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Sample records for common tibial intramedullary

  1. Fatigue strength of common tibial intramedullary nail distal locking screws

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Lanny V; Harris, Robert M; Zubak, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    Background Premature failure of either the nail and/or locking screws with unstable fracture patterns may lead to angulation, shortening, malunion, and IM nail migration. Up to thirty percent of all unreamed nail locking screws can break after initial weight bearing is allowed at 8–10 weeks if union has not occurred. The primary problem this presents is hardware removal during revision surgery. The purposes of our study was to evaluate the relative fatigue resistance of distal locking screws and bolts from representative manufacturers of tibial IM nail systems, and develop a relative risk assessment of screws and materials used. Evaluations included quantitative and qualitative measures of the relative performance of these screws. Methods Fatigue tests were conducted to simulate a comminuted fracture that was treated by IM nailing assuming that all load was carried by the screws. Each screw type was tested ten times in a single screw configuration. One screw type was tested an additional ten times in a two-screw parallel configuration. Fatigue tests were performed using a servohydraulic materials testing system and custom fixturing that simulated screws placed in the distal region of an appropriately sized tibial IM nail. Fatigue loads were estimated based on a seventy-five kilogram individual at full weight bearing. The test duration was one million cycles (roughly one year), or screw fracture, whichever occurred first. Failure analysis of a representative sample of titanium alloy and stainless steel screws included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantitative metallography. Results The average fatigue life of a single screw with a diameter of 4.0 mm was 1200 cycles, which would correspond roughly to half a day of full weight bearing. Single screws with a diameter of 4.5 mm or larger have approximately a 50 percent probability of withstanding a week of weight bearing, whereas a single 5.0 mm diameter screw has greater than 90 percent probability of

  2. Safe surgical technique: intramedullary nail fixation of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Zelle, Boris A; Boni, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Statically locked, reamed intramedullary nailing remains the standard treatment for displaced tibial shaft fractures. Establishing an appropriate starting point is a crucial part of the surgical procedure. Recently, suprapatellar nailing in the semi-extended position has been suggested as a safe and effective surgical technique. Numerous reduction techiques are available to achieve an anatomic fracture alignment and the treating surgeon should be familiar with these maneuvers. Open reduction techniques should be considered if anatomic fracture alignment cannot be achieved by closed means. Favorable union rates above 90 % can be achieved by both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing. Despite favorable union rates, patients continue to have functional long-term impairments. In particular, anterior knee pain remains a common complaint following intramedullary tibial nailing. Malrotation remains a commonly reported complication after tibial nailing. The effect of postoperative tibial malalignment on the clinical and radiographic outcome requires further investigation.

  3. Deep intramedullary infection in tibial lengthening over an intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Ju; Cielo Balce, Gracia; Huh, Young-Jae; Song, Sang-Yoon; Song, Hae-Ryong; Kim, Seung-Ju

    2011-08-01

    Tibial lengthening over an intramedullary (IM) device is associated with a risk of deep intramedullary infection; there is so far no guideline for decision making between early removal and delayed removal of the nail. Tibial lengthening over an intramedullary nail/Rush pin was performed in 118 limb segments (63 patients) from 2004 to 2008 in our institution. Fifty five patients had bilateral tibial lengthening. Ninety nine of the 118 segments went on to healing without infection, while 13 segments developed superficial infection and 6 segments developed deep infection. Among 6 patients with deep infection, 4 patients underwent early removal of the nail when deep infection signs and symptoms occurred and 2 patients underwent delayed removal of the nail at 11 months. The 6 segments with deep infection differed significantly with respect t to the callus pattern (p < 0.05) and density (p = 0.0001) from those without infection and with superficial infection. In this small sugroup, removal of the nail was delayed in two patients as there was visible callus bridging at more than one cortex, and deep infection subsided after local drainage.

  4. Intramedullary Tibial Nail Fixation of Simple Intraarticular Distal Tibia Fractures.

    PubMed

    Scolaro, John A; Broghammer, Francis H; Donegan, Derek J

    2016-11-01

    The optimal treatment strategy for distal tibia fractures, especially those with intraarticular extension, remains controversial. Although open reduction and internal fixation with a plate and screw device is commonly performed for these injuries, the risk of soft tissue complications using this approach is significant. Staged treatment protocols and alternative means of fixation have been proposed to address these undesired events. Although potentially more technically demanding than fixation of diaphyseal or extraarticular tibial fractures, intramedullary nail (IMN) fixation of simple intraarticular distal tibia fractures is a viable treatment alternative with unique advantages. This article presents a review of the literature and rationale for intramedullary tibial nail fixation of simple intraarticular distal tibia fractures and a surgical approach commonly utilized for successful implementation.

  5. Tibial lengthening over humeral and tibial intramedullary nails in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daoyun; Chen, Jianmin; Jiang, Yao; Liu, Fanggang

    2011-06-01

    Leg discrepancy is common after poliomyelitis. Tibial lengthening is an effective way to solve this problem. It is believed lengthening over a tibial intramedullary nail can provide a more comfortable lengthening process than by the conventional technique. However, patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis typically have narrow intramedullary canals allowing limited space for inserting a tibial intramedullary nail and Kirschner wires. To overcome this problem, we tried using humeral nails instead of tibial nails in the lengthening procedure. In this study, we used humeral nails in 20 tibial lengthening procedures and compared the results with another group of patients who were treated with tibial lengthening over tibial intramedullary nails. The mean consolidation index, percentage of increase and external fixation index did not show significant differences between the two groups. However, less blood loss and shorter operating time were noted in the humeral nail group. More patients encountered difficulty with the inserted intramedullary nail in the tibial nail group procedure. The complications did not show a statistically significant difference between the two techniques on follow-up. In conclusion, we found the humeral nail lengthening technique was more suitable in leg discrepancy patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis.

  6. A Modified Levering Technique for Removing a Broken Solid Intramedullary Tibial Nail: A Technical Tip.

    PubMed

    Pullen, W Michael; Erdle, Nicholas J; Crickard, Colin; Smith, Christopher S

    Intramedullary tibial fixation is a commonly used and highly successfully treatment in acute fractures, nonunion settings, and correctional procedures. In the setting of a nonunion, removal of a failed implant can add to operative time and surgeon frustration while further compromising bone in an area already at risk for failure. Here we present a technique, using readily accessible equipment, for removing a distal solid tibial nail fragment in a manner that preserves bone.

  7. Expandable intramedullary nails for fixation of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Ghafil, Dior; Ackerman, Pieter; Baillon, Renaud; Verdonk, Rene; Delince, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Interlocking intramedullary nailing is currently the preferred treatment for most tibial fractures requiring operative treatment, with good results and a relatively low complication rate as reported in large clinical series. However, vascular and neurological complications caused by interlocking screws have been reported. In addition, insertion of distal interlocking screws can be technically demanding and may entail substantial exposure. We present the results with an expandable self-locking nail in the management of 52 AO type A and B tibial shaft fractures. The mean time to union was 15.8 weeks and the rate of union was 98%. The average surgical time was 60 minutes. Complications were those usually seen in diaphysis nailing and no complication was noted during nail expansion. Interlocking screws are not necessary, which reduces the risk of iatrogenic lesions. The expandable nail allows effective management of AO type A and B diaphyseal fractures of the tibia, a lower radiation exposure and shorter operative time.

  8. Computational comparison of reamed versus unreamed intramedullary tibial nails.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Benito, María José; Fornells, Pere; García-Aznar, José Manuel; Seral, Belén; Seral-Iñnigo, Fernando; Doblaré, Manuel

    2007-02-01

    We compared, via a computational model, the biomechanical performance of reamed versus unreamed intramedullary tibial nails to treat fractures in three different locations: proximal, mid-diaphyseal, and distal. Two finite element models were analyzed for the two nail types and the three kinds of fractures. Several biomechanical variables were determined: interfragmentary strains in the fracture site, von Mises stresses in nails and bolts, and strain distributions in the tibia and fibula. Although good mechanical stabilization was achieved in all the simulated fractures, the best results were obtained in the proximal fracture for the unreamed nail and in the mid-diaphyseal and distal fractures for the reamed nail. The interlocking bolts, in general, were subjected to higher stresses in the unreamed tibial nail than in the reamed one; thus the former stabilization technique is more likely to fail due to fatigue.

  9. Tibial component alignment after total knee arthroplasty with intramedullary instrumentation: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Talmo, Carl T; Cooper, Andrew J; Wuerz, Tom; Lang, Jason E; Bono, James V

    2010-12-01

    The best operative technique for achieving appropriate postoperative alignment following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial, with proponents of extramedullary, intramedullary and computer-assisted techniques. One hundred ninety-two consecutive patients undergoing TKA were prospectively evaluated with full-length lower extremity radiographs. Patients underwent cemented TKA using femoral and tibial intramedullary instrumentation. Digital radiographs were analyzed using PACS (AGFA Healthcare, Ridgefield Park, NJ) software. Tibial component alignment was measured in the coronal and sagittal planes. Tibial component slope averaged 3.89° + 1.96 for the cruciate-retaining components and averaged 1.7° + 1.92 for PS components. The average coronal tibial component alignment was 90.00°, and 99% were within 3° of neutral mechanical alignment with only 2 (1%) outliers. Intramedullary instrumentation resulted in excellent postoperative tibial component and lower extremity alignment.

  10. Anterior tibial stress fracture treated with intramedullary nailing: a case report.

    PubMed

    Plasschaert, V F; Johansson, C G; Micheli, L J

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the use of intramedullary rodding as a treatment for an anterior tibial stress fracture in a patient with high functional demands: a professional ballet dancer. In our patient, a year of conservative treatment and later tibial drilling was unsuccessful. After sustaining a complete fracture at the site of the stress fracture, he was treated with intramedullary rodding and was able to dance 21 weeks after surgery. The fracture went on to complete healing. The role of prophylactic intramedullary nailing in this difficult fracture is discussed.

  11. Removal of a bent tibial intramedullary nail: a rare case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Aggerwal, Sameer; Soni, Ashwani; Saini, Uttam-C; Gahlot, Nitesh

    2011-04-01

    Intramedullary interlocking nailing is a gold standard for treatment of tibial shaft fractures. Bending of a nail secondary to trauma is a rare complication, which may be encountered in healed or unhealed tibial shaft fractures. Removal of such bent nail is always a challenge. We reported this case to discuss various techniques for removal of bent nails and to share our experience in removing a bent tibial intramedullary nail in a 30-year-old man, who was admitted in our department with re-fracture of the right tibial shaft due to a roadside accident two years after the initial surgical treatment. The intramedullary nail, bent by 30 degrees and visible on anterioposterior as well as on lateral radiographs, was firstly weakened by partially cutting the convex wall, then straightened by applying external force, and finally removed by using the standard nail removal method.

  12. Insertion of intramedullary nails from the suprapatellar pouch for proximal tibial shaft fractures. A technical note.

    PubMed

    Jakma, Tijs; Reynders-Frederix, Peter; Rajmohan, Rai

    2011-12-01

    Intramedullary nailing of proximal tibial fractures can be difficult when using the standard entry portal. We evaluated the suprapatellar portal, using a midline quadriceps tendon incision, to perform intramedullary nailing of the tibia. Seven patients were treated with this adaptation of the standard intramedullary nailing procedure. An arthroscopy was done before and after the nailing procedure. No special equipment was used to perform the intramedullary nailing. We evaluated the handling and necessary modifications of the standard intramedullary technique to introduce the locked tibial nail through the suprapatellar approach. We found this technique not necessarily more difficult than the standard intramedullary nailing of the tibia through the infrapatellar entry portal. Although the patients did not complain of patellofemoral discomfort after the suprapatellar nailing, definitive scuffing of the cartilage in the lower part of the femoral trochlea was visible. Introduction of a locked tibial nail via the suprapatellar approach was found to be possible and even advantageous for some complex upper tibial shaft fractures in compromised limbs. Some possible downsides of this approach need to be taken into account but, in some cases, they can be outweighed by the benefits.

  13. Influence of nail prominence and insertion point on anterior knee pain after tibial intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Lin, Kai-Cheng; Yang, Shan-Wei; Tarng, Yih-Wen; Hsu, Chien-Jen; Renn, Jenn-Huei

    2014-03-01

    Chronic anterior knee pain is the most common complication after tibial nail insertion. Its etiology remains unknown, and multifactorial sources have been suggested. The authors believe that nail prominence and the insertion point of the nail are important in the development of anterior knee pain. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the roles of the insertion point and nail prominence in anterior knee pain after tibial intramedullary nailing using a transtendinous approach and a common nail type. A total of 108 patients with tibial shaft fractures underwent reamed intramedullary nailing using a transtendinous approach between 2006 and 2009. Mean follow-up was 26.8±5.0 months. A visual analog scale (0-100) was used to estimate anterior knee pain severity while patients performed 7 activities retrospectively. Radiographic assessments, including nail prominence and insertion point, were performed. Sixty (55.6%) patients experienced knee pain (group P) and 48 (44.4%) did not (group N). Significant differences were not found between the groups with respect to demographics, nail diameters, or fracture classifications. Less superior and more anterior nail prominences in radiographic assessments were significantly associated with anterior knee pain. When the insertion point was over the bottom half of the anterior cortex, the influence of anterior nail prominence was more obvious. Nail removal resulted in diminished pain during the 7 assessed activities. Nail insertion should be over the bottom half of the anterior cortex, with minimal anterior nail prominence. If anterior knee pain occurs, removal of the nail should be considered.

  14. The functional results of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nail compressed by proximal tube.

    PubMed

    Karaarslan, Ahmet Adnan; Acar, Nihat; Aycan, Hakan; Sesli, Erhan

    2016-04-01

    Nailing of tibial shaft fractures is considered the gold standard surgical method by many surgeons. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate and compare the clinical outcome of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube and conventional intramedullary interlocking nails. Fifty-seven patients with tibial shaft fractures, treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube (n = 32) and the conventional interlocking nails (n = 25), were reviewed. All fractures except for one were united without any additional surgical intervention in the proximal compression tube nail group, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, six patients needed dynamization surgery (p = 0.005) and three cases of nonunion were recorded. In the proximal compression tube nail group, faster union occurred in 20 ± 2 (16-24) weeks (mean ± SD; range) without failure of locking screws and proximal nail migration, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, union occurred in 22 ± 2.5 (17-27) weeks (p = 0.001) with two failures of locking screws and two proximal nail migration. The proximal compression tube nail system is safer than the conventional nailing methods for the treatment for transverse and oblique tibial shaft fractures with a less rate of nonunion, proximal locking screw failure and proximal nail migration.

  15. Surgical stabilization for open tibial fractures in children: External fixation or elastic stable intramedullary nail - which method is optimal?

    PubMed Central

    Ramasubbu, Rohan A; Ramasubbu, Benjamin M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Management of open tibial fractures is well documented in adults, with existing protocols outlining detailed treatment strategies. No clear guidelines exist for children. Surgical stabilization of tibial fractures in the pediatric population requires implants that do not disrupt the open epiphyses (growth plate). Both elastic stable intramedullary nails and external fixation can be used. The objective of this study was to identify the optimal method of surgical stabilization in the treatment of open tibial fractures in children. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Embase were searched from their inception to March 2014 using the following advanced search terms (Key words): “open tibia fracture,” “fracture fixation,” “external fixation,” “intramedullary,” and “bone nail.” Only studies in English and pertaining to children with open fractures treated with elastic stable intramedullary nails or external fixation between 1994 and 2014 were included. Twelve clinical studies were critically appraised. Results: Due to a paucity in the literature coupled with a nonsystematic presentation of results, it proved to be very difficult in extracting relevant results from the studies. This was further added by a variation in outcome measures. Consequently, the results we obtained were difficult to draw conclusions from. Conclusion: There is no conclusive evidence or best practice guidelines for their management. Thus, as is highlighted in this study, more research is needed to determine the optimum treatment strategy for this common pediatric injury. The existing literature is of poor quality; consisting mainly of retrospective reviews of patients’ medical records, charts, and radiographs. Carefully designed, high-quality prospective cohort studies utilizing a nationalized multi-hospital approach are needed to improve understanding before protocols and guidelines can be developed and implemented. PMID:27746486

  16. Comparison study of therapeutic results of closed tibial shaft fracture with intramedullary nails inserted with and without reaming.

    PubMed

    Sadighi, Ali; Elmi, Asghar; Jafari, Mohamad Ali; Sadeghifard, Vahid; Goldust, Mohamad

    2011-10-15

    Tibia fractures are the most common type of long bone fractures in US. This study aimed at comparing the therapeutic results of closed tibial shaft fracture with intramedullary nails inserted with and without reaming. In this randomized clinical trial study, 60 patients with a fracture of the tibia were examined. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty patients treated through inserting intramedullary nail with reaming technique (group A). The other 30 patients treated through inserting intramedullary nail without reaming technique (group B). After operation physical examination and control radiography were taken up to 6 month and results were compared. Sixty patients suffering from closed tibial diaphysis fractures were studied. Mean age of the group A and B were 40.24 +/- 12.32 and 38.42 +/- 14.28, respectively. Group A consisted of 24 (80%) males and 6 (20%) females while group B consisted of 24% females and 76% males. Considering fracture based on OTA criteria (p = 0.4) and severity of soft tissue damage based on Tscherne classification (p = 0.6), there was no statistically meaningful difference between groups A and B. The study demonstrated that degree of horizontal displacement, mean time of surgery, post-operation infection, organ shortness at the end of the follow-up period, organ deviation in patients of the group A was significantly more than that of the group B. Time required for callus formation (mean time of union), mean time of full weight bearing time and mean time of return to normal activities in group B was significantly more than that of the group A.

  17. Fatigue load of current tibial intramedullary nail designs: a simulated study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Mark; Liu, Qi; Ellis, Thomas J

    2011-06-14

    Comminuted tibial shaft fractures are traditionally treated with statically locked intramedullary nailing and protected weight bearing until fracture callous is evident. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that a simulation of immediate full weight bearing following intramedullary nailing of these fractures does not result in implant failure.A comminuted fracture model was created using 2 pieces of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe. Ten-millimeter-diameter tibial nails (Synthes, Paoli, Pennsylvania; Styker, Mahwah, New Jersey; Zimmer, Warsaw, Indiana; Smith & Nephew, Memphis, Tennessee) were inserted within the PVC pipe and secured proximally and distally with 2 or 3 locking bolts. The constructs were cycled in axial compression for 500,000 cycles or until implant failure. The tests were conducted using a modified staircase method (200 N per step), and the fatigue strength was identified for each of the tibial nail designs. When 2 interlocking bolts were placed proximally and distally, the fatigue strength was between 900 and 1100 N for the Stryker nail, 1100 and 1300 N for the Zimmer nail, 1200 and 1400 N for the Synthes nail, and 1400 and 1600 N for the Smith & Nephew nail. Adding a third interlocking bolt proximally and distally to the Smith & Nephew nail increased the fatigue strength by 13% to between 1700 and 1900 N. In all cases, implant failures occurred through the proximal or distal interlocking bolts.Biomechanical tests suggest that current tibial nail designs may permit immediate full weight bearing of comminuted tibial shaft fractures with minimal risk of implant failure. This may facilitate mobilization in the early postoperative period, especially in the multiply injured patient.

  18. Tibial lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and an Ilizarov external fixator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hayoung; Lee, Sang Ki; Kim, Kap Jung; Ahn, Jae Hoon; Choy, Won Sik; Kim, Yong In; Koo, Jea Yun

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tibial lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and an Ilizarov external fixator for the treatment of leg length discrepancy or short stature. This retrospective study was performed on 18 tibiae (13 patients) in which attempts were made to reduce complications. We used an Ilizarov external fixator and a nail (10 mm diameter in 17 tibiae and 11 mm in one tibia) in combination. Average limb lengthening was 4.19 cm (range, 2.5-5.5). The mean duration of external fixation was 12.58 days per centimetre gain in length, and the mean consolidation index was 40.53 (range, 35.45-51.85). All distracted segments healed spontaneously without refracture or malalignment. Gradual limb lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and circular external fixation in combination was found to be reliable and effective and reduced external fixation time with fewer complications.

  19. Minimizing the complications of intramedullary nailing for distal third tibial shaft and metaphyseal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yaligod, Vishwanath; Rudrappa, Girish H.; Nagendra, Srinivas; Shivanna, Umesh M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The complications of intramedullary nailing of distal third tibial shaft and metaphyseal fractures have a direct impact on ankle and hind foot function. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 28 patients. Unreamed nail was negotiated across the well reduced fracture till subchondral bone and fixed with 2 to 3 distal locking screws in different planes. Results Fracture union rate was 85%. Three out of 28 patients had malalignment. Mean ankle, hindfoot functional score was 85. Conclusion Complications can be minimized by impacting the unreamed nail till the subchondral bone while maintaining the fracture well reduced and by using multiple distal locking screws in different planes. PMID:24719527

  20. A meta-analysis of reamed versus unreamed intramedullary nailing for the treatment of closed tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Xia, Liheng; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Yongtao; Mei, Gang; Jin, Dan

    2014-04-01

    Controversy exists regarding the clinical outcomes of reamed vs unreamed intramedullary nailing in the treatment of closed tibial fractures. This study assessed the effects of reamed vs unreamed intramedullary nailing for closed tibial fractures. The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials from January 1980 to June 2012 comparing reamed with unreamed intramedullary nailing for closed tibial fracture in adults. Primary outcomes were nonunion, delayed union, malunion, secondary procedure, failure of implants, compartment syndrome, infection, and knee pain. Eight randomized and 1 quasi-randomized clinical trials (1229 fractures) were included. No statistically significant differences were found between reamed and unreamed nailing groups in delayed union (P=.20), malunion (P=.28), infection (P=.36), compartment syndrome (P=.36), and knee pain (P=.93). The unreamed group had a higher rate of fracture nonunion than the reamed group (P=.02). The subgroup analysis of implant failures (broken screws vs broken nails) indicated that reamed nailing significantly reduced the risk of screw breakage (P<.001); however, there was no significant difference between reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing in nail breakage (P=.94). The subgroup analysis of a secondary procedure showed that the reamed intramedullary nailing resulted in significantly lower risks of implant exchange (P=.01) and dynamization (P=.04); however, there was no significant difference in bone grafting rate (P=.73). Evidence comparing reamed with unreamed intramedullary nailing for closed tibial fractures indicates that reamed intramedullary nailing may lead to significantly lower risks of nonunion, screw failure, implant exchange, and dynamization without increasing operative complications.

  1. Nail position has an influence on anterior knee pain after tibial intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Darabos, Nikica; Bajs, Ivana Dovzak; Rutić, Zeljko; Darabos, Anela; Poljak, Damir; Dobsa, Jasminka

    2011-09-01

    Our aim was to determine the possible relationship between anterior knee pain (AKP) and nail position marked as a distance from tip of nail to tibial plateau (NP) and to the tuberositas tibiae (NT). Nail position has an influence on anterior knee pain after tibial intramedullary nailing. We evaluated postoperative outcome results of 50 patients in the last 3 years with healed fractures initially treated with intramedullary (IM) reamed nails with 2 or 3 interlocking screws on both parts of the nail and with the use of medial paratendinous incision for nail entry portal. Patients marked a point on the visual analog scale (VAS) that corresponded to the level of postoperative AKP felt. Two groups of patients were formed on the basis of AKP (pain level was neglected): groups A and B, with and without pain, respectively. The difference between the two groups concerning NP measurements was statistically significant (p < 0.05), but not concerning NT measurements at the p < 0.05 level. Patients were classified by pain with high accuracy (98%) according to a classification tree. Symptoms of AKP did not appear if the tip of the nail position was more than 6.0 mm from the NP and more than 2.6 mm from the NT. However, for better evaluation of these results it will be necessary to examine a larger number of postoperative patients with AKP.

  2. Randomized Trial of Reamed and Unreamed Intramedullary Nailing of Tibial Shaft Fractures

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background: There remains a compelling biological rationale for both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing for the treatment of tibial shaft fractures. Previous small trials have left the evidence for either approach inconclusive. We compared reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing with regard to the rates of reoperations and complications in patients with tibial shaft fractures. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, blinded randomized trial of 1319 adults in whom a tibial shaft fracture was treated with either reamed or unreamed intramedullary nailing. Perioperative care was standardized, and reoperations for nonunion before six months were disallowed. The primary composite outcome measured at twelve months postoperatively included bone-grafting, implant exchange, and dynamization in patients with a fracture gap of <1 cm. Infection and fasciotomy were considered as part of the composite outcome, irrespective of the postoperative gap. Results: One thousand two hundred and twenty-six participants (93%) completed one year of follow-up. Of these, 622 patients were randomized to reamed nailing and 604 patients were randomized to unreamed nailing. Among all patients, fifty-seven (4.6%) required implant exchange or bone-grafting because of nonunion. Among all patients, 105 in the reamed nailing group and 114 in the unreamed nailing group experienced a primary outcome event (relative risk, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 1.15). In patients with closed fractures, forty-five (11%) of 416 in the reamed nailing group and sixty-eight (17%) of 410 in the unreamed nailing group experienced a primary event (relative risk, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.47 to 0.96; p = 0.03). This difference was largely due to differences in dynamization. In patients with open fractures, sixty of 206 in the reamed nailing group and forty-six of 194 in the unreamed nailing group experienced a primary event (relative risk, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.78; p = 0

  3. Is it safe to place a tibial intramedullary nail through a traumatic knee arthrotomy?

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jennifer M; Bible, Jesse E; Mir, Hassan R

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a study to compare postoperative infection and nonunion rates in tibial intramedullary nails (IMNs) placed through either uninjured knees or traumatic knee arthrotomies (KAs). We reviewed all adult tibial diaphyseal fractures (n = 1378) treated with an IMN between 1998 and 2010. Fourteen of these nails were placed through a traumatic KA. Each patient in the study group was assigned 4 separate matched controls for comparison. Controls were matched on age, sex, diabetes, smoking, and fracture classification (closed or open with Gustilo-Anderson). There were no postoperative infections (knee or fracture site) in the traumatic KA group and 2 (3.5%) in the control group (P = .473). One nonunion (7.1%) was noted in the traumatic KA group, and 9 (16%) were noted in the control group (P = .6694). To our knowledge, this is the first study to report outcomes of placing tibial IMNs through traumatic KAs. In our sample, the practice presented no increased risk either for infection (at the knee or the fracture site) or for nonunion with appropriate surgical debridement.

  4. Tibia-based referencing for standard proximal tibial radiographs during intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Bible, Jesse E; Choxi, Ankeet A; Dhulipala, Sravan C; Evans, Jason M; Mir, Hassan R

    2013-11-01

    Limited information exists to define standard tibial radiographs. The purpose of this study was to define new landmarks on the proximal tibia for standard anteroposterior and lateral radiographs. In 10 cadaveric knees, fibular head bisection was considered the anteroposterior image, and femoral condyle overlap the lateral image. In another 10 knees, a "twin peaks" anteroposterior view, showing the sharpest profile of the tibial spines, was used. The "flat plateau" lateral image was obtained by aligning the femoral condyles then applying a varus adjustment with overlap of the tibial plateaus. Medial peritendinous approaches were performed, and an entry reamer used to open the medullary canal. A priori analysis showed good to excellent intra-/inter-observer reliability with the new technique (intra-class correlation coefficient ICC 0.61-0.90). The "twin peaks" anteroposterior radiograph was externally rotated 2.7±2.1° compared to the standard radiograph with fibular head bisection. Portal position and incidence of damage to intra-articular structures did not significantly differ between groups (P>.05). The "twin peaks" anteroposterior view and "flat plateau" lateral view can safely be used for nail entry portal creation in the anatomic safe zone. Tibia-based radiographic referencing is useful for intramedullary nailing cases in which knee or proximal tibiofibular joint anatomy is altered.

  5. Treatment of distal intraarticular tibial fractures: A biomechanical evaluation of intramedullary nailing vs. angle-stable plate osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Sebastian; Greenfield, Julia; Arand, Charlotte; Jarmolaew, Andrey; Appelmann, Philipp; Mehler, Dorothea; Rommens, Pol M

    2015-10-01

    In factures of the distal tibia with simple articular extension, the optimal surgical treatment remains debatable. In clinical practice, minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis and intramedullary nailing are both routinely performed. Comparative biomechanical studies of different types of osteosynthesis of intraarticular distal tibial fractures are missing due to the lack of an established model. The goal of this study was first to establish a biomechanical model and second to investigate, which are the biomechanical advantages of angle-stable plate osteosynthesis and intramedullary nailing of distal intraarticular tibial fractures. Seven 4(th) generation biomechanical composite tibiae featuring an AO 43-C2 type fracture were implanted with either osteosynthesis technique. After primary lag screw fixation, 4-hole Medial Distal Tibial Plate (MDTP) with triple proximal and quadruple distal screws or intramedullary nailing with double proximal and triple 4.0mm distal interlocking were implanted. The stiffness of the implant-bone constructs and interfragmentary movement were measured under non-destructive axial compression (350 and 600 N) and torsion (1.5 and 3Nm). Destructive axial compression testing was conducted with a maximal load of up to 1,200 N. No overall superior biomechanical results can be proclaimed for either implant type. Intramedullary nailing displays statistically superior results for axial loading in comparison to the MDTP. Torsional loading resulted in non-statistically significant differences for the two-implant types with higher stability in the MDTP group. From a biomechanical view, the load sharing intramedullary nail might be more forgiving and allow for earlier weight bearing in patients with limited compliance.

  6. Fixator-assisted nailing and consecutive lengthening over an intramedullary nail for the correction of tibial deformity.

    PubMed

    Bilen, F E; Kocaoglu, M; Eralp, L; Balci, H I

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of using a combination of fixator-assisted nailing with lengthening over an intramedullary nail in patients with tibial deformity and shortening. Between 1997 and 2007, 13 tibiae in nine patients with a mean age of 25.4 years (17 to 34) were treated with a unilateral external fixator for acute correction of deformity, followed by lengthening over an intramedullary nail with a circular external fixator applied at the same operating session. At the end of the distraction period locking screws were inserted through the intramedullary nail and the external fixator was removed. The mean amount of lengthening was 5.9 cm (2 to 8). The mean time of external fixation was 90 days (38 to 265). The mean external fixation index was 15.8 days/cm (8.9 to 33.1) and the mean bone healing index was 38 days/cm (30 to 60). One patient developed an equinus deformity which responded to stretching and bracing. Another developed a drop foot due to a compartment syndrome, which was treated by fasciotomy. It recovered in three months. Two patients required bone grafting for poor callus formation. We conclude that the combination of fixator-assisted nailing with lengthening over an intramedullary nail can reduce the overall external fixation time and prevent fractures and deformity of the regenerated bone.

  7. Elastic stable intramedullary nailing for severely displaced distal tibial fractures in children

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Kaiying; Cai, Haiqing; Wang, Zhigang; Xu, Yunlan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) has became a well-accepted method of osteosynthesis of diaphyseal fractures in the skeletally immature patient for many advantages, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the preliminary results of this minimally invasive treatment for severely displaced distal tibial diaphyseal metaphyseal junction (DTDMJ) fractures. This study was carried out over a 6-year period. Twenty-one severely displaced DTDMJ fractures treated using ESIN were evaluated clinically and radiographically. Complications were assessed: the patients were evaluated with regard to nonunion, malunion, infection, growth arrest, leg length discrepancy, implant irritation, and joint function. Mean age at the time of surgery was 7.8 years (range between 5.3 and 14.8 years), mean body weight 34.1 kg, all fractures were transverse or mild oblique type, including 3 open fractures, 5 multifragmented fractures, and 4 fractures associated with polytrauma; 6 cases were treated with antegrade ESIN of tibia while 15 cases need combined retrograde fibula and antegrade tibia fixation treatments. Follow-ups were ranging from 11 to 36 months, 19 fractures showed both clinical and radiographic evidence of healing within 5 months; all cases had full range motion of knee and ankle with symmetrical foot progress angle. Nail removal was at a mean 7.1 months, at final follow-up, no growth arrest or disturbances occurred. Five patients had complications; leg length discrepancy had decreased yet affected 2 patients, 2 cases showed delayed union, and 1 case developed restricted dorsal extension at the metatarsophalangeal joint of the hallux. ESIN is the treatment of choice for pediatric severely displaced DTDMJ fractures that cannot be reduced by closed reduction or ones that cannot be casted. The advantages include faster fracture healing, excellent functional and cosmetic results, safe and reliable surgical technique, and lower severe complication rate. PMID

  8. Percutaneous clamping of spiral and oblique fractures of the tibial shaft: a safe and effective reduction aid during intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Collinge, Cory A; Beltran, Michael J; Dollahite, Henry A; Huber, Florian G

    2015-06-01

    The reduction of tibial shaft fractures during intramedullary nailing is important if limb alignment is to be restored and successful clinical outcomes are expected. We have used a percutaneously applied (or open) clamp or clamps to achieve and maintain reduction during nailing of all amendable tibial shaft fractures. In this article, we describe the technique and preliminary results comparing closed, simple spiral and oblique tibial shaft fractures (OTA 42-A1 and A2) managed with percutaneous clamp-assisted nailing (CAN) versus nailing using manual reduction (MRN) held by the surgical team. In the MRN group, there were an increased fracture gap (P = 0.04) and trends toward malalignment (P = 0.07) and healing time (P = 0.06) compared with the CAN group. There were also trends in clinical; no wound complications occurred in either group. We have found that percutaneous CAN of closed, simple spiral and oblique tibial shaft fractures seems safe and allows for early predictable union with reproducible alignment compared with nailing using MRN.

  9. [Pyoderma gangrenosum after intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fracture: A differential diagnosis to necrotizing fasciitis].

    PubMed

    Hackl, S; Merkel, P; Hungerer, S; Friederichs, J; Müller, N; Militz, M; Bühren, V

    2015-12-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare non-infectious neutrophilic dermatitis, whereas necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening bacterial soft tissue infection of the fascia and adjacent skin. As in the case described here after intramedullary nailing, the clinical appearance of both diseases can be similar. Because of the completely different therapeutic approach and a worse outcome in the case of false diagnosis, pyoderma gangrenosum should always be taken into consideration before treating necrotizing fasciitis.

  10. Does the use of an intramedullary nail alter the duration of external fixation and rate of consolidation in tibial lengthening procedures? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Harwood, P

    2012-11-01

    We performed this systematic review to evaluate tibial lengthening procedures with the use of an intramedullary nail. We investigated the hypothesis that lengthening over a nail can reduce the time spent in an external fixator and increase the rate of consolidation thereby reducing the risk of complications and improving patient satisfaction. We conducted a comprehensive literature search using the MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed databases using the key words 'tibia' or 'tibial lengthening' and 'nail'. This search was performed in December 2011 and repeated by both authors. Specific outcome measures were the duration of external fixation, rate of consolidation and complication rates. A total of 6 comparative studies published between 2005 and 2011 consisting of 494 procedures met our inclusion and exclusion criteria and were eligible for critical appraisal. The methodological quality of the studies was variable, and they were not homogenous enough for meta-analysis. Patients who have tibial lengthening over an intramedullary nail spend significantly less time in an external fixator. However, there is no reliable evidence to suggest that the rates of consolidation or complication are any different to those lengthened without an intramedullary nail.

  11. Do biodegradable magnesium alloy intramedullary interlocking nails prematurely lose fixation stability in the treatment of tibial fracture? A numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haosen; Hao, Zhixiu; Wen, Shizhu

    2017-01-01

    Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective technique used to treat long bone fractures. Recently, biodegradable metals have drawn increased attention as an intramedullary interlocking nailing material. In this study, numerical simulations were implemented to determine whether the degradation rate of magnesium alloy makes it a suitable material for manufacturing biodegradable intramedullary interlocking nails. Mechano-regulatory and bone-remodeling models were used to simulate the fracture healing process, and a surface corrosion model was used to simulate intramedullary rod degradation. The results showed that magnesium alloy intramedullary rods exhibited a satisfactory degradation rate; the fracture healed and callus enhancement was observed before complete dissolution of the intramedullary rod. Delayed magnesium degradation (using surface coating techniques) did not confer a significant advantage over the non-delayed degradation process; immediate degradation also achieved satisfactory healing outcomes. However, delayed degradation had no negative effect on callus enhancement, as it did not cause signs of stress shielding. To avoid risks of individual differences such as delayed union, delayed degradation is recommended. Although the magnesium intramedullary rod did not demonstrate rapid degradation, its ability to provide high fixation stiffness to achieve earlier load bearing was inferior to that of the conventional titanium alloy and stainless steel rods. Therefore, light physiological loads should be ensured during the early stages of healing to achieve bony healing; otherwise, with increased loading and degraded intramedullary rods, the fracture may ultimately fail to heal.

  12. Tibial lengthening using a humeral intramedullary nail combined with a single-plane external fixator for leg discrepancy in sequelae of poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daoyun; Chen, Jianmin; Liu, Fanggang; Jiang, Yao

    2011-03-01

    The sequelae of poliomyelitis are the common causes of leg discrepancy. Tibial lengthening is an effective way to solve this problem but it is associated with a high rate of complications. In this study, we combined the use of humeral nail and external fixator in tibial lengthening with the purpose of reducing lengthening complications. Compared with the cases lengthened by a single-plane external fixator alone, this combined strategy was found to be beneficial in maintaining the tibial alignment. Therefore, it can be recommended as a good technique for tibial lengthening in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis.

  13. Bone Healing by Using Ilizarov External Fixation Combined with Flexible Intramedullary Nailing versus Ilizarov External Fixation Alone in the Repair of Tibial Shaft Fractures: Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Popkov, A. V.; Kononovich, N. A.; Gorbach, E. N.; Tverdokhlebov, S. I.; Irianov, Y. M.; Popkov, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Our research was aimed at studying the radiographic and histological outcomes of using flexible intramedullary nailing (FIN) combined with Ilizarov external fixation (IEF) versus Ilizarov external fixation alone on a canine model of an open tibial shaft fracture. Materials and Methods. Transverse diaphyseal tibial fractures were modelled in twenty dogs. Fractures in the dogs of group 1 (n = 10) were stabilized with the Ilizarov apparatus while it was combined with FIN in group 2 (n = 10). Results. On day 14, a bone tissue envelope started developing round the FIN wires. Histologically, we revealed only endosteal bone union in group 1 while in group 2 the radiographs revealed complete bone union on day 28. At the same time-point, the areas of cancellous and mature lamellar bone tissues were observed in the intermediary area in group 2. The periosteal layers were formed of the trabeculae net of lamellar structure and united the bone fragments. The frame was removed at 30 days after the fracture in group 2 and after 45 days in group 1 according to bone regeneration. Conclusion. The combination of the Ilizarov apparatus and FIN accelerates bone repair and augments stabilization of tibial shaft fractures as compared with the use of the Ilizarov fixation alone. PMID:25379523

  14. Paediatric calcified intramedullary schwannoma at conus: A common tumor in a vicarious location

    PubMed Central

    Jagannatha, Aniruddha Tekkatte; Joshi, Krishna Chaitanya; Rao, Shilpa; Srikantha, Umesh; Varma, Ravi Gopal; Mahadevan, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Spinal schwannomas are commonly intradural extramedullary in location. As Schwann cells are not common in the central nervous system, intramedullary schwannomas are a rare entity. In adults, an estimated sixty cases have been reported in English literature. They are rarer in children (less than ten cases), and preoperative diagnosis becomes a prerogative in achieving total excision. Cervical cord is a common location and less commonly they occur in the conus. We report a rare case of calcified conus intramedullary schwannoma in a child without neurofibromatosis, who presented with conus-cauda syndrome of 1-year duration. Literature has been reviewed regarding its origin, pathophysiology, radiological features, and surgical management. This child underwent laminotomy and subtotal resection of the lesion. Histopathologically, tumor had typical features of schwannoma and was positive for S-100 immunoperoxidase. We believe that schwannoma needs to be considered in the preoperative differential diagnosis of a conus tumor in children as complete excision is possible in these benign tumors, thus affecting a cure. PMID:28217154

  15. The percutaneous use of a pointed reduction clamp during intramedullary nailing of distal third tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jordanna M; Urruela, Adriana M; Egol, Kenneth A

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this retrospective chart and radiographic review is to describe an effective reduction technique during intramedullary nailing of distal metaphyseal tibia fractures with the use of a pointed percutaneous clamp. Between 2007 and 2010, 100 patients who sustained 102 tibia fractures were definitively treated with an intramedullary nail at one of two medical centers. Diaphyseal fractures and injuries with an associated disruption of the distal tibiofibular joint were excluded from our study. A total of 27 patients with 27 distal metaphyseal tibia fractures (OTA types 42-A, 43-A, and 43-B) were included. All 27 patients underwent IM nailing of their fractures with anatomic reduction achieved using a percutaneously placed pointed reduction clamp prior to insertion of the IM implant. Fracture alignment and angular deformity was assessed using goniometric measurement functions on the PACS system (GE, Waukeshau, WI) obtained from preoperative and postoperative anteroposterior and lateral images for all subjects. Malalignment was defined as more than 5 degrees of angulation in any plane. Fourteen of the fractures were classified as OTA 42-A, 9 were OTA 43-A, and 4 were OTA 43-B. Analysis of post-closed reduction, preoperative anteroposterior radiographs revealed a mean of 7.9 degrees of coronal plane (range: 0.9 degrees-26 degrees) angulation. Post closed reduction preoperative lateral radiographs revealed a mean of 6.8 degrees sagittal plane (range: 0 degrees-24.6 degrees) angulation. Postoperative anteroposterior and lateral radiographs showed the distal segment returned to its anatomical alignment with a mean angulation of 0.5 degrees (range, 0 degrees-3.5 degrees) and 0.7 degrees (range, 0 degrees-4.2 degrees) of varus/ valgus and apex anterior/posterior angulation, respectively. These results showed an acceptable postopertative alignment in all 27 distal third fractures. No intra-operative or postoperative complications were noted in the study group. This

  16. Locking intramedullary nailing with and without reaming for open fractures of the tibial shaft. A prospective, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Keating, J F; O'Brien, P J; Blachut, P A; Meek, R N; Broekhuyse, H M

    1997-03-01

    Ninety-one patients who had ninety-four open fractures of the tibial shaft were randomized into two treatment groups. Fifty fractures (nine type-I, eighteen type-II, sixteen type-IIIA, and seven type-IIIB fractures, according to the classification of Gustilo et al.) were treated with nailing after reaming, and forty-four fractures (five type-I, sixteen type-II, nineteen type-IIIA, and four type-IIIB fractures) were treated with nailing without reaming. The average diameter of the nail was 11.5 millimeters (range, nine to fourteen millimeters) in the group treated with reaming and 9.2 millimeters (range, eight to ten millimeters) in the group treated without reaming. Follow-up information was adequate for forty-five patients (forty-seven fractures) who had been managed with reaming and forty patients (forty-one fractures) who had been managed without reaming. No clinically important differences were found between the two groups with regard to the technical aspects of the procedure or the rate of early postoperative complications. The average time to union was thirty weeks (range, thirteen to seventy-two weeks) in the group treated with reaming and twenty-nine weeks (range, thirteen to fifty weeks) in the group treated without reaming. Four (9 per cent) of the fractures treated with reaming and five (12 per cent) of the fractures treated without reaming did not unite (p = 0.73). There were two infections in the group treated with reaming and one in the group treated without reaming. Significantly more screws broke in the group treated without reaming (twelve; 29 per cent) than in the group treated with reaming (four; 9 per cent) (p = 0.014). There was no difference between the two groups with regard to the frequency of broken nails (two nails that had been inserted after reaming broke, compared with one that had been inserted without reaming). The functional outcome, in terms of pain in the knee, range of motion, return to work, and recreational activity, did not

  17. Staged protocol for the treatment of chronic tibial shaft osteomyelitis with Ilizarov's technique followed by the application of intramedullary locked nail.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Cheng; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Chiu, Fang-Yao; Su, Yu-Pin; Liu, Chien-Lin; Chen, Tain-Hsiung

    2012-12-01

    Open tibial shaft fractures are the most common open fractures, and many complications can occur. During the treatment period, infection leading to osteomyelitis was the most common complication. However, no consensus exists regarding the ideal management for such cases in the literature.The purposes of this retrospective study were to review the treatment of patients with chronic tibial shaft osteomyelitis over the past 14 years who were referred to the authors' institution and to provide a staged protocol for spontaneous wound healing. The staged protocol included: (1) radical debridement for infected bone and soft tissue; (2) immediate application of Ilizarov's apparatus for all patients except those needing delayed application; (3) osteotomy in healthy bone; (4) simultaneous distraction-compression osteogenesis and histogenesis; (5) additional docking-site bone grafting; and (6) shifting the external fixator to a locked nail when callus formation was visible at the distraction site. Union was achieved in 15 of 16 patients, with an average external fixation time of 4.5 months (range, 3-6 months). No deformity or leg-length discrepancy greater than 1 cm occurred.In the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis, this staged protocol was safe and successful and allowed for union, realignment, reorientation, and leg-length restoration. Regarding the soft tissues, this technique provides a unique type of reconstructive closure for infected wounds. It is suggested that the staged protocol is reliable in providing successful simultaneous reconstruction for bone and soft tissue defects without flap coverage.

  18. Selective activation of the human tibial and common peroneal nerves with a flat interface nerve electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiefer, M. A.; Freeberg, M.; Pinault, G. J. C.; Anderson, J.; Hoyen, H.; Tyler, D. J.; Triolo, R. J.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Electrical stimulation has been shown effective in restoring basic lower extremity motor function in individuals with paralysis. We tested the hypothesis that a flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) placed around the human tibial or common peroneal nerve above the knee can selectively activate each of the most important muscles these nerves innervate for use in a neuroprosthesis to control ankle motion. Approach. During intraoperative trials involving three subjects, an eight-contact FINE was placed around the tibial and/or common peroneal nerve, proximal to the popliteal fossa. The FINE's ability to selectively recruit muscles innervated by these nerves was assessed. Data were used to estimate the potential to restore active plantarflexion or dorsiflexion while balancing inversion and eversion using a biomechanical simulation. Main results. With minimal spillover to non-targets, at least three of the four targets in the tibial nerve, including two of the three muscles constituting the triceps surae, were independently and selectively recruited in all subjects. As acceptable levels of spillover increased, recruitment of the target muscles increased. Selective activation of muscles innervated by the peroneal nerve was more challenging. Significance. Estimated joint moments suggest that plantarflexion sufficient for propulsion during stance phase of gait and dorsiflexion sufficient to prevent foot drop during swing can be achieved, accompanied by a small but tolerable inversion or eversion moment.

  19. Anti-infective efficacy of antiseptic-coated intramedullary nails.

    PubMed

    Darouiche, R O; Farmer, J; Chaput, C; Mansouri, M; Saleh, G; Landon, G C

    1998-09-01

    The coating of medical devices with antimicrobial agents has recently emerged as a potentially effective method for the prevention of device-related infections. We examined the anti-infective efficacy of intramedullary nails coated with an antiseptic combination of chlorhexidine and chloroxylenol in a rabbit model of device-related infection after fixation of an open tibial fracture. The rabbits were randomized to receive 2.8-by-100-millimeter stainless-steel tibial intramedullary nails that either were uncoated or were coated with antiseptic. After administration of anesthesia and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, a tibial fracture was created and then reduced with insertion of the intramedullary nail. A bacterial inoculum of 10(6) colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus was injected into the intramedullary canal, and the wound was sutured. Radiographs of the tibiae were made postoperatively, and the rabbits were monitored daily. They were killed at six weeks, or earlier if there was dehiscence of the wound, the fracture became grossly unstable, or the rabbit failed to thrive. The use of the antiseptic-coated nails was associated with a significantly lower rate of device-related osteomyelitis (two of twenty-two; 9 per cent) than the use of the uncoated nails (thirteen of twenty-one; 62 per cent) (p = 0.0003). The radiographic and histopathological findings were generally similar in the two groups of rabbits. Antiseptic agents were not detected in serum. The results suggest that antiseptic-coated fracture-fixation devices provide significant local protection against Staphylococcus aureus, which is the most common cause of infections related to orthopaedic devices.

  20. In Vivo MR Microneurography of the Tibial and Common Peroneal Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Felisaz, Paolo F.; Chang, Eric Y.; Montagna, Stefano; Baldi, Maurizia

    2014-01-01

    MR microneurography is a noninvasive technique that provides visualization of the microanatomy of peripheral nerves, otherwise available only with histopathology. The objective of this study was to present a protocol to visualize the microstructure of peripheral nerves in vivo, using a 3T MRI scanner with a clinical set of coils and sequences. The tibial and the common peroneal nerves of healthy volunteers were imaged above the medial malleolus and at the level of the fibular head, respectively. The acquired images provided details about the internal structure of peripheral nerves, with visualization of the fascicles, the interfascicular fat, the epineurium, and the perineurium. MR microneurography can be performed in a clinical setting with acceptable imaging times and can be a potentially powerful tool that complements standard MR neurography. PMID:25548670

  1. In Vivo MR Microneurography of the Tibial and Common Peroneal Nerves.

    PubMed

    Felisaz, Paolo F; Chang, Eric Y; Carne, Irene; Montagna, Stefano; Balducci, Francesco; Maugeri, Giulia; Pichiecchio, Anna; Calliada, Fabrizio; Baldi, Maurizia; Bastianello, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    MR microneurography is a noninvasive technique that provides visualization of the microanatomy of peripheral nerves, otherwise available only with histopathology. The objective of this study was to present a protocol to visualize the microstructure of peripheral nerves in vivo, using a 3T MRI scanner with a clinical set of coils and sequences. The tibial and the common peroneal nerves of healthy volunteers were imaged above the medial malleolus and at the level of the fibular head, respectively. The acquired images provided details about the internal structure of peripheral nerves, with visualization of the fascicles, the interfascicular fat, the epineurium, and the perineurium. MR microneurography can be performed in a clinical setting with acceptable imaging times and can be a potentially powerful tool that complements standard MR neurography.

  2. Study to prospectively evaluate reamed intramedually nails in patients with tibial fractures (S.P.R.I.N.T.): Study rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Surgeons agree on the benefits of operative treatment of tibial fractures – the most common of long bone fractures – with an intramedullary rod or nail. Rates of re-operation remain high – between 23% and 60% in prior trials – and the two alternative nailing approaches, reamed or non-reamed, each have a compelling biological rationale and strong proponents, resulting in ongoing controversy regarding which is better. Methods/Design The objective of this trial was to assess the impact of reamed versus non-reamed intramedullary nailing on rates of re-operation in patients with open and closed fractures of the tibial shaft. The study to prospectively evaluate reamed intramedullary nails in tibial fractures (S.P.R.I.N.T) was a multi-center, randomized trial including 29 clinical sites in Canada, the United States and the Netherlands which enrolled 1200 skeletally mature patients with open (Gustilo Types I-IIIB) or closed (Tscherne Types 0–3) fractures of the tibial shaft amenable to surgical treatment with an intramedullary nail. Patients received a statically locked intramedullary nail with either reamed or non-reamed insertion. The first strategy involved fixation of the fracture with an intramedullary nail following reaming to enlarge the intramedullary canal (Reamed Group). The second treatment strategy involved fixation of the fracture with an intramedullary nail without prior reaming of the intramedullary canal (Non-Reamed Group). Patients, outcome assessors, and data analysts were blinded to treatment allocation. Peri-operative care was standardized, and re-operations before 6 months were proscribed. Patients were followed at discharge, 2 weeks post-discharge, and at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post surgery. A committee, blinded to allocation, adjudicated all outcomes. Discussion The primary outcome was re-operation to promote healing, treat infection, or preserve the limb (fasciotomy for compartment syndrome after nailing). The primary

  3. The effect of stimulus rate upon common peroneal, posterior tibial, and sural nerve somatosensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Onishi, H; Yamada, T; Saito, T; Emori, T; Fuchigami, T; Hasegawa, A; Nagaoka, T; Ross, M

    1991-12-01

    We examined the effect of stimulus rate on somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) following stimulation of the common peroneal nerve (CPN) at the knee, and the posterior tibial nerve (PTN) and sural nerve (SN) at the ankle. We measured the amplitude of P40-N50 and N50-P60 in the PTN-SEP and corresponding amplitude of CPN-SEP and SN-SEP at the rate of 2.3, 3.4, 4.1, and 5.1 Hz. When the stimulation rate was increased from 2.3 to 5.1 Hz, the P40-N50 amplitude decreased by 50% for the CPN-SEP and 20% for the PTN-SEP. Also, the N50-P60 amplitude was reduced by 30% in the CPN-SEP and 20% in the PTN-SEP. In contrast, this change in stimulus rate produced no significant amplitude decline in the SN-SEP. Blocking the peroneal nerve with lidocaine just distal to the stimulating electrodes eliminated the descending peroneal nerve volley and abolished the amplitude attenuation observed with the faster stimulus rate. The findings suggest that at higher rates of stimulation, the afferent volleys induced by the movements that follow mixed nerve stimulation interfere with the SEP produced by electrical activation of the sensory afferents. The interference is greater when the more proximal site of the mixed nerve is stimulated.

  4. Combined common peroneal and tibial nerve injury after knee dislocation: one injury or two? An MRI-clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chandan G; Amrami, Kimberly K; Howe, Benjamin M; Spinner, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    OBJECT Knee dislocations are often accompanied by stretch injuries to the common peroneal nerve (CPN). A small subset of these injuries also affect the tibial nerve. The mechanism of this combined pattern could be a single longitudinal stretch injury of the CPN extending to the sciatic bifurcation (and tibial division) or separate injuries of both the CPN and tibial nerve, either at the level of the tibiofemoral joint or distally at the soleal sling and fibular neck. The authors reviewed cases involving patients with knee dislocations with CPN and tibial nerve injuries to determine the localization of the combined injury and correlation between degree of MRI appearance and clinical severity of nerve injury. METHODS Three groups of cases were reviewed. Group 1 consisted of knee dislocations with clinical evidence of nerve injury (n = 28, including 19 cases of complete CPN injury); Group 2 consisted of knee dislocations without clinical evidence of nerve injury (n = 19); and Group 3 consisted of cases of minor knee trauma but without knee dislocation (n = 14). All patients had an MRI study of the knee performed within 3 months of injury. MRI appearance of tibial and common peroneal nerve injury was scored by 2 independent radiologists in 3 zones (Zone I, sciatic bifurcation; Zone II, knee joint; and Zone III, soleal sling and fibular neck) on a severity scale of 1-4. Injury signal was scored as diffuse or focal for each nerve in each of the 3 zones. A clinical score was also calculated based on Medical Research Council scores for strength in the tibial and peroneal nerve distributions, combined with electrophysiological data, when available, and correlated with the MRI injury score. RESULTS Nearly all of the nerve segments visualized in Groups 1 and 2 demonstrated some degree of injury on MRI (95%), compared with 12% of nerve segments in Group 3. MRI nerve injury scores were significantly more severe in Group 1 relative to Group 2 (2.06 vs 1.24, p < 0.001) and Group

  5. Intramedullary metastasis.

    PubMed

    Moffie, D; Stefanko, S Z

    1980-01-01

    Three cases of intramedullary metastases and one of a metastasis into the medulla oblongata are described. In two cases the primary tumour was a bronchial carcinoma and in one case a carcinoma of the breast. In one patient a primary tumour could not be found. The literature on this condition is reviewed and the difficulties of clinical diagnosis are discussed. The question remains unanswered as to the mechanism by which these tumour-cells reach the spinal cord and there is, as yet, no satisfactory explanation for the relative rare occurrence of these metastases.

  6. A new technique for removing intramedullary cement.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jason A; Vosburg, Caleb; Murtha, Yvonne M; Della Rocca, Gregory J; Crist, Brett D

    2011-12-01

    Treatment of infected long bone fractures or nonunions requires stability for bony union, yet retained implants can lead to persistent infection. Antibiotic cement intramedullary nails, in addition to external fixation, are commonly used to deliver intramedullary antibiotics in infected long bone fractures and provide temporary stability. However, the retrieval of these nails can result in debonding of antibiotic cement, which can require significant time and effort to remove. A variety of methods, including intramedullary hooks, reverse curettes, flexible osteotomes, and stacked guide rods, are commonly used to remove cement fragments. When these methods fail to allow access to the entire length of the canal, the Reamer Irrigator Aspirator system (Synthes, Paoli, PA) serves as an effective method for removing retained intramedullary cement. The surgical technique is described, and three cases illustrate the successful use of the Reamer Irrigator Aspirator system for removal of an antibiotic cement intramedullary nail.

  7. The Anatomic Relationship of the Tibial Nerve to the Common Peroneal Nerve in the Popliteal Fossa: Implications for Selective Tibial Nerve Block in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Eric R.; Vydyanathan, Amaresh; Gritsenko, Karina; Shaparin, Naum; Singh, Nair; Downie, Sherry A.

    2017-01-01

    Background. A recently described selective tibial nerve block at the popliteal crease presents a viable alternative to sciatic nerve block for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. In this two-part investigation, we describe the effects of a tibial nerve block at the popliteal crease. Methods. In embalmed cadavers, after the ultrasound-guided dye injection the dissection revealed proximal spread of dye within the paraneural sheath. Consequentially, in the clinical study twenty patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty received the ultrasound-guided selective tibial nerve block at the popliteal crease, which also resulted in proximal spread of local anesthetic. A sensorimotor exam was performed to monitor the effect on the peroneal nerve. Results. In the cadaver study, dye was observed to spread proximal in the paraneural sheath to reach the sciatic nerve. In the clinical observational study, local anesthetic was observed to spread a mean of 4.7 + 1.9 (SD) cm proximal to popliteal crease. A negative correlation was found between the excess spread of local anesthetic and bifurcation distance. Conclusions. There is significant proximal spread of local anesthetic following tibial nerve block at the popliteal crease with possibility of the undesirable motor blocks of the peroneal nerve. PMID:28260964

  8. Intramedullary leg lengthening with a motorized nail

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose In the last decade, intramedullary limb lengthening has become a viable alternative to traditional external systems. We retrospectively analyzed the use of an intramedullary motorized nail (Fitbone) in a consecutive series of 32 patients. Patients and methods During the period September 2006 to December 2008, 32 consecutive patients with a median age of 17 (IQR: 15–19) years were treated with a fully implantable, motorized intramedullary lengthening device (Fitbone). The median leg length discrepancy was 35 (IQR: 30–44) mm at the femur (n = 21) and 28 (IQR: 25–30) mm at the tibia (n = 11). Results Leg lengthening was successful in 30 of 32 cases, with no residual relevant discrepancy (± 5 mm). No intraoperative complications were observed. The consolidation index was significantly different (p = 0.04) between femoral lengthening (mean 35 days/cm) and tibial lengthening (mean 48 days/cm) but did not depend on age older/younger than 16 or previous operations at the affected site. 3 problems, 3 obstacles, and 4 complications (3 minor, 1 major) were encountered in 8 patients, 5 of which were implant-associated. Interpretation This technique even allows correction in patients with multiplanar deformities. Compared to external devices, intramedullary systems provide comfort and reduce complication rates, give improved cosmetic results, and lead to fast rehabilitation since percutaneous, transmuscular fixation is prevented. This results in reasonable overall treatment costs despite the relatively high costs of implants. PMID:21561309

  9. Spinal Schwannoma with Intradural Intramedullary Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Mansoor, Salman; Assad, Salman; Qavi, Ahmed H; Saadat, Shoab

    2017-01-01

    Patients with spinal abnormalities infrequently present with intradural intramedullary bleeding. The more common causes include spinal trauma, arteriovenous malformations and saccular aneurysms of spinal arteries. On occasion, spinal cord tumors either primary or metastatic may cause intramedullary bleed with ependymoma of the conus medullaris. Spinal nerve sheath tumors such as schwannomas only rarely cause intradural intramedullary bleed, especially in the absence of spinal cord or nerve root symptoms. We report a case of spinal intradural schwannoma presenting with acute onset of quadriparesis. Cerebral angiography studies were negative but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine revealed a large hemorrhagic tumor in the thoracolumbar junction. However, we suggest that the patients with intradural intramedullary bleed should be evaluated for underlying spine disease.

  10. Management of open fractures of the tibial shaft in multiple trauma

    PubMed Central

    Stanisław, Bołtuć Witold; Bogusław, Golec Edward

    2008-01-01

    Background: The work presents the assessment of the results of treatment of open tibial shaft fractures in polytrauma patients. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 28 patients who underwent surgical treatment of open fractures of the tibial shaft with locked intramedullary nailing. The mean age of the patients was 43 years (range from 19 to 64 years). The criterion for including the patients in the study was concomitant multiple trauma. For the assessment of open tibial fractures, Gustilo classification was used. The most common concomitant multiple trauma included craniocerebral injuries, which were diagnosed in 12 patients. In 14 patients, the surgery was performed within 24 h after the injury. In 14 patients, the surgery was delayed and was performed 8–10 days after the trauma. Results: The assessment of the results at 12 months after the surgery included the following features: time span between the trauma and the surgery and complications in the form of osteomyelitis and delayed union. The efficacy of gait, muscular atrophy, edema of the operated limb and possible disturbances of its axis were also taken under consideration. In patients operated emergently within 24 h after the injury, infected nonunion was observed in three (10.8%) males. These patients had grade III open fractures of the tibial shaft according to Gustilo classification. No infectious complications were observed in patients who underwent a delayed operation. Conclusion: Evaluation of patients with open fractures of the tibial shaft in multiple trauma showed that delayed intramedullary nailing performed 8–10 days after the trauma, resulted in good outcome and avoided development of delayed union and infected nonunion. This approach gives time for stabilization of general condition of the patient and identification of pathogens from wound culture. PMID:19753226

  11. Interlocking Intramedullary Nails in Fracture Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xiao; Wang, Jing Rong; Hong, Shi Dong; Xin, Feng; Wang, Lin; Yang, Xiao Wei; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate interlocking intramedullary nails in the treatment of fractures. We retrospectively reviewed 68 adult patients (for a total of 95 fractures) with isolated long-bone fractures who were treated with interlocking intramedullary nails between January 2010 and January 2012. The patients were followed for 18 months to observe the healing of the fracture, time, and the occurrence of complications in the shoulder, knee, and hip joint functions. After about a follow-up period of 26.2 months (range 18-39 months), all cases obtained bony union. The mean time to fracture union was 5.2 months. Cases of knees and hip joint functions of the femoral or tibial fracture and shoulder functions of the humeral fractures were observed. The interlocking intramedullary nails may be considered as an alternative method for isolated diaphyseal fractures of the extremities. The advantages of this method include small operative scars, reliable fixations, better fracture healings, and fewer complications.

  12. Stemmed knee replacement in a patient with an irremovable tibial nail.

    PubMed

    Ward, William G; Cooper, Joshua M

    2013-01-01

    A patient with a cemented centrally located intramedullary tibial nail that occluded the proximal tibial canal underwent knee reconstruction with a total knee design utilizing a custom hollow tibial stem. In this oncology case, a rotating-hinge knee design was used that incorporates an intra-articular inverted post-in-channel central rotational post design. This design allowed for a rather straightforward reconstruction that functioned well for 3 years. Although rarely encountered, utilization of a hollow-stemmed tibial total knee component may allow salvage of an extremity with central occlusion of the proximal tibial canal.

  13. Ingenious method of external fixator use to maintain alignment for nailing a proximal tibial shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Behera, Prateek; Aggarwal, Sameer; Kumar, Vishal; Kumar Meena, Umesh; Saibaba, Balaji

    2015-09-01

    Fractures of the tibia are one of the most commonly seen orthopedic injuries. Most of them result from a high velocity trauma. While intramedullary nailing of tibial diaphyseal fractures is considered as the golden standard form of treatment for such cases, many metaphyseal and metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction fractures can also be managed by nailing. Maintenance of alignment of such fractures during surgical procedure is often challenging as the pull of patellar tendon tends to extend the proximal fragment as soon as one flexes the knee for the surgical procedure. Numerous technical modifications have been described in the literature for successfully nailing such fractures including semi extended nailing, use of medial plates and external fixators among others. In this study, it was aimed to report two cases in which we used our ingenious method of applying external fixator for maintaining alignment of the fracture and aiding in the entire process of closed intramedullary nailing of metaphyseal tibial fractures by the conventional method. We were able to get good alignment during and after the closed surgery as observed on post-operative radiographs and believe that further evaluation of this technique may be of help to surgeons who want to avoid other techniques.

  14. Tibial osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Lonner, J H; Lotke, P A

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the tibial plateau involves a continuum of change observed in the subchondral zone that is commonly associated with early and mid stages of osteoarthritis. The typical patient is an elderly woman who experiences a sudden onset of pain in the medial aspect of the knee. The diagnosis of this under-appreciated clinical entity may be difficult, but careful examination and judicious use of imaging studies, as well as a high index of suspicion, may facilitate the accurate diagnosis. Although the radiographs may initially be normal (with the exception of mild arthrosis), radionuclide scans and MRI can be of great value. The MRI studies usually show a decreased signal intensity on a T1-weighted image, but may be normal in the early course of the disease. The T2-weighted images and fat suppression views are helpful in establishing a diagnosis and determining the extent of involvement. Recognition of this problem may help to avoid unnecessary intra-articular surgery. Many of these patients have complete or partial resolution of symptoms by 1 year, after a period of protected weight bearing. Nonetheless, surgery may be necessary for more advanced lesions and in those patients with progressive arthrosis.

  15. [Rare anatomical variation of absence of the sciatic nerve: completely substituted by the tibial and common fibular nerve].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Paulo; Melo, Catarina; Bernardes, António

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Existem várias publicações referindo variantes anatómicas do nervo ciático, algumas associadas a síndromes clínicos (como sendo a síndrome do músculo piriforme). Neste contexto, pretendemos apresentar uma variante anatómica rara do nervo ciático.Casos clínicos: Dois cadáveres leucodérmicos, masculinos, com 74 e 78 anos, falecidos de morte natural, sem patologia do membro inferior. Em ambos os casos, observou-se ausência do nervo ciático direito, tendo os nervos tibial e fibular comum origem e trajecto independentes, desde a sua origem nas raízes lombo-sagradas até à região poplítea. O nervo ciático contralateral apresentava a anatomia habitual.Discussão: Analisando a literatura, na Medline, realçamos que apresentamos dois casos raros de ausência do nervo ciático, com origem e trajecto independentes dos nervos tibial e fibular comum. Esta variante poderá ter implicações clínicas, nomeadamente ser um factor de risco para o insucesso de bloqueios anestésicos poplíteos e para a síndrome do músculo piriforme.

  16. Operative Cost Comparison: Plating Versus Intramedullary Fixation for Clavicle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Hanselman, Andrew E; Murphy, Timothy R; Bal, George K; McDonough, E Barry

    2016-09-01

    Although clavicle fractures often heal well with nonoperative management, current literature has shown improved outcomes with operative intervention for specific fracture patterns in specific patient types. The 2 most common methods of midshaft clavicle fracture fixation are intramedullary and plate devices. Through retrospective analysis, this study performed a direct cost comparison of these 2 types of fixation at a single institution over a 5-year period. Outcome measures included operative costs for initial surgery and any hardware removal surgeries. This study reviewed 154 patients (157 fractures), and of these, 99 had intramedullary fixation and 58 had plate fixation. A total of 80% (79 of 99) of intramedullary devices and 3% (2 of 58) of plates were removed. Average cost for initial intramedullary placement was $2955 (US dollars) less than that for initial plate placement (P<.001); average cost for removal was $1874 less than that for plate removal surgery (P=.2). Average total cost for all intramedullary surgeries was $1392 less than the average cost for all plating surgeries (P<.001). Average cost for all intramedullary surgeries requiring plate placement and removal was $653 less than the average cost for all plating surgeries that involved only placement (P=.04). Intramedullary fixation of clavicle fractures resulted in a statistically significant cost reduction compared with plate fixation, despite the incidence of more frequent removal surgeries. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e877-e882.].

  17. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2015-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures. PMID:27026999

  18. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2011-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures.

  19. Tibial fractures in children

    PubMed Central

    Palmu, Sauli A; Auro, Sampo; Lohman, Martina; Paukku, Reijo T; Peltonen, Jari I; Nietosvaara, Yrjänä

    2014-01-01

    Background Tibial fracture is the third most common long-bone fracture in children. Traditionally, most tibial fractures in children have been treated non-operatively, but there are no long-term results. Methods 94 children (64 boys) were treated for a tibial fracture in Aurora City Hospital during the period 1980–89 but 20 could not be included in the study. 58 of the remaining 74 patients returned a written questionnaire and 45 attended a follow-up examination at mean 27 (23–32) years after the fracture. Results 89 children had been treated by manipulation under anesthesia and cast-immobilization, 4 by skeletal traction, and 1 with pin fixation. 41 fractures had been re-manipulated. The mean length of hospital stay was 5 (1–26) days. Primary complications were recorded in 5 children. The childrens’ memories of treatment were positive in two-thirds of cases. The mean subjective VAS score (range 0–10) for function appearance was 9. Leg-length discrepancy (5–10 mm) was found clinically in 10 of 45 subjects and rotational deformities exceeding 20° in 4. None of the subjects walked with a limp. None had axial malalignment exceeding 10°. Osteoarthritis of the hip and/or knee was seen in radiographs from 2 subjects. Interpretation The long-term outcome of tibial fractures in children treated non-operatively is generally good. PMID:24786903

  20. [Fractures of the tibial shaft].

    PubMed

    Märdian, S; Schwabe, P; Schaser, K-D

    2015-02-01

    The tibia shaft is the most often fractured long bone of human beings. Among others traffic accidents (37.5 %), falls (17.8 %), sport accidents (30.9 %) and assaults (4.5 %) are typical mechanisms. A brief clinical examination including the correct classification of the fracture pattern and even more important the degree of the soft tissue damage are the most crucial factors for the following therapeutic cascade. This follows a defined algorithm based on the degree of soft tissue damage. As biplanar X-ray diagnostics are obligatory, CT scans are subject to complex fracture patterns and accompanying intraarticular pathologies.The treatment of tibial shaft fractures is the preserve of operative stabilization, which should be done primarily depending on the degree of the soft tissue injury. Here intramedullary methods - especially intramedullary nailing - are the golden standard.The most serious complication of these fractures is the development of a compartment syndrome. This requires rapid diagnosis and an adequate surgical management in order to avoid extensive muscle necrosis with ischaemic contractures and irreversible neurovascular deficits. Apart from postoperative infections, which are the predominant complication especially in open injuries, non union provide typical and late complications which are partly difficult to treat. These should, depending on their type, follow a dedicated treatment algorithm.

  1. Cervical intramedullary schwannoma: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Nicácio, Jardel Mendonça; Rodrigues, José Carlos; Galles, Marcos Henrique Lima; Faquini, Igor Vilela; de Brito Pereira, Clemente Augusto; Ganau, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Intramedullary schwannomas unrelated with neurofibromatosis are uncommon tumors, but if correctly diagnosed and properly treated they may have a good prognosis. They have a wide range of clinical presentations, commonly presenting as a slowly progressive motor or sensory syndrome. We present a case report of a patient without neurofibromatosis with a surgically treated cervical intramedullary schwannoma. PMID:21139923

  2. Adamantinoma of the tibia treated with a new intramedullary diaphyseal segmental defect implant.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, A F; Sakellariou, V I; Tsibidakis, H; Papagelopoulos, P J

    2009-01-01

    In this case report, a 75-year old male presented with a mass on the anterior surface of the mid-shaft of the right tibia. Imaging studies showed a well-circumscribed radiolucent lesion in the anterior tibial cortex, without soft tissue extension. Plain radiographs and computed tomography scan of the chest were negative. Histological diagnosis was consistent with adamantinoma, a rare primary bone tumour. Wide tumour resection of approximately 16 cm of the tibial diaphysis with a surrounding cuff of normal tissue was performed. The bone defect was reconstructed using an intramedullary diaphyseal segmental defect fixation system. At 26 months post-operatively the patient is alive with no evidence of local recurrence, distant metastases or implant failure. The intramedullary diaphyseal segmental defect fixation system is associated with excellent oncological and functional outcomes. Intra-operative modularity, ease of application, immediate post-operative stability and rapid rehabilitation are the major advantages of this diaphyseal prosthesis.

  3. A Surgical Opinion in a 36-Week Pregnant with Tibia Fracture: Intramedullary Nailing

    PubMed Central

    Sarikaya, Baran

    2016-01-01

    The operative treatment of tibial fractures in late pregnancy is a controversial issue that is rarely discussed in the literature. Here we present a case of a tibial diaphyseal fracture in a woman that was 36 weeks pregnant, which was treated with intramedullary nails under noninvasive foetal monitoring with cardiotocography. The patient underwent a successful surgery, and no harm or adverse events to either the mother or the foetus were reported during or after the procedure. Following surgery, the mother had a comfortable pregnancy and a normal spontaneous vaginal delivery with a healthy newborn. PMID:28070433

  4. Fixator-assisted tibial lengthening over a plate in a patient with sequelae of poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Haci Bayram; Serbest, Sancar; Uludag, Abuzer; Gumustas, Seyitali; Celik, Suat

    2016-11-01

    There are many techniques for limb lengthening. Lengthening over a plate is an alternative choice of fixation in children or when nailing is difficult. We present a new technique for tibial lengthening with using a monolateral external fixator over a lengthening plate.Lengthening over an intramedullary nail is a commonly used method in patients with short stature or limb-length discrepancy. However, in patients with a narrow and excessively sclerotic intramedullary cavity in the pediatric age group where the skeletal system has not yet fully developed, difficulties have been observed in lengthening methods with nailing.Therefore, in these cases, the use of lengthening techniques over a plate is an alternative treatment option. Nevertheless, in lengthening techniques over a plate, if one side of the osteotomy area cannot be fixed, associated mechanical axis problems have been reported.We applied tibia lengthening with external fixator assistance over a custom-made lengthening plate in a patient with sequelae of poliomyelitis. This new lengthening technique applied over a plate could be the solution to the problems observed in other lengthening techniques over a plate.

  5. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  6. [Results of treatment of tibial fractures in children].

    PubMed

    Antabak, Anko; Luetić, Tomislav; Cavar, Stanko; Davila, Slavko; Bogović, Marko; Batinica, Stipe

    2012-01-01

    Diaphyseal fractures of both lower leg bones are the most common fractures of lower extremities, and account for about 15% of all fractures of long bones in children. These fractures are usully unstabilae, difficult to reposition, and retention of the fragments, and the process of their treatment is not fully compliant. The paper analyzes the late results of treating 234 children with tibial fractures, depending on the method of treatment (surgical and conservative method). Twenty-three children had open fractures (9.8%). Nonsurgical method was used in the treatment of 194 children, and surgical in 40 children. The most frequent surgical method was closed reposition of the fragments, and percutaneous elastic stable intramedullary nailing with titanium wires. The success of the treatment was measured: residual angular deformities and difference in length between treated and healthy leg. Secondary displacement of fragments after primary conservative treatment was found in 32 children. Angular deformities of the treated tibia was seen in 80 children, 68 (35.0%) treated conservatively and 12 (30.0%) surgically. In 131 (67.5%) conservatively treated and 29 (72.5%) surgically treated children there were no differences in the length of sick and healthy leg. Results of treatment in our children confirmed that there were no statistically significant differences in late effects depending on treatment methods.

  7. The radiographic union scale in tibial (RUST) fractures

    PubMed Central

    Clement, N. D.; Tawonsawatruk, T.; Simpson, C. J.; Simpson, A. H. R. W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The radiographic union score for tibial (RUST) fractures was developed by Whelan et al to assess the healing of tibial fractures following intramedullary nailing. In the current study, the repeatability and reliability of the RUST score was evaluated in an independent centre (a) using the original description, (b) after further interpretation of the description of the score, and (c) with the immediate post-operative radiograph available for comparison. Methods A total of 15 radiographs of tibial shaft fractures treated by intramedullary nailing (IM) were scored by three observers using the RUST system. Following discussion on how the criteria of the RUST system should be implemented, 45 sets (i.e. AP and lateral) of radiographs of IM nailed tibial fractures were scored by five observers. Finally, these 45 sets of radiographs were rescored with the baseline post-operative radiograph available for comparison. Results The initial intraclass correlation (ICC) on the first 15 sets of radiographs was 0.67 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.71). However, the original description was being interpreted in different ways. After agreeing on the interpretation, the ICC on the second cohort improved to 0.75. The ICC improved even further to 0.79, when the baseline post-operative radiographs were available for comparison. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the RUST scoring system is a reliable and repeatable outcome measure for assessing tibial fracture healing. Further improvement in the reliability of the scoring system can be obtained if the radiographs are compared with the baseline post-operative radiographs. Cite this article: Mr J.M. Leow. The radiographic union scale in tibial (RUST) fractures: Reliability of the outcome measure at an independent centre. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:116–121. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.54.2000628. PMID:27073210

  8. Intramedullary spinal metastasis of a carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jay I; Yanamadala, Vijay; Shin, John H

    2015-12-01

    We report an intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from a bronchial carcinoid, and discuss its mechanisms and management. Intramedullary spinal cord metastases from any cancer are rare, and bronchial carcinoids account for only a small fraction of lung cancers. To our knowledge, an intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from a bronchial carcinoid has been described only once previously.

  9. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Proximal Tibial Bone Graft Page Content What is a bone graft? Bone grafts may be needed for various ... the proximal tibia. What is a proximal tibial bone graft? Proximal tibial bone graft (PTBG) is a ...

  10. [Tibial periostitis ("medial tibial stress syndrome")].

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-06-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is characterised by complaints along the posteromedial tibia. Runners and athletes involved in jumping activities may develop this syndrome. Increased stress to stabilize the foot especially when excessive pronation is present explain the occurrence this lesion.

  11. Bone Graft Harvest Using a New Intramedullary System

    PubMed Central

    Belthur, Mohan V.; Jindal, Gaurav; Ranade, Ashish; Herzenberg, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Obtaining autogenous bone graft from the iliac crest can entail substantial morbidity. Alternatively, bone graft can be harvested from long bones using an intramedullary (IM) harvesting system. We measured bone graft volume obtained from the IM canals of the femur and tibia and documented the complications of the harvesting technique. Donor site pain and the union rate were compared between the IM and the traditional iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) harvest. Forty-one patients (23 male, 18 female) with an average age of 44.9 years (range, 15–78 years) had graft harvested from long bones using an IM harvest system (femoral donor site, 37 patients; tibial donor site, four patients). Forty patients (23 male, 17 female; average age, 46.4 years; range, 15–77 years) underwent anterior ICBG harvest. We administered patient surveys to both groups to determine pain intensity and frequency. IM group reported lower pain scores than the ICBG group during all postoperative periods. Mean graft volume for the IM harvest group was 40.3 mL (range, 25–75 mL) (graft volume was not obtained for the ICBG group). Using an intramedullary system to harvest autogenous bone graft from the long bones is safe provided a meticulous technique is used. Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18841433

  12. Radiation exposure to the surgeon during closed interlocking intramedullary nailing

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, P.E.; Schoen, R.W. Jr.; Browner, B.D.

    1987-06-01

    During interlocking intramedullary nailing of twenty-five femoral and five tibial fractures, the primary surgeon wore both a universal film badge on the collar of the lead apron and a thermoluminescent dosimeter ring on the dominant hand to quantify the radiation that he or she received. When distal interlocking was performed, the first ring was removed and a second ring was used so that a separate recording could be made for this portion of the procedure. At the conclusion of the study, all of the recorded doses of radiation were averaged. The average amount of radiation to the head and neck during the entire procedure was 7.0 millirems of deep exposure and 8.0 millirems of shallow exposure. The average dose of radiation to the dominant hand during insertion of the intramedullary nail and the proximal interlocking screw was 13.0 millirems, while the average amount during insertion of the distal interlocking nail was 12.0 millirems. Both of these averages are well within the government guidelines for allowable exposure to radiation during one-quarter (three months) of a year. Precautions that are to be observed during this procedure are recommended.

  13. Intramedullary pressure of the patella in Chondromalacia.

    PubMed

    Björkström, S; Goldie, I F; Wetterqvist, H

    1980-01-01

    Degenerative changes in load-bearing joints are often combined with altered intramedullary circulation. This may cause an alteration in intramedullary pressures. It has been said that articular symptoms are connected with a change in intramedullary pressures being high they are suspected to cause pain. In this investigation the intramedullary pressure has been evaluated in chondromalacia and osteoarthrosis of the patella. A comparison has been made with normal patellae. A biopsy needle was drilled into the intramedullary bone of the patella and connected with a registering unit. In a control group an average value of 19 mm Hg was registered. In the condromalacia group the mean intramedullary pressure was 44 mm Hg and in osteoarthrosis 37 mm Hg.

  14. Intra-medullary Tuberculomas: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Ghorpade, Raviraj; Naik, Ravishankar; Malur, Prakash R

    2017-01-01

    Intramedullary spinal tuberculoma is an extremely rare disease when compared to pulmonary, extrapulmonary and skeletal tuberculosis in developing countries. In the absence of systemic tuberculosis, clinical presentation is non distinctive from other intramedullary lesions. We report two cases of intramedullary tuberculoma both presenting with signs and symptoms of space occupying lesions. Surgical excision was done in both cases following which patients improved neurologically. Histopathological evaluation is essential to provide curative treatment.

  15. Current Evidence: Plate Versus Intramedullary Nail for Fixation of Distal Tibia Fractures in 2016.

    PubMed

    Vallier, Heather A

    2016-11-01

    Displaced distal tibia shaft fractures are effectively treated with standard plates and intramedullary nails. Plate fixation performed with meticulous soft tissue handling results in minimal risks of infection and poor wound healing. Standard plates have high rates of primary union, whereas locking plates may delay union because of increased stiffness. Tibial healing may also be delayed after plating of the fibula, although fibula reduction and fixation may aid accuracy of reduction of the tibia. Malalignment occurs more often with infrapatellar intramedullary nailing versus plates, and early results of suprapatellar nailing appear promising in minimizing intraoperative malalignment. Long-term function after fixation of the distal tibia is good for most, with poor outcomes often associated with baseline social and mental health issues.

  16. [Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from gastric adenocarcinoma: Case report and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Suárez, Javier; Barrio-Fernández, Patricia; Ibáñez-Plágaro, Francisco Javier; Ribas-Ariño, Teresa; Calvo-Calleja, Pablo; Mostaza-Saavedra, Antonio Luis

    2016-01-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord metastases are very rare and usually associated with lung or breast cancer, with gastric origin being exceptional. Their clinical onset tends to be faster than that of primary intramedullary tumours. The most common early symptoms of intramedullary spinal cord metastasis are motor deficit in one or more limbs, pain, sensory loss, and sphincter disturbances. The appearance of a rapidly progressive Brown-Séquard syndrome in an oncology patient should orientate the diagnosis of this condition. The prognosis is very poor, with a median survival of 4 months. However, recent research has shown that surgery could offer a slight benefit in survival and functionality. The case is reported of a 61-year-old man with an intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from a gastric carcinoma, as well as a literature review of this topic. It has been found that this case is the fourth one reported in the literature.

  17. Refractures of the paediatric forearm with the intramedullary nail in situ

    PubMed Central

    van Egmond, Pim W; van der Sluijs, Hans A; van Royen, Barend J; Saouti, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    Forearm fractures in children are common. When conservative treatment fails, internal fixation with Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing (ESIN) become the first choice in the operative treatment of diaphyseal forearm shaft fractures. Refractures with the intramedullary nail in situ are known to occur but formal guidelines to guide management in such fractures are lacking. We present a well-documented case of a radius midshaft refracture in a 12-year-old boy with the intramedullary nail in situ, managed by closed reduction. Literature is reviewed for this type of complication, the treatment of 30 similar cases is discussed and a treatment strategy is defined. The refracture of the paediatric forearm fracture with the intramedullary nail in situ is a rare, but probably under recognised complication which is observed in approximately 2.3% of the study population. Closed reduction may be considered in these cases. PMID:24068378

  18. Optimization of intramedullary nailing by numerical simulation of fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Tim; Claes, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita; Simon, Ulrich

    2012-04-01

    Due to the annular gap between intramedullary (IM) nails and the endosteal surface, high interfragmentary movement can occur under loading. This could prolong the healing time, particularly for thin IM nails that are often used for unreamed IM nailing. The aims of our study were to determine the influence of the nail diameter on the healing time of human tibial shaft fractures and to investigate whether the healing time could be shortened by increasing the stiffness of the implant material. Therefore, a corroborated numerical model for simulating the fracture healing process in humans was used to simulate the healing process of human tibial fractures treated with IM nails. The calculated healing time (up to 71 weeks) was longest for transverse fractures treated with thin IM nails made of titanium. That the healing time was disproportionately long depended on the nail diameter, and could be greatly reduced by using a thicker nail or using steel instead of titanium. To avoid a prolonged healing time, the nail should be thick, and the annular gap should be as narrow as possible. Alternatively, using steel instead of titanium may also help to avoid a prolonged healing time.

  19. Topography of human ankle joint: focused on posterior tibial artery and tibial nerve

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deog-Im; Kim, Yi-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Most of foot pain occurs by the entrapment of the tibial nerve and its branches. Some studies have reported the location of the tibial nerve; however, textbooks and researches have not described the posterior tibial artery and the relationship between the tibal nerve and the posterior tibial artery in detail. The purpose of this study was to analyze the location of neurovascular structures and bifurcations of the nerve and artery in the ankle region based on the anatomical landmarks. Ninety feet of embalmed human cadavers were examined. All measurements were evaluated based on a reference line. Neurovascular structures were classified based on the relationship between the tibial nerve and the posterior tibial artery. The bifurcation of arteries and nerves were expressed by X- and Y-coordinates. Based on the reference line, 9 measurements were examined. The most common type I (55.6%), was the posterior tibial artery located medial to the tibial nerve. Neurovascular structures were located less than 50% of the distance between M and C from M at the reference line. The bifurcation of the posterior tibial artery was 41% in X-coordinate, -38% in Y-coordinate, and that of the tibial nerve was 48%, and -10%, respectively. Thirteen measurements and classification showed statistically significant differences between both sexes (P<0.05). It is determined the average position of neurovascular structures in the human ankle region and recorded the differences between the sexes and amongst the populations. These results would be helpful for the diagnosis and treatment of foot pain. PMID:26140224

  20. Retrograde tibial nail: anatomical implantation and surgical feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, S; Appelmann, P; Pairon, P; Gruszka, D; Rommens, P M

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The treatment of distal tibial fractures requires a stable fixation while minimizing the secondary trauma to the soft tissues by the surgical approach and implant. The experimental Retrograde Tibial Nail is currently investigated as a minimally invasive alternative to plating and antegrade nailing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical feasibility in a cadaver model for all distal tibial fracture types generally considered treatable by nailing. MATERIAL AND METHODS Five different fracture types (AO/OTA 43-A1/A2/A3 and 43-C1/C2) were created on separate cadaveric limbs. In simple fractures (AO/OTA 43-A1/A2/A3) primary nailing was performed. In intraarticular fractures (AO/OTA 43-C1/2) reduction of the articular block and lag screw fixation was performed before nailing. Intraoperative complications, quality of reduction, fluoroscopy duration and operative time were evaluated. RESULTS Retrograde intramedullary nailing is feasible in simple fracture types by closed manual reduction and percutaneous reduction forceps. Retrograde nailing is possible in fractures with simple intraarticular involvement after primary lag screw fixation. The duration of surgery averaged 51.8 minutes (range 40-62 min). No major complications occurred during nailing. CONCLUSIONS The minimally invasive retrograde nail combines a minimally invasive local osteosynthesis with the ability to adequately fix extraarticular and simple intraarticular distal tibial fractures. The results suggests that retrograde tibia nailing is a promising new concept for the treatment of distal tibia fractures. Key words: minimally invasive surgery, tibia, metaphyseal fractures, intramedullary nailing, retrograde nailing.

  1. Diagnosing segmental wedge fracture of the tibia before performing intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Christina; Abrams, Jeffrey S; Gutowski, W T

    2013-08-01

    Tibial shaft fractures with a wedge butterfly segment are often repaired with intramedullary fixation. At the time of presentation, the fragment may appear benign on radiographs as a portion of the cortical bone in an acceptable position. However, a segment that includes the entire circumference of the tibial cortex can be a problem during surgical stabilization. This ring effect will demand cannulation of the butterfly segment with the guide wire before rod insertion. Since computed tomography is not always necessary for minimally displaced fractures, this issue may not be discovered until surgery. Lack of cannulation may lead to painful nonunion. Preoperative recognition of this fracture pattern and intraoperative butterfly cannulation will improve the postoperative stability of this fracture.

  2. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options.

  3. Reamed versus unreamed intramedullary nailing for the treatment of femoral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Li, A-Bing; Zhang, Wei-Jiang; Guo, Wei-Jun; Wang, Xin-Hua; Jin, Hai-Ming; Zhao, You-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective: Intramedullary nailing is commonly used for treating femoral shaft fractures, one of the most common long bone fractures in adults. The reamed intramedullary nail is considered the standard implant for femoral fractures. This meta-analysis was performed to verify the superiority of reamed intramedullary nailing over unreamed intramedullary nailing in fractures of the femoral shaft in adults. Subgroup analysis of implant failure and secondary procedure was also performed. Methods: Electronic literature databases were used to identify relevant publications and included MEDLINE (Ovid interface), EMBASE (Ovid interface), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Wiley Online Library). The versions available on January 30, 2016, were utilized. Only human studies, which were designed as randomized controlled clinical trials, were included. Two authors independently evaluated the quality of original research publications and extracted data from the studies that met the criteria. Results: Around 8 randomized controlled trials involving 1078 patients were included. Reamed intramedullary nailing was associated with shorter time to consolidation of the fracture (SMD = –0.62, 95% CI = –0.89 to –0.35, P < 0.00001), lower secondary procedure rate (OR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.10–0.62, P = 0.003), lower nonunion rate (OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.05–0.40, P < 0.01), and lower delayed-union rate (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.07–0.49, P < 0.01) compared to unreamed intramedullary nailing. The 2 groups showed no significant differences in risk of implant failure (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.14–1.74, P = 0.27), mortality risk (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.19–4.68, P = 0.94), risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; OR = 1.55, 95% CI 0.36–6.57, P = 0.55), or blood loss (SMD = 0.57, 95% CI = –0.22 to 1.36, P = 0.15). Conclusion: Reamed intramedullary nailing

  4. Tibial nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tibial nerve dysfunction is an unusual form of peripheral neuropathy . It occurs when there is damage to the ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 76. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  5. An Achilles tendinosis masking an intramedullary astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Stappers, Jeroen; Herregods, Piet; Chappel, Rudi; Surgeloose, Didier De; Stassijns, Gaëtane

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 53-year-old male with a right Achilles tendinosis, who complains about a mild gait disorder starting after walking several kilometers. In the following months he develops neurological symptoms. MRI lumbar spine shows an intramedullary tumor at level Th12. A biopsy confirms the diagnosis of an intramedullary astrocytoma. Primary intramedullary tumors are relatively rare. Clinical presentation is often insidious. The authors want to make a point to reconsider a diagnosis in case it does not explain completely the anamnestic or clinical findings. According to the literature there is no optimal approach to the management of these tumors.

  6. A novel intramedullary callus distraction system for the treatment of femoral bone defects.

    PubMed

    Horas, Konstantin; Schnettler, Reinhard; Maier, Gerrit; Horas, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    An intramedullary device has some advantages over external fixation in callus distraction for bone defect reconstruction. There are difficulties controlling motorized intramedullary devices and monitoring the distraction rate which may lead to poor results. The aim of this study was to design a fully implantable and non-motorized simple distraction nail for the treatment of bone defects. The fully implantable device comprises a tube-in-tube system and a wire pulling mechanism for callus distraction. For the treatment of femoral bone defects, a traction wire, attached to the device at one end, is fixed to the tibial tubercle at its other end. Flexion of the knee joint over a predetermined angle generates a traction force on the wire triggering bone segment transport. This callus distraction system was implanted into the femur of four human cadavers (total 8 femora), and bone segment transport was conducted over 60-mm defects with radiographic monitoring. All bone segments were transported reliably to the docking site. From these preliminary results, we conclude that this callus distraction system offers an alternative to the current intramedullary systems for the treatment of bone defects.

  7. Evaluation of an intramedullary bone stabilization system using a light-curable monomer in sheep.

    PubMed

    Zani, Brett G; Baird, Rose; Stanley, James R L; Markham, Peter M; Wilke, Markus; Zeiter, Stephan; Beck, Aswin; Nehrbass, Dirk; Kopia, Gregory A; Edelman, Elazer R; Rabiner, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Percutaneous intramedullary fixation may provide an ideal method for stabilization of bone fractures, while avoiding the need for large tissue dissections. Tibiae in 18 sheep were treated with an intramedullary photodynamic bone stabilization system (PBSS) that comprised a polyethylene terephthalate (Dacron) balloon filled with a monomer, cured with visible light in situ, and then harvested at 30, 90, or 180 days. In additional 40 sheep, a midshaft tibial osteotomy was performed and stabilized with external fixators or external fixators combined with the PBSS and evaluated at 8, 12, and 26 weeks. Healing and biocompatibility were evaluated by radiographic analysis, micro-computed tomography, and histopathology. In nonfractured sheep tibiae, PBSS implants conformably filled the medullary canal, while active cortical bone remodeling and apposition of new periosteal and/or endosteal bone was observed with no significant macroscopic or microscopic observations. Fractured sheep tibiae exhibited increased bone formation inside the osteotomy gap, with no significant difference when fixation was augmented by PBSS implants. Periosteal callus size gradually decreased over time and was similar in both treatment groups. No inhibition of endosteal bone remodeling or vascularization was observed with PBSS implants. Intramedullary application of a light-curable PBSS is a biocompatible, feasible method for fracture fixation.

  8. Intramedullary rodding in osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Mulpuri, K; Joseph, B

    2000-01-01

    The results of intramedullary rodding of long bones of 16 children with osteogenesis imperfecta, over a 10-year period, were analyzed. Sheffield elongating rods or non-elongating rods were used. The frequency of fractures was dramatically reduced after implantation of either type of rod, and the ambulatory status improved in all instances. The results were significantly better after Sheffield rodding with regard to the frequency of complications requiring reoperations and the longevity of the rods. Migration of the rods, encountered frequently, appears to be related to improper placement of the rods in the bone. It seems likely that if care is taken to ensure precise placement of a rod of appropriate size, several of these complications may be avoided.

  9. Prognostic Factors for Predicting Outcomes After Intramedullary Nailing of the Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Sanders, David W.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen D.; Zdero, Rad; Goslings, J.C.; Teague, David; Jeray, Kyle; McKee, Michael D.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Sanders, David W.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen D.; Zdero, Rad; Goslings, J.C.; Teague, David; Jeray, Kyle; McKee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prediction of negative postoperative outcomes after long-bone fracture treatment may help to optimize patient care. We recently completed the Study to Prospectively Evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in Patients with Tibial Fractures (SPRINT), a large, multicenter trial of reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures in 1226 patients. Using the SPRINT data, we conducted an investigation of baseline and surgical factors to determine any associations with an increased risk of adverse events within one year of intramedullary nailing. Methods: Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we investigated fifteen baseline and surgical factors for any associations with an increased risk of negative outcomes. Results: There was an increased risk of negative events in patients with a high-energy mechanism of injury (odds ratio [OR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 2.35), a stainless steel compared with a titanium nail (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.13), a fracture gap (OR = 2.40; 95% CI, 1.47 to 3.94), and full weight-bearing status after surgery (OR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.64). There was no increased risk with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, late or early time to surgery, or smoking status. Open fractures had a higher risk of events among patients treated with reamed nailing (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 2.01 to 5.28) but not in patients treated with unreamed nailing (OR = 1.50; 95% CI, 0.92 to 2.47). Patients with open fractures who had wound management either without any additional procedures or with delayed primary closure had a decreased risk of events compared with patients who required subsequent, more complex reconstruction (OR = 0.18 [95% CI, 0.09 to 0.35] and 0.29 [95% CI, 0.14 to 0.62], respectively). Conclusions: We identified several baseline fracture and surgical characteristics that may increase the risk of adverse events in patients with tibial shaft fractures. Surgeons should consider the

  10. Delayed intramedullary abscess in operated case of spinal lipoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhaisora, Kamlesh Singh; Godbole, Chaitanya; Das, Kuntal Kanti; Mehrotra, Anant; Jayesh, Shardhara; Sahu, Rabi Narayan; Behari, Sanjay; Srivastava, Arun Kumar; Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Intramedullary abscess is a rare condition with high rate of mortality and morbidity. We are presenting a case of delayed intramedullary abscess in an operated case of spinal lipoma, after 2 years of primary surgery. To best of our knowledge this only second case of intramedullary abscess in a case of spinal lipoma without dermal sinus. PMID:27857795

  11. [Morphological characteristics of reparative osteogenesis under the conditions of transosseous osteosynthesis and intramedullary introduction of hydroxyapatite-coated wires].

    PubMed

    Ir'ianov, Iu M; Popkov, A V; Antonov, N I

    2014-01-01

    In the experiments performed on 16 dogs, an open comminuted tibial fracture was modeled, then wires with hydroxyapatite coating were inserted intramedullary, and osteosynthesis was performed using the Ilizarov fixator. Bone regenerates were studied 14-360 days after the surgery using the methods of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray electron probe microanalysis. It was found that a zone of active reparative osteo- and angiogenesis was formed around the wires, as well as a bone sheath with the properties of osteogenesis conductor and inductor. Fracture consolidation occured early according to the primary type without cartilaginous and connective tissue formation in bone adhesion.

  12. Intramedullary cervical neurenteric cyst mimicking an abscess.

    PubMed

    Muzumdar, D; Bhatt, Y; Sheth, J

    2008-01-01

    We describe a cervical intramedullary neurenteric cyst in a 12-year-old male patient who presented with gradual onset and progressively worsening neck pain, spastic quadriparesis and impaired sensation in the C(2) dermatome. MR imaging revealed a well-defined peripherally enhancing cystic intramedullary lesion with a posteroinferior enhancing nodule at the C(2)-C(3) level mimicking an abscess. There was no evidence of spinal dysraphism. The lesion was completely resected through a posterior approach and the patient showed radical improvement in his symptomatology. At follow-up after 3 years, he was asymptomatic and the MR imaging showed no evidence of any residual or recurrent cyst. The case presented here is unique, since a spinal neurenteric cyst showing intense peripheral contrast enhancement mimicking an abscess is unusual. The radiological features, pathogenesis and surgical considerations in cervical intramedullary neurenteric cysts are discussed and the relevant literature is briefly reviewed.

  13. Intramedullary spindle cell hemangioma: case report.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Rani; Ashayeri, Kimberly; Legatt, Alan D; Houten, John K

    2016-09-01

    The authors describe the case of a 48-year-old man found to have the first reported intramedullary spinal cord spindle cell hemangioma. Previous research indicates that spindle cell hemangiomas are rarely found in the spine. Only 3 previous cases exist, all in the intradural, extramedullary space. In the present case, gross-total resection of the tumor was possible with no loss of function from baseline. This report presents the successful resection of the first reported intramedullary spindle cell hemangioma and reports 4-month follow-up, demonstrating the biological behavior of this rare tumor.

  14. Intramedullary bronchogenic cyst of the conus medullaris.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Cem; Gulsen, Salih; Sonmez, Erkin; Ozger, Ozkan; Unlukaplan, Muge; Caner, Hakan

    2009-10-01

    Spinal bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital lesions. The authors describe their experience in the treatment of a 17-year-old boy who presented with back pain and paresthesia in both lower extremities. Lumbar MR imaging revealed the presence of an intramedullary cystic lesion at the conus medullaris and histopathological analysis revealed a bronchogenic cyst. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of an intramedullary spinal bronchogenic cyst arising at the conus; all previously reported spinal bronchogenic cysts were either intradural extramedullary or not located at the conus.

  15. Total knee arthroplasty and fractures of the tibial plateau

    PubMed Central

    Softness, Kenneth A; Murray, Ryan S; Evans, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common injuries that occur in a bimodal age distribution. While there are various treatment options for displaced tibial plateau fractures, the standard of care is open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). In physiologically young patients with higher demand and better bone quality, ORIF is the preferred method of treating these fractures. However, future total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a consideration in these patients as post-traumatic osteoarthritis is a common long-term complication of tibial plateau fractures. In older, lower demand patients, ORIF is potentially less favorable for a variety of reasons, namely fixation failure and the need for delayed weight bearing. In some of these patients, TKA can be considered as primary mode of treatment. This paper will review the literature surrounding TKA as both primary treatment and as a salvage measure in patients with fractures of the tibial plateau. The outcomes, complications, techniques and surgical challenges are also discussed. PMID:28251061

  16. Bilateral tibial hemimelia I.

    PubMed

    Suganthy, J; Rassau, Marina; Koshi, Rachel; Battacharjee, Suranjan

    2007-05-01

    Congenital absence of tibia is a rare anomaly. We report a case of bilateral tibial hemimelia born to phenotypically normal parents. The two amputated legs with tibial dysplasia obtained from a 3-year-old boy were studied by radiography and anatomical dissection. The radiological evaluation revealed a normal hip joint. The lower end of femur was normal without any bifurcation, shortening or bowing. Fibula was present on both legs and there was no sign of bowing or doubling. Both right and left tibiae were absent. In addition, on the right side, five tarsal bones, two metatarsals and the corresponding digital rays were absent. On the left side, three tarsal bones were absent. Dissection of the amputated segments showed the presence of extensor digitorum longus, peroneus tertius, peroneus longus and brevis, gastrocnemius, and soleus. Following bilateral knee disarticulation the patient was fitted with prosthesis and is doing well.

  17. Full versus surface tibial baseplate cementation in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Galasso, Olimpio; Jenny, Jean-Yves; Saragaglia, Dominique; Miehlke, Rolf K

    2013-02-01

    The use of a keel in the tibial component during modern primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has become common, and its cementation may affect the future performance of the prosthesis. Although proponents of cementing the entire tibial component argue that this technique provides better initial fixation and may prevent aseptic loosening, reasons exist to apply cement only to the tibial baseplate. In this study, 232 patients who underwent TKA using full or surface cementation of the tibial baseplate were evaluated at an average 5.6-year follow-up to assess survivorship and clinical results. The cumulative survival rate at 8 years was 97.1%. With revision of either component for any reason considered the endpoint, no significant difference was noted between full and surface cemented groups. Knee Society Score, range of motion, and femoro-tibial mechanical angle significantly increased postoperatively. Multivariate analysis revealed that good preoperative range of motion and Knee Society Scores were related to good postoperative range of motion and Knee Society Scores. Follow-up length was a negative predictor of postoperative Knee Society Score. The use of full or surface cementation of the baseplate was unrelated to the postoperative clinical outcomes. Clinical outcomes did not differ according to the tibial component cementation technique. The results of this study suggest that cementing the keel of the tibial component during primary TKA has no advantage for patients. Longer-term follow-up and proper patient randomization are required to confirm these findings.

  18. Prophylactic intramedullary nailing in monostotic fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Ozturk, Cagatay; Ozturan, Kutay; Sanisoglu, Yavuz S; Cicek, Ilker E; Erler, Kaan

    2008-06-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is an enigma with no known cure. Treatment currently consists of curettage and bone-grafting in an attempt to eradicate the lesion and to prevent progressive deformity. This study presents the results of prophylactic intramedullary nailing in 10 patients with monostotic fibrous dysplasia, pain increasing with movement, and scintigraphically established activity. Ten patients with monostotic fibrous dysplasia in their upper or lower extremities treated between 2001 and 2003 were included in the study. Seven patients were male and 3 were female; their mean age was 26.9 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 33.5 months. Closed intramedullary nail without reaming was used in all cases. Bone grafting was not performed. Patients were allowed full weight bearing on the affected extremities on the second postoperative day. Mean VAS for functional pain was 5.33 +/- 0.65 preoperatively and 2.26 +/- 0.57 at final follow-up (p < 0.05). Radiographs showed no changes in lesion size, and the intramedullary fixation appeared to be stable. Prophylactic intramedullary nailing appeared to be beneficial in monostotic fibrous dysplasia with scintigraphically proven activity and functional pain. It also avoids problems that may occur following pathological fracture.

  19. Retrograde Tibial Nailing: a minimally invasive and biomechanically superior alternative to angle-stable plate osteosynthesis in distal tibia fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, antegrade intramedullary nailing and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) represent the main surgical alternatives in distal tibial fractures. However, neither choice is optimal for all bony and soft tissue injuries. The Retrograde Tibial Nail (RTN) is a small-caliber prototype implant, which is introduced through a 2-cm-long incision at the tip of the medial malleolus with stab incisions sufficient for interlocking. During this project, we investigated the feasibility of retrograde tibial nailing in a cadaver model and conducted biomechanical testing. Methods Anatomical implantations of the RTN were carried out in AO/OTA 43 A1-3 fracture types in three cadaveric lower limbs. Biomechanical testing was conducted in an AO/OTA 43 A3 fracture model for extra-axial compression, torsion, and destructive extra-axial compression. Sixteen composite tibiae were used to compare the RTN against an angle-stable plate osteosynthesis (Medial Distal Tibial Plate, Synthes®). Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t test. Results Retrograde intramedullary nailing is feasible in simple fracture types by closed manual reduction and percutaneous reduction forceps, while in highly comminuted fractures, the use of a large distractor can aid the reduction. Biomechanical testing shows a statistically superior stability (p < 0.001) of the RTN during non-destructive axial loading and torsion. Destructive extra-axial compression testing resulted in failure of all plate constructs, while all RTN specimens survived the maximal load of 1,200 N. Conclusions The prototype retrograde tibial nail meets the requirements of maximum soft tissue protection by a minimally invasive surgical approach with the ability of secure fracture fixation by multiple locking options. Retrograde tibial nailing with the RTN is a promising concept in the treatment of distal tibia fractures. PMID:24886667

  20. Tibial hypoplasia with a bifid tibia: an unclassified tibial hemimelia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krupa; Shah, Hitesh

    2016-08-16

    Tibial hemimelia is a rare congenital limb deficiency which is characterised by a hypoplastic/aplastic tibia. It actually represents a spectrum of anomalies, ranging from mild hypoplasia of the tibia to total absence of the tibia. Several classifications based on radiological description exist in the literature. The tibial hemimelia is usually described with preaxial mirror polydactyly, split hand/foot syndrome-ectrodactyly, polydactyly-triphalangeal thumb syndrome (Werner syndrome) and micromelia-trigonal brachycephaly syndrome. We describe a child with unclassified tibial hemimelia. The child had right incomplete tibial hemimelia with bifid tibia, left complete tibial hemimelia, bilateral split hands and left split foot. This is the first report of the bifid tibia in the literature.

  1. Tibial tubercle osteotomy for patello-femoral joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew J; Mandalia, Vipul I

    2016-03-01

    Tibial tubercle osteotomy has a long history in the management of patella instability and patello-femoral arthritis. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of the literature describing the biomechanics of the patello-femoral joint and the rationale behind the use of the tibial tubercle osteotomy in modern day practice. Several different tibial tubercle osteotomies are available and we aim to detail the concepts behind their use and the subsequent clinical results. With continued developments of chondrocyte implantation techniques, the potential to fill defects on the chondral surface of either the patella or trochlea in conjunction with a tibial tubercle osteotomy may well become more commonplace in a group that is commonly young and difficult to manage. Level of evidence III.

  2. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus lugdunensis cause pyogenic osteomyelitis in an intramedullary nail model in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gahukamble, Abhay Deodas; McDowell, Andrew; Post, Virginia; Salavarrieta Varela, Julian; Rochford, Edward Thomas James; Richards, Robert Geoff; Patrick, Sheila; Moriarty, Thomas Fintan

    2014-05-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are opportunistic pathogens implicated in prosthetic joint and fracture fixation device-related infections. The purpose of this study was to determine whether P. acnes and the CoNS species Staphylococcus lugdunensis, isolated from an "aseptically failed" prosthetic hip joint and a united intramedullary nail-fixed tibial fracture, respectively, could cause osteomyelitis in an established implant-related osteomyelitis model in rabbits in the absence of wear debris from the implant material. The histological features of P. acnes infection in the in vivo rabbit model were consistent with localized pyogenic osteomyelitis, and a biofilm was present on all explanted intramedullary (IM) nails. The animals displayed no outward signs of infection, such as swelling, lameness, weight loss, or elevated white blood cell count. In contrast, infection with S. lugdunensis resulted in histological features consistent with both pyogenic osteomyelitis and septic arthritis, and all S. lugdunensis-infected animals displayed weight loss and an elevated white blood cell count despite biofilm detection in only two out of six rabbits. The differences in the histological and bacteriological profiles of the two species in this rabbit model of infection are reflective of their different clinical presentations: low-grade infection in the case of P. acnes and acute infection for S. lugdunensis. These results are especially important in light of the growing recognition of chronic P. acnes biofilm infections in prosthetic joint failure and nonunion of fracture fixations, which may be currently reported as "aseptic" failure.

  3. New Technique for Tibiotalar Arthrodesis Using a New Intramedullary Nail Device: A Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Eisenstein, Emmanuel D.; Rodriguez, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Ankle arthrodesis is performed in a variety of methods. We propose a new technique for tibiotalar arthrodesis using a newly designed intramedullary nail. Methods. We proposed development of an intramedullary device for ankle arthrodesis which spared the subtalar joint using a sinus tarsi approach. Standard saw bones models and computer assisted modeling and stress analysis were used to develop different nail design geometries and determine the feasibility of insertion. After the final design was constructed, the device was tested on three cadaveric specimens. Results. Four basic nail geometries were developed. The optimal design was composed of two relatively straight segments, each with a different radius of curvature for their respective tibial and talar component. We successfully implemented this design into three cadaveric specimens. Conclusion. Our newly designed tibiotalar nail provides a new technique for isolated tibiotalar fusion. It utilizes the advantages of a tibiotalar calcaneal nail and spares the subtalar joint. This design serves as the foundation for future research to include compression options across the tibiotalar joint and eventual transition to clinical practice. PMID:27818800

  4. Sarcomatoid Malignant Mesothelioma Presenting with Intramedullary Spinal Cord Metastasis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Junkoh; Ueta, Kunihiro; Takenaka, Masaru; Takahashi, Mayu; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an uncommon tumor of the pleural epithelium with a predilection for local spread into adjacent tissues. The sarcomatoid type accounts for ∼10% of MM cases and is associated with poorer survival than the epithelioid, desmoplastic, and biphasic types. MM commonly presents with involvement of the vertebral body or epidural space. However, intradural spinal extension of MM is extremely rare. Only eight cases of intradural spinal extension have been reported. We report this rare case and discuss the clinical manifestations of intradural spinal extension of MM with literature review. Methods This report describes the case of a 62-year-old man with Brown-Séquard syndrome and radiculopathy of the left C5 nerve root detected during treatment for pleural sarcomatoid MM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an intramedullary lesion at the C3 level and a small nodule at the left C5 nerve root with cervical canal stenosis. Results The patient underwent surgery, and intramedullary metastasis of sarcomatoid MM was diagnosed. Subsequently, radiotherapy was administered, resulting in temporary improvement of the patient's condition. Thereafter, his condition gradually deteriorated, and follow-up MRI showed a more extensive residual C3 intramedullary lesion. Thus, a second surgery was performed after chemotherapy, but the patient died 5 months after the initial diagnosis. Conclusion We present this rare case, and emphasize intramedullary spinal cord metastasis of MM as differential diagnosis in primary cord lesion. PMID:25054098

  5. Measurement of Nitinol Recovery Distance Using Pseudoelastic Intramedullary Nails for Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Kildow, Beau J; Gross, Christopher E; Adams, Samuel D; Parekh, Selene G

    2016-07-07

    Background Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis is a salvage procedure for patients with complex disease of the ankle and subtalar joints. Despite the clinical efficacy and mechanical advantage of intramedullary nails, complications, such as nonunion, are common. It may be possible to sustain compression in the face of bone resorption and implant loosening over the course of healing using a novel pseudoelastic intramedullary nail with an internal nitinol element. Methods We identified 15 patients with average age of 54.7 years (range, 28-75 years) who had undergone a tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis using a pseudoelastic intramedullary nail. Serial radiographs were used to determine the amount and rate of nitinol element migration over the first 3 postoperative months. Results Postoperatively, there was at least 2.38 mm of nitinol element migration proximally with mean of 5.58 mm (± 1.38), (range, 2.38-8.11 mm). Average follow-up time was 195 days (± 106.3), (range, 89-490 days). On average, 86% of the total recovered distance took place within the first 39.7 days (±10.03). Conclusions The nitinol element recovers distance when stretched intraoperatively and maintains moderate compression in response to bone resorption. Further studies are needed to assess if this increased compression lends itself to higher fusion rates than traditional intramedullary nails.

  6. Adamantinoma of tibial shaft.

    PubMed

    A, Joshi; Kc, B R; Basnet, S B; Panth, R; Shrestha, R L; Chand, P; Thapa, B B

    2009-01-01

    Adamantinoma is an extremely rare primary bony neoplasm. Because of its malignant nature, accurate and early diagnosis is very important. On the other hand adamantinoma mimics many benign conditions, so it is doubly important to establish correct tissue diagnosis to avoid radical surgery with morbidities. Because of its rarity, diagnosing adamantinoma still remains difficult, even if when it occurs in classical sites. We report a case of adamantinoma of tibial shaft diaphysis in a 23 year male. In this case, because of classic clinic-radiological features, we were suspecting adamantinoma from very beginning but final diagnosis was delayed for nine months.

  7. Tibial Lengthening Using a Fixator-Assisted Lengthening Plate: A New Technique

    PubMed Central

    Tosun, Haci Bayram; Agir, Ismail; Gumustas, Seyitali; Serbest, Sancar; Uludag, Abuzer; Celik, Suat

    2016-01-01

    Background There are many techniques that are used for limb lengthening. Lengthening a limb over a plate is an alternative choice used in children or when using an intramedullary nail is difficult. Objectives In this study, we presented a new technique for tibial lengthening using a monolateral external fixator over a lengthening plate. Materials and Methods For tibial lengthening, a monolateral external fixator was attached to the composite bone model medially. After a corticotomy was performed, the lengthening plate was placed laterally. Three locking screws were inserted proximally, and two cortical screws were inserted into a lengthening hole that was 1 cm below the osteotomy site. We avoided contact between the screws of the lengthening plate and the pins of the external fixator. During bone lengthening with the monolateral external fixator, the screws at the lengthening hole were able to slide distally with the distal segment of the tibia to allow for tibial elongation. Two locking screws were fixed at the distal locking holes of the plate when the bone elongation was complete. The external fixator was then removed. Results The fixator-assisted lengthening plate allowed bone lengthening without malalignment. There were no mechanical problems associated with the external fixator during the lengthening process. Plate osteosynthesis was stable after the fixator was removed. There was no contact between the screws of plate and the Schanz pins of the external fixator under C-arm fluoroscopy. Conclusions The fixator-assisted lengthening plate technique helps to maintain the stability and alignment at both sides of an osteotomy during tibial elongation. It allows the early removal of the external fixator immediately after lengthening is completed. This technique can be applied in children with open physes and in patients with a narrow medullary canal who are unsuitable for limb lengthening over an intramedullary nail. PMID:28184364

  8. The Effect of Malrotation of Tibial Component of Total Knee Arthroplasty on Tibial Insert during High Flexion Using a Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Todo, Mitsugu

    2014-01-01

    One of the most common errors of total knee arthroplasty procedure is a malrotation of tibial component. The stress on tibial insert is closely related to polyethylene failure. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of malrotation of tibial component for the stress on tibial insert during high flexion using a finite element analysis. We used Stryker NRG PS for analysis. Three different initial conditions of tibial component including normal, 15° internal malrotation, and 15° external malrotation were analyzed. The tibial insert made from ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene was assumed to be elastic-plastic while femoral and tibial metal components were assumed to be rigid. Four nonlinear springs attached to tibial component represented soft tissues around the knee. Vertical load was applied to femoral component which rotated from 0° to 135° while horizontal load along the anterior posterior axis was applied to tibial component during flexion. Maximum equivalent stresses on the surface were analyzed. Internal malrotation caused the highest stress which arose up to 160% of normal position. External malrotation also caused higher stress. Implanting prosthesis in correct position is important for reducing the risk of abnormal wear and failure. PMID:24895658

  9. A tibial-based coordinate system for three-dimensional data.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Clare; FitzPatrick, David; Auger, Daniel; Lee, Jordan

    2007-03-01

    An accurate and repeatable tibial measurement system will aid in the definition of tibial geometry and improving tibial prosthesis design. Unlike in the femur, there is no standardized method for constructing a tibial coordinate frame. Most tibial measurements are given relative to femoral axes or the coordinate frame of the CT/MRI scanner or radiograph machine. The objective of this study was to establish an independent tibial coordinate frame. Data consisted of CT scans from 34 subjects. The tibial anatomical axis was chosen as the axial axis. The anteroposterior (AP) axis was selected to be parallel to the lateral surface of the tibial shaft and orthogonal to the anatomical axis and from this the mediolateral axis could be derived. The selected AP axis was compared with the surgical tibial AP axis by measuring their variability relative to a common axis, the posterior tibial condylar line (PTCL). The mean angle between the selected AP axis and the perpendicular to the PTCL was measured as -4.07 degrees, standard deviation of 4.28 degrees. The mean angle between the surgical AP axis and the perpendicular to the PTCL was measured as -18.56 degrees, standard deviation of 4.66 degrees. There was no significant difference in the variance of the two sets of measurements (p=0.63). Variability of the selected AP axis was even smaller (standard deviation of 2.74 degrees) when measured independently from the PTCL reference axis, by aligning virtual resection profiles. Anatomically, the selected AP axis was almost perpendicular to the posterior tibial condylar axis. This coordinate system can aid in gathering consistent and repeatable anthropometric data that can be used to improve tibial implant design and could also, in combination with CT/MR imaged-based computer assisted surgery, be used as a guideline for tibial component positioning in TKR.

  10. Three-dimensional finite element analysis and comparison of a new intramedullary fixation with interlocking intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-cheng; Xing, Wen-zhao; Zhang, Ya-xing; Pan, Zheng-hua; Feng, Wen-ling

    2015-03-01

    This study was set to introduce a new intramedullary fixation, explore its biomechanical properties, and provide guidance for further biomechanical experiments. With the help of CT scans and finite element modeling software, finite element model was established for a new intramedullary fixation and intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures in a volunteer adult. By finite element analysis software ANSYS 10.0, we conducted 235-2,100 N axial load, 200-1,000 N bending loads and 2-15 Nm torsional loading, respectively, and analyzed maximum stress distribution, size, and displacement of the fracture fragments of the femur and intramedullary nail. During the loading process, the maximum stress of our new intramedullary fixation were within the normal range, and the displacement of the fracture fragments was less than 1 mm. Our new intramedullary fixation exhibited mechanical reliability and unique advantages of anti-rotation, which provides effective supports during fracture recovery.

  11. Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord lesions: Pathological spectrum and outcome of surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Rajni Kant; Das, Kuntal Kanti; Bhaisora, Kamlesh Singh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mehrotra, Anant; Srivastava, Arun Kumar; Sahu, Rabi Narayan; Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar; Behari, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord lesions are not only rare but also different from adults in a number of aspects. We aimed to study the incidence and the frequencies of various pediatric intramedullary mass lesions, their outcome to treatment and the factors determining their outcome of treatment. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one consecutive children (aged 1–18 years, mean 11.1 years, male: female = 1.8:1) with pathologically proven intramedullary spinal cord lesions treated at our center were studied. Clinico-radiological, histopathological, operative, and outcome data were reviewed retrospectively. The functional status was assessed using the modified McCormick grading system. Results: Gross total tumor excision was performed in 19 patients (61.3%), subtotal in 9 patients (29%), partial excision was performed in 2 (6.5%) patient, and only biopsy was performed in 1 patient (6.5%). There was one peroperative death, 2 patients died at follow-up. Complications included wound related complications (n = 4), transient deterioration in the motor power, and respiratory complication requiring a tracheostomy. Six patients showed recurrence at a mean follow-up of 16.4 months. Developmental tumors, high-grade ependymomas, and incompletely excised grade 2 ependymomas showed a tendency to recur. Conclusions: Children constituted nearly 1/5th (17.4%) of intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Astrocytomas and ependymomas taken together constituted the most common intramedullary spinal lesions in children; however, developmental tumors predominated in the first decade. Children usually presented in good functional grades preoperatively and maintained good grades after surgery. Functional outcome was dependent on the preoperative neurological status and histopathology of the lesions. PMID:26557160

  12. Outcome of Titanium Elastic Intramedullary Nail in the Treatment of Shaft of Femur Fracture in Children.

    PubMed

    Khan, J A; Singh, G P; Pandey, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Femoral-shaft fractures are among the most common fractures of the lower extremity in children. There are several different options for treating femoral-shaft fractures in children. Elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) has become the standard treatment for fractures of shaft of femur in children for reasons including mini-invasive surgery, no need for casting, early mobilization and discharge as well as growing concerns toward cost-effectiveness. Objective To demonstrate the effectiveness of intramedullary fixation of fracture shaft of femur in skeletally immature children using the titanium elastic intramedullary nails. Method Forty children who underwent fixation with titanium intramedullary nails because of fracture of shaft of femur (Winquist and Hansen type 1 and 2) were reviewed. There were 60% male and 40% female patients and mean follow-up was six months. Time of union, deformity at fracture site, limb length discrepancy, knee range of motion and complications were assessed. Result Average age of the patients was 5.17 years (range 3 to 10). All patients achieved complete healing at a mean 12.8 weeks (range 10 to 20 weeks). Average limb length discrepancy was -0.16 cm (range -1.0 to 1.1 cm) average knee range of motion was 137.55 degrees (range 118 to 152 degrees). Complications were recorded in 13 (31.7%) patients and included: Five malunion which did not show any deformity or functional impairment and eight superficial wound infections which were healed after removal of nail. All patients were active as their pre injury levels at six months follow up. Conclusion Elastic stable intramedullary nailing is the method of choice for the simple pediatrics fracture shaft of femur, as it is minimally invasive and shows good functional and cosmetic results. It allows short hospital stay and quick recovery from pain and is cast-free.

  13. OSTEOSYNTHESIS WITH INTRAMEDULLARY NAILS IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Alvachian Fernandes, Helio Jorge; Saad, Eduardo Abdalla; Reis, Fernando Baldy dos

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive review of the literature emphasizing the use of flexible intramedullary nails in the treatment of fractures in children, focusing the treatment of femoral shaft and forearm fractures and emphasizing the importance of the non-surgical approach. Children's age and weight threshold are not well defined for the use of the method. The removal of implants is a controversial matter in the literature, with a trend towards keeping the implants. PMID:27004183

  14. OSTEOSYNTHESIS WITH INTRAMEDULLARY NAILS IN CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Alvachian Fernandes, Helio Jorge; Saad, Eduardo Abdalla; Reis, Fernando Baldy Dos

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive review of the literature emphasizing the use of flexible intramedullary nails in the treatment of fractures in children, focusing the treatment of femoral shaft and forearm fractures and emphasizing the importance of the non-surgical approach. Children's age and weight threshold are not well defined for the use of the method. The removal of implants is a controversial matter in the literature, with a trend towards keeping the implants.

  15. Unusual Tibial Stress Fracture in a Basketball Player.

    PubMed

    Selesnick, H

    1990-09-01

    In brief Stress fractures of the proximal middle third of the tibia are common; those of the distal tibia are less common; and longitudinal stress fractures are rare. The basketball player in this case report had a rare longitudinal tibial pilon stress fracture, for which few diagnostic or treatment guidelines existed.

  16. Use of Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire and the Short Form-36 among Tibial Fracture Patients was Redundant

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores among patients undergoing operative management of tibial fractures. Study Design and Setting Between July 2000 and September 2005, we enrolled 1319 skeletally mature patients with open or closed fractures of the tibial shaft that were managed with intramedullary nailing. Patients were asked to complete the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment and Short Form-36 at discharge and 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. Results Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were highly correlated at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. The difference in mean standardized change scores for the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary, from 3 to 12 months post-surgical fixation, was not statistically significant. Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were able to discriminate between healed and non-healed tibial fractures at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgery. Conclusion In patients with tibial shaft fractures, the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index offered no important advantages over the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary score. These results, along with the usefulness of the Short Form-36 for comparing populations, recommends the Short Form-36 for assessing physical function in studies of patients with tibial fractures. PMID:19364637

  17. The Retrograde Tibial Nail: presentation and biomechanical evaluation of a new concept in the treatment of distal tibia fractures.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Sebastian; Appelmann, Philipp; Pairon, Philip; Mehler, Dorothea; Rommens, Pol M

    2014-01-01

    Displaced distal tibia fractures require stable fixation while minimizing secondary damage to the soft tissues by the surgical approach and implants. Antegrade intramedullary nailing has become an alternative to plate osteosynthesis for the treatment of distal metaphyseal fractures over the past two decades. While retrograde intramedullary nailing is a standard procedure in other long bone fractures, only few attempts have been made on retrograde nailing of tibial fractures. The main reasons are difficulties of finding an ideal entry portal and the lack of an ideal implant for retrograde insertion. The Retrograde Tibial Nail (RTN) is a prototype intramedullary implant developed by our group. The implant offers double proximal and triple distal interlocking with an end cap leading to an angle-stable screw-nail construct of the most distal interlocking screw. Its design meets the requirements of a minimally invasive surgical approach, with a stable fracture fixation by multiple locking options. The 8mm diameter curved nail, with a length of 120 mm, is introduced through an entry portal at the medial malleolus. We see possible indications for the RTN in far distal tibial shaft fractures, distal extraarticular metaphyseal tibial fractures and in distal tibia fractures with simple extension into the ankle joint when the nail is combined lag screw fixation. A biomechanical comparison of the current RTN prototype against antegrade nailing (Expert Tibial Nail, Synthes(®), ETN) was performed. Both implants were fixed with double proximal and triple distal interlocking. Seven biomechanical composite tibiae were treated with either osteosynthesis techniques. A 10mm defect osteotomy 40 mm proximal to the joint line served as an AO 43-A3 type distal tibial fracture model. The stiffness of the implant-bone constructs was measured under low and high extra-axial compression (350 and 600 N) and under torsional load (8 Nm). Results show a comparable stability during axial loading

  18. Tibial Growth Disturbance Following Distal Femoral Resection and Expandable Endoprosthetic Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Arteau, Annie; Lewis, Valerae O.; Moon, Bryan S.; Satcher, Robert L.; Bird, Justin E.; Lin, Patrick P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In growing children, an expandable endoprosthesis is commonly used after distal femoral resection to compensate for loss of the distal femoral physis. Our hypothesis was that such prostheses can affect proximal tibial growth, which would contribute to an overall leg-length discrepancy and cause angular deformity. Methods: Twenty-three skeletally immature patients underwent the placement of a distal femoral expandable endoprosthesis between 1994 and 2012. Tibial length, femoral length, and mechanical axis were measured radiographically to determine the growth rate. Results: No patient had radiographic evidence of injury to the proximal tibial physis at the time of surgery other than insertion of the tibial stem. Fifteen (65%) of the patients experienced less proximal tibial growth in the operative compared with the contralateral limb. In ten (43%) of the patients, the discrepancy progressively worsened, whereas in five (22%) of the patients, the discrepancy stabilized. Seven patients did not develop tibial length discrepancy, and one patient had overgrowth of the tibia. For the ten patients with progressive shortening, the proximal tibial physis grew an average of 4.0 mm less per year in the operative limb. Five (22%) of the patients had ≥20 mm of tibial length discrepancy at last follow-up. Three of these patients underwent contralateral tibial epiphysiodesis. Three patients required corrective surgery for angular deformity. Conclusions: The tibial growth plate may not resume normal growth after implantation of a distal femoral prosthesis. Physeal bar resection, prosthesis revision, and contralateral tibial epiphysiodesis may be needed to address tibial growth abnormalities. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:26582624

  19. The accuracy of femoral intramedullary guides in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Reed, S C; Gollish, J

    1997-09-01

    Of the technical factors important in achieving a successful total knee arthroplasty, limb alignment has been demonstrated to be most influential in determining implant survival. Intramedullary femoral guide systems rely on placement of the intramedullary rod along the anatomic axis of the femur. In this article, the accuracy of the femoral intramedullary guide is investigated using radiographs and a mathematical model. The femoral anatomic axis was drawn on 40 consecutive, preoperative, 3-ft standing radiographs. Using a mathematical model, the potential angular error in the distal femoral cut from aberrant placement of the intramedullary rod was estimated. Calculated values correlated with measured values from plain radiographs and an intramedullary guide template. The anatomic axis was found to exit the distal femur at an average of 6.6 mm medial to the center of the femoral notch. Substantial malalignment error resulted from minor malposition of the intramedullary rod. Most books and diagrams demonstrating the use of intramedullary guides indicate that the entry point is at the center of the femoral notch. These results show that the true entry point is medial to the center of the notch, and rod placement error results in excessive valgus alignment. Preoperative drawing of the anatomic axis on a 3-ft or 18-inch anteroposterior radiograph is recommended. The results both demonstrate the importance of correct use of the guide and heighten cognizance among surgeons performing total knee arthroplasty as to the limitations of the intramedullary guides.

  20. Plating versus intramedullary fixation for mid-shaft clavicle fractures: a systemic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Chen, Wei; Liu, Yue-Jv; Li, Xu; Wang, Hai-Li; Chen, Zhao-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Plate fixation and intramedullary fixation are the most commonly used surgical treatment options for mid-shaft clavicle fractures; the latter method has demonstrated better performance in some studies. Objectives. Our aim was to critically review and summarize the literature comparing the outcomes of mid-shaft clavicle fracture treatment with plate fixation or intramedullary fixation to identify the better approach. Search Methods. Potential academic articles were identified from the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (1966-2015.5), PubMed (1966-2015.5), EMBASE (1980-2015.5) and ScienceDirect (1966-2015.5). Gray studies were identified from the references of the included literature. Selection Criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs comparing plate fixation and intramedullary fixation for mid-shaft clavicle fracture were included. Data Collection and Analysis. Two reviewers performed independent data abstraction. The I (2) statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. A fixed- or random-effects model was used for the meta-analysis. Results. Six RCTs and nine non-RCTs were retrieved, including 513 patients in the intramedullary fixation group and 521 patients in the plating group. No significant differences in terms of the union rate and shoulder function were found between the groups. Patients in the intramedullary fixation group had a shorter operative time, less blood loss, smaller wound size, and shorter union time than those in the plating group. With respect to complications, significant differences were identified for all complications and major complications (wound infection, nonunion, implant failures, transient brachial plexopathy, and pain after 6 months). Similar secondary complications (symptomatic hardware, hardware irritation, prominence, numbness, hypertrophic callus) were observed in both groups. Conclusions. Intramedullary fixation may be superior to plate fixation in the treatment of mid-shaft clavicle fractures, with similar

  1. Femoral lengthening with a motorized intramedullary nail

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Joachim; Grimsrud, Øyvind; Dagsgard, Anita Hoddevik; Huhnstock, Stefan; Steen, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We assessed whether an intramedullary lengthening device would reduce the problems normally associated with the external fixation technique. We also wanted to determine whether it is a reliable construct for limb lengthening and deformity correction in the femur. Patients and methods We conducted a matched-pair comparison of 30 femoral lengthenings, 15 with a motorized intramedullary nail (the nail group) and 15 lengthenings with an external ring fixator (the fixator group). The patients were matched based on age, sex, amount of lengthening, and the etiology of leg length discrepancy. Mean lengthening was 35 (25–55) mm in the nail group and 38 (15–75) mm in the fixator group. Outcome measures were: lengthening and alignment achieved, consolidation index, knee range of motion (ROM), and complications. Results The pairs in this matched-pair study were similar in terms of age, sex, diagnosis, and amount of lengthening. The planned amount of lengthening was achieved in all patients in both groups and axis correction was considered sufficient. The mean radiographic consolidation index in the nail group, at 1.5 (0.9–3.0) months/cm, was better than the mean value for the fixator group (1.9 (0.9–3.4) months/cm) (p = 0.01). Knee ROM was better in the nail group during the lengthening, 6 weeks after lengthening was completed, and 6 months after lengthening was completed (p < 0.001). A larger number of complications were observed in the fixator group than in the nail group. Interpretation A lengthening nail may be superior to external fixation in femoral lengthening, when the anatomical conditions and the complexity of the deformity allow the use of an intramedullary nail. PMID:25191936

  2. Tibial nerve neuropathy following medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy-case report of a rare technical complication.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Soo; Sim, Hyun-Bo; Yoon, Jung-Ro

    2017-03-21

    A 63-year-old woman developed tibial nerve injury caused by an overlong K wire and 4.5-mm cortical lag screw through the first distal hole below the osteotomy during medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO), leading to a lack of sensation on the sole of the foot with no disturbances in motor functions. The temporary lag screw in the first distal hole below the osteotomy is often inserted by an excessive length in order to compress the potentially fractured opposite cortex. By doing so, posterior neurovascular structures including the tibial nerve and the popliteal vessels can be injured. To avoid this type of injury during medial opening-wedge HTO, proper knee position and appropriate Hohmann retractor position in combination with meticulous insertion of the K wire or screw under fluoroscopic control are essential. In addition, our study reinforces the fact that different presentations of injury to the tibial nerve should be carefully considered in the absence of common diagnostic features, including weakness of the toe flexors and posterior tibial muscle of the leg with intractable pain.

  3. Tibial stress fractures in an active duty population: long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kilcoyne, Kelly G; Dickens, Jonathan F; Rue, John-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Tibial stress fractures are a common overuse injury among military recruits. The purpose of this study was to determine what, if any, long-term effects that tibial stress fractures have on military personnel with respect to physical activity level, completion of military training, recurrence of symptoms, and active duty service. Twenty-six military recruits included in a previous tibial stress fracture study were contacted 10 years after initial injury and asked a series of questions related to any long-term consequences of their tibial stress fracture. Of the 13 patients available for contact, no patients reported any necessary limited duty while on active duty, and no patient reported being separated or discharged from the military as a result of stress fracture. Tibial stress fractures in military recruits are most often an isolated injury and do not affect ability to complete military training or reflect a long-term need for decreased physical activity.

  4. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus lugdunensis Cause Pyogenic Osteomyelitis in an Intramedullary Nail Model in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Gahukamble, Abhay Deodas; McDowell, Andrew; Post, Virginia; Salavarrieta Varela, Julian; Rochford, Edward Thomas James; Richards, Robert Geoff; Patrick, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are opportunistic pathogens implicated in prosthetic joint and fracture fixation device-related infections. The purpose of this study was to determine whether P. acnes and the CoNS species Staphylococcus lugdunensis, isolated from an “aseptically failed” prosthetic hip joint and a united intramedullary nail-fixed tibial fracture, respectively, could cause osteomyelitis in an established implant-related osteomyelitis model in rabbits in the absence of wear debris from the implant material. The histological features of P. acnes infection in the in vivo rabbit model were consistent with localized pyogenic osteomyelitis, and a biofilm was present on all explanted intramedullary (IM) nails. The animals displayed no outward signs of infection, such as swelling, lameness, weight loss, or elevated white blood cell count. In contrast, infection with S. lugdunensis resulted in histological features consistent with both pyogenic osteomyelitis and septic arthritis, and all S. lugdunensis-infected animals displayed weight loss and an elevated white blood cell count despite biofilm detection in only two out of six rabbits. The differences in the histological and bacteriological profiles of the two species in this rabbit model of infection are reflective of their different clinical presentations: low-grade infection in the case of P. acnes and acute infection for S. lugdunensis. These results are especially important in light of the growing recognition of chronic P. acnes biofilm infections in prosthetic joint failure and nonunion of fracture fixations, which may be currently reported as “aseptic” failure. PMID:24599975

  5. Commonality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E., Jr.

    Commonality analysis is an attempt to understand the relative predictive power of the regressor variables, both individually and in combination. The squared multiple correlation is broken up into elements assigned to each individual regressor and to each possible combination of regressors. The elements have the property that the appropriate sums…

  6. One-stage emergency treatment of open grade IIIB tibial shaft fractures with bone loss.

    PubMed

    Tropet, Y; Garbuio, P; Obert, L; Jeunet, L; Elias, B

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the authors' experience with emergency reconstruction of severe tibial shaft fractures. Five male patients were admitted to the emergency room with a grade IIIB open tibial shaft fracture with bone loss (average age, 33 years; age range, 18-65 years). Injuries were the result of motorcycle accidents (N = 2), pedestrian accidents (N = 1), gunshot wound (N = 1), and paragliding fall (N = 1). Primary emergent one-stage management for all patients consisted of administration of antibiotics, debridement, stabilization by locked intramedullary nailing, bone grafting from the iliac crest, and coverage using free muscle flaps (four latissimus dorsi and one gracilis). The average follow-up was 21 months (range, 8 months-3.5 years). Partial weight bearing with no immobilization was started at 3 months, and full weight bearing began 5 months after trauma. No angular complications and no nonunions were observed. There was one case of superficial infection without osteitis. All fractures healed within 6 months in 4 patients and within 10 months in 1 patient. At the last follow-up examination, ankle and knee motion was normal and no pain was noted, except for 1 patient who had associated lesions (ankle motion reduced by 50%). Aggressive emergency management of severe open tibial fractures provides good results. It improves end results markedly, not only by reducing tissue loss from infection, but also reducing healing and rehabilitation times.

  7. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; De Winter, Theodorus C

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise, with pain on palpation of the tibia over a length of at least 5 cm. Histological studies fail to provide evidence that MTSS is caused by periostitis as a result of traction. It is caused by bony resorption that outpaces bone formation of the tibial cortex. Evidence for this overloaded adaptation of the cortex is found in several studies describing MTSS findings on bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis is made based on physical examination, although only one study has been conducted on this subject. Additional imaging such as bone, CT and MRI scans has been well studied but is of limited value. The prevalence of abnormal findings in asymptomatic subjects means that results should be interpreted with caution. Excessive pronation of the foot while standing and female sex were found to be intrinsic risk factors in multiple prospective studies. Other intrinsic risk factors found in single prospective studies are higher body mass index, greater internal and external ranges of hip motion, and calf girth. Previous history of MTSS was shown to be an extrinsic risk factor. The treatment of MTSS has been examined in three randomized controlled studies. In these studies rest is equal to any intervention. The use of neoprene or semi-rigid orthotics may help prevent MTSS, as evidenced by two large prospective studies.

  8. Finite element analysis of the effect of medullary contact on fracture healing and remodeling in the intramedullary interlocking nail-fixed tibia fracture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haosen; Hao, Zhixiu; Wen, Shizhu

    2017-04-01

    Intramedullary interlocking nail is an effective treatment for tibial diaphyseal fracture. The contact between medullary rod and diaphyseal cortex is able to enhance fracture stability. However, how and to what degree the contact affects fracture healing and subsequent bone remodeling is still unclear. To investigate this, fracture healing and remodeling algorithms were combined, improved, and used to simulate the healing and remodeling processes in a transverse tibial diaphyseal fracture fixed with an intramedullary interlocking nail device. Two different diaphyseal fracture statuses, three different initial loading levels, and two nail materials were considered. The results showed that the medullary contact could significantly enhance the fixation stability; the strain reduction was up to 80% in the initial granulation callus. However, low initial loading level was found to be a more potential risk factor for the insufficient loading-induced nonunion other than medullary contact and stiffer nail material. Furthermore, the stabilizing effect of medullary contact diminished when stiff bone tissue formed in the callus; thus, the remodeling in the long-term was not affected by medullary contact. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A modified intramedullary nail interlocking design yields improved stability for fatigue cycling in a canine femur fracture model.

    PubMed

    Garlock, Adam N; Donovan, Jim; LeCronier, David J; Houghtaling, John; Burton, Stephen; Atkinson, Patrick J

    2012-06-01

    Intramedullary nailing has evolved to become the standard of care for most diaphyseal femoral and tibial fractures, as well as an expanding number of metaphyseal fractures. Owing to the unstable nature of some fractures, the intramedullary device may be subjected to significant stresses owing to a lack of solid cortical contact after nailing. In such cases, excessive interfragmentary motion (due to construct toggle) has been shown to occur. Such motion increases the likelihood of a non- or delayed-union. In the current study, two versions of a modified, angle stable interlocking design were subjected to fatigue testing in a segmental defect fracture model representing a canine femur. As a control, a third group of constructs were stabilized with a traditional nail that allowed a small amount of toggle. All constructs were subjected to 50,000 fatigue cycles representing 12 weeks of cage activity at physiologic levels of combined axial-torsional loading. Torsional testing pre- and post-fatigue revealed 4.6 +/- 1.3 degrees of toggle in the traditional nail and no toggle with the angle stable nail designs. The stable nails were also significantly stiffer in axial compression and torsion before and after cycling. These data indicate that the enhanced stability of the modified interlocking designs can be maintained throughout fatigue cycling in a challenging fracture model.

  10. 21 CFR 888.3020 - Intramedullary fixation rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. An intramedullary fixation rod is a device intended to be implanted that consists of a rod made of alloys such as cobalt-chromium-molybdenum and stainless steel. It is inserted into the...

  11. 21 CFR 888.3020 - Intramedullary fixation rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identification. An intramedullary fixation rod is a device intended to be implanted that consists of a rod made of alloys such as cobalt-chromium-molybdenum and stainless steel. It is inserted into the...

  12. 21 CFR 888.3020 - Intramedullary fixation rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. An intramedullary fixation rod is a device intended to be implanted that consists of a rod made of alloys such as cobalt-chromium-molybdenum and stainless steel. It is inserted into the...

  13. 21 CFR 888.3020 - Intramedullary fixation rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identification. An intramedullary fixation rod is a device intended to be implanted that consists of a rod made of alloys such as cobalt-chromium-molybdenum and stainless steel. It is inserted into the...

  14. 21 CFR 888.3020 - Intramedullary fixation rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identification. An intramedullary fixation rod is a device intended to be implanted that consists of a rod made of alloys such as cobalt-chromium-molybdenum and stainless steel. It is inserted into the...

  15. Ovine Model for Critical-Size Tibial Segmental Defects

    PubMed Central

    Christou, Chris; Oliver, Rema A; Pelletier, Matthew H; Walsh, William R

    2014-01-01

    A segmental tibial defect model in a large animal can provide a basis for testing materials and techniques for use in nonunions and severe trauma. This study reports the rationale behind establishing such a model and its design and conclusions. After ethics approval of the study, aged ewes (older than 5 y; n = 12) were enrolled. A 5-cm mid diaphyseal osteoperiosteal defect was made in the left tibia and was stabilized by using an 8-mm stainless-steel cross-locked intramedullary nail. Sheep were euthanized at 12 wk after surgery and evaluated by using radiography, microCT, and soft-tissue histology techniques. Radiology confirmed a lack of hard tissue callus bridging across the defect. Volumetric analysis based on microCT showed bone growth across the 16.5-cm3 defect of 1.82 ± 0.94 cm3. Histologic sections of the bridging tissues revealed callus originating from both the periosteal and endosteal surfaces, with fibrous tissue completing the bridging in all instances. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the quality of the healing response. Clinical, radiographic, and histologic union was not achieved by 12 wk. This model may be effective for the investigation of surgical techniques and healing adjuncts for nonunion cases, where severe traumatic injury has led to significant bone loss. PMID:25402178

  16. Ovine model for critical-size tibial segmental defects.

    PubMed

    Christou, Chris; Oliver, Rema A; Pelletier, Matthew H; Walsh, William R

    2014-10-01

    A segmental tibial defect model in a large animal can provide a basis for testing materials and techniques for use in nonunions and severe trauma. This study reports the rationale behind establishing such a model and its design and conclusions. After ethics approval of the study, aged ewes (older than 5 y; n = 12) were enrolled. A 5-cm mid diaphyseal osteoperiosteal defect was made in the left tibia and was stabilized by using an 8-mm stainless-steel cross-locked intramedullary nail. Sheep were euthanized at 12 wk after surgery and evaluated by using radiography, microCT, and soft-tissue histology techniques. Radiology confirmed a lack of hard tissue callus bridging across the defect. Volumetric analysis based on microCT showed bone growth across the 16.5 cm(3) defect of 1.82 ± 0.94 cm(3). Histologic sections of the bridging tissues revealed callus originating from both the periosteal and endosteal surfaces, with fibrous tissue completing the bridging in all instances. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the quality of the healing response. Clinical, radiographic, and histologic union was not achieved by 12 wk. This model may be effective for the investigation of surgical techniques and healing adjuncts for nonunion cases, where severe traumatic injury has led to significant bone loss.

  17. The treatment of intramedullary osteomyelitis of the femur and tibia using the Reamer-Irrigator-Aspirator system and antibiotic cement rods.

    PubMed

    Kanakaris, N; Gudipati, S; Tosounidis, T; Harwood, P; Britten, S; Giannoudis, P V

    2014-06-01

    Intramedullary infection in long bones represents a complex clinical challenge, with an increasing incidence due to the increasing use of intramedullary fixation. We report a prospective case series using an intramedullary reaming device, the Reamer-Irrigator-Aspirator (RIA) system, in association with antibiotic cement rods for the treatment of lower limb long bone infections. A total of 24 such patients, 16 men and eight women, with a mean age of 44.5 years (17 to 75), 14 with femoral and 10 with tibial infection, were treated in a staged manner over a period of 2.5 years in a single referral centre. Of these, 21 patients had had previous surgery, usually for fixation of a fracture (seven had sustained an open fracture originally and one had undergone fasciotomies). According to the Cierny-Mader classification system, 18 patients were classified as type 1A, four as 3A (discharging sinus tract), one as type 4A and one as type 1B. Staphylococcus species were isolated in 20 patients (83.3%). Local antibiotic delivery was used in the form of impregnated cement rods in 23 patients. These were removed at a mean of 2.6 months (1 to 5). Pathogen-specific antibiotics were administered systemically for a mean of six weeks (3 to 18). At a mean follow-up of 21 months (8 to 36), 23 patients (96%) had no evidence of recurrent infection. One underwent a planned trans-tibial amputation two weeks post-operatively due to peripheral vascular disease and chronic recalcitrant osteomyelitis of the tibia and foot. The combination of RIA reaming, the administration of systemic pathogen-specific antibiotics and local delivery using impregnated cement rods proved to be a safe and efficient form of treatment in these patients.

  18. Re-evaluation of low intensity pulsed ultrasound in treatment of tibial fractures (TRUST): randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Mohit; Einhorn, Thomas A; Schemitsch, Emil; Heckman, James D; Tornetta, Paul; Leung, Kwok-Sui; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Makosso-Kallyth, Sun; Della Rocca, Gregory J; Jones, Clifford B; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), compared with sham treatment, accelerates functional recovery and radiographic healing in patients with operatively managed tibial fractures. Design A concealed, randomized, blinded, sham controlled clinical trial with a parallel group design of 501 patients, enrolled between October 2008 and September 2012, and followed for one year. Setting 43 North American academic trauma centers. Participants Skeletally mature men or women with an open or closed tibial fracture amenable to intramedullary nail fixation. Exclusions comprised pilon fractures, tibial shaft fractures that extended into the joint and required reduction, pathological fractures, bilateral tibial fractures, segmental fractures, spiral fractures >7.5 cm in length, concomitant injuries that were likely to impair function for at least as long as the patient’s tibial fracture, and tibial fractures that showed <25% cortical contact and >1 cm gap after surgical fixation. 3105 consecutive patients who underwent intramedullary nailing for tibial fracture were assessed, 599 were eligible and 501 provided informed consent and were enrolled. Interventions Patients were allocated centrally to self administer daily LIPUS (n=250) or use a sham device (n=251) until their tibial fracture showed radiographic healing or until one year after intramedullary fixation. Main outcome measures Primary registry specified outcome was time to radiographic healing within one year of fixation; secondary outcome was rate of non-union. Additional protocol specified outcomes included short form-36 (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) scores, return to work, return to household activities, return to ≥80% of function before injury, return to leisure activities, time to full weight bearing, scores on the health utilities index (mark 3), and adverse events related to the device. Results SF-36 PCS data were acquired from 481/501 (96%) patients, for whom

  19. Management of Gustilo Anderson III B open tibial fractures by primary fascio-septo-cutaneous local flap and primary fixation: The ‘fix and shift’ technique

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, P R

    2017-01-01

    Background: Open fractures of tibia have posed great difficulty in managing both the soft tissue and the skeletal components of the injured limb. Gustilo Anderson III B open tibial fractures are more difficult to manage than I, II, and III A fractures. Stable skeletal fixation with immediate soft tissue cover has been the key to the successful outcome in treating open tibial fractures, in particular, Gustilo Anderson III B types. If the length of the open wound is larger and if the exposed surface of tibial fracture and tibial shaft is greater, then the management becomes still more difficult. Materials and Methods: Thirty six Gustilo Anderson III B open tibial fractures managed between June 2002 and December 2013 with “fix and shift” technique were retrospectively reviewed. All the 36 patients managed by this technique had open wounds measuring >5 cm (post debridement). Under fix and shift technique, stable fixation involved primary external fixator application or primary intramedullary nailing of the tibial fracture and immediate soft tissue cover involved septocutaneous shift, i.e., shifting of fasciocutaneous segments based on septocutaneous perforators. Results: Primary fracture union rate was 50% and reoperation rate (bone stimulating procedures) was 50%. Overall fracture union rate was 100%. The rate of malunion was 14% and deep infection was 16%. Failure of septocutaneous shift was 2.7%. There was no incidence of amputation. Conclusion: Management of Gustilo Anderson III B open tibial fractures with “fix and shift” technique has resulted in better outcome in terms of skeletal factors (primary fracture union, overall union, and time for union and malunion) and soft tissue factors (wound healing, flap failure, access to secondary procedures, and esthetic appearance) when compared to standard methods adopted earlier. Hence, “fix and shift” could be recommended as one of the treatment modalities for open III B tibial fractures. PMID:28216752

  20. Tibial nerve intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Squires, Judy H; Emery, Kathleen H; Johnson, Neil; Sorger, Joel

    2014-04-01

    Intraneural ganglion cysts are uncommon cystic lesions of peripheral nerves that are typically encountered in adults. In the lower extremity, the peroneal nerve is most frequently affected with involvement of the tibial nerve much less common. This article describes a tibial intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy. Although extremely rare, intraneural ganglion cysts of the tibial nerve should be considered when a nonenhancing cystic structure with intra-articular extension is identified along the course of the nerve. This report also details the unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous treatment with US-guided cyst aspiration and steroid injection, an option recently reported as a viable alternative to open surgical resection.

  1. The effect of muscle contusion on cortical bone and muscle perfusion following reamed, intramedullary nailing: a novel canine tibia fracture model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Management of tibial fractures associated with soft tissue injury remains controversial. Previous studies have assessed perfusion of the fractured tibia and surrounding soft tissues in the setting of a normal soft tissue envelope. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of muscle contusion on blood flow to the tibial cortex and muscle during reamed, intramedullary nailing of a tibial fracture. Methods Eleven adult canines were distributed into two groups, Contusion or No-Contusion. The left tibia of each canine underwent segmental osteotomy followed by limited reaming and locked intramedullary nailing. Six of the 11 canines had the anterior muscle compartment contused in a standardized fashion. Laser doppler flowmetry was used to measure cortical bone and muscle perfusion during the index procedure and at 11 weeks post-operatively. Results Following a standardized contusion, muscle perfusion in the Contusion group was higher compared to the No-Contusion group at post-osteotomy and post-reaming (p < 0.05). Bone perfusion decreased to a larger extent in the Contusion group compared to the No-Contusion group following osteotomy (p < 0.05), and the difference in bone perfusion between the two groups remained significant throughout the entire procedure (p < 0.05). At 11 weeks, muscle perfusion was similar in both groups (p > 0.05). There was a sustained decrease in overall bone perfusion in the Contusion group at 11 weeks, compared to the No-Contusion group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Injury to the soft tissue envelope may have some deleterious effects on intraosseous circulation. This could have some influence on the fixation method for tibia fractures linked with significant soft tissue injury. PMID:21118566

  2. Idiopathic Transverse Myelitis Mimicking an Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Fanous, Andrew A.; Olszewski, Nathan P.; Lipinski, Lindsay J.; Qiu, Jingxin

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnoses for spinal cord lesions include spinal tumors and inflammatory processes. The distinction between these pathologies can be difficult if solely based on imaging. We report for the first time to our knowledge a case of idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM) mimicking a discrete cervical spinal lesion in a 66-year-old man who presented with gait instability and neck pain. The patient's symptoms failed to resolve after an initial course of steroid therapy. Surgical biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of ITM. Subsequent treatment with dexamethasone resulted in complete resolution of the symptoms as well as the intramedullary enhancement. ITM is most common in the cervical and thoracic spine, spanning 3-4 spinal segments. It usually occupies more than 50% of the cross-sectional area of the spinal cord and tends to be central, uniform, and symmetric. It exhibits patchy and peripheral contrast enhancement. These criteria are useful guidelines that help distinguish ITM from neoplastic spinal lesions. A decision to perform biopsy must take into consideration the patient's clinical symptoms, the rate of progression of neurological deficits, and the imaging characteristics of the lesion. Surgical biopsy for questionable lesions should be reserved for patients with progressive neurological deficits refractory to empirical medical therapy. PMID:27672469

  3. Study of the anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches in the distal medial leg

    PubMed Central

    Torres, André Leal Gonçalves; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine, through dissection in fresh cadavers, the topographic anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches at the ankle, in relation to the tarsal tunnel. Methods Bilateral dissections were performed on 26 fresh cadavers and the locations of the tibial nerve bifurcation and its branches were measured in millimeters. For the calcaneal branches, the amount and their respective nerves of origin were also analyzed. Results The tibial nerve bifurcation occurred under the tunnel in 88% of the cases and proximally in 12%. As for the calcaneal branches, the medial presented with one (58%), two (34%) and three (8%) branches, with the most common source occurring in the tibial nerve (90%) and the lower with a single branch per leg and lateral plantar nerve as the most common origin (70%). Level of Evidence, V Expert opinion. PMID:24453596

  4. Spinal lobular capillary hemangioma with an intramedullary component.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Ricardo; Spears, Julian; Bharatha, Aditya; Munoz, David G

    2014-01-01

    Capillary hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms rarely involving the spinal cord, where their usual location is extramedullary. A 59-year-old man presented with a 7-month history of progressive numbness which began in the left lower extremity and progressed across the lower back, right flank, trunk and into the right lower extremity with associated pressure and pain in his lower back. On magnetic resonance imaging, there was an avidly-enhancing thoracic intradural lesion that contained an extramedullary intradural component posteriorly, with an apparent intramedullary component anteriorly. Laminectomy of T7 - 8 was performed, and intradural exploration revealed a highly vascular-appearing tumor below the arachnoid, which was not completely dissected because it was densely adherent to the spinal cord. The pathological diagnosis was lobular capillary hemangioma with extra- and intramedullary components. We suggest this lesion should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord tumors with an intramedullary component.

  5. Intramedullary spinal cord primitive neuroectodermal tumor presenting with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, George A; Siozos, George; Stefanaki, Kalliopi; Moschovi, Maria; Prodromou, Neofytos

    2013-02-01

    Spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumors are exceedingly rare. Herewith, we present the first case of an intramedullary spinal cord tumor associated with hydrocephalus in a 2-month-old boy that presented with left hemiparesis. The patient had been diagnosed on prenatal ultrasound with enlarged ventricular system. At his current admission, a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hydrocephalus and an intramedullary lesion extending from the second cervical to the first thoracic vertebrae. Dissemination of the tumor was revealed intracranially and in the spinal canal. After a ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement a radical resection of the tumor was performed, however some small tumor remnants could not be safely removed. Postoperative there was no neurologic deterioration. The tumor was diagnosed as a central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor (World Health Organization grade IV). Spinal intramedullary primitive neuroectodermal tumors are extremely rare. In such rare tumors, multiinstitutional studies are needed for treatment guidelines to be established.

  6. Osteochondroma of the Tibial Sesamoid: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Kazuo; Hakozaki, Michiyuki; Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi; Yabuki, Shoji; Konno, Shin-Ichi

    2017-02-15

    Osteochondroma, one of the most common benign bone tumors, frequently occurs in the metaphysis of the long bones. We report an extremely rare case of osteochondroma that occurred in the tibial sesamoid. The patient was a 62-year-old Japanese male. He presented with a 1-year history of pain and a hard mass on the plantar aspect of the right forefoot sole. The osteochondroma protruded toward the sole from the tibial sesamoid, leading to pain on weightbearing. After tibial sesamoidectomy, the patient's symptoms were eliminated, and no pain or complications such as hallux valgus occurred after the surgery. Although a potential risk exists of postoperative hallux valgus deformity, tibial sesamoidectomy seems to be an appropriate surgical option for both osteochondroma and bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation to avoid residual pain or local recurrence.

  7. Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of the Tibial Plateau Through the Anterolateral Approach.

    PubMed

    Hake, Mark E; Goulet, James A

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are challenging injuries to treat. The lateral tibial plateau is fractured more commonly than the medial plateau and the workhorse approach for these fractures is the anterolateral approach. This approach allows visualization of the lateral joint, metaphysis, and can be extensile if there is shaft extension. We present our technique for performing the anterolateral approach while treating a Schatzker III tibial plateau fracture. Special attention is given to performing a submeniscal arthrotomy to view the joint surface and judge the reduction. A femoral distractor is placed to assist with elevation the joint surface and visualization of the lateral plateau. A cortical window is created using a triple reamer from the sliding hip screw set. The reduction is performed and supported with cancellous bone chips. Finally, a lateral locking plate with rafting screws is placed. Knowledge of this approach and the strategies needed to address lateral and some bicondlar tibial plateau fractures are crucial to good patient outcomes.

  8. Automated fit quantification of tibial nail designs during the insertion using computer three-dimensional modelling.

    PubMed

    Amarathunga, Jayani P; Schuetz, Michael A; Yarlagadda, Prasad Kvd; Schmutz, Beat

    2014-12-01

    Intramedullary nailing is the standard fixation method for displaced diaphyseal fractures of the tibia. An optimal nail design should both facilitate insertion and anatomically fit the bone geometry at its final position in order to reduce the risk of stress fractures and malalignments. Due to the nonexistence of suitable commercial software, we developed a software tool for the automated fit assessment of nail designs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that an optimised nail, which fits better at the final position, is also easier to insert. Three-dimensional models of two nail designs and 20 tibiae were used. The fitting was quantified in terms of surface area, maximum distance, sum of surface areas and sum of maximum distances by which the nail was protruding into the cortex. The software was programmed to insert the nail into the bone model and to quantify the fit at defined increment levels. On average, the misfit during the insertion in terms of the four fitting parameters was smaller for the Expert Tibial Nail Proximal bend (476.3 mm(2), 1.5 mm, 2029.8 mm(2), 6.5 mm) than the Expert Tibial Nail (736.7 mm(2), 2.2 mm, 2491.4 mm(2), 8.0 mm). The differences were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The software could be used by nail implant manufacturers for the purpose of implant design validation.

  9. Tibial lengthening for unilateral Crowe type-IV developmental dysplasia of the hip

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jun; Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Ling, Lin; Fan, Jing; Li, Zhi-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is associated with chronic pain and limping which especially has a negative impact on the patients’ daily activities, body image, and self-esteem. Although total hip arthroplasty remains the first choice for treatment of DDH in adults, minimally invasive alternative approaches are being increasingly favored both by the surgeon and the patients with severe DDH. This study aimed to evaluate the outcome of these patients treated with a mono-lateral external fixator-based tibial lengthening procedure. Materials and Methods: During the period of month between June 1999 and January 2006, 13 (mean ages 20.8 years) adult patients with unilateral Crowe type-IV DDH were treated by tibial lengthening using a mono-lateral external fixator over an intramedullary nail. Bone healing, infection, gait correction and improvement in body image were assessed during postoperative followup. Patients’ overall health status at the end of followup was assessed using the short form-36 (SF-36) health survey. Results: Patients were followed up for an average of 7.3 years. Successful bone healing was observed in all 13 patients and no further surgeries were indicated. A mean external fixation index of 12.4 days/cm was achieved. Bone formation fell in good to excellent categories with a mean consolidation index of 50.1 days/cm. Pin-tract infections were observed in two patients. The degree of limping was reduced from severe or moderate preoperatively to mild postoperatively. Neither equinus deformity nor painful degenerative osteoarthritis and hip dysfunction were observed in any of the patients studied. The SF-36 questionnaire survey showed that all patients were satisfied with their outcomes. Conclusions: Tibial lengthening may effectively correct gait and satisfactorily improve body image in young patients with unilateral Crowe type-IV DDH. Mono-lateral external fixator allows for accelerated postoperative rehabilitation and optimal

  10. A Staged Surgical Treatment Outcome of Type 3 Open Tibial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Uysal, Emin; Özmeriç, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Aim. In these case series which are about type 3 open tibial fractures formed with three different high energy trauma etiologies in different parts of tibia. We aimed to assess our three-stage treatment approach and discuss final results of our elective surgery management with three different fixation methods. Patients and Methods. We assessed 19 patients with type 3 open tibial fractures between 2009 and 2012. Our treatment protocol consisted of three stages. Early intervention in operating room, which including vascular repairs or soft tissue closure, was done if necessary. Definitive surgery was performed using internal or external fixation in the first 15 days. Patients were followed up for at least one year. Last conditions of all our cases were evaluated according to modified Johner and Wruhs criteria. Results. Nine cases were type 3A, seven cases were type 3B, and three cases were type 3C in terms of fracture typing. All patients were followed up for at least one year and mean follow up time was 15 months. In terms of functional and clinical outcome, six cases were evaluated as excellent, eight cases as good, two cases as fair, and three cases as poor. Discussion. Staged treatment option in type 3 open tibial fractures seems to be a good method in reducing complication and achieving the best result. We think that definitive staged treatment protocol including internal fixation with plating or intramedullary nailing (IMN) of the fractures is a reliable method, especially to avoid complications as a result of external fixator and to provide patient rapport. PMID:24967129

  11. Solitary Intramedullary Plasmacytoma of the Skull Base Mimicking Aggressive Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Joel R.; Roychowdhury, Sudipta; Cybulski, George; Russell, Eric J.

    1997-01-01

    The authors present an unusual case of solitary intramedullary plasmacytoma. Awareness of this entity can facilitate appropriate surgical planning, which may include a limited biopsy prior to considering more extensive skull base surgery. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:17170997

  12. [Intramedullary spinal cord cavernous hemangiomas: clinical features and surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Ken; Nakamura, Masaya

    2011-01-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord cavernous hemangiomas (angiomas) are occult vascular malformations characterized by rare lesions consisting of closely packed capillary-like vessels. In general, patients with this disease become symptomatic because of hemorrhage leads to progressive neurological deficits. Therefore, surgical tumor resection should be considered for symptomatic patients should be considered a surgical tumor resection.

  13. A comparison of the compressive strength of various distal locking screw options in the treatment of tibia fractures with intramedullary nails.

    PubMed

    Xavier, F; Goldwyn, E; Hayes, W; Carrer, A; Elkhechen, R; Berdichevsky, M; Goldman, A; Urban, W; Saha, S

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of distal metaphyseal tibia fractures is often challenging. Newer tibial intramedullary (IM) nails are designed with a wider variety of distal locking options to offer greater stability in treating these fractures. In this study we attempted to determine the most biomechanically stable number and configuration of distal locking screws when treating distal metaphyseal tibia fractures with IM nails. A transverse osteotomy was created 4 cm from the tibial plafond in identical composite saw bones models (Type 43A fracture) as well as in human cadaveric bones. Each specimen was nailed using a tibial nail (Stryker T2). Distal locking was performed in one of the three configurations: (a) Group I: two screws in the medial lateral (ML) direction; (b) Group II: one ML screw and one screw in the anterior posterior (AP) direction; (c) Group 111: two ML screws and one AP screw. The specimens were then mounted onto a uniaxial material testing machine (Instron) and tested in compression. Our results showed that there was no statistical difference in the load-carrying capacity of Group 1 and Group II. This suggests that the treating surgeon can choose either of these two configurations depending on the wound or other considerations without sacrificing the compressive load-carrying capacity of the IM nail fixation. The load-carrying capacity of the Group III samples with these locking screws was higher than those of Group I & II, although this difference was not statistically significant. This work is being continued to compare the load-carrying capacity of the bone samples with the cortical thickness of bone. We also plan to examine the relationship between the load-carrying capacity of these surgical constructs with the bone mineral density of the metaphysis of these tibial specimens.

  14. Elastic intramedullary nailing and DBM-Bone marrow injection for the treatment of simple bone cysts

    PubMed Central

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios D; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2007-01-01

    Background Simple or unicameral bone cysts are common benign fluid-filled lesions usually located at the long bones of children before skeletal maturity. Methods We performed demineralized bone matrix and iliac crest bone marrow injection combined with elastic intramedullary nailing for the treatment of simple bone cysts in long bones of 9 children with a mean age of 12.6 years (range, 4 to 15 years). Results Two of the 9 patients presented with a pathological fracture. Three patients had been referred after the failure of previous treatments. Four patients had large lesions with impending pathological fractures that interfered with daily living activities. We employed a ratio to ascertain the severity of the lesion. The extent of the lesion on the longitudinal axis was divided with the normal expected diameter of the long bone at the site of the lesion. The mean follow-up was 77 months (range, 5 to 8 years). All patients were pain free and had full range of motion of the adjacent joints at 6 weeks postoperatively. Review radiographs showed that all 7 cysts had consolidated completely (Neer stage I) and 2 cysts had consolidated partially (Neer stage II). Until the latest examination there was no evidence of fracture or re-fracture. Conclusion Elastic intramedullary nailing has the twofold benefits of continuous cyst decompression, and early immediate stability to the involved bone segment, which permits early mobilization and return to the normal activities of the pre-teen patients. PMID:17916249

  15. Current approaches to flexible intramedullary nailing for bone lengthening in children.

    PubMed

    Popkov, Dmitry; Lascombes, Pierre; Journeau, Pierre; Popkov, Arnold

    2016-12-01

    Limb-length discrepancies and extremity deformities are among the most common non-traumatic orthopaedic conditions for which children are hospitalised. There is a need to develop new treatment options for lower-limb length discrepancy in order to ameliorate treatment outcomes, avoid or reduce rates of complication and provide early rehabilitation. The authors report on the basic principles, experimental and clinical data, advantages, problems and complications of a combined technique associating the Ilizarov method and flexible intramedullary nailing (FIN) in limb lengthening and deformity correction in children. They describe features of the use of hydroxyapatite-coated intramedullary nails in patients with certain metabolic bone disorders and in cases where bone consolidation has been compromised. The advantages of bone lengthening using a combined technique (circular fixator plus FIN) are a lower healing index, quicker distraction-consolidation, a reduced rate of septic and bone complications, the ability to correct deformities gradually and the increased stability of bone fragments during the external fixation period and after frame removal.

  16. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture.

    PubMed

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; Dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; Dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome.

  17. Bilateral double level tibial lengthening in dwarfism☆

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Rolf D.; Yoshino, Koichi; Kashiwagi, Naoya; Yoshino, Shigeo; Bhave, Anil; Paley, Dror; Herzenberg, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Outcome assessment after double level tibial lengthening in patients with dwarfism. Methods Fourteen patients with dwarfism were analyzed after bilateral simultaneous double level tibial lengthening. Results Average age was 15.1 years. Average lengthening was 13.5 cm. The two levels were lengthened by an average of 7.5 cm proximally and 6.0 cm distally. Concomitant deformities were also addressed during lengthening. External fixation treatment time averaged 8.8 months. Healing index averaged 0.7 months/cm. Conclusion Bilateral tibial lengthening for dwarfism is difficult, but the results are usually quite gratifying. PMID:26566326

  18. Distal realignment (tibial tuberosity transfer).

    PubMed

    Feller, Julian Ashley

    2012-09-01

    Although tibial tuberosity (TT) transfer has for many years been the basis of many protocols for the management of patellar instability, the role of pure medial transfer in particular appears to be declining. In contrast, the greater recognition of the importance of patella alta as a predisposing factor to recurrent patellar dislocation has resulted in a resurgence in the popularity of distal TT transfer. When TT transfer is performed, the direction and amount of transfer is based on the patellar height and the lateralization of the TT relative to the trochlear groove. Patellar height is best assessed on a lateral radiograph with the knee in flexion using a ratio that uses the articular surface of the patella in relation to the height above the tibia. Assessment of lateralization of the TT relative to the trochlear groove can be made using either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans.

  19. [Retrograde nailing in a tibial fracture].

    PubMed

    Valls-Mellado, M; Martí-Garín, D; Fillat-Gomà, F; Marcano-Fernández, F A; González-Vargas, J A

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of a severely comminuted type iiia open tibial fracture, with distal loss of bone stock (7 cm), total involvement of the tibial joint surface, and severe instability of the fibular-talar joint. The treatment performed consisted of thorough cleansing, placing a retrograde reamed calcaneal-talar-tibial nail with proximal and distal blockage, as well as a fibular-talar Kirschner nail. Primary closure of the skin was achieved. After 3 weeks, an autologous iliac crest bone graft was performed to fill the bone defect, and the endomedullary nail, which had protruded distally was reimpacted and dynamized distally. The bone defect was eventually consolidated after 16 weeks. Currently, the patient can walk without pain the tibial-astragal arthrodesis is consolidated.

  20. Fat embolism syndrome after nailing an isolated open tibial fracture in a stable patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fat embolism syndrome is a potentially fatal complication of long bone fractures. It is usually seen in the context of polytrauma or a femoral fracture. There are few reports of fat embolism syndrome occurring after isolated long bone fractures other than those of the femur. Case presentation We describe a case of fat embolism syndrome in a 33-year-old Caucasian man. He was being seen for an isolated Gustilo’s grade II open tibial fracture. He was deemed clinically stable, so we proceeded to treat the fracture with intramedullary reamed nailing. He developed fat embolism syndrome intraoperatively and was treated successfully. Conclusion This case caused us to question the use of injury severity scoring for isolated long bone fractures. It suggests that parameters that have been described in the literature other than that the patient is apparently clinically stable should be used to establish the best time for nailing a long bone fracture, thereby improving patient safety. PMID:24731759

  1. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    that greater tibial varum would be associated with stress fractures (especially tibial) secondary to the increased bending moment on the leg. 26 9 8 -35...increased at the post- injury visit. These shear loading rates indicate the magnitude of bending loads that the lower extremity is subject to, in addition to...the compressive loading that occurs during initial weight acceptance in stance. It has been shown that anterior-posterior bending strength is related

  2. Atypical tibial tuberosity fracture in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Jalgaonkar, Azal A; Dachepalli, Sunil; Al-Wattar, Zaid; Rao, Sudhir; Kochhar, Tony

    2011-06-14

    Avulsion fractures of the tibial tuberosity are typically sustained by adolescent males during sporting activities. Tibial tuberosity avulsions with simultaneous proximal tibial epiphyseal fractures are rare injuries. We present an unusual case of Ogden type IIIA avulsion fracture of tibial tuberosity with a Salter Harris type IV posterior fracture of proximal tibial epiphysis in a 13-year-old boy. We believe that the patient sustained the tibial tuberosity avulsion during the take-off phase of a jump while playing basketball due to sudden violent contraction of the quadriceps as the knee was extending. This was then followed by the posterior Salter Harris type IV fracture of proximal tibial physis as he landed on his leg with enormous forces passing through the knee. Although standard radiographs were helpful in diagnosing the complex fracture pattern, precise configuration was only established by computed tomography (CT) scan. The scan also excluded well-recognized concomitant injuries including ligament and meniscal injuries. Unlike other reported cases, our patient did not have compartment syndrome. Anatomic reduction and stabilization with a partially threaded transepiphyseal cannulated screw and a metaphyseal screw followed by early mobilization ensured an excellent recovery by the patient.Our case highlights the importance of vigilance and a high index of suspicion for coexisting fractures or soft tissue injuries when treating avulsion fractures of tibial tuberosity. A CT scan is justified in such patients to recognize complex fracture configurations, and surgical treatment should be directed appropriately to both the fractures followed by early rehabilitation. Patients with such injuries warrant close monitoring for compartment syndrome during the perioperative period.

  3. Optimizing femorotibial alignment in high tibial osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Rudan, John; Harrison, Mark; Simurda, Michael A

    Objective To study factors that affect femorotibial (F-T) alignment after valgus closing wedge tibial osteotomy. Study design A review of standardized standing radiographs. Femorotibial alignment was measured 1 year postoperatively for over- and under-correction. Changes in F–T alignment and in tibial plateau angle were measured. Setting An urban hospital and orthopedic clinic. Patients Eighty-two patients with osteoarthritis and varus femorotibial alignment underwent valgus closing wedge tibial osteotomy. Patients having a diagnosis of inflammatory arthritis or a prior osteotomy about the knee were excluded. Results A 1° wedge removed from the tibia resulted in an average correction of F–T alignment of 1.2°. A knee that had increased valgus orientation of the distal femur had a greater degree of correction, averaging 1.46° in F–T alignment per degree of tibial wedge. This resulted in excessive postoperative valgus alignment for some patients who had increased valgus tilt of the distal femur. Optimal F–T alignment of 6° to 14° of valgus occurred when the postoperative tibial inclination was 4° to 8° of valgus. Conclusions There was a trend for knees with increased valgus orientation of the distal femur to have greater correction in F–T alignment after tibial osteotomy, likely because of a greater opening up of the medial joint space during stance. Surgeons need to account for this in their preoperative planning. PMID:10526522

  4. Radiation myelopathy of cervical spinal cord simulating intramedullary neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Fogelholm, R.; Haltia, M.; Andersson, L. C.

    1974-01-01

    Radiation myelopathy is a well-known complication of irradiation therapy of neoplasms in the vicinity of the spinal cord. Most earlier authors have stressed the association of a normal myelogram and normal CSF protein level with this condition. One case of radiation myelopathy with a myelogram simulating intramedullary neoplasm and with extremely high CSF protein concentration is presented. Six months after myelography necropsy revealed severe atrophy of the previously thickened lower cervical spinal cord. The pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed. Images PMID:4443812

  5. Intramedullary tumor metastasis simulating radiation myelitis: report of a case

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, L.; Smith, M.E.; Fortuin, F.D.; Chin, F.K.; Liebel, S.A.; Hill, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    A case of suspected radiation myelitis based on clinical history, previous irradiation, neurologic deficit in the irradiated volume, and normal myelogram is reported. At autopsy, intramedullary metastatic disease was found, but not radiation damage. All radiation details must be considered before making the diagnosis of radiation myelitis with confidence. It is important not to exclude other potentially helpful treatment, such as surgery or chemotherapy, by the presumptive diagnosis of radiation myelitis.

  6. Elastic stable intramedullary nailing of midclavicular fractures in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jubel, A; Andemahr, J; Bergmann, H; Prokop, A; Rehm, K; Fay, M

    2003-01-01

    Background: Intramedullary fixation of midclavicular fractures may be a better option than non-operative treatment for high performance/professional athletes because of the potential reduction in recovery time. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of intramedullary fixation in high performance athletes and the time required to return to sporting activity. Methods: Data were taken from a prospective study on intramedullary fixation techniques using the elastic stable Ti nail (TEN, Synthes) for the treatment of displaced midclavicular fractures, initiated in 1996. The patients in 12 cases were classified as high performance/professional athletes. These cases were used to evaluate the technique specifically in this population. Fractures were classified according to the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) system. Patients were evaluated before and after surgery for shoulder function and subjective pain. After the operation, radiological assessments documented fracture healing, and clinical outcomes scores were obtained. Time required to return to training and competition was documented. Results: All fractures were transverse or oblique. Mean (SD) shoulder abduction increased from 36.3 (8)° before surgery to 154.2 (17)° afterwards (p<0.001). Mean subjective pain score using a visual analogue scale (0–100) decreased from 71.7 (18) points before surgery to 19.2 (6) points (p<0.001) three days after. There were no complications. Hospital stay averaged 2.9 (1) days. Mean delay to resumption of training was 5.9 (1) days, and to resumption of competition it was 16.8 (5) days. The mean Constant clinical outcomes score one year after hardware removal was 98.3 (2) points. Conclusions: Intramedullary fixation of displaced midclavicular fracture was successful in terms of clinical outcome and rapid resumption of sporting activities. This treatment should be offered to athletes as an alternative to non-operative treatment. PMID:14665582

  7. Elastic robust intramedullary nailing for forearm fracture in children

    PubMed Central

    Aidelsburger, Pamela; Grabein, Kristin; Huber, Alois; Hertlein, Hans; Wasem, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    Background Forearm fractures are the most common fractures in children (23% of all fractures). Basically there are two treatment options available for diaphyseal forearm fractures in children: closed reduction with cast immobilisation (conservative therapy) and the elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN). Treatment decision is influenced by the doctor's estimation of fracture instability. Stable fractures can be treated conservatively whereas instable forearm shaft fractures can be treated according the following three treatment strategies: conservative therapy in an outpatient setting conservative therapy in the operating room in attendance to change to ESIN in case that no stabilisation can be achieved with cast immobilisation immediate treatment with ESIN in the operating room. Objectives Aim of this Health Technology Assessment (HTA) report is to assess and report the published evidence concerning effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ESIN as a treatment option for diaphyseal forearm fractures in children and to identify future research need. Important parameters for the assessment of effectiveness are objective parameters (axis deviation, losses of motion, and numbers of reductions in case of redislocations) and subjective parameters (pain or impairment in quality of life). Furthermore, a health economic evaluation shall be done which refers to the costs of the different therapy strategies. Methods An extensive, systematic literature search in medical, economic, and HTA literature databases was performed. Relevant data were extracted and synthesised. Results Three cohort studies and seven case series have been identified. Controlled clinical studies, systematic reviews and/or HTA reports that gave evidence to answer the own study question have not been found. The identified studies partly differed in respect of defined indication for ESIN, study population and treatment strategies. For that reason comparability of results was limited. In the majority of

  8. The location of the tibial accelerometer does influence impact acceleration parameters during running.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Encarnación-Martínez, Alberto; Camacho-García, Andrés; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro

    2016-10-03

    Tibial accelerations have been associated with a number of running injuries. However, studies attaching the tibial accelerometer on the proximal section are as numerous as those attaching the accelerometer on the distal section. This study aimed to investigate whether accelerometer location influences acceleration parameters commonly reported in running literature. To fulfil this purpose, 30 athletes ran at 2.22, 2.78 and 3.33 m · s(-1) with three accelerometers attached with double-sided tape and tightened to the participants' tolerance on the forehead, the proximal section of the tibia and the distal section of the tibia. Time-domain (peak acceleration, shock attenuation) and frequency-domain parameters (peak frequency, peak power, signal magnitude and shock attenuation in both the low and high frequency ranges) were calculated for each of the tibial locations. The distal accelerometer registered greater tibial acceleration peak and shock attenuation compared to the proximal accelerometer. With respect to the frequency-domain analysis, the distal accelerometer provided greater values of all the low-frequency parameters, whereas no difference was observed for the high-frequency parameters. These findings suggest that the location of the tibial accelerometer does influence the acceleration signal parameters, and thus, researchers should carefully consider the location they choose to place the accelerometer so that equivalent comparisons across studies can be made.

  9. Determinants of re-operation following tibia intramedullary nailing at a tertiary hospital in south-west Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Esan, Oluwadare; Toluse, Adetunji Mapaderun; Ashaolu, Oludare Uriel; Orimolade, Ayodele Elkanah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction intramedullary nailing is a method of choice in the management of long bone diaphyseal fractures. However, complications necessitating re-operation may arise. This study was aimed at determining the rate and indications for re-operation following intramedullary nailing of tibia shaft fractures. Methods it was a cross-sectional study done at Orthopaedic Department of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife in Southwest Nigeria. Records of patients who had interlocking nailing for tibia shaft fracture between 2005 and March 2013 were retrieved. Variables of interest extracted included aetiology of fracture, type of fracture, cadre of surgeon and indication for re-operation. Frequency distribution and chi-square analysis were done using SPSS version 22. Level of statistical significance was determined at p-value <0.05 Results One hundred and forty-six patients had tibia nailing done during the study period. Eighty-six patients met the study criteria with male to female ratio of 2.6:1. There were 51 (59.3%) with open fractures and 35 (40.7%) with closed fractures. Ten patients had re-operation giving a re-operation rate of 11.6 %. Two most common indications for re-operation included loose screw 3 (25%) and surgical site infection (SSI) 3 (25%). There was no statistically significant association between rate of re-operation and the cadre of surgeon (p=0.741) and type of fracture whether closed or open (p=0.190). Conclusion Re-operation following tibia intramedullary nailing is an ever present risk. Precautions should be taken to prevent the common indications such as loose screw and surgical site infections. PMID:28293366

  10. Intramedullary capillary hemangioma of the thoracic spine: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kasukurthi, Rahul; Ray, Wilson Z; Blackburn, Spiros L; Lusis, Eriks A; Santiago, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Capillary hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms. When associated with the spine, these growths frequently involve the vertebral body, but rarely have they been reported to occur as intradural lesions, while even more rarely occurring in a true intramedullary location. We report a rare case of an intramedullary capillary hemangioma of the thoracic spinal cord and a review of the literature. PMID:21139881

  11. Disseminated Tuberculosis of Central Nervous System : Spinal Intramedullary and Intracranial Tuberculomas

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yu Seok; Kim, Min Ki; Lim, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    As a cause of spinal cord compression, intramedullary spinal tuberculoma with central nervous system (CNS) involvement is rare. Aurthors report a 66-year-old female presented with multiple CNS tuberculomas including spinal intramedullary tuberculoma manifesting paraparesis and urinary dysfunction. We review the clinical menifestation and experiences of previous reported literature. PMID:24044085

  12. Osteochondritis of the Distal Tibial Epiphysis

    PubMed Central

    EL Hajj, Firass; Sebaaly, Amer; Kharrat, Khalil; Ghanem, Ismat

    2012-01-01

    Osteochondritis of the distal tibial epiphysis is a very rare entity. 9 cases have been described in 7 articles and 8 other cases have been mentioned in textbooks. This paper describes the 10th case of osteochondritis of the distal tibial epiphysis and summarizes the clinical and radiological presentations of the 9 other cases. The etiology of this entity is well debated in the literature. We believe that it results from a vascular abnormality in the distal tibial epiphysis associated with a mechanical stress (trauma, excessive overload, etc.). Since it is a self-limited disease, the prognosis is good and the younger the patient is the better the prognosis will be. In general, this entity responds well to conservative treatment. PMID:23193412

  13. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture☆

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  14. The importance of tibial alignment: finite element analysis of tibial malalignment.

    PubMed

    Perillo-Marcone, A; Barrett, D S; Taylor, M

    2000-12-01

    The influence of the tibial plateau orientation on cancellous bone stress was examined by finite element analysis for a cemented device. The objectives of the study were i) to examine the effect of the plateau-ankle angle on the cancellous bone stress, ii) to analyze the significance of the anteroposterior angles of the tibial component on these stresses, and iii) to compare the finite element predictions with clinical data. In general, positioning the tibial plateau in valgus resulted in lower cancellous bone stresses. These results support previous clinical studies, which suggest that overall alignment in valgus results in lower migration rates and lower incidence of loosening.

  15. Injury to the Anterior Tibial Artery during Bicortical Tibial Drilling in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Bum; Lim, Jin Woo; Seo, Jeong Gook

    2016-01-01

    Many complications have been reported during or after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, including infection, bleeding, tibial tunnel widening, arthrofibrosis, and graft failure. However, arterial injury has been rarely reported. This paper reports a case of an anterior tibial arterial injury during bicortical tibial drilling in arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, associated with an asymptomatic occlusion of the popliteal artery. The patient had a vague pain which led to delayed diagnosis of compartment syndrome and delayed treatment with fasciotomy. All surgeons should be aware of these rare but critical complications because the results may be disastrous like muscle necrosis as in this case. PMID:26929808

  16. Do Capacity Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    DAMD17-98-1-8519 TITLE: Do Capacity Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Do Capacity Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing 5b. GRANT NUMBER...To determine the effect of capacitively coupled electric field stimulation on tibial stress fracture healing in men and women. Methods: A

  17. Insufficiency fractures of the tibial plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Manco, L.G.; Schneider, R.; Pavlov, H.

    1983-06-01

    An insufficiency fracture of the tibial plateau may be the cause of knee pain in patients with osteoporosis. The diagnosis is usually not suspected until a bone scan is done, as initial radiographs are often negative or inconclusive and clinical findings are nonspecific and may simulate osteoarthritis or spontaneous osteonecrosis. In five of 165 patients referred for bone scans due to nontraumatic knee pain, a characteristic pattern of intense augmented uptake of radionuclide confined to the tibial plateau led to a presumptive diagnosis of insufficiency fracture, later confirmed on radiographs.

  18. Fracture of tibial tuberosity in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires e; Campos, André Siqueira; de Araújo, Gabriel Costa Serrão; Gameiro, Vinícius Schott

    2013-01-01

    The fracture of tibial tuberosity is a rare lesion and still more unusual in adults. We describe a case in an adult who suffered a left knee injury due to a fall from height. No risk factors were identified. The lesion was treated with surgical reduction and internal fixation. The rehabilitation method was successful, resulting in excellent function and rage of motion of the knee. The aim of this study was to present an unusual case of direct trauma of the tibial tuberosity in an adult and the therapy performed. PMID:24293543

  19. Do CT scans aid assessment of distal tibial physeal fractures?

    PubMed

    Cutler, L; Molloy, A; Dhukuram, V; Bass, A

    2004-03-01

    Distal tibial physeal fractures are the second most common growth plate injury and the most common cause of growth arrest and deformity. This study assesses the accuracy of pre-operative planning for placement of the screws in these fractures using either standard radiographs or CT scans. We studied 62 consecutive physeal fractures over a period of four years. An outline of a single cut of the CT scan was used for each patient. An ideal position for the screw was determined as being perpendicular to and at the midpoint of the fracture. The difference in entry point and direction of the screw between the ideal and the observers' assessments were compared using the paired Student's t-test. There was a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.0001) in the accuracy of the point of insertion and the direction of the screw on the pre-operative plan when CT scans were used rather than plain radiographs. We would, therefore, recommend that CT scans are routinely used in the pre-operative assessment and treatment of distal tibial physeal fractures.

  20. Condylar intramedullary intraosseous lipoma: Contribution of a new case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Alicia; Garcia, Blas; Alamillos, Francisco; Roldan, Elisa; Blanco, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background Lipoma is the most common benign tumour of the human body, being intraosseous involvement very rare. Just 1 to 4% of all cases of lipoma are located in the oral cavity, only 0.1% being intraosseous. The jaw is its most uncommon bone location. Etiology of intraosseous lipoma (IOL) is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. Usually asymptomatic, the symptoms, when present, will depend on its location and size. Its origin may be intraosseous or juxtacortical. A biopsy is essential for diagnosis, and definitive treatment involves resection or curettage of the lesion. The aim of this paper is to present a new case of intramedullary intraosseous lipoma of the mandible with involvement of the left mandibular ramus and condylar neck. Material and Methods A case of intramedullary intraosseous lipoma (IOL) on the left mandibular ramus and condyle is presented. No history of trauma in temporomandibular joint existed. The radiology showed a radiolucent multi-lobulated lesion with values of attenuation in the range of fat. Curettage is performed and the histopathology showed a conglomerate of adipocytes without trabeculae, calcifications or atypia. Results According to the bibliography 24 cases of mandibular IOL have been described. This is the second reported case of condylar involvement and the first with cortical expansion. Conclusions Lipoma intraosseous is a very rare benign bone neoplasm. Histology is required for the differential diagnosis from other radiolucent lesions. The IOL treatment is the curettage with a good prognosis, although malignant transformation to liposarcoma has been reported in other locations. It is a disease with a difficult differential diagnosis, therefore the publication of new cases is important. Key words:Intraosseous lipoma, lipoma, jaw tumour, condylar tumour. PMID:28298998

  1. Tibial plateau fracture following gracilis-semitendinosus anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: The tibial tunnel stress-riser.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, R O; Cohen, D; Barton-Hanson, N

    2006-06-01

    Tibial plateau fractures following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are extremely rare. This is the first reported case of a tibial plateau fracture following four-strand gracilis-semitendinosus autograft ACL reconstruction. The tibial tunnel alone may behave as a stress riser which can significantly reduce bone strength.

  2. Intramedullary Nailing Versus Plate Fixation for the Treatment Displaced Midshaft Clavicular Fractures: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nasir; Sermer, Corey; Prusick, Parker J.; Banfield, Laura; Atrey, Amit; Bhandari, Mohit

    2016-01-01

    The two commonly performed surgical techniques used to repair displaced midshaft clavicle fractures are plate fixation or intramedullary nailing; however, despite recent evidence, the optimal method to treat such fractures remains a continued topic of debate. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate long term function, complications, and operative duration in adult patients receiving intramedullary nailing in comparison to plating. Seven RCTs and three quasi-randomized trials were included. No significant difference was found in long-term function between the two groups (MD: −0.66, 95% CI: −2.03 to 0.71, I2 = 62%, p = 0.34). Patients who received plating had a 2.19 times increased risk of treatment failure, but this failed to reach significance (95% CI: 0.93 to 5.15, I2 = 0%, p = 0.07). The risk of non-operative complications was 2.11 times higher in patients who received plating and this reached statistical significance (95% CI: 1.38 to 3.23, I2 = 53%, p = 0.0006). Finally, plating significantly prolonged operative duration by 20.16 minutes (95% CI: 16.87 to 23.44, I2 = 56%, p < 0.00001). Our results suggest that intramedullary nailing and plating provide equivalent long-term functional outcomes; however, plating may lead to a higher risk of treatment failure and non-operative complications. PMID:27762393

  3. Chronic shin splints. Classification and management of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Detmer, D E

    1986-01-01

    A clinical classification and treatment programme has been developed for chronic medial tibial stress syndrome. Medial tibial stress syndrome has been reported to be either tibial stress fracture or microfracture, tibial periostitis, or distal deep posterior chronic compartment syndrome. Three chronic types exist and may coexist: Type I (tibial microfracture, bone stress reaction or cortical fracture); type II (periostalgia from chronic avulsion of the periosteum at the periosteal-fascial junction); and type III (chronic compartment syndrome syndrome). Type I disease is treated nonoperatively. Operations for resistant types II and III medial tibial stress syndrome were performed in 41 patients. Bilaterality was common (type II, 50% type III, 88%). Seven had coexistent type II/III; one had type I/II. Preoperative symptoms averaged 24 months in type II, 6 months in type III, and 33 months in types II/III. Mean age was 22 years (15 to 51). Resting compartment pressures were normal in type II (mean 12 mm Hg) and elevated in type III and type II/III (mean 23 mm Hg). Type II and type II/III patients received fasciotomy plus periosteal cauterisation. Type III patients had fasciotomy only. All procedures were performed on an outpatient basis using local anaesthesia. Follow up was complete and averaged 6 months (2 to 14 months). Improved performance was as follows: type II, 93%, type III, 100%; type II/III, 86%. Complete cures were as follows: type II, 78%; type III, 75%; and type II/III, 57%. This experience suggests that with precise diagnosis and treatment involving minimal risk and cost the athlete has a reasonable chance of return to full activity.

  4. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    Gluteal strain/ tendinitis Greater trochanteritis TOTAL Groin sfrain/ tendinitis Hip/ groin injury other Pelvic sfress fracture 32 19 Thigh...Medial collateral sfrain 79 28 27 Medial plica syndrome 1 Patellar tendinitis 7 Patellofemoral pain syndrome 16 Pes Anserinus tendinitis 1...Knee other 24 Lower leg TOTAL 127 Achilles tendinitis 19 Acute fibular fracture 3 Acute tibial fracture 1 Anterior compartment syndrome 7

  5. [Post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the anterior tibial artery secondary to tibial shaft fracture. Case report].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Salazar, J; Tovar-López, J; Hernández-Rodríguez, G; De la Concha-Ureta, H

    2016-01-01

    Arterial pseudoaneurysm of the lower limb is an infrequent entity, particularly in the infrapopliteal segment. It is commonly associated to vascular repairs or follows a localized arterial lesion, a fracture or a surgical procedure. There is little information in Mexico about this entity in cases involving the anterior tibial artery, and secondary to trauma and osteosynthesis. Given that sudden bleeding due to rupture of the pseudoaneurysm is a possible catastrophic outcome for the viability of the segment, it is important to timely detect and diagnose the pseudoaneurysm. Treatment indications contained in the international literature are controversial. Solution-oriented approaches may be either surgical or endovascular. Current reports show that the best treatment option is an autologous saphenous vein graft, which maintains blood flow and minimizes the risk of peripheral ischemia. The purpose of this paper is to report the case of a patient who sustained the above mentioned complication and provide a literature review. This topic should be further investigated, as this condition may go unnoticed in a large number of cases, given that its symptoms are silent.

  6. Effect of interstitial low level laser therapy on tibial defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangyeob; Ha, Myungjin; Hwang, Donghyun; Yu, Sungkon; Jang, Seulki; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    Tibial defect is very common musculoskeletal disorder which makes patient painful and uncomfortable. Many studies about bone regeneration tried to figure out fast bone healing on early phase. It is already known that low level laser therapy (LLLT) is very convenient and good for beginning of bone disorder. However, light scattering and absorption obstruct musculoskeletal therapy which need optimal photon energy delivery. This study has used an interstitial laser probe (ILP) to overcome the limitations of light penetration depth and scattering. Animals (mouse, C57BL/6) were divided into three groups: laser treated test group 1 (660 nm; power 10 mW; total energy 5 J) and test group 2 (660 nm; power 20 mW; total energy 10 J); and untreated control group. All animals were taken surgical operation to make tibial defect on right crest of tibia. The test groups were treated every 48 hours with ILP. Bone volume and X-ray attenuation coefficient were measured on 0, 14th and 28th day with u-CT after treatment and were used to evaluate effect of LLLT. Results show that bone volume of test groups has been improved more than control group. X-ray attenuation coefficients of each groups have slightly different. The results suggest that LLLT combined with ILP may affect on early phase of bone regeneration and may be used in various musculoskeletal disease in deep tissue layer.

  7. Conversion Total Knee Arthroplasty after Failed High Tibial Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang Jun; Kim, Kang Il; Lee, Chung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical results of high tibial osteotomy (HTO) deteriorate over time despite the initial satisfactory results. Several knees may require a conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) because of failure such as the progression of degenerative osteoarthritis and the loss of the correction angle. It is important to know the long-term survival rate and common reason of failure in HTO to inform patients of postoperative expectations before surgery and to prevent surgical errors during surgery. In addition, it has been reported that clinical and radiological results, revision rate, and complication rate were poorer than those in patients without a previous HTO. There are few review articles that describe why conversion TKA after HTO is surgically difficult and the results are poor. Surgeons have to avoid the various complications and surgical errors in this specific situation. We would like to present the considering factors and technical difficulties during conversion TKA after HTO with a review of the literature. We could conclude through the review that the correction of deformity, lower amount of tibial bone resection, and sufficient polyethylene insert thickness, restoration of the joint line height, and adequate ligament balancing can be helpful in overcoming the technical challenges encountered during TKA following HTO. PMID:27274465

  8. Bone Transport for Limb Reconstruction Following Severe Tibial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Fürmetz, Julian; Soo, Chris; Behrendt, Wolf; Thaller, Peter H.; Siekmann, Holger; Böhme, Jörg; Josten, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    A common treatment of tibial defects especially after infections is bone transport via external fixation. We compare complications and outcomes of 25 patients treated with a typical Ilizarov frame or a hybrid system for bone reconstruction of the tibia. Average follow up was 5.1 years. Particular interest was paid to the following criteria: injury type, comorbidities, development of osteitis and outcome of the different therapies. The reason for segmental resection was a second or third grade open tibia fractures in 24 cases and in one case an infection after plate osteosynthesis. Average age of the patients was 41 years (range 19 to 65 years) and average defect size 6.6 cm (range 3.0 to 13.4 cm). After a mean time of 113 days 23 tibial defects were reconstructed, so we calculated an average healing index of 44.2 days/cm. Two patients with major comorbidities needed a below knee amputation. The presence of osteitis led to a more complicated course of therapy. In the follow up patients with an Ilizarov frame had better results than patients with hybrid systems. Bone transport using external fixation is suitable for larger defect reconstruction. With significant comorbidities, however, a primary amputation or other methods must be considered. PMID:27114814

  9. [Kapandji intramedullary wire osteosynthesis in proximal humeral fractures].

    PubMed

    Werner, A; Böhm, D; Ilg, A; Gohlke, F

    2002-04-01

    For operative treatment of proximal humeral fractures minimal invasive techniques reduce the risk of iatrogenic damage of blood supply and periarticular scarring. Reported preliminary results are encouraging. We present our experience achieved with an intramedullary wire fixation adapted from a report of Kapandji in 1989. Between 3/95 and 6/00 29 patients were treated with this technique at our institution. All received early functional treatment. 14 patients (average mean age 56 years at time of trauma) who had a minimum follow up of 24 months (mean 36.4 months) and therefore allowed a preliminary conclusion regarding avascular head necrosis (AVN) were reexamined by use of the Constant Score and x-ray. We examined three unstable 2-part, four 3-part and seven 4-part fractures (5 of them valgus-impacted). The mean Constant Score at follow up was 70 points (31-86 points). We saw one total collapse of the humeral head because of AVN. In one patient the distal end of the wires led to a skin irritation and had to be shortened. We observed no secondary fragment displacement or non-unions. In our hands, this technique offers good results, even in valgus-impacted 4-part fractures of the elderly and allows internal fixation in little displaced but unstable fractures with the benefit of early functional treatment instead of longer immobilization. Based on the experience with intramedullary wiring the previously performed technique using threading wires was abandoned and the indication for primary arthroplasty considerably influenced.

  10. Intramedullary gangliogliomas: clinical features, surgical outcomes, and neuropathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chenlong; Li, Guang; Fang, Jingyi; Wu, Liang; Yang, Tao; Deng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Yulun

    2014-01-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord gangliogliomas are rare tumors composed of glial components and ganglion cells. These gangliogliomas are generally considered as slow-growing tumors, corresponding histologically to WHO grade I or II. There are few reports of large case series of intramedullary spinal cord gangliogliomas from a single center. We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of 18 patients with pathologically diagnosed ganglioglioma. Clinical manifestations, radiological features, treatment and follow-up data, and concomitant scoliosis were investigated. The mean age at diagnosis was 27.5 years, with a slight female predominance. The primary clinical symptoms were sensorimotor deficits. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging manifestations varied considerably. Some associated, but not necessary, features were found, such as young age at onset, large tumor dimension, and bony changes. Scoliosis was observed in seven patients. Remnant tumor progression was observed in five patients during the follow-up period, and no deaths occurred. The last neurological evaluation showed functional improvement from preoperative status in five patients. Differential diagnosis of ganglioglioma based on MR images alone is challenging, but the combination of some characteristic features can be helpful. An accurate diagnosis of ganglioglioma depends on pathological criteria. Despite the benign course of ganglioglioma, considerable growth may affect its resectability and prognosis. The extent of resection should be meticulously planned, and the potential risk of recurrence and neurological deterioration should be evaluated. The concomitant scoliosis is noteworthy.

  11. A biomechanical comparison of the antegrade inserted universal femoral nail with the retrograde inserted universal tibial nail for use in femoral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Frankle, M; Cordey, J; Sanders, R W; Koval, K; Perren, S M

    1999-01-01

    Femoral shaft fractures with and without bony contact were simulated in cadaver specimens fixed with one of two different types of intramedullary locked nail systems; conventional antegrade nail fixation of the femur with the universal AO femoral nail or retrograde insertion in the femur with the universal tibial nail (a smaller diameter slotted nail) were utilized. Mechanical testing simulated one leg stance, and resultant deformation was measured in bending, torsion, and shortening. In stable fractures, fracture stability was similar to both devices, while in unstable fractures, the larger femoral nail was more stable. Furthermore, the simulation of single leg stance led to a coupled deformation of varus bending, axial shortening, and external rotation, which was dependent on bone geometry.

  12. High altitude hypoxia as a factor that promotes tibial growth plate development in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shucheng; Zhang, Lihong; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Lan, Yanfang; Mehmood, Khalid; Zhang, Hui; Qiu, Gang; Nabi, Fazul; Yao, Wangyuan; Wang, Meng; Li, Jiakui

    2017-01-01

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is one of the most common problems in the poultry industry and leads to lameness by affecting the proximal growth plate of the tibia. However, due to the unique environmental and geographical conditions of Tibet, no case of TD has been reported in Tibetan chickens (TBCs). The present study was designed to investigate the effect of high altitude hypoxia on blood parameters and tibial growth plate development in chickens using the complete blood count, morphology, and histological examination. The results of this study showed an undesirable impact on the overall performance, body weight, and mortality of Arbor Acres chickens (AACs) exposed to a high altitude hypoxic environment. However, AACs raised under hypoxic conditions showed an elevated number of red blood cells (RBCs) and an increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit values on day 14 compared to the hypobaric normoxia group. Notably, the morphology and histology analyses showed that the size of tibial growth plates in AACs was enlarged and that the blood vessel density was also higher after exposure to the hypoxic environment for 14 days, while no such change was observed in TBCs. Altogether, our results revealed that the hypoxic environment has a potentially new role in increasing the blood vessel density of proximal tibial growth plates to strengthen and enhance the size of the growth plates, which may provide new insights for the therapeutic manipulation of hypoxia in poultry TD.

  13. High altitude hypoxia as a factor that promotes tibial growth plate development in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shucheng; Zhang, Lihong; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Lan, Yanfang; Mehmood, Khalid; Zhang, Hui; Qiu, Gang; Nabi, Fazul; Yao, Wangyuan; Wang, Meng; Li, Jiakui

    2017-01-01

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is one of the most common problems in the poultry industry and leads to lameness by affecting the proximal growth plate of the tibia. However, due to the unique environmental and geographical conditions of Tibet, no case of TD has been reported in Tibetan chickens (TBCs). The present study was designed to investigate the effect of high altitude hypoxia on blood parameters and tibial growth plate development in chickens using the complete blood count, morphology, and histological examination. The results of this study showed an undesirable impact on the overall performance, body weight, and mortality of Arbor Acres chickens (AACs) exposed to a high altitude hypoxic environment. However, AACs raised under hypoxic conditions showed an elevated number of red blood cells (RBCs) and an increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit values on day 14 compared to the hypobaric normoxia group. Notably, the morphology and histology analyses showed that the size of tibial growth plates in AACs was enlarged and that the blood vessel density was also higher after exposure to the hypoxic environment for 14 days, while no such change was observed in TBCs. Altogether, our results revealed that the hypoxic environment has a potentially new role in increasing the blood vessel density of proximal tibial growth plates to strengthen and enhance the size of the growth plates, which may provide new insights for the therapeutic manipulation of hypoxia in poultry TD. PMID:28282429

  14. [Magnetic resonance imaging of tibial periostitis].

    PubMed

    Meyer, X; Boscagli, G; Tavernier, T; Aczel, F; Weber, F; Legros, R; Charlopain, P; Martin, J P

    1998-01-01

    Tibial periostitis frequently occurs in athletes. We present our experience with MRI in a series of 7 patients (11 legs) with this condition. The clinical presentation and scintigraphic scanning suggested the diagnosis. MRI exploration of 11 legs demonstrated a high band-like juxta-osseous signal enhancement of SE and IR T2 weighted sequences in 6 cases, a signal enhancement after i.v. contrast administration in 4. Tibial periostitis is a clinical diagnosis and MRI and scintigraphic findings can be used to assure the differential diagnosis in difficult cases with stress fracture. MRI can visualize juxta-osseous edematous and inflammatory reactions and an increased signal would appear to be characteristic when the band-like image is fixed to the periosteum.

  15. Intraneural ganglion cyst of the tibial nerve.

    PubMed

    Adn, M; Hamlat, A; Morandi, X; Guegan, Y

    2006-08-01

    Intraneural ganglion cyst of the tibial nerve is very rare. To date, only 5 cases of this entity in the popliteal fossa have been reported. We report a new case and review the previously reported cases. A 40-year-old man experienced a mild vague pain in the medial half of his right foot for 3 years. Magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrated a soft-tissue mass along the right tibial nerve. At surgery, an intraneural ganglion cyst was evacuated. After 12 months, the patient was pain-free with no signs of recurrence. Trauma might be a contributing factor to the development of intraneural ganglion cysts. Application of microsurgical techniques is encouraged.

  16. Intramedullary bone cementing for the treatment of Colles fracture in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kazuo; Osamura, Naoki; Hagiwara, Norio; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Tomita, Katsuro

    2004-01-01

    Eighteen patients with Colles fractures, mean age 70 years (range 55-91), were treated by intramedullary bone cementing. The best indication for this technique was an unstable extra-articular Colles fracture with osteoporosis. Bone cement was packed into the canal that was made by curettage of intramedullary cancellous bone from the dorsal fracture site. Intramedullary cementing caused little bleeding from the medullary canal and no irritation of the extensor tendons. Because of rigid fixation, patients could use the affected hand for light activities without any external orthosis the day after surgery. Cortical healing was seen in all cases within three months and there was no cement loosening or other complications during the mean 28 month (range 6-43) follow up period. Intramedullary bone cementing is one of the optimal treatments for Colles fractures in elderly patients.

  17. Intramedullary plate fixation of a distal humerus fracture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Russell, George V; Pearsall, Albert W

    2002-05-01

    A case of a complex distal humeral fracture is presented. The patient lacked sufficient bony architecture to allow for conventional reconstruction. A technique is described using an intramedullary plate to obtain bony stabilization and permit early range of motion exercises.

  18. Sclerosing osteomyelitis of Garré: management of femoral pain by intramedullary nailing

    PubMed Central

    Vannet, Nicola Bader; Williams, Huw L M; Healy, Brendan; Morgan-Jones, Rhidian

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of chronic sclerosing osteomyelitis of Garré in a 50-year-old woman occurring in her right femur and presenting with uncontrolled pain. The patient was initially treated with intramedullary reaming of the femur, but 3 years later re-presented with similar symptoms. This required further reaming and intramedullary nailing, achieving good clinical outcomes and lasting pain relief at 8-year follow-up. PMID:25538212

  19. Permanent antibiotic impregnated intramedullary nail in diabetic limb salvage: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jason B; Lowery, Nicholas J; Burns, Patrick R

    2012-01-01

    Managing complications after attempted hind foot and ankle arthrodesis with intramedullary nail fixation is a challenge. This situation becomes more problematic in the patient with diabetes mellitus and multiple comorbidities. Infection and subsequent osteomyelitis can be a devastating, limb threatening complication associated with these procedures. The surgeon must manage both the infectious process and the skeletal instability concurrently. This article provides a literature review and detailed management strategies for a modified technique of employing antibiotic impregnated polymethylmethacrylate-coated intramedullary nailing.

  20. Intramedullary spinal epidermoid cyst of the cervicodorsal region: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Pritish; Jain, Pramod; Badole, C M

    2010-01-01

    Intramedullary spinal epidermoid cysts are rare, with only few cases having been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of a 10-year-old female child who presented with symptoms of meningitis with progressive paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed an intramedullary epidermoid cyst from C6 to D5. Near-total excision of the tumor was performed. Histopathological report confirmed the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst. The patient showed progressive recovery.

  1. Effect of re-implanted particles from intramedullary reaming on mechanical properties and callus formation. A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Hammer, T O; Wieling, R; Green, J M; Südkamp, N P; Schneider, E; Müller, C A

    2007-11-01

    This study investigated the quality and quantity of healing of a bone defect following intramedullary reaming undertaken by two fundamentally different systems; conventional, using non-irrigated, multiple passes; or suction/irrigation, using one pass. The result of a measured re-implantation of the product of reaming was examined in one additional group. We used 24 Swiss mountain sheep with a mean tibial medullary canal diameter between 8 mm and 9 mm. An 8 mm 'napkin ring' defect was created at the mid-diaphysis. The wound was either surgically closed or occluded. The medullary cavity was then reamed to 11 mm. The Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator (RIA) System was used for the reaming procedure in groups A (RIA and autofilling) and B (RIA, collected reamings filled up), whereas reaming in group C (Synream and autofilling) was performed with the Synream System. The defect was allowed to auto-fill with reamings in groups A and C, but in group B, the defect was surgically filled with collected reamings. The tibia was then stabilised with a solid locking Unreamed Humerus Nail (UHN), 9.5 mm in diameter. The animals were killed after six weeks. After the implants were removed, measurements were taken to assess the stiffness, strength and callus formation at the site of the defect. There was no significant difference between healing after conventional reaming or suction/irrigation reaming. A significant improvement in the quality of the callus was demonstrated by surgically placing captured reamings into the defect using a graft harvesting system attached to the aspirator device. This was confirmed by biomechanical testing of stiffness and strength. This study suggests it could be beneficial to fill cortical defects with reaming particles in clinical practice, if feasible.

  2. Treatment of humeral shaft fractures with antegrade intramedullary locking nail.

    PubMed

    Tsourvakas, Stefanos; Alexandropoulos, Christos; Papachristos, Ioannis; Tsakoumis, Grigorios; Ameridis, Nikolaos

    2011-12-01

    Antegrade interlocked humeral nailing for stabilization of humeral fractures was introduced many years ago, and studies on this method in the orthopedic literature have shown mixed results. The purpose of this investigation was to document the clinical outcome and complications associated with the use of an antegrade intramedullary nail (T2, Stryker) for the humeral fractures. Between 2005 and 2008, 52 fractures of the humeral shaft were treated operatively with this intramedullary nail in our department. Eight patients were polytraumatized, and four patients had an open fracture. The mean age of patients was 51.7 years. Forty-eight patients had an adequate duration of clinical follow-up (a mean of 18 months) for analysis. Complications were recorded, and the time to union was measured. Shoulder and elbow functions were assessed using the Constant Score and the Morrey Score, respectively. Forty-six fractures healed, with a mean time to clinical union of 10.3 weeks. Two patients developed pseudarthroses. There were four adverse events: two proximal screws backed out, one superficial infection at the insertion point, and one fracture at the distal end of the nail. Ninety-one percentage of patients had an excellent or good shoulder function. Five further operations were necessary: two for treatment of pseudarthroses, two for removal the backed out proximal screws, and one wound debridement for superficial infection. Antegrade humeral nailing is a valid therapeutic option for stabilization of humeral shaft fractures. By strictly adhering to the operation technique, the number and the severity of complications can be reduced. When good fracture alignment and stability are obtained, uneventful bone healing with good functional results is the rule.

  3. Discrete or diffuse intramedullary tumor? Contrast-enhanced intraoperative ultrasound in a case of intramedullary cervicothoracic hemangioblastomas mimicking a diffuse infiltrative glioma: technical note and case report.

    PubMed

    Vetrano, Ignazio G; Prada, Francesco; Nataloni, Ilaria F; Bene, Massimiliano Del; Dimeco, Francesco; Valentini, Laura G

    2015-08-01

    Hemangioblastomas are benign, highly vascularized intramedullary lesions that may also extend into the intradural space. Surgery represents the standard therapy, with the goal of obtaining complete resection even at the risk of neurological morbidity. MRI is the gold standard for diagnosis and assessment of intramedullary tumors. Nevertheless, sometimes MRI may not accurately differentiate between different types of intramedullary tumors, in particular if they are associated with syringes or intra- and peritumoral cysts. This could subsequently affect surgical strategies. Intraoperative ultrasound (ioUS) has become in the last few years a very useful tool for use during neurosurgical procedures. Various ioUS modalities such as B-mode and Doppler have been applied during neurosurgical procedures. On the other hand, the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is not yet well defined and standardized in this field. We report a case of a young patient harboring a cervicothoracic intramedullary tumor, for which the preoperative neuroradiologi-cal diagnosis was in favor of a diffuse astrocytoma with nodular components whereas ioUS demonstrated 3 distinct intramedullary nodules. CEUS showed highly vascularized lesions, compatible with hemangioblastomas. These findings, particularly those obtained with CEUS, allowed better definition of the lesions for diagnosis, enhanced understanding of the physiopathological aspects, and permitted the localization of all 3 nodules, thus limiting spinal cord manipulation and allowing complete resection of the lesions, with an uneventful postoperative neurological course. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of intraoperative CEUS in a case of intramedullary hemangioblastoma.

  4. Improvement of the knee center of rotation during walking after opening wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungsoo; Feng, Jun; Nha, Kyung Wook; Park, Won Man; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2015-06-01

    Accurate measurement of the center of rotation of the knee joint is indispensable for prediction of joint kinematics and kinetics in musculoskeletal models. However, no study has yet identified the knee center of rotations during several daily activities before and after high tibial osteotomy surgery, which is one surgical option for treating knee osteoarthritis. In this study, an estimation method for determining the knee joint center of rotation was developed by applying the optimal common shape technique and symmetrical axis of rotation approach techniques to motion-capture data and validated for typical activities (walking, squatting, climbing up stairs, walking down stairs) of 10 normal subjects. The locations of knee joint center of rotations for injured and contralateral knees of eight subjects with osteoarthritis, both before and after high tibial osteotomy surgery, were then calculated during walking. It was shown that high tibial osteotomy surgery improved the knee joint center of rotation since the center of rotations for the injured knee after high tibial osteotomy surgery were significantly closer to those of the normal healthy population. The difference between the injured and contralateral knees was also generally reduced after surgery, demonstrating increased symmetry. These results indicate that symmetry in both knees can be recovered in many cases after high tibial osteotomy surgery. Moreover, the recovery of center of rotation in the injured knee was prior to that of symmetry. This study has the potential to provide fundamental information that can be applied to understand abnormal kinematics in patients, diagnose knee joint disease, and design a novel implants for knee joint surgeries.

  5. Characteristics of unilateral tibial plateau fractures among adult patients hospitalized at an orthopaedic trauma centre in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Liao, Zhengwen; Shang, Lei; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Dawei; Pei, Guoxian

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of unilateral tibial plateau fractures among hospitalized adult patients in Xijing Hospital, to evaluate the accuracy of Schatzker classification system and AO/OTA classification system to tibial plateau fractures. We retrospectively analysed clinical data on 274 patients admitted to Xijing Hospital between September 2006 and August 2015. The patients’ demographic characteristics, admission periods and seasons, external causes and fracture types were recorded and summarized. Then the characteristics of tibial plateau fractures and the accuracy rate of these two classification systems were analysed. Schatzker type II fractures and AO/OTA type 41-B3 fractures were the most common types. The external causes differed between genders, types of employment, urban-rural residents and both two systems. In addition, some fractures were difficult to classify using Schatzker or AO/OTA classification system. Rural male physical labourers aged between 30–59 years-old were most likely to suffer from unilateral tibial plateau fractures, due to traffic accidents, falls and indoor activity injuries, or falls from height. We should pay more attention to the related people and professions, which contributed to the high occurrence of tibial plateau fractures. Besides that, further improvements are required for both Schatzker and AO/OTA classification systems. PMID:28074894

  6. The effect of muscle fatigue on in vivo tibial strains.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Charles; Radeva-Petrova, Denitsa R; Finestone, Aharon; Nyska, Meir; Mendelson, Stephen; Benjuya, Nisim; Simkin, Ariel; Burr, David

    2007-01-01

    Stress fracture is a common musculoskeletal problem affecting athletes and soldiers. Repetitive high bone strains and strain rates are considered to be its etiology. The strain level necessary to cause fatigue failure of bone ex vivo is higher than the strains recorded in humans during vigorous physical activity. We hypothesized that during fatiguing exercises, bone strains may increase and reach levels exceeding those measured in the non-fatigued state. To test this hypothesis, we measured in vivo tibial strains, the maximum gastrocnemius isokinetic torque and ground reaction forces in four subjects before and after two fatiguing levels of exercise: a 2km run and a 30km desert march. Strains were measured using strain-gauged staples inserted percutaneously in the medial aspect of their mid-tibial diaphysis. There was a decrease in the peak gastrocnemius isokinetic torque of all four subjects' post-march as compared to pre-run (p=0.0001), indicating the presence of gastrocnemius muscle fatigue. Tension strains increased 26% post-run (p=0.002, 95 % confidence interval (CI) and 29% post-march (p=0.0002, 95% CI) as compared to the pre-run phase. Tension strain rates increased 13% post-run (p=0.001, 95% CI) and 11% post-march (p=0.009, 95% CI) and the compression strain rates increased 9% post-run (p=0.0004, 95% CI) and 17% post-march (p=0.0001, 95% CI). The fatigue state increases bone strains well above those recorded in rested individuals and may be a major factor in the stress fracture etiology.

  7. Bilateral femoral insuffiency fractures treated with inflatable intramedullary nails: a case report.

    PubMed

    Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Ilgan, Seyfettin; Ozgur Karacalioglu, A; Cicek, Engin Ilker; Yildrim, Duzgun; Erler, Kaan

    2007-09-01

    Stress fractures could be classified as fatigue fractures and insufficiency fractures (IF). Fatigue fractures occur when abnormal mechanical stress is applied to a normal bone, on the other hand insufficiency fractures occur when normal to moderate pressure is applied to a bone that has decreased resistance (Daffner and Pavlov in Am J Radiol 159:242-245, 1992). IF have been observed mainly in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, and are becoming more common with the increase of elderly population (Daffner and Pavlov in Am J Radiol 159:242-245, 1992). Other systemic and metabolic conditions that can result in osteopenia and IF include osteomalacia, hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, fluoride treatment, diabetes mellitus, fibrous dysplasia, Paget's disease, irradiation and mechanical factors (Daffner and Pavlov in Am J Radiol 159:242-245, 1992; Soubrier et al. in Joint Bone Spine 70:209-218, 2003; Epps et al. in Am J Orthop 33:457-460, 2004; Austin and Chrissos in Orthopedics 28:795-797, 2005). In this case report, the authors present an osteoporotic woman who developed bilateral insufficiency fracture of the femoral shaft after longstanding steroid, thyroxine replacement and alendronate therapy due to partial empty sella syndrome and osteoporosis, resulting in the treatment of the fracture by inflatable intramedullary nailing.

  8. The current status of prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing for metastatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ormsby, NM; Leong, WY; Wong, W; Hughes, HE; Swaminathan, V

    2016-01-01

    The most common site for cancer to spread is bone. At post-mortem, bony metastases have been found in 70% of patients dying from breast and prostate cancer. Due to the prevalence of cancer, bone metastasis and the associated management represents a huge burden on NHS resources. In patients with metastasis, around 56% of these involve the lower limb long bones. Due to the huge forces placed upon long bones during weight bearing, there is a high risk of fracture through areas of metastasis. It is reported that 23% of pathological fractures occur in the femoral subtrochanteric region. This area is subjected to forces up to four times the body weight, resulting in poor union rate for these fractures, and significant morbidity associated with difficulty in mobilising, and in patient nursing. As cancer treatments improve, the life expectancy in this subgroup of patients is likely to increase. Therefore medium-to-long-term management of these fractures, beyond the palliative, will become essential. We aim to evaluate the current management for metastatic malignant femoral disease, with particular focus on the prophylactic augmentation of diseased femorii using intramedullary nails. PMID:28105069

  9. Challenges in early operative approaches to intramedullary spinal cord tumors: Harvey Cushing's perspective.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Courtney; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Jallo, George I; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2015-10-01

    Although Harvey Cushing was mostly known for his contributions to brain tumor surgery, he was also a pioneer in the development of spinal cord surgery. This lesser known facet of Cushing's career can provide a fresh and unique perspective into how the founders of neurosurgery surmounted early challenges in the field. The authors bring to light and examine for the first time Cushing's unpublished writing "Technique of Laminectomy" along with his first 3 documented intramedullary spinal cord tumor (IMSCT) cases at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The authors draw lessons from the challenges in pathological classification, preoperative diagnosis, tumor localization, and surgical technique of that time. Although Cushing's attempts at exploration and resection of IMSCT as described here were of limited success, his ability to adapt his clinical and surgical technique to the challenges of the time, as well as develop skills to successfully manipulate the spinal cord during these exploratory procedures without the patients incurring neurological damage, postoperative infection, or complications, is a testament to his determination to advance the field and his meticulous operative technique. In spite of the limitations imposed on the pioneer neurosurgeons, Harvey Cushing and his contemporaries persevered through many of the challenges and built an essential part of neurosurgery's common story.

  10. The soleal line: a cause of tibial pseudoperiostitis.

    PubMed

    Levine, A H; Pais, M J; Berinson, H; Amenta, P S

    1976-04-01

    An unusually prominent soleal line (a normal anatomic variant) may mimic periosteal reaction along the posterior margin of the proximal tibial shaft. This area of pseudoperiostitis is differentiated from hyperostoses arising from the anterior tibial tubercle and the interosseous membrane. It is always associated with normal, undisturbed architecture of the underlying bone.

  11. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Oxendine I, Sant DW, Song MH, Stevenson DA, Viskochil DH, Wise CA, Kim HKW, Rios JJ. Neurofibromin Deficiency -Associated Transcriptional Dysregulation...HKW, Rios JJ. Neurofibromin Deficiency -Associated Transcriptional Dysregulation Suggests a Novel Therapy for Tibial Pseudoarthrosis in NF1. J Bone...Manuscript (Paria et al. Neurofibromin Deficiency -Associated Transcriptional Dysregulation Suggests a Novel Therapy for Tibial Pseudoarthrosis in NF1

  12. Diagnostic pitfalls in tibial adamantinoma: two cases with a clinicopathological review

    PubMed Central

    Tharmabala, Mehala; Kandapur, Vijayananda; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Kanthan, Rani

    2011-01-01

    Adamantinoma is a rare primary bone tumor that commonly arises in the jaw and has also been described in the appendicular skeleton such as the tibia. We report 2 cases of tibial adamantinomas that were originally misdiagnosed; one as fibrous dysplasia of the tibia and the other as a cutaneous eccrine carcinoma in a groin mass, which was metastatic adamantinoma to the inguinal lymph nodes. Such metastatic adamantinoma to the groin lymph nodes is extremely rare. The clinical and pathological data with a review of the available literature on inguinal lymph node metastases from primary tibial adamantinoma are reported. Increased clinical awareness and accurate recognition of such uncommon patterns of inguinal nodal metastases are imperative for appropriate planning of therapeutic strategies and risk management in these patients. PMID:24765379

  13. Ipsilateral distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyseal growth plate injury: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Both the isolated distal femoral epiphysiolysis and the isolated proximal tibial epiphysiolysis are the least common epiphyseal injuries. Even though they are uncommon, they have a high incidence rate of complications. Case presentation We present a case with Gustilo-Anderson grade 3b open and Salter-Harris type 1 epiphysiolysis of the distal femur and proximal tibia caused by a farm machinery accident. The patient was a 10-year-old boy, treated by open reduction and internal fixation. Conclusion Although distal femoral and proximal tibial growth plate injuries are rarely seen benign fractures, their management requires meticulous care. Anatomic reduction is important, especially to minimize the risk of growth arrest and the development of degenerative arthritis. However, there is a high incidence of growth arrest and neurovascular injury with these type of fractures. PMID:23724954

  14. Diagnostic pitfalls in tibial adamantinoma: two cases with a clinicopathological review.

    PubMed

    Tharmabala, Mehala; Kandapur, Vijayananda; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Kanthan, Rani

    2011-09-28

    Adamantinoma is a rare primary bone tumor that commonly arises in the jaw and has also been described in the appendicular skeleton such as the tibia. We report 2 cases of tibial adamantinomas that were originally misdiagnosed; one as fibrous dysplasia of the tibia and the other as a cutaneous eccrine carcinoma in a groin mass, which was metastatic adamantinoma to the inguinal lymph nodes. Such metastatic adamantinoma to the groin lymph nodes is extremely rare. The clinical and pathological data with a review of the available literature on inguinal lymph node metastases from primary tibial adamantinoma are reported. Increased clinical awareness and accurate recognition of such uncommon patterns of inguinal nodal metastases are imperative for appropriate planning of therapeutic strategies and risk management in these patients.

  15. Growth disturbances after distal tibial physeal fractures.

    PubMed

    Berson, L; Davidson, R S; Dormans, J P; Drummond, D S; Gregg, J R

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with distal tibial growth disturbance were reviewed. Disturbances were classified as physeal bar (prior to deformity), angular, linear or combined deformities. Treatment consisted of osteotomy in fourteen, epiphyseodesis in seven, excision of bony bar in two, and observation in one patient. Follow up was an average 36.6 months (range 4-129 months) after treatment of growth disturbance. The age at time of injury was 10.4 years of age average (range 3-15 years). There were 12 SH2, 2 SH3, 7 SH4, and 3 SH5 distal tibial physeal fractures. Thirteen of 15 fractures considered high energy and only 1 of 9 fractures considered low energy resulted in angular deformity. Angular and linear deformities presented an average 46 months (range 12-120 months) and physeal bars at an average 14 months (range 6-25 months) after injury. Patients with a delay in presentation of growth disturbance greater than 24 months had angular deformities in 92% compared with 33% in children presenting less than or at 24 months. Treatment based on type of deformity, age at time of injury, and growth remaining was considered successful in 83%. Patients with angular or linear deformities were more likely to present late, have high energy injuries, be male patients and have Salter-Harris types IV and V. Early diagnosis and treatment of growth disturbance can prevent severe deformity.

  16. Comparing the Intramedullary Nailing Method Versus Dynamic Hip Screw in Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yeganeh, Ali; Taghavi, Roozbeh; Moghtadaei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dynamic Hip Screw fixation is currently considered as a standard treatment for pre-trochanteric fractures; however, due to the long-term hospitalization and some other complications, some researchers have proposed intramedullary nailing as the alternative surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to compare and examine the consequences of the using intramedullary nailing method versus Dynamic Hip Screw. Methods: In this study 114 patients with unstable Intertrochanteric fracture refer to Rasoul Akram hospital during 2011 to 2013 has been selected. After reduction, fixation surgery with PFN nail (60 patients) and Dynamic Hip Screw (54 patients) has been performed. All patients were screen during surgery and six months after surgery and some parameters like, bleeding, union, as well as complications such as collapse, varus and medialization of the distal fragment were record and patients. Results: About some parameters like cutting length, surgery duration, bleeding there were significant differences between two groups. In six months follow up period 2 patinas from nail and 8 patients from DHS group had non-union. Also from the point of radiologic and clinical parameters, like anterior thigh pain, cut out, medialization of the distal fragment, collapse of the neck, walking recovery and daily activities were significant between two groups. Conclusion: Due to the reduced hospital stay in intramedullary nailing method and the necessity of doing repeated surgery and applying intramedullary nailing when the patients are not treated with external fixation, the researchers recommend intramedullary nailing as the first option in treating such patients. PMID:26980933

  17. UNSTABLE FEMORAL FRACTURES TREATED WITH TITANIUM ELASTIC INTRAMEDULLARY NAILS, IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Jamil Faissal; Schelle, Gisele; Valenza, Weverley; Pavelec, Anna Carolina; Souza, Camila Deneka Arantes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the indications, epidemiology, associated lesions, complications and prognosis among children with unstable femoral diaphysis fractures who were treated with titanium elastic intramedullary nails. Method: This was a retrospective analysis on 24 patients aged 5-12 years with unstable femoral diaphysis fractures who underwent surgical treatment with elastic titanium intramedullary nails at the Cajuru University Hospital, Curitiba-PR, between April 2002 and March 2008, with a minimum follow-up of 36 months. The epidemiological data, angular deviations, leg shortening and bone consolidation were evaluated. Results: The medical files of 113 cases operated between April 2002 and March 2008 were reassessed. From these, 24 cases of unstable femoral diaphysis fractures treated with elastic titanium intramedullary nails with retrograde insertion were included in the study. There were two bilateral fractures and two exposed fractures. Seven patients were female and 17 were male, and the mean age was 8.3 years. The following were presented at the end of the study: shortening, varus or valgus displacement, final retrocurvatum or antecurvatum of zero, and absence of delayed consolidation or pseudarthrosis. Conclusions: The elastic titanium intramedullary nails were easily placed and removed. We believe that using elastic titanium intramedullary nails is a good option for fixation of unstable femoral fractures in children. PMID:27047868

  18. Intramedullary Nailing for Pathological Fractures of the Proximal Humerus

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Seok; Han, Ilkyu; Cho, Hwan Seong; Park, In Woong; Park, Jong Woong

    2016-01-01

    Background Endoprosthetic reconstruction is widely applied for pathological fractures of the proximal humerus; however, functional impairment is usually unsatisfactory. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the reliability of interlocking intramedullary (IM) nailing with cement augmentation as a fixation method in proximal humeral lesions and to assess functional outcomes. Methods We reviewed 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus who underwent interlocking IM nailing and cement augmentation. Functional scores and pain relief were assessed as outcomes. Results The mean follow-up period was 14.2 months. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional score and Karnofsky performance status scale score were 27.7 and 75.6, respectively. Improvement of pain assessed using the visual analogue scale was 6.2 on average. Thirty-one patients (97%) experienced no pain after surgery. The mean ranges of forward flexion and abduction were 115° and 112.6°, respectively. All patients achieved stability and had no local recurrence without failure of fixation until the last follow-up. Conclusions Proximal interlocking IM nailing with cement augmentation appears to be a reliable treatment option for pathological or impending fractures of the proximal humerus in selected patients with metastatic tumors, even with extensive bone destruction. PMID:27904730

  19. Radiation-free drill guidance in interlocking of intramedullary nails.

    PubMed

    Diotte, Benoit; Fallavollita, Pascal; Wang, Lejing; Weidert, Simon; Thaller, Peter-Helmut; Euler, Ekkehard; Navab, Nassir

    2012-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing is a technically demanding procedure which involves an excessive amount of x-ray acquisitions; one study lists as many as 48 to successfully complete the procedure. In this work, a novel low cost radiation-free drilling guide is designed to assist surgeons in completing the distal locking procedure without any x-ray acquisitions. Using an augmented reality fluoroscope that coregisters optical and x-ray images, we exploit solely the optical images to detect the drilling guide in order to estimate the tip position in real-time in x-ray. We tested over 200 random drill guide poses showing a mean tip-estimation error of 1.72 +/- 0.7mm which is significantly robust and accurate for the interlocking. In a preclinical study on dry bone phantom, three expert surgeons successfully completed the interlocking 56 out of 60 trials with no x-ray acquisition for guidance and an average time of 2 min.

  20. Cervicomedullary intramedullary peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor with intratumoral bleed: Report of one case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pradeep; Das, Kuntal K; Mehrotra, Anant; Srivastava, Arun K; Sahu, Rabi N; Jaiswal, Awadhesh; Pandey, Rakesh; Behari, Sanjay; Bhaisora, Kamlesh S; Sardhara, Jayesh

    2016-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) are highly malignant, yet relatively uncommon neoplasms of the central nervous system. Although a host of different parts of the nervous system can be affected, intramedullary location of PNET is extremely rare. Most reports on intramedullary PNET have reported central PNET (cPNET); peripheral PNET (pPNET) affecting intramedullary spinal location is extremely rare. Till now, seven such cases of intramedullary pPNET have been described in medical literature in English. Here, we report an 11-year-old boy with cervicomedullary junction intramedullary pPNET who presented with intratumoral bleed, wherein the clinical presentation and radiological features gave us no clue preoperatively about the underlying diagnosis. In this report, we additionally review certain salient aspects of this dreaded disease in light of the existing evidence. PMID:27217659

  1. Trabecular metal tibial knee component still stable at 10 years.

    PubMed

    Henricson, Anders; Nilsson, Kjell G

    2016-10-01

    Background and purpose - Total knee replacement (TKR) in younger patients using cemented components has shown inferior results, mainly due to aseptic loosening. Excellent clinical results have been reported with components made of trabecular metal (TM). In a previous report, we have shown stabilization of the TM tibial implants for up to 5 years. In this study, we compared the clinical and RSA results of these uncemented implants with those of cemented implants. Patients and methods - 41 patients (47 knees) aged ≤ 60 years underwent TKR. 22 patients (26 knees) received an uncemented monoblock cruciate-retaining (CR) tibial component (TM) and 19 patients (21 knees) received a cemented NexGen Option CR tibial component. Follow-up examination was done at 10 years, and 16 patients (19 knees) with TM tibial components and 17 patients (18 knees) with cemented tibial components remained for analysis. Results - 1 of 19 TM implants was revised for infection, 2 of 18 cemented components were revised for knee instability, and no revisions were done for loosening. Both types of tibial components migrated in the first 3 months, the TM group to a greater extent than the cemented group. After 3 months, both groups were stable during the next 10 years. Interpretation - The patterns of migration for uncemented TM implants and cemented tibial implants over the first 10 years indicate that they have a good long-term prognosis regarding fixation.

  2. Trabecular metal tibial knee component still stable at 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, Anders; Nilsson, Kjell G

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total knee replacement (TKR) in younger patients using cemented components has shown inferior results, mainly due to aseptic loosening. Excellent clinical results have been reported with components made of trabecular metal (TM). In a previous report, we have shown stabilization of the TM tibial implants for up to 5 years. In this study, we compared the clinical and RSA results of these uncemented implants with those of cemented implants. Patients and methods 41 patients (47 knees) aged ≤ 60 years underwent TKR. 22 patients (26 knees) received an uncemented monoblock cruciate-retaining (CR) tibial component (TM) and 19 patients (21 knees) received a cemented NexGen Option CR tibial component. Follow-up examination was done at 10 years, and 16 patients (19 knees) with TM tibial components and 17 patients (18 knees) with cemented tibial components remained for analysis. Results 1 of 19 TM implants was revised for infection, 2 of 18 cemented components were revised for knee instability, and no revisions were done for loosening. Both types of tibial components migrated in the first 3 months, the TM group to a greater extent than the cemented group. After 3 months, both groups were stable during the next 10 years. Interpretation The patterns of migration for uncemented TM implants and cemented tibial implants over the first 10 years indicate that they have a good long-term prognosis regarding fixation PMID:27357222

  3. Intramedullary pilomyxoid astrocytoma with intracerebral metastasis exhibiting oligoden-droglioma-like features

    PubMed Central

    Eigenbrod, Sabina; Thon, Niklas; Jansen, Nathalie; Janssen, Hendrik; Mielke, Janina; Ruiter, Michael; la Fougère, Christian; Peraud, Aurelia; Egensperger, Rupert; Kretzschmar, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Intramedullary glioma are rare and their biological behaviour can differ from their cerebral counterparts. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA, WHO grade II), predominantly occur in the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region of infants and children. The few reported cases of pediatric intramedullary PMA displayed a particularly aggressive behavior. Here, we report a diagnostically challenging case of a five year old female patient presenting with intramedullary glioma and local tumor recurrence three years later. Twelve years after the initial manifestation, a second tumor was found intracerebrally. We performed a comprehensive histological, molecular pathological and imaging analysis of the tumors from both localizations. The results revealed a metastasizing PMA with unique histological and genetic features. Our study indicates that PMA comprise a heterogeneous group including aggressive subtypes which may not be compatible with the current classification according to WHO grade II. Furthermore, the case emphasizes the increasing relevance of molecular pathological markers complementing classic histo-logical diagnosis. PMID:22826787

  4. Use of the reamer-irrigator-aspirator may reduce tumor dissemination during intramedullary fixation of malignancies.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Cara A; Arvanitis, Leonidas D; Virkus, Walter W

    2012-01-16

    Intramedullary nail fixation is the treatment of choice for impending and pathologic fractures secondary to metastatic cancer; however, this procedure has been shown to cause systemic embolization of intramedullary contents. This article reports the use of the reamer-irrigator-aspirator (RIA) (Synthes, Paoli, Pennsylvania) instead of a standard femoral reamer to decrease tumor intravasation during femoral intramedullary nail fixation for impending or pathologic fractures.Twenty-one consecutive patients indicated for fixation of malignant femoral lesions were treated with intramedullary nail placement. The RIA was used for canal preparation, and solid reamings were collected and submitted for analysis by a single pathologist. The volume of each specimen was recorded, and representative samples were examined histologically to determine their percent tumor content. These data were then used to estimate the volume of tumor retrieved by the RIA in each case. The mean volume of reamings collected by the RIA was 75.0 cc per case (range, 23.4-196.0 cc), and the mean tumor content was 24.8% (range, 1.0%-60.0%). The mean estimated volume of tumor retrieved in each case was 16.7 cc (range, 0.35-36.0 cc). In 2 cases, the tip of the RIA dissociated from the device intraoperatively but was retrieved without adverse consequence to the patient. Use of the RIA in cases of femoral intramedullary nail fixation for pathologic lesions or fractures effectively retrieves variable amounts of intramedullary contents, including tumor. By preventing the systemic dissemination of malignant cells, this technique may reduce the risk of distant metastases.

  5. Robotic Radiosurgery for the Treatment of Intramedullary Spinal Cord Metastases: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Rafael; Sallabanda, Kita; Santa-Olalla, Iciar; Avilés, Lijia; Sallabanda, Morena; Rivin, Eleonor; Samblás, José

    2016-01-01

    Modern technologies allow the delivery of high radiation doses to intramedullary spinal cord metastases while lowering the dose to the neighboring organs at risk. Whether this dosimetric advantage translates into clinical benefit is not well known. This study evaluates the acute and late toxicity outcomes in a patient treated with robotic radiosurgery for an intramedullary spinal cord metastasis. A 50-year-old woman diagnosed in May 2006 with invasive ductal carcinoma of the right breast T2N3M1 (two liver metastases) received chemotherapy with a complete response. Subsequently, she underwent adjuvant whole-breast radiotherapy, along with tamoxifen. After several distant relapses, treated mainly with systemic therapy, the patient developed an intramedullary lesion at the C3-C4 level and was referred to our CyberKnife unit for assessment. A total dose of 14 Gy prescribed to the 74% isodose line was administered to the intramedullary lesion in one fraction. One hundred and two treatment beams were used covering 95.63% of the target volume. The mean dose was 15.93 Gy and the maximum dose, 18.92 Gy. Maximum dose to the spinal cord was 13.96 Gy, V12 ~ 0.13 cc and V8 ~ 0.43 cc. Three months after treatment, magnetic resonance imaging showed a reduction in size and enhancement of the intramedullary lesion with no associated toxicity. During this period, the patient showed a good performance status without neurological deficits. Currently, with a follow-up of 37 months, the patient has the ability to perform activities of daily life. Intramedullary spinal cord metastases is a rare and aggressive disease, often treatment-refractory. Our case demonstrates that radiation therapy delivery with robotic radiosurgery allows the achievement of a high local control without adding toxicity. PMID:27330877

  6. [Tibial abscess caused by histoplasma capsulatum].

    PubMed

    de Fernández, M I; Negroni, R; Arechavala, A

    2001-01-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is the most serious form of the disease produced by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Histoplasmosis was first described by Darling in 1906, and it is endemic in certain areas of Central and Southeastern regions of USA, and most Latin America countries, including the Pampa húmeda and Mesopotamia regions in Argentina, but in other continents it has a limited regional distribution. Lung involvement predominates in 90% of cases, but H. capsulatum may involve bone and soft tissues. Bone lesions without other signs of infection are very rare, and are often misdiagnosed as cancer. We report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis in a man with a myelodysplasia who presented a left tibial abscess, without any clinical evidence of pulmonary involvement. The patient was successfully treated with itraconazole.

  7. Posterior tibial nerve lesions in ankle arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cugat, Ramon; Ares, Oscar; Cuscó, Xavier; Garcia, Montserrat; Samitier, Gonzalo; Seijas, Roberto

    2008-05-01

    Ankle arthroscopy provides a minimally invasive approach to the diagnosis and treatment of certain ankle disorders. Neurological complications resulting from ankle arthroscopy have been well documented in orthopaedic and podiatric literature. Owing to the superficial location of the ankle joint and the abundance of overlying periarticular neurovascular structures, complications reported in ankle arthroscopy are greater than those reported for other joints. In particular, all reported neurovascular injuries following ankle arthroscopy have been the direct result of distractor pin or portal placement. The standard posteromedial portal has recognized risks because of the proximity of the posterior neurovascular structures. There can be considerable variability in the course of these portals and their proximity to the neurovascular structures. We found one report of intra-articular damage to the posterior tibial nerve as a result of ankle arthroscopy in the English-language literature and we report this paper as a second case described in the literature.

  8. Biological rationale for the intramedullary canal as a source of autograft material.

    PubMed

    Hak, David J; Pittman, Jason L

    2010-01-01

    Bone harvested by intramedullary reaming offers a minimally invasive alternative to harvesting bone from the iliac crest, which has long been considered the gold standard for autogenous bone grafting. The biologic potential of intramedullary reaming material has been studied both in vitro and in vivo. The material provides osteogenic, osteoinductive, and osteoconductive properties that are comparable to the material harvested from the iliac crest. In addition to the ability to obtain a large volume of bone, the graft harvested by the Reamer-Irrigator-Aspirator has been shown to be rich in growth factors, including BMP-2, TGF-beta1, IGF-I, FGFa, and PDGFbb.

  9. Femoral neck fracture following intramedullary nailing with misplacement of an end cup: report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Mańkowski, Bartosz; Kierzynka, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    Femoral neck fracture is an unusual complication of intramedullary fixation of a broken femur. We report on two cases of femoral neck fractures attributed to misplacement of an end cup and subsequent invasive maneuvers in an effort to remove it. Iatrogenic fractures of the femoral neck during or after intramedullary nailing are reported in the medical literature. Authors associate it with many possible technical mistakes performed during the procedure, yet no complications after missed end cup placement were noted. We suggest that the fractures described below were a consequence of injury to the vascular supply and bone stock of the initially intact femoral neck. PMID:19384634

  10. Arthroscopic treatment of displaced tibial eminence fractures using a suspensory fixation

    PubMed Central

    Loriaut, Philippe; Moreau, Pierre-Emmanuel; Loriaut, Patrick; Boyer, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background: Avulsion fractures of the tibial intercondylar eminence are fairly common injuries requiring surgery for the optimal functional outcome. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical and radiological outcomes of an arthroscopic treatment of displaced tibial intercondylar eminence fractures using a suspensory device. Material and Methods: Five patients with type 2 and 3 displaced tibial intercondylar eminence fractures who received an arthroscopically assisted fixation using a double button device were enrolled from 2011 to 2012. Clinical assessment included the patient demographics, cause of injury, the delay before surgery, time for surgery, time to return to work and sport, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm knee scores. Stability was measured with the KT-2000 arthrometer with a force of 134 N. A side to side difference on the KT-2000 examination superior to 3 mm was considered as a significant and abnormal increase in the anterior translation. Radiological examination consisted of anteroposterior and lateral radiographs, as well as computed tomography (CT) scan of the affected knee. Clinical and radiological followup was done at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and at final followup. CT-scan was performed before surgery and at 3 months followup. Results: The median age of patients was 31 years. Mean followup was 27 ± 5.1 months. The average delay before surgery was 3 days. At final followup, the mean IKDC and Lysholm knee scores were, 93.9 and 94.5 respectively. All patients had a complete functional recovery and were able to return to work and to resume their sport activities. No secondary surgeries were required to remove hardware. No complication was noted. Bony union was achieved in all patients. Conclusion: The arthroscopic treatment of displaced tibial intercondylar eminence fractures using a suspensory system provided a satisfactory clinical and radiological outcome at a followup of 2 years.

  11. Total knee arthroplasty following tibial plateau fracture: a matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Scott, C E H; Davidson, E; MacDonald, D J; White, T O; Keating, J F

    2015-04-01

    Radiological evidence of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) after fracture of the tibial plateau is common but end-stage arthritis which requires total knee arthroplasty is much rarer. The aim of this study was to examine the indications for, and outcomes of, total knee arthroplasty after fracture of the tibial plateau and to compare this with an age and gender-matched cohort of TKAs carried out for primary osteoarthritis. Between 1997 and 2011, 31 consecutive patients (23 women, eight men) with a mean age of 65 years (40 to 89) underwent TKA at a mean of 24 months (2 to 124) after a fracture of the tibial plateau. Of these, 24 had undergone ORIF and seven had been treated non-operatively. Patients were assessed pre-operatively and at 6, 12 and > 60 months using the Short Form-12, Oxford Knee Score and a patient satisfaction score. Patients with instability or nonunion needed total knee arthroplasty earlier (14 and 13.3 months post-injury) than those with intra-articular malunion (50 months, p < 0.001). Primary cruciate-retaining implants were used in 27 (87%) patients. Complication rates were higher in the PTOA cohort and included wound complications (13% vs 1% p = 0.014) and persistent stiffness (10% vs 0%, p = 0.014). Two (6%) PTOA patients required revision total knee arthroplasty at 57 and 114 months. The mean Oxford knee score was worse pre-operatively in the cohort with primary osteoarthritis (18 vs 30, p < 0.001) but there were no significant differences in post-operative Oxford knee score or patient satisfaction (primary osteoarthritis 86%, PTOA 78%, p = 0.437). Total knee arthroplasty undertaken after fracture of the tibial plateau has a higher rate of complications than that undertaken for primary osteoarthritis, but patient-reported outcomes and satisfaction are comparable. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:532-8.

  12. The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, S J; Gould, R N; Lee, Y F; Schmidt, D A; Hargens, A R

    1982-01-01

    The medial tibial stress syndrome is a symptom complex seen in athletes who complain of exercise-induced pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of the tibia. Intramuscular pressures within the posterior compartments of the leg were measured in 12 patients with this disorder. These pressures were not elevated and therefore this syndrome is a not a compartment syndrome. Available information suggests that the medial tibial stress syndrome most likely represents a periostitis at this location of the leg.

  13. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    observed in 5% of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 ( NF1 ), typically identified in infancy. The majority of NF1 individuals with tibial bowing...will sustain a fracture that will not heal (i.e. pseudarthrosis) resulting in multiple surgeries, poor limb function, and amputation. Some NF1 ...pseudarthrosis and better understand its pathophysiology. We have begun recruitment and assessed many individuals with NF1 with and with tibial bowing. QUS

  14. Management and outcomes of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: A single center experience from a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Saqib K.; Waqas, Muhammad; Shakaib, Baila; Enam, Syed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intraoperative neurophysiology, high magnification microscopes, and ultrasonic aspirators are considered essential aid for the safe resection of intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCTs). Most centers in developing countries such as Pakistan still lack these facilities. The purpose of this study was to review the management of IMSCTs at our hospital and to determine factors associated with the outcomes of surgery. Methods: This was a retrospective review of medical records of adult patients undergoing surgery for IMSCT over 12 years. The institutional ethical review committee approved this study. Data were collected regarding demographics, clinical and radiological features, and surgical details. Modified McCormick Scale was used to grade patients’ neurological status at admission, discharge, and follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 22. Results: Forty three cases were reviewed. Mean age was 33.8 ± 15.1 years whereas median follow-up was 5 months (range: 0.25–96 months). Most patients had ependymoma (n = 16; 73%). Cervical region was the most commonly involved (n = 15; 34.9%). Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 30 cases (69.8%). The preoperative McCormick grade was significantly associated with follow-up McCormick grade (P value = 0.002). Eight patients (18.6%) underwent intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring, out of which GTR was achieved in all cases, and none had disease progression or recurrence. Ten patients received postoperative radiotherapy. Thirty five patients (81.4%) had progression free survival at last follow-up. Conclusions: We achieved a GTR rate of 68.9% for IMSCTs with limited resources. In few cases, where intraoperative electrophysiology was used, the rate of GTR was 100%. Preoperative neurological status was associated with better postoperative McCormick score. PMID:27656322

  15. Extent of resection and postoperative functional declination of Klekamp's type A intramedullary tumors in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Rabadán, Alejandra T.; Hernandez, Diego; Paz, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most commonly primary intramedullary spinal cord tumors (ISCT) in adults are the noninfiltrative lesions, corresponding to Klekamp's type A classification. There are few reports exclusively considering this type of lesions, their resectability and postoperative functional declination risk, and to our knowledge, none from Latin America. This led us to evaluate our results to provide information that might contribute to the decision making process in our region. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted comprising a cohort of 21 adults having primary Klekamp's type A ISCT. Diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), along with diffusion tensor/tractography in the last 7 cases. Preoperative functional status was assessed using the McCormick's modified scale (mMs), which was also used for the postoperative assessment within postoperative 90 days period. MRI was used to confirm the extent of resection. Results: Radical resection was obtained in 20/21 cases. The postoperative functional status was stable in 42.8% of the cases, and in 57.4% was even better than in the preoperative period. Temporary declination was observed in 2 cases in the early postoperative period. There were 2 cases with complications; one patient had cerebrospinal fluid fistula with meningitis, which was conservatively resolved, and another patient died from pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: Although the number of patients in this series does not allow to conclude from a statistical point of view, the outcomes showed that the modern surgery of Klekamp's type A ISCT permits a complete resection with low functional declination risk. PMID:28144469

  16. Robust identification and localization of intramedullary nail holes for distal locking using CBCT: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Kamarianakis, Z; Buliev, I; Pallikarakis, N

    2011-05-01

    Closed intramedullary nailing is a common technique for treatment of femur and tibia fractures. The most challenging step in this procedure is the precise placement of the lateral screws that stabilize the fragmented bone. The present work concerns the development and the evaluation of a method to accurately identify in the 3D space the axes of the nail hole canals. A limited number of projection images are acquired around the leg with the help of a C-arm. On two of them, the locking hole entries are interactively selected and a rough localization of the hole axes is performed. Perpendicularly to one of them, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstructions are produced. The accurate identification and localization of the hole axes are done by an identification of the centers of the nail holes on the tomograms and a further 3D linear regression through principal component analysis (PCA). Various feature-based approaches (RANSAC, least-square fitting, Hough transform) have been compared for best matching the contours and the centers of the holes on the tomograms. The robustness of the suggested method was investigated using simulations. Programming is done in Matlab and C++. Results obtained on synthetic data confirm very good localization accuracy - mean translational error of 0.14 mm (std=0.08 mm) and mean angular error of 0.84° (std=0.35°) at no radiation excess. Successful localization can be further used to guide a surgeon or a robot for correct drilling the bone along the nail openings.

  17. Early and late intramedullary nailing of femur fracture: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Alobaidi, Ahmad S.; Al-Hassani, Ammar; El-Menyar, Ayman; Abdelrahman, Husham; Tuma, Mazin; Al-Thani, Hassan; Aldosari, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Femur fracture (FF) is a common injury, and intramedullary nailing (IMN) is the standard surgical fixation. However, the time of intervention remains controversial. We aimed to describe the reamed IMN (rIMN) timing and hospital outcomes in trauma patients presenting with FF. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted for all patients admitted with FF and they underwent fixation at level 1 trauma unit between January 2010 and January 2012. Patients were divided into Group I with early rIMN (<12 h) and Group II with late rIMN (≥12 h). Patients’ demographics, clinical presentations, mechanism of injury, pulmonary complications, organ failure, length of stay, and mortality were described. Results: A total of 307 eligible patients with FF were identified (156 patients in Group I and 151 patients in Group II). Patients in Group II were older (36 ± 18 vs. 29 ± 9; P = 0.001) and had higher rate of polytrauma (35% vs. 18%, P = 0.001), head injury (5% vs. 12%, P = 0.68) and bilateral FF (10.7% vs. 5.1%; P = 0.07) in comparison to Group I. Group II had longer stay in Intensive Care Unit (7 [1–56] vs. 2 [1–17] days; P = 0.009) and hospital (13 [2–236] vs. 9 [1–367]; P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups in terms of sepsis, renal failure, fat embolism, adult respiratory distress syndrome and death. Conclusions: Based on this analysis, we believe that early rIMN is safe in appropriately selected cases. In patients with traumatic FFs, early rIMN is associated with low hospital complications and shorter hospital stay. The rate of pulmonary complications is almost the same in the early and late group. Further prospective randomized studies with large sample size would be ideal using the information garnered from the present study. PMID:27722116

  18. Understanding the etiology of the posteromedial tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Charles; Burr, David B; Finestone, Aharon S; Voloshin, Arkady

    2015-09-01

    Previous human in vivo tibial strain measurements from surface strain gauges during vigorous activities were found to be below the threshold value of repetitive cyclical loading at 2500 microstrain in tension necessary to reduce the fatigue life of bone, based on ex vivo studies. Therefore it has been hypothesized that an intermediate bone remodeling response might play a role in the development of tibial stress fractures. In young adults tibial stress fractures are usually oblique, suggesting that they are the result of failure under shear strain. Strains were measured using surface mounted unstacked 45° rosette strain gauges on the posterior aspect of the flat medial cortex just below the tibial midshaft, in a 48year old male subject while performing vertical jumps, staircase jumps and running up and down stadium stairs. Shear strains approaching 5000 microstrain were recorded during stair jumping and vertical standing jumps. Shear strains above 1250 microstrain were recorded during runs up and down stadium steps. Based on predictions from ex vivo studies, stair and vertical jumping tibial shear strain in the test subject was high enough to potentially produce tibial stress fracture subsequent to repetitive cyclic loading without necessarily requiring an intermediate remodeling response to microdamage.

  19. RADIOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT OF THE OPENING WEDGE PROXIMAL TIBIAL OSTEOTOMY

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Carlos Francisco Bittencourt; Camara, Eduardo Kastrup Bittencourt; Vieira, Luiz Antonio; Adolphsson, Fernando; Rodarte, Rodrigo Ribeiro Pinho

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To radiographically evaluate individuals who underwent opening wedge proximal tibial osteotomy, with the aim of analyzing the proximal tibial slope in the frontal and sagittal planes, and the patellar height. Method: The study included 22 individuals who were operated at the National Traumatology and Orthopedics Institute (INTO) for correction of varus angular tibial deviation using the opening wedge osteotomy (OWO) technique with the Orthofix monolateral external fixator. Patients with OWO whose treatment was completed between January 2000 and December 2006 were analyzed. The measurement technique consisted of using anteroposterior radiographs with loading and lateral views with the operated knees flexed at 30°. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the pre and postoperative tibial slope and patellar height values in the patients evaluated. Conclusion: Opening wedge proximal tibial osteotomy is a technique that avoids the problems presented by high proximal tibial osteotomy, since it is done without causing changes to the extensor mechanism, ligament imbalance or distortions in the proximal tibia. PMID:27022577

  20. Intramedullary spinal cord ganglioglioma presenting as hyperhidrosis: unique symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging findings: case report.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tomohiro; Koyanagi, Izumi; Kaneko, Takahisa; Yoneta, Akihiro; Keira, Yoshiko; Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2013-02-01

    Hyperhidrosis is caused by a sympathetic dysfunction of the central or peripheral nervous system. Intramedullary spinal cord lesions can be a cause of hyperhidrosis. The authors report a rare case of intramedullary thoracic spinal cord ganglioglioma presenting as hyperhidrosis. This 16-year-old boy presented with abnormal sweating on the right side of the neck, chest, and the right arm that had been occurring for 6 years. Neurological examination revealed mild motor weakness of the right lower extremity and slightly decreased sensation in the left lower extremity. Hyperhidrosis was observed in the right C3-T8 dermatomes. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an intramedullary tumor at the right side of the spinal cord at the T2-3 level. The tumor showed partial enhancement after Gd administration. The patient underwent removal of the tumor via hemilaminectomy of T2-3. Only subtotal resection was achieved because the margins of the tumor were unclear. Histopathological examination revealed ganglioglioma. Hyperhidrosis gradually improved after surgery. Hyperhidrosis is a rare clinical manifestation of intramedullary spinal cord tumors, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. The location of the tumor origin, around the right gray matter of the lateral spinal cord, may account for the hyperhidrosis as the initial symptom in this patient. Physicians should examine the spinal cord using MRI studies when a patient has hyperhidrosis with some motor or sensory symptoms of the extremities.

  1. [Distal tibia peri-implant fracture with an intramedullary nail: a case report].

    PubMed

    Reyes-Cabrera, J M; González-Alconada, R; García-Mota, M D

    2013-01-01

    Peri-implant fractures of the distal tibia after intramedullary nailing are rare. We present a case of a fracture of the distal tibia at the site of the distal interlocking screw. We found two cases reported in the world literature. There are no cases reported in the Spanish literature.

  2. Antegrade Unreamed Locked Intramedullary Nailing in Open Fractures of Shaft of Humerus

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jasbir; Lal, Mukand; Chandel, Desh Raj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Open fractures of shaft of humerus have been treated conservatively as well as operatively. Plate osteosynthesis has been considered as the gold standard treatment. Intramedullary nailing also has same success rate in closed fractures. The results of 30 open fractures of shaft humerus fixed with locked unreamed antegrade intramedullary nailing were evaluated. Aim The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of locked intramedullary nailing in open fractures of shaft humerus in terms of bone union, secondary procedure required, complication, shoulder dysfunction and infection. Materials and Methods Of consecutive 365 humeral shaft fractures, 63 fractures were open. Thirty-two patients were operated with plate osteosynthesis, while 31 patients who were treated with locked unreamed intramedullary nails fulfilling the inclusion criteria entered the study. Results Twenty eight of thirty patients united in mean duration of 10.5 weeks. There were two non-unions both of them united with bone grafting and plate osteosynthesis. Seven patients had superficial infection which healed with antibiotic course, while two patients had deep infection, which healed with repeat debridement. Eleven patients had preoperative radial nerve palsy, nine of which healed completely in average of six months. Twenty eight patients had excellent functional outcome at final follow-up while two patients had good outcome. Conclusion Antegrade nailing is associated with good union rates and low infection rates and is a good option in open fractures and in polytrauma patients. PMID:27790533

  3. Proximal Tibial Epiphysis Injury (Flexion Type, Salter–Harris Type 1)

    PubMed Central

    Israni, Pratik; Panat, Mangesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Fractures of the proximal tibial epiphysis rare. It has been estimated that fractures of the upper tibial epiphysis account for 0.5-3.1% of all epiphyseal injuries. Who had no neurovascular deficit, with fixed extension deformity at the left knee was treated early with closed reduction techniques. Case Report: We present a case of a 16-year-old boy who while playing cricket on the road was hit by a car. The patient presented in emergency room with extremely swollen knee and soft tissue swelling (hemarthrosis), he was unable to lift his leg actively due to severe pain because of hamstrings spasm, and he had no wound over his left knee and had no other associated injuries. Plain radiographs were taken which revealed, separated proximal tibial epiphysis (salter harris Type 1 injury) The epiphysis was anteriorly displaced fracture line extending beyond growth plate through metaphysis and tibial tuberosity also displaced anteriorly, the proximal fibular epiphysis fragment was displaced anteriorly with no injury to femoral epiphysis and no patellar fracture, radiograph also revealed no intra-articular fracture as joint appears congruent. Under spinal anesthesia, under all aseptic precautions traction was applied for few minutes, the fracture was reduced closed as the hamstring spasm gave way, reduction was confirmed under image intensifier in both AP and lateral planes, and joint congruity was examined. Proximal fibular epiphysis also snapped back in place. Post-operative patient was immobilized with nil weight bearing for 4 weeks, check X-rays taken, he was mobilized in wheelchair. After 4 weeks slab was removed, K-wires were removed, and partial weight bearing was started with rehabilitation for full range of motion of the left knee. At 6 weeks, both the knee joints appeared symmetrical with no abnormalities or limb length discrepancy or instability with knee from 0° to 140°, with full weight bearing. Conclusion: Although less commonly seen, Salter

  4. Tibial osteotomy for the varus osteoarthritic knee.

    PubMed

    Aglietti, P; Rinonapoli, E; Stringa, G; Taviani, A

    1983-06-01

    High tibial osteotomy is a reliable method for relieving pain in the varus osteoarthritic knee. In a review of 139 osteotomies, excellent and good results were noted in 64% of the knees after a follow-up period of at least ten years. The ideal candidate for this operation has Grade I or II osteoarthritis; less than 10 degrees of varus deformity, as measured by a single leg standing roentgenogram; no lateral subluxation; and no instability. The lateral closed wedge osteotomy without internal fixation is the preferred technique, and correction beyond the normal anatomic position, to 5 degrees of valgus, is advised. Protected weight-bearing after the second postoperative day is allowed. Complications have been infrequent and minor. Forty-seven knees were managed in this manner, and 88% had an excellent or good result at a four-year follow-up evaluation. In the majority of the well corrected knees, the alignment did not change with time, and the osteoarthritis did not progress. No failures in this series were attributable to the associated patellofemoral osteoarthritis; the reaction of the patellofemoral joint to osteotomy is obscure.

  5. Shape optimization of tibial prosthesis components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    NASA technology and optimal design methodologies originally developed for the optimization of composite structures (engine blades) are adapted and applied to the optimization of orthopaedic knee implants. A method is developed enabling the shape tailoring of the tibial components of a total knee replacement implant for optimal interaction within the environment of the tibia. The shape of the implant components are optimized such that the stresses in the bone are favorably controlled to minimize bone degradation, to improve the mechanical integrity of the implant/interface/bone system, and to prevent failures of the implant components. A pilot tailoring system is developed and the feasibility of the concept is demonstrated and evaluated. The methodology and evolution of the existing aerospace technology from which this pilot optimization code was developed is also presented and discussed. Both symmetric and unsymmetric in-plane loading conditions are investigated. The results of the optimization process indicate a trend toward wider and tapered posts as well as thicker backing trays. Unique component geometries were obtained for the different load cases.

  6. The effect of an intramedullary implant with a static magnetic field on the healing of the osteotomised rabbit femur.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Nuri; Bezer, Murat

    2011-01-01

    Static magnetic fields are a type of electromagnetic fields used in clinical practice. To ascertain what effect a static magnetic intramedullary device implanted in the rabbit femur had on fracture healing, 20 male New Zealand white rabbits with magnetic/nonmagnetic intramedullary implants were examined histologically, radiologically and for bone mineral density. Three groups were constituted according to the poles of the magnets. During surgery the intramedullary device was driven into the medulla. A femoral osteotomy was created with a mini Gigli wire at the centre point of the rod. Radiographs were obtained at the second and fourth weeks. Histological examination and bone mineral density were evaluated at the fourth week. The results of this study verified that an intramedullary implant with a static magnetic field improves bone healing in the first two weeks radiologically and that the configuration difference in magnetic poles has an effect on bone quality. Static magnetic fields have minor effects on bone mineral density values.

  7. Intramedullary neurenteric cyst of the conus medullaris without associated spinal malformation: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Hariri, Behrouz; Khalatbari, Mahmoud Reza; Hassani, Hajar; Taheri, Behrouz; Abbassioun, Kazem

    2012-01-01

    Spinal neurenteric (NE) cysts are rare congenital anomalies that may occur either alone or in the context of a complex malformative disorder. They are usually intradural-extramedullary lesions. Intramedullary NE cysts not associated with other congenital anomalies are very rare and only a few cases have been reported in the conus medullaris region. Intramedullary neurenteric cysts not associated with other spinal anomalies are very rare especially in the conus medullaris region. MRI is useful to define the cyst and the osseous anomalies associated with this lesion. The goal of treatment of an intramedullary neurenteric cyst is total excision at the first operation, if possible. Life-long follow-up with annual MRI is recommended due to the risk of cyst recurrence. We report an intramedullary NE cyst of the conus medullaris without associated malformation and the relevant literature is briefly reviewed.

  8. Fractures of the tibial plateau involve similar energies as the tibial pilon but greater articular surface involvement.

    PubMed

    Dibbern, Kevin; Kempton, Laurence B; Higgins, Thomas F; Morshed, Saam; McKinley, Todd O; Marsh, J Lawrence; Anderson, Donald D

    2017-03-01

    Patients with tibial pilon fractures have a higher incidence of post-traumatic osteoarthritis than those with fractures of the tibial plateau. This may indicate that pilon fractures present a greater mechanical insult to the joint than do plateau fractures. We tested the hypothesis that fracture energy and articular fracture edge length, two independent indicators of severity, are higher in pilon than plateau fractures. We also evaluated whether clinical fracture classification systems accurately reflect severity. Seventy-five tibial plateau fractures and 52 tibial pilon fractures from a multi-institutional study were selected to span the spectrum of severity. Fracture severity measures were calculated using objective CT-based image analysis methods. The ranges of fracture energies measured for tibial plateau and pilon fractures were 3.2-33.2 Joules (J) and 3.6-32.2 J, respectively, and articular fracture edge lengths were 68.0-493.0 mm and 56.1-288.6 mm, respectively. There were no differences in the fracture energies between the two fracture types, but plateau fractures had greater articular fracture edge lengths (p < 0.001). The clinical fracture classifications generally reflected severity, but there was substantial overlap of fracture severity measures between different classes. Similar fracture energies with different degrees of articular surface involvement suggest a possible explanation for dissimilar rates of post-traumatic osteoarthritis for fractures of the tibial plateau compared to the tibial pilon. The substantial overlap of severity measures between different fracture classes may well have confounded prior clinical studies relying on fracture classification as a surrogate for severity. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:618-624, 2017.

  9. Results of a modified posterolateral approach for the isolated posterolateral tibial plateau fracture

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guan-Yi; Xiao, Bai-Ping; Luo, Cong-Feng; Zhuang, Yun-Qiang; Xu, Rong-Ming; Ma, Wei-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are few posterolateral approaches that do not require the common peroneal nerve (CPN) dissection. With the nerve exposure, it would pose a great challenge and sometimes iatrogenic damage over the surgical course. The purpose was to present a case series of patients with posterolateral tibial plateau fractures treated by direct exposure and plate fixation through a modified posterolateral approach without exposing the common peroneal nerve (CPN). Materials and Methods: 9 consecutive cases of isolated posterior fractures of the posterolateral tibial plateau were operated by open reduction and plate fixation through the modified posterolateral approach without exposing the CPN between June 2009 and January 2012. Articular reduction quality was assessment according to the immediate postoperative radiographs. At 24 month followup, all patients had radiographs and were asked to complete a validated outcome measure and the modified Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) Knee Scale. Results: All patients were followedup, with a mean period of 29 months (range 25–40 months). Bony union was achieved in all patients. In six cases, the reduction was graded as best and in three cases the reduction was graded as middle according to the immediate postoperative radiographs by the rank order system. The average range of motion arc was 127° (range 110°–134°) and the mean postoperative HSS was 93 (range 85–97) at 24 months followup. None of the patients sustained neurovascular complication. Conclusions: The modified posterolateral approach through a long skin incision without exposing the CPN could help to expand the surgical options for an optimal treatment of this kind of fracture, and plating of posterolateral tibial plateau fractures would result in restoration and maintenance of alignment. This approach demands precise knowledge of the anatomic structures of this region. PMID:27053799

  10. Properties of the tibial component regarding impact load.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Kazunori; Koga, Yoshio; Segawa, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Yuichi; Tanabe, Yuji; Endo, Naoto; Omori, Go

    2004-06-01

    Load transmission through knee prostheses was examined to clarify how the tibial component behaves under dynamic loading conditions. We did Genesis II total knee arthroplasty using sawbones and measured impact load transmission ratios using the split-Hopkinson pressure bar technique. We also measured the polyethylene strain when an impact load was applied using a strain gauge bonded to the anterior surface of the polyethylene. The impact load transmission ratios of metal-backed and all-polyethylene tibial components were less than 4%. Greater load transmission was observed with metal-backed components, which suggests that some of the applied dynamic load is transferred directly to the tibial cortical bone. Increasing polyethylene thickness decreased impact load transmission ratios in both components, which might lower the cancellous bone stresses beneath tibial implants. Greater strain in the tibial component was observed in all-polyethylene components. Increased polyethylene thickness did not significantly decrease the polyethylene strain, probably because of the nonlinear elastic behavior of the polyethylene material. The distant positioning of the strain gauge may, however, have prevented the detection of local contact strains. Recent clinical studies did not confirm our theoretical predictions, suggesting that other factors contribute more significantly to the clinical outcome in current total knee arthroplasty.

  11. Biomechanical evaluation of tibial eminence fractures using suture fixation.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Stephen K; Curtis, Stuart H

    2011-12-06

    This study evaluates the initial fixation strength of tibial eminence fracture repair using 1, 2, 3, and 4 sutures to determine the optimal number of sutures required to adequately secure the avulsed fragment to the tibia. Sixteen skeletally immature porcine knees were stripped of all soft tissues, isolating the femur-anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-tibia complex. Type III tibial eminence fractures were simulated in the specimens, and each specimen was randomly assigned to a repair group using 1, 2, 3, or 4 #2 FiberWire sutures (Arthrex, Inc, Naples, Florida). Initial fixation strength of the repair was measured by single cycle pull to failure testing using a materials testing machine (Instron, Norwood, Massachusetts). The mean ultimate failure force during anterior tibial translation was 389±128, 627±66, 703±77, and 802±29 N for 1, 2, 3, and 4 sutures, respectively. The lower limit of the 95% confidence interval was >500 N (estimated force of native ACL during activities of daily living) for each group with ≥2 sutures. In this study, at least 2 high-strength sutures were needed for tibial eminence fracture repairs to withstand potential forces seen across the ACL in the postoperative period. Suture fixation of tibial eminence fractures is a reproducible method requiring a minimum of 2 high-strength polyester sutures to resist forces seen during early rehabilitation.

  12. Opening-wedge osteotomy, allografting with dual buttress plate fixation for severe genu recurvatum caused by partial growth arrest of the proximal tibial physis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Chin; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Wang, Ching-Jen

    2004-07-01

    Injuries to the proximal tibial physis are among the least common epiphyseal injuries. We present a case of severe genu recurvatum deformity (45 degrees) with leg length discrepancy (4 cm) following a neglected proximal tibial physeal injury incurred 6 years previously. The 16-year-old patient was successfully treated by open-wedge osteotomy, allograft reconstruction, and dual buttress plate fixation. At 3 years' follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic, fully active with a full range of motion (0 - 140 degrees) of the leg, and equal leg lengths. There were no signs of genu recurvatum clinically.

  13. Effect of Wedge Insertion Angle on Posterior Tibial Slope in Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Matsumoto, Kazu; Ogawa, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Kentaro; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a well-established surgery for medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) wherein the lower extremity is realigned to shift the load distribution from the medial compartment of the knee to the lateral compartment. However, this surgery is known to affect the posterior tibial slope angle (PTSA), which could lead to abnormal knee kinematics and instability, and eventually to knee OA. Although PTSA control is as important as coronal realignment, few appropriate measurements for this parameter have been reported. The placement of a wedge spacer might have an effect on PTSA. Purpose: To elucidate the relationship between the PTSA and the direction of insertion of a wedge spacer. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: This study assessed 43 knees from 34 patients who underwent medial opening wedge HTO for knee OA. Pre- and postoperative lateral radiographs of the knee as well as postoperative computed tomography scans were performed to evaluate the relationship among PTSA, wedge insertion angle (WIA), and opening gap ratio (distance of the anterior opening gap/distance of the posterior opening gap at the osteotomy site). Results: The PTSA significantly increased from 9.0° ± 2.8° preoperatively to 13.2° ± 4.1° postoperatively (P < .001), resulting in a mean ΔPTSA of 4.7° ± 4.5°. The mean opening gap ratio was 0.86 ± 0.11, and the mean WIA was 25.9° ± 8.4°. The WIA and opening gap ratio were both highly correlated with ΔPTSA (r = 0.71 and 0.72, respectively), implying that a smaller WIA or smaller gap ratio leads to less increase in posterior slope. Conclusion: The direction of wedge insertion is highly correlated with PTSA increase, which suggests that the PTSA can be controlled for by adjusting the direction of wedge insertion during surgery. Clinical Relevance: Study results suggest that it is possible to adjust the PTSA by controlling the WIA during surgery. Proper

  14. Iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm of the popliteal artery following corrective tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Szyber, P; Skóra, J; Rybak, W; Pupka, A

    2011-09-01

    Due to its anatomical location the popliteal artery is exposed to injury during surgical procedures in the region of the knee joint, in particular during high-level corrective osteotomies of the proximal tibial epiphysis. Nevertheless, posttraumatic (iatrogenic) pseudoaneurysm constitutes a very rare complication of the procedure. Only few reports of such complication have been published and they were usually connected with lateral tibial osteotomy - the accidents after medial osteotomy are seldom. The complication we report was observed in a 52-year-old female patient after corrective osteotomy of the medial portion of the proximal tibial epiphysis. The complication was diagnosed 7 days after surgery on US-examination and subsequently confirmed by emergently performed angio-CT. The patient was referred for urgent reconstructive surgery. No significant complications were observed, neither postoperatively nor during follow-up visits.

  15. Computer-Assisted Navigation in High Tibial Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang Jun

    2016-01-01

    Computer-assisted navigation is used to improve the accuracy and precision of correction angles during high tibial osteotomy. Most studies have reported that this technique reduces the outliers of coronal alignment and unintended changes in the tibial posterior slope angle. However, more sophisticated studies are necessary to determine whether the technique will improve the clinical results and long-term survival rates. Knowledge of the navigation technology, surgical techniques and potential pitfalls, the clinical results of previous studies, and understanding of the advantages and limitations of the computer-assisted navigation are crucial to successful application of this new technique in high tibial osteotomy. Herein, we review the evidence concerning this technique from previous studies. PMID:27904715

  16. [Anatomical quantification of the tibial part of the plantar aponeurosis].

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, Y

    1983-03-01

    The metrical analysis of the anatomical characteristics is important because of its objectiveness. As it is concerned with the organs belonging to the locomotor system, the metrical method of the bones has already been systematized by Martin (1928), whereas the same kind of method for use on other organs remains undeveloped. The author aims to establish the metrical method of the plantar aponeurosis. The method for measuring the tibial part of the aponeurosis developed in this paper is sufficiently applicable for obtaining its principal anatomical characteristics. The results show that the tibial portion of the plantar aponeurosis becomes statistically significantly wider and thinner in its anterior part, and that the thickness of the tibial portion of the aponeurosis in the anterior part is larger on the right side than on the left side.

  17. Periprosthetic tibial bone mineral density changes after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jaroma, Antti; Soininvaara, Tarja; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may cause postoperative periprosthetic bone loss due to stress shielding. Bone also adapts to mechanical alterations such as correction of malalignment. We investigated medium-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in tibial periprosthetic bone after TKA. Patients and methods 86 TKA patients were prospectively measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the baseline measurement being within 1 week after TKA and the follow-up measurements being at 3 and 6 months, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 years postoperatively. Long standing radiographs were taken and clinical evaluation was done with the American Knee Society (AKS) score. Results The baseline BMD of the medial tibial metaphyseal region of interest (ROI) was higher in the varus aligned knees (25%; p < 0.001). Medial metaphyseal BMD decreased in subjects with preoperatively varus aligned knees (13%, p < 0.001) and in those with preoperatively valgus aligned knees (12%, p = 0.02) between the baseline and 7-year measurements. No statistically significant changes in BMD were detected in lateral metaphyseal ROIs. No implant failures or revision surgery due to tibial problems occurred. Interpretation Tibial metaphyseal periprosthetic bone is remodeled after TKA due to mechanical axis correction, resulting in more balanced bone stock below the tibial tray. The diaphyseal BMD remains unchanged after the initial drop, within 3–6 months. This remodeling process was related to good component survival, as there were no implant failures or revision operations due to tibial problems in this medium-term follow-up. PMID:27120266

  18. Does the Taylor Spatial Frame Accurately Correct Tibial Deformities?

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Kira; Ilizarov, Svetlana; Fragomen, Austin T.; Ilizarov, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Background Optimal leg alignment is the goal of tibial osteotomy. The Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) and the Ilizarov method enable gradual realignment of angulation and translation in the coronal, sagittal, and axial planes, therefore, the term six-axis correction. Questions/purposes We asked whether this approach would allow precise correction of tibial deformities. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 102 patients (122 tibiae) with tibial deformities treated with percutaneous osteotomy and gradual correction with the TSF. The proximal osteotomy group was subdivided into two subgroups to distinguish those with an intentional overcorrection of the mechanical axis deviation (MAD). The minimum followup after frame removal was 10 months (average, 48 months; range, 10–98 months). Results In the proximal osteotomy group, patients with varus and valgus deformities for whom the goal of alignment was neutral or overcorrection experienced accurate correction of MAD. In the proximal tibia, the medial proximal tibial angle improved from 80° to 89° in patients with a varus deformity and from 96° to 85° in patients with a valgus deformity. In the middle osteotomy group, all patients had less than 5° coronal plane deformity and 15 of 17 patients had less that 5° sagittal plane deformity. In the distal osteotomy group, the lateral distal tibial angle improved from 77° to 86° in patients with a valgus deformity and from 101° to 90° for patients with a varus deformity. Conclusions Gradual correction of all tibial deformities with the TSF was accurate and with few complications. Level of Evidence Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19911244

  19. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be...

  20. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be...

  1. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be...

  2. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be...

  3. Double tibial osteotomy for bow leg patients: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Nazem, Khalilollah; Fouladi, Arash; Chinigarzadeh, Mozhdeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: High tibia osteotomy (HTO) is a common surgical operation for correction of genu varum deformity. In some patients, there are concurrent tibia vara and genu varum (bow leg). This study aimed to consider the possibility of better correction of bow leg deformity after double level tibial osteotomy (DLTO). Materials and Methods: A case series of 10 patients of genu varum in addition to tibia vara (bow leg) deformity who were referred to orthopedic ward of an academic hospital of Isfahan- Iran during 2009–2011 were included in the study. The mean age was 17.3 ± 3.1 years and all of them underwent DLTO. The results of treatment have been assessed based on clinical and radiological parameters before and after surgery. Results: The mean pre- and post operative values for Tibia-Femoral Angle, Medial Proximal of Tibia Angle (MPTA), and Lateral Distal of Tibia Angle (LDTA) were 18.13 ± 3.05° vs. 3.93 ± 0.66°, 79.13 ± 3.4° vs. 89.7 ± 1.8° and 96.40 ± 1.8° vs. 88.73 ± 3.0° respectively (P < 0.05). Improvement of all radiological parameters was meaningful. Seventy three percent of patients had normal mechanical axis of limb after surgery. The remaining cases had varus deformity in distal femur that was corrected by valgus supracondylar osteotomy in an additional operation. Limited range of motion (ROM) near knee and ankle was not observed. Conclusion: DLTO correct bow leg deformity in the point of alignment of limb and paralleling of knee and ankle joint more effectively. This method can be used in metabolic and congenital bow leg which deformities are present in throughout of the lower limb. We described this technique for the first time. PMID:24523802

  4. Posterior tibial vein aneurysm presenting as tarsal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Micheal; Whisenhunt, Anumeha; Hong, EnYaw; Heller, Josh; Salvatore, Dawn; Abai, Babak; DiMuzio, Paul J

    2015-06-01

    Tarsal tunnel syndrome is a compressive neuropathy of the posterior tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel. Its etiology varies, including space occupying lesions, trauma, inflammation, anatomic deformity, iatrogenic injury, and idiopathic and systemic causes. Herein, we describe a 46-year-old man who presented with left foot pain. Work up revealed a venous aneurysm impinging on the posterior tibial nerve. Following resection of the aneurysm and lysis of the nerve, his symptoms were alleviated. Review of the literature reveals an association between venous disease and tarsal tunnel syndrome; however, this report represents the first case of venous aneurysm causing symptomatic compression of the nerve.

  5. Subparaneurial ganglion cysts of the fibular and tibial nerves: A new variant of intraneural ganglion cysts.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Nikhil K; Desy, Nicholas M; Howe, B Matthew; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    Over the last decade, the mechanism of formation of intraneural ganglion cysts has been established through a meticulous review of clinical findings and correlation with patterns produced on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pathognomonic imaging patterns distinguish these rare lesions from the more common extraneural variants in almost all cases. In this report, we present a new pattern of cyst occurrence in the subparaneurial compartment of the nerve and provide potential anatomic explanations for its pathogenesis. Using an anatomic framework of connective tissue compartments of the nerve, we reviewed 63 (56 fibular and seven tibial) intraneural ganglion cysts in the knee region evaluated at our institution and all reports with MRI in the world's literature for evidence of cyst occurrence in the subparaneurial compartment. We identified six cases (five in the common fibular nerve and one in the tibial nerve) at our institution that had MR evidence of cyst in the subparaneurial compartment with a new complex lobulated pattern. All cases had articular branch connections to the superior tibiofibular joint, which at operation were resected along with the joints. Follow-up revealed complete recovery in all instances and no clinical or radiological signs of recurrence. Three cases out of 80 in the literature exhibited the new complex lobulated MRI pattern. We present a new pattern of intraneural ganglion cyst occurrence in a potential space that surrounds peripheral nerves--the subparaneurial compartment. We believe that the unifying articular theory applies to the pathogenesis and management of these rare variants.

  6. Concurrent cerebellar and cervical intramedullary tuberculoma: Paradoxical response on antitubercular chemotherapy and need for surgery

    PubMed Central

    Das, Kuntal Kanti; Jaiswal, Sushila; Shukla, Mukesh; Srivastava, Arun Kumar; Behari, Sanjay; Kumar, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Spinal intramedullary tuberculoma (SIT) is a rare manifestation of neurotuberculosis. Concurrent SIT and intracranial tuberculoma are further unusual. Most of these tuberculomas respond completely to medical therapy, and surgical excision is seldom required. In this report, we describe a 17-year-old boy who developed cervical intramedullary tuberculoma at C3-C6 level with a concurrent lesion involving the right cerebellar hemisphere while on treatment for tubercular meningitis. This patient had paradoxical increase in size of the cervical lesion even though the cerebellar lesion showed regression in size. In this article, we discuss the paradoxical response to anti-tubercular therapy in central nervous system tuberculosis, possible causes of nonresolution of tuberculoma on medical therapy and evaluate the role of surgery in these cases. PMID:25250077

  7. Humeral Shaft Fracture Treatment in the Elite Throwing Athlete: A Unique Application of Flexible Intramedullary Nailing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christopher S.; Davis, Shane M.; Fronek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Humeral shaft stress fractures are being increasingly recognized as injuries that can significantly impact throwing mechanics if residual malalignment exists. While minimally displaced and angulated injuries are treated nonoperatively in a fracture brace, the management of significantly displaced humeral shaft fractures in the throwing athlete is less clear. Currently described techniques such as open reduction and internal fixation with plate osteosynthesis and rigid antegrade/retrograde locked intramedullary nailing have significant morbidity due to soft tissue dissection and damage. We present a case report of a high-level baseball pitcher whose significantly displaced humeral shaft stress fracture failed to be nonoperatively managed and was subsequently treated successfully with unlocked, retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing. The athlete was able to return to pitching baseball in one year and is currently pitching in Major League Baseball. We were able to recently collect 10-year follow-up data. PMID:24369515

  8. Humeral shaft fracture treatment in the elite throwing athlete: a unique application of flexible intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher S; Davis, Shane M; Ho, Hoang-Anh; Fronek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Humeral shaft stress fractures are being increasingly recognized as injuries that can significantly impact throwing mechanics if residual malalignment exists. While minimally displaced and angulated injuries are treated nonoperatively in a fracture brace, the management of significantly displaced humeral shaft fractures in the throwing athlete is less clear. Currently described techniques such as open reduction and internal fixation with plate osteosynthesis and rigid antegrade/retrograde locked intramedullary nailing have significant morbidity due to soft tissue dissection and damage. We present a case report of a high-level baseball pitcher whose significantly displaced humeral shaft stress fracture failed to be nonoperatively managed and was subsequently treated successfully with unlocked, retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing. The athlete was able to return to pitching baseball in one year and is currently pitching in Major League Baseball. We were able to recently collect 10-year follow-up data.

  9. Recovery after tetraplegia caused by dermal sinus infection: intramedullary abscess and tetraparesis.

    PubMed

    Houx, Laetitia; Brochard, Sylvain; Peudenier, Sylviane; Dam Hieu, Phong; Rémy-Néris, Olivier

    2011-03-01

    Congenital dermal sinuses result from abnormal neurulation, and are uncommon. A spinal intramedullary abscess secondary to an infected dermoid cyst is very rare, and the functional prognosis is usually quite poor. We report on a 16-month-old child with tetraplegia secondary to intramedullary abscesses because of a dermoid cyst infection associated with a dermal sinus. The abscesses were drained, and the dermoid cyst was removed. Antibiotics were administered for 6 weeks after neurosurgery. The child was followed at a pediatric rehabilitation department. After 1 year, he was able to walk quickly and had regained appropriate upper limb motor function for his age. However, bladder sphincter dyssynergia persisted, requiring intermittent catheterization. This case highlights the importance of early diagnosis for surgical intervention and prolonged antibiotic therapy. Long-term follow-up by a multidisciplinary team allowed for the effective management of related neurologic, orthopedic, and bladder disorders.

  10. MECHANICAL STUDY ON DORSAL STABILITY OF INTRAMEDULLARY OSTEOSYNTHESIS ASSOCIATED WITH EXTERNAL FIXATION (ULSON'S METHOD)

    PubMed Central

    Sardenberg, Trajano; Muller, Sérgio Swain; Medeiros, Daniel Ricardo; Baptistão, Pablo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the Ulson intramedullary fixation method, with external fixation in which the level of the external locking of the Kirschner wires is varied, and without external fixation. Methods: Eighteen porcine tibias were used. Transverse osteotomy was performed in the region of the tuberosity, and two intramedullary Kirschner wires were inserted into each specimen, using three different assembly patterns: Group I: locking with external minifixator at a height of 3.0 cm; Group II: locking at a height of 4.5 cm; Group III: without external locking. Mechanical shear tests were then conducted, to determine the maximum load, proportionality limit and coefficient of rigidity. Results: There were no significant differences in maximum load or proportionality limit between the groups. The coefficient of rigidity was higher in Group II. Conclusion: The locking height for the Kirschner wires in Ulson's method, within the limits evaluated, did not harm the stability of the fracture fixation system. PMID:27027069

  11. Results of bypasses to the anterior tibial artery through the interosseous membrane.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Calio, F G; Bertagni, A; Martinelli, V

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the results of anatomically tunneled grafts to the anterior tibial artery for distal revascularization in terms of patency and limb salvage rates as well as local morbidity, which can lengthen the postoperative hospital stay. Twenty-three patients received 24 bypasses to the anterior tibial artery, with grafts tunneled through the interosseous membrane. The mean age was 67 years; 10 patients were diabetic, 12 were smokers, 9 presented with significant coronary artery disease, and 2 with chronic renal insufficiency. The donor vessel was the common femoral artery in 17 cases, the superficial femoral artery in 4, and the infra-articular popliteal artery in 3. The graft material consisted in the reversed saphenous vein in 4 cases, the non-reversed devalvulated ex situ saphenous vein in 11, composite polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) + inversed saphenous vein in 6, and PTFE alone in 3 cases. No postoperative mortality was observed, nor was there postoperative graft occlusion or need for major amputation. The average postoperative length of stay in the hospital was 9.7 days. Two local surgical wound complications were observed, which did not necessitate a postoperative hospital stay exceeding 15 days. Cumulative primary patency and limb salvage rates at 3 years were 50% and 70%, respectively. Anatomic tunneling of grafts to the anterior tibial artery yields patency and limb salvage rates comparable to those reported in the literature for distal bypasses and, considered overall, an acceptably low local morbidity and short hospital stay. Definitive superiority over externally tunneled grafts, however, is not definitely demonstrated by this study and should be prospectively tested.

  12. [Leptomeningeal spread of an intramedullary cervical pilocytic astrocytoma: case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Jusué-Torres, I; Alcázar-Vaquerizo, L; Gómez-Angulo, J C; Navarro-Torres, R; López-Serrano, R; García-Miralles, N

    2011-10-01

    BACKGROUND. The rarest location of pilocytic astrocytoma is intramedullary. Gliomas represent up to 24 - 30% of intramedullary tumors in adulthood and are second only after ependymomas. Leptomeningeal dissemination through cerebrospinal fluid is unusual and occurs predominantly in medulloblastomas, ependymoblastomas, central neuroblastomas, ependymomas, germ cell tumors and high-grade gliomas. The majority of spinal cord gliomas reporting metastasis were anaplastic astrocytomas or glioblastomas multiforme and relatively few were low-grade gliomas. The incidence of leptomeningeal spread of low-grade tumors is rare. A rare cranial extension of brain leptomeningeal dissemination in an intramedullary pilocytic astrocytoma during adulthood is reported. CASE REPORT. A 51 year-old-man with a recurrent intramedullary mass at C5-C7 level operated 4 times with all pathological anatomy reports describing the lesion as Pilocytic Astrocytoma developed, after 15 years from the diagnosis, visual hallucinations and his level of consciousness worsened to Glasgow coma score 13/15. The MRI showed highly enhanced cranial and spinal leptomeninges and paquimeninges with a micro nodular-granulomatous aspect associated with intense affectation of basal cisterns, subarachnoid spaces and convexity of both cerebral hemispheres suggestive of leptomeningeal spread of the spinal mass. The patient expired after three days. CONCLUSION. Leptomeningeal spread is a rare phenomenon and when it happens usually doesn't change the primary tumor's behavior. In our case the aggressiveness could be explained by a potential malignization of the primary tumor that it was not documented because of the partial resections from the lasts surgeries or instead the tumor was actually a monomorphous pilomyxoid tumor.

  13. Tuberculous meningitis with dementia as the presenting symptom after intramedullary spinal cord tumor resection

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Yagi, Hideki; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Early-stage TB meningitis has no specific symptoms in patients, potentially leading to delayed diagnosis and consequently worsening prognosis. The authors present the fatal case with a delayed diagnosis of tuberculous (TB) meningitis with dementia as the presenting symptom after intramedullary spinal cord tumor resection. The medical records, operative reports, and radiographical imaging studies of a single patient were retrospectively reviewed. A 77-year-old man who underwent thoracic intramedullary hemangioblastoma resection for 2 times. The postoperative course was uneventful, but 1.5 months after surgery, the patient suffered from dementia with memory loss and diminished motivation and speech in the absence of a fever. No abnormalities were detected on blood test, brain computed tomography and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. A sputum sample was negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT-G) In-Tube Test and the tuberculin skin test was also negative. The patient was diagnosed with senile dementia by a psychiatrist. However, the patient’s symptoms progressively worsened. Despite the absence of TB meningitis findings, we suspected TB meningitis from the patient’s history, and administered a four-drug regimen. However the patient died 29 days after admission, subsequently M. tuberculosis was detected in the CSF sample. This case is a rare case of TB meningitis initially mistaken for dementia after intramedullary spinal cord tumor resection. Symptoms of dementia after intramedullary spinal cord tumor resection should first be suspected as one of TB meningitis, even if the tests for meningitis are negative. We propose that anti-tuberculosis therapy should be immediately initiated in cases of suspected TB meningitis prior to positive identification on culture. PMID:26663944

  14. Skeletal metastatic disease of the femur: results by management with intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Märdian, S; Schaser, K-D; Ruppert, M; Melcher, I; Haas, N P; Schwabe, P

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This study aimed to analyse the outcome following intramedullary nailing for metastases of the femur in a large cohort with special regard to mechanical, implant associated complications and patient survival. Furthermore, we aimed to identify factors influencing the overall survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS All patients (n = 74) that underwent intramedullary nailing for metastatic disease of the femur between 2004 and 2008 and were retrospectively reviewed. Data were recorded from the patients' medical record and the outpatients' clinics files. Details about the tumour biology, the surgery performed as well as the postoperative care were documented. Survival data were extracted from patient records or obtained via communication with outpatient oncologists or the community registration office. RESULTS 74 (28 (37.8%) male, 46 (62.2%) female; p = 0.048) patients with a mean age of 64.4 ± 11.7 years were included. Breast (25, 33.8%), lung (18, 24.3%), bone marrow (7, 9.5%) and kidney (6, 8.1%) were the primary tumours in more than 75% of all patients. The mean overall survival was 17.5 (95% CI: 9.6 - 25.5) months. Patients with osseous metastases had a significant longer survival than patients with visceral and/or cerebral metastases (p = 0.025 and p = 0.032). CONCLUSION Intramedullary nailing represents a valuable fixation method for pathologic fractures or impending fractures of the femur in patients with an advanced stage of metastatic disease. It provides adequate stability to outlast the patient s remaining life-span. However, the balance must be found between therapeutic resignation and surgical overtreatment since operative treatment may be accompanied with serious complications. Key words: bone metastases, intramedullary nailing, metastatic disease, cement augmentation, osteolytic defect.

  15. Biomechanical effects of angular stable locking in intramedullary nails for the fixation of distal tibia fractures.

    PubMed

    Augat, Peter; Hoegel, Florian; Stephan, Daniel; Hoffmann, Stephanie; Buehren, Volker

    2016-11-01

    Treatment of distal tibia shaft fractures using intramedullary nailing requires stable fixation of the distal fragment to prevent malunion. Angular stable locking for intramedullary nails pledge to provide increased mechanical stability. This study tested the hypothesis that intramedullary nails with angular stable interlocking screws would have increased construct stiffness, reduced fracture gap movement and enhanced fatigue failure compared to nails with conventional locking having the same diameter. Biomechanical experiments were performed on 24 human cadaveric tibiae which obtained a distal fracture and were fixed by three different techniques: conventional locking with 8- and 10-mm-diameter nails and angular stable locking with 8-mm nails. Stiffness of the implant-bone construct and movement of the fragments were tested under axial loading and torsion. The constructs were tested to failure under cyclic fatigue loading. Analysis of variance and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used for statistical assessment. Axial stiffness of the 10-mm nail was about 50% larger compared to both 8-mm nail constructs independent of the type of locking mode (p < 0.01). No differences were found in axial performance between angular stable and conventional locking neither under static nor under cyclic testing conditions (p > 0.5). Angular stability significantly decreased the clearance under torsional load by more than 50% compared to both conventionally locked constructs (p = 0.03). However, due to the larger nail diameter, the total interfragmentary motion was still smallest for the 10-mm nail construct (p < 0.01). Although the 10-mm nail constructs survived slightly longer, differences between groups were minor and not statistically significant (p = 0.4). Our hypothesis that angular stable interlocking of intramedullary nails would improve mechanical performance of distal tibia fracture fixation was not confirmed in a physiologically realistic loading

  16. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for grade III open segmental tibial fractures from combat injuries in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Kuklo, T R; Groth, A T; Anderson, R C; Frisch, H M; Islinger, R B

    2008-08-01

    This is a retrospective consecutive case series of 138 Gustillo-Anderson type IIIB and IIIC segmental tibial fractures treated at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in soldiers injured in Iraq between March 2003 and March 2005. Five patients with a head injury and four who were lost to follow-up were excluded. The patients were treated definitively with either a ringed external fixator or a reamed intramedullary nail, evaluated in terms of supplementary bone grafting with either autogenous bone (group 1, 67 patients) or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 at 1.50 mg/ml applied to an absorbable collagen sponge (group 2, 62 patients). The mechanism of injury, defect size and classification, associated injuries, presence of infection, preliminary treatment/fixation, number of procedures before definitive management, time to and details of definitive management, subsequent infection, re-operation, smoking history and other complications were noted. Radiographs were assessed for union, delayed union or nonunion by an independent investigator. All the patients were male. Their mean age was 26.6 years (20 to 42) and the mean follow-up was for 15.6 months (12 to 32). Group 2 had a slightly higher profile of concomitant injuries and a slightly worse fracture classification, but these were not significant. The rate of union was 76% (51 of 67) for group 1 and 92% for group 2 (57 of 62; p = 0.015). There was also a higher rate of subsequent infection in group 1 (14.9%) compared with group 2 (3.2%; p = 0.001) and a higher rate of re-operation (28%) in group 1 (p = 0.003). There were no observed hypersensitivity reactions to the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 implant.

  17. Finite element analysis of a pseudoelastic compression-generating intramedullary ankle arthrodesis nail.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ryan T; Pacaccio, Douglas J; Yakacki, Christopher M; Carpenter, R Dana

    2016-09-01

    Tibio-talo-calcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis is an end-stage treatment for patients with severe degeneration of the ankle joint. This treatment consists of using an intramedullary nail (IM) to fuse the calcaneus, talus, and tibia bones together into one construct. Poor bone quality within the joint prior to surgery is common and thus the procedure has shown complications due to non-union. However, a new FDA-approved IM nail has been released that houses a nickel titanium (NiTi) rod that uses its inherent pseudoelastic material properties to apply active compression across the fusion site. Finite element analysis was performed to model the mechanical response of the NiTi within the device. A bone model was then developed based on a quantitative computed tomography (QCT) image for anatomical geometry and bone material properties. A total bone and device system was modeled to investigate the effect of bone quality change and gather load-sharing properties during gait loading. It was found that during the highest magnitude loading of gait, the load taken by the bone was more than 50% higher than the load taken by the nail. When comparing the load distribution during gait, results from this study would suggest that the device helps to prevent stress shielding by allowing a more even distribution of load between bone and nail. In conditions where bone quality may vary patient-to-patient, the model indicates that a 10% decrease in overall bone modulus (i.e. material stiffness) due to reduced bone mineral density would result in higher stresses in the nail (3.4%) and a marginal decrease in stress for the bone (0.5%). The finite element model presented in this study can be used as a quantitative tool to further understand the stress environment of both bone and device for a TTC fusion. Furthermore, the methodology presented gives insight on how to computationally program and use the unique material properties of NiTi in an active compression state useful for bone fracture healing

  18. Minimally invasive surgical treatment for unstable fractures of the proximal phalanx: intramedullary screw☆

    PubMed Central

    Aita, Marcio Aurélio; Mos, Paulo Augusto Castro; de Paula Cardoso Marques Leite, Gisele; Alves, Rafael Saleme; Credídio, Marcos Vinicius; da Costa, Eduardo Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical-functional parameters and quality of life of patients undergoing minimally invasive surgical treatment for extra-articular fractures of the proximal phalanx, using an intramedullary screw (Acutrak®). Methods Between January 2011 and September 2014, a prospective study was conducted on 41 patients (48 fingers) with unstable extra-articular fractures of the proximal phalanx, who underwent minimally invasive surgical treatment using an intramedullary screw (Acutrak®). These patients were evaluated 12 months after the surgery by means of the DASH quality-of-life questionnaire, VAS pain scale, measurement of range of motion (ROM, in degrees) and radiographic assessment. Results All the patients achieved adequate reduction and consolidation of their fractures. There were statistically significant improvements in quality of life on the DASH scale, pain on the VAS scale and range of motion. Conclusion The minimally invasive technique for treating unstable extra-articular fractures of the proximal phalanx using an intramedullary screw (Acutrak®) is effective and safe, and it presents satisfactory clinical-functional results. PMID:26962488

  19. Harvest of cortico-cancellous intramedullary femoral bone graft using the Reamer-Irrigator-Aspirator (RIA).

    PubMed

    Masquelet, A-C; Benko, P E; Mathevon, H; Hannouche, D; Obert, L

    2012-04-01

    The "Reamer-Irrigator-Aspirator" (RIA) is a device that provides continuous irrigation and aspiration during intramedullary reaming of long bones. The RIA system is first used to collect the reaming material from medullary cavities, a thick paste of finely morselized osseous particles containing significantly elevated levels of stem cells and growth factors as reported by quantitative analyses. The volume of bone graft material available from an adult femur corresponds to the amount of cancellous bone graft obtained from both the anterior and posterior iliac crests. The assembly and technicalities of the RIA system require a training period to prevent any femoral fracture, which appears to be the major RIA-related complication. The elective indications for RIA bone grafting are filling of bone defects in the epiphyseal and metaphyseal regions. Diaphyseal defects may also be managed using the RIA system provided the graft is placed in a constrained system (induced membrane) to prevent dispersion of the graft into the surrounding soft tissues and is aerated with a porous material to promote its revascularization. Other RIA indications include debriding intramedullary infections and reaming for intramedullary nailing of long bone fractures to reduce the risk of fat embolization.

  20. Sequential harvesting of bone graft from the intramedullary canal of the femur.

    PubMed

    Conway, Janet D; Shabtai, Lior; Specht, Stacy C; Herzenberg, John E

    2014-09-01

    The effectiveness of using the Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator (RIA) System (Synthes, Inc, West Chester, Pennsylvania) to obtain bone graft from the intramedullary canal of long bones for the treatment of bone defects and nonunions has been previously documented. However, there is nothing in the literature discussing the potential for reaming the same canal at subsequent surgeries. The authors detail their experience of 8 instances of sequential reaming in 7 patients. Six patients were harvested twice, and 1 patient was harvested 3 times. In each patient, the bone graft was obtained from the same canal. The main outcome measurements were time interval between reamings, reamer head size, indication for reaming, volume of harvested bone graft, and complications. Average volume of graft obtained in the first reaming procedure was 34 mL (range, 25-50 mL). After an average of 9 months (range, 3-16 months), the subsequent reaming was performed. Average volume of graft obtained in the second procedure was 45 mL (range, 28-65 mL). In the authors' series, no reaming-related complications were observed. The graft volume was the same or increased during the subsequent intramedullary reaming in all but 1 case, suggesting that the intramedullary canal is a potentially renewable source for bone graft. There were no complications related to the sequential reaming procedure. Overall, the authors' data suggest that sequential reaming with the RIA has the potential to safely and effectively provide a large quantity of bone graft on multiple occasions.

  1. Retrograde intramedullary fixation of long bone fractures through ipsilateral traumatic amputation sites.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Scott C; Chi, Benjamin B; Gordon, Wade T; Potter, Benjamin K

    2015-06-01

    The technique of retrograde intramedullary fixation of fractures through open traumatic amputations has not been previously described. We performed a retrospective case series at a tertiary-care military hospital setting. Ten patients met inclusion criteria. All were male, and all were injured through improvised explosive device. Outcome measures included the incidence of fracture nonunion, osteomyelitis or acute infection, heterotopic ossification (HO), as well as successful prosthesis fitting and ambulation. Average time to fixation after injury and amputation closure was 11.7 and 12.2 days, respectively. Follow-up averaged 20.2 months. The radiographic union rate was 100%, and time to osseous union averaged 7.5 months. One patient had an amputation site infection requiring revision, but none of the nails was removed for infectious reasons. HO occurred in 7 patients, and 2 patients required revision for symptomatic HO. All patients were successfully fitted with prostheses and able to ambulate. To our knowledge, this is the only series in the literature to specifically describe retrograde intramedullary fixation of long bone fractures through the zone of traumatic amputation sites. The infectious risk is relatively low, whereas the union rate (100%) and successful prosthesis fitting are high. For patients with similar injuries, retrograde intramedullary fixation through the zone of amputation is a viable treatment option.

  2. Flexible intramedullary nails with traction versus plaster cast for treating femoral shaft fractures in children: comparative retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Fabiano Prata do; Santili, Cláudio; Akkari, Miguel; Waisberg, Gilberto; Braga, Susana dos Reis; Fucs, Patrícia Maria Moraes de Barros

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Femoral fractures are common in children between 2 and 12 years of age, and 75% of the lesions affect the femoral shaft. Traction followed by a plaster cast is universally accepted as conservative treatment. However, in some situations, a surgical approach is recommended. The objective here was to compare treatments for femoral shaft fractures using intramedullary nails (titanium elastic nails, TEN) versus traction and plaster casts in children. The hypothesis was that TEN might provide better treatment, with good clinical results in comparison with plaster casts. DESIGN AND SETTING This retrospective comparative study was conducted in a public university hospital. METHODS Sixty children with femoral fractures were evaluated; 30 of them underwent surgical treatment with TEN and 30 were treated conservatively using plaster casts. The patients' ages ranged from 5 to 13 years (mean of 9 years). RESULTS The mean duration of hospitalization was nine days for the surgical group and 20 days for the conservative group. The incidence of overgrowth in the patients treated with TEN was 60.0% and, for those treated conservatively, 13.3%. Partial weight-bearing was allowed after 3.5 weeks in the surgical group and after 9.6 weeks in the conservative group. New hospitalization was required for 90.0% in the surgical group and 16.7% in the conservative group. Patients treated with plaster casts presented higher incidence of complications, such as loss of reduction. CONCLUSIONS The surgical method presented better results for children.

  3. Treatment of long bone intramedullary infection using the RIA for removal of infected tissue: indications, method and clinical results.

    PubMed

    Zalavras, Charalampos G; Sirkin, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Treatment of intramedullary infections of long bones is based upon the principles of surgical debridement, irrigation, fracture site stabilization, soft tissue coverage, and antibiotic administration. Reaming of the medullary canal is an essential component of surgical debridement because it removes intramedullary debris and infected bone surrounding the removed intramedullary device and within the intramedullary canal. The Reamer-Irrigator-Aspirator (RIA) has distinct features that appear to be beneficial for management of intramedullary infections. It allows reaming under simultaneous irrigation and aspiration, which minimizes the residual amount of infected fluid and tissue in the medullary canal and the propagation of infected material. The disposable reamer head is sharp, which combined with the continuous irrigation may attenuate the increased temperature associated with reaming and its potential adverse effects on adjacent endosteal bone. The disadvantage of the RIA is increased cost because of use of disposable parts. Potential complications can be avoided by detailed preoperative planning and careful surgical technique. The RIA should be used with caution in patients with narrow medullary canals and in infections involving the metaphysis or a limited part of the medullary canal. Reaming of the canal is performed with one pass of the RIA under careful fluoroscopic control. Limited information is available in the literature on the results of the RIA for management of intramedullary infections of long bones; however preliminary results are promising. The RIA device appears to be an effective and safe tool for debridement of the medullary canal and management of intramedullary infections of the long bones. Further research is needed to clarify the exact contribution of the RIA in the management of these infections.

  4. Intramedullary and total femur replacement in revision arthroplasty as a last limb-saving option: is there any benefit from the less invasive intramedullary replacement?

    PubMed

    Hoell, S; Butschek, S; Gosheger, G; Dedy, N; Dieckmann, R; Henrichs, M; Daniilidis, K; Hardes, J

    2011-11-01

    There has been a substantial increase in the number of hip and knee prostheses implanted in recent years, with a consequent increase in the number of revisions required. Total femur replacement (TFR) following destruction of the entire femur, usually after several previous revision operations, is a rare procedure but is the only way of avoiding amputation. Intramedullary femur replacement (IFR) with preservation of the femoral diaphysis is a modification of TFR. Between 1999 and 2010, 27 patients with non-oncological conditions underwent surgery in our department with either IFR (n = 15) or TFR (n = 12) and were included in this study retrospectively. The aim of the study was to assess the indications, complications and outcomes of IFR and TFR in revision cases. The mean follow-up period was 31.3 months (6 to 90). Complications developed in 37% of cases, 33% in the IFR group and 4% in the TFR group. Despite a trend towards a slightly better functional outcome compared with TFR, the indication for intramedullary femur replacement should be established on a very strict basis in view of the procedure's much higher complication rate.

  5. Treatment results of bicondylar tibial fractures using hybrid external fixator.

    PubMed

    Sales, Jafar Ganjpour; Soleymaopour, Jafar; Ansari, Maroof; Afaghi, Farhad; Goldust, Mohamad

    2013-05-15

    Tibial condyle fractures affect knee stability and motion. Treatment of bicondylar type of tibial plateau fracture is a challenging problem. This study aimed at evaluating the application of hybrid external fixators with minimum deformation in these patients and the resulted outcomes. In this descriptive analytical study, 28 patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated by HEF device were evaluated. The surgeon used a semicircular and one circular wire instead of the one or two loop of conventional HEF device for a better range of motion of the knee joint. Treatment outcomes including quality of walking, union condition, knee range of motion, complications and the final outcome according to the knee score (rusmussen) were checked. Twenty-eight male patients, with the mean age of 40.54 +/- 13.83 years were enrolled in the study. Complications occurred in 8 (28.6%) patients; 7 cases with superficial infection and 1 patient with deep vein thrombosis. All complications were managed medically with no significant consequences left. All the patients were able to walk with no aid except in one case. In 96.4% and 89.3% of the cases, the clinical and radiological outcomes were good to excellent, respectively according to the knee score. In 85.7% of the patients, the knee range of motion was in normal limits. Application of hybrid external fixator using one and half ring instead of one or two fixator rings in treating bicondylar tibial fractures was associated with desired clinical and radiological results.

  6. Leg Muscle Usage on Tibial Elasticity During Running

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Tibial stress fractures (TSFs) are a substantial problem for military recruits, elite athletes, and adults transitioning from a sedentary lifestyle to...were being taken by the co-investigators to minimize the Greater than Minimal Risk assigned to the transition from a sedentary lifestyle to moderate-to

  7. Changes in serum protein profiles of chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in serum protein profiles were analyzed to identify biomarkers associated with a poultry leg problem named tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) that can cause lameness. We used a bead-based affinity matrix containing a combinatorial library of hexapeptides (ProteoMinerTM) to deplete high abundan...

  8. Tibial dyschondroplasia associated proteomic changes in chicken growth plate cartilage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a poultry leg problem that affects the proximal growth plate of tibia preventing its transition to bone. To understand the disease-induced proteomic changes we compared the protein extracts of cartilage from normal and TD- affected growth plates. TD was induced by fe...

  9. MRI Based Comparison of Tibial Bone Coverage by Five Knee Prosthesis: Anthropometric Study in Indians.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sourabh; Agarwal, Naresh; Jain, Anuj; Srivastav, Shekhar; Thomas, Simon; Agarwal, Shekhar

    2015-09-01

    This MRI based study evaluates morphological differences of proximal tibia (total cross-sectional area, mediolateral and anteroposterior distance) 8-10 mm distal to the lateral tibial plateau. We evaluated the difference in the coverage of the tibial surface between symmetric and asymmetric tibial trays and difference in coverage between males and females. 150 patients who underwent MRI scans for sports related soft tissue injury without osteoarthritis were studied. The tibial trays of the 5 total knee arthroplasty designs (4 symmetric and 1 asymmetric) were scanned. Mean total tibial coverage of all designs was more than 80%. Asymmetric baseplate had maximum total tibial coverage and maximum rate of optimal fit, with only 2% absolute overhang posterolaterally. Females had better tibial coverage as compared to males.

  10. Initial mechanical stability of cementless highly-porous titanium tibial components

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Timothy Brandon; Amer, Luke D; Warren, Christopher P; Cornwell, Phillip; Meneghini, R Michael

    2008-01-01

    Cementless fixation in total knee replacement has seen limited use since reports of early failure surfaced in the late 80s and early 90s. However the emergence of improved biomaterials, particularly porous titanium and tantalum, has led to a renewed interest in developing a cementless tibial component to enhance long-term survivorship of the implants. Cement is commonly employed to minimize micromotion in new implants but represents a weak interface between the implant and bone. The elimination of cement and application of these new biomaterials, which theoretically provide improved stability and ultimate osseointegration, would likely result in greater knee replacement success. Additionally, the removal of cement from the procedure would help minimize surgical durations and get rid of the time needed for curing, thereby the chance of infection. The purpose of this biomechanical study was twofold. The first goal was to assess whether vibration analysis techniques can be used to evaluate and characterize initial mechanical stability of cementless implants more accurately than the traditional method of micromotion determination, which employs linear variable differential transducers (LVDTs). Second, an evaluative study was performed to determine the comparative mechanical stability of five designs of cementless tibial components under mechanical loading designed to simulate in vivo forces. The test groups will include a cemented Triathlon Keeled baseplate control group, three different 2-peg cementless baseplates with smooth, mid, and high roughnesses and a 4-peg cement/ess baseplate with mid-roughness.

  11. Bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with fine-wire circular external fixation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, N; Marais, L C

    2014-04-01

    Bicondylar tibial plateau fractures are serious injuries to a major weight-bearing joint. These injuries are often associated with severe soft tissue injuries that complicate surgical management. We reviewed 54 consecutive patients who sustained bicondylar tibial plateau fractures that were treated with limited open reduction and cannulated screw fixation combined with fine-wire circular external fixation. Forty-six patients met the inclusion criteria of this retrospective review. Eight patients were excluded because they did not complete a minimum of 1-year follow-up. Thirty-six patients had Schatzker type-VI, and ten patients had Schatzker type-V fractures. All fractures were united without loss of reduction; there were no incidences of wound complications, osteomyelitis or septic arthritis. The average Knee Society Clinical Rating Score was 81.6, translating to good clinical results. Minor pin track infection was the most common complication encountered. This review concludes that fine-wire circular external fixation, combined with limited open reduction and cannulated screw fixation, consistently produces good functional results without serious complications.

  12. A health economic analysis of the use of rhBMP-2 in Gustilo-Anderson grade III open tibial fractures for the UK, Germany, and France.

    PubMed

    Alt, Volker; Donell, Simon T; Chhabra, Amit; Bentley, Anthony; Eicher, Alexander; Schnettler, Reinhard

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cost savings from a societal perspective for recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in grade III A and B open tibial fractures treated with a locked intramedullary nail and soft-tissue management in the UK, Germany, and France. Health care system costs (direct health care costs) and costs for productivity losses (indirect health care costs) were calculated using the raw data from the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Evaluation Group in Surgery for Tibial Trauma "BESTT study". Return-to-work time for estimation of productivity losses was assumed to correspond with the time of fracture healing. For calculation of secondary interventions costs and productivity losses the respective 2007/2008 national tariffs for surgical procedures and average national wages for the UK, Germany, and France were used. For a 1 year perspective, overall treatment costs per patient after the initial surgery of the control vs. the rhBMP-2 group were 44,757 euros vs. 36,847 euros for the UK, 50,197 euros vs. 40,927 euros for Germany and 48,766 euros vs. 39,474 euros for France in favour of rhBMP-2 with overall savings overall savings per case of rhBMP-2 treatment of 7911 euros for the UK, 9270 euros for Germany, and 9291 euros for France which was mainly due to reduced productivity losses by significant faster fracture healing in the rhBMP-2 group (p=0.01). These savings largely offset the upfront price of rhBMP-2 of 2266 euros (1790 pounds) in the UK, euros 2970 in Germany, and 2950 euros in France. Total net savings can be estimated to be 9.6 million euros for the UK, 14.5 million euros for Germany, and 11.4 million euros for France. The results depend on the methodology used particularly for calculation of productivity losses and return-to-work time which was assumed to correspond with fracture healing time. In summary, despite the apparent high direct cost of rhBMP-2 in grade III A and B open tibial fractures, at a national

  13. Evaluation of Patellar Position before and After Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: Radiographic and Computed Tomography Findings

    PubMed Central

    Moghtadaei, Mehdi; Otoukesh, Babak; Bodduhi, Bahram; Ahmadi, Keyvan; Yeganeh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Genovarum is a common orthopedic problem. Its optimal prompt treatment is an issue of importance. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the radiographic changes in patella bone before and after open wedge high tibial osteotomy. Material and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 43 patients were enrolled and underwent open wedge high tibial osteotomy and the radiographic and CT-scan indices including Q-Angle, Congruence Angle, Insall-Salvati index, and TTTG were measured and compared before and after surgery. Results: The result revealed that all indices including Q-Angle, Congruence Angle, Insull-Salvati index, and TTTG were not significantly differed across the study (P > 0.05). There was no difference between DLFA values before and after the operation (P> 0.05), while MPTA values were significantly different before and after operation (p <0.001). Conclusions: Totally it may be concluded that imaging indices are not differed after open wedge high tibial osteotomy and monitoring for them is not necessary and they would have no prognostic role. PMID:27703292

  14. Dynamic Contact Stress Patterns on the Tibial Plateaus during Simulated Gait: A Novel Application of Normalized Cross Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongsheng; Chen, Tony; Torzilli, Peter; Warren, Russell; Maher, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution and pattern of local contact stresses within the knee joint during activities of daily living have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if common contact stress patterns exist on the tibial plateaus of human knees during simulated gait. To test this hypothesis, we developed a novel normalized cross-correlation (NCC) algorithm and applied it to the contact stresses on the tibial plateaus of twelve human cadaveric knees subjected to multi-directional loads mimicking gait. The contact stress profiles at different locations on the tibial plateaus were compared, where regions with similar contact stress patterns were identified across specimens. Three consistent regional patterns were found, among them two most prominent contact stress patterns were shared by 9 to 12 of all the knees and the third pattern was shared by 6 to 8 knees. The first pattern was located at the posterior aspect of the medial tibial plateau and had a single peak stress that occurred during the early stance phase. The second pattern was located at the central-posterior aspects of the lateral plateau and consisted of two peak stresses coincident with the timing of peak axial force at early and late stance. The third pattern was found on the anterior aspect of cartilage-to-cartilage contact region on the medial plateau consisted of double peak stresses. The differences in the location and profile of the contact stress patterns suggest that the medial and lateral menisci function to carry load at different points in the gait cycle: with the posterior aspect of the medial meniscus consistently distributing load only during the early phase of stance, and the posterior aspect of the lateral meniscus consistently distributing load during both the early and late phases of stance. This novel approach can help identify abnormalities in knee contact mechanics and provide a better understanding of the mechanical pathways leading to post

  15. [Bilateral clavicular fractures occurring at different times. Conservative vs operative therapy using intramedullary nailing--a case report].

    PubMed

    Braunstein, V; Kirchhoff, C; Buhmann, S; Mutschler, W; Biberthaler, P

    2007-08-01

    In this case report we present treatment strategies and the functional and cosmetic outcome in a case of midclavicular fractures. A 20-year-old patient suffered from nearly identical fractures of the left and right clavicle with a time interval of 2 years following snowboard falls. The first fracture was treated conservatively leading to an unsatisfactory course and result. This was the reason why 2 years later the contralateral fracture was treated by intramedullary nailing using an elastic titanium nail. The functional and cosmetic outcome of this treatment was excellent. In cases of clavicular fractures elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) is a minimally invasive technique leading to fast analgesia resulting in a high level of mobility and ultimately a pleased patient. If the indication is right, intramedullary nailing can be a helpful operation technique which complements the already established procedures (conservative and plate osteosynthesis) in cases of dislocated clavicular fractures.

  16. Blood-gas and circulatory changes during total knee replacement. Role of the intramedullary alignment rod.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, N R; Chandler, H P; Danylchuk, K; Matta, E B; Sunder, N; Siliski, J M

    1990-01-01

    The use of an intramedullary alignment rod in the distal part of the femur is an important step in performing total knee-replacement arthroplasty. On the basis of our observation of a sudden decrease in oxygen saturation in some patients after insertion of the rod, a prospective study was done of the circulatory and blood-gas changes that were associated with insertion in thirty-five patients. We examined the effects of the use of an eight-millimeter solid alignment rod, with and without venting; an eight-millimeter fluted alignment rod, with venting; and an eight-millimeter fluted or solid alignment rod, inserted through a 12.7-millimeter drill-hole, but without other venting. A statistically significant reduction in oxygen saturation, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), and end-tidal carbon-dioxide tension (PETCO2) occurred after insertion of both solid and fluted eight-millimeter alignment rods through an eight-millimeter hold in both vented and unvented femoral canals, in association with a significant increase (p less than 0.01) in intramedullary pressure. Bone-marrow contents and fat were retrieved from samples of blood from the right atrium, indicating that embolization of marrow contents had occurred during insertion of the alignment rod. A small decrease in systemic blood pressure and heart rate also occurred. These changes were completely eliminated by the use of a 12.7-millimeter drill-hole as the entry site of the eight-millimeter fluted rod. We concluded that insertion of an intramedullary alignment rod in the femur causes embolization of marrow contents, which decreases arterial oxygen tension, oxygen saturation, end-tidal carbon-dioxide tension, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Intramedullary Arthrodesis of the Knee in the Treatment of Sepsis After TKR

    PubMed Central

    Bono, James V.; Figgie, Mark P.; Sculco, Thomas P.; Laskin, Richard S.; Windsor, Russell E.

    2007-01-01

    Infection is a devastating complication following total knee replacement (TKR). In the majority of cases, single- or two-stage revision has excellent results in eradicating infection and restoring function. Rarely, recurrent infection requires alternative treatments such as resection, amputation, or arthrodesis. A review of infections following TKR treated at two joint replacement centers identified 29 cases of resistant knee sepsis treated with a long intramedullary fusion nail. Clinical outcome and radiographs were reviewed at an average follow-up of 48 months (13–114). After the initial intramedullary arthrodesis union occurred in 24 of 29 patients (83%). The average time to fusion was 6 months (3–18 months). Failures included two cases of nail breakage, one of which subsequently achieved fusion following revision nailing, and three cases of recurrent infection requiring nail removal and permanent resection. At a minimum 2-year follow-up, 28% of the patients that achieved fusion complained of pain in the fused knee, 28% complained of ipsilateral hip pain, and two patients complained of contralateral knee pain. Four of the 25 fused patients (16%) remained nonambulatory after fusion, 17 required walking aids (68%) and only four ambulated unassisted. There was no association between age, number of previous procedures, the use of two-stage versus single stage technique, or infecting organism and failure of arthrodesis. Intramedullary arthrodesis is a viable treatment for refractory infection after TKR. Patients undergoing fusion should be informed of the potential for nonunion, recurrence of infection, pain in the ipsilateral extremity, and the long-term need for walking aids. PMID:18751775

  18. The treatment of infected nonunion of the tibia following intramedullary nailing by the Ilizarov method.

    PubMed

    Megas, Panagiotis; Saridis, Alkis; Kouzelis, Antonis; Kallivokas, Alkiviadis; Mylonas, Spyros; Tyllianakis, Minos

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Ilizarov method and circular external fixator in order to eradicate the infection and restore bone union, limb anatomy and functionality in cases with infected nonunion of the tibia following intramedullary nailing. During 7 years nine patients suffering from infected nonunion of the tibia after intramedullary nailing were treated in our department. The series comprised seven men and two women with an average age of 39.7 years (range 21-75 years). The patients had previously undergone an average of 4.8 operations (range 3-6 operations). Active purulent bone infection occurred in all nine patients. Bone defect was present in all patients with a mean size of 5 cm (range 2-12 cm). In three cases with bone defect less than 2 cm, monofocal compression osteosynthesis technique was used. In the rest cases where bone defect exceeded 2 cm, bifocal consecutive distraction-compression osteosynthesis technique was applied. Three patients required a local gastrocnemius flap. The mean follow-up period was 26.6 months (range 13-42 months). Results were evaluated using Paley's functional and radiological scoring system. Bone union was achieved in all nine patients without recurrence of infection during the follow-up period. Bone results were graded as excellent in five cases and good in the rest four cases. Functional results were graded as excellent in three cases, good in four and fare in two cases. Mean external fixation time was 187.4 days (range 89-412 days) and mean lengthening index was 32 days/cm (range 27-39 days/cm). Complications observed included eight grade II pin tract infections, axial deformity at the lengthening site in two cases and at the nonunion site in another two cases. Ankle joint stiffness was detected in five cases. The Ilizarov method may be an effective method in infected nonunions of the tibia following intramedullary nailing.

  19. High abundance of CD271+ multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) in intramedullary cavities of long bones

    PubMed Central

    Cox, George; Boxall, Sally A.; Giannoudis, Peter V.; Buckley, Conor T.; Roshdy, Tarek; Churchman, Sarah M.; McGonagle, Dennis; Jones, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Aspiration of iliac crest bone marrow (ICBM) remains the most frequent technique used in harvesting multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) for bone regeneration. Although this tissue type is easily accessed by a surgeon, it has a low frequency of MSCs, which is significant given the high cell numbers required for bone regeneration strategies. Lipoaspirates possess higher MSC frequencies, albeit cells with a differentiation profile less suited to orthopaedic interventions. Intra-medullary cavities of long bones have previously been shown to harbour MSCs in animals, however evaluation of their frequency, differentiation capacity and phenotype in humans had not previously been performed. Long bone fatty bone marrow (LBFBM) was collected prior to harvesting bone graft. Basic cellular compositions of donor-matched LBFBM and ICBM aspirates, including the numbers of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and CD31+ endothelial cells, were similar. MSCs were enumerated using colony-forming-unit-fibroblast assays and flow cytometry for the presence of a resident LBFBM CD45−/low CD271+ MSC population and revealed a trend for higher MSC numbers (average 5 fold, n = 6) per millilitre of LBFBM compared to donor-matched ICBM. Functional characteristics of resident MSCs, including their growth rates, differentiation potentials and surface phenotypes (CD73+CD105+CD90+) before and after culture-amplification, were similar. Enhanced numbers of MSCs could be recovered following brief enzymatic treatment of solid fragments of LBFBM. Our findings therefore reveal that the intramedullary cavity of the human femur is a depot of MSCs, which, although closely associated with fat, have a differentiation profile equivalent to ICBM. This anatomical site is frequently accessed by the orthopaedic/trauma surgeon and aspiration of the intramedullary cavity represents a ‘low-tech’ method of harvesting potentially large numbers of MSCs for regenerative therapies and research. This article is part of a

  20. Flexible intramedullary nailing in paediatric femoral fractures. A report of 73 cases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Flexible intramedullary nailing has emerged as an accepted procedure for paediatric femoral fractures. Present indications include all patients with femoral shaft fractures and open physis. Despite its excellent reported results, orthopaedic surgeons remain divided in opinion regarding its usefulness and the best material used for nails. We thus undertook a retrospective study of paediatric femoral fractures treated with titanium or stainless steel flexible nails at our institute with a minimum of 5 years follow up. Material and methods We included 73 femoral shaft fractures in 69 patients treated with retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing with a minimum follow up of 5 years. Final limb length discrepancy and any angular or rotational deformities were determined. Results Mean age at final follow up was 15.5 years (10-21 years). Mean follow up was 7.16 years (5.0-8.6 years). Titanium and stainless steel nails were used in 43 and 30 cases respectively. There were 51 midshaft, 17 proximal, and 5 distal fractures. All fractures united at an average of 11 weeks but asymptomatic malalignment and LLD were seen in 19% and 58% fractures respectively. LLD ranged from -3 cm to 1.5 cm. Other complications included superficial infection(2), proximal migration of nail(3), irritation at nail insertion site(5) and penetration of femoral neck with nail tip(1). There were 59 excellent, 10 satisfactory and 4 poor results. Conclusion Flexible intramedullary nailing is reliable and safe for treating paediatric femoral shaft fractures. It is relatively free of serious complications despite asymptomatic malalignment and LLD in significant percentage of fractures. PMID:22192682

  1. [Minimally invasive treatment of tibial plateau fracture under arthroscopy monitoring].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lixin; Ma, Shaoyun; Li, Xianpeng

    2014-05-01

    Twenty six patients with fracture of tibial plateau was under arthroscopy assisted reduction, the joint surface of bone graft, and USES the steel plate fixation treatment. Average surgery time was 65 min (70-120 min), average fracture healing time was 15 weeks (12-17 weeks), joint surface anatomical reattachment rate was 92.9%. Using break knee function criteria evaluation of curative effect: 18 cases great 6 cases wed, 2 cases ok, fine rate was 92.3%. No infection, deep venous thrombosis and small leg fascia chamber syndrome and other complications. Conclusion is that treatment of tibial plateau fractures under arthroscope has advantages of small trauma, check intuitively and reset accurately, functional recovery of patients are satisfied, the treatment has certain clinical application value.

  2. The electrical stimulation of tibial osteotomies. Double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Mammi, G I; Rocchi, R; Cadossi, R; Massari, L; Traina, G C

    1993-03-01

    The effect of electromagnetic field stimulation was investigated in a group of 40 consecutive patients treated with valgus tibial osteotomy for degenerative arthrosis of the knee. All patients were operated on by the same author and followed the same postoperative program. After surgery, patients were randomly assigned to a control group (dummy stimulators) or to a stimulated one (active stimulators). Four orthopedic surgeons, unaware of the experimental conditions, were asked to evaluate the roentgenograms taken 60 days postoperatively and to rate the osteotomy healing according to four categories (the fourth category being the most advanced stage of healing). In the control group, 73.6% of the patients were included in the first and second category. In the stimulated group, 72.2% of the patients were included in the third and fourth category. On a homogeneous group of patients, electromagnetic field stimulation had positive effects on the healing of tibial osteotomies.

  3. High tibial osteotomy in varus knees: indications and limits

    PubMed Central

    LOIA, MARCO CORGIAT; VANNI, STEFANIA; ROSSO, FEDERICA; BONASIA, DAVIDE EDOARDO; BRUZZONE, MATTEO; DETTONI, FEDERICO; ROSSI, ROBERTO

    2016-01-01

    Opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) is a surgical procedure that aims to correct the weight-bearing axis of the knee, moving the loads laterally from the medial compartment. Conventional indications for OWHTO are medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment of the knee; recently OWHTO has been used successfully in the treatment of double and triple varus. OWHTO, in contrast to closing wedge high tibial osteotomy, does not require fibular osteotomy or peroneal nerve dissection, or lead to disruption of the proximal tibiofibular joint and bone stock loss. For these reasons, interest in this procedure has grown in recent years. The aim of this study is to review the literature on OWHTO, considering indications and prognostic factors (body mass index, grade of osteoarthritis, instability, range of movement and age), outcomes at mid-term follow-up, and limits of the procedure (slope modifications, patellar height changes and difficulties in conversion to a total knee arthroplasty). PMID:27602350

  4. Methods to shorten the duration of an external fixator in the management of tibial infections

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Khaled M; Ghafar, Khaled Abd Al; Al Kersh, Mohamed Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Massive segmental bone loss due to chronic osteomyelitis represents a considerable challenge to orthopedic surgeons and is a limb threatening condition. The only option available in such a clinical situation is segment transport using the Ilizarov technique of distraction osteogenesis; yet the most common problem in cases of bone transport with the Ilizarov technique in massive bone loss, is the long duration of the fixator. In addition to autologous bone grafting, several mechanical, biologic, and external physical treatment modalities may be employed to promote bone formation and maturation during segment transport in osteomyelitis patients. Mechanical approaches include compressive loading of the distraction regenerate, increased frequency of small increments of distraction, and compression-distraction. Intramedullary nailing and hemicorticotomy can reduce the time in external fixation; however, these techniques are associated with technical difficulties and complications. Exogenous application of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound or pulsed electromagnetic fields may shorten the duration of external fixation. Other promising modalities include diphosphonates, physician-directed use (off-label use) of bone morphogenetic proteins, and local injection of bone marrow aspirate and platelet gel at the osteotomy site. Well-designed clinical studies are needed to establish safe and effective guidelines for various modalities to enhance new bone formation during distraction osteogenesis after segment transfer. PMID:22474640

  5. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    bowed tibia. We have extracted DNA from peripheral blood of all individuals with tibial bowing and will continue to monitor them for development of...to improve bone quality prior to fracture in a non-invasive and age specific manner • DNA extraction from peripheral blood for somatic mutation...Johnson B, Rauen KA. Peripheral muscle weakness in RASopathies. Oral presentation at the Western Society for Pediatric Research, Carmel, California

  6. Intradural Intramedullary Mixed Type Hemangioma: Optimizing the Surgical Management through Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Rahyussalim, Ahmad Jabir; Situmeang, Adrian; Safri, Ahmad Yanuar; Fadhly, Zulfa Indah K.

    2015-01-01

    Intradural intramedullary mixed type hemangioma is a rare histotype of primary spinal cord tumors, though it can carry a severe clinical burden leading to limb dysfunction or motor and sensory disturbances. Timely intervention with radical resection is the hallmark of treatment but achieving it is not an easy task even for experienced neurosurgeons. We herein present an exemplificative case presenting with sudden paraplegia in which total resection was achieved under intraoperative neurophysiology monitoring. A thorough discussion on the operative technique and the role of neuromonitoring in allowing a safe surgical management of primary spinal cord tumors is presented. PMID:26839729

  7. Tibio-talo-calcaneo fusion using a locked intramedullary compressive nail.

    PubMed

    Krissen, Chettiar; Sumon, Halder; Nicholas, Bowman; Howard, Cottam; Andrew, Armitage; Andrew, Skyrme

    2011-12-01

    We present the clinical results and outcomes of 30 consecutive patients (31 ankles) who have undergone tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis using an intramedullary nail to achieve bony union. This was a prospective study and surgery was performed by the senior author in a single hospital. We achieved high levels of satisfaction and outcome via the AOFAS and SF-36 scoring systems. We propose that this method of arthrodesis is reliable and easily reproducible for patients with severe arthritis and bone loss at the ankle and subtalar joints.

  8. A 51-year-old man with intramedullary spinal cord abscess having a patent foramen ovale.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Kanako; Ishihara, Hiroyuki; Okuda, Shiho; Kanda, Fumio

    2011-05-10

    The authors report a case of a 51-year-old man with intramedullary spinal cord abscess (ISCA) having a patent foramen ovale (PFO). He developed fever and tetraplegia after a recent dental treatment. MRI showed ISCA with longitudinal swelling from the upper cervical to the lumbar spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis indicated bacterial meningitis, and the culture of CSF revealed Streptococcus viridans. Transoesophageal echocardiography revealed the existence of a PFO. We suspected another possibility other than systemic bacteraemia, that paradoxical bacteric embolisation through PFO after the dental treatment caused ISCA. While several reports of brain abscess with PFO are available, this is the first report of ISCA with PFO.

  9. Charcot neuroarthropathy: realignment of diabetic foot by means of osteosynthesis using intramedullary screws - case report.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Alexandre Leme Godoy; Albino, Rômulo Ballarin; Ortiz, Rafael Trevisan; Sakaki, Marcos Hideyo; de Andrade Corsato, Marcos; Fernandes, Tulio Diniz

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious disease that affects a large portion of the population. Charcot neuroarthropathy is one of its major complications and can lead to osteoarticular deformities, functional incapacity, ulcers and ankle and foot infections. Realignment of the foot by means of arthrodesis presents a high rate of implant failure due to weight-bearing on an insensitive foot. The aim of this report was to describe successful use of intramedullary osteosynthesis with compression screws to stabilize the deformed foot, in a diabetic patient with neuroarthropathy.

  10. Arthroscopy-assisted operative management of tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Asik, Mehmet; Cetik, Ozgur; Talu, Ufuk; Sozen, Yunus V

    2002-11-01

    This retrospective review evaluated the results of arthroscopy-assisted surgery for tibial plateau fractures in 45 patients with closed tibial plateau fractures. The fracture involved articular depression in 27 patients in whom lifting and bone grafting with autogenous corticocancellous iliac bone graft was required. In 23 patients there were also meniscal lesions, which were treated by partial resection in 16 and repaired in 7. Internal fixation was performed using screws in 36 knees and plate in 10 knees. Radiological results were evaluated according to the Resnic-Niwoyama criteria; mean follow-up was 36 months (range 14-72). There was no intraoperative complication in the series, but postoperatively there were one infection and one loss of correction. Results were satisfactory in 89% of cases, according the Rasmussen criteria. Arthroscopy is thus an excellent and minimally invasive method for assessment and treatment of tibial plateau fractures. The advantages are complete and anatomical reduction in the fractured articular surface and evaluation of other concomitant intra-articular pathology and entails only little additional morbidity, especially compared to arthrotomy.

  11. Leg tissue mass composition affects tibial acceleration response following impact.

    PubMed

    Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Burkhart, Timothy A; Andrews, David M

    2012-02-01

    To date, there has not been a direct examination of the effect that tissue composition (lean mass/muscle, fat mass, bone mineral content) differences between males and females has on how the tibia responds to impacts similar to those seen during running. To evaluate this, controlled heel impacts were imparted to 36 participants (6 M and 6 F in each of low, medium and high percent body fat [BF] groups) using a human pendulum. A skin-mounted accelerometer medial to the tibial tuberosity was used to determine the tibial response parameters (peak acceleration, acceleration slope and time to peak acceleration). There were no consistent effects of BF or specific tissue masses on the un-normalized tibial response parameters. However, females experienced 25% greater peak acceleration than males. When normalized to lean mass, wobbling mass, and bone mineral content, females experienced 50%, 62% and 70% greater peak acceleration, respectively, per gram of tissue than males. Higher magnitudes of lean mass and bone mass significantly contributed to decreased acceleration responses in general.

  12. Combined distal tibial rotational osteotomy and proximal growth plate modulation for treatment of infantile Blount's disease.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawad, Amr A

    2013-04-18

    Infantile Blount's disease is a condition that causes genu varum and internal tibial torsion. Treatment options include observation, orthotics, corrective osteotomy, elevation of the medial tibial plateau, resection of a physeal bar, lateral hemi-epiphysiodesis, and guided growth of the proximal tibial physis. Each of these treatment options has its disadvantages. Treating the coronal deformity alone (genu varum) will result in persistence of the internal tibial torsion (the axial deformity). In this report, we describe the combination of lateral growth modulation and distal tibial external rotation osteotomy to correct all the elements of the disease. This has not been described before for treatment of Blount's disease. Both coronal and axial deformities were corrected in this patient. We propose this combination (rather than the lateral growth modulation alone) as the method of treatment for early stages of Blount's disease as it corrects both elements of the disease and in the same time avoids the complications of proximal tibial osteotomy.

  13. Analysis of Knee Joint Line Obliquity after High Tibial Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Jun; Ko, Young Bong; Bae, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Suk Tae; Kim, Jae Gyoon

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate which lower extremity alignment (knee and ankle joint) parameters affect knee joint line obliquity (KJLO) in the coronal plane after open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). Overall, 69 knees of patients that underwent OWHTO were evaluated using radiographs obtained preoperatively and from 6 weeks to 3 months postoperatively. We measured multiple parameters of knee and ankle joint alignment (hip-knee-ankle angle [HKA], joint line height [JLH], posterior tibial slope [PS], femoral condyle-tibial plateau angle [FCTP], medial proximal tibial angle [MPTA], mechanical lateral distal femoral angle [mLDFA], KJLO, talar tilt angle [TTA], ankle joint obliquity [AJO], and the lateral distal tibial ground surface angle [LDTGA]; preoperative [-pre], postoperative [-post], and the difference between -pre and -post values [-Δ]). We categorized patients into two groups according to the KJLO-post value (the normal group [within ± 4 degrees, 56 knees] and the abnormal group [greater than ± 4 degrees, 13 knees]), and compared their -pre parameters. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the contribution of the -pre parameters to abnormal KJLO-post. The mean HKA-Δ (-9.4 ± 4.7 degrees) was larger than the mean KJLO-Δ (-2.1 ± 3.2 degrees). The knee joint alignment parameters (the HKA-pre, FCTP-pre) differed significantly between the two groups (p < 0.05). In addition, the HKA-pre (odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, p = 0.006) and FCTP-pre (OR = 2.13, p = 0.006) were significant predictors of abnormal KJLO-post. However, -pre ankle joint parameters (TTA, AJO, and LDTGA) did not differ significantly between the two groups and were not significantly associated with the abnormal KJLO-post. The -pre knee joint alignment and knee joint convergence angle evaluated by HKA-pre and FCTP-pre angle, respectively, were significant predictors of abnormal KJLO after OWHTO. However, -pre ankle joint parameters

  14. The effect of tibial diaphyseal lengthening on the longitudinal growth of the tibia.

    PubMed

    Cai, Gang; Yang, Lang; Saleh, Michael; Coulton, Les

    2007-11-01

    Limb lengthening by tibial callotasis is usually performed in the metaphysis but may cause growth inhibition. Is diaphyseal lengthening more advantageous? Sixteen immature rabbits underwent 30% diaphyseal lengthening by tibial callotasis. The tibial length was measured on radiographs at the end of the distraction period and after an additional 5 weeks. The proximal and distal growth plates were assessed histomorphometrically. Osteotomy stimulated tibial elongation; however, combined with diaphyseal lengthening the stimulation was suppressed resulting in longitudinal growth that matched the control side. In longer lengthenings of limbs diaphyseal callotasis may be more advantageous than metaphyseal by not inhibiting longitudinal growth.

  15. The stability of a hip fracture determines the fatigue of an intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Eberle, S; Bauer, C; Gerber, C; von Oldenburg, G; Augat, P

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the question of how the stability of a proximal hip fracture determines the fatigue and failure mechanism of an intramedullary implant. To answer this question, mechanical experiments and finite element simulations with two different loading scenarios were conducted. The two load scenarios differed in the mechanical support of the fracture by an artificial bone sleeve, representing the femoral head and neck. The experiments confirmed that an intramedullary nail fails at a lower load in an unstable fracture situation in the proximal femur than in a stable fracture. The nails with an unstable support failed at a load 28 per cent lower than the nails with a stable support by the femoral neck. Hence, the mechanical support of a fracture is crucial to the fatigue failure of an implant. The simulation showed why the fatigue fracture of the nail starts at the aperture of the lag screw. It is the location of the highest von Mises stress, which is the failure criterion for ductile materials.

  16. Intraoperative and pathological findings of intramedullary amputation neuroma associated with spinal ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Arishima, Hidetaka; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Tsunetoshi, Kenzo; Kodera, Toshiaki; Kitai, Ryuhei; Kikuta, Ken-ichiro

    2013-07-01

    Amputation neuromas typically arise in injured peripheral nerves; rarely, however, they arise in the spinal cord. We report a rare case of intramedullary amputation neuroma associated with ependymoma in the cervical spinal cord. A 73-year-old woman presented with a 5-year history of progressive gait disturbance. Neurological examination revealed complete motor deficit of her hands and legs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed an enhancing mass within the spinal cord at the C6/7 level. The patient underwent C5-C7 laminectomy surgery. During resection of the spinal tumor, we found a whitish string resembling an aberrant nerve root or schwannoma with adhesion to the tumor on the ventral side of the spinal cord. After resecting the tumor, the surgical specimen was cut and separated into a soft greyish tumor (spinal tumor) and the tough whitish string. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed the former was a spinal ependymoma and the latter was a neuroma. An intramedullary amputation neuroma associated with a spinal ependymoma is rare, and this is the first known case in which intraoprerative findings were clearly shown. Neurosurgeons should be aware that spinal ependymomas might coexist with neuromas.

  17. Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with retrograde intramedullary nailing: 29 patients’ clinical and functional evaluation☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Caixeta, Thiago Barbosa; Júnior, Márcio Oliveira Calábria; de Castro, Régis Vieira; Martins, Jefferson Soares; Costa, Edegmar Nunes; Albieri, Alexandre Daher; de Moraes, Frederico Barra

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinically and functionally the pos-operative results of patients submitted to tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis for the treatment of traumatic arthropathy and neuropathy. Methods Retrospective study of 29 patients undergoing ankle arthrodesis with intramedullary retrograde nail. All patients were evaluated for fusion time, AOFAS and VAS scores, satisfaction, and complications of surgery. The mean follow-up was 36 months (range 6–60 months). Results The union rate was 82%, and the consolidation occurred on average at 16 weeks (10–24 weeks). The pos-operative AOFAS score improved in 65.5% (average of 57.7 on neurological cases and 75.7 on cases pos-traumatic) and VAS score improved 94.1% (average of 2.3 on neurological cases and 4,2 on post-traumatic cases), and 86% of patients were satisfied with the procedure performed. Complications occurred in 11 patients (38%), including pseudoarthrosis (17.24%), infection (17.24%), material failure (13.8%) and fracture (13.8%). Conclusion Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with retrograde intramedullary nail proved to be a good option for saving the ankle joint, with improvement of clinical and functional scores (AOFAS = 65.5% and VAS = 94.1%). PMID:26229773

  18. Corrosion behavior, biocompatibility and biomechanical stability of a prototype magnesium-based biodegradable intramedullary nailing system.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Manuel; Schilling, Markus; Eifler, Rainer; Hering, Britta; Reifenrath, Janin; Besdo, Silke; Windhagen, Henning; Willbold, Elmar; Weizbauer, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Implants made of degradable magnesium alloys are a potential alternative to conventional orthopaedic implant materials, e.g. stainless steel or titanium. Intramedullary nails made of the magnesium alloy LAE442 were subjected to cyclic fatigue tests in both distilled water and Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) at 37.5°C until implant failure or a limit of 500,000cycles was reached. In distilled water, four of the five nails were still intact after the end of the biomechanical test. In HBSS, a breakage within the first 70,000 bending cycles was observed. Additionally, the degradation rate of this alloy was determined in HBSS according to the weight loss method (0.24±0.12mmyear(-1)) and based on gas release (0.21±0.03mmyear(-1)) with a standard eudiometer. A cytotoxicity test with L929 cells was carried out in accordance with EN ISO 10993-5/12. This test demonstrated sufficient cell viability of the diluted extracts (50%, 25% and 12.5%). The relative metabolic activity of the 100% extract was reduced slightly below 70%, which is classified as a threshold value for cytotoxicity. In conclusion, this in vitro study indicates that intramedullary nails made of LAE442 may not have the required fatigue resistance for load-bearing applications and the development of a corrosion-protective coating may be necessary to prevent early failure of the implant.

  19. How precise is the PRECICE compared to the ISKD in intramedullary limb lengthening?

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Björn; Tretow, Henning L; Schuhknecht, Britta; Gosheger, Georg; Horter, Melanie J; Rödl, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose The PRECICE intramedullary limb lengthening system uses a new technique with a magnetic rod and a motorized external remote controller (ERC) with rotational magnetic field. We evaluated the reliability and safety of the PRECICE system. Methods We compared our preliminary results with PRECICE in 24 patients (26 nails) with the known difficulties in the use of mechanical lengthening devices such as the ISKD. We used the Paley classification for evaluation of problems, obstacles, and complications. Results 2 nails were primarily without function, and 24/26 nails lengthened over the desired distance. Lengthening desired was 38 mm and lengthening obtained was 37 mm. There were 2 nail breakages, 1 in the welding seam and 1 because of a fall that occurred during consolidation. ERC usage was problematic mostly in patients with femoral lengthening. Adjustment of the ERC was necessary in 10 of 24 cases. 15 cases had implant-associated problems, obstacles were seen in 5 cases, and complications were seen in each of 4 cases. Interpretaion The reliability of the PRECICE system is comparable to that of other intramedullary lengthening devices such as the ISKD. The motorized external remote controller and its application by the patients is a weak point of the system and needs strict supervision. PMID:24758320

  20. Combined external fixation and intramedullary alignment in correction of limb length discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Bukva, Bojan; Brdar, Radivoj; Nikolic, Dejan; Petronic, Ivana; Ducic, Sinisa; Abramovic, Dusan

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of intramedullary (IM) alignment used in combination with external fixation on the healing index (HI) and lengthening index (LI) in the treatment of congenital and acquired leg length discrepancies (LLD). We compared duration of the external fixator application, LLD, HI and LI between two groups of children: children in Group I underwent limb lengthening by the conventional llizarov technique, and children in Group II underwent a combination of Ilizarov technique and intramedullary alignment with Kirschner wires. Two types of LLDs were treated: congenital and acquired. We found significant differences between the two groups for duration of external fixator application and HI. Significant differences were also noted in the duration of the external fixator application, HI and LI, between patients with congenital and acquired LLDs. We also noted significant differences between Group I and Group II regarding duration of external fixator application for patients with congenital LLD and also regarding HI for both congenital and acquired types of LLD.

  1. [Fully implantable intramedullary distraction nail in shortening deformity and bone defects. Spectrum of indications].

    PubMed

    Baumgart, R; Zeiler, C; Kettler, M; Weiss, S; Schweiberer, L

    1999-12-01

    Since the first clinical experiences with the fully implantable programmable distraction nail nearly ten years ago, the system has been improved in Munich and meanwhile used in 26 patients. During the first 10 cases there has been highest interest in the reliability of the system, while in the following the expansion of indications was more important. At the thigh a good indication beside shortening is the combination of shortening and axis deviation, even if the center of deviation is located near to the knee joint in the supracondylar area. According to preoperative planing the deformity correction can be done acutely while the lengthening procedure follows postoperatively automatically at night-time. If the stabilization with an intramedullary nail is possible, large bone defects can be treated by bone transport using this system also. The fully implantable intramedullary nail has proved its variable functions in cases of large bone defects combined with shortening of the femur. The system is able to perform the bone transport at first and the lengthening procedure automatically without any further operation thereafter.

  2. Intramedullary reamings for the histological diagnosis of suspected pathological fractures.

    PubMed

    Hassan, K; Kalra, S; Moran, C

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how effective reamings taken at the time of surgery for fracture were in the diagnosis of malignancy. All histology reports over a five-year period were examined. Ninety cases, where reamings were taken, were identified and included. Reamings are commonly sent for histological diagnosis in orthopaedic practice. A definitive tissue diagnosis was established in 55 samples (60%). No diagnosis was established in 30 (33%), as the tissue sample was deemed inadequate, 17 of which were known to have a malignancy elsewhere. Five case reports were lost. The process by which the bone samples were obtained is believed to be very destructive, making histological diagnosis difficult and unreliable. Our study does not support the use of reamings for histology. An alternative technique should be used such as biopsy with the Harlow-Wood trephine.

  3. Management of Osteoarthritis Knee by Graduated Open Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy in 40-60 Years Age Group Using Limb Reconstruction System: A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pawan Kumar; Chugh, Ankush; Singh, Randhir

    2015-01-01

    Background With i ncrease in elderly population, osteoarthritis has become major concern nowadays. Knee joint is most commonly affected joint. A number of methods have been developed in the last few years which help in treating the osteoarthritis knee, which includes non pharmacological, pharmacological and surgical methods. Among the most promising techniques with renewed interest for osteoarthritis knee with deformity is the use of high tibial osteotomy. Uni-compartmental osteoarthritis knee with deformity especially in relatively younger age group (less than 60 years) constitutes the main indication. Aim The aim of present study was to evaluate management of osteoarthritis knee by graduated open wedge high tibial osteotomy in 40-60 years age group using limb reconstruction system. Materials and Methods Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy leaving the lateral cortex intact which acts as a hinge, was done in 30 patients and stabilized by Limb Reconstruction System. Distraction was started at 7th day at the rate of 1 mm/day and continued till proper alignment was achieved. Results Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy stabilized by unilateral external fixator is a good method for unicompartmental osteoarthritis knee with deformity as it gives precise control over final limb alignment and its ability to perform a residual correction. Deformity correction can be quantified at the time of correction as it is not acute correction. Gradual deformity correction can be done over time by distraction histogenesis with the help of unilateral external fixator. It is also a good method in young patients requiring large correction. Conclusion Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy is having many benefits over closed wedge osteotomy and stabilization by unilateral external fixator also has its added benefits. It is less invasive, no internal hardware present and safer in terms of neurovascular complications. PMID:26557580

  4. The Intramedullary Nailing of Adult Femoral Shaft Fracture by the Way of Open Reduction is a Disadvantage or Not?

    PubMed

    Burç, Halil; Atay, Tolga; Demirci, Demir; Baykal, Y Barbaros; Kirdemir, Vecihi; Yorgancigil, Hüseyin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is that to evaluate superiority and results of open technique in the treatment of femoral shaft fracture with interlocking intramedullary nailing. The retrospective study is designed to evaluate results of our technique. In this study, the patients that were admitted to the Orthopedics and Traumatology Department of University Hospital that is third level of trauma center. We claim that open technique is not a disadvantage during union process over closed technique in treatment of femoral shaft fracture with interlocking nailing. In this study, 44 patients that were consulted for adult femoral shaft fracture between January 2008 to July 2010 were included. Patients with open fractures, gunshot wounds, neurovascular injuries, and patients that did not have isolated femoral diaphysis fractures were excluded from the study. Clinical and radiological results of the patients were checked periodically. The open interlocking intramedullary nailing was used in treatment. Complete union rate was 90.9 % in 40 patients who were treated with open interlocking intramedullary nailing for adult femoral shaft fracture, and nonunion rate was 9.1 % in four patients. Mean union time was 18.3 weeks (12-36 weeks). Evaluation of 44 patients according to Thoresen criteria was excellent in 22 patients, good in 6 patients, and bad in 4 patients. We think that open technique is an acceptable technique because all results of our study were similar to results of closed intramedullary nailing technique in literature and some advantages of open technique over closed technique.

  5. Surgical Fixation of Fourth and Fifth Metacarpal Shaft Fractures with Flexible Intramedullary Absorbable Rods: Early Clinical Outcomes and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ge; Xiao, Zi-Run; Guo, Shi-Gong; Zheng, Wei; Dai, Lu-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Background: To avoid the irritation of tendons and soft tissues as well as hardware-related problems, we designed an intramedullary fixation with bioabsorbable rods for the treatment of the metacarpal shaft fractures. Methods: Five patients with nine shaft fractures of the fourth and fifth metacarpi were treated with intramedullary absorbable implants and followed up with an average of 4.2 months postoperatively. Results: At final follow-up, all patients achieved fracture union with no signs of inflammatory or subcutaneous effusion. There was no shortening, angulatory, or rotatory deformity. There was almost full active extension range of motion (ROM) of the metacarpophalangeal joints while the active flexion ROM of these joints was 80.7 ± 9.6°. Compared with the contralateral hand, the grip strength of the injured hand was 94.0 ± 9.6%. X-rays showed that the arch of the second to fifth metacarpal heads was smooth. There were no intramedullary lytic changes and soft tissue swellings. Conclusion: The intramedullary absorbable implants are a safe, simple, and practical treatment for fourth and fifth metacarpal fractures with good early clinical outcomes and no significant complications. PMID:26521780

  6. Biomechanical analysis of distal radius fractures using intramedullary Kirschner wires.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Chi; Lin, Shang-Chih; Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Lu, Tung-Wu; Chao, Ching-Kong; Liu, Hwa-Chang

    2009-03-01

    Colles's fracture is the most common type of distal radius fracture. Surgically, it remains a challenge to restore radial height and volar tilt in order to regain optimal wrist function. Ulson's procedure provides a dynamic effect on fixing fractured fragments and restoring joint function using two wires. However, the biomechanical influences of bone and wire remain critical issues for fracture reduction and bone union in Ulson's procedure. Based on elastic beam and foundation theory, this study formulated a closed-form mathematical model to investigate the effects of bone and wire parameters on wire deflection and bony reaction. The wire deflection and bony reaction were chosen as the indices of wrist stability and reduction within the post-operative period. The predicted results showed that greater bone strength, higher wire stiffness, and longer wire contact length provide a more stable wire-bone construct, thus facilitating fracture reduction and bone union. The wire stiffness had a much more significant effect on the construct stability compared with bone quality and contact length. In terms of entry point and insertion angle, surgical planning for the contact length was more important than bony quality for stabilizing the whole wire-bone construct.

  7. Analysis of the Tibial Epiphysis in the Skeletally Immature Knee Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Derik L.; Almardawi, Ranyah; Mitchell, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    corresponding to the maximum and safe lengths are more acute than commonly thought, measuring approximately 40° and 30°, respectively. All prepubescent knees and intermediate-risk females should receive careful attention before ACL reconstruction due to the relative smaller size of their tibial epiphyses. Clinical Relevance: Physeal-sparing ACL reconstruction is gaining acceptance as a surgical option for complete ACL tear in skeletally immature knees. Iatrogenic growth disturbance after violation of an open growth remains a real concern for surgeons tasked with providing operative management for the unstable pediatric knee. Inadvertent iatrogenic growth plate injury to the tibial physis has been shown to occur more commonly than surgeons would intend during physeal-sparing ACL reconstruction. PMID:27482528

  8. The role of stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of intramedullary spinal cord neoplasms: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Durán, Silvia; Hanft, Simon; Komotar, Ricardo J; Manzano, Glen R

    2016-04-01

    Advances in imaging technology and microsurgical techniques have made microsurgical resection the treatment of choice in cases of symptomatic intramedullary tumors. The use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for spinal tumors is a recent development, and its application to intramedullary lesions is debated. We conducted a literature search through PubMed's MeSH system, compiling information regarding intramedullary neoplasms treated by SRS. We compiled histology, tumor location and size, treatment modality, radiation dose, fractionation, radiation-induced complications, follow-up, and survival. Ten papers reporting on 52 patients with 70 tumors were identified. Metastatic lesions accounted for 33%, while 67% were primary ones. Tumor location was predominantly cervical (53%), followed by thoracic (33%). Mean volume was 0.55 cm(3) (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.26-0.83). Preferred treatment modality was CyberKnife® (87%), followed by Novalis® (7%) and linear particle accelerator (LINAC) (6%). Mean radiation dose was 22.14 Gy (95% CI, 20.75-23.53), with mean fractionation of 4 (95% CI, 3-5). Three hemangioblastomas showed cyst enlargement. Symptom improvement or stabilization was seen in all but two cases. Radionecrotic spots adjacent to treated areas were seen at autopsy in four lesions, without clinical manifestations. Overall, clinical and radiological outcomes were favorable. Although surgery remains the treatment of choice for symptomatic intramedullary lesions, SRS can be a safe and effective option in selected cases. While this review suggests the overall safety and efficacy of SRS in the management of intramedullary tumors, future studies need randomized, homogeneous patient populations followed over a longer period to provide more robust evidence in its favor.

  9. Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging for Determining the Mechanical Properties of Human Posterior Tibial Tendon: A Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Justin S.; Heden, Gregory J.; Szivek, John A.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Latt, L. Daniel; Witte, Russell S.

    2016-01-01

    Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a common degenerative condition leading to a severe impairment of gait. There is currently no effective method to determine whether a patient with advanced PTTD would benefit from several months of bracing and physical therapy or ultimately require surgery. Tendon degeneration is closely associated with irreversible degradation of its collagen structure, leading to changes to its mechanical properties. If these properties could be monitored in vivo, they could be used to quantify the severity of tendonosis and help determine the appropriate treatment. The goal of this cadaveric study was, therefore, to develop and validate ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) as a potentially noninvasive technique for quantifying tendon mechanical properties. Five human cadaver feet were mounted in a materials testing system (MTS), while the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) was attached to a force actuator. A portable ultrasound scanner collected 2-D data during loading cycles. Young’s modulus was calculated from the strain, loading force, and cross-sectional area of the PTT. Average Young’s modulus for the five tendons was (0.45 ± 0.16 GPa) using UEI, which was consistent with simultaneous measurements made by the MTS across the whole tendon (0.52 ± 0.18 GPa). We also calculated the scaling factor (0.12 ± 0.01) between the load on the PTT and the inversion force at the forefoot, a measurable quantity in vivo. This study suggests that UEI could be a reliable in vivo technique for estimating the mechanical properties of the PTT, and as a clinical tool, help guide treatment decisions for advanced PTTD and other tendinopathies. PMID:25532163

  10. Preliminary gait analysis results after posterior tibial tendon reconstruction: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, James W

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect on gait in patients who underwent reconstruction for stage II posterior tibial tendon (PTT) dysfunction. Twelve patients with stage II PTT dysfunction underwent surgical reconstruction consisting of debridement of the posterior tibial tendon, flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer to the navicular tuberosity, medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy, and spring ligament reconstruction. Midfoot arthrodesis was performed in six patients and gastrocnemius recession in three. Gait analysis was performed 2 weeks prior to surgery and 1 year postoperatively. Preoperative and postoperative data were compared to determine differences in temporal-spatial parameters, lower limb kinematics, and ankle push-off power. Step length for the operated side increased from 52.6 +/- 9.6 cm before the surgery to 57.5 +/- 7.1 cm after the surgery (p =.048). Cadence improved from 100.2 +/- 10.7 steps/min to 109.1 +/- 8.5 steps/min (p =.05), thus increasing velocity from 87.6 +/- 22.6 cm/s to 103.4 +/- 15.9 cm/s (p =.042). Single support percentage was unchanged. Maximum sagittal ankle joint power at push-off increased from 0.79 +/- 0.35 W before surgery to 1.2 +/- 0.5 W after surgery (p =.042). There were statistically significant improvements in all radiographic parameters studied. This is the first prospective study to evaluate the in vivo effects on gait in patients undergoing this common surgical procedure. Analysis demonstrated statistically significant improvement in kinetic and kinematic parameters of gait function.

  11. Ultrasound elasticity imaging of human posterior tibial tendon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang

    Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a common degenerative condition leading to a severe impairment of gait. There is currently no effective method to determine whether a patient with advanced PTTD would benefit from several months of bracing and physical therapy or ultimately require surgery. Tendon degeneration is closely associated with irreversible degradation of its collagen structure, leading to changes to its mechanical properties. If these properties could be monitored in vivo, it could be used to quantify the severity of tendonosis and help determine the appropriate treatment. Ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) is a real-time, noninvasive technique to objectively measure mechanical properties in soft tissue. It consists of acquiring a sequence of ultrasound frames and applying speckle tracking to estimate displacement and strain at each pixel. The goals of my dissertation were to 1) use acoustic simulations to investigate the performance of UEI during tendon deformation with different geometries; 2) develop and validate UEI as a potentially noninvasive technique for quantifying tendon mechanical properties in human cadaver experiments; 3) design a platform for UEI to measure mechanical properties of the PTT in vivo and determine whether there are detectable and quantifiable differences between healthy and diseased tendons. First, ultrasound simulations of tendon deformation were performed using an acoustic modeling program. The effects of different tendon geometries (cylinder and curved cylinder) on the performance of UEI were investigated. Modeling results indicated that UEI accurately estimated the strain in the cylinder geometry, but underestimated in the curved cylinder. The simulation also predicted that the out-of-the-plane motion of the PTT would cause a non-uniform strain pattern within incompressible homogeneous isotropic material. However, to average within a small region of interest determined by principal component analysis (PCA

  12. Medial tibial pain: a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI study.

    PubMed

    Mattila, K T; Komu, M E; Dahlström, S; Koskinen, S K; Heikkilä, J

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences to depict periosteal edema in patients with medial tibial pain. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCES) to depict possible temporal alterations in muscular perfusion within compartments of the leg. Fifteen patients with medial tibial pain were examined with MRI. T1-, T2-weighted, proton density axial images and dynamic and static phase post-contrast images were compared in ability to depict periosteal edema. STIR was used in seven cases to depict bone marrow edema. Images were analyzed to detect signs of compartment edema. Region-of-interest measurements in compartments were performed during DCES and compared with controls. In detecting periosteal edema, post-contrast T1-weighted images were better than spin echo T2-weighted and proton density images or STIR images, but STIR depicted the bone marrow edema best. DCES best demonstrated the gradually enhancing periostitis. Four subjects with severe periosteal edema had visually detectable pathologic enhancement during DCES in the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Percentage enhancement in the deep posterior compartment of the leg was greater in patients than in controls. The fast enhancement phase in the deep posterior compartment began slightly slower in patients than in controls, but it continued longer. We believe that periosteal edema in bone stress reaction can cause impairment of venous flow in the deep posterior compartment. MRI can depict both these conditions. In patients with medial tibial pain, MR imaging protocol should include axial STIR images (to depict bone pathology) with T1-weighted axial pre and post-contrast images, and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging to show periosteal edema and abnormal contrast enhancement within a compartment.

  13. Dynamic knee loads during gait predict proximal tibial bone distribution.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, D E; Sumner, D R; Andriacchi, T P; Sugar, D A

    1998-05-01

    This study tested the validity of the prediction of dynamic knee loads based on gait measurements. The relationship between the predicted loads at the knee and the distribution of bone between the medial and lateral sides of the tibia was examined. The motion and external forces and moments at the knee were measured during gait and a statically determinate muscle model was used to predict the corresponding forces on the medial and lateral tibial plateaus. In particular, the relationship between the knee adduction moment during gait and the ratio or distribution of medial to lateral tibial bone mineral content was studied. Bone mineral content was measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in four regions, two proximal regions 20 mm in height, one medial and one lateral and two distal regions 20 mm in height, one medial and one lateral. The best single predictor of the medial lateral ratio of proximal bone mineral content (bone distribution) was the adduction moment (R2=0.31, p=0.003). Adding weight (negative coefficient. p=0.0004) and the ratio of the average predicted peak force on the medial plateau to the predicted peak force on the lateral plateau (positive coefficient, p=0.0033) to the regression model significantly increased the ability to predict the proximal medial lateral bone distribution (R2=0.72, p=0.0001). Distally neither the subject characteristics nor the gait moments and predicted forces were significant predictors of the bone distribution. The lack of a correlation distally may be reflective of the forces being more evenly distributed further from the tibial plateau. While it has long been suggested that the adduction moment is the primary determinate of the distribution of load between the medial and lateral plateaus, this is the first evidence of its relationship to the underlying bone distribution.

  14. [Structural changes in the tibial bones from an excessive load].

    PubMed

    Moshiashvili, B I

    1977-10-01

    80 cases of pathological reconstruction of the tibia in young men at the age of 18--20 are described. The pathology developed as a result of intense regular physical exercise. In 53 patients the process was localized in the upper third of the tibia, in 20--in the middle third and in 7--in the lower third of the bone. In 6 cases the fracture of the tibial proximal metaphysis happened against the background of pathological reconstruction of the tibia; 3 of them sustained simultaneously a fracture of the fibular head. Some recommendations of practical importance are suggested.

  15. Biomechanical Factors in the Etiology of Tibial Stress Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    to the increased bending moment on the leg. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ti bi al v ar um (° ) CON PTSF -31% 4.46.4 Figure 16: Tibial varum in subjects...injury visit. These shear loading rates indicate the magnitude of bending loads that the lower extremity is subject to, in addition to the...compressive loading that occurs during initial weight acceptance in stance. It has been 28 shown that anterior-posterior bending strength is related to the

  16. Strong Association Between Tibial Plateau Bone Mineral Density and Cartilage Damage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tibial bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with radiographic features of osteoarthritis (OA), but no study has looked at its relationship with a direct measure of cartilage damage. We hypothesize that a relative increase in medial and lateral tibial BMD will be associated with cartilage damage...

  17. Correction of tibial deformity in Paget's disease using the Taylor spatial frame.

    PubMed

    Tsaridis, E; Sarikloglou, S; Papasoulis, E; Lykoudis, S; Koutroumpas, I; Avtzakis, V

    2008-02-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with a severe deformity of the tibia caused by Paget's disease and osteoarthritis of the ipsilateral knee. Total knee replacement required preliminary correction of the tibial deformity. This was successfully achieved by tibial osteotomy followed by distraction osteogenesis using the Taylor spatial frame. The subsequent knee replacement was successful, with no recurrence of deformity.

  18. Metachronous Bilateral Posterior Tibial Artery Aneurysms in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV

    SciTech Connect

    Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Bonatti, Hugo; Sabri, Saher; Arslan, Bulent; Harthun, Nancy L.

    2011-04-15

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is a life-threatening genetic connective tissue disorder. We report a 24-year-old woman with EDS-IV who presented with metachronous bilateral aneurysms/pseudoaneurysms of the posterior tibial arteries 15 months apart. Both were treated successfully with transarterial coil embolization from a distal posterior tibial approach.

  19. Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Cervical Spinal Intramedullary Metastasis and Multiple Brain Metastases: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yoshimasa; Kawamura, Toshiki; Ohshima, Yukihiko; Takeuchi, Arisa; Mori, Toshie; Ishiguchi, Tuneo

    2016-04-27

    A case of cervical (C) spinal intramedullary metastasis and multiple small brain metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma was presented. Spinal metastasis caused posterior neck and left shoulder pain, dysesthesia in both legs, and motor weakness in both legs and left arm, though the brain metastases were asymptomatic. Both the spinal and brain metastases were successfully treated by frameless stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT)/stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The patient's symptoms were almost entirely relieved within two months. A 76-year-old woman was diagnosed as having a thyroid tumor and lung metastasis by roentgenography and computed tomography. Biopsy of the thyroid tumor extending into the mediastinum revealed papillary thyroid carcinoma. She underwent surgical resection of thyroid with dissection of the mediastinum lymph node area. Internal oral radioisotope therapy was not effective for the multiple small lung metastases. She did well for 15 months, but later developed posterior neck and left shoulder pain and dysesthesia in the right leg and then dysesthesia and motor weakness in both legs. Then she experienced weakness in the left upper extremity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed a small cervical spinal intramedullary mass lesion at the level of C6 and C7 on the left side as well as nine small brain lesions. The cervical spinal intramedullary metastatic tumor was treated by volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) SRT and the nine small brain metastatic tumors were treated by dynamic conformal arc (DCA) SRS uneventfully. A total dose of 39 Gy (100% dose) was delivered in 13 fractions for the spinal lesion (prescription, D95=95% dose; maximum dose=46.3 Gy). Single fraction SRS of 22 Gy (prescription, D95=100% dose) was performed for each of the nine small brain tumors. The spinal tumor was decreased in size on follow-up MRI two months after SRT. Three of the nine brain lesions had disappeared and six were decreased in size on

  20. Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Cervical Spinal Intramedullary Metastasis and Multiple Brain Metastases: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Toshiki; Ohshima, Yukihiko; Takeuchi, Arisa; Mori, Toshie; Ishiguchi, Tuneo

    2016-01-01

    A case of cervical (C) spinal intramedullary metastasis and multiple small brain metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma was presented. Spinal metastasis caused posterior neck and left shoulder pain, dysesthesia in both legs, and motor weakness in both legs and left arm, though the brain metastases were asymptomatic. Both the spinal and brain metastases were successfully treated by frameless stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT)/stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The patient's symptoms were almost entirely relieved within two months. A 76-year-old woman was diagnosed as having a thyroid tumor and lung metastasis by roentgenography and computed tomography. Biopsy of the thyroid tumor extending into the mediastinum revealed papillary thyroid carcinoma. She underwent surgical resection of thyroid with dissection of the mediastinum lymph node area. Internal oral radioisotope therapy was not effective for the multiple small lung metastases. She did well for 15 months, but later developed posterior neck and left shoulder pain and dysesthesia in the right leg and then dysesthesia and motor weakness in both legs. Then she experienced weakness in the left upper extremity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed a small cervical spinal intramedullary mass lesion at the level of C6 and C7 on the left side as well as nine small brain lesions. The cervical spinal intramedullary metastatic tumor was treated by volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) SRT and the nine small brain metastatic tumors were treated by dynamic conformal arc (DCA) SRS uneventfully. A total dose of 39 Gy (100% dose) was delivered in 13 fractions for the spinal lesion (prescription, D95=95% dose; maximum dose=46.3 Gy). Single fraction SRS of 22 Gy (prescription, D95=100% dose) was performed for each of the nine small brain tumors. The spinal tumor was decreased in size on follow-up MRI two months after SRT. Three of the nine brain lesions had disappeared and six were decreased in size on

  1. External tibial torsion and the effectiveness of the solid ankle-foot orthoses.

    PubMed

    Vankoski, S J; Michaud, S; Dias, L

    2000-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the influence of external tibial torsion on the effectiveness of the ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) in children with lumbosacral myelomeningocele. Forty patients with normal tibial rotation and 18 patients with excessive external tibial torsion were evaluated with three-dimensional gait analysis at their comfortable walking speed. The group with normal tibial rotation showed significantly greater knee extension and lower mean extension moment compared with the group with external tibial torsion (p < 0.05). The posteriorly and laterally deviated ground-reaction force relative to the knee-flexion axis compromises the ability of this force to facilitate knee extension. Patients with torsional magnitudes >20 degrees demand close inspection as candidates for derotation osteotomy. The AFO will continue to stabilize the ankle-foot complex, but improved knee motion, knee-extensor activity, and ultimately walking efficiency may be compromised.

  2. A safe zone for the passage of screws through the posterior tibial cortex in tibial tubercle transfer.

    PubMed

    Shetty, A A; Tindall, A J; Nickolaou, N; James, K D; Ignotus, P

    2005-04-01

    In tibial tubercle transfer, surgery drills and screws can put the popliteal vessels at risk if the posterior cortex is breached. This complication can be devastating. We have looked at arteriograms of 50 knees and identified a safe zone through which an instrument can be passed with more confidence. In our study we found no vessels directly posterior to the supero-medial aspect of the proximal metaphysis in any knee. Whilst care must still be taken, this area will allow surgeons greater confidence to obtain a stronger bicortical hold with any fixation device.

  3. Quantification of the role of tibial posterior slope in knee joint mechanics and ACL force in simulated gait.

    PubMed

    Marouane, H; Shirazi-Adl, A; Hashemi, J

    2015-07-16

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a common knee joint injury with higher prevalence in female athletes. In search of contributing mechanisms, clinical imaging studies of ACL-injured individuals versus controls have found greater medial-lateral posterior tibial slope (PTS) in injured population irrespective of the sex and in females compared to males, with stronger evidence on the lateral plateau slope. To quantify these effects, we use a lower extremity musculoskeletal model including a detailed finite element (FE) model of the knee joint to compute the role of changes in medial and/or lateral PTS by ±5° and ±10° on knee joint biomechanics, in general, and ACL force, in particular, throughout the stance phase of gait. The model is driven by reported kinematics/kinetics of gait in asymptomatic subjects. Our predictions showed, at all stance periods, a substantial increase in the anterior tibial translation (ATT) and ACL force as PTS increased with reverse trends as PTS decreased. At mid-stance, for example, ACL force increased from 181 N to 317 N and 460 N as PTS increased by 5° and 10°, respectively, while dropped to 102 N and 0 N as PTS changed by -5° and -10°, respectively. These effects are caused primarily by change in PTS at the tibial plateau that carries a larger portion of joint contact force. Steeper PTS is a major risk factor, especially under activities with large compression, in markedly increasing ACL force and its vulnerability to injury. Rehabilitation and ACL injury prevention programs could benefit from these findings.

  4. Surgical approach for elastic stable intramedullary nail in pediatric radius shaft fracture: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, Sandra L; Riber, Sara S; Danielsson, Frederik B; Pedersen, Niels W; Viberg, Bjarke

    2017-04-05

    When using elastic stable intramedullary nailing in children's distal radius shaft fractures, the surgical approach can either be lateral or dorsal. The aim of this article was to carry out a systematic review of the literature comparing the two types of approaches in terms of complications. An electronic search of databases was performed. Titles of articles were screened, and abstracts and full text were read. Data were extracted in terms of demographics and complications. The dorsal approach had a 2.6% rate of extensor pollicis longus tendon rupture, whereas the lateral approach had a 2.9% rate of transient superficial radial nerve palsy and 0.3% rate of permanent damage. These complications should be considered when deciding between the two surgical approaches.

  5. Closed Intramedullary Derotational Osteotomy and Hip Arthroscopy for Cam Femoroacetabular Impingement From Femoral Retroversion

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Dean K.; Gupta, Nikhil; Martin, Hal D.

    2014-01-01

    Femoral retroversion is an uncommon cause of cam femoroacetabular impingement that may require surgical treatment beyond arthroscopic or open femoroplasty. We present the case of a young adult with bilateral severe femoral retroversion in whom such treatment failed. We discuss the rationale, surgical technique, and outcome of this patient, who underwent bilateral closed intramedullary derotational proximal femoral osteotomies and interlocked nailing with adjunctive pre- and post-osteotomy hip arthroscopies. Clinical improvement with normal foot progression angles, radiographic union, and resolution of bilateral cam femoroacetabular impingement from femoral retroversion was achieved. This surgery permits rapid institution of weight-bearing ambulation and an early rehabilitative program. Femoral retroversion may be an underappreciated and insufficiently treated cause of cam femoroacetabular impingement that may be readily detected and successfully remedied with this less invasive procedure. PMID:24749047

  6. Surgical removal of an intramedullary spinal cord foreign body granuloma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Leskovar, Alenka; Coates, Joan R; Russell, Karen E; Walker, Michael A; Storts, Ralph W

    2003-01-01

    A 2-year-old, spayed female, mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of a progressive asymmetric tetraparesis and cranial nerve deficits with a 3-week duration. Computed tomography showed a contrast-enhancing lesion along the left side of the junction of the medulla and the cervical spinal cord. An exploratory surgery determined the presence of an intramedullary lesion of the first cervical spinal cord segment. The mass was removed through a dorsal midline myelotomy. Microscopic examination identified a foreign body granuloma that contained a dense, anisotropic outer wall, supporting the conclusion that the foreign body was of plant origin. The dog recovered to a more improved ambulatory status than prior to surgery.

  7. Complications of Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Plating for Distal Tibial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Muzaffar, Nasir; Bhat, Rafiq; Yasin, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background The management of distal tibia fractures continues to remain a source of controversy and debate. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the various complications of minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) using a locking plate for closed fractures of distal tibia in a retrospective study. Patients and Methods Twenty-five patients with distal tibial fractures, treated by minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis, were evaluated in a retrospective study. We studied the rate, probable etiological factors and preventive and corrective measures of various complications associated with minimally invasive plating of distal tibia. Results Mean age of the patients was 41.16 years (range 22 - 65). There were 13 male and 12 female patients. All fractures united at an average duration of 16.8 weeks. There were two cases of superficial and two cases of deep infection, and deep infections required removal of hardware for cure. There were four cases of ankle stiffness, most of them occurring in intra-articular fractures, three cases of palpable implant, three cases of malunion, one case of loss of reduction and one patient required reoperation. The average AO foot and ankle score was 83.6. Conclusions We found MIPPO using locking plate to be a safe and effective method for the treatment of distal tibial fractures in properly selected patients yet can result in a variety of complications if proper precautions before, during and after surgery are not taken care of. PMID:28182170

  8. Rare case of tibial hemimelia, preaxial polydactyly, and club foot.

    PubMed

    Granite, Guinevere; Herzenberg, John E; Wade, Ronald

    2016-12-16

    A seven-month old female presented with left tibial hemimelia (or congenital tibial aplasia; Weber type VIIb, Jones et al type 1a), seven-toed preaxial polydactyly, and severe club foot (congenital talipes equinovarus). Definitive amputation surgery disarticulated the lower limb at the knee. This case report describes the anatomical findings of a systematic post-amputation examination of the lower limb's superficial dissection, X-rays, and computed tomography (CT) scans. From the X-rays and CT scans, we found curved and overlapping preaxial supernumerary toes, hypoplastic first metatarsal, lack of middle and distal phalanges in one supernumerary toe, three tarsal bones, hypoplastic middle phalanx and no distal phalanx for fourth toe, and no middle or distal phalanges for fifth toe. The fibula articulated with the anteromedial calcaneus and the tibia was completely absent. We identified numerous muscles and nerves in the superficial dissection that are described in the results section of the case report. Due to the rarity of this combination of anatomical findings, descriptions of such cases are very infrequent in the literature.

  9. Rare case of tibial hemimelia, preaxial polydactyly, and club foot

    PubMed Central

    Granite, Guinevere; Herzenberg, John E; Wade, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    A seven-month old female presented with left tibial hemimelia (or congenital tibial aplasia; Weber type VIIb, Jones et al type 1a), seven-toed preaxial polydactyly, and severe club foot (congenital talipes equinovarus). Definitive amputation surgery disarticulated the lower limb at the knee. This case report describes the anatomical findings of a systematic post-amputation examination of the lower limb’s superficial dissection, X-rays, and computed tomography (CT) scans. From the X-rays and CT scans, we found curved and overlapping preaxial supernumerary toes, hypoplastic first metatarsal, lack of middle and distal phalanges in one supernumerary toe, three tarsal bones, hypoplastic middle phalanx and no distal phalanx for fourth toe, and no middle or distal phalanges for fifth toe. The fibula articulated with the anteromedial calcaneus and the tibia was completely absent. We identified numerous muscles and nerves in the superficial dissection that are described in the results section of the case report. Due to the rarity of this combination of anatomical findings, descriptions of such cases are very infrequent in the literature. PMID:28035313

  10. Fibula-related complications during bilateral tibial lengthening

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Complications related to the fibula during distraction osteogenesis could cause malalignment. Most published studies have analyzed only migration of the fibula during lengthening, with few studies examining the effects of fibular complications. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed 120 segments (in 60 patients) between 2002 and 2009. All patients underwent bilateral tibial lengthening of more than 5 cm. The mean follow-up time was 4.9 (2.5–6.9) years. Results The average lengthening percentage was 34% (21–65). The ratio of mean fibular length to tibial length was 1.05 (0.91–1.11) preoperatively and 0.83 (0.65–0.95) postoperatively. The mean proximal fibular migration (PFM) was 15 (4–31) mm and mean distal fibular migration (DFM) was 9.7 (0–24) mm. Premature consolidation occurred in 10 segments, nonunion occurred in 12, and angulation of fibula occurred in 8 segments after lengthening. Valgus deformities of the knee occurred in 10 segments. Interpretation PFM induced valgus deformity of the knee, and premature consolidation of the fibula was associated with the distal migration of the proximal fibula. These mechanical malalignments could sometimes be serious enough to warrant surgical correction. Thus, during lengthening repeated radiographic examinations of the fibula are necessary to avoid complications. PMID:22329670

  11. Simultaneous ipsilateral femoral and tibial lengthening with the Ilizarov method.

    PubMed

    Curran, A R; Kuo, K N; Lubicky, J P

    1999-01-01

    Eight pediatric patients who underwent nine simultaneous ipsilateral femoral and tibial lengthenings with the Ilizarov external fixator were reviewed. The patient's demographics, diagnoses, corticotomy levels, mechanical axes, healing indices, amounts of lengthening, and complications were recorded. The patients' average age was 8 years 10 months (5 years 4 months-15 years 10 months) with an average follow-up of 49 months (30-88 months). The percentage of femoral lengthening averaged 16.7% (8-23%) with an average healing index of 28 days/cm (20-38 days/cm). The percentage of tibial lengthening averaged 18% (9.6-23.6%) with an average healing index of 29 days/cm (1940 days/cm). Four complications in three patients occurred as a direct result of the lengthening process. Three of the complications involved soft-tissue contractures, which were each successfully treated with one additional surgical procedure, whereas the fourth complication involved poor bone regeneration and required bone grafting and additional immobilization.

  12. Chondroclasts in fusarium-induced tibial dyschondroplasia. A histomorphometric study.

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, E. M.; Fletcher, T. F.; Walser, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The role of chondroclasts in the pathogenesis of Fusarium roseum-induced tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) was examined in a histomorphometric study. TD developed rapidly in broiler chickens placed at 1 day of age on rations containing either 3% (Experiment 1) or 2% (Experiment 2) F roseum cultures. In Experiment 1 the frequency of TD in birds killed at 4 weeks of age was 90%. In Experiment 2, birds were killed at intervals from 4 days until 4 weeks of age. By 1 week of age, 70% of birds examined had characteristic accumulations of prehypertrophic cartilage at the proximal tibial physis, and the frequency of TD in 4-week-old birds was 80%. Sections of hypertrophic cartilage from F roseum-fed and control birds from both experiments were examined for determination of the volume density of chondroclasts along the vascular channel boundary. Chondroclast density was consistently lower in F roseum-fed than in control birds, but the difference was significant only at 4 weeks of age. The fact that gross lesions were evident before a significant decrease in chondroclast density occurred indicates that a decrease in the density of chondroclasts was not an essential factor in the accumulation of cartilage characteristic of TD. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:4025512

  13. Heterotopic ossification of the elbow after closed reduction and retrograde intramedullary nailing for radial neck fracture treated by anconeus interposition.

    PubMed

    Sreenivas, T; Menon, Jagdish; Nataraj, A R

    2013-12-01

    Heterotopic ossification around the elbow can lead to considerable functional disability. We describe a case of a 42-year-old man who developed heterotopic ossification of his elbow after closed reduction of the elbow dislocation and radial neck fracture and retrograde intramedullary nailing for radial neck fracture. During the follow-up after initial surgery, movements of the elbow were gradually deteriorated and diagnosed as heterotopic ossification of the elbow. Implant removal, radial head excision along with heterotopic mass, and also interposition of the anconeus muscle resulted in improvement of his elbow mobility. At 18 months of follow-up, patient had elbow flexion arc of 15°-110°, 70° of supination, and 50° of pronation without recurrence of heterotopic ossification. The uniqueness of this case lies in the treatment of heterotopic ossification of the elbow to prevent its recurrence, which was developed after retrograde intramedullary nailing for radial neck fracture following closed reduction.

  14. A extremely rare case of cervical intramedullary granuloma due to Brucella accompanied by Chiari Type-1 malformation.

    PubMed

    Tufan, Kadir; Aydemir, Fatih; Sarica, Feyzi Birol; Kursun, Ebru; Kardes, Özgür; Cekinmez, Melih; Caner, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Chiari Type-1 malformation is displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum into the cervical spine and usually does not exceed the level of C2. It is 50-70% associated with syringomyelia. Nervous system involvement due to brucellosis is called neurobrucellosis, and neurological involvement rate has been reported an average of 3-5%, ranging between 3% and 25% at different series. Intramedullary abscess or granuloma due to Brucella is extremely rare. Hence far, six cases have been reported in the literature and only two of these cases were reported as intramedullary granuloma. This case is presented in order to remind the importance of the cervical cord granuloma which was presented once before in the literature and to emphasize the importance of evaluation of patient history, clinical and radiological findings together in the evaluation of a patient.

  15. Postnatal Changes in Tibial Bone Speed of Sound of Preterm and Term Infants during Infancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Lee, Wei-Te; Lee, Pei-Lun; Liu, Po-Len; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in tibial bone speed of sound (SOS) over time, in preterm and term infants during infancy, in addition to identifying factors influencing the development of tibial SOS during infancy. Preterm (n = 155) and term (n = 65) infants were enrolled in this study. Tibial bone SOS was measured using quantitative ultrasonography (QUS) on the left tibia of newborn infants after birth (within 7 days), at 1 month old, and then every 2 months until subjects were approximately 12-15 months old. Follow-up checks included anthropometric measurements and tibial bone SOS. Mean tibial bone SOS at birth was significantly higher in term infants (mean ± SD, 2968.5 ± 99.7 m/s) than in preterm infants (2912.2 ± 122.6 m/s). Values of follow-up tibial bone SOS declined for the first 4 months, and then increased gradually until 12-15 months old. This increasing trend was greater in preterm infants after 2 months of corrected age than in term infants. There were no significant differences by 12-15 months of age between preterm and term infants. A longitudinal mixed-effect model controlling for internal correlations and other covariates in the two groups showed that age and the SOS value at birth were important factors affecting the tibial bone SOS in both preterm and term newborn infants during infancy. There are significant differences in the pattern of change in tibial bone SOS values between preterm and term infants during the first 12-15 months of life. Age and SOS value at birth were important factors affecting the pattern of tibial bone SOS change in both preterm and term newborn infants during infancy.

  16. Management of tibial non-unions according to a novel treatment algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Nando; Marais, Leonard Charles

    2015-12-01

    Tibial non-unions represent a spectrum of conditions that are challenging to treat. The optimal management remains unclear despite the frequency with which these diagnoses are encountered. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of tibial non-unions managed according to a novel tibial non-union treatment algorithm. One hundred and eighteen consecutive patients with 122 uninfected tibial non-unions were treated according to our proposed tibial non-union treatment algorithm. All patients were followed-up clinically and radiologically for a minimum of six months after external fixator removal. Four patients were excluded because they did not complete the intended treatment process. The final study population consisted of 94 men and 24 women with a mean age of 34 years. Sixty-seven non-unions were stiff hypertrophic, 32 mobile atrophic, 16 mobile oligotrophic and one true pseudoarthrosis. Six non-unions were classified as type B1 defect non-unions. Bony union was achieved after the initial surgery in 113/122 (92.6%) tibias. Nine patients had failure of treatment. Seven persistent non-unions were successfully retreated according to the tibial non-union treatment algorithm. This resulted in final bony union in 120/122 (98.3%) tibias. The proposed tibial non-union treatment algorithm appears to produce high union rates across a diverse group of tibial non-unions. Tibial non-unions however, remain difficult to treat and should be referred to specialist units where advanced reconstructive techniques are practiced on a regular basis.

  17. Bifocal tibial corrective osteotomy with lengthening in achondroplasia: an analysis of results and complications.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Sandeep V; Song, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Seok-Hyun; Suh, Seung-Woo; Keny, Swapnil M; Telang, Shailendra S

    2006-01-01

    The results and complications of bifocal tibial osteotomies with gradual correction and lengthening by Ilizarov ring fixator performed in 47 tibiae in 24 achondroplastic patients were analyzed. Comparison was made between the parameters of angular and torsional deformities of the tibia preoperatively, at fixator removal, and at last follow-up. Of these parameters, statistically significant change was seen postoperatively in the values of medial proximal tibial angle, lateral distal tibial angle, mechanical axis deviation, and tibial torsion, which changed from 78.8 +/- 7.05 degrees, 103.2 +/- 11.8 degrees, 25.1 +/- 14.6 mm (medial), and 22.7 +/- 10 degrees (internal) preoperatively to 87.3 +/- 6.3 degrees, 90.9 +/- 5.4 degrees, 5.3 +/- 10 cm (medial), and 15.8 +/- 4.2 degrees (external), respectively, at the time of fixator removal; and this correction was maintained during the follow-up period. Mean total tibial lengthening was 6.84 +/- 1.3 cm. Average healing index was 26.06 days/cm. Complications observed were 15 pin tract infections, 1 residual varus, 1 overcorrection into valgus, 2 recurrence of varus, 22 equinus contractures, 2 premature consolidations, and 3 fibula malalignments. Recurrence of varus was observed in limbs with a residual abnormal medial mechanical axis deviation due to femoral deformity. A hundred percent incidence of equinus was observed in limbs with tibial lengthening of more than 40%, with distal tibial lengthening of more than 15%. To minimize the risk for occurrence of equinus, we recommend restriction of distal tibial lengthening in achondroplasia to less than 15%, although total tibial lengthening may exceed 40%. Fibula malalignment was not observed after double fibula osteotomy. This procedure is safe and efficacious if performed with strict adherence to prescribed technique.

  18. Relationship between Tibial Baseplate Design and Rotational Alignment Landmarks in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Indelli, Pier Francesco; Graceffa, Angelo; Baldini, Andrea; Payne, Brielle; Pipino, Gennaro; Marcucci, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of modern tibial baseplate designs when using the anterior tibial cortex as a primary rotational landmark for the tibial baseplate in TKA. Eighty patients undergoing TKA were randomized in two groups. Group 1 included 25 females and 15 males receiving a posterior-stabilized (PS) symmetric tibial baseplate while Group 2 included 24 females and 16 males receiving a PS anatomical tibial component. Identical surgical technique, including the use of the surgical transepicondylar femoral axis (sTEA) and the anterior tibial cortex (“Curve-on-Curve”) as rotational alignment landmarks, was used. All patients underwent CT evaluation performed with the knee in full extension. Three observers independently measured the rotational alignment of the tibial component in relation to the sTEA. The rotational alignment of the symmetric baseplate showed an average external rotation of 1.3° (minimum 5°, maximum −1°): 91% of the knees showed 0 ± 3° with respect to the surgical sTEA, being internally rotated in 20%. The rotational alignment of the anatomical baseplate showed an average external rotation of 4.1° (minimum 0.4°, maximum 8.9°): only 47.5% of the knees showed 0 ± 3°, being externally rotated in 100%. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. This study confirms the reliability of the “Curve-on-Curve” technique as an adequate rotational alignment anatomical landmark in TKA: the use of an asymmetric tibial baseplate might lead to external rotation of the tibial component when this technique is intraoperatively chosen. PMID:26491564

  19. Spring Ligament Complex and Posterior Tibial Tendon: MR Anatomy and Findings in Acquired Adult Flatfoot Deformity.

    PubMed

    Mengiardi, Bernard; Pinto, Clinton; Zanetti, Marco

    2016-02-01

    The spring ligament complex is an important stabilizer of the medial ankle, together with the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) and the deltoid ligament complex. Lesions in these stabilizers result in acquired adult flatfoot deformity. The spring ligament complex includes three ligaments: the superomedial calcaneonavicular ligament, the medioplantar oblique calcaneonavicular ligament, and the inferoplantar longitudinal calcaneonavicular ligament. Normal MR imaging anatomy of the spring ligament complex and the PTT are described and illustrated in detail. Isolated lesions of the spring ligament complex are rare. In most cases, spring ligament complex lesions are secondary to PTT dysfunction. The best criteria for an injury of the clinically relevant superomedial calcaneonavicular ligament are increased signal on proton-density or T2-weighted sequences with thickening (> 5 mm), thinning (< 2 mm), or partial or complete discontinuity. A thickened ligament can be simulated by the gliding layer between the PTT and the superomedial calcaneonavicular ligament (thickness: 1-3 mm). The most common location of injury is the superior and distal portion of the superomedial calcaneonavicular ligament. A lesion seen by the orthopedic foot surgeon at the junction between the tibiospring ligament and the superomedial portion of the calcaneonavicular ligament is commonly classified as a spring ligament injury. In addition, an overview of MR imaging findings in different stages of the acquired adult flatfoot deformity is provided.

  20. Medial tibial pain. A prospective study of its cause among military recruits.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, C; Giladi, M; Stein, M; Kashtan, H; Margulies, J; Chisin, R; Steinberg, R; Swissa, A; Aharonson, Z

    1986-12-01

    In a prospective study of 295 infantry recruits during 14 weeks of basic training, 41% had medial tibial pain. Routine scintigraphic evaluation in cases of medial tibial bone pain showed that 63% had abnormalities. A stress fracture was found in 46%. Only two patients had periostitis. None had ischemic medial compartment syndrome. Physical examination could not differentiate between cases with medial tibial bone pain secondary to stress fractures and those with scintigraphically normal tibias. When both pain and swelling were localized in the middle one-third of the tibia, the lesion most likely proved to be a stress fracture.

  1. Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia treated with a combination of Ilizarov’s technique and intramedullary rodding

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Ilizarov’s technique and intramedullary rodding have often been used individually in congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia. In this series, we attempted to combine the advantages of both methods while minimizing the complications. Methods We reviewed 15 cases of congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) who were treated with a combination of Ilizarov’s apparatus and antegrade intramedullary nailing between 2003 and 2008. The mean age at surgery was 7.5 (3–12) years and the mean limb length discrepancy was 2.5 (1.5–5) cm. At a mean follow-up time of 4.5 (1.6–7.2) years after the index surgery, the patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically for ankle function (AOFAS score) and for malalignment, signs of union, limb length discrepancy, and complications. Results 14 patients achieved union, in 6 patients primary union and in 8 patients after secondary procedures. The AOFAS score improved from a preoperative mean of 40 (20–57) to 64 (47–75). The main complication was refracture in 1 patient, and non-union in 1 patient. Interpretation The combination of the Ilizarov technique and conventional antegrade intramedullary nailing was successful in achieving union with few complications, though this should be shown in long-term studies lasting until skeletal maturity. PMID:23043268

  2. Feasibility and Value of Radiographic Union Score Hip Fracture after Treatment with Intramedullary Nail of Stable Hip Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Maiettini, Daniele; Bisaccia, Michele; Caraffa, Auro; Rinonapoli, Giuseppe; Piscitelli, Luigi; Bisaccia, Olga; Rollo, Giuseppe; Meccariello, Luigi; Ceccarini, Paolo; Rebonato, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Given the importance of fracture healing on patient outcome in clinical practice, it is critical to assess fracture healing. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the Radiographic Union Score Hip fracture after treatment with intramedullary nail of stable hip fractures. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively collected the data from the clinical records of our institution of the 47 patientswho had undergone intertrochanteric hip fracture treatment using an intramedullary nail. Pain visual analogic score (VAS) was collected the same day that X-rays were taken. Plain hip X-rays were performed, in two radiographic views, at 40 and 90 days after the surgical procedure. The correlation between the RUSH and VAS score was evaluated. Results: Mean RUSH and VAS scores showed a strong statistical improvement between the 40 and 90 day follow-ups. RUSH value at 40 days fitted an inverse linear regression with VAS, p-value of 0.0063 and r2 of 0.15. At 90 days the regression between RUSH and VAS scores was not significant. Conclusion: RUSH could be proposed as an objective system to evaluate union in hip fractures treated with intramedullary nail. PMID:28077901

  3. Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa complicated with chronic tibial osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Egemen; Ege, Ahmet; Keser, Selcuk; Bayar, Ahmet

    2008-10-01

    Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa represents an infrequent clinical entity with cutaneous changes characterized by dermal fibrosis, hyperkeratotic verrucous and papillamotous lesions resulting from chronic non-filarial lymphedema secondary to infections, surgeries, tumor obstruction, radiation, congestive heart failure, and obesity. Although recurrent streptococcal lymphangitis is believed to play a critical role in the origin of elephantiasis nostras verrucosa, the exact pathogenesis of the disorder is not yet clear. Therapeutic efforts should aim to reduce lymph stasis, which will also lead to improvement of the cutaneous changes but unfortunately there is no specific treatment for advanced cases. In this report, we present a patient who was treated by below knee amputation as a result of elephantiasis nostras verrucosa complicated with chronic tibial osteomyelitis.

  4. Remodeling of tibial fractures in children younger than 12 years.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Amitabh Jitendra; John, Bobby; Krishen, Maharaj; Hora, Rajeev

    2007-05-01

    Forty-eight children with an average age of 7.2 years (range: 3-12 years) were examined clinically and radiographically at an average 4-year follow-up (range: 2-10 years), between 1989 and 2000 to analyze correction of deformities following tibial shaft fractures. An inconsistent alteration in the length of the fractured tibia was observed. Anterior angular deformity realigned maximally (52.7%) followed by varus (40.9%) and valgus (23.9%) deformities. Posterior deformity corrected the least (18.5%). In the sagittal plane, acceptable critical anterior and posterior angular deformities that corrected completely were 12 degrees and 6 degrees respectively. In the coronal plane, acceptable critical angular deformities were 10 degrees varus and 8 degrees valgus.

  5. Revision of a nonunited subtrochanteric femoral fracture around a failed intramedullary nail with the use of RIA products, BMP-7 and hydroxyapatite: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Femoral subtrochanteric fractures are commonly treated using intramedullary devices. Failure of the implant and subsequent nonunion is still an issue, however, and limited evidence exists regarding the most appropriate treatment. Case presentation We report the case of an 80-year-old Caucasian woman with a subtrochanteric fracture originally treated using a trochanteric gamma nail which failed, resulting in a nonunion and fracture of its proximal end. The nonunion was revised with the removal of the broken trochanteric gamma nail, application of a condylar blade plate, ipsilateral Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator autografting, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 and injectable hydroxyapatite cement. The fracture united fully at ten months following revision surgery, with no signs of femoral head avascular necrosis at 18-month follow-up. Conclusion The essential requirements for success when revising a nonunited fracture are to provide anatomical reduction, mechanical stability, bone defect augmentation and biological stimulation to achieve healing. Current advances in molecular biology, such as recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7, and biotechnology such as the Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator system and hydroxyapatite injectable cement can improve patient outcomes over the use of our traditional revision techniques. PMID:21362192

  6. Distal posterior tibial artery perforator flaps for the management of calcaneal and Achilles tendon injuries in diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Ignatiadis, Ioannis A; Georgakopoulos, Georgios D; Tsiampa, Vassiliki A; Polyzois, Vasilios D; Arapoglou, Dimitrios K; Papalois, Apostolos E

    2011-01-01

    Management of Achilles tendon and heel area defects is a common challenge for the reconstructive surgeon due to the lack of soft tissue availability in that region. In this article, we present our experience in covering these defects by using the distal perforator propeller flaps based on the posterior tibial artery. Perforator flaps are based on cutaneous, small diameter vessels that originate from a main pedicle and perforate the fascia or muscle to reach the skin. Their development has followed the understanding of the blood supply from a source artery to the skin. Six patients (five males and one female) underwent reconstruction by using the posterior tibial artery distal perforator flap for covering defects in the distal Achilles tendon region in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Postoperative complications included a hypertrophic scar formation in one patient, partial marginal flap necrosis in another patient, and a wound infection in a third patient. All wounds were eventually healed by the last postoperative visit. In conclusion, perforator flaps based on the distal posterior tibial artery may be a reliable option for the coverage of small to moderate size defects of the Achilles tendon and heel area regions.

  7. Distal posterior tibial artery perforator flaps for the management of calcaneal and Achilles tendon injuries in diabetic and non-diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Ignatiadis, Ioannis A.; Georgakopoulos, Georgios D.; Tsiampa, Vassiliki A.; Polyzois, Vasilios D.; Arapoglou, Dimitrios K.; Papalois, Apostolos E.

    2011-01-01

    Management of Achilles tendon and heel area defects is a common challenge for the reconstructive surgeon due to the lack of soft tissue availability in that region. In this article, we present our experience in covering these defects by using the distal perforator propeller flaps based on the posterior tibial artery. Perforator flaps are based on cutaneous, small diameter vessels that originate from a main pedicle and perforate the fascia or muscle to reach the skin. Their development has followed the understanding of the blood supply from a source artery to the skin. Six patients (five males and one female) underwent reconstruction by using the posterior tibial artery distal perforator flap for covering defects in the distal Achilles tendon region in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Postoperative complications included a hypertrophic scar formation in one patient, partial marginal flap necrosis in another patient, and a wound infection in a third patient. All wounds were eventually healed by the last postoperative visit. In conclusion, perforator flaps based on the distal posterior tibial artery may be a reliable option for the coverage of small to moderate size defects of the Achilles tendon and heel area regions. PMID:22396820

  8. Effect of step width manipulation on tibial stress during running.

    PubMed

    Meardon, Stacey A; Derrick, Timothy R

    2014-08-22

    Narrow step width has been linked to variables associated with tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of step width on bone stresses using a standardized model of the tibia. 15 runners ran at their preferred 5k running velocity in three running conditions, preferred step width (PSW) and PSW±5% of leg length. 10 successful trials of force and 3-D motion data were collected. A combination of inverse dynamics, musculoskeletal modeling and beam theory was used to estimate stresses applied to the tibia using subject-specific anthropometrics and motion data. The tibia was modeled as a hollow ellipse. Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial stresses at the distal 1/3 of the tibia differed with step width manipulation (p=0.002). Compression on the posterior and medial aspect of the tibia was inversely related to step width such that as step width increased, compression on the surface of tibia decreased (linear trend p=0.036 and 0.003). Similarly, tension on the anterior surface of the tibia decreased as step width increased (linear trend p=0.029). Widening step width linearly reduced shear stress at all 4 sites (p<0.001 for all). The data from this study suggests that stresses experienced by the tibia during running were influenced by step width when using a standardized model of the tibia. Wider step widths were generally associated with reduced loading of the tibia and may benefit runners at risk of or experiencing stress injury at the tibia, especially if they present with a crossover running style.

  9. Load along the tibial shaft during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    D'Angeli, V; Belvedere, C; Ortolani, M; Giannini, S; Leardini, A

    2014-03-21

    External load at the tibia during activities of daily living provides baseline measures for the improvement of the design of the bone-implant interface for relevant internal and external prostheses. A motion analysis system was used together with an established protocol with skin markers to estimate three-dimensional forces and moments acting on ten equidistant points along the tibial shaft. Twenty young and able-bodied volunteers were analysed while performing three repetitions of the following tasks: level walking at three different speeds, in a straight-line and with sudden changes of direction to the right and to the left, stair ascending and descending, squatting, rising from a chair and sitting down. Moment and force patterns were normalised to the percentage of body weight per height and body weight, respectively, and then averaged over all subjects for each point, about the three tibial anatomical axes, and for each task. Load patterns were found to be consistent over subjects, but different among the anatomical axes, tasks and points. Generally, moments were higher in the medio/lateral axis and influenced by walking speed. In all five walking tasks and in ascending stairs with alternating feet, the more proximal the point was the smaller the mean moment was. For the remaining tasks the opposite trend was observed. The overall largest value was observed in the medio/lateral direction at the ankle centre in level walking at high speed (9.1% body weight * height on average), nearly three times larger than that of the anterior/posterior axis (2.9) during level walking with a sidestep turn. The present results should be of value also for in-vitro mechanical tests and finite element models.

  10. A geometric morphometric analysis of the medial tibial condyle of African hominids.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Adam D

    2013-10-01

    Although the hominid knee has been heavily scrutinized, shape variation of the medial tibial condyle has yet to be described. Humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas differ in the shape of their medial femoral condyles and in their capacity for external and internal rotation of the tibia relative to the femur. I hypothesize that these differences should be reflected in the shape of the medial tibial condyle of these hominids. Here I use geometric morphometric techniques to uncover shape differences between the medial tibial condyles of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Humans are distinguished from the other two species by having a much more oval-shaped medial tibial condyle, while those of chimpanzees and gorillas are more triangular in outline. Gorillas (especially males) are distinguished by having more concavely-curved condyles (mediolateral direction), which is interpreted as an effect of heavy loading through the medial compartment of the knee in conjunction with differences in the degree of arboreality.

  11. Successful stabilisation of a type III paediatric tibial eminence fracture using a tensioned wire technique.

    PubMed

    Archer, Matthew; Parkin, Tom; Latimer, Mark David

    2016-09-19

    We report the case of an 11-year-old boy presenting with a type III tibial eminence fracture. The fracture fragment was reduced arthroscopically. Two 1.6 mm retrograde K-wires were inserted from the tibial metaphysis across the physis and into the fracture fragment using a standard anterior cruciate ligament tibial tunnel guide. Once the wires were clearly visible within the joint the tips were bent over by ∼120°. The wires were then tensioned around a single small fragment screw inserted into the tibial metaphysis. An exceptionally strong fixation was achieved. The boy was mobilised without a brace. The wires were removed at 12 weeks and he returned to full activity at 14 weeks.

  12. Tarsal tunnel syndrome associated with a perforating branch from posterior tibial artery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kosiyatrakul, Arkaphat; Luenam, Suriya; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-03-01

    Tarsal tunnel syndrome, a compressive neuropathy of the tibial nerve or its branches with in the tarsal tunnel, is an uncommon condition. Various etiologies of the syndrome have been described. We report a rare case of tarsal tunnel syndrome associated with a perforating branch from the posterior tibial artery. A 56-year-old woman presented with 1-year history of paresthesia and hypoesthesia in the medial and lateral plantar area of the left foot. Tinel's sign was elicited at the tarsal tunnel. Electrodiagnostic studies confirmed the diagnosis of left tarsal tunnel syndrome. Intraoperatively, the perforating branch from posterior tibial artery which traveled through a split in the tibial nerve was encountered. The patient's symptom improved significantly at 2 years after tarsal tunnel release and vascular ligation. Only a minor degree of paresthesia remains in the forefoot.

  13. The use of deep frozen and irradiated bone allografts in the reconstruction of tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Fu, Li; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Dongsong; Qi, Xin

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the clinical behavior of deep frozen and irradiated bone allografts in the treatment of depressed tibial plateau fractures. Twenty-two patients with a tibial plateau fracture were treated with cancellous bone allografts. The bone allograft preparation process included fresh-freezing at -70 °C for 4 weeks and gamma-irradiation at 25 kGy. All of the patients were followed for 1-2 years. The clinical effects were assessed using the Rasmussen score for tibial head fractures and X-rays. Postoperatively, the average excellent and fair Rasmussen scores were 88.9%. Only one patient developed an infection, with no integration between allograft and recipient bone observed. All of the other bone allografts were incorporated successfully, and no osteoporosis or sclerosis was observed. The frozen and gamma-irradiated bone allograft is a good alternative in the treatment of tibial plateau fractures, which we have shown can integrate with the surrounding host bone.

  14. [Investigation of tibial bones of the rats exposed on board "Spacelab-2":histomorphometric analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durnova, G. N.; Kaplanskii, A. S.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Vorobeva, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    Proximal metaphyses of tibial bones from the Sprague-Dowly rats exposed in US dedicated space life sciences laboratory SLS-2 for 13-14 days and sacrificed on day 13 in microgravity and within 5 hours and 14 days following recovery were the subject of histological, histochemical, and histomorphometric analyses. After the 13-day flight of SLS-2 the rats showed initial signs of osteopenia in the spongy tissue of tibial bones, secondary spongiosis affected first. Resorption of the secondary spongiosis was consequent to enhanced resorption and inhibition of osteogenesis. In rats sacrificed within 5 hours of recovery manifestations of tibial osteopenia were more evident than in rats sacrificed during the flight. Spaceflight-induced changes in tibial spongiosis were reverse by character the amount of spongy bone was fully compensated and following 14 days of readaptation to the terrestrial gravity.

  15. [Investigation of tibial bones of the rats exposed on board "Spacelab-2":histomorphometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Durnova, G N; Kaplanskii, A S; Morey-Holton, E R; Vorobéva, V N

    1996-01-01

    Proximal metaphyses of tibial bones from the Sprague-Dowly rats exposed in US dedicated space life sciences laboratory SLS-2 for 13-14 days and sacrificed on day 13 in microgravity and within 5 hours and 14 days following recovery were the subject of histological, histochemical, and histomorphometric analyses. After the 13-day flight of SLS-2 the rats showed initial signs of osteopenia in the spongy tissue of tibial bones, secondary spongiosis affected first. Resorption of the secondary spongiosis was consequent to enhanced resorption and inhibition of osteogenesis. In rats sacrificed within 5 hours of recovery manifestations of tibial osteopenia were more evident than in rats sacrificed during the flight. Spaceflight-induced changes in tibial spongiosis were reverse by character the amount of spongy bone was fully compensated and following 14 days of readaptation to the terrestrial gravity.

  16. Early complications after high tibial osteotomy: a comparison of two techniques.

    PubMed

    van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Patt, Thomas W; Kleinhout, Miriam Y; van der Vis, Harm M; Albers, G H Rob

    2008-01-01

    This prospective cohort study compared opening wedge high tibial osteotomy with use of the Puddu plate and the Vitoss synthetic cancellous bone versus closing wedge high tibial osteotomy with use of the AO/ASIF L-plate, focusing on complications (nonunions, infections, loss of correction, reoperations) and patient satisfaction (visual linear analog scale). During a 10-month period, we performed high tibial osteotomy for 40 patients experiencing medial knee osteoarthritis and a varus deformity. The average follow-up was 11 months. The complication rate in patients treated with the opening wedge technique was significantly higher regarding tibial nonunion, loss of correction, and material failure. Patients in the closing wedge group were more satisfied with the postoperative result. This study found that the Puddu plate, despite 6 weeks of non-weight bearing facilitating the osseous consolidation with Vitoss cement, was not able to maintain the correction during the time required for bone healing.

  17. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Classification. Class II. ...) translation in one or more planes. It has no linkage across-the-joint. This prosthesis is made of alloys, such as cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, and is intended to resurface one tibial condyle. The generic type...

  18. Posterior Tibial Tendoscopy: Endoscopic Synovectomy and Assessment of the Spring (Calcaneonavicular) Ligament.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-12-01

    A tear of the spring ligament is frequently associated with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. Repair of the damaged spring ligament is an important component of surgical reconstruction in the treatment of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction because it is a major anatomic contributor to the integrity of the medial longitudinal arch, particularly if the dynamic support of the posterior tibial tendon is compromised. Extensive dissection is required for exposure and repair of the ligament because it is a deep-seated structure. It is beneficial to confirm the presence of ligament tears before surgical exploration to avoid unnecessary dissection. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound studies have moderate sensitivity in the detection of these tears. We report an arthroscopic technique for assessment of the integrity of the spring ligament during endoscopic or open reconstruction of the posterior tibial tendon. This allows the surgeon to confirm the presence of a ligament tear before additional dissection to explore and repair the ligament.

  19. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  20. Effect of ACL Transection on Internal Tibial Rotation in an in Vitro Simulated Pivot Landing

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Youkeun K.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Wojtys, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The amount of resistance provided by the ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) to axial tibial rotation remains controversial. The goal of this study was to test the primary hypotheses that ACL transection would not significantly affect tibial rotation under the large impulsive loads associated with a simulated pivot landing but would increase anterior tibial translation. Methods: Twelve cadaveric knees (mean age of donors [and standard deviation] at the time of death, 65.0 ± 10.5 years) were mounted in a custom testing apparatus to simulate a single-leg pivot landing. A compound impulsive load was applied to the distal part of the tibia with compression (∼800 N), flexion moment (∼40 N-m), and axial tibial torque (∼17 N-m) in the presence of five trans-knee muscle forces. A differential variable reluctance transducer mounted on the anteromedial aspect of the ACL measured relative strain. With the knee initially in 15° of flexion, and after five combined compression and flexion moment (baseline) loading trials, six trials were conducted with the addition of either internal or external tibial torque (internal or external loading), and then six baseline trials were performed. The ACL was then sectioned, six baseline trials were repeated, and then six trials of either the internal or the external loading condition, whichever had initially resulted in the larger relative ACL strain, were carried out. Tibiofemoral kinematics were measured optoelectronically. The results were analyzed with a nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Following ACL transection, the increase in the normalized internal tibial rotation was significant but small (0.7°/N-m ± 0.3°/N-m to 0.8°/N-m ± 0.3°/N-m, p = 0.012), while anterior tibial translation increased significantly (3.8 ± 2.9 to 7.0 ± 2.9 mm, p = 0.017). Conclusions: ACL transection leads to a small increase in internal tibial rotation, equivalent to a 13% decrease in the dynamic rotational resistance

  1. Atypical presentation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: involvement of the anterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Bou, Steven; Day, Carly

    2014-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare condition that should be suspected in a young patient with exertional lower extremity pain. We report the case of an 18-year-old female volleyball player with bilateral exertional lower extremity pain who had been previously diagnosed with tendinitis and periostitis. Diagnostic studies showed entrapment of the left popliteal artery and the left anterior tibial artery. To our knowledge, there has only been 1 previous report of anterior tibial artery involvement in PAES.

  2. Aging is Not a Risk Factor for Femoral and Tibial Fractures in Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Ryb, Gabriel; Dischinger, Patricia; Kleinberger, Michael; Burch, Cynthia; Ho, Shiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of aging on the occurence of femoral and tibial fractures during vehicular crashes. Methods The Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN), which includes occupants of a vehicle < 8 years old with at least one AIS ≥3 or two AIS ≥2 injuries in different body regions, comprised the study population. The occurrence of femoral and tibial fractures during vehicular crashes was analyzed in relation to age and other confounders [gender, BMI, stature, change in velocity (Δv), restraint use, occupant position (driver vs. passenger) and principal direction of force (PDOF)] using χ2, Mantel-Haenszel χ2 and student t test. Multiple logistic regression (MLR) models were built for the prediction of femoral and tibial fractures with age as the independent variable and possible confounders as co-variates. An α = 0.05 was used for all statistics. Results The incidence of femoral and tibial fractures in the study population (N=1,418) was 23% and 27%, respectively. Univariate analyses revealed a negative association between increasing age and femoral fractures and no association between age and tibial fractures. MLR models revealed no clear effect of increasing age on the occurrence of either femoral or tibial fractures. Obesity, frontal PDOF, and high Delta;v affected the occurrence of femoral fractures. Tibial fractures were influenced by occupant position (driver), frontal PDOF, high Δv and shorter stature. Conclusion Despite the known changes in bone composition and strength with aging, elderly vehicular occupants do not experience higher odds of incurring femoral and tibial fractures during crashes. PMID:19026239

  3. Unicompartmental Knee Osteoarthritis (UKOA): Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty (UKA) or High Tibial Osteotomy (HTO)?

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E. Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to analyze the results of high tibial osteotomy compared to unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in patients with unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis. The search engine used was PubMed. The keywords were: “high tibial osteotomy versus unicompartmental knee arthroplasty”. Twenty-one articles were found on 28 February 2015, but only eighteen were selected and reviewed because they strictly focused on the topic. In a meta-analysis the ratio for an excellent outcome was higher in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty than high tibial osteotomy and the risks of revision and complications were lower in the former. A prospective comparative study showed that unicompartmental knee arthroplasty offers better long-term success (77% for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and 60% for high tibial osteotomy at 7-10 years). However, a review of the literature showed no evidence of superior results of one treatment over the other. A multicenter study stated that unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis without constitutional deformity should be treated with unicompartmental knee arthroplasty while in cases with constitutional deformity high tibial osteotomy should be indicated. A case control study stated that unicompartmental knee arthroplasty offers a viable alternative to high tibial osteotomy if proper patient selection is done. The literature is still controversial regarding the best surgical treatment for unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis (high tibial osteotomy or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty). However, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty utilization is increasing, while high tibial osteotomy utilization is decreasing, and a meta-analysis has shown better outcomes and less risk of revision and complications in the former. A systematic review has found that with correct patient selection, both procedures show effective and reliable results. However, prospective randomized studies are needed in order to answer the question of this article

  4. Treatment of complex tibial fractures in children with the taylor spatial frame.

    PubMed

    Eidelman, Mark; Katzman, Alexander

    2008-10-01

    Most tibial shaft fractures in children can be treated with closed reduction and cast fixation, but some fractures need external or internal fixation. The Taylor spatial frame (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, Tennessee) is a relatively new external fixator that can correct 6-axis deformities with computer accuracy. This article reports our experience using the Taylor spatial frame as a rewarding treatment modality for complex tibial fractures in children and adolescents.

  5. SIMULTANEOUS BILATERAL AVULSION FRACTURE OF THE TIBIAL TUBEROSITY IN A TEENAGER: CASE REPORT AND THERAPY USED

    PubMed Central

    e Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires; Giordano, Vincenzo; Carvalho, Antônio Carlos Pires; Puell, Thiago; e Albuquerque, Maria Isabel Pires; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral avulsion fracture of the tibial tuberosity in teenagers is a rare lesion. We describe the first case in the literature, in a teenage girl who sustained a fall while jumping during a volleyball match. No predisposing factors were iden tified. The lesions were treated with open surgical reduction and internal fixation. The aim of the present study was to present a case of simultaneous bilateral avulsion fracture of the tibial tuberosity in a teenage girl and the therapy used. PMID:27042651

  6. An Innovative Intra-articular Osteotomy in the Treatment of Posterolateral Tibial Plateau Fracture Malunion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yukai; Luo, Congfeng; Hu, Chengfang; Sun, Hui; Zhan, Yu

    2016-07-13

    Posterolateral tibial plateau fractures are not uncommon and the diagnosis can be easily missed. The treatment is technically demanding, which can easily lead to malunion of the posterolateral tibial plateau fracture. Here, we describe an innovative intra-articular osteotomy for the treatment of posterolateral tibial plateau fracture malunion. From 2010 through 2012, 13 patients with a posterolateral tibial plateau fracture malunion were treated in our trauma center. The patients were referred because of instability or knee pain. The instability was confirmed by physical examinations preoperatively. The depression malunion and lower limb alignment were evaluated on X-rays and computed tomography scans. All posterolateral tibial plateau fracture malunions were treated with an innovative intra-articular osteotomy via an extended anterolateral approach. The mean follow-up was 19.6 months (range, 14-28 months). The posterolateral osteotomy healed at an average of 15.1 weeks. The depression malunion was corrected in all patients, which was from 15.4 mm preoperatively to 3.3 mm at 12 months postoperatively. The average Lysholm, Knee Society Score, and visual analog scale scores were 91.7, 92.5, and 0.5, respectively. No loss of reduction, nonunion, or wound infection was observed. An innovative intra-articular osteotomy via an extended anterolateral approach is an effective treatment for posterolateral tibial plateau fracture malunion. The treatment achieved satisfactory functional results and knee stability restoration.

  7. Biomechanical analysis on transverse tibial fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions☆

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Edmar Stieven; Mendes, Mariane Henseler Damaceno; Claudino, Stephanie; Baracho, Filipe; Borges, Paulo César; da Cunha, Luiz Antonio Munhoz

    2015-01-01

    Objective To verify whether the combination of tibial cross pin fixation and femoral screw fixation presents biomechanical advantages when compared to femoral cross pin fixation and tibial screw fixation for the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Methods Thirty-eight porcine knees and bovine extensor digitorum tendons were used as the graft materials. The tests were performed in three groups: (1) standard, used fourteen knees, and the grafts were fixated with the combination of femoral cross pin and a tibial screw; (2) inverted, used fourteen knees with an inverted combination of tibial cross pin and a femoral screw; (3) control, ten control tests performed with intact ACL. After the grafts fixation, all the knees were subjected to tensile testing to determine yield strength and ultimate strength. Results There was no statistically significant difference in survival techniques in regard to strength, yield load and tension. There was a higher survival compared in the standard curves of yield stress (p < 0.05). Conclusion There is no biomechanical advantage, observed in animal models testing, in the combination of tibial cross pin fixation and femoral screw when compared to femoral cross pin fixation and tibial screw. PMID:26229913

  8. Manufacturing lot affects polyethylene tibial insert volume, thickness, and surface geometry.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Matthew G; Milner, Jaques S; MacDonald, Steven J; Naudie, Douglas D R

    2013-08-01

    To perform wear measurements on retrieved joint replacement implants, a reference geometry of the implant's original state is required. Since implants are rarely individually scanned before implantation, a different, new implant of the same kind and size is frequently used. However, due to manufacturing variability, errors may be introduced into these measurements, as the dimensions between the retrieved and reference components may not be exactly the same. The hypothesis of this study was that new polyethylene tibial inserts from different manufacturing lots would demonstrate greater variability than those from the same lot. In total, 12 new tibial inserts of the same model and size were obtained, 5 from the same lot and the remainder from different lots. The geometry of each tibial insert was obtained using microcomputed tomography. Measurements of tibial insert volume, thickness, and three-dimensional surface deviations were obtained and compared between tibial inserts from the same and different manufacturing lots. Greater variability was found for the tibial inserts from different manufacturing lots for all types of measurements, including a fourfold difference in volume variability (p < 0.001) and a maximum of 0.21 mm difference in thickness (p < 0.001). Investigators should be aware of this potential confounding error and take steps to minimize it, such as by averaging together the geometries of multiple new components from different manufacturing lots for use as the reference geometry.

  9. Tibial tubercle osteotomy in patello-femoral instability and in patellar height abnormality.

    PubMed

    Caton, Jacques H; Dejour, David

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to present the different surgical procedures of tibial tubercle osteotomies for patellar instability or patellar mispositioning such as patella alta or patella infera. This study analysed the Caton-Deschamps index used for assessment of vertical patella height in order to make a precise plan for tibial tuberosity osteotomies. This study included 61 knees (50 patients) treated for patellar instability with patella alta and 24 patients treated for patella infera of mechanical origin. The results of medial transfer of the tibial tuberosity, with or without distal transfer in cases of patellar instability with patella alta, gives excellent results for stability in 76.8% of the cases. The results of the proximal transfer of the tibial tuberosity in cases of patella infera were excellent or good in 80% of the cases in our series of 24 patients. A precise preoperative plan is needed with determination of the vertical patellar height using the Caton-Deschamps index and the situation of the tibial tuberosity and the Tibial Tubercle to Trochlear Groove distance (TT-TG) of the knee on CT scan in order to obtain satisfactory results.

  10. Measuring movement symmetry using tibial-mounted accelerometers for people recovering from total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Cory L.; Bade, Michael J.; Paxton, Roger J.; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this investigation was to examine movement symmetry changes over the first 26 weeks following unilateral total knee arthroplasty in community environments using skin-mounted tibial accelerometers. Comparisons to healthy participants of similar age were also made. Methods Patients (N = 24) with unilateral knee osteoarthritis (mean (SD), 65.2 (9.2) years) scheduled to undergo total knee arthroplasty and a control group (N = 19 healthy people; mean (SD), 61.3 (9.2) years) were recruited. The total knee arthroplasty group participated in a standardized course of physical rehabilitation. Tibial acceleration data were recorded during a Stair Climb Test and 6-Minute Walk Test. Tibial acceleration data were reduced to initial peak acceleration for each step. An inter-limb absolute symmetry index of tibial initial peak acceleration values was calculated. Findings The total knee arthroplasty group had greater between limb asymmetry for tibial initial peak acceleration and initial peak acceleration absolute symmetry index values five weeks after total knee arthroplasty, during the Stair Climb Test and the 6-Minute Walk Test. Interpretation Tibial accelerometry is a potential tool for measuring movement symmetry following unilateral total knee arthroplasty in clinical and community environments. Accelerometer-based symmetry outcomes follow patterns similar to published measures of limb loading recorded in laboratory settings. PMID:25979222

  11. Molybdenum but not copper counteracts cysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Sunde, M L; Cook, M E

    1994-04-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the ability of copper and molybdenum to prevent cysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia in broiler chicks. Experiment 1 was a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments used to investigate the interaction between Cu (0, 150 or 300 mg/kg diet) and Mo (0, 10, or 100 mg/kg diet) on cysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia. Molybdenum at both supplemental levels, but not Cu, prevented cysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia. In Experiment 2 (a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 0, 5 or 10 g/kg diet of cysteine and 0, 10 or 100 mg/kg diet of Mo), Mo prevented cysteine-induced but not spontaneous tibial dyschondroplasia. Cysteine and Mo did not affect the mechanical properties of the tibiotarsus. In Experiment 3, cysteine (0 or 10 g/kg diet) and Mo (0 or 100 mg/kg diet) were used to study the tissue concentrations of mineral and hepatic sulfite oxidase activity. Supplemental Mo increased Mo concentrations in the plasma and liver. Cysteine prevented these increases; however, cysteine, in the absence of supplemental Mo, did not affect concentrations of Mo in these tissues. Dietary cysteine and/or Mo did not affect tissue levels of Cu. We conclude that Mo prevents cysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia and that the induction of tibial dyschondroplasia by cysteine is not related to the Mo and Cu deficiency.

  12. Global molecular changes in a tibial compression induced ACL rupture model of post‐traumatic osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jiun C.; Sebastian, Aimy; Murugesh, Deepa K.; Hatsell, Sarah; Economides, Aris N.; Christiansen, Blaine A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Joint injury causes post‐traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). About ∼50% of patients rupturing their anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) will develop PTOA within 1–2 decades of the injury, yet the mechanisms responsible for the development of PTOA after joint injury are not well understood. In this study, we examined whole joint gene expression by RNA sequencing (RNAseq) at 1 day, 1‐, 6‐, and 12 weeks post injury, in a non‐invasive tibial compression (TC) overload mouse model of PTOA that mimics ACL rupture in humans. We identified 1446 genes differentially regulated between injured and contralateral joints. This includes known regulators of osteoarthritis such as MMP3, FN1, and COMP, and several new genes including Suco, Sorcs2, and Medag. We also identified 18 long noncoding RNAs that are differentially expressed in the injured joints. By comparing our data to gene expression data generated using the surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) PTOA model, we identified several common genes and shared mechanisms. Our study highlights several differences between these two models and suggests that the TC model may be a more rapidly progressing model of PTOA. This study provides the first account of gene expression changes associated with PTOA development and progression in a TC model. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:474–485, 2017. PMID:27088242

  13. A new case of cervical intramedullary sinus histiocytosis causing paraplegia and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Maguey, Jesús; Felix-Torrontegui, José-Angel; Cabrera-López, Myriam; Gutiérrez-Castro, Macrina; Montante-Montes de Oca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rosai–Dorfman disease (RDD) is an uncommon, benign histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown origin. It predominantly affects the lymph nodes, but can also be found extranodal in different organs. Nervous system involvement is rare, and the most cases are intracranial. Surgical treatment is indicated when the central nervous system (CNS) in compromised. Case Description: We herein describe the management of a 27-year-old woman who presented progressive spinal cord symptoms, secondary to an isolated intramedullary lesion, which had a histological confirmation of RDD. To our knowledge, this is the 6th case reported in English written manuscripts. We review these cases and analyze some of the literature concerning the disease. Conclusions: RDD shows some variability in the involvement of the entire neuraxis, and because its ability to mimic meningeal and primary brain tumors, it is essential to be aware of this entity and consider RDD in the differential diagnosis of various lesions of the CNS. The conclusive diagnosis must be obtained by histological methods, so surgical approaches have to be discussed. Although it is not considered as a malignancy, options for postoperative medical treatment are variable and include radiation, chemotherapy or maybe monoclonal antibodies for refractory or recurrent cases. PMID:26862448

  14. Clinical outcome in patients with intramedullary spinal cord metastases from lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Conill, C; Marruecos, J; Verger, E; Berenguer, J; Lomeña, F; Domingo-Domènech, J; Grau, J J; Casas, F

    2007-03-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord metastases (ISCM) are uncommon and present with rapidly progressing neurological deficits. The objective of this study was to determine the rate, duration of neurological response and survival after radiation therapy. We have retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcome of six cases with a diagnosis of ISCM from primary lung cancer, non-small cell (NSCLC) (n=3) and small cell (SCLC) (n=3). Total radiation dose ranged from 27 Gy/5 fr to 40 Gy/20 fr. Ambulation was preserved in 3 patients and partially recovered in one. Five out of the six patients (83%) showed improvement in neurological signs/symptoms with a mean duration of 17.2 days (max: 40 days; min: 6 days). Median survival time was 5 months (confidence interval (CI) 95%: 0-12) for NSCLC and 5 months (CI 95%: 4-6) for SCLC. Although radiation response rate is high, the interval free of neurological progression is very short. A therapeutic approach should be considered for each individual.

  15. Isolated thoracic (D5) intramedullary epidermoid cyst without spinal dysraphism: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Satapathy, Mani Charan; Deo, Rama Chandra; Tripathy, Soubhagya Ranjan; Senapati, Satya Bhusan

    2015-01-01

    Spinal epidermoid cyst, congenital or acquired, is mainly congenital associated with spinal dysraphism, rarely in isolation. Intramedullary epidermoid cysts (IECs) are rare with less than 60 cases reported so far; isolated variety (i.e., without spinal dysraphism) is still rarer. Complete microsurgical excision is the dictum of surgical treatment. A 14-year-old boy presented with 4-month history of upper backache accompanied with progressive descending paresthesia with paraparesis with early bladder and bowel involvement. His condition deteriorated rapidly making him bedridden. Neurological examination revealed upper thoracic myeloradiculopathy probably of neoplastic origin with sensory localization to D5 spinal level. Digital X-ray revealed no feature suggestive of spinal dysraphism. Contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics clinched the presumptive diagnosis. Near-total microsurgical excision was done leaving behind a small part of the calcified capsule densely adhered to cord. Histopathological features were confirmative of an epidermoid cyst. Postoperatively, he improved significantly with a gain of motor power sufficient to walk without support within a span of 6 months. Spinal IECs, without any specific clinical presentation, are often diagnosed based upon intraoperative and histopathological findings, however early diagnosis is possible on complete MRI valuation. Complete microsurgical excision, resulting in cessation of clinical progression and remission of symptoms, has to be limited to sub-total or near-total excision if cyst is adherent to cord or its confines. PMID:26167216

  16. Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors: Part II—Management Options and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Samartzis, Dino; Gillis, Christopher C.; Shih, Patrick; O'Toole, John E.; Fessler, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Broad narrative review. Objectives Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) are uncommon lesions that can affect any age group or sex. However, numerous IMSCT exist and the clinical course of each tumor varies. The following article addresses the various management options and outcomes in patients with IMSCT. Methods An extensive review of the peer-reviewed literature was performed, addressing management options and clinical outcomes of patients with IMSCT. Results Early diagnosis and intervention are essential to obtain optimal functional outcome. Each IMSCT have specific imaging characteristics, which help in the clinical decision-making and prognostication. A comprehension of the tumor pathology and the clinical course associated with each tumor can allow for the proper surgical and nonsurgical management of these tumors, and reduce any associated morbidity and mortality. Recent advances in the operative management of such lesions have increased the success rate of tumor removal while minimizing iatrogenic-related trauma to the patient and, in tandem, improving patient outcomes. Conclusions Awareness and understanding of IMSCT is imperative to design proper management and obtain optimal patient outcomes. Meticulous operative technique and the use of surgical adjuncts are essential to accomplish proper tumor removal, diminish the risk of recurrence, and preserve neurologic function. Operative management of IMSCT should be individualized and based on tumor type, location, and dimensional extensions. To assist with preoperative and intraoperative decision-making, a general algorithm is provided. PMID:26933620

  17. Limb Lengthening and Then Insertion of an Intramedullary Nail: A Case-matched Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Dawn; Fragomen, Austin T.; Ilizarov, Svetlana

    2008-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is an effective method for lengthening, deformity correction, and treatment of nonunions and bone defects. The classic method uses an external fixator for both distraction and consolidation leading to lengthy times in frames and there is a risk of refracture after frame removal. We suggest a new technique: lengthening and then nailing (LATN) technique in which the frame is used for gradual distraction and then a reamed intramedullary nail inserted to support the bone during the consolidation phase, allowing early removal of the external fixator. We performed a retrospective case-matched comparison of patients lengthened with LATN (39 limbs in 27 patients) technique versus the classic (34 limbs in 27 patients). The LATN group wore the external fixator for less time than the classic group (12 versus 29 weeks). The LATN group had a lower external fixation index (0.5 versus 1.9) and a lower bone healing index (0.8 versus 1.9) than the classic group. LATN confers advantages over the classic method including shorter times needed in external fixation, quicker bone healing, and protection against refracture. There are also advantages over the lengthening over a nail and internal lengthening nail techniques. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18800209

  18. Local Intramedullary Delivery of Vancomycin Can Prevent the Development of Long Bone Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caroline; Canden, Ahranee; Burr, Michael; Agarwal, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    Current treatments for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections require intravenously delivered vancomycin; however, systemically delivered vancomycin has its problems. To determine the feasibility and safety of locally delivering vancomycin hydrochloride (~25 mg/Kg) to the medullary canal of long bones, we conducted a pharmacokinetics study using a rat tibia model. We found that administering the vancomycin intraosseously resulted in very low concentrations of vancomycin in the blood plasma and the muscle surrounding the tibia, reducing the risk for systemic toxicity, which is often seen with traditional intravenous administration of vancomycin. Additionally, we were able to inhibit the development of osteomyelitis in the tibia if the treatment was administered locally at the same time as a bacterial inoculum (i.e., Log10 7.82 CFU/mL or 6.62x107 CFU/mL), when compared to an untreated group. These findings suggest that local intramedullary vancomycin delivery can achieve sufficiently high local concentrations to prevent development of osteomyelitis while minimizing systemic toxicity. PMID:27472197

  19. [The geometry of the keel determines the behaviour of the tibial tray against torsional forces in total knee replacement].

    PubMed

    García David, S; Cortijo Martínez, J A; Navarro Bermúdez, I; Maculé, F; Hinarejos, P; Puig-Verdié, L; Monllau, J C; Hernández Hermoso, J A

    2014-01-01

    The keel design of the tibial tray is essential for the transmission of the majority of the forces to the peripheral bone structures, which have better mechanical proprieties, thus reducing the risk of loosening. The aim of the present study was to compare the behaviour of different tibial tray designs submitted to torsional forces. Four different tibial components were modelled. The 3-D reconstruction was made using the Mimics software. The solid elements were generated by SolidWorks. The finite elements study was done by Unigraphics. A torsional force of 6 Nm. applied to the lateral aspects of each tibial tray was simulated. The GENUTECH® tibial tray, with peripheral trabecular bone support, showed a lower displacement and less transmitted tensions under torsional forces. The results suggest that a tibial tray with more peripheral support behaves mechanically better than the other studied designs.

  20. Exposed tibial bone after burns: Flap reconstruction versus dermal substitute.

    PubMed

    Verbelen, Jozef; Hoeksema, Henk; Pirayesh, Ali; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Monstrey, Stan

    2016-03-01

    A 44 years old male patient had suffered extensive 3rd degree burns on both legs, undergoing thorough surgical debridement, resulting in both tibias being exposed. Approximately 5 months after the incident he was referred to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the University Hospital Gent, Belgium, to undergo flap reconstruction. Free flap surgery was performed twice on both lower legs but failed on all four occasions. In between flap surgery, a dermal substitute (Integra(®)) was applied, attempting to cover the exposed tibias with a layer of soft tissue, but also without success. In order to promote the development of granulation tissue over the exposed bone, small holes were drilled in both tibias with removal of the outer layer of the anterior cortex causing the bone to bleed and subsequently negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was applied. The limited granulation tissue resulting from this procedure was then covered with a dermal substitute (Glyaderm(®)), consisting of acellular human dermis with an average thickness of 0.25mm. This dermal substitute was combined with a NPWT-dressing, and then served as an extracellular matrix (ECM), guiding the distribution of granulation tissue over the remaining areas of exposed tibial bone. Four days after initial application of Glyaderm(®) combined with NPWT both tibias were almost completely covered with a thin coating of soft tissue. In order to increase the thickness of this soft tissue cover two additional layers of Glyaderm(®) were applied at intervals of approximately 1 week. One week after the last Glyaderm(®) application both wounds were autografted. The combination of an acellular dermal substitute (Glyaderm(®)) with negative pressure wound therapy and skin grafting proved to be an efficient technique to cover a wider area of exposed tibial bone in a patient who was not a candidate for free flap surgery. An overview is also provided of newer and simpler techniques for coverage of

  1. Trends in High Tibial Osteotomy and Knee Arthroplasty Utilizations and Demographics in Korea From 2009 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Koh, In Jun; Kim, Min Woo; Kim, Ju Hwan; Han, Sang Yup; In, Yong

    2015-06-01

    We analyzed the records of 29,895 high tibial osteotomies (HTOs), 12,589 unicompartmental knee arthroplasties (UKAs) and 363,386 total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) performed from 2009 to 2013 in Korea. They were compared with the latest nationwide registry reports of seven Western countries. Over the last 5 years, in Korea, the number of HTO, UKA and TKA increased by 210%, 138%, and 18%, respectively. The largest increase was observed in 55-64 year olds in HTO and UKA, while the largest increase in TKA was in ≥75 year olds. Females commonly had a three- to seven-fold higher rate in all procedures. Worldwide, the use of HTO and UKA decreased or remained stable, whereas that of TKA increased steadily, even in younger patients.

  2. Management of large segmental tibial defects using locking IM nail and absorbable mesh

    PubMed Central

    Whately, Chris; Abdallah, Mohamed Attia; Alwatari, Yahya Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Tibia accounts for the majority of open fractures with long segmental defects. The management of such defects imposes several challenges due to their associations with extensive soft tissue damage and high infection risk. In this report, we describe a new technique for the reconstruction of tibia in a young patient with 10 cm defect. The patient had a history of Gustilo Anderson type IIIB open fracture following a motorcycle accident. He was initially managed with multiple debridements and application of an external fixator. The defect was treated with the insertion of an antibiotic-coated intramedullary nail along with posterolateral bone grafting using an absorbable mesh. Six months postoperative, radiological assessment showed excellent callus formation diffusely around the intramedullary nail along with optimal alignment. The preliminary follow-up data are quite encouraging and the technique described in our case can be considered as a reasonable option in managing long segmental bone defects. PMID:23887993

  3. Is intramedullary nailing superior to plating in patients with extraarticular fracture of the distal tibia?

    PubMed

    Cabrolier, Jorge; Molina, Marcelo

    2015-11-06

    Distal tibial metaphyseal fractures are generally produced by high-energy trauma such as car accidents and can cause severe disability due to pain and deformity. In the management of these fractures, there are multiple surgical alternatives, but it is uncertain which the best option is. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified six systematic reviews including three randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is not clear whether one surgical option is better than the other, because the certainty of the evidence is very low. Two ongoing randomized trials might help solving this uncertainty.

  4. Early migration of tibial components is associated with late revision

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We performed two parallel systematic reviews and meta-analyses to determine the association between early migration of tibial components and late aseptic revision. Methods One review comprised early migration data from radiostereometric analysis (RSA) studies, while the other focused on revision rates for aseptic loosening from long-term survival studies. Thresholds for acceptable and unacceptable migration were determined according to that of several national joint registries: < 5% revision at 10 years. Results Following an elaborate literature search, 50 studies (involving 847 total knee prostheses (TKPs)) were included in the RSA review and 56 studies (20,599 TKPs) were included in the survival review. The results showed that for every mm increase in migration there was an 8% increase in revision rate, which remained after correction for age, sex, diagnosis, hospital type, continent, and study quality. Consequently, migration up to 0.5 mm was considered acceptable during the first postoperative year, while migration of 1.6 mm or more was unacceptable. TKPs with migration of between 0.5 and 1.6 mm were considered to be at risk of having revision rates higher than 5% at 10 years. Interpretation There was a clinically relevant association between early migration of TKPs and late revision for loosening. The proposed migration thresholds can be implemented in a phased, evidence-based introduction of new types of knee prostheses, since they allow early detection of high-risk TKPs while exposing only a small number of patients. PMID:23140091

  5. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation as treatment for the overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Sherif, Hammouda; Abdelwahab, Osama

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) as a treatment for the overactive bladder (OAB) resistant to medical treatment. Patients and methods The study included 60 patients, comprising 55 women (92%) and five men (8%) with a mean (SD) age of 41.4 (10.8) years, who presented to the Urology Department of Benha University Hospital from June 2010 to October 2012. All patients were assessed initially by taking a history, a physical examination, urine analysis, routine laboratory investigations, and a urodynamic evaluation in the form of flowmetry, cystometry, and a pressure-flow study in some cases. A voiding diary (daytime and night-time frequency, voiding volume, and leakage episodes) was completed by all patients, and all underwent 12 sessions of PTNS using a personal computer-based system, and were reassessed after the sixth session, at the end of the course, and at 3 and 6 months after the last session, using the same methods as in the baseline visit. Results There was a statistically significant improvement in all the variables assessed. No infection or failure of the PTNS mechanism was detected while using the technique, but there were rare instances of minor bleeding and a temporary painful feeling at the insertion site. Conclusion PTNS is safe, and gives statistically significant improvements in the patient’s assessment of OAB symptoms. PMID:26558070

  6. High tibial osteotomy: factors influencing the duration of satisfactory function.

    PubMed

    Giagounidis, E M; Sell, S

    1999-01-01

    In 94 patients 112 knees were examined after high tibial osteotomy for varus and valgus gonarthrosis. Preoperatively, there were 71 varus and 23 valgus deformities. The mean follow-up period was 9.0 years (range 2-21 years). Concerning the pain on walking and the pain at rest, we noted good and excellent results in 73% and 65%, respectively. The radiological evaluation showed an improvement or a persistence of the stage of arthrosis in 69.5% of the reviewed cases. The results according to the HSS score as an objective parameter showed in over 50% an improvement of the patients' situation. The data were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis in which three of four evaluated risk factors were found to be associated with the duration of pain-free survival: certain preoperative injuries, preoperative meniscopathies and a deterioration of the stage of arthrosis (P < 0.05). There was no significance for weight in excess of 10% above the normal body mass index (BMI) limits. However, in a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis this parameter could be determined as a significant factor for a reduced pain-free survival interval (P < 0.05): patients with a BMI of more than 10% above normal limits had a pain-free period of 5.07 years, whereas those with a BMI of less than 10% had a pain-free period of 7.80 years.

  7. Nanoindentation Results from Direct Molded vs. Machined UHMWPE Tibial Bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, J.E.; Joy, D.C.; Pharr, G.M.; Schmidt, M.A.; Swadener, J.G.

    1999-11-13

    Nanoindentation has been used to compare the micromechanical properties of direct molded vs. machined bearing surfaces on UHMWPE tibial components. Differences in micromechanical properties (hardness and elastic storage modulus) were observed between these two types of bearing surfaces, and are believed to result from (1) differences in surface roughness, and (2) differences in morphology of the UHMWPE. Clinical studies of in-vivo UHMWPE wear rates in acetabular cups have reported differences between direct molded and machined bearings.{sup 1,2} Other studies of retrieved components have reported differences as well.{sup 3} Variations in surface characteristics (rather than bulk properties) may cause these differences in wear behavior. This study's objective was to compare micro-mechanical interactions at the bearing surfaces of direct molded components with those of machined components. A nanoindenter was used to perform instrumented microindentations on these surfaces. Da ta was analyzed to study both the load vs. displacement behavior during the indentation cycle, and also to measure the elastic storage modulus and hardness as a function of depth.

  8. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  9. Genu Recurvatum Deformity in a Child due to Salter Harris Type V Fracture of the Proximal Tibial Physis Treated with High Tibial Dome Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Beslikas, Theodoros; Christodoulou, Andreas; Chytas, Anastasios; Gigis, Ioannis; Christoforidis, John

    2012-01-01

    Salter-Harris type V fracture is a very rare injury in the immature skeleton. In most cases, it remains undiagnosed and untreated. We report a case of genu recurvatum deformity in a 15-year-old boy caused by a Salter-Harris type V fracture of the proximal tibial physis. The initial X-ray did not reveal fracture. One year after injury, genu recurvatum deformity was detected associated with significant restriction of knee flexion and limp length discrepancy (2 cm) as well as medial and posterior instability of the joint. Further imaging studies revealed anterior bone bridge of the proximal tibial physis. The deformity was treated with a high tibial dome osteotomy combined with a tibial tubercle osteotomy stabilized with malleolar screws and a cast. Two years after surgery, the patient gained functional knee mobility without clinical instability. Firstly, this case highlights the importance of early identification of this rare lesion (Salter-Harris type V fracture) and, secondly, provides an alternative method of treatment for genu recurvatum deformity. PMID:23259115

  10. A Case of Spontaneous Osteonecrosis of the Knee with Early and Simultaneous Involvement of the Medial Femoral Condyle and Medial Tibial Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Shinya; Arai, Yuji; Honjo, Kuniaki; Nakagawa, Shuji; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SPONK) usually involves a single condyle, most often the medial femoral condyle (MFC). Involvement of the medial tibial plateau (MTP) is less common, occurring in about 2% of knees with SPONK. Early onset SPONK on the ipsilateral side of the medial compartment is very rare, with, to our knowledge, only four cases reported to date. We describe a very rare case of SPONK with early simultaneous development in the MFC and MTP. Serial plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging showed that SPONK in both condyles followed a similar progressive course. The pathological findings in these lesions were similar to those observed in subchondral insufficiency fractures. PMID:27242941

  11. Relationship Between Posterior-Inferior Tibial Slope and Bilateral Noncontact ACL Injury.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, Steven T; Barrett, Austin M; Chrea, Bopha; Replogle, William H; Hydrick, Josie M; Barrett, Gene R

    2016-10-18

    Is there a correlation between increased posterior-inferior tibial slope angle and noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury? Does increasing the posterior-inferior tibial slope angle increase the risk of bilateral ACL injury? A computerized relational database (Access 2007; Microsoft Inc, Redmond, Washington) was used to conduct a retrospective review of patients undergoing bilateral or unilateral ACL reconstruction surgery or treatment by a single surgeon between 1995 and 2013. Included in the study were patients with bilateral and unilateral ACL injuries and patellofemoral pain syndrome with no associated ACL deficiency. Exclusion criteria included concomitant ligament injury, previous ACL reconstruction, and previous knee surgery. Also excluded were patients who did not have plain lateral radiographs. Fifty patients were randomly selected from each group. After controlling for age and Tegner activity level, the authors found that the posterior-inferior tibial slope angle was a significant predictor (P=.002) of noncontact ACL injury. Mean posterior-inferior tibial slope angle for the bilateral, unilateral, and control groups was 11.8°±2.3°, 9.3°±2.4°, and 7.5°±2.3°, respectively. In the group with unilateral ACL injury vs the group without ACL deficiency, a 1° increase in posterior-inferior tibial slope angle (P=.03) was associated with a 20% increase in unilateral ACL injury. In those with bilateral ACL injury vs those without ACL deficiency, a 1° increase in posterior-inferior tibial slope angle (P=.001) increased bilateral knee injury by 34%. The difference between the mean angles of the control group without ACL deficiency and both the bilateral injury and unilateral injury cohorts was statistically significant (P=.003). Increased posterior-inferior tibial slope angle is associated with an increased risk of noncontact bilateral and unilateral ACL injury. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].

  12. Correlation between posterior offset of femoral condyles and sagittal slope of the tibial plateau.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, G; Sessa, P; Ripani, F R; Postacchini, R; Masciangelo, R; Giannicola, G

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to address, in normal knees, the variability of posterior offset of femoral condyles and tibial slope, and the presence of any correlation between the two that might be needed to achieve an adequate joint motion in flexion. Magnetic resonance images of normal knees of 80 subjects, 45 males and 35 females, with a mean age of 38.9 years, were analysed. Measurements were performed by two independent observers using an imaging visualization software. The tibial slope averaged 8 and 7.7 °, on the medial and lateral sides, respectively (P = 0.2); the mean posterior offset of femoral condyles was 27.4 and 25.2 mm on the two sides, respectively (P = 0.0001). The variation coefficient of the condylar offset and tibial slope was 11.5 and 38%, respectively. In the medial compartment, a significant correlation was found between the femoral condylar offset and the tibial slope, while the same was not observed in the lateral compartment of the knee. Magnetic resonance imaging allows the assessment of tibial slope and femoral condylar offset in the medial and lateral side separately, taking into account any difference between the two compartments. The sagittal tibial slope exhibits a greater variability compared with the posterior offset of femoral condyles. The correlation found, in the medial compartment, between the tibial slope and femoral condylar offset suggests that the reconstitution of the proper morphology of the posterior part of the knee joint may be necessary to obtain a full range of motion in flexion after total knee replacement.

  13. Radiographic study on the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament☆

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar; Esquerdo, Paulo; Almagro, Marco Antonio Pires; da Silva, Phelipe Augusto Cintra

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish the radiographic distances from posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tibial insertions centers to the lateral and medial tibial cortex in the anteroposterior view, and from these centers to the PCL facet most proximal point on the lateral view, in order to guide anatomical tunnels drilling in PCL reconstruction and for tunnel positioning postoperative analysis. Study design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Twenty cadaver knees were evaluated. The PCL's bundles tibial insertions were identified and marked out using metal tags, and the knees were radiographed. On these radiographs, the bundles insertion sites center location relative to the tibial mediolateral measure, and the distances from the most proximal PCL facet point to the bundle's insertion were determined. All measures were calculated using the ImageJ software. Results On the anteroposterior radiographs, the mean distance from the anterolateral (AL) bundle insertion center to the medial tibial edge was 40.68 ± 4.10 mm; the mean distance from the posteromedial (PM) bundle insertion center to the medial tibial edge was 38.74 ± 4.40 mm. On the lateral radiographs, the mean distances from the PCL facet most proximal point to AL and PM bundles insertion centers were 5.49 ± 1.29 mm and 10.53 ± 2.17 mm respectively. Conclusions It was possible to establish a radiographic pattern for PCL tibial bundles insertions, which may be useful for intraoperative tunnels locations control and for postoperative tunnels positions analysis. PMID:26229941

  14. Surgical Management of Tibial Plateau Fractures With 3.5 mm Simple Plates

    PubMed Central

    Bagherifard, Abolfazl; Jabalameli, Mahmoud; Hadi, Hosseinali; Rahbar, Mohammad; Minator Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Jahansouz, Ali; Karimi Heris, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Tibial plateau fractures can be successfully fixed utilizing 3.5 mm locking plates. However, there are some disadvantages to using these plates. Objectives In the current prospective study, we investigated the outcome of treating different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates which, to our knowledge, has not been evaluated in previous studies. Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 32 patients aged 40 ± 0.2 years underwent open reduction and internal fixation for tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates. The patients were followed for 16.14 ± 2.1 months. At each patient’s final visit, the articular surface depression, medial proximal tibial angle, and slope angle were measured and compared with measurements taken early after the operation. The functional outcomes were measured with the WOMAC and Lysholm knee scores. Results The mean union time was 13 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean knee range of motion was 116.8° ± 3.3°. The mean WOMAC and Lysholm scores were 83.5 ± 1.8 and 76.8 ± 1.6, respectively. On the early postoperative and final X-rays, 87.5% and 84% of patients, respectively, had acceptable reduction. Medial proximal tibial and slope angles did not change significantly by the last visit. No patient was found to have complications related to the type of plate. Conclusions In this case series study, the fixation of different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple non-locking and non-precontoured plates was associated with acceptable clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes. Based on the advantages and costs of these plates, the authors recommend using 3.5 mm simple plates for different types of tibial plateau fractures. PMID:27626010

  15. Osteotomy and intramedullary nailing for the correction of progressive deformity in vitamin D-resistant hypophosphataemic rickets.

    PubMed

    Eyres, K S; Brown, J; Douglas, D L

    1993-02-01

    We have reviewed the results of surgical treatment of vitamin D-resistant hypophosphataemic rickets (VDRR) and describe a technique of corrective osteotomy and intramedullary nailing. From 1978 to 1986, epiphysiodesis (n = 4) and osteotomy (n = 8) was performed in 6 children (mean age 13, range 10-16 years) for the correction of progressive lower limb deformity. Realignment and internal fixation of a pathological fracture of the femur was performed in an adult (aged 24). Epiphysiodesis resulted in recurrent deformity in all patients and reapplication of staples for loosening was required in three. Corrective osteotomies were secured with staples (n = 3), plates (n = 4), or plaster alone (n = 1) and were complicated by non-union in one patient, and recurrent deformity in two patients. Double-plating of the femoral fracture resulted in union but recurrent deformity. Compliance to treatment with phosphate and vitamin D was variable. In order to manage progressive recurrent deformity, we have performed corrective osteotomy and closed intramedullary nailing of the tibia (n = 2) and femur (n = 3) in 4 skeletally mature patients (mean age 31). All osteotomies united and no complications were encountered. Deformity has been corrected in all cases and all patients are satisfied with the outcome at least 2 years after surgery. We conclude that rigid methods of fixation spanning the whole length of the bone are required to maintain limb alignment in skeletally mature patients with VDRR. Since the quality of bone in VDRR is variable, experience with intramedullary techniques is essential. We stress the importance of appropriate medical therapy throughout the treatment of these patients.

  16. [Treatment of defects of the long bones using distraction osteogenesis (Ilizarov) and intramedullary nailing. Theoretic principles, animal experiments, clinical relevance].

    PubMed

    Brunner, U; Kessler, S; Cordey, J; Rahn, B; Schweiberer, L; Perren, S M

    1990-06-01

    For large shaft defects of tibia and femur, distraction-compression osteosynthesis (Ilizarov) provides an ideal autologous bone graft. Combination of this with an intramedullary interlocking nail instead of an external fixator could improve patient comfort, because transport with a small external device takes only one-third of the total fixation period. Using 21 adult female sheep we created standardized tibia shaft defects 20 mm (medium size) and 45 mm (large size) in length. The tibiae were stabilized with non-reamed intramedullary interlocking nails. Following corticotomy by chisel, segments were transported using subcutaneous traction wires with a screw as a fulcrum to maintain stationary skin exit points without soft tissue problems. The external traction devices were removed after 12 or 16 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 12 or 24 weeks with medium-size defects, and after 16 or 32 weeks with large defects. We evaluated the results clinically, by standardized weekly X-rays and, after sacrifice, by quantitative computed tomography (QCT). No animals had to be excluded from the study. Despite primary destruction of the intramedullary circulation all distraction gaps were spanned with bone. X-Rays showed typical signs of good quality of distraction bone regeneration (narrow radiolucent zone in the middle of the regenerate, longitudinal structure), continuous calcification, and cortex formation. QCT cross sections showed completely circular bone regeneration with small and large defects. Bone regeneration was faster on the dorsal side, where more bone was formed than ventrally. Small defects can remain ventrally in the regenerate; these close secondarily.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Mechanical properties and in vivo performance of load-bearing fiber-reinforced composite intramedullary nails with improved torsional strength.

    PubMed

    Moritz, N; Strandberg, N; Zhao, D S; Mattila, R; Paracchini, L; Vallittu, P K; Aro, H T

    2014-12-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) could be feasible materials for fracture fixation devices if the mechanical properties of the composites are congruent with the local structural properties of bone. In a recently developed FRC implant, bisphenol A dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resin was reinforced with unidirectional E-glass fibers. The addition of a braided glass fiber sleeving to the unidirectional fibers increased the torsional strength (99.5MPa) of the FRC implants at the expense of the flexural strength (602.0MPa). The flexural modulus was 15.3GPa. Two types of FRC intramedullary nails were prepared; first type was FRC as such, second type was FRC with a surface layer of bioactive glass (BG) granules. Experimental oblong subtrochanteric defect was created in 14 rabbits. The defect, which reduced the torsional strength of the bones by 66%, was fixed with an FRC intramedullary nail of either type. The contralateral intact femur served as the control. This model simulated surgical stabilization of bone metastasis. After 12 weeks of follow-up, the femurs were harvested and analyzed by torsional testing, micro-CT and hard tissue histology. Healed undisplaced peri-implant fractures were noticed in half of the animals irrespective of the type of FRC implant. Torsional testing showed no significant differences between the implantation groups. The torsional strength of the bones stabilized by either type of FRC implant was 83% of that of the contralateral femurs. In histological analysis, no implant debris and no adverse tissue reactions were observed. While the mechanical properties of the modified FRCs were suboptimal, the FRC intramedullary nails supported the femurs without structural failure, even in the cases of peri-implant fractures.

  18. Unusual Femur Stress Fractures in Children With Osteogenesis Imperfecta and Intramedullary Rods on Long-term Intravenous Pamidronate Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Abdelsalam; Kenawey, Mohamed; Sochett, Etienne; Tile, Lianne; Cheung, Angela M; Howard, Andrew W

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we describe 6 children with osteogenesis imperfecta with unusual stress femoral fractures. All children were on long-term cyclic pamidronate treatment. All fractures occurred without trauma or with minimal trauma and were located in the subtrochanteric or the diaphyseal regions of the femur over preexisting intramedullary rods. These fractures have very similar features to the reported minimal trauma atypical femoral fractures in adults on long-term bisphosphonate treatment. These fractures raise concerns about the role of prolonged remodeling suppression and microdamage accumulation and the risk of increased bone fragility.

  19. Increased Pre-operative Pulse Pressure Predicts Procedural Complications and Mortality in Patients Undergoing Tibial Interventions for Critical Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Jeremy D.; Lee, Vanessa; Schermerhorn, Marc L.; Guzman, Raul J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pulse pressure is a non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. Elevated pulse pressure is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and death. The effects of pulse pressure on outcomes after endovascular interventions for critical limb ischemia (CLI), however, are unknown. We thus evaluated whether increased pre-operative pulse pressure was associated with adverse outcomes and mortality in patients undergoing endovascular tibial artery intervention. Methods All patients undergoing endovascular tibial intervention for CLI at a single institution from 2004 to 2014 were included in this study. Pre-operative pulse pressure was derived from measurements obtained in the holding area prior to the procedure. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on pulse pressure, < 80 or ≥ 80. Patient demographics and co-morbidities were documented, and outcomes including procedural complications, repeat intervention, amputation, and mortality were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to account for patient demographics and comorbidities. Results Of 371 patients, 186 patients had a pre-operative pulse pressure <80 and 185 had a pre-operative pulse pressure ≥80. No significant differences in patient demographics or comorbidities were identified; however there was a trend toward older age in patients with elevated pulse pressure (70 vs. 72, P = 0.07). On univariate analysis, procedural complications (21% vs. 13%, P = 0.02), reinterventions (26% vs. 17%, P < 0.01), and restenosis (32% vs. 23%, P = 0.03) were more common among patients with pulse pressure ≥ 80. Procedural complications remained significant on multivariate analysis (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.1, P = 0.04). There was no difference in 30-day mortality; however increased mortality was seen at 5 years of follow-up (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.5, P = 0.04) following multivariable analysis. Conclusions Increased pre-operative pulse pressure is associated with procedural complications

  20. Aging diminishes lamellar and woven bone formation induced by tibial compression in adult C57BL/6.

    PubMed

    Holguin, Nilsson; Brodt, Michael D; Sanchez, Michelle E; Silva, Matthew J

    2014-08-01

    Aging purportedly diminishes the ability of the skeleton to respond to mechanical loading, but recent data show that old age did not impair loading-induced accrual of bone in BALB/c mice. Here, we hypothesized that aging limits the response of the tibia to axial compression over a range of adult ages in the commonly used C57BL/6. We subjected the right tibia of old (22 month), middle-aged (12 month) and young-adult (5 month) female C57BL/6 mice to peak periosteal strains (measured near the mid-diaphysis) of -2200 με and -3000 με (n=12-15/age/strain) via axial tibial compression (4 Hz, 1200 cycles/day, 5 days/week, 2 weeks). The left tibia served as a non-loaded, contralateral control. In mice of every age, tibial compression that engendered a peak strain of -2200 με did not alter cortical bone volume but loading to a peak strain of -3000 με increased cortical bone volume due in part to woven bone formation. Both loading magnitudes increased total volume, medullary volume and periosteal bone formation parameters (MS/BS, BFR/BS) near the cortical midshaft. Compared to the increase in total volume and bone formation parameters of 5-month mice, increases were less in 12- and 22-month mice by 45-63%. Moreover, woven bone incidence was greatest in 5-month mice. Similarly, tibial loading at -3000 με increased trabecular BV/TV of 5-month mice by 18% (from 0.085 mm3/mm3), but trabecular BV/TV did not change in 12- or 22-month mice, perhaps due to low initial BV/TV (0.032 and 0.038 mm3/mm3, respectively). In conclusion, these data show that while young-adult C57BL/6 mice had greater periosteal bone formation following loading than middle-aged or old mice, aging did not eliminate the ability of the tibia to accrue cortical bone.

  1. Novel Intramedullary-Fixation Technique for Long Bone Fragility Fractures Using Bioresorbable Materials

    PubMed Central

    Nishizuka, Takanobu; Kurahashi, Toshikazu; Hara, Tatsuya; Hirata, Hitoshi; Kasuga, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Almost all of the currently available fracture fixation devices for metaphyseal fragility fractures are made of hard metals, which carry a high risk of implant-related complications such as implant cutout in severely osteoporotic patients. We developed a novel fracture fixation technique (intramedullary-fixation with biodegradable materials; IM-BM) for severely weakened long bones using three different non-metallic biomaterials, a poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) woven tube, a nonwoven polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) fiber mat, and an injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The purpose of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of IM-BM with mechanical testing as well as with an animal experiment. To perform mechanical testing, we fixed two longitudinal acrylic pipes with four different methods, and used them for a three-point bending test (N = 5). The three-point bending test revealed that the average fracture energy for the IM-BM group (PLLA + CPC + PHA) was 3 times greater than that of PLLA + CPC group, and 60 to 200 times greater than that of CPC + PHA group and CPC group. Using an osteoporotic rabbit distal femur incomplete fracture model, sixteen rabbits were randomly allocated into four experimental groups (IM-BM group, PLLA + CPC group, CPC group, Kirschner wire (K-wire) group). No rabbit in the IM-BM group suffered fracture displacement even under full weight bearing. In contrast, two rabbits in the PLLA + CPC group, three rabbits in the CPC group, and three rabbits in the K-wire group suffered fracture displacement within the first postoperative week. The present work demonstrated that IM-BM was strong enough to reinforce and stabilize incomplete fractures with both mechanical testing and an animal experiment even in the distal thigh, where bone is exposed to the highest bending and torsional stresses in the body. IM-BM can be one treatment option for those with severe osteoporosis. PMID:25111138

  2. Interrelation between external oscillatory muscle coupling amplitude and in vivo intramedullary pressure related bone adaptation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Minyi; Cheng, Jiqi; Bethel, Neville; Serra-Hsu, Frederick; Ferreri, Suzanne; Lin, Liangjun; Qin, Yi-Xian

    2014-09-01

    Interstitial bone fluid flow (IBFF) is suggested as a communication medium that bridges external physical signals and internal cellular activities in the bone, which thus regulates bone remodeling. Intramedullary pressure (ImP) is one main regulatory factor of IBFF and bone adaptation related mechanotransduction. Our group has recently observed that dynamic hydraulic stimulation (DHS), as an external oscillatory muscle coupling, was able to induce local ImP with minimal bone strain as well as to mitigate disuse bone loss. The current study aimed to evaluate the dose dependent relationship between DHS's amplitude, i.e., 15 and 30mmHg, and in vivo ImP induction, as well as this correlation on bone's phenotypic change. Simultaneous measurements of ImP and DHS cuff pressures were obtained from rats under DHS with various magnitudes and a constant frequency of 2Hz. ImP inductions and cuff pressures upon DHS loading showed a positively proportional response over the amplitude sweep. The relationship between ImP and DHS cuff pressure was evaluated and shown to be proportional, in which ImP was raised with increases of DHS cuff pressure amplitudes (R(2)=0.98). A 4-week in vivo experiment using a rat hindlimb suspension model demonstrated that the mitigation effect of DHS on disuse trabecular bone was highly dose dependent and related to DHS's amplitude, where a higher ImP led to a higher bone volume. This study suggested that sufficient physiological DHS is needed to generate ImP. Oscillatory DHS, potentially induces local fluid flow, has shown dose dependence in attenuation of disuse osteopenia.

  3. An Effective Approach for Optimization of a Composite Intramedullary Nail for Treating Femoral Shaft Fractures.

    PubMed

    Samiezadeh, Saeid; Tavakkoli Avval, Pouria; Fawaz, Zouheir; Bougherara, Habiba

    2015-12-01

    The high stiffness of conventional intramedullary (IM) nails may result in stress shielding and subsequent bone loss following healing in long bone fractures. It can also delay union by reducing compressive loads at the fracture site, thereby inhibiting secondary bone healing. This paper introduces a new approach for the optimization of a fiber-reinforced composite nail made of carbon fiber (CF)/epoxy based on a combination of the classical laminate theory, beam theory, finite-element (FE) method, and bone remodeling model using irreversible thermodynamics. The optimization began by altering the composite stacking sequence and thickness to minimize axial stiffness, while maximizing torsional stiffness for a given range of bending stiffnesses. The selected candidates for the seven intervals of bending stiffness were then examined in an experimentally validated FE model to evaluate their mechanical performance in transverse and oblique femoral shaft fractures. It was found that the composite nail having an axial stiffness of 3.70 MN and bending and torsional stiffnesses of 70.3 and 70.9 N⋅m², respectively, showed an overall superiority compared to the other configurations. It increased compression at the fracture site by 344.9 N (31%) on average, while maintaining fracture stability through an average increase of only 0.6 mm (49%) in fracture shear movement in transverse and oblique fractures when compared to a conventional titanium-alloy nail. The long-term results obtained from the bone remodeling model suggest that the proposed composite IM nail reduces bone loss in the femoral shaft from 7.9% to 3.5% when compared to a conventional titanium-alloy nail. This study proposes a number of practical guidelines for the design of composite IM nails.

  4. Effect of Pentoxifylline Administration on an Experimental Rat Model of Femur Fracture Healing With Intramedullary Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Vashghani Farahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Masteri Farahani, Reza; Mostafavinia, Ataroalsadat; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Pouriran, Ramin; Noruzian, Mohammad; Ghoreishi, Seyed Kamran; Aryan, Arefe; Bayat, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally, musculoskeletal injuries comprise a major public health problem that contributes to a large burden of disability and suffering. Pentoxifylline (PTX) has been originally used as a hemorheologic drug to treat intermittent claudication. Previous test tube and in vivo studies reported the beneficial effects of PTX on bony tissue. Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the effects of different dosages of PTX on biomechanical properties that occur during the late phase of the fracture healing process following a complete femoral osteotomy in a rat model. We applied intramedullary pin fixation as the treatment of choice. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted at the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. We used the simple random technique to divide 35 female rats into five groups. Group 1 received intraperitoneal (i.p.) PTX (50 mg/kg, once daily) injections, starting 15 days before surgery, and group 2, group 3, and group 4 received 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg i.p. PTX injections, respectively, once daily after surgery. All animals across groups received treatment for six weeks (until sacrificed). Complete surgical transverse osteotomy was performed in the right femur of all rats. At six weeks after surgery, the femurs were subjected to a three-point bending test. Results: Daily administration of 50 mg/kg PTX (groups 1 and 2) decreased the high stress load in repairing osteotomized femurs when compared with the control group. The highest dose of PTX (200 mg/kg) significantly increased the high stress load when compared with the control group (P = 0.030), group 1 (P = 0.023), group 2 (P = 0.008), and group 3 (P = 0.010), per the LSD findings. Conclusions: Treatment with 200 mg/kg PTX accelerated fracture healing when compared with the control group. PMID:26756019

  5. The Association of Reamed Intramedullary Nailing and Long-Term Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Justin E; Guillamondegui, Oscar D; Archer, Kristin R; Jackson, James C; Ely, E Wesley; Obremskey, William T

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of reamed intramedullary nailing (IMN) and long-term cognitive impairment in trauma intensive care unit (TICU) survivors. Design Prospective observational cohort. Setting Academic Level-1 Trauma Center. Patients 173 patients with multiple trauma (Injury Severity Score (ISS) >15) who presented to a Level I TICU from July 2006 to July 2007 without evidence of intrancranial hemorrhage (ICH) Intervention None Main Outcome Measure Twelve-month cognitive impairment defined a priori as 2 neuropsychological test scores 1.5 SD below the mean or 1 neuropsychological test score 2 SD below the mean. Results 108/173 patients (62.4%) were evaluated 12-months after injury with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. There were 18 patients who received a reamed IMN and 14/18 (78%) of these patients had cognitive deficit at follow-up. Fracture treatment with a reamed IMN was associated with long-term impairment (27.4% vs. 8.2%, p= 0.03). Multivariable logistic regression found that a reamed IMN (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 0.95-10.9; p=0.06) was a moderate risk factor for the development of cognitive impairment 12-months after injury, after controlling for ISS, level of education, intra-operative hypotension, and duration of mechanical ventilation. Conclusions Fracture fixation with a reamed IMN is moderately associated with cognitive impairment in this cohort of multiple trauma patients without ICH at 1-year post-injury. Orthopaedic trauma research should continue to investigate a potential association of acute fracture management and long-term cognitive outcome. PMID:22089759

  6. Intramedullary Pressure and Matrix Strain Induced by Oscillatory Skeletal Muscle Stimulation and its Potential in Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Lam, Hoyan

    2010-01-01

    Intramedullary pressure (ImP) and low-level bone strain induced by oscillatory muscle stimulation (MS) has the potential to mitigate bone loss induced by disuse osteopenia, i.e., hindlimb suspension (HLS). To test this hypothesis, we evaluated a) MS induced ImP and bone strain as function of stimulation frequency, and b) the adaptive responses to functional disuse, and disuse plus 1Hz and 20Hz stimulation in vivo. Femoral ImP and bone strain generated by MS were measured in the frequencies of 1Hz-100Hz in four rats. Forty retired breeder rats were used for the in vivo HLS study. The quadriceps muscle was stimulated at frequencies of 1 Hz and 20 Hz, 10min/d for 4 weeks. The metaphyseal trabecular bone quantity and microstructure at the distal femur were evaluated using μCT, while bone formation indices were analyzed using histomorphometric techniques. Oscillatory MS generated a maximum ImP of 45±9 mmHg at 20 Hz and produced a maximum matrix strain of 128±19 με at 10 Hz. Our analyses from the in vivo study showed that MS at 20 Hz was able to attenuate trabecular bone loss and partially maintain the microstructure induced by HLS. Conversely, there was no evidence of an adaptive effect of stimulation at 1 Hz on disused skeleton. The results suggested that oscillatory MS regulates fluid dynamics and mechanical strain in bone, which serves as a critical mediator of adaptation. These results clearly demonstrated the ability of MS in attenuating bone loss from the disuse osteopenia and could hold potential in mitigating skeletal degradation imposed by conditions of disuse, which may serve as a biomechanical intervention in clinic application. PMID:19081096

  7. Computer model to predict subsurface damage in tibial inserts of total knees.

    PubMed

    Sathasivam, S; Walker, P S

    1998-09-01

    Two designs of total knee replacements were analysed to determine how the geometry of their bearing surface would affect the susceptibility of their ultra high molecular weight polyethylene tibial inserts to delamination. Orientations of the femoral components on the tibial surfaces were calculated with use of rigid body analysis for discrete intervals during the stance phase of gait. For each successive orientation, finite element analysis was used to compress the components together to determine the stresses in the tibial inserts. A damage function analogous to strain energy density was defined to account for the accumulated amplitudes and frequencies of the maximum shear stress cycles and hence to predict fatigue failure. The damage function was applied to each polyethylene element in the tibial insert, and the highest value calculated for each design was its damage score. One knee had a damage score more than three times less than that of the other because of lower stresses and because the contact points moved in the medial-lateral as well as anterior-posterior directions during internal-external rotation. The femoral and tibial components of this knee had large outer frontal radii and close conformity in the frontal plane. We propose that this method, which accounts for the motions and stresses endured during walking, makes different predictions regarding the likelihood of delamination compared with the predictions made by conventional static compression tests performed when the knee is in a neutral position.

  8. Apophysitis of the Tibial Tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter Disease): A Review.

    PubMed

    Vaishya, Raju; Azizi, Ahmad Tariq; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Vijay, Vipul

    2016-09-13

    Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) is a condition in which the patellar tendon insertion on the tibial tuberosity becomes inflamed. It is a well-known condition in late childhood characterized by pain and a bony prominence over the tibial tuberosity. The pain is usually exacerbated by physical activities like running, jumping, and climbing stairs. In the acute stage, the margins of the patellar tendon become blurred in radiographs due to the soft tissue swelling. After three to four months, bone fragmentation at the tibial tuberosity is viewed. In the sub-acute stage, soft tissue swelling resolves, but the bony ossicle remains. In the chronic stage, the bone fragment may fuse with the tibial tuberosity which can appear normal. The primary goal in the treatment of OSD is the reduction of pain and swelling over the tibial tuberosity. The patient should limit physical activities until the symptoms are resolved. In some cases, the patient should restrict physical activities for several months. The presence of pain with kneeling because of an ossicle that does not respond to conservative measures is the indication for surgery. In these cases, the removal of the ossicle, surrounding bursa, and the bony prominence is the treatment of choice.

  9. Effect of tibial tuberosity advancement on femorotibial contact mechanics and stifle kinematics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Stanley E; Pozzi, Antonio; Banks, Scott A; Conrad, Bryan P; Lewis, Daniel D

    2009-01-01

    Objective- To evaluate the effects of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) on femorotibial contact mechanics and 3-dimensional kinematics in cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifles of dogs. Study Design- In vitro biomechanical study. Animals- Unpaired pelvic limbs from 8 dogs, weighing 28-35 kg. Methods- Digital pressure sensors placed subjacent to the menisci were used to measure femorotibial contact force, contact area, peak and mean contact pressure, and peak pressure location with the limb under an axial load of 30% body weight and a stifle angle of 135 degrees . Three-dimensional static poses of the stifle were obtained using a Microscribe digitizing arm. Each specimen was tested under normal, CrCL-deficient, and TTA-treated conditions. Repeated measures analysis of variance with a Tukey post hoc test (P<.05) was used for statistical comparison. Results- Significant disturbances to all measured contact mechanic parameters were evident after CrCL transection, which corresponded to marked cranial tibial subluxation and internal tibial rotation in the CrCL-deficient stifle. No significant differences in any contact mechanic and kinematic parameters were detected between normal and TTA-treated stifles. Conclusion- TTA eliminates craniocaudal stifle instability during simulated weight-bearing and concurrently restores femorotibial contact mechanics to normal. Clinical Relevance- TTA may mitigate the progression of stifle osteoarthritis in dogs afflicted with CrCL insufficiency by eliminating cranial tibial thrust while preserving the normal orientation of the proximal tibial articulating surface.

  10. Apophysitis of the Tibial Tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter Disease): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Azizi, Ahmad Tariq; Vijay, Vipul

    2016-01-01

    Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) is a condition in which the patellar tendon insertion on the tibial tuberosity becomes inflamed. It is a well-known condition in late childhood characterized by pain and a bony prominence over the tibial tuberosity. The pain is usually exacerbated by physical activities like running, jumping, and climbing stairs. In the acute stage, the margins of the patellar tendon become blurred in radiographs due to the soft tissue swelling. After three to four months, bone fragmentation at the tibial tuberosity is viewed. In the sub-acute stage, soft tissue swelling resolves, but the bony ossicle remains. In the chronic stage, the bone fragment may fuse with the tibial tuberosity which can appear normal. The primary goal in the treatment of OSD is the reduction of pain and swelling over the tibial tuberosity. The patient should limit physical activities until the symptoms are resolved. In some cases, the patient should restrict physical activities for several months. The presence of pain with kneeling because of an ossicle that does not respond to conservative measures is the indication for surgery. In these cases, the removal of the ossicle, surrounding bursa, and the bony prominence is the treatment of choice. PMID:27752406

  11. Effects of physical exertion on trans-tibial prosthesis users' ability to accommodate alignment perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Goeran; Slavens, Brooke A; O'Connor, Kristian M; Smith, Roger O; Hafner, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Background It has long been reported that a range of prosthesis alignments is acceptable in trans-tibial prosthetics. This range was shown to be smaller when walking on uneven surfaces. It has also been argued that findings on gait with prostheses that were obtained under laboratory conditions are limited in their applicability to real-life environments. Objectives This study investigated the hypothesis that efforts to compensate for suboptimal alignments by active users of trans-tibial prostheses become less effective when levels of physical exertion increase. Study design A 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare the effects of physical exertion and subtle alignment perturbations on gait with trans-tibial prostheses. Methods The gait of eight subjects with trans-tibial amputation was analyzed when walking with two different prosthesis alignments and two different physical exertion levels. The main and interaction effects were statistically evaluated. Results Bilateral step length symmetry and measures of step variability within the same leg were found to be affected by the intervention. There was no significant effect on index variables that combined kinematic or kinetic measures. Conclusion Findings showed that persons with trans-tibial prostheses responded heterogeneously to the interventions. For most variables, the research hypothesis could not be confirmed. PMID:25138114

  12. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  13. The Effect of Different Sagittal Angles of the Tibial Guide on Aperture Widening of the Tibial Tunnel during Modified Transtibial Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Randomized In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Chan; Tawonsawatruk, Tulyapruek; Woon, Hyeong Hwa; Yum, Ji Woong; Shin, Myung Jin; Bravo, Rodolfo S.; Nha, Kyung Wook

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The effect of sagittal plane angle of the tibial tunnel on the severity of tibial intra-articular aperture expansion caused by iatrogenic re-reaming in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using a modified transtibial technique is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the severity of intra-articular aperture widening at different angles (40°, 45°, and 50°) of the tibial guide (TG). Materials and Methods Ninety-seven patients who underwent modified transtibial ACL reconstruction were randomly allocated to TG 40°, 45°, and 50° groups. Intra-articular tibial aperture width (TW) and tibial tunnel length (TTL) were measured intraoperatively using an arthroscopic ruler and a depth gauge. Results The TG 50° group had significantly greater tibial aperture widening than the TG 40° group. There was a significant difference among TG 40°, 45°, and 50° groups and the percentage of knees with TTL <35 mm was 8%, 9% and 3%, respectively. There were 2 females with TTL <35 mm in TG 40° and 45° groups each. The average mediolateral length of the tibial plateau was 75 mm. Conclusions This study shows that the TG angle of 40° would reduce the severity of intra-articular aperture widening of the tibial tunnel compared to 45° or 50° in modified transtibial ACL reconstruction. PMID:28231645

  14. The auditory-vibratory system of the bushcricket Polysarcus denticauda (Phaneropterinae, Tettigoniidae). I. Morphology of the complex tibial organs.

    PubMed

    Sickmann, T; Kalmring, K; Müller, A

    1997-02-01

    The structure of the complex tibial organs in the fore-, mid- and hindlegs of the bushcricket Polysarcus denticauda (Tettigoniidae, Phaneropterinae) is described comparatively. As is common for bushcrickets, in each leg the tibial organs consist of the subgenual and intermediate organs and the crista acustica. Only in the forelegs are sound-transmitting structures present. They consist of the spiracle, acoustic trachea, and two tympana; the latter are not protected by tympanal covers. The tympana in P. denticauda are extremely thick, not only bordering the two tracheal branches to the outside but also forming the outer wall of the hemolymph channel. The morphology of the tracheae in the mid- and hindlegs is significantly different, causing structural differences, especially in dimensions of the hemolymph channel. The number of scolopidia of the crista acustica of the foreleg is extremely high for a bushcricket. Approximately 50 receptor cells were found, about half of them being located in the distal quarter of the long axis of this organ. Some of the receptors are positioned in parallel on the dorsal wall of the anterior tracheal branch. The number, morphology and dimensions of the scolopidia within the crista acustica of the mid- and hindlegs differ significantly from those of the forelegs, decreasing in both legs to eight and seven receptor cells, respectively. Although the dimensions of the subgenual and intermediate organs are considerably larger in the mid- and hindlegs, the number of receptor cells is approximately the same in the different legs, being somewhat higher in both receptor organs than in those of many other bushcricket species studied previously.

  15. Antegrade versus retrograde nailing techniques and trochanteric versus piriformis intramedullary nailing entry points for femoral shaft fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nasir; Hussain, Farrah Naz; Sermer, Corey; Kamdar, Hera; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Sternheim, Amir; Kuzyk, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background There are several different techniques commonly used to perform intramedullary (IM) nailing of the femur to fix femoral fractures. We sought to identify significant differences in outcomes of studies comparing 1) trochanteric and piriformis entry and 2) antegrade and retrograde entry in IM nailing of the femur. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane and Embase databases and the Orthopaedic Trauma Association and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons websites for comparative studies published from inception to November 2015. Criteria used to select articles for detailed review included use of antegrade and retrograde entry point or use of trochanteric and piriformis entry point for IM nailing of the femur in adult patients. Functional and technical outcomes were extracted from accepted studies. Results We identified 483 potential studies, of which 52 were eligible. Of these, we included 13 publications and 2 abstracts (2 level I, 7 level II and 6 level III studies). Trochanteric entry significantly reduced operative duration by 14 min compared with piriformis entry (p = 0.030). Retrograde nailing had a greater risk of postoperative knee pain than antegrade nailing (p = 0.05). On the other hand, antegrade nailing had significantly more postoperative hip pain (p = 0.003) and heterotopic ossification (p < 0.001) than retrograde nailing. No significant differences in functional outcomes were observed. Conclusion Although some significant differences were found, the varying quality of studies made recommendation difficult. Our meta-analysis did not confirm superiority of either antegrade over retrograde or trochanteric over piriformis entry for IM nailing of the femur. Level of evidence Level III therapeutic. PMID:28234586

  16. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  17. Cannulated screw and hexapodal fixator reconstruction for compound upper tibial fractures

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Metin; Bilen, Fikri Erkal; Eralp, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the treatment of tibial plateau fractures is to obtain a pain-free and fully functional knee with closed reduction, percutaneous cannulated screw fixation and hexapodal external fixator reconstruction for high energy compound upper tibial fractures. Methods: Patients with comminuted tibial plateau fractures underwent closed reduction, percutaneous fixation with cannulated screws, and reconstruction with hexapodal external fixator. The follow-up period was 24 months. Results: The clinical and radiological results were good or excellent. The average knee flexion was 125°. Conclusion: Our results are successful in the initial stage, however, it should be pointed out that during the long term follow-up osteoarthritis may develop leading to worsening of the condition. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24644420

  18. A Qualitative Study of Recovery from Type III-B and III-C Tibial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Shauver, Melissa S.; Aravind, Maya S.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    The literature has shown that long-term outcomes for both below-knee amputation and reconstruction following type III-B and III-C tibial fracture are poor. Yet, patients often report satisfaction with their treatment and/or outcomes. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between patient outcomes and satisfaction after open tibial fractures via qualitative methodology. Twenty patients who were treated for open tibial fractures at one institution were selected using purposeful sampling and interviewed in-person in a semi-structured manner. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Despite reporting marked physical and psychosocial deficits, participants relayed high satisfaction. We hypothesize that the use adaptive coping techniques successfully reduces stress, which leads to an increase in coping self-efficacy that results in the further use of adaptive coping strategies, culminating in personal growth. This stress reduction and personal growth leads to satisfaction despite poor functional and emotional outcomes. PMID:20948418

  19. Oxidation and other property changes of retrieved sequentially annealed UHMWPE acetabular and tibial bearings.

    PubMed

    Reinitz, Steven D; Currier, Barbara H; Van Citters, Douglas W; Levine, Rayna A; Collier, John P

    2015-04-01

    This investigation analyzed retrieved sequentially crosslinked and annealed (SXL) ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene bearings to determine whether the material is chemically stable in vivo. A series of retrieved tibial and acetabular components were analyzed for changes in ketone oxidation, crosslink density, and free radical concentration. Oxidation was observed to increase with in vivo duration, and the rate of oxidation in tibial inserts was significantly greater than in acetabular liners. SXL acetabular bearings oxidized at a rate comparable to gamma-sterilized liners, while SXL tibial inserts oxidized at a significantly faster rate than their gamma-sterilized counterparts. A significant decrease in crosslink density with increased mean ketone oxidation index was observed, suggesting that in vivo oxidation may be causing material degradation. Furthermore, a subsurface whitened damage region was also found in a subset of the bearings, indicating the possibility of a clinically relevant decrease in mechanical properties of these components.

  20. Is There A Difference in Bone Ingrowth in Modular Versus Monoblock Porous Tantalum Tibial Trays?

    PubMed Central

    Hanzlik, Josa A.; Day, Judd S.; Rimnac, Clare M.; Kurtz, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary total knee designs incorporating highly porous metallic surfaces have demonstrated promising clinical outcomes. However, stiffness differences between modular and monoblock porous tantalum tibial trays may affect bone ingrowth. This study investigated effect of implant design, spatial location and clinical factors on bone ingrowth in retrieved porous tantalum tibial trays. Three modular and twenty-one monoblock tibial trays were evaluated for bone ingrowth. Nonparametric statistical tests were used to investigate differences in bone ingrowth measurements by implant design, spatial location on the tray, substrate depth and clinical factors. Modular trays (5.3±3.2%) exhibited higher bone ingrowth than monoblock trays (1.6±1.9%, p=0.032). Bone ingrowth in both designs was highest in the initial 500 μm from the surface. Implantation time was positively correlated with bone ingrowth for monoblock trays. PMID:25743106

  1. Micromotion at the tibial plateau in primary and revision total knee arthroplasty: fixed versus rotating platform designs

    PubMed Central

    Rogge, R. D.; Malinzak, R. A.; Reyes, E. M.; Cook, P. L.; Farley, K. A.; Ritter, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Initial stability of tibial trays is crucial for long-term success of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in both primary and revision settings. Rotating platform (RP) designs reduce torque transfer at the tibiofemoral interface. We asked if this reduced torque transfer in RP designs resulted in subsequently reduced micromotion at the cemented fixation interface between the prosthesis component and the adjacent bone. Methods Composite tibias were implanted with fixed and RP primary and revision tibial trays and biomechanically tested under up to 2.5 kN of axial compression and 10° of external femoral component rotation. Relative micromotion between the implanted tibial tray and the neighbouring bone was quantified using high-precision digital image correlation techniques. Results Rotational malalignment between femoral and tibial components generated 40% less overall tibial tray micromotion in RP designs than in standard fixed bearing tibial trays. RP trays reduced micromotion by up to 172 µm in axial compression and 84 µm in rotational malalignment models. Conclusions Reduced torque transfer at the tibiofemoral interface in RP tibial trays reduces relative component micromotion and may aid long-term stability in cases of revision TKA or poor bone quality. Cite this article: Mr S. R. Small. Micromotion at the tibial plateau in primary and revision total knee arthroplasty: fixed versus rotating platform designs. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:122–129. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.54.2000481. PMID:27095658

  2. The Photodynamic Bone Stabilization System: a minimally invasive, percutaneous intramedullary polymeric osteosynthesis for simple and complex long bone fractures

    PubMed Central

    Vegt, Paul; Muir, Jeffrey M; Block, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of osteoporotic long bone fractures is difficult due to diminished bone density and compromised biomechanical integrity. The majority of osteoporotic long bone fractures occur in the metaphyseal region, which poses additional problems for surgical repair due to increased intramedullary volume. Treatment with internal fixation using intramedullary nails or plating is associated with poor clinical outcomes in this patient population. Subsequent fractures and complications such as screw pull-out necessitate additional interventions, prolonging recovery and increasing health care costs. The Photodynamic Bone Stabilization System (PBSS) is a minimally invasive surgical technique that allows clinicians to repair bone fractures using a light-curable polymer contained within an inflatable balloon catheter, offering a new treatment option for osteoporotic long bone fractures. The unique polymer compound and catheter application provides a customizable solution for long bone fractures that produces internal stability while maintaining bone length, rotational alignment, and postsurgical mobility. The PBSS has been utilized in a case series of 41 fractures in 33 patients suffering osteoporotic long bone fractures. The initial results indicate that the use of the light-cured polymeric rod for this patient population provides excellent fixation and stability in compromised bone, with a superior complication profile. This paper describes the clinical uses, procedural details, indications for use, and the initial clinical findings of the PBSS. PMID:25540600

  3. The Photodynamic Bone Stabilization System: a minimally invasive, percutaneous intramedullary polymeric osteosynthesis for simple and complex long bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Vegt, Paul; Muir, Jeffrey M; Block, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of osteoporotic long bone fractures is difficult due to diminished bone density and compromised biomechanical integrity. The majority of osteoporotic long bone fractures occur in the metaphyseal region, which poses additional problems for surgical repair due to increased intramedullary volume. Treatment with internal fixation using intramedullary nails or plating is associated with poor clinical outcomes in this patient population. Subsequent fractures and complications such as screw pull-out necessitate additional interventions, prolonging recovery and increasing health care costs. The Photodynamic Bone Stabilization System (PBSS) is a minimally invasive surgical technique that allows clinicians to repair bone fractures using a light-curable polymer contained within an inflatable balloon catheter, offering a new treatment option for osteoporotic long bone fractures. The unique polymer compound and catheter application provides a customizable solution for long bone fractures that produces internal stability while maintaining bone length, rotational alignment, and postsurgical mobility. The PBSS has been utilized in a case series of 41 fractures in 33 patients suffering osteoporotic long bone fractures. The initial results indicate that the use of the light-cured polymeric rod for this patient population provides excellent fixation and stability in compromised bone, with a superior complication profile. This paper describes the clinical uses, procedural details, indications for use, and the initial clinical findings of the PBSS.

  4. Surgical Management of Combined Intramedullary Arteriovenous Malformation and Perimedullary Arteriovenous Fistula within the Hybrid Operating Room after Five Years of Performing Focus Fractionated Radiotherapy: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    GEKKA, Masayuki; SEKI, Toshitaka; HIDA, Kazutoshi; OSANAI, Toshiya; HOUKIN, Kiyohiro

    2014-01-01

    Perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) shunts occur on the spinal cord surface and can be treated surgically or by endovascular embolization. In contrast, the nidus of an intramedullary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is located in the spinal cord and is difficult to treat surgically or by endovascular techniques. The benefits of radiotherapy for treating intramedullary AVM have been published, but are anecdotal and consist largely of case reports. We present a case of combined cervical intramedullary AVM and perimedullary AVF which received surgical treatment within a hybrid operating room (OR) after 5 years of focus fractionated radiotherapy. A 37-year-old male presented with stepwise worsening myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging and spinal angiography revealed intramedullary AVM and perimedullary AVF at the C3 to C5 levels. In order to reduce nidus size and blood flow, we first performed focal fractionated radiotherapy. Five years later, the lesion volume was reduced. Following this, direct surgery was performed by an anterior approach using corpectomy in the hybrid OR. The spinal cord was monitored by motor-evoked potential throughout the surgery. Complete obliteration of the fistulous connection was confirmed by intraoperative indocyanine green video-angiography and intraoperative angiography, preserving the anterior spinal artery. We conclude that surgical treatment following focal fractionated radiotherapy may become one strategy for patients who are initially deemed ineligible for endovascular embolization and surgical treatment. Furthermore, the hybrid OR enables safe and precise treatment for spinal vascular disorders in the fields of endovascular treatment and neurosurgery. PMID:25367581

  5. Evaluation of tibial osteopathy occurrence in neurofibromatosis type 1 Italian patients.

    PubMed

    Morcaldi, Guido; Clementi, Maurizio; Lama, Giuliana; Gabrielli, Orazio; Vannelli, Silvia; Virdis, Raffaele; Vivarelli, Rossella; Boero, Silvio; Bonioli, Eugenio

    2013-05-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant disorder characterized by high penetrance, widely variable expressivity and occurrence of specific skeletal changes such as tibial osteopathy (TO). We collected data on patients referred to the Italian Neurofibromatosis Study Group in order to compare clinical features between 49 NF1 patients with TO, and 98 age-matched NF1 patients without TO, and to determine whether the presence of TO is associated with a different risk of developing the typical NF1 complications. We assessed both groups for: age at diagnosis of NF1, gender distribution, family history, gender inheritance, presence of scoliosis, sphenoid wing osteopathy, other skeletal abnormalities, macrocrania, hydrocephalus, plexiform neurofibromas, tumors, optic pathway gliomas, T2H (high-signal intensity areas on T2 weighted brain MRI), epilepsy, headache, mental retardation, cardiovascular malformations, and Noonan phenotype. Patients of both groups were subdivided by gender and re-evaluated for these items. Statistical comparison was carried out between the two groups of patients for each feature. We collected data on type of treatment and on the clinical conditions of NF1-TO patients after follow-up. Patient's age at NF1 diagnosis was significantly younger in NF1-TO subjects compared with NF1 subjects without TO, and the incidence of T2H was significantly reduced in NF1-TO males compared with NF1 males without TO. The presence of TO does not imply that there is an increased risk of developing typical complications of NF1 (e.g., optic pathway glioma, plexiform neurofibroma, etc.), however, it does allow us to make an earlier diagnosis of NF1.

  6. The treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome in athletes; a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The only three randomized trials on the treatment of MTSS were all performed in military populations. The treatment options investigated in this study were not previously examined in athletes. This study investigated if functional outcome of three common treatment options for medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) in athletes in a non-military setting was the same. Methods The study design was randomized and multi-centered. Physical therapists and sports physicians referred athletes with MTSS to the hospital for inclusion. 81 athletes were assessed for eligibility of which 74 athletes were included and randomized to three treatment groups. Group one performed a graded running program, group two performed a graded running program with additional stretching and strengthening exercises for the calves, while group three performed a graded running program with an additional sports compression stocking. The primary outcome measure was: time to complete a running program (able to run 18 minutes with high intensity) and secondary outcome was: general satisfaction with treatment. Results 74 Athletes were randomized and included of which 14 did not complete the study due a lack of progress (18.9%). The data was analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Time to complete a running program and general satisfaction with the treatment were not significantly different between the three treatment groups. Conclusion This was the first randomized trial on the treatment of MTSS in athletes in a non-military setting. No differences were found between the groups for the time to complete a running program. Trial registration CCMO; NL23471.098.08 PMID:22464032

  7. [Lateral approach of the knee with tibial tubercle osteotomy for prosthetic surgery].

    PubMed

    Mertl, P; Jarde, O; Blejwas, D; Vives, P

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe a lateral approach to the knee associated with a tibial tubercle osteotomy and a plasty using the fat pad to provide a complete closure of the wound. This lateral approach has been performed successfully in 98 cases, with only 3 skin necrosis. It offers a large exposure of the joint, facilitates placement of tibial component trial fit, and allows the self centering of the quadriceps patellar-tendon mechanism at the end of the intervention. The lateral approach disputable in case of genu varum is recommended in all cases of genu valgum or important deformities.

  8. Preoperative Measurement of Tibial Resection in Total Knee Arthroplasty Improves Accuracy of Postoperative Limb Alignment Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Qi; Fang, Shu-Ying; Yang, Zi-Bo; Kang, Yan; Fu, Ming; Liao, Wei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accuracy of implant placement in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is crucial. Traditional extramedullary alignment instruments are fairly effective for achieving the desired mean tibial component coronal alignment. We modified the traditional tibial plateau resection technique and evaluated its effect on alignment restoration. Methods: Two hundred and eighty-two primary TKAs in our hospital between January 2013 and December 2014 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Group A consisted of 128 primary TKAs performed by one senior surgeon. Preoperative measurement of the tibial resection was conducted on radiographs, and the measured thicknesses of the lateral and medial plateau resection were used to place the tibial alignment guide. Group B consisted of 154 primary TKAs performed by the other senior surgeon, using a traditional tibial plateau resection technique. In all patients, an extramedullary guide was used for tibial resection, and preoperative and postoperative full-leg standing radiographs were used to assess the hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA), femoral component alignment angle (FA), and tibial component alignment angle (TA). A deviation ≥3° was considered unsatisfactory. Data were analyzed by unpaired Student's t-test. Results: The mean postoperative HKA and TA angles were significantly different between Groups A and B (178.2 ± 3.2° vs. 177.0 ± 3.0°, t = 2.54, P = 0.01; 89.3 ± 1.8° vs. 88.3 ± 2.0°, t = 3.75, P = 0.00, respectively). The mean postoperative FA was 88.9 ± 2.5° in Group A and 88.9 ± 2.6° in Group B, and no significant difference was detected (t = 0.10, P = 0.92). There were 90 (70.3%) limbs with restoration of the mechanical axis to within 3° of neutral alignment and 38 (29.7%) outliers (>3° deviation) in Group A, whereas there were 89 (57.8%) limbs with restoration of the mechanical axis to within 3° of neutral alignment and 65 (42.2%) outliers (>3° deviation) in Group B. The severity of the preoperative alignment

  9. Mechanobiology in the management of mobile atrophic and oligotrophic tibial nonunions

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Nando; Marais, Leonard Charles; Aldous, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent research indicates that atrophic nonunions are biologically active and may heal in the optimal biomechanical environment. Methods Thirty-three patients with mobile atrophic and oligotrophic tibial nonunions were treated with circular external fixation and functional rehabilitation. Seven patients required autogenous bone graft procedures. Results Bony union was achieved after the initial surgery in 31/33 (93.9%) tibias. Two persistent nonunions were successfully treated with repeat circular external fixation without bone graft. This resulted in final bony union in 33/33 (100%) patients. Conclusion Mechanobiological stimulation of tibial nonunions can produce union even if the biological activity appears to be low. PMID:27047221

  10. Distal tibial derotational osteotomy with external fixation to treat torsional deformities: a review of 71 cases.

    PubMed

    Erschbamer, Matthias; Gerhard, Pascal; Klima, Harry; Ellenrieder, Birte; Zdenek-Lehnen, Katja; Giesinger, Karlmeinrad

    2017-03-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the safety and efficacy of operative treatment of torsional malalignment of the tibia in 44 children, on whom we performed 71 derotational osteotomies of the distal tibia to treat tibial torsion. We placed four pins using an alignment jig, performed a percutaneous osteotomy, and applied an external fixator after derotation. Postoperative radiographs showed accurate tibial derotation and pin placement in all patients. Nine patients developed superficial pin-tract infections that resolved with antibiotic treatment. Two developed fractures after removal of the external fixator, which healed in a plaster cast. Operative treatment of these cases with an external fixator is safe, effective, and well tolerated.

  11. QCI Common

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  12. ACL injury while jumping rope in a patient with an unintended increase in the tibial slope after an opening wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwang Am; Lee, Su Chan; Hwang, Seung Hyun; Song, Moon Bok

    2009-08-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is an accepted surgical technique for the treatment of medial compartmental arthrosis of the knee in younger patients. Compared to total knee arthroplasty, HTO may be a good choice in patients who wish to continue with heavy labor and/or impact sports. Based on the rehabilitation protocol after HTO, impact sports, such as running, jumping rope, and full sports activities, are generally permitted 6 months postoperatively. Jumping rope is an excellent form of aerobic exercise, and when done properly, jumping rope can lead to a dramatic improvement in rehabilitation and full sports activities. However, an adequate evaluation should be performed prior to initiating impact sports. We present the case of a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament that occurred in a patient with an unintended increase in the tibial slope after an opening wedge HTO who was jumping rope.

  13. Flexible Intramedullary Nailing of Forearm Fractures at the Distal Metadiaphyseal Junction in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Sung; Lee, Yong Sung; Park, Sung Yong; Nho, Jae Hwi; Lee, Sun Geun

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to analyze the radiographic and functional outcomes of flexible intramedullary (IM) nailing in adolescent patients with forearm fractures at the diaphysis or at the metadiaphyseal junction (MDJ). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the results of 40 patients who underwent IM nailing for pediatric forearm fractures. Thirty males and 10 females were followed for an average of 16 months (range, 12 to 20 months). Their average age was 11 years (range, 10 to 16 years). The average duration from the onset of trauma to surgery was 3.8 days (range, 1 to 36 days). Fracture sites were located at the MDJ of the radius in 8 patients (MDJ group) while 32 patients had middle-third fractures (D group). We assessed the magnitude and location of the maximum radial bow and range of movements. Functional outcomes were evaluated using Daruwalla criteria. Results Open reduction was carried out in 8 cases. Union was achieved at an average of 8.3 weeks postoperatively. The results were classified as good in 38 and excellent in 2 according to Daruwalla criteria with restoration of forearm rotation. The mean angulation at the last follow-up was 1.8° on the anteroposterior radiograph and 3.3° on the lateral radiograph (MDJ group: 1.8° and 2.1°, respectively; D group: 1.9° and 2.8°, respectively). There was no significant difference in the mean angulation between the groups. The mean magnitude of maximal radial bow was 5.7% ± 1.8% (MDJ group, 5.2% ± 0.8%; D group, 5.9% ± 1.9%). The mean location of maximal radial bow was 58.0% ± 8.8% (MDJ group, 56.4% ± 8.9%; D group, 58.6% ± 8.9%). The differences in the mean magnitude and location of maximal radial bow with the normal contralateral arms (7.0% ± 1.2% and 50.9% ± 6.0%, respectively) were not significantly different between the groups. Complications included superficial infection (2), delayed union (1), and refracture (1). Conclusions IM nail fixation provided satisfactory results and

  14. Success of High Tibial Osteotomy in the United States Military

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Brian R.; Hoffmann, Jeffrey D.; Laughlin, Matthew D.; Burks, Robert; Pallis, Mark P.; Tokish, John M.; Belmont, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Historically, high tibial osteotomy (HTO) has been performed to treat isolated medial gonarthrosis with varus deformity. Purpose: To evaluate the occupational outcomes of HTO in a high-demand military cohort. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A retrospective analysis of active duty service members undergoing HTO for coronal plane malalignment and/or intra-articular pathology was performed using the Military Health System between 2003 and 2011. Demographic parameters and surgical variables, including rates of perioperative complications, secondary surgery, activity limitations, and medical discharge, were extracted from electronic medical records. For the current study, cumulative failure was defined as conversion to knee arthroplasty or postoperative medical discharge for persistent knee dysfunction. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify statistical associations with cumulative failure after HTO. Results: A total of 181 service members (202 HTOs) were identified at an average follow-up of 47.5 months (range, 24-96 months). Mean age was 35.7 years (range, 19-55 years), and the majority were men (93%) and of enlisted rank (78%). All index procedures utilized a valgus-producing, opening wedge technique. Concomitant or staged procedures were performed in 87 patients (48%), including 40 ligamentous, 48 meniscal, and 48 chondral procedures. Complications occurred in 19.3% of knees (n = 39), with unplanned reoperation in 26 knees (12.8%). Fifty-three patients (40.7%) had minor activity limitations during military duty postoperatively. Eleven knees (5.4%) underwent conversion to total knee arthroplasty. The cumulative failure rate was 28.2% (n = 51) at 2- to 8-year follow-up. Patient age younger than 30 years at the time of surgery was associated with an independently higher risk of failure, whereas sex, concomitant/staged procedures, and perioperative complications were not significantly associated with

  15. Common Leg Injuries of Long-Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Robert A.; Plakke, Michael; Silvis, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Context Long-distance running (greater than 3000 m) is often recommended to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Running injury rates increase significantly when weekly mileage extends beyond 40 miles cumulatively. With the development of running analysis and other diagnostic tests, injuries to the leg secondary to bone, musculotendinous, and vascular causes can be diagnosed and successfully managed. Evidence Acquisition Searches used the terms running, injuries, lower extremity, leg, medial tibial stress syndrome, compartment syndrome, stress fractures, popliteal artery entrapment, gastrocnemius soleus tears, and Achilles tendinopathy. Sources included Medline, Google Scholar, and Ovid from 1970 through January 2012. Results Tibial stress fractures and medial tibial stress syndrome can sometimes be prevented and/or treated by correcting biomechanical abnormalities. Exertional compartment syndrome and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome are caused by anatomic abnormalities and are difficult to treat without surgical correction. Conclusion Leg pain due to bone, musculotendinous, and vascular causes is common among long-distance runners. Knowledge of the underlying biomechanical and/or anatomic abnormality is necessary to successfully treat these conditions. PMID:24179587

  16. Skeletal Adaptation to Intramedullary Pressure-Induced Interstitial Fluid Flow Is Enhanced in Mice Subjected to Targeted Osteocyte Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ronald Y.; Meays, Diana R.; Meilan, Alexander S.; Jones, Jeremiah; Miramontes, Rosa; Kardos, Natalie; Yeh, Jiunn-Chern; Frangos, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial fluid flow (IFF) is a potent regulatory signal in bone. During mechanical loading, IFF is generated through two distinct mechanisms that result in spatially distinct flow profiles: poroelastic interactions within the lacunar-canalicular system, and intramedullary pressurization. While the former generates IFF primarily within the lacunar-canalicular network, the latter generates significant flow at the endosteal surface as well as within the tissue. This gives rise to the intriguing possibility that loading-induced IFF may differentially activate osteocytes or surface-residing cells depending on the generating mechanism, and that sensation of IFF generated via intramedullary pressurization may be mediated by a non-osteocytic bone cell population. To begin to explore this possibility, we used the Dmp1-HBEGF inducible osteocyte ablation mouse model and a microfluidic system for modulating intramedullary pressure (ImP) to assess whether structural adaptation to ImP-driven IFF is altered by partial osteocyte depletion. Canalicular convective velocities during pressurization were estimated through the use of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and computational modeling. Following osteocyte ablation, transgenic mice exhibited severe losses in bone structure and altered responses to hindlimb suspension in a compartment-specific manner. In pressure-loaded limbs, transgenic mice displayed similar or significantly enhanced structural adaptation to Imp-driven IFF, particularly in the trabecular compartment, despite up to ∼50% of trabecular lacunae being uninhabited following ablation. Interestingly, regression analysis revealed relative gains in bone structure in pressure-loaded limbs were correlated with reductions in bone structure in unpressurized control limbs, suggesting that adaptation to ImP-driven IFF was potentiated by increases in osteoclastic activity and/or reductions in osteoblastic activity incurred independently of pressure loading

  17. Neuroanatomy of the complex tibial organ of Stenopelmatus (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Stenopelmatidae).

    PubMed

    Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2008-11-01

    Stenopelmatidae (or "Jerusalem crickets") belong to the atympanate Ensifera, lacking hearing organs in the foreleg tibiae. Their phylogenetic position is controversial, either as a taxon in Tettigonioidea or within the clade of Gryllacridoidea. Similarly, the origin of tibial auditory systems in Ensifera is controversial. Therefore, we investigated the neuronal structures of the proximal tibiae of Stenopelmatus spec. with the hypothesis that internal sensory structures are similar to those in tympanate Ensifera. In Stenopelmatus the complex tibial organ consists of three neuronal parts: the subgenual organ, the intermediate organ, and a third part with linearly arranged neurons. This tripartite organization is also found in tympanate Ensifera, verifying our hypothesis. The third part of the sense organ found in Stenopelmatus can be regarded by the criterion of position as homologous to auditory receptors of hearing Tettigonioidea. This crista acustica homolog is found serially in all thoracic leg pairs and contains 20 +/- 2 chordotonal neurons in the foreleg. The tibial organ was shown to be responsive to vibration, with a broad threshold of about 0.06 ms(-2) in a frequency range from 100-600 Hz. The central projection of tibial sensory neurons terminates into two equally sized lobes in the primary sensory neuropil, the medial ventral association center. The data are discussed comparatively to those of other Ensifera and mapped phylogenetically onto recently proposed phylogenies for Ensifera. The crista acustica homolog could represent a neuronal rudiment of a secondarily reduced ear, but neuronal features are also consistent with an evolutionary preadaptation.

  18. A trial of measuring the displacement of tibial fragments with pinless external fixator.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Ye, Datian; Wang, Guangzhi; Ding, Haishu

    2005-01-01

    Currently, the mechanical performances of pinless external fixator are primarily evaluated for application to long bone fractures. A new method that detecting the relative displacement changes of the tibial fragments with the pinless external fixator by the three dimensional measurement system was introduced to evaluate the performance of the pinless external fixator. And such testing item was taken as the complement for the mechanical performances of the pinless external fixator. In this paper, a high precision optical 3D measurement system was used to detect the displacement change in the anterior and posterior fracture part of the tibial bones which was fixed by a clamp pattern pinless external fixator in open tibial fractures. Furthermore, the relative displacement change and relative angle rotation were analyzed after obtaining the trajectory of the markers which fixed on the tibial fragments, the results were used to evaluate the stability of the pinless external fixator, and taken as the reference for revising the design of the pinless external fixator as well.

  19. Influence of cartilage and menisci on the sagittal slope of the tibial plateaus.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, Gianluca; Sessa, Pasquale; Ragusa, Giovanni; Ripani, Francesca Romana; Postacchini, Roberto; Masciangelo, Raffaele; Giannicola, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed the magnetic resonance studies of the knee in 80 subjects, 45 men and 35 women with a mean age of 38.9 years, who showed no pathological condition of the joint. Using an imaging visualization software, the sagittal longitudinal axis of the tibia was identified. The angle between this axis and a line tangent to the bone profile of the tibial plateau (bone slope) and to the superior border of the menisci (meniscal slope) were calculated. Thickness of anterior and posterior portion of menisci and underlying cartilage were also measured. The bone slope averaged 8° and 7.7° on the medial and lateral sides, respectively. The mean meniscal slope was 4.1° and 3.3° on the medial and lateral sides, respectively, with a significant difference compared with the bone slope. Menisci and underlying cartilage were significantly thicker in their posterior than their anterior portion (7.6 and 5.2 mm, respectively, in the medial compartment; 8.6 and 5.2 mm, respectively, in the lateral compartment). The presence of cartilage and menisci implies a significant decrease in the posterior tibial slope. In the lateral compartment, the greater the bone slope, the larger the difference between bone and meniscal slope, which means that a marked posterior tilt of the lateral tibial plateau is decreased by the cartilage and meniscus. These findings should be taken into account in planning surgical procedures which affect the slope of the articular tibial surface.

  20. Serum chemistry and histopathology of broiler femoral head necrosis and tibial dyschondroplasia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) and tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) are two major leg problems in young meat type poultry which cause lameness, bone deformity and infections. Whereas FHN results from disarticulation of the femoral growth plate from the articular cartilage, TD lesions are characterized by i...

  1. Intermittent foot claudication caused by a dynamic compression of the posterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Kaczynski, Jakub; Topliss, Claire; Fligelstone, Louis

    2016-07-14

    A young adult presented with an atypical intermittent foot claudication caused by a dynamic compression of the posterior tibial artery by a ganglion. This case highlights the diagnostic challenges when dealing with an entrapment syndrome. Subsequent open surgical treatment was successful, and the patient has made a good recovery.

  2. Pre-tibial synovial cyst after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: case report.

    PubMed

    Bulisani, Luís Eduardo Pedigoni; Bulisani, Erickson

    2014-01-01

    Arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament has been modernized through new surgical techniques and new materials. When tibial fixation is performed using an absorbable screw, complications may occur, such as formation of a pre-tibial cyst. The case described here is about a patient who presented an anteromedial synovial cyst in his right knee, three years after having undergone ACL reconstruction. The patient did not present any pain nor any complaints other than a mass that progressively increased in size, worsened after physical activities. Imaging examinations were requested: simple radiography of the knee and magnetic resonance. Anteromedial imaging of the knee showed a mass with well-delimited borders and internal fluid content, suggestive of a synovial cyst, with communication with the joint cavity through the tibial tunnel, without presenting enlargement or absorption of the bone tunnel. The cyst was surgically resected and the tibial tunnel occlusion was performed using a bone plug. The diagnosis of a synovial cyst was subsequently confirmed through the results from the anatomopathological examination. The patient presented good clinical evolution, with disappearance of the symptoms and a return to physical activities.

  3. Baseline Vitamin D Status is Predictive of Longitudinal Change in Tibial BMD in Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With its lack of effective treatment and high prevalence, the public health impact of OA is substantial. Peri-articular bone in OA can be evaluated with the medial:lateral tibial BMD ratio (M:L BMD) obtained from dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Higher M:L BMD is associated with medial OA features...

  4. TIBIAL PLATEAU PROXIMAL AND DISTAL BONE BEHAVE SIMILARLY: BOTH ARE ASSOCIATED WITH FEATURES OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a growing imperative to understand how changes in peri-articular bone relate to pathological progression of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Peri-articular bone density can be measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The medial:lateral tibial BMD ratio (M:L BMD) is associated with MRI and...

  5. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation for treating neurologic bladder in women: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Tahereh; Teimoory, Nastaran; Miri, Elahe; Nikfallah, Abolghasem; Naeimi, Mahsa; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a disabling disorder. Treatment of cases with OAB includes behavioral, pharmacological, surgical interventions and peripheral electrical stimulation. The goal of this study was to determine effects of posterior tibial nerve stimulation on sexual function and pelvic disorders in women with Overactive bladder (OAB). Fifty women were randomly assigned to PTNS (posterior tibial nerve stimulation) plus tolterodine or tolterodine alone treatment. Tolterodine group received 4 mg tolterodine daily for three months while the other group received this treatment plus percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for 12 consequence weeks. Two in PTNS group and 8 in the control group withdrew from the study. Age, education level, and occupation status were not significantly different between two groups. Mean total FSFI and its subscales were not significantly different before and after treatment between two groups. Urine leakage associated with a feeling of urgency and loss of stool or gas from the rectum beyond patient's control became significantly different after treatment between two groups. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation could help urinary problems in women with a neurologic bladder.

  6. Analysis of the characteristics of patients with open tibial fractures of Gustilo and Anderson type III☆

    PubMed Central

    Jaña Neto, Frederico Carlos; de Paula Canal, Marina; Alves, Bernardo Aurélio Fonseca; Ferreira, Pablício Martins; Ayres, Jefferson Castro; Alves, Robson

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the characteristics of patients with Gustilo–Anderson Type III open tibial fractures treated at a tertiary care hospital in São Paulo between January 2013 and August 2014. Methods This was a cross-sectional retrospective study. The following data were gathered from the electronic medical records: age; gender; diagnosis; trauma mechanism; comorbidities; associated fractures; Gustilo and Anderson, Tscherne and AO classifications; treatment (initial and definitive); presence of compartment syndrome; primary and secondary amputations; MESS (Mangled Extremity Severity Score) index; mortality rate; and infection rate. Results 116 patients were included: 81% with fracture type IIIA, 12% IIIB and 7% IIIC; 85% males; mean age 32.3 years; and 57% victims of motorcycle accidents. Tibial shaft fractures were significantly more prevalent (67%). Eight patients were subjected to amputation: one primary case and seven secondary cases. Types IIIC (75%) and IIIB (25%) predominated among the patients subjected to secondary amputation. The MESS index was greater than 7 in 88% of the amputees and in 5% of the limb salvage group. Conclusion The profile of patients with open tibial fracture of Gustilo and Anderson Type III mainly involved young male individuals who were victims of motorcycle accidents. The tibial shaft was the segment most affected. Only 7% of the patients underwent amputation. Given the current controversy in the literature about amputation or salvage of severely injured lower limbs, it becomes necessary to carry out prospective studies to support clinical decisions. PMID:27069881

  7. Thiram-Induced Changes in the Expression of Genes Relating to Vascularization and Tibial Dyschondroplasia.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), a major metabolic cartilage disease in poultry, is characterized by the distension of proximal growth plates of tibia which fail to form bone, lack blood vessels, and contain nonviable cells. Thiram, a carbamate pesticide, when fed to young broiler chicks induces TD wi...

  8. Adjustable bracing technique for the prevention of knee flexion contracture during tibial lengthening.

    PubMed

    Segev, Eitan; Hayek, Shlomo

    2003-01-01

    The authors present a simple thigh-knee brace that prevents flexion contracture during tibial lengthening. The brace is strapped to the thigh and connected to the Ilizarov frame via two simple hinges. While in the brace the knee can be mobilized for physiotherapy and locked in extension during rest.

  9. Growth factors in human serum during operative tibial lengthening with the Ilizarov method.

    PubMed

    Stogov, Maksim V; Luneva, Svetlana N; Novikov, Konstantin I

    2013-12-01

    Despite the widespread clinical use of distraction osteogenesis for limb lengthening, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which this surgical treatment promotes new bone formation in humans are not well understood. The aim of the research was to study the levels of growth factors (GFs) in the serum of patients that were undergoing tibial lengthening with the Ilizarov method of distraction osteogenesis. Those were patients with unilateral congenital discrepancy of the tibia (n = 12), unilateral posttraumatic tibial shortening (n = 7), and healthy patients that underwent cosmetic bilateral tibial lengthening (n = 10). The study established that unlike the congenital group, the posttraumatic group and healthy subjects showed a significantly evident increase in the levels of angiogenic GFs in their serum on day 10 of distraction. In the congenital group, the changes were not significant at this time point. The levels of TGF-α, TGF-β1, and TGF-β2 tended to decrease on day 10 of distraction and on day 30 of the post-distraction period in the cosmetic and posttraumatic groups while they grew in the congenital group. Most dynamic changes in the GFs levels during tibial lengthening were noted in the subjects undergoing cosmetic lengthening, and the least ones were in the congenital group.

  10. Quantitative comparison of the microscopic anatomy of the human ACL femoral and tibial entheses.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Mélanie L; Carey, Grace E; Schlecht, Stephen H; Wojtys, Edward M; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2015-12-01

    The femoral enthesis of the human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is known to be more susceptible to injury than the tibial enthesis. To determine whether anatomic differences might help explain this difference, we quantified the microscopic appearance of both entheses in 15 unembalmed knee specimens using light microscopy, toluidine blue stain and image analysis. The amount of calcified fibrocartilage and uncalcified fibrocartilage, and the ligament entheseal attachment angle were then compared between the femoral and tibial entheses via linear mixed-effects models. The results showed marked differences in anatomy between the two entheses. The femoral enthesis exhibited a 3.9-fold more acute ligament attachment angle than the tibial enthesis (p<0.001), a 43% greater calcified fibrocartilage tissue area (p<0.001), and a 226% greater uncalcified fibrocartilage depth (p<0.001), with the latter differences being particularly pronounced in the central region. We conclude that the ACL femoral enthesis has more fibrocartilage and a more acute ligament attachment angle than the tibial enthesis, which provides insight into why it is more vulnerable to failure.

  11. In Vivo Evidence for Tibial Plateau Slope as a Risk Factor for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wordeman, Samuel C.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background In vivo studies reporting tibial plateau slope as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury have been published with greatly increasing frequency. Purpose To examine and summarize the in vivo evidence comparing tibial slope in ACL-injured and uninjured populations. Study Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We reviewed publications in Scopus, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and PubMed to identify all studies reporting a measure of tibial plateau slope between ACL-injured groups and controls. A meta-analysis was performed including calculation of effect size and 95% confidence interval as well as 95% confidence intervals for the mean values of the measurement in each study. Results Fourteen studies met our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Five of 6 radiographic studies reporting medial tibial plateau slope (MTPS) demonstrated significant differences between controls and ACL-injured groups, while only 1 of 7 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies reported significant differences between groups. Mean MTPS measurements and standard deviations reported for controls ranged from 2.9° ± 2.8° anterior to 9.5° ± 3° posterior. For ACL-injured patients, MTPS ranged from 1.8° ± 3.5° anterior to 12.1° ± 3.3° posterior. Lateral tibial plateau slope (LTPS) was reported to be significantly greater in ACL-injured groups in all 5 MRI-based studies reporting group comparisons. Mean values for LTPS in controls ranged from 0.3° ± 3.6° anterior slope to 9° ± 4° posterior slope. In ACL-injured groups, mean reported LTPS values ranged from 1.8° ± 3.2° to 11.5° ± 3.54° posterior slope. Conclusion Despite high measures of reliability for the various methods reported in current studies, there is vast disagreement regarding the actual values of the slope that would be considered “at risk.” Reported tibial slope values for control groups vary greatly between studies. In many cases, the study-to-study differences in “normal” tibial

  12. Classical conditioning of a flexor nerve response in spinal cats: effects of tibial nerve CS and a differential conditioning paradigm.

    PubMed

    Beggs, A L; Steinmetz, J E; Patterson, M M

    1985-06-01

    Previous studies have shown flexor nerve response increases produced by classical conditioning procedures in spinal cats when the conditioned stimulus (CS) was delivered to the superficial peroneal nerve and the unconditioned stimulus (US) was delivered to the ankle skin. In this study, these effects were produced when the CS was delivered to the whole tibial nerve or to the medial plantar branch. The finding that response increases followed by extinction effects could be obtained when either the superficial peroneal or the tibial nerve was utilized allowed the assessment of the effects of a differential conditioning paradigm. The responses to CS-US presentations on the superficial peroneal nerve increased, whereas responses to CS presentations on the tibial nerve remained unchanged. However, lack of extinction effects in the superficial peroneal data suggested that stimulation of the tibial nerve potentiated superficial peroneal evoked responses. Furthermore, responses evoked by stimulation of either nerve increased when paired trials were given on the tibial nerve. These data demonstrate that stimulation of the tibial nerve potentiates responses to superficial peroneal nerve stimulation but that superficial peroneal nerve stimulation has no effect on responses to CS presentations to the tibial nerve.

  13. Neuroanatomy of the complex tibial organ in the splay-footed cricket Comicus calcaris Irish 1986 (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Schizodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-11-15

    The subgenual chordotonal organ complex in insects is modified in ensiferan taxa like Gryllidae and Tettigoniidae into hearing organs with specific sets of auditory receptors. Here, this sensory organ complex is documented in the nonhearing splay-footed cricket Comicus calcaris. The tibial chordotonal organ consists of three parts: the subgenual organ, the intermediate organ, and the crista acustica homolog. The latter is an array of linearly organized neurons homologous to auditory receptors in the tibial hearing organs of Tettigoniidae. The tibial organ is structurally similar in all three leg pairs, with similar neuron numbers in the fore- and midleg, but lower numbers in the hindleg. The foreleg crista acustica homolog consists of 34±4 neurons, the highest number in an atympanate Ensiferan. Additionally, an accessory chordotonal organ with 15±5 neurons innervated by nerve 5B1 is present in the foreleg. The central projection of the tibial organreveals ipsilateral sensory terminals in the primary sensory neuropil, the medial ventral association center with terminations close to the midline. As determined from extracellular recordings, the entire tibial organ is vibrosensitive. The organization of the tibial organ is compared to other ensiferan auditory and nonauditory tibial organs. Spatial orientation of neurons in the crista acustica homolog is not reminiscent of auditory structures, and the neuroanatomy is discussed with respect to stridulation behavior and the evolutionary origin of hearing in Ensifera.

  14. Finite Element Analysis of Mobile-bearing Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: The Influence of Tibial Component Coronal Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guang-Duo; Guo, Wan-Shou; Zhang, Qi-Dong; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Cheng, Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background: Controversies about the rational positioning of the tibial component in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) still exist. Previous finite element (FE) studies were rare, and the results varied. This FE study aimed to analyze the influence of the tibial component coronal alignment on knee biomechanics in mobile-bearing UKA and find a ration range of inclination angles. Methods: A three-dimensional FE model of the intact knee was constructed from image data of one normal subject. A 1000 N compressive load was applied to the intact knee model for validating. Then a set of eleven UKA FE models was developed with the coronal inclination angles of the tibial tray ranging from 10° valgus to 10° varus. Tibial bone stresses and strains, contact pressures and load distribution in all UKA models were calculated and analyzed under the unified loading and boundary conditions. Results: Load distribution, contact pressures, and contact areas in intact knee model were validated. In UKA models, von Mises stress and compressive strain at proximal medial cortical bone increased significantly as the tibial tray was in valgus inclination >4°, which may increase the risk of residual pain. Compressive strains at tibial keel slot were above the high threshold with varus inclination >4°, which may result in greater risk of component migration. Tibial bone resection corner acted as a strain-raiser regardless of the inclination angles. Compressive strains at the resected surface slightly changed with the varying inclinations and were not supposed to induce bone resorption and component loosening. Contact pressures and load percentage in lateral compartment increased with the more varus inclination, which may lead to osteoarthritis progression. Conclusions: Static knee biomechanics after UKA can be greatly affected by tibial component coronal alignment. A range from 4° valgus to 4° varus inclination of tibial component can be recommended in mobile-bearing UKA. PMID

  15. An Improved Tibial Force Sensor to Compute Contact Forces and Contact Locations In Vitro After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2017-04-01

    Contact force imbalance and contact kinematics (i.e., motion of the contact location in each compartment during flexion) of the tibiofemoral joint are both important predictors of a patient's outcome following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Previous tibial force sensors have limitations in that they either did not determine contact forces and contact locations independently in the medial and lateral compartments or only did so within restricted areas of the tibial insert, which prevented them from thoroughly evaluating contact force imbalance and contact kinematics in vitro. Accordingly, the primary objective of this study was to present the design and verification of an improved tibial force sensor which overcomes these limitations. The improved tibial force sensor consists of a modified tibial baseplate which houses independent medial and lateral arrays of three custom tension-compression transducers each. This sensor is interchangeable with a standard tibial component because it accommodates tibial articular surface inserts with a range of sizes and thicknesses. This sensor was verified by applying known loads at known locations over the entire surface of the tibial insert to determine the errors in the computed contact force and contact location in each compartment. The root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) in contact force are ≤ 6.1 N which is 1.4% of the 450 N full-scale output. The RMSEs in contact location are ≤ 1.6 mm. This improved tibial force sensor overcomes the limitations of the previous sensors and therefore should be useful for in vitro evaluation of new alignment goals, new surgical techniques, and new component designs in TKA.

  16. Assessment of tibial rotation and meniscal movement using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective This work aimed to assess tibial rotations, meniscal movements, and morphological changes during knee flexion and extension using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Thirty volunteers with healthy knees were examined using kinematic MRI. The knees were imaged in the transverse plane with flexion and extension angles from 0° to 40° and 40° to 0°, respectively. The tibial interior and exterior rotation angles were measured, and the meniscal movement range, height change, and side movements were detected. Results The tibia rotated internally (11.55° ± 3.20°) during knee flexion and rotated externally (11.40° ± 3.0°) during knee extension. No significant differences were observed between the internal and external tibial rotation angles (P > 0.05), between males and females (P > 0.05), or between the left and right knee joints (P > 0.05). The tibial rotation angle with a flexion angle of 0° to 24° differed significantly from that with a flexion angle of 24° to 40° (P < 0.01). With knee flexion, the medial and lateral menisci moved backward and the height of the meniscus increased. The movement range was greater in the anterior horn than in the posterior horn and greater in the lateral meniscus than in the medial meniscus (P < 0.01). During backward movements of the menisci, the distance between the anterior and posterior horns decreased, with the decrease more apparent in the lateral meniscus (P < 0.01). The side movements of the medial and lateral menisci were not obvious, and a smaller movement range was found than that of the forward and backward movements. Conclusion Knee flexion and extension facilitated internal and external tibial rotations, which may be related to the ligament and joint capsule structure and femoral condyle geometry. PMID:25142267

  17. COMPLICATIONS OF THE SCREW/WASHER TIBIAL FIXATION TECHNIQUE FOR KNEE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Alexandre; Roveda, Gilberto; Valin, Márcio Rangel; Almeida, Nayvaldo Couto de; Sartor, Vanderlei; Alves, Soraya Melina

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the presence of pain at the site of the surgical incision and the need to remove the tibial fixation screw in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, in relation to sex and body mass index (BMI). Methods: A group of 265 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction with ipsilateral flexor tendon grafts from the thigh in which the tibial fixation technique consisted of using a cortical screw and metal washer, between July 2000 and November 2007, were evaluated. Results: 176 patients were evaluated for an average of 33.3 ± 19.5 months; median of 29.5 months; IIQ: 17-45 months; minimum of 8 and maximum of 87 months. There was no statistical difference regarding complaints of pain at the site of the screw (p = 0.272) and the need to remove the tibial screw (p = 0.633) between sexes. There was no statistical difference regarding complaints of pain at the site of the screw (p = 0.08) and the need to remove the tibial screw (p = 0.379) according to BMI. Conclusion: The pain complaint rate at the screw site from the screw and metal washer method used for tibial fixation in ACL reconstruction was of the order of 25%, and the screw had to be removed in 10.8% of the cases. There was no predominance of pain complaints at the surgical wound between the sexes. There was a greater tendency to complain about pain among patients with BMI < 25. There was no predominance of screw and washer removal between the sexes or between individuals with different BMIs. PMID:27022587

  18. Negative pressure wound therapy for Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chul Hyun; Shon, Oog Jin; Kim, Gi Beom

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditionally, Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures have been treated by initial wide wound debridement, stabilization of fracture with external fixation, and delayed wound closure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiological results of staged treatment using negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) for Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures. Materials and Methods: 15 patients with Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures, treated using staged protocol by a single surgeon between January 2007 and December 2011 were reviewed in this retrospective study. The clinical results were assessed using a Puno scoring system for severe open fractures of the tibia at the last followup. The range of motion (ROM) of the knee and ankle joints and postoperative complication were evaluated at the last followup. The radiographic results were assessed using time to bone union, coronal and sagittal angulations and a shortening at the last followup. Results: The mean score of Puno scoring system was 87.4 (range 67–94). The mean ROM of the knee and ankle joints was 121.3° (range 90°–130°) and 37.7° (range 15°–50°), respectively. Bone union developed in all patients and the mean time to union was 25.3 weeks (range 16–42 weeks). The mean coronal angulation was 2.1° (range 0–4°) and sagittal was 2.7° (range 1–4°). The mean shortening was 4.1 mm (range 0–8 mm). Three patients had partial flap necrosis and 1 patient had total flap necrosis. There was no superficial and deep wound infection. Conclusion: Staged treatment using NPWT decreased the risks of infection and requirement of flap surgeries in Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures. Therefore, staged treatment using NPWT could be a useful treatment option for Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures. PMID:27746498

  19. Evaluation of cranial tibial and extensor carpi radialis reflexes before and after anesthetic block in cats.

    PubMed

    Tudury, Eduardo Alberto; de Figueiredo, Marcella Luiz; Fernandes, Thaiza Helena Tavares; Araújo, Bruno Martins; Bonelli, Marília de Albuquerque; Diogo, Camila Cardoso; Silva, Amanda Camilo; Santos, Cássia Regina Oliveira; Rocha, Nadyne Lorrayne Farias Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats before and after anesthetic block of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus, respectively, to determine whether they depend on a myotatic reflex arc. Methods Fifty-five cats with a normal neurologic examination that were referred for elective gonadectomy were divided into group 1 (29 cats) for testing the extensor carpi radialis reflex, and group 2 (26 cats) for testing the cranial tibial reflex. In group 1, the extensor carpi radialis reflex was tested after anesthetic induction and 15 mins after brachial plexus block with lidocaine. In group 2, the cranial tibial, withdrawal and patellar reflexes were elicited in 52 hindlimbs and retested 15 mins after epidural anesthesia. Results In group 1, before the anesthetic block, 55.17% of the cats had a decreased and 44.83% had a normal extensor carpi radialis reflex. After the block, 68.96% showed a decreased and 27.59% a normal reflex. No cat had an increased or absent reflex before anesthetic block. In group 2, prior to the anesthetic block, 15.38% of the cats had a decreased cranial tibial reflex and 84.62% had a normal response, whereas after the block it was decreased in 26.92% and normal in 73.08% of the cats. None of the cats had an increased or absent reflex. Regarding the presence of both reflexes before and after anesthetic block, there was no significant difference at 1% ( P = 0.013). Conclusions and relevance The extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats are not strictly myotatic reflexes, as they are independent of the reflex arc, and may be idiomuscular responses. Therefore, they are not reliable for neurologic examination in this species.

  20. The "Hoop" Plate for Posterior Bicondylar Shear Tibial Plateau Fractures: Description of a New Surgical Technique.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Vincenzo; Schatzker, Joseph; Kfuri, Mauricio

    2016-09-29

    High-energy fractures of the proximal tibia with extensive fragmentation of the posterior rim of the tibial plateau are challenging. This technique aims to describe a method on how to embrace the posterior rim of the tibial plateau by placing a horizontal precontoured one-third tubular plate wrapped around its corners. This method, which we named "hoop plating," is mainly indicated for cases of crushed juxta-articular rim fractures, aiming to restore cortical containment of the tibial plateau. Through a lateral approach with a fibular head osteotomy (Lobenhoffer approach), both anterolateral and posterolateral fragments are directly reduced and supported by a one-third tubular plate of adequate length. The plate is inserted from lateral to medial deep to all soft tissues, and its position is checked with fluoroscopy. The implant sits exactly on the posterior cortex of the tibial plateau and provides containment for the reduced juxta-articular posterior cortex and rim. We begin with immediate range of motion. Toe-touch weight-bearing with crutches is allowed with the operated knee in full extension. Weight-bearing is gradually increased only after 6 weeks as bone healing is taking place. Clinical follow-up is performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 weeks. If the radiological exam confirms that the fracture is healed, the patient is allowed to proceed to muscle strengthening and bear weight entirely. The "hoop plating" may be a good option for the management in cases of extensive posterior tibial plateau articular surface fracture and impaction with rim and posterior cortical wall fragmentation.

  1. Stability of tibial defect reconstruction with fibular graft and unilateral external fixation: a finite element study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huiqiang; Zhang, Ying; Xia, Hong; Wang, Fei; Li, Zhibo; Chen, Xuxiang

    2014-01-01

    Tibial defect is generally caused by high-energy injury, tumor, osteomyelitis, development deformity and bone non-union after internal fixation. This study was to determine stability of tibial defect reconstruction with fibular graft (FG) of different lengths by single free vascularized fibular graft (SFVFG) and double-barrel free vascularized fibular graft (DBFVFG). The left lower extremity of a male volunteer was scanned with computer tomography scanner. The contours of the tibia and fibula were extracted and the geometry of both bones rebuilt. From this intact model, the models of tibial defect reconstruction with fibular graft and external fixation were developed. Inter-fragmentary motion (IFM) and Von Mises stress on the fibular bone flap, and the locations of maximum Von Mises stress were introduced to quantify the biomechanical environment. Under the condition of the same graft length, the Von Mises stress value in DBFVFG group was 1.37 to 1.77 times higher than that in SFVFG group. When the length of graft was greater than 15 cm in the SFVFG group, the IFM exceeded 1 mm, but the IFM of the graft in the DBFVFG group was always less than 1 mm. The maximum Von Mises stress of models was frequently located at the second or third pin-bone interface. Thus, external fixation can provide a stable biomechanical environment for the reconstruction of tibial defect by both SFVFG and DBFVFG. The second or third pin-bone interface requires intensive care and that in the reconstruction of tibial defect by SFVFG, the graft length should not exceed 15 cm. PMID:24482691

  2. Giant early components of somatosensory evoked potentials to tibial nerve stimulation in cortical myoclonus.

    PubMed

    Anzellotti, Francesca; Onofrj, Marco; Bonanni, Laura; Saracino, Antonio; Franciotti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Enlarged cortical components of somatosensory evoked potentials (giant SEPs) recorded by electroencephalography (EEG) and abnormal somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) recorded by magnetoencephalography (MEG) are observed in the majority of patients with cortical myoclonus (CM). Studies on simultaneous recordings of SEPs and SEFs showed that generator mechanism of giant SEPs involves both primary sensory and motor cortices. However the generator sources of giant SEPs have not been fully understood as only one report describes clearly giant SEPs following lower limb stimulation. In our study we performed a combined EEG-MEG recording on responses elicited by electric median and tibial nerve stimulation in a patient who developed consequently to methyl bromide intoxication CM with giant SEPs to median and tibial nerve stimuli. SEPs wave shapes were identified on the basis of polarity-latency components (e.g. P15-N20-P25) as defined by earlier studies and guidelines. At EEG recording, the SEP giant component did not appear in the latency range of the first cortical component for median nerve SEP (N20), but appeared instead in the range of the P37 tibial nerve SEP, which is currently identified as the first cortical component elicited by tibial nerve stimuli. Our MEG and EEG SEPs recordings also showed that components in the latency range of P37 were preceded by other cortical components. These findings suggest that lower limb P37 does not correspond to upper limb N20. MEG results confirmed that giant SEFs are the second component from both tibial (N43m-P43m) and median (N27m-P27m) nerve stimulation. MEG dipolar sources of these giant components were located in the primary sensory and motor area.

  3. Risk factors associated with infection in tibial open fractures.

    PubMed

    Almeida Matos, Marcos; Castro-Filho, Romulo Neves; Pinto da Silva, Bruno Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El objetivo del tratamiento de las fracturas abiertas es prevenir las infecciones, estabilizar el hueso e restaurar la función. En relación a los objetivos mencionados, la prevención de infecciones tiene mayor destaque y es el punto mas importante a ser alcanzado. Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar los factores de riesgo asociados con la infección en un grupo de pacientes con fracturas abierta de la tibia. Paciente y métodos. Fue realizado un análisis retrospectivo con pacientes que tuvieron fractura abierta tibial que estaban en tratamiento en el Hospital Roberto Santos-Geral-HGRS, Salvador, Bahía, Brasil, de marzo a octubre de 2009. Fueron excluidos de este estudio todos los niños menores de 8 años con fracturas múltiples o que tenían alguna enfermedad sistémica o en los huesos. De acuerdo con los datos clínicos y demográficos, los pacientes fueron divididos en dos grupos: el grupo 1 estaba constituido por los que no tenían infección en las fracturas y el grupo 2 por los que tenían infección. En los dos grupos se investigo factores que podrían estar asociados a la infección. Resultados. De 50 pacientes estudiados la tasa de infección global fue de 14 (28%, IC95% = 15,5-40,5). El hecho de desenvolver infección fue asociado con el lugar del trauma (OR 3,78; IC 95% = 1,4-5,5, p = 0,02), y la demora en recibir tratamiento adecuado en tiempo superior a 24 horas (OR 3,4; IC95% 1.4-20.8 = p = 0,03). Las fracturas clasificadas como Gustilo I, II, IIIA tuvieron una menor chance de infección cuando comparadas como Gustilo IIIB y IIIC (OR 4.32; CI95%=1.3-19.1; p=0.01). Fracturas clasificadas como Tscherne III y IV tuvieron una mayor frecuencia de infección, lo que resulto ser el factor más importante e significativo (OR 8.07; CI95%=2.4-47.1; p p<0.00). Conclusión. En nuestros resultados observamos; una relación entre infección y la clasificación de Gustilo. También observamos asociación de infección cuando el

  4. Comminuted intraarticular fractures of the tibial plateau lead to posttraumatic osteoarthritis of the knee: Current treatment review.

    PubMed

    Aurich, Matthias; Koenig, Veit; Hofmann, Gunther

    2017-01-25

    Posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) of the knee is a common complication after intra- and extra-articular fractures. Moreover, PTOA may also be a result of isolated cartilage defects, meniscus resections, and ligament injuries. There are various methods of treatment of knee joint fractures. However, in the final stage of a PTOA, when nonoperative treatment fails, endoprosthetic joint replacement is the method of choice. Primary total knee replacement (TKR) for the treatment for a fracture of the knee joint is a rare indication, even at major treatment centers. It is performed in elderly patients with the inability to be mobilized with partial- or non-weight bearing; in cases with considerable bone destruction; in cases with symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) in the elderly; and, it is often associated with the primary use of a modular implant. However, TKR in the acute situation should always be an individual decision. Secondary TKR after knee joint fracture shows overall good functional results. However, the results are inferior when compared with TKR for primary OA. In addition, the complication rates of TKR for PTOA are much higher. Problems with the extensor mechanism after tibial plateau fractures are common. There are also problems caused by preexisting scars, nonunion (possibly due to a low grade infection), malalignment, restricted movement, or instability.

  5. Treatment of excessive bone loss from both crus bones with internal bone transport using an intramedullary nail. Case report.

    PubMed

    Bereza, Przemysław; Wojciechowski, Piotr; Kusz, Damian

    2013-01-01

    We present a case report of a 16-year-old patient who suffered multisite and multiorgan injuries following a road accident. The most prominent musculoskeletal problem was a bilateral crush injury of the crus in combination with open fractures. The aim of this study is to present the possibilities and available methods of treatment of patients with extensive posttraumatic and postinflammatory bone loss of the lower limbs that make it possible to avoid amputation. We used intramedullary nailing and internal bone transport to reconstruct continuity and leg length of both crus bones. The treatment was complicated by poor vascularity and emerging complications. After several months and multi-stage treatment the patient was able to walk with full weight-bearing without crutches. Importantly, the patient is satisfied with the outcome of the treatment and does not consider herself disabled. The study presents our approach to the dilemma of choosing between prolonged reconstruction surgery and amputation as a final method.

  6. Fixation of a Proximal Humeral Fracture Using a Novel Intramedullary Cage Construct following a Failed Conservative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A majority of proximal humeral fractures are preferably treated conservatively. However, surgical management may be beneficial in proximal humeral fractures with significant displacement or angulation. Unfortunately, the complication rates associated with current surgical procedures for fracture fixation, ORIF and IM devices, can be unacceptably high. A new technology, termed the PH Cage, addresses the technical limitations associated with current technologies available for fixation of proximal humeral fractures. It allows for intramedullary fixation of a PH fracture and provides direct load bearing support to the articular surface and buttresses the medial column during healing. We are presenting our first experience with the PH Cage for the fixation of a PH fracture, which had previously failed conservative management. PMID:28255485

  7. 18F-fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine positron emission tomography-guided diagnosis of a malignant intramedullary spinal cord tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kebir, Sied; Kimmich, Okka; Niehusmann, Pitt; Gaertner, Florian C.; Essler, Markus; Landsberg, Jennifer; Klockgether, Thomas; Simon, Matthias; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Glas, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis in patients with a suspected malignant intramedullary lesion that requires biopsy for definitive diagnosis may be challenging, as spinal cord surgery carries the risk of irreversible neurological deficits. The current study presents the first case of 18F-fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine (18F-FET) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in a patient with a spinal cord tumor. The patient was unsuitable for magnetic resonance imaging due to his implanted cardiac defibrillator. 18F-FET PET indicated a high-grade malignancy of the spinal cord, justifying tumor biopsy. Histological analysis was compatible with a malignant melanoma. This is also the first report demonstrating the FET-PET appearance/metabolic phenotype of a malignant melanoma of the spinal cord. PMID:28105177

  8. Infection resistance of unreamed solid, hollow slotted and cannulated intramedullary nails: an in-vivo experimental comparison.

    PubMed

    Horn, J; Schlegel, U; Krettek, C; Ito, K

    2005-07-01

    Infection continues to be a problematic complication of fracture treatment, particularly in severe open fractures. The implant design and material as well as implantation technique play an important role in the pathogenesis of local infection. The aim of our study was to determine if the local resistance to infection of a cannulated IM nail is less than that of a solid nail and more similar to that of a hollow nail. In 65 female White Zealand rabbits, the intramedullary cavity was inoculated with matching concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus, and one of the three nails was inserted. The solid nail had a greater than twofold higher resistance to infection (23%) compared to that of the other two nails (hollow, 65%; cannulated, 61%) which was statistically significant (p<0.02). No difference in infection resistance was detected between the hollow slotted and cannulated nail designs (p=1). Although these experimental results may be clinically considered, direct extrapolation to clinical infection rates is ill advised.

  9. Stab wound to the intramedullary spinal cord: Presurgical and surgical management options for a retained blade to optimize neurological preservation

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Prateek; Burke, John F.; Abdullah, Kalil G.; Piazza, Matthew; Smith, Brian P.; Thawani, Jayesh P.; Malhotra, Neil R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We present a rare case of an intraparenchymal nonmissile penetrating spinal injury (NMPSI) occurring at the T11 level in a patient presenting without neurological deficit. Case Description: The patient sustained a knife wound that penetrated the lamina without incurring bony injury and entered the spinal cord at the T11 level. During surgery, the intramedullary penetration of the cord was confirmed, and following surgical removal of the knife, the patient fully recovered without losing any neurological function. Conclusions: The surgical management of NMPSI in patients who are neurologically intact is controversial. Here, we report surgical excision of a knife that penetrated the spinal cord at the T11 level, without the patient incurring further neurological deterioration. PMID:28144493

  10. Tibial plateau fracture after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Role of the interference screw resorption in the stress riser effect.

    PubMed

    Thaunat, Mathieu; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Gaudin, Pascal; Beaufils, Philippe

    2006-06-01

    We report a case of tibial plateau fracture after previous anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using patellar tendon autograft and bioabsorbable screws 4 years previously. The fracture occurred through the tibial tunnel. The interference screw had undergone complete resorption and the tunnel widening had increased. The resorption of the interference screw did not simultaneously promote and foster the growth of surrounding bone tissue. Therefore, the area of reactive tissue left by the screw resorption in an enlarged bone tunnel may lead to vulnerability of the tibial plateau. Stress risers would occur following ACL reconstruction if either resorption is not complete or bony integration is not complete.

  11. Character, Incidence, and Predictors of Knee Pain and Activity after Infrapatellar Intramedullary Nailing of an Isolated Tibia Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Obremskey, William; Agel, Julie; Archer, Kristin; To, Philip; Tornetta, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the activity and incidence of knee pain after sustaining a isolated tibia fracture treated with an infrapatellar intramedullary nail at one year. Design Retrospective review of prospective cohort Setting Multicenter Academic and Community hospitals Patients 437 patients with an isolated tibia fracture completed a 12 month assessment on pain and self-reported activity. Intervention Infrapatellar Intramedullary Nail Outcomes Demographic information co-morbid conditions, injury characteristics, and surgical technique were recorded. Knee pain was defined on a 1-7 scale with 1 being “no pain” and 7 being a “very great deal of pain.” Knee pain > 4 was considered clinically significant. Patients reported if they were “able”, “able with difficulty” or “unable” to perform the following activities: kneel, run, climb stairs, and walk prolonged. Variables were tested in multilevel multivariable regression analyses. Results Knee Pain: 11% percent of patients reported a “good deal” to a “very great deal” of pain (> 4). 52% of patients reported “no” or “very little” pain at 12 months. Activity at 12 months: 26% and 29% of patients were unable to kneel or run, respectively. 31% and 35% of patients respectively stated they were able with difficulty or unable to use stairs or walk. Conclusion Clinically significant knee pain (>4/7) was present in 11% of patients one year after a tibia fracture. 31%-71% of patients had difficulty performing or were unable to perform routine daily activities of kneeling, running, and stair climbing or walking prolonged distances. PMID:26496180

  12. Common problems in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Cosca, David D; Navazio, Franco

    2007-07-15

    Endurance athletes alternate periods of intensive physical training with periods of rest and recovery to improve performance. An imbalance caused by overly intensive training and inadequate recovery leads to a breakdown in tissue reparative mechanisms and eventually to overuse injuries. Tendon overuse injury is degenerative rather than inflammatory. Tendinopathy is often slow to resolve and responds inconsistently to anti-inflammatory agents. Common overuse injuries in runners and other endurance athletes include patellofemoral pain syndrome, iliotibial band friction syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, and lower extremity stress fractures. These injuries are treated with relative rest, usually accompanied by a rehabilitative exercise program. Cyclists may benefit from evaluation on their bicycles and subsequent adjustment of seat height, cycling position, or pedal system. Endurance athletes also are susceptible to exercise-associated medical conditions, including exercise-induced asthma, exercise-associated collapse, and overtraining syndrome. These conditions are treatable or preventable with appropriate medical intervention. Dilutional hyponatremia is increasingly encountered in athletes participating in marathons and triathlons. This condition is related to overhydration with hypotonic fluids and may be preventable with guidance on appropriate fluid intake during competition.

  13. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  14. Quality of life in patients with varus gonarthrosis treated with high tibial osteotomy using the circular external fixator.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Taner; Erdem, Mehmet; Bostan, Bora; Yeniel, Kursad; Sen, Cengiz

    2008-03-01

    Generally, surgeon-driven musculoskeletal evaluation systems are used for evaluating outcomes of patients who are treated with high tibial osteotomy. In this study, we investigated the effects of high tibial osteotomy using circular external fixator on quality of life. Twenty-one high tibial osteotomy of 19 patients were evaluated. Quality of life assessment was made using Short Form -36 at preoperative, before fixator removal and 6 months after fixator removal. After applying fixator, the physical function and physical role scores of Short Form-36 decreased and emotional role score did not improve. In other categories, significant improvements were observed when fixator in place. At the sixth month after fixator removal, significant improvements were dedected in all categories of Short Form-36. Although there was a decrease in physical functions after fixator application in patients who were treated with high tibial osteotomy using circular external fixator, significant improvement occurred in quality of life after fixator removal.

  15. UK Fixation of Distal Tibia Fractures (UK FixDT): protocol for a randomised controlled trial of ‘locking’ plate fixation versus intramedullary nail fixation in the treatment of adult patients with a displaced fracture of the distal tibia

    PubMed Central

    Achten, Juul; Parsons, Nicholas R; McGuinness, Katie R; Petrou, Stavros; Lamb, Sarah E; Costa, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The treatment of displaced, extra-articular fractures of the distal tibia remains controversial. These injuries are difficult to manage due to limited soft tissue cover, poor vascularity of the area and proximity to the ankle joint. Surgical treatment options are expanding and include locked intramedullary nails, plate and screw fixation and external fixator systems. The nail and plate options are most commonly used in the UK, but controversy exists over which treatment is most clinically and cost-effective. In this multicentre randomised controlled trial we aim to assess ratings of disability 6 months postinjury in patients who have sustained a distal tibia fracture treated with either an intramedullary nail or plate and locking screw fixation. Methods and analysis Adult patients presenting at trial centres with an acute fracture of the distal tibia will be considered for inclusion. A total of 320 patients will provide 90% power to detect a difference of 8 points in Disability Rating Index (DRI) score at 6 months at the 5% level. The randomisation sequence is stratified by trial centre and age, and administered via web-based service with 1:1 treatment allocation. Baseline demographic and pre-injury functional data and radiographs will be collected using the DRI, Olerud and Molander, and EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire. Clinical assessment, early complications and radiographs will be recorded at 6–8 weeks. Functional outcome, health-related quality of life and resource use will be collected at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The main analysis will investigate differences in DRI 6 months postsurgery, between the two treatment groups, on an intention-to-treat basis. Tests will be two-sided and considered to provide evidence for a significant difference if p values are <0.05. Ethics and dissemination NRES Committee West-Midlands, 6/11/2012 (ref:12/WM/0340). The results of the trial will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and

  16. Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by means of tibial tunnel: anatomical study on cadavers for tunnel positioning☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    de Queiroz, Antônio Altenor Bessa; Janovsky, César; da Silveira Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Ramos, Leonardo Addêo; Granata Junior, Geraldo Sérgio Mello; Luzo, Marcos Vinicius Malheiros; Cohen, Moises

    2014-01-01

    Objective to determine the reference points for the exit of the tibial guidewire in relation to the posterior cortical bone of the tibia. Methods sixteen knees from fresh cadavers were used for this study. Using a viewing device and a guide marked out in millimeters, three guidewires were passed through the tibia at 0, 10 and 15 mm distally in relation to the posterior crest of the tibia. Dissections were performed and the region of the center of the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) was determined in each knee. The distances between the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL and the posterior tibial border (CB) and between the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL and wires 1, 2 and 3 (CW1, CW2 and CW3) were measured. Results in the dissected knees, we found the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL at 1.09 ± 0.06 cm from the posterior tibial border. The distances between the wires 1, 2 and 3 and the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL were respectively 1.01 ± 0.08, 0.09 ± 0.05 and 0.5 ± 0.05 cm. Conclusion the guidewire exit point 10 mm distal in relation to the posterior crest of the tibia was the best position for attempting to reproduce the anatomical center of the PCL. PMID:26229829

  17. Intra-articular osteoid osteoma of the lateral tibial plateau treated with arthroscopically assisted removal and retrograde osteochondral grafting.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Nobuo; Shimose, Shoji; Nakamae, Atsuo; Okuhara, Atsushi; Kamei, Goki; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of an intra-articular osteoid osteoma is sometimes challenging, because of its location. We report a patient with an intra-articular osteoid osteoma of the lateral tibial plateau which was excised under an arthroscopically assisted procedure. After total resection of the intra-articular osteoid osteoma, the osteochondral defect of the lateral tibial plateau was reconstructed with a retrograde autogenous osteochondral graft which was harvested from the non-weightbearing area of the distal femur.

  18. Location of the tibial tunnel aperture affects extrusion of the lateral meniscus following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed