2009 and March 2012, a total of 20 patients underwent external plating (supercutaneous plating) of the segmental tibial fractures using a less-invasive stabilization system locking plate (Synthes, Paoli, Pennsylvania). Six fractures were closed and 14 were open (6 grade IIIa, 2 grade IIIb, 4 grade II, and 2 grade I, according to the Gustilo classification). When imaging studies confirmed bone union, the plates and screws were removed in the outpatient clinic. Average time of follow-up was 23 months (range, 12-47 months). All fractures achieved union. Median time to union was 19 weeks (range, 12-40 weeks) for the proximal fractures and 22 weeks (range, 12-42 weeks) for the distal fractures. Functional results were excellent in 17 patients and good in 3. Delayed union of the fracture occurred in 2 patients. All patients' radiographs showed normal alignment. No rotational deformities and leg shortening were seen. No incidences of deep infection or implant failures occurred. Minor screw tract infection occurred in 2 patients. A new 1-stage protocol using supercutaneous plating as a definitive fixator for segmental tibial fractures is less invasive, has a lower cost, and has a shorter hospitalization time. Surgeons can achieve good reduction, soft tissue reconstruction, stable fixation, and high union rates using supercutaneous plating. The current patients obtained excellent knee and ankle joint motion and good functional outcomes and had a comfortable clinical course. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    controlling for age and sex was used. However, there were no statistically significant differences between NF1 individuals with and without tibial...Dinorah Friedmann-Morvinski (The Salk Institute) presented a different model of glioblastoma in which tumors were induced from fully differentiated...a driver of Schwann cell tumorigenesis. Induction ofWnt signaling was sufficient to induce a transformed phenotype in human Schwann cells, while

  7. Multiple Tibial Insufficiency Fractures in the Same Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Defoort, Saartje; Mertens, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Stress fractures were first described by Briethaupt in 1855. Since then, there have been many discussions in the literature concerning stress fractures, which have been described in both weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bones. Currently, the tibia is the most frequent location, but multiple stress fractures in the same tibia are rare. This paper presents an unusual case of a 60-year-old woman with multiple tibial stress fractures of spontaneous onset. PMID:23569673

  8. Nonunion of the humerus following intramedullary nailing treated by Ilizarov hybrid fixation.

    PubMed

    Raschke, M; Khodadadyan, C; Maitino, P D; Hoffmann, R; Südkamp, N P

    1998-02-01

    A case of a posttraumatic humeral shaft nonunion, after intramedullary stabilization with a Seidel nail, is presented. Severe osteoporosis, an oligotrophic nonunion, subclinical infection, and adhesive capsulitis of the glenohumeral joint were present. Due to the subclinical infection and severe osteoporosis, other major invasive therapeutic options such as intramedullary nailing or compression plating and bone grafting were not applicable. Nonoperative treatment was also not indicated secondary to the pain and disability present. External fixation with the Ilizarov hybrid fixator seemed to offer a minimally invasive treatment modality without the need of additional bone grafting. After fourteen weeks of "callus massage," consisting of closed alternating compression and distraction with an Ilizarov hybrid fixator, osseous consolidation was achieved. Eight months after Ilizarov treatment the patient had returned to work as a mechanic. At the one-year follow-up examination, the patient presented pain free and with near normal shoulder and elbow motion, with stable osseous consolidation of the humerus. In some cases of nonunion of the humerus shaft, when standard treatment options are not recommended, external fixation with an Ilizarov hybrid fixator may offer a salvage procedure with a successful clinical outcome.

  9. Continuous decompression with intramedullary nailing for the treatment of unicameral bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Masquijo, Julio Javier; Baroni, Eduardo; Miscione, Horacio

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of decompression of unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) of the long bones with intramedullary nailing and to compare responses to treatment according to location. We evaluated 48 consecutive patients treated between January 1988 and June 2000. Mean age was 10.3 years. Mean follow-up was 9.8 years. Evaluation was performed according to the radiographic criteria of Capanna. UBCs were located in the proximal humerus (n = 24), humeral shaft (n = 2), proximal femur (n = 19), distal tibia (n = 2) and fibula (n = 1). A total of 62.5% presented a pathological fracture. Successful results were observed in 89.5% (26 total healing, 17 healing with residual radiolucent areas), and there were four recurrences and, in one case, no response to treatment. There was more healing in the humerus than in the femur (92.3% versus 84.2%), and more tendency to restitution ad integrum, although the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.1499). Intramedullary nailing is a minimally invasive method, which permits early stability and decompresses the cyst allowing healing. Significant differences were not observed among results from different locations.

  10. The stability of a hip fracture determines the fatigue of an intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Eberle, S; Bauer, C; Gerber, C; von Oldenburg, G; Augat, P

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the question of how the stability of a proximal hip fracture determines the fatigue and failure mechanism of an intramedullary implant. To answer this question, mechanical experiments and finite element simulations with two different loading scenarios were conducted. The two load scenarios differed in the mechanical support of the fracture by an artificial bone sleeve, representing the femoral head and neck. The experiments confirmed that an intramedullary nail fails at a lower load in an unstable fracture situation in the proximal femur than in a stable fracture. The nails with an unstable support failed at a load 28 per cent lower than the nails with a stable support by the femoral neck. Hence, the mechanical support of a fracture is crucial to the fatigue failure of an implant. The simulation showed why the fatigue fracture of the nail starts at the aperture of the lag screw. It is the location of the highest von Mises stress, which is the failure criterion for ductile materials.

  11. Primary Intramedullary Malignant Lymphoma in the Cervical Cord with a Presyrinx State

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Atsushi; Koji, Takahiro; Beppu, Takaaki; Mue, Yoshiharu; Sugai, Tamotsu; Ogasawara, Knuaki

    2017-01-01

    A 79-year-old man presented with primary intramedullary malignant lymphoma with a presyrinx state in the cervical cord manifesting as left hemiparesis and hemidysesthesia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed an intramedullary mass in the cervical spinal cord at the level of C1 and T2-weighted image prolongation from the medulla to the level of C5. According to the progression of hemiparesis, he underwent an emergency removal of the tumor under general anesthesia. The tumor was totally removed, and the peritumoral signal abnormality was not present in the postoperative MRI. Histological examination revealed diffuse large B cell lymphoma. While brain MRI, bone marrow puncture, and 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (18FDG-PET) of the whole body were performed to find out a primary lesion, there were no abnormalities. He underwent a high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy and a local irradiation therapy (40Gy). He has been alive for more than two years since the symptom onset, and without any evidence of recurrence. This case suggests that malignant lymphoma, as an infiltrating and rapidly progressive tumor, may be accompanied by syrinx. PMID:29507854

  12. How precise is the PRECICE compared to the ISKD in intramedullary limb lengthening?

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Björn; Tretow, Henning L; Schuhknecht, Britta; Gosheger, Georg; Horter, Melanie J; Rödl, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose The PRECICE intramedullary limb lengthening system uses a new technique with a magnetic rod and a motorized external remote controller (ERC) with rotational magnetic field. We evaluated the reliability and safety of the PRECICE system. Methods We compared our preliminary results with PRECICE in 24 patients (26 nails) with the known difficulties in the use of mechanical lengthening devices such as the ISKD. We used the Paley classification for evaluation of problems, obstacles, and complications. Results 2 nails were primarily without function, and 24/26 nails lengthened over the desired distance. Lengthening desired was 38 mm and lengthening obtained was 37 mm. There were 2 nail breakages, 1 in the welding seam and 1 because of a fall that occurred during consolidation. ERC usage was problematic mostly in patients with femoral lengthening. Adjustment of the ERC was necessary in 10 of 24 cases. 15 cases had implant-associated problems, obstacles were seen in 5 cases, and complications were seen in each of 4 cases. Interpretaion The reliability of the PRECICE system is comparable to that of other intramedullary lengthening devices such as the ISKD. The motorized external remote controller and its application by the patients is a weak point of the system and needs strict supervision. PMID:24758320

  13. Influence of the intramedullary nail preparation method on nail's mechanical properties and degradation rate.

    PubMed

    Morawska-Chochół, Anna; Chłopek, Jan; Szaraniec, Barbara; Domalik-Pyzik, Patrycja; Balacha, Ewa; Boguń, Maciej; Kucharski, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    When it comes to the treatment of long bone fractures, scientists are still investigating new materials for intramedullary nails and different manufacturing methods. Some of the most promising materials used in the field are resorbable polymers and their composites, especially since there is a wide range of potential manufacturing and processing methods. The aim of this work was to select the best manufacturing method and technological parameters to obtain multiphase, and multifunctional, biodegradable intramedullary nails. All composites were based on a poly(l-lactide) matrix. Either magnesium alloy wires or carbon and alginate fibres were introduced in order to reinforce the nails. The polylactide matrix was also modified with tricalcium phosphate and gentamicin sulfate. The composite nails were manufactured using three different methods: forming from solution, injection moulding and hot pressing. The effect of each method of manufacturing on mechanical properties and degradation rate of the nails was evaluated. The study showed that injection moulding provides higher uniformity and homogeneity of the particle-modified polylactide matrix, whereas hot pressing favours applying higher volume fractions of fibres and their better impregnation with the polymer matrix. Thus, it was concluded that the fabrication method should be individually selected dependently on the nail's desired phase composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biocompatibility of sol-gel-derived titania-silica coated intramedullary NiTi nails.

    PubMed

    Muhonen, V; Kujala, S; Vuotikka, A; Aäritalo, V; Peltola, T; Areva, S; Närhi, T; Tuukkanen, J

    2009-02-01

    We investigated bone response to sol-gel-derived titania-silica coated functional intramedullary NiTi nails that applied a continuous bending force. Nails 26 mm in length, either straight or with a radius of curvature of 28 or 15 mm, were implanted in the cooled martensite form from a proximal to distal direction into the medullary cavity of the right femur in 40 Sprague-Dawley rats. Body temperature restored the austenite form, causing the curved implants to generate a bending force on the bone. The femurs were examined after 24 weeks. Bone length measurements did not reveal any bowing or shortening of the bone in the experimental groups. The results from histomorphometry demonstrated that the stronger bending force, together with sol-gel surface treatment, resulted in more bone deposition around the implant and the formation of significantly less fibrous tissue. Straight intramedullary nails, even those with a titania-silica coating, were poorly attached when compared to the implants with a curved austenite structure.

  15. The clinical application of absorbable intramedullary nail and claw plate on treating multiple rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Chai, X; Lin, Q; Ruan, Z; Zheng, J; Zhou, J; Zhang, J

    2013-08-01

    The absorption intramedullary nail and claw plate indications and efficacy were investigated in the treatment of a life-threatening multiple rib fractures. A retrospective analysis of 248 surgically treated rib fracture patients was performed who admitted to our hospital from March 2007 to December 2012. Intramedullary nailing was performed in 28 cases, a claw-type bone plate was fixed in 141 cases, and a combination of both was fixed in 79 cases. All internal fixation patients were clinically cured except 1 patient died 14 days after a massive pulmonary embolism. The patients with flail chest and floating chest wall causing respiratory and circulatory disorders were promptly corrected. Routine follow-up was from 1 to 2 years, displaced fractures were in 2 cases, and there were 11 cases of internal fixation and extraction. Internal fixation is a simple and reliable method for the treatment of multiple rib fractures. Both internal fixation materials have their pros and cons but the claw bone plate is more robust. The actual selection of appropriate treatment options helps to improve the treatment efficacy.

  16. Corrosion behavior, biocompatibility and biomechanical stability of a prototype magnesium-based biodegradable intramedullary nailing system.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Manuel; Schilling, Markus; Eifler, Rainer; Hering, Britta; Reifenrath, Janin; Besdo, Silke; Windhagen, Henning; Willbold, Elmar; Weizbauer, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Implants made of degradable magnesium alloys are a potential alternative to conventional orthopaedic implant materials, e.g. stainless steel or titanium. Intramedullary nails made of the magnesium alloy LAE442 were subjected to cyclic fatigue tests in both distilled water and Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) at 37.5°C until implant failure or a limit of 500,000cycles was reached. In distilled water, four of the five nails were still intact after the end of the biomechanical test. In HBSS, a breakage within the first 70,000 bending cycles was observed. Additionally, the degradation rate of this alloy was determined in HBSS according to the weight loss method (0.24±0.12mmyear(-1)) and based on gas release (0.21±0.03mmyear(-1)) with a standard eudiometer. A cytotoxicity test with L929 cells was carried out in accordance with EN ISO 10993-5/12. This test demonstrated sufficient cell viability of the diluted extracts (50%, 25% and 12.5%). The relative metabolic activity of the 100% extract was reduced slightly below 70%, which is classified as a threshold value for cytotoxicity. In conclusion, this in vitro study indicates that intramedullary nails made of LAE442 may not have the required fatigue resistance for load-bearing applications and the development of a corrosion-protective coating may be necessary to prevent early failure of the implant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biomechanical analysis of posteromedial tibial plateau split fracture fixation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhi-Min; Luo, Cong-Feng; Putnis, Sven; Zeng, Bing-Fang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical strength of four different fixation methods for a posteromedial tibial plateau split fracture. Twenty-eight tibial plateau fractures were simulated using right-sided synthetic tibiae models. Each fracture model was randomly instrumented with one of the four following constructs, anteroposterior lag-screws, an anteromedial limited contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP), a lateral locking plate, or a posterior T-shaped buttress plate. Vertical subsidence of the posteromedial fragment was measured from 500 N to 1500 N during biomechanical testing, the maximum load to failure was also determined. It was found that the posterior T-shaped buttress plate allowed the least subsidence of the posteromedial fragment and produced the highest mean failure load than each of the other three constructs (P=0.00). There was no statistical significant difference between using lag screws or an anteromedial LC-DCP construct for the vertical subsidence at a 1500 N load and the load to failure (P>0.05). This study showed that a posterior-based buttress technique is biomechanically the most stable in-vitro fixation method for posteromedial split tibial plateau fractures, with AP screws and anteromedial-based LC-DCP are not as stable for this type of fracture. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tibial rotational osteotomy for idiopathic torsion. A comparison of the proximal and distal osteotomy levels.

    PubMed

    Krengel, W F; Staheli, L T

    1992-10-01

    A retrospective analysis was done of 52 rotational tibial osteotomies (RTOs) performed on 35 patients with severe idiopathic tibial torsion. Thirty-nine osteotomies were performed at the proximal or midtibial level. Thirteen were performed at the distal tibial level with a technique previously described by one of the authors. Serious complications occurred in five (13%) of the proximal and in none of the distal RTOs. For severe and persisting idiopathic tibial torsion, the authors recommend correction by RTO at the distal level. Proximal level osteotomy is indicated only when a varus or valgus deformity required concurrent correction.

  19. Importance of tibial slope for stability of the posterior cruciate ligament deficient knee.

    PubMed

    Giffin, J Robert; Stabile, Kathryne J; Zantop, Thore; Vogrin, Tracy M; Woo, Savio L-Y; Harner, Christopher D

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that increasing tibial slope can shift the resting position of the tibia anteriorly. As a result, sagittal osteotomies that alter slope have recently been proposed for treatment of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries. Increasing tibial slope with an osteotomy shifts the resting position anteriorly in a PCL-deficient knee, thereby partially reducing the posterior tibial "sag" associated with PCL injury. This shift in resting position from the increased slope causes a decrease in posterior tibial translation compared with the PCL-deficient knee in response to posterior tibial and axial compressive loads. Controlled laboratory study. Three knee conditions were tested with a robotic universal force-moment sensor testing system: intact, PCL-deficient, and PCL-deficient with increased tibial slope. Tibial slope was increased via a 5-mm anterior opening wedge osteotomy. Three external loading conditions were applied to each knee condition at 0 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees, and 120 degrees of knee flexion: (1) 134-N anterior-posterior (A-P) tibial load, (2) 200-N axial compressive load, and (3) combined 134-N A-P and 200-N axial loads. For each loading condition, kinematics of the intact knee were recorded for the remaining 5 degrees of freedom (ie, A-P, medial-lateral, and proximal-distal translations, internal-external and varus-valgus rotations). Posterior cruciate ligament deficiency resulted in a posterior shift of the tibial resting position to 8.4 +/- 2.6 mm at 90 degrees compared with the intact knee. After osteotomy, tibial slope increased from 9.2 degrees +/- 1.0 degrees in the intact knee to 13.8 degrees +/- 0.9 degrees. This increase in slope reduced the posterior sag of the PCL-deficient knee, shifting the resting position anteriorly to 4.0 +/- 2.0 mm at 90 degrees. Under a 200-N axial compressive load with the osteotomy, an additional increase in anterior tibial translation to 2.7 +/- 1.7 mm at 30 degrees was

  20. Analysis of Knee Joint Line Obliquity after High Tibial Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Jun; Ko, Young Bong; Bae, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Suk Tae; Kim, Jae Gyoon

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate which lower extremity alignment (knee and ankle joint) parameters affect knee joint line obliquity (KJLO) in the coronal plane after open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). Overall, 69 knees of patients that underwent OWHTO were evaluated using radiographs obtained preoperatively and from 6 weeks to 3 months postoperatively. We measured multiple parameters of knee and ankle joint alignment (hip-knee-ankle angle [HKA], joint line height [JLH], posterior tibial slope [PS], femoral condyle-tibial plateau angle [FCTP], medial proximal tibial angle [MPTA], mechanical lateral distal femoral angle [mLDFA], KJLO, talar tilt angle [TTA], ankle joint obliquity [AJO], and the lateral distal tibial ground surface angle [LDTGA]; preoperative [-pre], postoperative [-post], and the difference between -pre and -post values [-Δ]). We categorized patients into two groups according to the KJLO-post value (the normal group [within ± 4 degrees, 56 knees] and the abnormal group [greater than ± 4 degrees, 13 knees]), and compared their -pre parameters. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the contribution of the -pre parameters to abnormal KJLO-post. The mean HKA-Δ (-9.4 ± 4.7 degrees) was larger than the mean KJLO-Δ (-2.1 ± 3.2 degrees). The knee joint alignment parameters (the HKA-pre, FCTP-pre) differed significantly between the two groups ( p  < 0.05). In addition, the HKA-pre (odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, p  = 0.006) and FCTP-pre (OR = 2.13, p  = 0.006) were significant predictors of abnormal KJLO-post. However, -pre ankle joint parameters (TTA, AJO, and LDTGA) did not differ significantly between the two groups and were not significantly associated with the abnormal KJLO-post. The -pre knee joint alignment and knee joint convergence angle evaluated by HKA-pre and FCTP-pre angle, respectively, were significant predictors of abnormal KJLO after OWHTO. However, -pre ankle joint

  1. [Intramedullary stabilisation of displaced midshaft clavicular fractures: does the fracture pattern (simple vs. complex) influence the anatomic and functional result].

    PubMed

    Langenhan, R; Reimers, N; Probst, A

    2014-12-01

    Displaced midshaft clavicular fractures are often treated operatively. The most common way of treatment is plating. Elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) is an alternative, but seldom used. Studies showed comparable or even better results for intramedullary nailing than for plating in simple 2- or 3-fragment midshaft fractures. The indication of ESIN for multifragmentary clavicular fractures is discussed critically in the literature because of reduced primary stability and danger of secondary shortening. Until now only few studies report functional results after fracture healing depending on the fracture type. To the best of our knowledge there is no study showing significantly worse functional scores for ESIN in complex displaced midshaft fractures. The objective of this study was to examine anatomic and functional results of simple (2 or 3 fragments, OTA type 15B1 and 15B2) and complex (multifragmentary, OTA type 15B3) displaced midshaft clavicula fractures after internal fixation. Between 2009 and 2012, 40 patients (female/male 10/30; mean age 33 [16-60] years) with closed displaced midshaft clavicular fractures were treated by open reduction and ESIN (Titanium Elastic Nail [TEN], Synthes, Umkirch, Germany). Thirty-seven patients were retrospectively analysed after a mean of 27 (12-43) months. Twenty patients (group A) had simple fractures (OTA type 15B1 and 15B2), 17 patients (group B) had complex fractures (OTA type 15B3). All shoulder joints were postoperatively treated functionally for six weeks without weight limited to 90° abduction/flexion. Both groups were comparable in gender, age, body mass index, months until metal removal, number of physiotherapy sessions and time until follow-up examination. Joint function (neutral zero method) and strength (standing patient with arm in 90° abduction, holding 1-12 kg for 5 sec) in both shoulders were documented. The distance between the centre of the jugulum and the lateral acromial border was measured for

  2. Minimizing Alteration of Posterior Tibial Slope During Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: a Protocol with Experimental Validation in Paired Cadaveric Knees

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Robert W; DeBerardino, Thomas; Amendola, Annunziato

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The High Tibial Osteotomy (HTO) is a reliable procedure in addressing uni- compartmental arthritis with associated coronal deformities. With osteotomy of the proximal tibia, there is a risk of altering the tibial slope in the sagittal plane. Surgical techniques continue to evolve with trends towards procedure reproducibility and simplification. We evaluated a modification of the Arthrex iBalance technique in 18 paired cadaveric knees with the goals of maintaining sagittal slope, increasing procedure efficiency, and decreasing use of intraoperative fluoroscopy. Methods Nine paired cadaveric knees (18 legs) underwent iBalance medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomies. In each pair, the right knee underwent an HTO using the modified technique, while all left knees underwent the traditional technique. Independent observers evaluated postoperative factors including tibial slope, placement of hinge pin, and implant placement. Specimens were then dissected to evaluate for any gross muscle, nerve or vessel injury. Results Changes to posterior tibial slope were similar using each technique. The change in slope in traditional iBalance technique was -0.3° ±2.3° and change in tibial slope using the modified iBalance technique was -0.4° ±2.3° (p=0.29). Furthermore, we detected no differences in posterior tibial slope between preoperative and postoperative specimens (p=0.74 traditional, p=0.75 modified). No differences in implant placement were detected between traditional and modified techniques. (p=0.85). No intraoperative iatrogenic complications (i.e. lateral cortex fracture, blood vessel or nerve injury) were observed in either group after gross dissection. Discussion & Conclusions Alterations in posterior tibial slope are associated with HTOs. Both traditional and modified iBalance techniques appear reliable in coronal plane corrections without changing posterior tibial slope. The present modification of the Arthrex iBalance technique may increase the

  3. Hybrid External Fixation for Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) 43-C Tibial Plafond Fractures.

    PubMed

    Abd-Almageed, Emad; Marwan, Yousef; Esmaeel, Ali; Mallur, Amarnath; El-Alfy, Barakat

    2015-01-01

    Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) type 43-C tibial plafond/pilon fractures represent a challenge for the treating orthopedic surgeon. We assessed the outcomes of using hybrid external fixation for this fracture type. The present prospective cohort study was started in August 2009 and ended by July 2012. Thirty consecutive patients (mean age 37.4 ± 10.7 years) with a type C tibial plafond fracture who had presented to our tertiary care orthopedic hospital were included. Motor vehicle accidents and fall from height were the cause of the fracture in 14 (46.7%) and 13 (43.3%) patients, respectively. A type C3 fracture was present in 25 patients (83.3%), and type C1 and C2 fractures were present in 2 (6.7%) and 3 (10.0%) patients, respectively. Nine fractures (30.0%) were open. Hybrid external fixation was used for all fractures. All fractures were united; clinical healing was achieved by a mean of 18.1 ± 2.2 weeks postoperatively and radiologic healing at a mean of 18.9 ± 1.9 weeks. The fixator was removed at a mean of 20.4 ± 2.0 weeks postoperatively. At a mean follow-up point of 13.4 ± 2.6 months, the mean modified Mazur ankle score was 84.6 ± 10.4. It was not associated with wound classification (p = .256). The most commonly seen complication was ankle osteoarthritis (17 patients; 56.7%); however, it was mild in >50.0% of the affected patients. In conclusion, using hybrid external fixation for type C tibial plafond fractures resulted in good outcomes. However, this should be investigated further in studies with a higher level of evidence. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The treatment options for posterior malleolar fractures in tibial spiral fractures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jialiang; Liu, Lei; Yang, Zongyou; Hou, Zhiyong; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yingze

    2017-09-01

    The posterior malleolar fracture (PMF) in tibial spiral fractures are a common type of complication that occurs in tibial fractures. However, the indication of fixation for posterior fractures is still under debate and varies between different surgeons'. It is not unusual to find the smaller PMF (<25%), which could be treated conservatively within guidelines, treated with internal fixation in clinic. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical outcomes of tibial spiral fractures with PMF and provide proper guidance for the treatment of this special fracture. A total of 284 cases of spiral fractures combined with PMF were collected and analyzed. Demographic data, fragment size (classified by 25% involvement of ankle joint), time to weight-bearing and functional scores post-operatively were recorded. The ankle-hindfoot scale of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS), a visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, assessment of dorsiflexion restriction and arthritis scale were used as the main evaluations. Forty patients with a larger PMF (≥25%) and 72 with smaller ones (<25%) were fixed and categorized as the fixation group (FG). In the nonfixation group (NG), the corresponding numbers were four and 168 patients respectively. A total of 279 PMF were classified as large posterolateral triangular fragment carrying the posterior half of the fibular notch and intra-incisural posterolateral fragment involving one-fourth to one-third of the fibular notch. However, no obvious differences were observed in terms of the clinical outcomes in PMF involving one-fourth to one-third of the fibular notch. In the treatment of smaller PMF (<25%) of this type, there were no obvious differences in the functional outcomes between fixed (SF) and nonfixed PMF (SN). Many patients with smaller PMFs were fixated, but functional outcomes of SF were not better than those of SN. There is no need to emphasize other factors guiding the treatment of PMF involving one-fourth to

  5. Fracture reduction and primary ankle arthrodesis: a reliable approach for severely comminuted tibial pilon fracture.

    PubMed

    Beaman, Douglas N; Gellman, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Posttraumatic arthritis and prolonged recovery are typical after a severely comminuted tibial pilon fracture, and ankle arthrodesis is a common salvage procedure. However, few reports discuss the option of immediate arthrodesis, which may be a potentially viable approach to accelerate overall recovery in patients with severe fracture patterns. (1) How long does it take the fracture to heal and the arthrodesis to fuse when primary ankle arthrodesis is a component of initial fracture management? (2) How do these patients fare clinically in terms of modified American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores and activity levels after this treatment? (3) Does primary ankle arthrodesis heal in an acceptable position when anterior ankle arthrodesis plates are used? During a 2-year period, we performed open fracture reduction and internal fixation in 63 patients. Eleven patients (12 ankles) with severely comminuted high-energy tibial pilon fractures were retrospectively reviewed after surgical treatment with primary ankle arthrodesis and fracture reduction. Average patient age was 58 years, and minimum followup was 6 months (average, 14 months; range, 6-22 months). Anatomically designed anterior ankle arthrodesis plates were used in 10 ankles. Ring external fixation was used in nine ankles with concomitant tibia fracture or in instances requiring additional fixation. Clinical evaluation included chart review, interview, the AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score, and radiographic evaluation. All of the ankle arthrodeses healed at an average of 4.4 months (range, 3-5 months). One patient had a nonunion at the metaphyseal fracture, which healed with revision surgery. The average AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score was 83 with 88% having an excellent or good result. Radiographic and clinical analysis confirmed a plantigrade foot without malalignment. No patients required revision surgery for malunion. Primary ankle arthrodesis combined with fracture reduction for the severely comminuted

  6. Clinical efficacy of concomitant tibial interventions associated with superficial femoral artery interventions in critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Smolock, Christopher J; Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; El-Sayed, Hosam F; Naoum, Joseph J; Lumsden, Alan B; Davies, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    Combined superficial femoral artery (SFA) and tibial angioplasty (TA) are a common treatment for critical limb ischemia. Poor tibial runoff significantly compromises durability and clinical effectiveness of SFA interventions. The aim of this study is to determine clinical and anatomic outcomes of SFA interventions in patients with equally compromised runoff, with and without concomitant TA. The database of patients undergoing endovascular treatment of SFA (1999-2009) was retrospectively queried. Patients with poor runoff, scored>10 by modified Society for Vascular Surgery criteria, were selected. Preoperative angiograms were reviewed to assess distal popliteal and tibial runoff. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to assess time-dependent outcomes. Factor analyses were performed for time-dependent variables. A total of 162 limbs with a runoff score>10 (56% men; average age, 69 years) underwent endovascular intervention for symptomatic SFA disease: 61 (54% men) underwent TA but the remaining 101 (57% men) did not. The groups were matched for age, sex, and SFA anatomy (Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus II C/D lesions: 56% no TA vs 62% TA; P=.5). Presenting symptoms were similar between no TA and TA groups (rest pain: 40% vs 32%; tissue loss: 60% vs 68%; P=.3). Three-year survival favored the TA group (79%±5%) vs no TA (68%±5%; P=.06). Three-year anatomic outcomes in no TA vs TA group, including primary patency (45%±6% vs 63%±8%; P=.04), assisted primary patency (55%±6% vs 75%±7%; P=.03), and secondary patency (57%±6% vs 77%±7%; P=.03) were all superior in the TA group. Target vessel revascularization in no TA vs TA (61%±6% vs 74%±8%; P=.002) and target extremity revascularization (42%±6% vs 59%±8%; P=.06) also favored the TA group. However the comparison of no TA vs TA for clinical success (39%±6% vs 47%±8%; P=.6), freedom from recurrent symptoms (59%±6% vs 60%±9%; P=.1), amputation-free survival (46%±5% vs 63%±7%; P=.06), and limb salvage at

  7. Adverse event rates and classifications in medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robin; Birmingham, Trevor B; Willits, Kevin; Litchfield, Robert; Lebel, Marie-Eve; Giffin, J Robert

    2014-05-01

    Previously reported complications in medial opening wedge (MOW) high tibial osteotomy (HTO) vary considerably in both rate and severity. (1) To determine the rates of adverse events in MOW HTO classified into different grades of severity based on the treatments required and (2) to compare patient-reported outcomes between the different adverse event classifications. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. All patients receiving MOW HTO at a single medical center from 2005 to 2009 were included. Internal fixation was used in all cases, with either a nonlocking (Puddu) or locking (Tomofix) plate. Patients were evaluated at 2, 6, and 12 weeks; 6 and 12 months; and annually thereafter. Types of potential surgical and postoperative adverse events, categorized into 3 classes of severity based on the subsequent treatments, were defined a priori. Medical records and radiographs were then reviewed by an independent observer. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were compared in subgroups of patients based on the categories of adverse events observed. A total of 323 consecutive procedures (242 males) were evaluated (age, mean ± standard deviation, 46 ± 9 years; body mass index, mean ± standard deviation, 30 ± 5 kg/m(2)). Adverse events requiring no additional treatment (class 1) were undisplaced lateral cortical breaches (20%), displaced (>2 mm) lateral hinge fracture (6%), delayed wound healing (6%), undisplaced lateral tibial plateau fracture (3%), hematoma (3%), and increased tibial slope ≥10° (1%). Adverse events requiring additional or extended nonoperative management (class 2) were delayed union (12%), cellulitis (10%), limited hardware failure (1 broken screw; 4%), postoperative stiffness (1%), deep vein thrombosis (1%), and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 (1%). Adverse events requiring additional or revision surgery and/or long-term medical care (class 3) were aseptic nonunion (3%), deep infection (2%), CRPS type

  8. Tibial component alignment and risk of loosening in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a radiographic and radiostereometric study.

    PubMed

    Barbadoro, P; Ensini, A; Leardini, A; d'Amato, M; Feliciangeli, A; Timoncini, A; Amadei, F; Belvedere, C; Giannini, S

    2014-12-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has shown a higher rate of revision compared with total knee arthroplasty. The success of UKA depends on prosthesis component alignment, fixation and soft tissue integrity. The tibial cut is the crucial surgical step. The hypothesis of the present study is that tibial component malalignment is correlated with its risk of loosening in UKA. This study was performed in twenty-three patients undergoing primary cemented unicompartmental knee arthroplasties. Translations and rotations of the tibial component and the maximum total point motion (MTPM) were measured using radiostereometric analysis at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Standard radiological evaluations were also performed immediately before and after surgery. Varus/valgus and posterior slope of the tibial component and tibial-femoral axes were correlated with radiostereometric micro-motion. A survival analysis was also performed at an average of 5.9 years by contacting patients by phone. Varus alignment of the tibial component was significantly correlated with MTPM, anterior tibial sinking, varus rotation and anterior and medial translations from radiostereometry. The posterior slope of the tibial component was correlated with external rotation. The survival rate at an average of 5.9 years was 89%. The two patients who underwent revision presented a tibial component varus angle of 10° for both. There is correlation between varus orientation of the tibial component and MTPM from radiostereometry in unicompartmental knee arthroplasties. Particularly, a misalignment in varus larger than 5° could lead to risk of loosening the tibial component. Prognostic studies-retrospective study, Level II.

  9. Comparison of intraoperative anthropometric measurements of the proximal tibia and tibial component in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Naohisa; Sugita, Takehiko; Aizawa, Toshimi; Sasaki, Akira; Maeda, Ikuo; Kamimura, Masayuki; Fujisawa, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    Precise matching of the tibial component and resected bony surfaces and proper rotational implanting of the tibial component are crucial for successful total knee arthroplasty. We aimed to analyze the exact anthropometric proximal tibial data of Japanese patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and correlate the measurements with the dimensions of current total knee arthroplasty systems. A total of 703 knees in 566 Japanese patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis were included. The bone resection in the proximal tibia was performed perpendicular to the tibial axis in the frontal plane. Measurements of the proximal tibia were intraoperatively obtained after proximal tibial preparation. There were significant positive correlations between the lateral anteroposterior and medial anteroposterior and mediolateral dimensions. A progressive decrease in the mediolateral/lateral anteroposterior ratio with an increasing lateral anteroposterior dimension or the mediolateral/anteroposterior ratio with an increasing anteroposterior dimension was observed. The lateral anteroposterior dimension was smaller than the medial anteroposterior dimension by a mean of 4.8 ± 2.0 mm. The proximal tibia exhibited asymmetry between the lateral and medial plateaus. A comparison of the morphological data and dimensions of the implants, one of which was a symmetric tibial component (NexGen) and the others were asymmetric (Genesis II and Persona), indicated that an asymmetric tibial component could be beneficial to maximize tibial plateau coverage. This study provided important reference data for designing a proper tibial component for Japanese people. The proximal tibial cut surface was asymmetric. There was wide dispersion in the lateral anteroposterior, medial anteroposterior, and mediolateral dimensions depending on the patient. Our data showed that the tibial components of the Genesis II and Persona rather than that of the NexGen may be preferable for

  10. The treatment of infected nonunion of the tibia following intramedullary nailing by the Ilizarov method.

    PubMed

    Megas, Panagiotis; Saridis, Alkis; Kouzelis, Antonis; Kallivokas, Alkiviadis; Mylonas, Spyros; Tyllianakis, Minos

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Ilizarov method and circular external fixator in order to eradicate the infection and restore bone union, limb anatomy and functionality in cases with infected nonunion of the tibia following intramedullary nailing. During 7 years nine patients suffering from infected nonunion of the tibia after intramedullary nailing were treated in our department. The series comprised seven men and two women with an average age of 39.7 years (range 21-75 years). The patients had previously undergone an average of 4.8 operations (range 3-6 operations). Active purulent bone infection occurred in all nine patients. Bone defect was present in all patients with a mean size of 5 cm (range 2-12 cm). In three cases with bone defect less than 2 cm, monofocal compression osteosynthesis technique was used. In the rest cases where bone defect exceeded 2 cm, bifocal consecutive distraction-compression osteosynthesis technique was applied. Three patients required a local gastrocnemius flap. The mean follow-up period was 26.6 months (range 13-42 months). Results were evaluated using Paley's functional and radiological scoring system. Bone union was achieved in all nine patients without recurrence of infection during the follow-up period. Bone results were graded as excellent in five cases and good in the rest four cases. Functional results were graded as excellent in three cases, good in four and fare in two cases. Mean external fixation time was 187.4 days (range 89-412 days) and mean lengthening index was 32 days/cm (range 27-39 days/cm). Complications observed included eight grade II pin tract infections, axial deformity at the lengthening site in two cases and at the nonunion site in another two cases. Ankle joint stiffness was detected in five cases. The Ilizarov method may be an effective method in infected nonunions of the tibia following intramedullary nailing. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Electromagnetic navigation interlocking intramedullary nail technology for treatment of femoral shaft fractures].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Kangkang; Qin, Wei; Guo, Qing; Palati-Ababaikeli; Qiao, Peiliu; Shen, Mingquan; Yin, Lele; Pan, Qilin; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2014-10-01

    To explore the value of electromagnetic navigation interlocking intramedullary nail in the treatment of femoral shaft fracture. Between July 2012 and October 2013, 53 cases of femoral shaft fracture were treated. There were 40 males and 13 females, aged 16-52 years (mean, 38.3 years). The causes of injury were traffic accident in 28 cases, falling from height in 11 cases, falling in 7 cases, crush injury in 4 cases, and other in 3 cases. Of 53 cases, there were 3 cases of open fracture (Gustilo I degree) and 50 cases of closed fracture. Fracture was located in the proximal femur in 17 cases, middle femur in 29 cases, and distal femur in 7 cases. According to Winquist classification, 7 cases were rated as type I, 8 cases as type II, 22 cases as type III, and 16 cases as type IV; according to AO classification, 18 cases were rated as type 32-A, 28 cases as type 32-B, and 7 cases as type 32-C. The time from injury to operation was 3-11 days (mean, 5 days). Distal interlocking intramedullary nail was implanted using electromagnetic navigation. The distal locking nail operation with interlocking intramedullary nail was successfully completed under electromagnetic navigation; the one-time success rate of distal locking nail operation reached 100%; and the locking nail time was 5.0-9.5 minutes (mean, 7.0 minutes). Healing of incision by first intention was obtained after operation, and no complication of skin necrosis, infection, and sinus tract occurred. Fifty-three cases were all followed up 5-12 months (mean, 9 months). One case had hip pain and weaken middle gluteal muscle strength, and the symptoms disappeared after removing the nail. During the follow-up period, no broken nails, nail exit, infection, or re-fracture occurred. All fractures achieved clinical healing, and the healing time was 8-22 weeks (mean, 14.5 weeks). In 49 patients followed up 8 months, the Lysholm score was excellent in 44 cases, good in 4 cases, and acceptable in 1 case, with an excellent and

  12. Intramedullary cavernous angioma of the spinal cord in a pediatric patient, with multiple cavernomas, familial occurrence and partial spontaneous regression: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Antonio; Piccirilli, Manolo; Brunetto, Giacoma Maria Floriana; Delfini, Roberto; Cantore, Giampaolo

    2007-11-01

    The authors present their experience with the 17th pediatric intramedullary cavernoma reported in English literature. The patient firstly underwent surgery for a left frontal cavernoma when he was 2 years old. Also the child's mother was operated for a C2-C3 intramedullary cavernoma. He grew up normally and the radiological follow-up was negative for other brainstem cavernous malformations. When he was 11 years old he complained a worsening tetraparesis. A cerebral and spinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed the presence of a C1 intramedullary cavernoma and a pontine cavernoma. He underwent surgery for the cervical lesion, which was completely removed. The postoperative course was regular with a total recovery from the neurological deficit. The boy underwent a radiological follow-up, monitoring the pontine lesion, which spontaneously regressed when he was 19 years old. The rarity of the pediatric intramedullary cavernoma, the familial occurrence, and the spontaneous regression of the pontine cavernoma make this case very peculiar.

  13. Comparison of the primary stability of different tibial baseplate concepts to retain both cruciate ligaments during total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Andrej M; Stangel, Melanie; Grupp, Thomas M; Valderrabano, Victor

    2013-10-01

    A novel tibial baseplate design (Transversal Support Tibial Plateau) as a new treatment concept for bi-cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty is evaluated for mechanical stability and compared to other tibial baseplate designs. This concept should provide better primary stability and thus, less subsidence, than implantation of two separate unicondylar tibial baseplates. Different baseplates were implanted into synthetic bone specimens (Sawbones® Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc., Washington, USA), all uncemented. Using a standardized experimental setup, subsidence was achieved, enabling comparison of the models regarding primary stability. Overall implant subsidence was significantly increased for the two separate unicondylar tibial baseplates versus the new Transversal Support Tibial Plateau concept, which showed comparable levels to a conventional tibial baseplate. Reduced subsidence results in better primary stability. Linking of two separate baseplates appears to provide increased primary stability in terms of bony fixation, comparable to that of a conventional single tibial baseplate. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Femoral Component Varus Malposition is Associated with Tibial Aseptic Loosening After TKA.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bum-Sik; Cho, Hyun-Ik; Bin, Seong-Il; Kim, Jong-Min; Jo, Byeong-Kyu

    2018-02-01

    The notion that neutral alignment is mandatory to assure long-term durability after TKA has been based mostly on short-film studies. However, this is challenged by recent long-film studies. We conducted this long-film study to know (1) whether the risk of aseptic revision for nontraumatic reasons was greater among knees with greater than 3° varus or valgus (defined as "outliers") than those that were aligned within 3° of neutral on long-standing mechanical axis (hip to knee) radiographs; and (2) what the failure mechanisms were and whether the malalignment was femoral or tibial in origin, or both, among those in the outlier group. Between November 1998 and January 2009 we performed 1299 cemented, posterior cruciate ligament-substituting TKAs in 867 patients for primary osteoarthritis. We had inadequate long-standing radiographs to analyze postoperative alignment for 124 of those knees, and an additional 24 were excluded for prespecified reasons. Consequently, 1151 knees were enrolled in our study. Of these, 982 (85%) in 661 patients (620 women and 41 men) who had followup greater than 24 months were analyzed. The knees were divided according to whether the postoperative mechanical axis was neutral (0° ± 3°), varus (> 3°), or valgus (< -3°) alignment on long-standing radiographs. The survivorships free from aseptic revision for nontraumatic reasons were compared among groups. The mechanical femoral and the tibial component alignment (MFCA and MTCA, respectively) were investigated to know the origin of overall mechanical malalignment of the outlier knees. The mean duration of followup was 8 ± 4 years (range, 2-17 years). Thirty-five knees (4%) showed aseptic loosening at 7 ± 4 years (range, 0.1-14 years) and five (1%) showed polyethylene wear at 12 ± 1 years (range, 10-13 years). Tibial loosening (73%) was the most common reason for aseptic revision followed by femoral loosening (30%). Of this cohort, 687 (70%), 250 (25%), and 45 (5%) knees had overall

  15. Metachronous Bilateral Posterior Tibial Artery Aneurysms in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV

    SciTech Connect

    Hagspiel, Klaus D., E-mail: kdh2n@virginia.edu; Bonatti, Hugo; Sabri, Saher

    2011-04-15

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is a life-threatening genetic connective tissue disorder. We report a 24-year-old woman with EDS-IV who presented with metachronous bilateral aneurysms/pseudoaneurysms of the posterior tibial arteries 15 months apart. Both were treated successfully with transarterial coil embolization from a distal posterior tibial approach.

  16. Metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb arthrodesis using intramedullary interlocking screws XMCP™.

    PubMed

    Novoa-Parra, C N; Montaner-Alonso, D; Morales-Rodríguez, J

    2017-09-04

    The study objective was to assess the results of a thumb metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) arthrodesis using intramedullary interlocking screws at 25°, XMCP ™ (Extremity Medical, Parsippany, NJ). Radiographs evaluated the angle of arthrodesis, time of fusion and fixation of the implant. Clinical and functional outcomes were assessed using the DASH questionnaire and the VAS scale. Any complications found during surgery or the follow-up period were noted. We studied 9 patients. The mean follow-up was 27.6 months. Patients showed clinical and radiological evidence of fusion in an average of 8 weeks, the angle of fusion was 25°. There were no complications and no implant had to be removed. The XMCP™ system provides a reliable method for MCPJ arthrodesis for several indications and can be used with other procedures in the complex hand. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Intramedullary compression arthrodesis of the knee: early experience with a new device and technique.

    PubMed

    McQueen, David A; Cooke, Francis W; Hahn, Dustan L

    2005-01-01

    The irretrievably failed total knee arthroplasty is the primary indication for knee arthrodesis. Because this difficult condition is relatively rare, an intramedullary arthrodesis system was developed which requires minimal surgeon experience for successful use. The new system called the Wichita Fusion Nail was implanted by a single surgeon in 13 consecutive patients: 11 for arthrodesis alone, 1 for stabilization of a supracondylar fracture nonunion, and 1 for arthrodesis coupled with a supracondylar fracture nonunion. All arthrodesis attempts were successful. The average fusion time was 15.2 weeks except for 2 infected delayed arthrodeses. Both fracture nonunions persisted and went on to amputation. The WFN provides a simple arthrodesis system with minimal technique dependence and a high potential for success.

  18. Knee arthrodesis using a short locked intramedullary nail. A new technique.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S L; Gross, A E

    1995-01-01

    This article reports on the use of a new intramedullary nail designed specifically for fixation of knee fusions. The nail is a short locked stainless steel nail that is inserted through a single anterior knee incision and uses an outrigger targeting rod to guide the insertion of the locking screws. The successful use of this technique is illustrated in two cases. The advantages of this nail compared with previously reported techniques of fixation for knee fusions are that the short locked nail avoids the second incision required for the insertion of long knee fusion nails, the bulkiness of the double plating technique in the relatively subcutaneous anterior knee area, and the difficulties inherent with the prolonged use of pins for external fixation.

  19. Intramedullary rod and cement static spacer construct in chronically infected total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Suhel Y; Farid, Yasser R; Patil, Suresh S; Alden, Kris J; Finn, Henry A

    2012-02-01

    Two-stage reimplantation, with interval antibiotic-impregnated cement spacer, is the preferred treatment of prosthetic knee joint infections. In medically compromised hosts with prior failed surgeries, the outcomes are poor. Articulating spacers in such patients render the knee unstable; static spacers have risks of dislocation and extensor mechanism injury. We examined 58 infected total knee arthroplasties with extensive bone and soft tissue loss, treated with resection arthroplasty and intramedullary tibiofemoral rod and antibiotic-laden cement spacer. Thirty-seven patients underwent delayed reimplantation. Most patients (83.8%) were free from recurrent infection at mean follow-up of 29.4 months. Reinfection occurred in 16.2%, which required debridement. Twenty-one patients with poor operative risks remained with the spacer for 11.4 months. All patients, during spacer phase, had brace-free ambulation with simulated tibiofemoral fusion, without bone loss or loss of limb length. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Surgical stabilisation of the lower limb in osteogenesis imperfecta using the Sheffield Telescopic Intramedullary Rod System.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, J M; Scott, B W; Clarke, A M; Bell, M J

    1998-11-01

    The Sheffield Expanding Intramedullary Rod System was developed after experiencing problems with existing rod systems in the management of osteogenesis imperfecta. Between 1986 and 1996 we treated 74 bones in the lower limb in 28 children at a median follow-up of 5.25 years. We have reviewed 24 children with a total of 60 rods. Before surgery, all children had had multiple fractures of the lower limb. At review eight patients had experienced no further fractures, but three had suffered five or more subsequently. Before initial stabilisation, 15 children had never walked, and only three (13%) used walking as their main means of mobility. After surgery, half of those who showed motor arrest were able to walk (p = 0.016). The number of patients able to walk, with or without aids, increased to 17 (p = 0.0001). We have experienced no evidence of epiphyseal damage after the procedure, and complication rates requiring rod exchange have been low (7%).

  1. Biomechanical assessment and clinical analysis of different intramedullary nailing systems for oblique fractures.

    PubMed

    Alierta, J A; Pérez, M A; Seral, B; García-Aznar, J M

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the fracture union or non-union for a specific patient that presented oblique fractures in tibia and fibula, using a mechanistic-based bone healing model. Normally, this kind of fractures can be treated through an intramedullary nail using two possible configurations that depends on the mechanical stabilisation: static and dynamic. Both cases are simulated under different fracture geometries in order to understand the effect of the mechanical stabilisation on the fracture healing outcome. The results of both simulations are in good agreement with previous clinical experience. From the results, it is demonstrated that the dynamization of the fracture improves healing in comparison with a static or rigid fixation of the fracture. This work shows the versatility and potential of a mechanistic-based bone healing model to predict the final outcome (union, non-union, delayed union) of realistic 3D fractures where even more than one bone is involved.

  2. Complications of Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing for treating paediatric long bone fractures

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Aamer; Bhosale, Abhijit; Madan, Sanjeev S.; Flowers, Mark J.; Fernandes, James A.; Jones, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the complications observed in children with long bone fractures treated using Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing (ESIN). One hundred and sixty-four (n = 164) fractures in 160 patients under the age of 16 years formed the basis of our review. This included 108 boys and 52 girls with the median age of 11 years and median follow up of 7.5 months. The analysis included fractures of the radius/ulna, humerus, femur and tibia. All pathological fractures were excluded. In this series 54 patients (34%) had complications however majority of these were minor complications with irritation due to prominent nail ends being the commonest complication. No long-term sequelae were encountered in our patients. PMID:24403743

  3. Successful fifth metatarsal bulk autograft reconstruction of thermal necrosis post intramedullary fixation.

    PubMed

    Veljkovic, Andrea; Le, Vu; Escudero, Mario; Salat, Peter; Wing, Kevin; Penner, Murray; Younger, Alastair

    2018-03-21

    Reamed intramedullary (IM) screw fixation for proximal fifth metatarsal fractures is technically challenging with potentially devastating complications if basic principles are not followed. A case of an iatrogenic fourth-degree burn after elective reamed IM screw fixation of a proximal fifth metatarsal fracture in a high-level athlete is reported. The case was complicated by postoperative osteomyelitis with third-degree soft-tissue defect. This was successfully treated with staged autologous bone graft reconstruction, tendon reconstruction, and local bi-pedicle flap coverage. The patient returned to competitive-level sports, avoiding the need for fifth ray amputation. Critical points of the IM screw technique and definitive reconstruction are discussed. Bulk autograft reconstruction is a safe and effective alternative to ray amputation in segmental defects of the fifth metatarsal.Level of evidence V.

  4. Retrograde Intramedullary Nail With Femoral Head Allograft for Large Deficit Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Bussewitz, Bradly; DeVries, J George; Dujela, Michael; McAlister, Jeffrey E; Hyer, Christopher F; Berlet, Gregory C

    2014-07-01

    Large bone defects present a difficult task for surgeons when performing single-stage, complex combined hindfoot and ankle reconstruction. There exist little data in a case series format to evaluate the use of frozen femoral head allograft during tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis in various populations in the literature. The authors evaluated 25 patients from 2003 to 2011 who required a femoral head allograft and an intramedullary nail. The average time of final follow-up visit was 83 ± 63.6 weeks (range, 10-265). Twelve patients healed the fusion (48%). Twenty-one patients resulted in a braceable limb (84%). Four patients resulted in major amputation (16%). This series may allow surgeons to more accurately predict the success and clinical outcome of these challenging cases. Level IV, case series. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. ß-TCP bone substitutes in tibial plateau depression fractures.

    PubMed

    Rolvien, Tim; Barvencik, Florian; Klatte, Till Orla; Busse, Björn; Hahn, Michael; Rueger, Johannes Maria; Rupprecht, Martin

    2017-10-01

    The use of beta-tricalciumphospate (ß-TCP, Cerasorb®) ceramics as an alternative for autologous bone-grafting has been outlined previously, however with no study focusing on both clinical and histological outcomes of ß-TCP application in patients with multi-fragment tibial plateau fractures. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term results of ß-TCP in patients with tibial plateau fractures. 52 patients were included in this study. All patients underwent open surgery with ß-TCP block or granulate application. After a mean follow-up of 36months (14-64months), the patients were reviewed. Radiography and computed-tomography were performed, while the Rasmussen score was obtained for clinical outcome. Furthermore, seven patients underwent biopsy during hardware removal, which was subsequently analyzed by histology and backscattered electron microscopy (BSEM). An excellent reduction with two millimeters or less of residual incongruity was achieved in 83% of the patients. At follow-up, no further changes occurred and no nonunions were observed. Functional outcome was good to excellent in 82%. Four patients underwent revision surgery due to reasons unrelated to the bone substitute material. Histologic analyses indicated that new bone was built around the ß-TCP-grafts, however a complete resorption of ß-TCP was not observed. ß-TCP combined with internal fixation represents an effective and safe treatment of tibial plateau depression fractures with good functional recovery. While its osteoconductivity seems to be successful, the biological degradation and replacement of ß-TCP is less pronounced in humans than previous animal studies have indicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Symptomatic venous thromboembolism following circular frame treatment for tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Vollans, S; Chaturvedi, A; Sivasankaran, K; Madhu, T; Hadland, Y; Allgar, V; Sharma, H K

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality following tibial fractures. The risk is as high as 77% without prophylaxis and around 10% with prophylaxis. Within the current literature there are no figures reported specifically for those individuals treated with circular frames. Our aim was to evaluate the VTE incidence within a single surgeon series and to evaluate potential risk factors. We retrospectively reviewed our consecutive single surgeon series of 177 patients admitted to a major trauma unit with tibial fractures. All patients received standardised care, including chemical thromboprophylaxis within 24h of injury until independent mobility was achieved. We comprehensively reviewed our prospective database and medical records looking at demographics and potential risk factors. Seven patients (4.0% ± 2.87%) developed symptomatic VTE during the course of frame treatment; three deep vein thrombosis (DVTs) and four pulmonary embolisms (PEs). Those with a VTE event had significantly increased body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.01) when compared to those without symptomatic VTE. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the groups in age, gender, smoking status, fracture type (anatomical allocation or open/closed), delay to frame treatment, weight bearing status post-frame, inpatient stay or total duration of frame treatment. This study suggests that increased BMI is a statistically significant risk factor for VTE, as reported in current literature. In addition, we calculated the true risk of VTE following circular frame treatment for tibial fracture in our series is from 1.13% to 6.87%, which is at least comparable to other forms of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Management of open tibial fractures – a regional experience

    PubMed Central

    Townley, WA; Nguyen, DQA; Rooker, JC; Dickson, JK; Goroszeniuk, DZ; Khan, MS; Camp, D

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The treatment of soft-tissue injuries associated with tibial diaphyseal fractures presents a clinical challenge that is best managed by a combined plastic and orthopaedic surgery approach. The current study was undertaken to assess early treatment outcomes and burden of service provision across five regional plastic surgery units in the South-West of England. SUBJECTS AND METHODS We conducted a prospective 6-month audit of open tibial diaphyseal fracture management in five plastic surgery units (Bristol, Exeter, Plymouth, Salisbury, Swansea) with a collective catchment of 9.2 million people. Detailed data were collected on patient demographics, injury pattern, surgical management and outcome followed to discharge. RESULTS The study group consisted of 55 patients (40 male, 15 female). Twenty-two patients presented directly to the emergency department at the specialist hospital (primary group), 33 patients were initially managed at a local hospital (tertiary group). The mean time from injury to soft tissue cover was significantly less (P < 0.001) in the primary group (3.6 ± 0.8 days) than the tertiary group (10.8 ± 2.2 days), principally due to a delay in referral in the latter group (5.4 ±1.7 days). Cover was achieved with 39 flaps (19 free, 20 local), eight split skin grafts. Nine wounds closed directly or by secondary intention. There were 11 early complications (20%) including one flap failure and four infections. The overall mean length of stay was 17.5 ± 2.8 days. CONCLUSIONS Multidisciplinary management of severe open tibial diaphyseal may not be feasible at presentation of injury depending on local hospital specialist services available. Our results highlight the need for robust assessment, triage and senior orthopaedic review in the early post-injury phase. However, broader improvements in the management of lower limb trauma will additionally require further development of combined specialist trauma centres. PMID:21047449

  8. Medial tibial pain: a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI study.

    PubMed

    Mattila, K T; Komu, M E; Dahlström, S; Koskinen, S K; Heikkilä, J

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences to depict periosteal edema in patients with medial tibial pain. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCES) to depict possible temporal alterations in muscular perfusion within compartments of the leg. Fifteen patients with medial tibial pain were examined with MRI. T1-, T2-weighted, proton density axial images and dynamic and static phase post-contrast images were compared in ability to depict periosteal edema. STIR was used in seven cases to depict bone marrow edema. Images were analyzed to detect signs of compartment edema. Region-of-interest measurements in compartments were performed during DCES and compared with controls. In detecting periosteal edema, post-contrast T1-weighted images were better than spin echo T2-weighted and proton density images or STIR images, but STIR depicted the bone marrow edema best. DCES best demonstrated the gradually enhancing periostitis. Four subjects with severe periosteal edema had visually detectable pathologic enhancement during DCES in the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Percentage enhancement in the deep posterior compartment of the leg was greater in patients than in controls. The fast enhancement phase in the deep posterior compartment began slightly slower in patients than in controls, but it continued longer. We believe that periosteal edema in bone stress reaction can cause impairment of venous flow in the deep posterior compartment. MRI can depict both these conditions. In patients with medial tibial pain, MR imaging protocol should include axial STIR images (to depict bone pathology) with T1-weighted axial pre and post-contrast images, and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging to show periosteal edema and abnormal contrast enhancement within a compartment.

  9. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries. PMID:22574840

  10. Ultrasound elasticity imaging of human posterior tibial tendon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang

    Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a common degenerative condition leading to a severe impairment of gait. There is currently no effective method to determine whether a patient with advanced PTTD would benefit from several months of bracing and physical therapy or ultimately require surgery. Tendon degeneration is closely associated with irreversible degradation of its collagen structure, leading to changes to its mechanical properties. If these properties could be monitored in vivo, it could be used to quantify the severity of tendonosis and help determine the appropriate treatment. Ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) is a real-time, noninvasive technique to objectively measure mechanical properties in soft tissue. It consists of acquiring a sequence of ultrasound frames and applying speckle tracking to estimate displacement and strain at each pixel. The goals of my dissertation were to 1) use acoustic simulations to investigate the performance of UEI during tendon deformation with different geometries; 2) develop and validate UEI as a potentially noninvasive technique for quantifying tendon mechanical properties in human cadaver experiments; 3) design a platform for UEI to measure mechanical properties of the PTT in vivo and determine whether there are detectable and quantifiable differences between healthy and diseased tendons. First, ultrasound simulations of tendon deformation were performed using an acoustic modeling program. The effects of different tendon geometries (cylinder and curved cylinder) on the performance of UEI were investigated. Modeling results indicated that UEI accurately estimated the strain in the cylinder geometry, but underestimated in the curved cylinder. The simulation also predicted that the out-of-the-plane motion of the PTT would cause a non-uniform strain pattern within incompressible homogeneous isotropic material. However, to average within a small region of interest determined by principal component analysis (PCA

  11. [Structural changes in the tibial bones from an excessive load].

    PubMed

    Moshiashvili, B I

    1977-10-01

    80 cases of pathological reconstruction of the tibia in young men at the age of 18--20 are described. The pathology developed as a result of intense regular physical exercise. In 53 patients the process was localized in the upper third of the tibia, in 20--in the middle third and in 7--in the lower third of the bone. In 6 cases the fracture of the tibial proximal metaphysis happened against the background of pathological reconstruction of the tibia; 3 of them sustained simultaneously a fracture of the fibular head. Some recommendations of practical importance are suggested.

  12. Anterior augmentation plating of aseptic humeral shaft nonunions after intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Gessmann, Jan; Königshausen, Matthias; Coulibaly, Marlon Osman; Schildhauer, Thomas Armin; Seybold, Dominik

    2016-05-01

    Humeral shaft nonunion after intramedullary nailing is a rare but serious complication. Treatment options include implant removal, open plating, exchange nailing and external fixation. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine whether augmentation plating without nail removal is feasible for treating a humeral shaft nonunion. Between 2002 and 2014, 37 patients (mean age 51, range 20-84 years) with aseptic humeral shaft nonunions prior to intramedullary nailing were treated with augmentation plating. The initial fractures had been fixed with retrograde nails (10 cases) or anterograde nails (27 cases). There were 34 atrophic nonunions and 3 hypertrophic nonunions. Nonunion treatment of all patients consisted of local debridement through an anterior approach to the humerus and anterior placement of the augmentation plates. Supplemental bone grafting was performed in all atrophic nonunion cases. All patients were followed until union was radiologically confirmed. Union was achieved in 36 patients (97 %) after a mean of 6 months (range 3-24 months). There was one case of iatrogenic median nerve palsy that showed complete spontaneous recovery 6 weeks postoperatively. One patient sustained a peri-implant stress fracture that was treated successfully by exchanging the augmentation plate to bridge the nonunion and the fracture. No infections or wound healing complications developed. At a mean follow-up of 14 months, all patients showed free shoulder and elbow motion and no restrictions in daily or working life. The results indicate that augmentation plating using an anterior approach is a safe and reliable option for humeral shaft nonunions after failed nailing, and the treatment has no substantial complications. Because the healing rates are similar to the standard technique of nail removal and fixation by compression or locking plates, we consider this technique to be an alternative choice for treatment.

  13. Less-invasive stabilization of rib fractures by intramedullary fixation: a biomechanical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bottlang, Michael; Helzel, Inga; Long, William; Fitzpatrick, Daniel; Madey, Steven

    2010-05-01

    This study evaluated intramedullary fixation of rib fractures with Kirschner wires and novel ribs splints. We hypothesized that rib splints can provide equivalent fixation strength while avoiding complications associated with Kirschner wires, namely wire migration and cutout. The durability, strength, and failure modes of rib fracture fixation with Kirschner wires and rib splints were evaluated in 22 paired human ribs. First, intact ribs were loaded to failure to determine their strength. After fracture fixation with Kirschner wires and rib splints, fixation constructs were dynamically loaded to 360,000 cycles at five times the respiratory load to determine their durability. Finally, constructs were loaded to failure to determine residual strength and failure modes. All constructs sustained dynamic loading without failure. Dynamic loading caused three times more subsidence in Kirschner wire constructs (1.2 mm +/- 1.4 mm) than in rib splint constructs (0.4 mm +/- 0.2 mm, p = 0.09). After dynamic loading, rib splint constructs remained 48% stronger than Kirschner wire constructs (p = 0.001). Five of 11 Kirschner wire constructs failed catastrophically by cutting through the medial cortex, leading to complete loss of stability and wire migration through the lateral cortex. The remaining six constructs failed by wire bending. Rib splint constructs failed by development of fracture lines along the superior and interior cortices. No splint construct failed catastrophically, and all splint constructs retained functional reduction and fixation. Because of their superior strength and absence of catastrophic failure mode, rib splints can serve as an attractive alternative to Kirschner wires for intramedullary stabilization of rib fractures, especially in the case of posterior rib fractures where access for plating is limited.

  14. Distraction arthrodesis with intramedullary nail and mixed bone grafting after failed infected total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sahnghoon; Jang, Jak; Seong, Sang Cheol; Lee, Myung Chul

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the success rate of the distraction arthrodesis, which was attempted to maintain the limb length during arthrodesis using an intramedullary nail and mixed bone grafting, in terms of the eradication of infection, solid union, and functional outcome. The hypothesis was that distraction arthrodesis would be successful in union and elimination of infection with minimal limb shortening and a satisfactory functional outcome despite large bone defects. Eight patients were managed by arthrodesis using a Huckstep intramedullary nail and massive corticocancellous bone chip grafts from autologous iliac bone and deep-frozen femoral head allografts were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 65.5 ± 7.1 years, and the follow-up duration was 52.1 ± 21.3 months. A mean of 5.3 ± 1.3 surgical procedures had been performed before arthrodesis. The mean longest and shortest distances of the bone defect were 58.6 ± 10.3 and 34.6 ± 7.0 mm, respectively. Radiological union was obtained in all cases at a mean of 9.9 ± 1.9 months. The mean postoperative limb shortening was 11.0 ± 7.3 mm when compared to the contralateral knee. The mean Knee Society score was 59.9 ± 9.2, and the function score was 38.8 ± 13.3. No additional procedures were required for any of the patients. Distraction arthrodesis of infected knees following total knee arthroplasty demonstrated union and eradication of infection in all patients and a large tibiofemoral gap due to the severe bone defect could be managed with massive bone chip grafts. This method of arthrodesis would be a reliable and an effective method for failed total knee arthroplasty when two-staged reimplantation fails or is not attainable.

  15. Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis Using Retrograde Intramedullary Nail Fixation: Comparison of Patients With and Without Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Wukich, Dane K.; Mallory, Brady R.; Suder, Natalie C.; Rosario, Bedda L.

    2017-01-01

    Retrograde intramedullary nailing for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis is a salvage procedure reserved for severe cases of deformity. The aim of the present study was to compare the outcomes of this technique in patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 61 patients with and 56 without DM underwent retrograde intramedullary nailing and had a minimum follow-up period of 12 months. The overall incidence of complication was 45.2%; however, the overall incidence of complications between those with and without DM was not significantly different (odds ratio [OR] 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38 to 1.65, p = .54). Patients with DM had a significantly greater rate of superficial infections (OR 8.3, 95% CI 1.01 to 68.67, p = .03). However, no difference was seen in the rate of deep infection (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.34 to 2.46, p = .83) or noninfectious complications (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.23 to 1.13, p = .09). Successful limb salvage was achieved for 96.8% of the patients with DM and 94.7% of those without DM (p = .66). A femoral head allograft was used in 32 (27.4%) of 117 patients to substitute for an osseous void. Of the 32 patients who required a femoral head allograft, 21 (67.7%) experienced a complication compared with 32 (37.6%) of 85 patients who did not require a femoral head allograft (OR 3.16, 95% CI 1.35 to 7.41, p = .008). The incidence of patient satisfaction was 80% for patients with DM and 72% for those without DM (p = .36). Despite a high incidence of complications, limb salvage was accomplished in approximately 95% of patients with complicated deformities. Four patients (6.56%) with DM experienced a tibia fracture; therefore, we now routinely use a 300-mm-long nail for this reconstruction. PMID:26015305

  16. Intramedullary nailing of clavicular midshaft fractures in adults using titanium elastic nail.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing-Yu; Kou, Dong-Quan; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhang-Qin; Cheng, Shao-Wen; Shen, Yue; Ying, Xiao-Zhou; Peng, Lei; Lv, Chuan-Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Studies showed elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) of displaced midclavicular fractures has excellent outcomes, as well as high complication rates and specific problems. The aim was to discuss ESIN of midshaft clavicular fractures. Totally 60 eligible patients (aged 18-63 years) were randomized to either ESIN group or non-operative group between January 2007 and May 2008. Clavicular shortening was measured after trauma and osseous consolidation. Radiographic union and complications were assessed. Function analysis including Constant shoulder scores and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) scores were performed after a 15-month follow-up. ESIN led to a signifcantly shorter time to union, especially for simple fractures. In ESIN group, all patients got fracture union, of which 5 cases had medial skin irritation and 1 patient needed revision surgery because of implant failure. In the nonoperative group, there were 3 nonunion cases and 2 symptomatic malunions developed requiring corrective osteotomy. At 15 months after intramedullary stabilization, patients in the ESIN group were more satisfied with the appearance of the shoulder and overall outcome, and they benefited a lot from the great improvement of post-traumatic clavicular shortening. Furthermore, DASH scores were lower and Constant scores were significantly higher in contrast to the non-operative group. ESIN is a safe minimally invasive surgical technique with lower complication rate, faster return to daily activities, excellent cosmetic and better functional results, restoration of clavicular length for treating mid-shaft clavicular fractures, resulting in high overall satisfaction, which can be regard as an alternative to plate fixation or nonoperative treatment of mid-shaft clavicular fractures.

  17. Talectomy and tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis with intramedullary nail fixation for treatment of equinus deformity in adults.

    PubMed

    Gursu, Sarper; Bahar, Hakan; Camurcu, Yalkin; Yildirim, Timur; Buyuk, Fettah; Ozcan, Cagri; Sahin, Vedat

    2015-01-01

    Severe equinovarus foot deformity in adults is a challenging problem. Conservative treatment rarely is effective, and operative options are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of talectomy and tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis with intramedullary nail fixation for the treatment of severe equinovarus deformity in adults. Twelve patients (average age 39 years, range 15-70 years) with severe equinovarus deformities of the foot were treated with talectomy and tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis with intramedullary nail fixation between March 2010 and February 2013. Average follow-up was 20 months (range 10-37 months). Tibiocalcaneal fusion was achieved in all patients at an average of 12 weeks (range 8-17 weeks). Preoperatively, all patients had severe, irreducible equinovarus deformities; at last follow-up, almost all feet had mild residual deformity, but were plantigrade and did not require a brace or orthosis. The average AOFAS ankle score improved from 41.1 (range 8-66) preoperatively to 78.4 (range 67-86) postoperatively (P = .02). There was a similar improvement in the average VAS score from 6.3 (range 2-10) preoperatively to 0.8 (range 0-4) postoperatively (P = .02). The combination of talectomy and tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis was effective in correcting severe rigid equinovarus deformity in adults. Removal of the talus resulted in laxity of the soft tissues, making correction of the deformity easier. Tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis achieved a stable foot without the problems associated with talectomy alone. Level IV, case series. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Long-term functional outcome following intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    el Moumni, Mostafa; Voogd, Emma Heather; ten Duis, Henk Jan; Wendt, Klaus Wilhelm

    2012-07-01

    The management of femoral shaft fractures using intramedullary nailing is a popular method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term functional outcome after antegrade or retrograde intramedullary nailing of traumatic femoral shaft fractures. We further determined predictors of these functional outcome scores. In a retrospective study, patients with a femoral shaft fracture but no other injuries to the lower limbs or pelvis were included. A total of 59 patients met the inclusion criteria. Functional outcome scores (Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA), Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index, Harris Hip Score (HHS) and the Lysholm knee function scoring scale) were measured at a mean of 7.8 years (± 3.5 years) postoperatively. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to determine pain complaints of the lower limb. The range of motion (ROM) of the hip and knee joints was comparable between the injured and uninjured leg, regardless of the nailing technique. Correlation between ROM and the final outcome scores was found to be fair to moderate. Even years after surgery, 17% of the patients still reported moderate to severe pain. A substantial correlation was observed between VAS and the patient-reported outcome scores. The most significant predictor of functional outcome was pain in the lower limb. Our findings suggest that the ROM of hip and knee returns to normal over time, regardless of the nailing method used. However, pain in the lower limb is an important predictor and source of disability after femoral shaft fractures, even though most patients achieved good functional outcome scores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pseudoaneurysm of the Anterior Tibial Artery following Ankle Arthroscopy in a Soccer Player.

    PubMed

    Tonogai, Ichiro; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Iwame, Toshiyuki; Wada, Keizo; Takasago, Tomoya; Goto, Tomohiro; Hamada, Daisuke; Kawatani, Yohei; Fujimoto, Eiki; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Takao, Shyoichiro; Iwamoto, Seiji; Yamanaka, Moriaki; Harada, Masafumi; Sairyo, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Ankle arthroscopy carries a lower risk of vascular complications when standard anterolateral and anteromedial portals are used. However, the thickness of the fat pad at the anterior ankle affords little protection for the thin-walled anterior tibial artery, rendering it susceptible to indirect damage during procedures performed on the anterior ankle joint. To our knowledge, only 11 cases of pseudoaneurysm involving the anterior tibial artery after ankle arthroscopy have been described in the literature. Here we reported a rare case of a 19-year-old soccer player who presented with pseudoaneurysm of the anterior tibial artery following ankle arthroscopy using an ankle distraction method and underwent anastomosis for the anterior tibial artery injury. Excessive distraction of the ankle puts the neurovascular structures at greater risk for iatrogenic injury of the anterior tibial artery during ankle arthroscopy. Surgeons should look carefully for postoperative ankle swelling and pain after ankle arthroscopy.

  20. Pseudoaneurysm of the Anterior Tibial Artery following Ankle Arthroscopy in a Soccer Player

    PubMed Central

    Iwame, Toshiyuki; Hamada, Daisuke; Fujimoto, Eiki; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Takao, Shyoichiro; Iwamoto, Seiji; Yamanaka, Moriaki; Harada, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    Ankle arthroscopy carries a lower risk of vascular complications when standard anterolateral and anteromedial portals are used. However, the thickness of the fat pad at the anterior ankle affords little protection for the thin-walled anterior tibial artery, rendering it susceptible to indirect damage during procedures performed on the anterior ankle joint. To our knowledge, only 11 cases of pseudoaneurysm involving the anterior tibial artery after ankle arthroscopy have been described in the literature. Here we reported a rare case of a 19-year-old soccer player who presented with pseudoaneurysm of the anterior tibial artery following ankle arthroscopy using an ankle distraction method and underwent anastomosis for the anterior tibial artery injury. Excessive distraction of the ankle puts the neurovascular structures at greater risk for iatrogenic injury of the anterior tibial artery during ankle arthroscopy. Surgeons should look carefully for postoperative ankle swelling and pain after ankle arthroscopy. PMID:28607785

  1. Standing balance in people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Seth, Mayank; Lamberg, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Balance is an important variable to consider during the rehabilitation process of individuals with trans-tibial amputation. Limited evidence exists on the balance abilities of people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. The purpose of this article is to review literature and determine if standing balance is diminished in people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. Literature review. Data were obtained from PubMed, Google Scholar, OandP.org , CINHAL, and Science Direct. Studies were selected only if they included standing balance assessment of people with unilateral trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. The review yielded seven articles that met the inclusion criteria. The general test methodology required participants to stand still on force platforms, with feet together, while center of pressure or postural sway was recorded. According to the findings of this review, individuals with trans-tibial amputees due to vascular causes have diminished balance abilities. Limited evidence suggests their balance might be further diminished as compared to individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to trauma. Although the evidence is limited, because of the underlying pathology and presence of comorbidities in individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes, one cannot ignore these findings, as even a minor injury from a fall may develop into a non-healing ulcer and affect their health and well-being more severely than individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to trauma. Clinical relevance Individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes have diminished balance abilities compared to healthy individuals and individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to trauma. This difference should be considered when designing and fabricating prostheses. Prosthetists and rehabilitation clinicians should consider designing amputation cause-specific rehabilitation interventions, focussing on balance and other

  2. Asymmetry in gait pattern following bicondylar tibial plateau fractures-A prospective one-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Elsoe, Rasmus; Larsen, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Despite the high number of studies evaluating outcomes following tibial plateau fractures, the literature lacks studies including the objective assessment of gait pattern. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate asymmetry in gait patterns at 12 months after frame removal following ring fixation of a tibial plateau fracture. The study design was a prospective cohort study. The primary outcome measurement was the gait patterns 12 months after frame removal measured with a pressure-sensitive mat. The mat registers footprints and present gait speed, cadence, as well as temporal and spatial parameters of the gait cycle. Gait patterns were compared to a healthy reference population. Twenty-three patients were included with a mean age of 54.4 years (32-78 years). Patients presented with a shorter step-length of the injured leg compared to the non-injured leg (asymmetry of 11.3%). Analysis of single-support showed shorter support time of the injured leg compared to the non-injured leg (asymmetry of 8.7%). Moreover, analysis of swing-time showed increased swing-time of the injured leg (asymmetry of 8.9%). Compared to a healthy reference population, increased asymmetry in all gait patterns was observed. The association between asymmetry and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) showed moderate associations (single-support: R=0.50, P=0.03; step-length: R=0.43, P=0.07; swing-time: R=0.46, P=0.05). Compared to a healthy reference population, gait asymmetry is common 12 months after frame removal in patients treated with external ring fixation following a tibial plateau fracture of the tibia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rare case of tibial hemimelia, preaxial polydactyly, and club foot

    PubMed Central

    Granite, Guinevere; Herzenberg, John E; Wade, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    A seven-month old female presented with left tibial hemimelia (or congenital tibial aplasia; Weber type VIIb, Jones et al type 1a), seven-toed preaxial polydactyly, and severe club foot (congenital talipes equinovarus). Definitive amputation surgery disarticulated the lower limb at the knee. This case report describes the anatomical findings of a systematic post-amputation examination of the lower limb’s superficial dissection, X-rays, and computed tomography (CT) scans. From the X-rays and CT scans, we found curved and overlapping preaxial supernumerary toes, hypoplastic first metatarsal, lack of middle and distal phalanges in one supernumerary toe, three tarsal bones, hypoplastic middle phalanx and no distal phalanx for fourth toe, and no middle or distal phalanges for fifth toe. The fibula articulated with the anteromedial calcaneus and the tibia was completely absent. We identified numerous muscles and nerves in the superficial dissection that are described in the results section of the case report. Due to the rarity of this combination of anatomical findings, descriptions of such cases are very infrequent in the literature. PMID:28035313

  4. Rare case of tibial hemimelia, preaxial polydactyly, and club foot.

    PubMed

    Granite, Guinevere; Herzenberg, John E; Wade, Ronald

    2016-12-16

    A seven-month old female presented with left tibial hemimelia (or congenital tibial aplasia; Weber type VIIb, Jones et al type 1a), seven-toed preaxial polydactyly, and severe club foot (congenital talipes equinovarus). Definitive amputation surgery disarticulated the lower limb at the knee. This case report describes the anatomical findings of a systematic post-amputation examination of the lower limb's superficial dissection, X-rays, and computed tomography (CT) scans. From the X-rays and CT scans, we found curved and overlapping preaxial supernumerary toes, hypoplastic first metatarsal, lack of middle and distal phalanges in one supernumerary toe, three tarsal bones, hypoplastic middle phalanx and no distal phalanx for fourth toe, and no middle or distal phalanges for fifth toe. The fibula articulated with the anteromedial calcaneus and the tibia was completely absent. We identified numerous muscles and nerves in the superficial dissection that are described in the results section of the case report. Due to the rarity of this combination of anatomical findings, descriptions of such cases are very infrequent in the literature.

  5. Analysis of anatomic periarticular tibial plate fit on normal adults.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Kanu S; Skalak, Anthony S; Marcus, Randall E; Vallier, Heather A; Cooperman, Daniel R

    2007-08-01

    Implant manufacturers are producing anatomically contoured periarticular plates to improve the treatment of proximal tibia fractures. We assessed the accuracy of the designation anatomic. We applied eight-hole medial and lateral anatomically contoured periarticular plates to 101 cadaveric tibiae. The tibiae and the plate fits were mapped, quantified, and analyzed using a MicroScribe G2LX digitizer, Rhinoceros software, and MATLAB software. By corresponding the clinical appearance of good fit with our digital findings, we created numerical criteria for plate fit in three planes: coronal (volume of free space between the plate and bone), sagittal (alignment with the tibial plateau and shaft), and axial (match in curvature between the proximal horizontal part of the plate and the tibial plateau). An anatomic fit should mirror the shape of the tibia in all three planes, and only four medial and four lateral plate fits qualified. Recognizing and understanding the substantial variations in fit that exist between anatomically contoured plates and the tibia may help lead to a more stable fixation and prevent malreduction of the fracture and/or soft tissue impingement.

  6. Intramedullary nailing for the treatment of aseptic femoral shaft non-unions after plating failure: effectiveness and timing.

    PubMed

    Megas, Panagiotis; Syggelos, Spyros A; Kontakis, Georgios; Giannakopoulos, Andreas; Skouteris, Georgios; Lambiris, Elias; Panagiotopoulos, Elias

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective, multicentre study aimed to evaluate reamed intramedullary nailing (IMN) for the treatment of 30 cases of aseptic femoral shaft non-union after plating failure. Following nailing, 29 non-unions had healed by a mean 7.93 months. In one case a hypertrophic non-union required renailing after 8 months, using a nail of greater diameter, and united within five further months. Healing times were not related to whether the fracture was open or closed, the type non-union or the type of fracture. The delay from the initial plating to intramedullary nailing had a statistically significant effect on healing time and final outcome. This treatment is cost effective and should be implemented as soon as the non-union is diagnosed.

  7. Heterotopic ossification of the elbow after closed reduction and retrograde intramedullary nailing for radial neck fracture treated by anconeus interposition.

    PubMed

    Sreenivas, T; Menon, Jagdish; Nataraj, A R

    2013-12-01

    Heterotopic ossification around the elbow can lead to considerable functional disability. We describe a case of a 42-year-old man who developed heterotopic ossification of his elbow after closed reduction of the elbow dislocation and radial neck fracture and retrograde intramedullary nailing for radial neck fracture. During the follow-up after initial surgery, movements of the elbow were gradually deteriorated and diagnosed as heterotopic ossification of the elbow. Implant removal, radial head excision along with heterotopic mass, and also interposition of the anconeus muscle resulted in improvement of his elbow mobility. At 18 months of follow-up, patient had elbow flexion arc of 15°-110°, 70° of supination, and 50° of pronation without recurrence of heterotopic ossification. The uniqueness of this case lies in the treatment of heterotopic ossification of the elbow to prevent its recurrence, which was developed after retrograde intramedullary nailing for radial neck fracture following closed reduction.

  8. A 3D finite element model to investigate prosthetic interface stresses of different posterior tibial slope.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Li, Xiaomiao; Fu, Xiaodong; Wang, Weili

    2015-11-01

    Posterior tibial slope that is created during proximal tibial resection in total knee arthroplasty has emerged as an important factor in the mechanics of the knee joint and the surgical outcome. But the ideal degree of posterior tibial slope for recovery of the knee joint function and preventions of complications remains controversial and should vary in different racial groups. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of posterior tibial slope on contact stresses in the tibial polyethylene component of total knee prostheses. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to calculate contact stresses in tibial polyethylene component of total knee prostheses subjected to a compressive load. The 3D finite element model of total knee prosthesis was constructed from the images produced by 3D scanning technology. Stresses in tibial polyethylene component were calculated with four different posterior tibial slopes (0°, 3°, 6° and 9°). The 3D finite element model of total knee prosthesis we presented was well validated. We found that the stress distribution in the polythene as evaluated by the distributions of the von Mises stress, the maximum principle stress, the minimum principle stress and the Cpress were more uniform with 3° and 6° posterior tibial slopes than with 0° and 9° posterior tibial slopes. Moreover, the peaks of the above stresses and trends of changes with increasing degree of knee flexion were more ideal with 3° and 6° posterior slopes. The results suggested that the tibial component inclination might be favourable to 7°-10° so far as the stress distribution is concerned. The range of the tibial component inclination also can decrease the wear of polyethylene. Chinese posterior tibial slope is bigger than in the West, and the current domestic use of prostheses is imported from the West, so their demands to tilt back bone cutting can lead to shorten the service life of prostheses; this experiment result is of important

  9. Vascularized Pedicled Fibula Onlay Bone Graft Augmentation for Complicated Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis With Retrograde Intramedullary Nail Fixation: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Roukis, Thomas S; Kang, Rachel B

    2016-01-01

    Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis stabilized with retrograde intramedullary nail fixation is associated with a high incidence of complications. This is especially true when performed with a bulk structural allograft and poor soft tissue quality. In select high-risk limb salvage cases, we have augmented tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis procedures stabilized using retrograde intramedullary nail fixation with a vascularized pedicled fibular onlay bone graft. We present the data from 10 such procedures with a mean follow-up period of 10.9 ± 5.4 (range 6 to 20) months involving 10 patients (9 males and 1 female). The etiology was avascular osteonecrosis of the talus and/or distal tibia and a resultant large volume cavitary bone defect (8 ankles), severe equinocavovarus contracture (1 ankle), and failed total ankle replacement (1 ankle). A frozen femoral head bulk allograft was used twice, a whole frozen talus allograft once, and a freeze-dried calcaneal allograft once. The fibula was mobilized with intact musculoperiosteal perforating branches of the peroneal artery as a vascularized pedicle onlay bone graft fixated with a screw and washer construct. The mean fibular graft length was 10.2 ± 2.3 cm. The mean interval to radiographic fusion was 2.6 ± 0.6 months and to weightbearing was 3.1 ± 1.4 months. Two stable bulk allograft-host bone and fibular graft-host bone nonunions occurred after intramedullary nail hardware failure. Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis augmented by vascularized pedicled fibular graft stabilized with retrograde compression intramedullary nail fixation offers a reliable option for complex salvage situations when few other options exist. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of knee function after antegrade and retrograde intramedullary nailing for diaphyseal femoral fractures: results of isokinetic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Daglar, Bulent; Gungor, Ertugrul; Delialioglu, Onder M; Karakus, Dilek; Ersoz, Murat; Tasbas, Bulent Adil; Bayrakci, Kenan; Gunel, Ugur

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate knee function in patients having femoral diaphyseal fractures treated with antegrade or retrograde intramedullary nail insertion. Prospective. Level I referral center. Seventy patients having 71 OTA 32 fractures were randomly allocated into 2 groups to be treated with either antegrade or retrograde intramedullary nails inserted with reaming. Antegrade nail in 41 fractures and retrograde femoral intramedullary nails in 30 fractures. Postoperative knee range of motion, Lysholm Knee Score, and isokinetic knee muscle function testing at least 6 months after documented fracture healing, minimum 1 year postoperatively. Groups had similar data with regard to demographics and injury patterns. Mean follow-up time was 44 (range: 25-80) months. Mean knee flexion angle was 132 and 134 degrees, and mean Lysholm Score was 84 and 83.1 in antegrade and retrograde groups, respectively (P = 0.893 and P = 0.701). Isokinetic evaluation revealed similar results for peak torque deficiencies at 30 and 180 degrees per second and total work deficiencies at 180 degrees per second (P > 0.05). Age affected the knee functioning as the higher the age of the patient is, the lower the Lysholm Score and knee flexion angle (r = -0.449, P = 0.0321 and r = -0.568, P = 0.001, respectively). Knee function seems to have similar clinical results after either antegrade or retrograde nail insertion for femoral diaphyseal fractures when knee range of motion, Lysholm Scores, and isokinetic knee evaluation are considered as outcome measures. With increasing patient age, a decrease in knee functioning should be anticipated in patients with femoral fractures treated with intramedullary nails regardless of technique.

  11. Learning Curve and Clinical Outcomes of Performing Surgery with the InterTan Intramedullary Nail in Treating Femoral Intertrochanteric Fractures

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the learning curve of performing surgery with the InterTan intramedullary nail in treating femoral intertrochanteric fractures, to provide valuable information and experience for surgeons who decide to learn a new procedure. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed data from 53 patients who underwent surgery using an InterTan intramedullary nail at our hospital between July 2012 and September 2015. The negative exponential curve-fit regression analysis was used to evaluate the learning curve. According to 90% learning milestone, patients were divided into two group, and the outcomes were compared. Results. The mean operative time was 69.28 (95% CI 64.57 to 74.00) minutes; with the accumulation of surgical experience, the operation time was gradually decreased. 90% of the potential improvement was expected after 18 cases. In terms of operative time, intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, and Harris hip score significant differences were found between two groups (p = 0.009, p = 0.000, p = 0.030, and p = 0.002, resp.). Partial weight bearing time, fracture union time, tip apex distance, and the number of blood transfusions and complications were similar between two groups (p > 0.5). Conclusion. This study demonstrated that the learning curve of performing surgery with the InterTan intramedullary nail is acceptable and 90% of the expert's proficiency level is achieved at around 18 cases. PMID:28503572

  12. Transformation of synaptic vesicle phenotype in the intramedullary axonal arbors of cat spinal motoneurons following peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Havton, L A; Kellerth, J O

    2001-08-01

    Permanent transection of a peripheral motor nerve induces a gradual elimination of whole axon collateral systems in the axotomized spinal motoneurons. There is also an initial concurrent decrease in the amount of recurrent inhibition exerted by these arbors in the spinal cord for up to 6 weeks after the injury, whereas the same reflex action returns to normal by the 12-week postoperative state. The aim of the present investigation was to study the fine structure of the intramedullary axonal arbors of axotomized alpha-motoneurons in the adult cat spinal cord following a permanent peripheral motor nerve lesion. For this purpose, single axotomized alpha-motoneurons were labeled intracellularly with horseradish peroxidase at 12 weeks after permanent transection of their peripheral motor nerve. The intramedullary portions of their motor axon and axon collateral arbors were first reconstructed at the light microscopic level and subsequently studied ultrastructurally. This study shows that the synaptic contacts made by the intramedullary axon collateral arbors of axotomized motoneurons have undergone a change in synaptic vesicle ultrastructure from spherical and clear vesicles to spherical and dense-cored vesicles at 12 weeks after the transection of their peripheral axons. We suggest that the present transformation in synaptic vesicle fine structure may also correspond to a change in the contents of these boutons. This may, in turn, be responsible for the strengthening and recovery of the recurrent inhibitory reflex action exerted by the axotomized spinal motoneurons following a prolonged permanent motor nerve injury.

  13. Finite element analysis of locking plate and two types of intramedullary nails for treating mid-shaft clavicle fractures.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ming; Niu, Wenxin; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Zeng, Wei; Mei, Jiong; Zhang, Ming

    2016-08-01

    Both plate and intramedullary nail fixations, including straight and anatomic nails, have been clinically adopted for the treatment of displaced mid-shaft clavicle fractures. However, the biomechanical performances of these fixations and implants have not been well evaluated. This study aims to compare the construct stability, stress distribution and fracture micro-motion of three fixations based on finite element (FE) method. The FE model of clavicle was reconstructed from CT images of a male volunteer. A mid-shaft fracture gap was created in the intact clavicle. Three fixation styles were simulated including locking plate (LP), anatomic intramedullary nail (CRx), and straight intramedullary nail (RCP). Two loading scenarios (axial compression and inferior bending) were applied at the distal end of the clavicle to simulate arm abduction, while the sternal end was fixed. Under both conditions, the LP was the stiffest, followed by the CRx, and the RCP was the weakest. LP also displayed a more evenly stress distribution for both implant and bone. RCP had a higher stress compared with CRx in both conditions. Moreover, all implants sustained higher stress level under the loading condition of bending than compression. The plate fixation significantly stabilizes the fracture gap, reduces the implant stress, and serves as the recommended fixation for the mid-shaft clavicle fracture. The CRx is an alternative device to treat clavicle shaft fracture, but the shoulder excessive activities should be avoided after operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metal-backed versus all-polyethylene tibial components in primary total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose The choice of either all-polyethylene (AP) tibial components or metal-backed (MB) tibial components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial. We therefore performed a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials that have evaluated MB and AP tibial components in primary TKA. Methods The search strategy included a computerized literature search (Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) and a manual search of major orthopedic journals. A meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized or quasi-randomized trials that compared the performance of tibial components in primary TKA was performed using a fixed or random effects model. We assessed the methodological quality of studies using Detsky quality scale. Results 9 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 2000 and 2009 met the inclusion quality standards for the systematic review. The mean standardized Detsky score was 14 (SD 3). We found that the frequency of radiolucent lines in the MB group was significantly higher than that in the AP group. There were no statistically significant differences between the MB and AP tibial components regarding component positioning, knee score, knee range of motion, quality of life, and postoperative complications. Interpretation Based on evidence obtained from this study, the AP tibial component was comparable with or better than the MB tibial component in TKA. However, high-quality RCTs are required to validate the results. PMID:21895503

  15. Anterior tibial stress fractures treated with anterior tension band plating in high-performance athletes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Alexandre Santa; de Hollanda, João Paris Buarque; Duarte, Aires; Hungria Neto, José Soares

    2013-06-01

    The non-surgical treatment of anterior tibial cortex stress fractures requires long periods of abstention from sports activities and often results in non-union. Many different surgical techniques have already been previously described to treat these fractures, but there is no consensus on the best treatment. We describe the outcome of treatment using anterior tibial tension band plating in three high-performance athletes (4 legs) with anterior tibial cortex stress fractures. Tibial osteosynthesis with a 3.5-mm locking compression plate in the anterolateral aspect of the tibia was performed in all patients diagnosed with anterior tibial stress fracture after September 2010 at Santa Casa Hospital. All of the fractures were consolidated within a period of 3 months after surgery, allowing for an early return to pre-injury levels of competitive sports activity. There were no infection, non-union, malunion or anterior knee pain complications. Anterior tibial tension band plating leads to prompt fracture consolidation and is a good alternative for the treatment of anterior tibial cortex stress fractures. Bone grafts were shown to be unnecessary.

  16. Comparison and analysis of reoperations in two different treatment protocols for trochanteric hip fractures - postoperative technical complications with dynamic hip screw, intramedullary nail and Medoff sliding plate.

    PubMed

    Paulsson, Johnny; Stig, Josefine Corin; Olsson, Ola

    2017-08-24

    In treatment of unstable trochanteric fractures dynamic hip screw and Medoff sliding plate devices are designed to allow secondary fracture impaction, whereas intramedullary nails aim to maintain fracture alignment. Different treatment protocols are used by two similar Swedish regional emergency care hospitals. Dynamic hip screw is used for fractures considered as stable within the respective treatment protocol, whereas one treatment protocol (Medoff sliding plate/dynamic hip screw) uses biaxial Medoff sliding plate for unstable pertrochanteric fractures and uniaxial Medoff sliding plate for subtrochanteric fractures, the second (intramedullary nail/dynamic hip screw) uses intramedullary nail for subtrochanteric fractures and for pertrochanteric fractures with intertrochanteric comminution or subtrochanteric extension. All orthopedic surgeries are registered in a regional database. All consecutive trochanteric fracture operations during 2011-2012 (n = 856) and subsequent technical reoperations (n = 40) were derived from the database. Reoperations were analysed and classified into the categories adjustment (percutaneous removal of the locking screw of the Medoff sliding plate or the intramedullary nail, followed by fracture healing) or minor, intermediate (reosteosynthesis) or major (hip joint replacement, Girdlestone or persistent nonunion) technical complications. The relative risk of intermediate or major technical complications was 4.2 (1.2-14) times higher in unstable pertrochanteric fractures and 4.6 (1.1-19) times higher in subtrochanteric fractures with treatment protocol: intramedullary nail/dynamic hip screw, compared to treatment protocol: Medoff sliding plate/dynamic hip screw. Overall rates of intermediate and major technical complications in unstable pertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures were with biaxial Medoff sliding plate 0.68%, with uniaxial Medoff sliding plate 1.4%, with dynamic hip screw 3.4% and with intramedullary nail 7.2%. The

  17. Influence of the posterior tibial slope on the flexion gap in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ken; Tashiro, Yasutaka; Mizu-uchi, Hideki; Hamai, Satoshi; Doi, Toshio; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2014-08-01

    Adjusting the joint gap length to be equal in both extension and flexion is an important issue in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It is generally acknowledged that posterior tibial slope affects the flexion gap; however, the extent to which changes in the tibial slope angle directly affect the flexion gap remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the influence of tibial slope changes on the flexion gap in cruciate-retaining (CR) or posterior-stabilizing (PS) TKA. The flexion gap was measured using a tensor device with the femoral trial component in 20 cases each of CR- and PS-TKA. A wedge plate with a 5° inclination was placed on the tibial cut surface by switching its front-back direction to increase or decrease the tibial slope by 5°. The flexion gap after changing the tibial slope was compared to that of the neutral slope measured with a flat plate that had the same thickness as that of the wedge plate center. When the tibial slope decreased or increased by 5°, the flexion gap decreased or increased by 1.9 ± 0.6mm or 1.8 ± 0.4mm, respectively, with CR-TKA and 1.2 ± 0.4mm or 1.1 ± 0.3mm, respectively, with PS-TKA. The influence of changing the tibial slope by 5° on the flexion gap was approximately 2mm with CR-TKA and 1mm with PS-TKA. This information is useful when considering the effect of manipulating the tibial slope on the flexion gap when performing CR- or PS-TKA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of tibial non-unions according to a novel treatment algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Nando; Marais, Leonard Charles

    2015-12-01

    Tibial non-unions represent a spectrum of conditions that are challenging to treat. The optimal management remains unclear despite the frequency with which these diagnoses are encountered. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of tibial non-unions managed according to a novel tibial non-union treatment algorithm. One hundred and eighteen consecutive patients with 122 uninfected tibial non-unions were treated according to our proposed tibial non-union treatment algorithm. All patients were followed-up clinically and radiologically for a minimum of six months after external fixator removal. Four patients were excluded because they did not complete the intended treatment process. The final study population consisted of 94 men and 24 women with a mean age of 34 years. Sixty-seven non-unions were stiff hypertrophic, 32 mobile atrophic, 16 mobile oligotrophic and one true pseudoarthrosis. Six non-unions were classified as type B1 defect non-unions. Bony union was achieved after the initial surgery in 113/122 (92.6%) tibias. Nine patients had failure of treatment. Seven persistent non-unions were successfully retreated according to the tibial non-union treatment algorithm. This resulted in final bony union in 120/122 (98.3%) tibias. The proposed tibial non-union treatment algorithm appears to produce high union rates across a diverse group of tibial non-unions. Tibial non-unions however, remain difficult to treat and should be referred to specialist units where advanced reconstructive techniques are practiced on a regular basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of tibial slope on the stability of the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee.

    PubMed

    Voos, James E; Suero, Eduardo M; Citak, Musa; Petrigliano, Frank P; Bosscher, Marianne R F; Citak, Mustafa; Wickiewicz, Thomas L; Pearle, Andrew D

    2012-08-01

    We aimed to quantify the effect of changes in tibial slope on the magnitude of anterior tibial translation (ATT) in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee during the Lachman and mechanized pivot shift tests. We hypothesized that increased posterior tibial slope would increase the amount of ATT of an ACL-deficient knee, while leveling the slope of the tibial plateau would decrease the amount of ATT. Lachman and mechanized pivot shift tests were performed on hip-to-toe cadaveric specimens, and ATT of the lateral and the medial compartments was measured using navigation (n = 11). The ACL was then sectioned. Stability testing was repeated, and ATT was recorded. A proximal tibial osteotomy in the sagittal plane was then performed achieving either +5 or -5° of tibial slope variation after which stability testing was repeated (n = 10). Sectioning the ACL resulted in a significant increase in ATT in both the Lachman and mechanized pivot shift tests (P < 0.05). Increasing or decreasing the slope of the tibial plateau had no effect on ATT during the Lachman test (n.s.). During the mechanized pivot shift tests, a 5° increase in posterior slope resulted in a significant increase in ATT compared to the native knee (P < 0.05), while a 5° decrease in slope reduced ATT to a level similar to that of the intact knee. Tibial slope changes did not affect the magnitude of translation during a Lachman test. However, large changes in tibial slope variation affected the magnitude of the pivot shift.