Science.gov

Sample records for common-cation ii-vi heterostructures

  1. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in II-Vi Semiconductor Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gui-Lin

    This dissertation is devoted to investigation of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of Mn ^{++} ions in II-VI semiconductor heterostructures, in order to determine how EPR is affected by this layered environment and what new information can be extracted by this technique. We first introduce the concept of the effective spin, and we review the theoretical background of the spin Hamiltonian, for describing the ground state of a paramagnetic ion in a solid. The physical origin of the constituent terms in the spin Hamiltonion are discussed, and their characteristics described, for use at later stages in the thesis. We then analyze the effect on EPR of the potential exchange interaction between the localized d-electrons of the Mn^{++} ions and the band electrons. We predict that such exchange interaction can lead to significant changes in the g-factors of Mn ^{++} ions due to the spin polarization of band electrons, resulting in line shifts of EPR spectra. Although such shifts would be too small to be observed for Mn^{++} ions introduced into bulk semiconductors, we show that the shifts can be significantly larger for Mn^ {++} ions in quantum wells, superlattices, and similar heterostructures, due to the electron confinement effect. This effect of the potential exchange interaction on the EPR spectra of Mn^{++} ions leads us to propose to use the Mn ^{++} ions as built-in localized probes for mapping the wave functions of electronic states in II-VI semiconductor quantum wells and superlattices. We then consider the influence of internal strain on the EPR transitions of Mn^{++} in II-VI semiconductor heterostructures. Our analysis of the changes of the Mn^{++} fine structure indicates that EPR can be used to detect even minute amounts of strain (e.g., strain resulting from as little as 0.01% lattice mismatch can readily be measured). Accordingly, we demonstrate EPR to be an ultrasensitive and probably unique tool for small strain measurements in II-VI

  2. Systematic approach for simultaneously correcting the band-gap andp-dseparation errors of common cation III-V or II-VI binaries in density functional theory calculations within a local density approximation

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2015-07-31

    We propose a systematic approach that can empirically correct three major errors typically found in a density functional theory (DFT) calculation within the local density approximation (LDA) simultaneously for a set of common cation binary semiconductors, such as III-V compounds, (Ga or In)X with X = N,P,As,Sb, and II-VI compounds, (Zn or Cd)X, with X = O,S,Se,Te. By correcting (1) the binary band gaps at high-symmetry points , L, X, (2) the separation of p-and d-orbital-derived valence bands, and (3) conduction band effective masses to experimental values and doing so simultaneously for common cation binaries, the resulting DFT-LDA-based quasi-first-principles methodmore » can be used to predict the electronic structure of complex materials involving multiple binaries with comparable accuracy but much less computational cost than a GW level theory. This approach provides an efficient way to evaluate the electronic structures and other material properties of complex systems, much needed for material discovery and design.« less

  3. Systematic approach for simultaneously correcting the band-gap andp-dseparation errors of common cation III-V or II-VI binaries in density functional theory calculations within a local density approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2015-07-31

    We propose a systematic approach that can empirically correct three major errors typically found in a density functional theory (DFT) calculation within the local density approximation (LDA) simultaneously for a set of common cation binary semiconductors, such as III-V compounds, (Ga or In)X with X = N,P,As,Sb, and II-VI compounds, (Zn or Cd)X, with X = O,S,Se,Te. By correcting (1) the binary band gaps at high-symmetry points , L, X, (2) the separation of p-and d-orbital-derived valence bands, and (3) conduction band effective masses to experimental values and doing so simultaneously for common cation binaries, the resulting DFT-LDA-based quasi-first-principles method can be used to predict the electronic structure of complex materials involving multiple binaries with comparable accuracy but much less computational cost than a GW level theory. This approach provides an efficient way to evaluate the electronic structures and other material properties of complex systems, much needed for material discovery and design.

  4. Atomic-Scale Characterization of II-VI Compound Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David J.

    2013-11-01

    Alloys of II-VI compound semiconductors with suitable band gap selection potentially provide broad coverage of wavelengths for photodetector applications. Achievement of high-quality epitaxial growth is, however, essential for successful development of integrated photonic and optoelectronic devices. Atomic-scale characterization of structural defects in II-VI heterostructures using electron microscopy plays an invaluable role in accomplishing this goal. This paper reviews some recent high-resolution studies of II-VI compound semiconductors with zincblende crystal structure, as grown epitaxially on commonly used substrates. Exploratory studies using aberration-corrected electron microscopes are also briefly considered.

  5. II-VI widegap superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, T.; Yamada, Y.; Endoh, Y.; Nozue, Y.; Mullins, J. T.; Ohno, T.; Masumoto, Y.; Takeda, S.

    We review our recent results of the excitonic properties in ZnSeZnS and Cd xZn 1-xSZnS strained-layer superlattices (SLSs). The most important physical insights in the II-VI widegap superlattices are to understand the relationship between the optical properties of quasi-two-dimensional exciton and strain because the well layer frequently receives biaxial compression or tension. The strain thus causes the significant shifts of the bandgap and splitting of the valence band. Semi-quantative calculations lead to an expectation that ZnSeZnS SLS always exhibits a type I band lineup within 100 Å thicknesses of the ZnSe well at a constant ZnS barrier width of several tens angstrom. This is in good agreement with the experimental results of exciton absorption and its luminescence excitation spectra. The Cd 0.3Zn 0.7SZnS SLSs with a range of well widths can produce intense excitonic emissions around 3.4 eV at room temperature due to the quantum confinement of excitons in the ternary CdZnS well. In order to elucidate localisation and relaxation processes of excitons, we have for the first time reported a multiple-LO-phonon emission process in the excitation spectra. The electric-field studies suggest that the concomitant decrease in intensity and the energy downshift of the exciton line may originate from the quantum confined Stark effect.

  6. Recent Progress in Photocatalysis Mediated by Colloidal II-VI Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Wilker, Molly B; Schnitzenbaumer, Kyle J; Dukovic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    The use of photoexcited electrons and holes in semiconductor nanocrystals as reduction and oxidation reagents is an intriguing way of harvesting photon energy to drive chemical reactions. This review focuses on recent research efforts to understand and control the photocatalytic processes mediated by colloidal II-VI nanocrystalline materials, such as cadmium and zinc chalcogenides. First, we highlight how nanocrystal properties govern the rates and efficiencies of charge-transfer processes relevant to photocatalysis. We then describe the use of nanocrystal catalyst heterostructures for fuel-forming reactions, most commonly H2 generation. Finally, we review the use of nanocrystal photocatalysis as a synthetic tool for metal–semiconductor nano-heterostructures. PMID:24115781

  7. Chemistry of the Colloidal Group II-VI Nanocrystal Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Haitao

    2007-05-17

    In the last two decades, the field of nanoscience andnanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement in the synthesis andapplication of group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. The synthesis based onhigh temperature decomposition of organometallic precursors has becomeone of the most successful methods of making group II-VI colloidalnanocrystals. This methodis first demonstrated by Bawendi and coworkersin 1993 to prepare cadmium chalcogenide colloidal quantum dots and laterextended by others to prepare other group II-VI quantum dots as well asanisotropic shaped colloidal nanocrystals, such as nanorod and tetrapod.This dissertation focuses on the chemistry of this type of nanocrystalsynthesis. The synthesis of group II-VI nanocrystals was studied bycharacterizing the molecular structures of the precursors and productsand following their time evolution in the synthesis. Based on theseresults, a mechanism was proposed to account for the 2 reaction betweenthe precursors that presumably produces monomer for the growth ofnanocrystals. Theoretical study based on density functional theorycalculations revealed the detailed free energy landscape of the precursordecomposition and monomerformation pathway. Based on the proposedreaction mechanism, a new synthetic method was designed that uses wateras a novel reagent to control the diameter and the aspect ratio of CdSeand CdS nanorods.

  8. Taming excitons in II-VI semiconductor nanowires and nanobelts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xinlong; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Yixuan; Xiong, Qihua

    2014-10-01

    Excitons are one of the most important fundamental quasi-particles, and are involved in a variety of processes forming the basis of a wide range of opto-electronic and photonic devices based on II-VI semiconductor nanowires and nanobelts, such as light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic cells, photodetectors and nanolasers. A clear understanding of their properties and unveiling the potential engineering for excitons is of particular importance for the design and optimization of nanoscale opto-electronic and photonic devices. Herein, we present a comprehensive review on discussing the fundamental behaviours of the excitons in one-dimensional (1D) II-VI semiconductor nanomaterials (nanowires and nanobelts). We will start with a focus on the unique properties (origin, generation, etc) and dynamics of excitons and exciton complexes in the II-VI semiconductor nanowires and nanobelts. Then we move to the recent progress on the excitonic response in 1D nanomaterials and focus on the tailoring and engineering of excitonic properties through rational controlling of the physical parameters and conditions, intrinsically and extrinsically. These include (1) exciton-exciton interaction, which is important for 1D nanomaterial nanolasing; (2) exciton-phonon interaction, which has interesting applications for laser cooling; and (3) exciton-plasmon interaction, which is the cornerstone towards the realization of plasmonic lasers. The potential of electric field, morphology and size control for excitonic properties is also discussed. Unveiling and controlling excitonic properties in II-VI semiconductor nanowires and nanobelts would promote the development of 1D nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  9. Photophysical Properties of II-VI Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ke

    As it is well known, semiconductor nanocrystals (also called quantum dots, QDs) are being actively pursued for use in many different types of luminescent optical materials. These materials include the active media for luminescence downconversion in artificial lighting, lasers, luminescent solar concentrators and many other applications. Chapter 1 gives general introduction of QDs, which describe the basic physical properties and optical properties. Based on the experimental spectroscopic study, a semiquantitative method-effective mass model is employed to give theoretical prediction and guide. The following chapters will talks about several topics respectively. A predictive understanding of the radiative lifetimes is therefore a starting point for the understanding of the use of QDs for these applications. Absorption intensities and radiative lifetimes are fundamental properties of any luminescent material. Meantime, achievement of high efficiency with high working temperature and heterostructure fabrication with manipulation of lattice strain are not easy and need systematic investigation. To make accurate connections between extinction coefficients and radiative recombination rates, chapter 2 will consider three closely related aspects of the size dependent spectroscopy of II-VI QDs. First, it will consider the existing literature on cadmium selenide (CdSe) QD absorption spectra and extinction coefficients. From these results and fine structure considerations Boltzmann weighted radiative lifetimes are calculated. These lifetimes are compared to values measured on very high quality CdSe and CdSe coated with zinc selenide (ZnSe) shells. Second, analogous literature data are analyzed for cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanocrystals and compared to lifetimes measured for very high quality QDs. Furthermore, studies of the absorption and excitation spectra and measured radiative lifetimes for CdTe/CdSe Type-II core/shell QDs are reported. These results are also analyzed in

  10. Monolayer II-VI semiconductors: A first-principles prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hui; Li, Xian-Bin; Chen, Nian-Ke; Xie, Sheng-Yi; Tian, Wei Quan; Chen, Yuanping; Xia, Hong; Zhang, S. B.; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-09-01

    A systematic study of 32 honeycomb monolayer II-VI semiconductors is carried out by first-principles methods. While none of the two-dimensional (2D) structures can be energetically stable, it appears that BeO, MgO, CaO, ZnO, CdO, CaS, SrS, SrSe, BaTe, and HgTe honeycomb monolayers have a good dynamic stability. The stability of the five oxides is consistent with the work published by Zhuang et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 212102 (2013), 10.1063/1.4831972]. The rest of the compounds in the form of honeycomb are dynamically unstable, revealed by phonon calculations. In addition, according to the molecular dynamic (MD) simulation evolution from these unstable candidates, we also find two extra monolayers dynamically stable, which are tetragonal BaS [P 4 /n m m (129 ) ] and orthorhombic HgS [P 21/m (11 ) ] . The honeycomb monolayers exist in the form of either a planar perfect honeycomb or a low-buckled 2D layer, all of which possess a band gap and most of them are in the ultraviolet region. Interestingly, the dynamically stable SrSe has a gap near visible light, and displays exotic electronic properties with a flat top of the valence band, and hence has a strong spin polarization upon hole doping. The honeycomb HgTe has recently been reported to achieve a topological nontrivial phase under appropriate in-plane tensile strain and spin-orbital coupling (SOC) [J. Li et al., arXiv:1412.2528]. Some II-VI partners with less than 5 % lattice mismatch may be used to design novel 2D heterojunction devices. If synthesized, potential applications of these 2D II-VI families could include optoelectronics, spintronics, and strong correlated electronics.

  11. II-VI Materials-Based High Performance Intersubband Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, Arvind Pawan

    Mid-infrared (mid-IR) light is of vital technological importance because of its application in trace-gas absorption spectroscopy, imaging, free-space communication or infrared countermeasures. Thus the ability to generate and detect mid-IR light at low cost and preferably, at room temperature is of utmost importance. High performance quantum cascade (QC) lasers - mid-IR light sources based on optical transitions in thin quantum wells, and intersubband infrared detectors - namely the quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) and quantum cascade detectors (QCDs), have rapidly advanced, due to excellent material quality of III-V materials. In spite of this tremendous success, there lie challenges such as lack of efficient short-wavelength emitters or broadband detectors - challenges that arise from intrinsic materials properties. As a central theme in this thesis, we look at a new class of materials, the II-VI based ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe system, to close technological gaps and develop high performance infrared light sources and detectors in the entire mid-IR regime. To that end, we first demonstrate the flexibility that the combination of II-VI materials and band structure engineering allows by developing various QWIPs, QCDs and QC emitters at different wavelengths, not easily achieved by other materials. The performance of these first-of-their-kind detectors is already comparable to existing commercial solutions. To fully realize the potential of this new material system, we also developed a room-temperature broadband infrared detector detecting between 3 and 6 mum with record responsivity. With this technology, it is now possible to monolithically integrate high performance mid-IR lasers and detectors for on-chip applications. One of the challenges with all intersubband detectors is that they do not absorb normally incident light, like most conventional detectors. In order to make intersubband detectors attractive to commercial exploration, we develop a novel method to

  12. II-VI Narrow-Bandgap Semiconductors for Optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Ian

    The field of narrow-gap II-VI materials is dominated by the compound semiconductor mercury cadmium telluride, (Hg1-x Cd x Te or MCT), which supports a large industry in infrared detectors, cameras and infrared systems. It is probably true to say that HgCdTe is the third most studied semiconductor after silicon and gallium arsenide. Hg1-x Cd x Te is the material most widely used in high-performance infrared detectors at present. By changing the composition x the spectral response of the detector can be made to cover the range from 1 μm to beyond 17 μm. The advantages of this system arise from a number of features, notably: close lattice matching, high optical absorption coefficient, low carrier generation rate, high electron mobility and readily available doping techniques. These advantages mean that very sensitive infrared detectors can be produced at relatively high operating temperatures. Hg1-x Cd x Te multilayers can be readily grown in vapor-phase epitaxial processes. This provides the device engineer with complex doping and composition profiles that can be used to further enhance the electro-optic performance, leading to low-cost, large-area detectors in the future. The main purpose of this chapter is to describe the applications, device physics and technology of II-VI narrow-bandgap devices, focusing on HgCdTe but also including Hg1-x Mn x Te and Hg1-x Zn x Te. It concludes with a review of the research and development programs into third-generation infrared detector technology (so-called GEN III detectors) being performed in centers around the world.

  13. Multi-crystalline II-VI based multijunction solar cells and modules

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, Brian E.; Connor, Stephen T.; Groves, James R.; Peters, Craig H.

    2015-06-30

    Multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cells and methods for fabrication of same are disclosed herein. A multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cell includes a first photovoltaic sub-cell comprising silicon, a tunnel junction, and a multi-crystalline second photovoltaic sub-cell. A plurality of the multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cells can be interconnected to form low cost, high throughput flat panel, low light concentration, and/or medium light concentration photovoltaic modules or devices.

  14. Spectroscopic characterization of iron-doped II-VI compounds for laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Alan

    The middle Infrared (mid-IR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum between 2 and 15 ?m has many features which are of interest to a variety of fields such as molecular spectroscopy, biomedical applications, industrial process control, oil prospecting, free-space communication and defense-related applications. Because of this, there is a demand for broadly tunable, laser sources operating over this spectral region which can be easily and inexpensively produced. II-VI semiconductor materials doped with transition metals (TM) such as Co 2+, Cr2+, or Fe2+ exhibit highly favorable spectroscopic characteristics for mid-IR laser applications. Among these TM dopants, Fe2+ has absorption and emission which extend the farthest into the longer wavelength portion of the mid-IR. Fe2+:II-VI crystals have been utilized as gain elements in laser systems broadly tunable over the 3-5.5 microm range [1] and as saturable absorbers to Q -switch [2] and mode-lock [3] laser cavities operating over the 2.7-3 microm. TM:II-VI laser gain elements can be fabricated inexpensively by means of post-growth thermal diffusion with large homogeneous dopant concentration and good optical quality[4,5]. The work outlined in this dissertation will focus on the spectroscopic characterization of TM-doped II-VI semiconductors. This work can be categorized into three major thrusts: 1) the development of novel laser materials, 2) improving and extending applications of TM:II-VI crystals as saturable absorbers, and 3) fabrication of laser active bulk crystals. Because current laser sources based on TM:II-VI materials do not cover the entire mid-IR spectral region, it is necessary to explore novel laser sources to extend available emissions toward longer wavelengths. The first objective of this dissertation is the spectroscopic characterization of novel ternary host crystals doped with Fe2+ ions. Using crystal field engineering, laser materials can be prepared with emissions placed in spectral regions not

  15. 77 FR 36579 - II-VI, Inc., Infrared Optics-Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg, PA; Leased Workers From Adecco, Carol...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... Employment and Training Administration II-VI, Inc., Infrared Optics-Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg, PA; Leased...., Infrared Optics-Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg, PA; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration The... period. The determination was applicable to workers and former workers of II-VI, Inc., Infrared...

  16. X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray excited optical luminescence studies of II-VI semiconducting nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Michael Wayne

    2010-06-01

    Various II-VI semiconducting nanomaterials such as ZnO-ZnS nanoribbons (NRs), CdSxSe1-x nanostructures, ZnS:Mn NRs, ZnS:Mn,Eu nanoprsims (NPs), ZnO:Mn nanopowders, and ZnO:Co nanopowders were synthesized for study. These materials were characterized by techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, element dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction. The electronic and optical properties of these nanomaterials were studied by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) techniques, using tuneable soft X-rays from a synchrotron light source. The complementary nature ofthe XAFS and XEOL techniques give site, element and chemical specific measurements which allow a better understanding of the interplay and role of each element in the system. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of ZnS powder in a limited oxygen environment resulted in side-by-side biaxial ZnO-ZnS NR heterostructures. The resulting NRs contained distinct wurtzite ZnS and wurtzite ZnO components with widths of 10--100 nm and 20 --500 nm, respectively and a uniform interface region of 5-15 nm. XAFS and XEOL measurements revealed the luminescence of ZnO-ZnS NRs is from the ZnO component. The luminescence of CdSxSe1-x nanostructures is shown to be dependent on the S to Se ratio, with the band-gap emission being tunable between that of pure CdS and CdSe. Excitation of the CdSxSe 1-x nanostructures by X-ray in XEOL has revealed new de-excitation channels which show a defect emission band not seen by laser excitation. CVD of Mn2+ doped ZnS results in nanostructures with luminescence dominated by the yellow Mn2+ emission due to energy transfer from the ZnS host to the Mn dopant sites. The addition of EuCl3 to the reactants in the CVD process results in a change in morphology from NR to NP. Zn1-xMnxO and Zn1-xCOxO nanopowders were prepared by sol-gel methods at dopant concentrations

  17. Surface Charge Transfer Doping via Transition Metal Oxides for Efficient p-Type Doping of II-VI Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Xia, Feifei; Shao, Zhibin; He, Yuanyuan; Wang, Rongbin; Wu, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Tianhao; Duhm, Steffen; Zhao, Jianwei; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Jie, Jiansheng

    2016-11-22

    Wide band gap II-VI nanostructures are important building blocks for new-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the difficulty of realizing p-type conductivity in these materials via conventional doping methods has severely handicapped the fabrication of p-n homojunctions and complementary circuits, which are the fundamental components for high-performance devices. Herein, by using first-principles density functional theory calculations, we demonstrated a simple yet efficient way to achieve controlled p-type doping on II-VI nanostructures via surface charge transfer doping (SCTD) using high work function transition metal oxides such as MoO3, WO3, CrO3, and V2O5 as dopants. Our calculations revealed that these oxides were capable of drawing electrons from II-VI nanostructures, leading to accumulation of positive charges (holes injection) in the II-VI nanostructures. As a result, Fermi levels of the II-VI nanostructures were shifted toward the valence band regions after surface modifications, along with the large enhancement of work functions. In situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations verified the significant interfacial charge transfer between II-VI nanostructures and surface dopants. Both theoretical calculations and electrical transfer measurements on the II-VI nanostructure-based field-effect transistors clearly showed the p-type conductivity of the nanostructures after surface modifications. Strikingly, II-VI nanowires could undergo semiconductor-to-metal transition by further increasing the SCTD level. SCTD offers the possibility to create a variety of electronic and optoelectronic devices from the II-VI nanostructures via realization of complementary doping.

  18. Process for forming shaped group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Peng, Xiaogang; Manna, Liberato

    2001-01-01

    A process for the formation of shaped Group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  19. Interface control of electronic and optical properties in IV-VI and II-VI core/shell colloidal quantum dots: a review.

    PubMed

    Jang, Youngjin; Shapiro, Arthur; Isarov, Maya; Rubin-Brusilovski, Anna; Safran, Aron; Budniak, Adam K; Horani, Faris; Dehnel, Joanna; Sashchiuk, Aldona; Lifshitz, Efrat

    2017-01-17

    Semiconductor colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have attracted vast scientific and technological interest throughout the past three decades, due to the unique tuneability of their optoelectronic properties by variation of size and composition. However, the nanoscale size brings about a large surface-to-bulk volume ratio, where exterior surfaces have a pronounced influence on the chemical stability and on the physical properties of the semiconductor. Therefore, numerous approaches have been developed to gain efficient surface passivation, including a coverage by organic or inorganic molecular surfactants as well as the formation of core/shell heterostructures (a semiconductor core epitaxially covered by another semiconductor shell). This review focuses on special designs of core/shell heterostructures from the IV-VI and II-VI semiconductor compounds, and on synthetic approaches and characterization of the optical properties. Experimental observations revealed the formation of core/shell structures with type-I or quasi-type-II band alignment between the core and shell constituents. Theoretical calculations of the electronic band structures, which were also confirmed by experimental work, exposed surplus electronic tuning (beyond the radial diameter) with adaptation of the composition and control of the interface properties. The studies also considered strain effects that are created between two different semiconductors. It was disclosed experimentally and theoretically that the strain can be released via the formation of alloys at the core-shell interface. Overall, the core/shell and core/alloyed-shell heterostructures showed enhancement in luminescence quantum efficiency with respect to that of pure cores, extended lifetime, uniformity in size and in many cases good chemical sustainability under ambient conditions.

  20. Self-Organized Nanostructures in Wide-Band-Gap II-VI's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furdyna, J. K.

    1997-03-01

    We describe three distinct categories of self-organized phenomena observed in the MBE growth of II-VI semiconductors. First, we describe self-organized formation of compositionally-modulated ZnSe_1-xTex superlattices. Periodic modulation of composition x in this alloy occurs spontaneously when Zn, Se, and Te fluxes are simultaneously incident on vicinal (100) GaAs substrates. The period is highly regular, with typical values between 20Åand 40Åand is long-range in character. Second, we discuss formation of self-assembled CdSe quantum dots (QDs) on ZnSe, or on ZnSe-based alloys (e.g., Zn_1-xCd_xSe, Zn_1-xMn_xSe). We note that the relationship of CdSe and ZnSe is a close parallel, in terms of strain, to that of InAs and GaAs. Since the self-organized formation of QDs is expected to be strongly sensitive to strain as well as to element-specific chemistries, comparison of CdSe dots on ZnSe with the already well estabilis! he! d InAs quantum dots on GaAs should be especially interesting. Finally, we discuss self-organized formation of interesting surface morphologies observed in the growth of MnSe on GaAs. Although not strictly a II-VI compound, MnSe is of interest in the II-VI context because it readily forms alloys (e.g., Zn_1-xMn_xSe) or superlattices (e.g., ZnSe/MnSe) with the canonical II-VIs. In the MBE process described here MnSe, when grown on GaAs or ZnSe, forms high-quality monocrystalline layers with NaCl structure. The surfaces of these layers display interesting regular patterns on the mesoscopic scale, that can be controlled by growth conditions. It is possible that such patterns can serve as "templates" for deposition of II-VI quantum wire networks. Collaborators: S.P. Ahrenkiel, M. Al-Jassim, A.-L. Barabasi, M. Dobrowolska, S. Lee, H. Luo, J.L. Merz, Q. Shen, P.D. Wang

  1. Preparation and characterization of II-VI compound semiconductor thin-films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Leah (Ge Shao)

    In this thesis the pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) method for growing thin-films was discussed and applied to form II-VI compound ZnTe thin-films. The transmission and reflection of these films were measured by different methods and theoretically fitted. The characterization of the selected thin-films was analyzed using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In order to complete the characterization the photocurrent of ZnTe thin-film on Si substrate was measured. The optical nonlinearity of ZnTe thin-film was theoretically proposed and experimentally measured.

  2. Large ordered arrays of single photon sources based on II-VI semiconductor colloidal quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Dang, Cuong; Urabe, Hayato; Wang, Jing; Sun, Shouheng; Nurmikko, Arto

    2008-11-24

    In this paper, we developed a novel and efficient method of deterministically organizing colloidal particles on structured surfaces over macroscopic areas. Our approach utilizes integrated solution-based processes of dielectric encapsulation and electrostatic-force-mediated self-assembly, which allow precisely controlled placement of sub-10nm sized particles at single particle resolution. As a specific demonstration, motivated by application to single photon sources, highly ordered 2D arrays of single II-VI semiconductor colloidal quantum dots (QDs) were created by this method. Individually, the QDs display triggered single photon emission at room temperature with characteristic photon antibunching statistics, suggesting a pathway to scalable quantum optical radiative systems.

  3. Structural Fluctuations and Thermophysical Properties of Molten II-VI Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, Shen; Li, Chao; Scripa, R.; Lehoczky, Sandra L.; Kim, Y. W.; Baird, J. K.; Lin, B.; Ban, Heng; Benmore, Chris

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the project are to conduct ground-based experimental and theoretical research on the structural fluctuations and thermophysical properties of molten II-VI compounds to enhance the basic understanding of the existing flight experiments in microgravity materials science programs as well as to study the fundamental heterophase fluctuation phenomena in these melts by: 1) conducting neutron scattering analysis and measuring quantitatively the relevant thermophysical properties of the II-VI melts (such as viscosity, electrical conductivity, thermal diffusivity and density) as well as the relaxation characteristics of these properties to advance the understanding of the structural properties and the relaxation phenomena in these melts and 2) performing theoretical analyses on the melt systems to interpret the experimental results. All the facilities required for the experimental measurements have been procured, installed and tested. It has long been recognized that liquid Te presents a unique case having properties between those of metals and semiconductors. The electrical conductivity for Te melt increases rapidly at melting point, indicating a semiconductor-metal transition. Te melts comprise two features, which are usually considered to be incompatible with each other: covalently bound atoms and metallic-like behavior. Why do Te liquids show metallic behavior? is one of the long-standing issues in liquid metal physics. Since thermophysical properties are very sensitive to the structural variations of a melt, we have conducted extensive thermophysical measurements on Te melt.

  4. Bulk Growth of Wide Band Gap II-VI Compound Semiconductors by Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of physical vapor transport of II-VI semiconducting compounds was studied both theoretically, using a one-dimensional diffusion model, as well as experimentally. It was found that the vapor phase stoichiometry is critical in determining the vapor transport rate. The experimental heat treatment methods to control the vapor composition over the starting materials were investigated and the effectiveness of the heat treatments was confirmed by partial pressure measurements using an optical absorption technique. The effect of residual (foreign) gas on the transport rate was also studies theoretically by the diffusion model and confirmed experimentally by the measurements of total pressure and compositions of the residual gas. An in-situ dynamic technique for the transport rate measurements and a further extension of the technique that simultaneously measured the partial pressures and transport rates were performed and, for the first time, the experimentally determined mass fluxes were compared with those calculated, without any adjustable parameters, from the diffusion model. Using the information obtained from the experimental transport rate measurements as guideline high quality bulk crystal of wide band gap II-VI semiconductor were grown from the source materials which undergone the same heat treatment methods. The grown crystals were then extensively characterized with emphasis on the analysis of the crystalline structural defects.

  5. Structural Fluctuation and Thermophysical Properties of Molten II-VI Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the project is to conduct ground-based experimental and theoretical research on the structural fluctuations and thermophysical properties of molten II-VI compounds to enhance the basic understanding of the existing flight experiments in microgravity materials science programs and to study the fundamental heterophase fluctuations phenomena in these melts by: 1) Conducting neutron scattering analysis and measuring quantitatively the relevant thermophysical properties of the II-VI melts such as viscosity, electrical conductivity, thermal diffusivity and density as well as the relaxation characteristics of these properties to advance the understanding of the structural properties and the relaxation phenomena in these melts and 2) Performing theoretical analyses on the melt systems to interpret the experimental results. All the facilities required for the experimental measurements have been procured, installed and tested. A relaxation phenomenon, which shows a slow drift of the measured thermal conductivity toward the equilibrium value after cooling of the sample, was observed for the first time. An apparatus based on the transient torque induced by a rotating magnetic field has been developed to determine the viscosity and electrical conductivity of semiconducting liquids. Viscosity measurements on molten tellurium showed similar relaxation behavior as the measured diffusivity. Neutron scattering experiments were performed on the HgTe and HgZnTe melts and the results on pair distribution showed better resolution than previous reported.

  6. Growth of Wide Band Gap II-VI Compound Semiconductors by Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Sha, Yi-Gao

    1995-01-01

    The studies on the crystal growth and characterization of II-VI wide band gap compound semiconductors, such as ZnTe, CdS, ZnSe and ZnS, have been conducted over the past three decades. The research was not quite as extensive as that on Si, III-V, or even narrow band gap II-VI semiconductors because of the high melting temperatures as well as the specialized applications associated with these wide band gap semiconductors. In the past several years, major advances in the thin film technology such as Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) have demonstrated the applications of these materials for the important devices such as light-emitting diode, laser and ultraviolet detectors and the tunability of energy band gap by employing ternary or even quaternary systems of these compounds. At the same time, the development in the crystal growth of bulk materials has not advanced far enough to provide low price, high quality substrates needed for the thin film growth technology.

  7. Small clusters of II-VI materials: ZniSi, i=1-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matxain, Jon M.; Fowler, Joseph E.; Ugalde, Jesus M.

    2000-05-01

    The improvements in the characterization of II-VI compound-based solar cells and the recent experimental characterization of small clusters and nanoparticles make the study of small II-VI clusters very interesting. In this work, the ground states of small ZniSi clusters are studied, i=1-9. Ringlike structures have been found to be the global minima in the case of the smaller studied clusters, i.e., i=1-5, and three-dimensional spheroid structures for larger ones, i=6-9. This is due to the stability of obtuse S-Zn-S angles in the first case, and to the stability gained from higher coordination in the second case. The three-dimensional structures may be envisioned as being built from Zn2S2 and Zn3S3 rings, the last ring being the building block of the zinc-sulfide crystal structures, both zinc blende and wurtzite. As cluster size increases, the geometry of the Zn3S3 rings is closer to the one of bulk. Moreover, this structural tendency produces trends to bulklike properties in other properties such as cohesive energy and atomic charges.

  8. Novel Asymmetric III-V/II-VI Hybrid Heterostructures for High-Power Mid-Infrared Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    asymmetric barriers for electrons and holes at the interfaces between a narrow-gap quantum well (QW) active layer and wide-gap cladding layers, which can...CdMgSe layers on InAs. In-situ study of growth initiation stage by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). 1.3. The MBE growth condition...height of the energy barriers U1 and U2, that is equal to (ECR-ECN) for electrons and (EVN- EVP) for holes respectively, are chosen to exceed 3-5 kT at

  9. Realistic tight-binding model for the electronic structure of II-VI semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapra, Sameer; Shanthi, N.; Sarma, D. D.

    2002-11-01

    We analyze the electronic structure of group II-VI semiconductors obtained within linearized muffin-tin-orbital approach in order to arrive at a realistic and minimal tight-binding model, parametrized to provide an accurate description of both valence and conduction bands. It is shown that a nearest-neighbor sp3 d5 model is fairly sufficient to describe the electronic structure of these systems over a wide energy range, obviating the use of any fictitious s* orbital. The obtained hopping parameters obey the universal scaling law proposed by Harrison, ensuring transferability to other systems. Furthermore, we show that certain subtle features in the bonding of these compounds require the inclusion of anion-anion interactions in addition to the nearest-neighbor cation-anion interactions.

  10. Boîtes quantiques II-VI comme sources de photons uniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couteau, C.; Moehl, S.; Tinjod, F.; Suffczynski, J.; Romestain, R.; Vial, J.-C.; Gérard, J.-M.; Kheng, K.; Poizat, J.-P.

    2004-11-01

    Dans le cadre de l'information et de la communication quantique, la nécessité d'avoir des photons uniques monomodes et à la demande se révèle cruciale. De récents travaux théoriques ont montré la possibilité de réaliser des portes logiques quantiques n'utilisant que de l'optique linéaire. C'est dans ce contexte que s'insère notre travail sur l'élaboration et l'utilisation de boîtes quantiques semi-conductrices II-VI comme “pistolet” à photons. Des expériences de dégroupement et d'interférences à 2 photons sont les premiers pas nécessaires pour caractériser notre source.

  11. Mid-IR photoluminescence and lasing of chromium doped II-VI quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyshkin, D. V.; Kim, C.; Moskalev, I. S.; Fedorov, V. V.; Mirov, S. B.

    2008-02-01

    Here we report a new method for transition-metal (TM) doped II-VI Quantum Dots (QD) fabrication and first mid-IR (2-3 μm) lasing at 77K of Cr 2+:ZnS QD powder (~ 27 nm grain size). Cr 2+:ZnS nanocrystalline dots (NCDs) were prepared using laser ablation. The mid-IR photoluminescence (PL) and lasing were studied. The dependence of PL spectrum profile on pump energy demonstrated a threshold behavior accompanied by the appearance of a sharp stimulated emission band around 2230 nm. The stimulated emission band is shifted to the longer wavelength with respect to the spontaneous emission and corresponds to the peak of the Cr:ZnS gain spectrum. This was also accompanied by a considerable lifetime shortening.

  12. Characterization of convection related defects in II-VI compound semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, August F.

    1993-01-01

    The research carried out under NAG8-913, 'Characterization of Convection Related Defects in II-VI Compound Semiconductors', was aimed at exploration of the potential of axial magnetic fields for melt stabilization when applied in Bridgman geometry to the growth of HgMnTe. The thrust of the work was directed at the experimental establishment of the limits of magnetic melt stabilization during crystal growth and at the analytical verification of the effects of stabilization on critical materials properties. The data obtained indicate noticeable stabilization effects, particularly as far as the formation of microscopic compositional inhomogeneities is concerned. The effects of magnetic fields on precipitate formation are found to be minor. Magnetic field effects were investigated for both 'Bridgman' and 'travelling heater' geometries. The research was conducted during the period from May 22 to September 30, 1992.

  13. Phase transitions in Group III-V and II-VI semiconductors at high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, S. C.; Liu, C. Y.; Spain, I. L.; Skelton, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    The structures and transition pressures of Group III-V and II-VI semiconductors and of a pseudobinary system (Ga/x/In/1-x/Sb) have been investigated. Results indicate that GaP, InSb, GaSb, GaAs and possible AlP assume Metallic structures at high pressures; a tetragonal, beta-Sn-like structure is adopted by only InSb and GaSb. The rocksalt phase is preferred in InP, InAs, AlSb, ZnO and ZnS. The model of Van Vechten (1973) gives transition pressures which are in good agreement with measured values, but must be refined to account for the occurrence of the ionic rocksalt structure in some compounds. In addition, discrepancies between the theoretical scaling values for volume changes at the semiconductor-to-metal transitions are observed.

  14. Homogeneous linewidth of confined electron-hole-pair states in II-VI quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woggon, U.; Gaponenko, S.; Langbein, W.; Uhrig, A.; Klingshirn, C.

    1993-02-01

    We present results of nanosecond-hole-burning experiments of small CdSe and CdS1-xSex quantum dots embedded in glass at various temperatures. The spectral width of the holes exhibits a complex interplay between excitation conditions and illumination history. Among a great variety of investigated II-VI quantum dots in glasses from various sources, we find, after strong laser illumination, samples showing spectrally narrow holes similar to those reported for quantum dots embedded in organic matrices with interfaces well defined by organic groups. These sharp nonlinear resonances with a halfwidth Γ of only 10 meV at T=20 K allow one to investigate the energetic distance of the lowest hole levels and the temperature dependence of the homogeneous line broadening. The differences in the linewidth in the hole-burning spectra are attributed to changes of interface charge states or interface polarizations under high excitation.

  15. Crystal Growth of II-VI Semiconducting Alloys by Directional Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Szofran, Frank R.; Su, Ching-Hua; Cobb, Sharon D.; Scripa, Rosalia A.; Sha, Yi-Gao

    1999-01-01

    This research study is investigating the effects of a microgravity environment during the crystal growth of selected II-VI semiconducting alloys on their compositional, metallurgical, electrical and optical properties. The on-going work includes both Bridgman-Stockbarger and solvent growth methods, as well as growth in a magnetic field. The materials investigated are II-VI, Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Te, and Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Se, where x is between 0 and 1 inclusive, with particular emphasis on x-values appropriate for infrared detection and imaging in the 5 to 30 micron wavelength region. Wide separation between the liquidus and solidus of the phase diagrams with consequent segregation during solidification and problems associated with the high volatility of one of the components (Hg), make the preparation of homogeneous, high-quality, bulk crystals of the alloys an extremely difficult nearly an impossible task in a gravitational environment. The three-fold objectives of the on-going investigation are as follows: (1) To determine the relative contributions of gravitationally-driven fluid flows to the compositional redistribution observed during the unidirectional crystal growth of selected semiconducting solid solution alloys having large separation between the liquidus and solidus of the constitutional phase diagram; (2) To ascertain the potential role of irregular fluid flows and hydrostatic pressure effects in generation of extended crystal defects and second-phase inclusions in the crystals; and, (3) To obtain a limited amount of "high quality" materials needed for bulk crystal property characterizations and for the fabrication of various device structures needed to establish ultimate material performance limits. The flight portion of the study was to be accomplished by performing growth experiments using the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) manifested to fly on various Spacelab missions.

  16. All-vapor processing of p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor and ohmic contacts thereof

    DOEpatents

    McCandless, Brian E.

    2001-06-26

    An all dry method for producing solar cells is provided comprising first heat-annealing a II-VI semiconductor; enhancing the conductivity and grain size of the annealed layer; modifying the surface and depositing a tellurium layer onto the enhanced layer; and then depositing copper onto the tellurium layer so as to produce a copper tellurium compound on the layer.

  17. Analytical Electron Diffraction from Iii-V and II-Vi Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spellward, Paul

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This thesis describes the development and evaluation of a number of new TEM-based techniques for the measurement of composition in ternary III-V and II-VI semiconductors. New methods of polarity determination in binary and ternary compounds are also presented. The theory of high energy electron diffraction is outlined, with particular emphasis on zone axis diffraction from well-defined strings. An account of TEM microstructural studies of Cd_{rm x}Hg _{rm 1-x}Te and CdTe epitaxial layers, which provided the impetus for developing the diffraction-based analytical techniques, is given. The wide range of TEM-based compositional determination techniques is described. The use of HOLZ deficiency lines to infer composition from a lattice parameter measurement is evaluated. In the case of Cd_{ rm x}Hg_{rm 1-x}Te, it is found to be inferior to other techniques developed. Studies of dynamical aspects of HOLZ diffraction can yield information about the dispersion surface from which a measure of composition may be obtained. This technique is evaluated for Al_{rm x}Ga_{rm 1-x} As, in which it is found to be of some use, and for Cd_{rm x}Hg _{rm 1-x}Te, in which the large Debye-Waller factor associated with mercury in discovered to render the method of little value. A number of critical voltages may be measured in medium voltage TEMs. The (111) zone axis critical voltage of Cd_{rm x}Hg _{rm 1-x}Te is found to vary significantly with x and forms the basis of an accurate technique for composition measurement in that ternary compound. Other critical voltage phenomena are investigated. In Al _{rm x}Ga_ {rm 1-x}As and other light ternaries, a non-systematic critical voltage is found to vary with x, providing a good indicator of composition. Critical voltage measurements may be made by conventional CBED or by various other techniques, which may also simultaneously yield information on the spatial variation of composition. The

  18. Epitaxial growth and characterization of II-VI-semiconductor, one-dimensional nanostructures and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zuoming

    In this thesis, I present the results of three material science studies on II-VI semiconductor nanostructures and thin films: (1) epitaxial growth and characterization of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures, (2) crystal structure and self-assembly of ultrathin ZnO nanorods, and (3) investigations of surface chemistry for atomic layer epitaxy of ZnS thin film on silicon with chemical precursors. First, in Chapter 3, I present a comparative study of metal-surface-catalyzed growth of ZnO nanowires using four different metal catalysts and using substrates of differing materials and crystal orientation. Multiple material diagnostics were employed to compare the material, structural, and optical properties of the nanowires grown using these different surface systems. My study showed that the growth modes of nanowires are dependent on the choice of surface catalysts. Further, the study revealed that these differences in growth modes are also closely related to the differences in materials properties of these wires including the degree of nanowire alignment on substrates, and the atomic composition ratio of Zn/O, as well as the relative intensity of the oxygen vacancy-related emission in photoluminescence spectra. Second, in Chapter 4, I investigated the growth and self-assembly of ultrathin ZnO nanorods using a combination of small-angle and wide-angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SAXRD and WAXRD), and TEM. SAXRD and TEM were used to investigate nanorod self-assembly and the influence of surfactant/precursor ratio on self-assembly; WAXRD were used to study the effects of growth chemistry and physical parameters on the nanorod size and lattice constants. These measurements revealed that these rods self-assemble into periodic superstructures and that the surfactant ligands are important in controlling self-assembly. WAXRD results suggest that surface-dependent changes, such as the binding of surface ligands or other adsorbed species may dominate the changes in nanorod

  19. Structural Fluctuations and Thermophysical Properties of Molten II-VI Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, S.; Li, C.; Scripa, R.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Kim, Y. M.; Baird, J. K.; Lin, B.; Ban, H.; Benmore, Chris; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the project are to conduct ground-based experimental and theoretical research on the structural fluctuations and thermophysical properties of molten II-VI compounds to enhance the basic understanding of the existing flight experiments in microgravity materials science programs as well as to study the fundamental heterophase fluctuation phenomena in these melts by: 1) conducting neutron scattering analysis and measuring quantitatively the relevant thermophysical properties of the II-VI melts (such as viscosity, electrical conductivity, thermal diffusivity and density) as well as the relaxation characteristics of these properties to advance the understanding of the structural properties and the relaxation phenomena in these melts and 2) performing theoretical analyses on the melt systems to interpret the experimental results. All the facilities required for the experimental measurements have been procured, installed and tested. Thermal diffusivity of molten tellurium has been measured by a laser flash method in the temperature range of 500 C to 900 C. The measured diffusivity as a function of temperature agrees fairly well with published data. However, a relaxation phenomenon, which shows a slow drift of the measured thermal conductivity toward the equilibrium value after cooling of the melt, was observed for the first time. An apparatus based on the transient torque induced by a rotating magnetic field has been developed to determine the viscosity and electrical conductivity of semiconducting liquids. Viscosity measurements on molten tellurium showed a similar relaxation behavior to the measured diffusivity. The density and volume expansion coefficients for pure Te and HgTe melts were measured as a function of temperature using a pycnometric method. A density maximum was found for both melts but no relaxation behavior was observed. Neutron scattering experiments were performed on the HgTe and HgZnTe melts and the results on pair distribution showed

  20. Device Processing of II-VI Semiconductor Films and Quantum Well Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-07

    The objectives of this program is to develop a device processing technology necessary for proper utilization of Hg-based heterostructures and...superlattices in device applications. The specific focus or long term goal guiding the direction of the program is to develop the devices and processing ... technology required for an IR focal plane integrated with on-board signal processing electronics.

  1. Batatinosides II-VI, acylated lipooligosaccharides from the resin glycosides of sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Escalante-Sánchez, Edgar; Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Linares, Edelmira; Bye, Robert; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio

    2008-10-22

    Sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas) belongs to the Convolvulaceae (morning glory family) and is native to Mexico and Central America. Its edible tuberous roots have been much appreciated since pre-Hispanic times in Mesoamerica and now play an important role as a basic diet staple and a medicinal plant worldwide. The hexane-soluble extract from roots, through preparative-scale recycling HPLC, yielded five new lipophilic oligosaccharides of jalapinolic acid, batatinosides II-VI ( 1- 5), as well as the known pescapreins I ( 6) and VII ( 7) and murucoidin I ( 8), which are part of the purgative resin glycoside mixture. NMR spectroscopy and FAB mass spectrometry were used to characterize their structures. Compounds 1 and 2 are tetraglycosidic lactones of operculinic acid C. The pentasaccharide structures for compounds 3 and 4 were confirmed to be macrolactones of simonic acid B, and that characterized for 5 was derived from operculinic acid A. The lactonization site of the aglycone was placed at C-3 of the second saccharide unit in all compounds except 4, where it was placed at C-2. All compounds contain an esterifying residue that is composed of a long-chain fatty acid, n-decanoic acid (capric) or n-dodecanoic acid (lauric). In compound 3, an additional short-chain fatty acid, (2 S)-methylbutyric acid, was also identified.

  2. Magnetization studies of II-VI semiconductor columnar quantum dots with type-II band alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eginligil, M.; Sellers, I. R.; McCombe, B. D.; Chou, W.-C.; Kuskovsky, I. L.

    2009-03-01

    We report SQUID magnetization measurements of MBE-grown type-II, II-VI semiconductor quantum dot (QD) samples, with and without Mn incorporation. In all samples, the easy axis is out-of-plane, possibly due to columnar QD formation that arises from strain interaction between adjacent thin dot-containing layers. In addition, both types of QDs display a non-zero spontaneous magnetic ordering at 300 K. One set of samples consists of five-layers of (Zn,Mn)Te/ZnSe with a nominal (Zn,Mn)Te thickness of 3 nm, and ZnSe spacer thickness of 5 nm and 20 nm. These magnetic QD samples show magnetization vs. temperature behavior that can be interpreted in terms of two independent FM phases characterized by transition temperatures TC1 < TC2. A sample containing no Mn consists of 130 ZnTe/ZnSe layers, which forms Zn(Se,Te) QD layers separated by ZnSe spacers. Evidence of ferromagnetism is also seen in this structure, but the spontaneous magnetization is much weaker. For this sample only one phase is seen with TC above 300 K. Results will be discussed in terms of magneto-polaronic effects and defect-level induced ferromagnetism.

  3. Chemical trend of exchange coupling in II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanier, Thomas; Hayn, Roland; Virot, François

    2010-03-01

    We present an ab-initio study of the magnetic couplings in Mn- and Co-doped II-VI DMS ZnA (A=O,S,Se,Te). We show the necessity of taking into account the strong electron correlation on the transition metal (TM) 3d level to reproduce correctly the experimental chemical trend. Within the LSDA+U (local spin density approximation with a Hubbard-type correction to TM 3d electrons), we find (i) the d-d exchange couplings between nearest-neighbor magnetic ions to be antiferromagnetic (AFM) of the order of -1 meV and (ii) the sp-d exchange constants between magnetic ions and conduction (valence) band electrons (holes) Nα (Nβ) to be FM (AFM) of the order of 0.1 eV (-1 eV). In ZnMnO and ZnCoO, the strong p-d hybridisation leads to the presence of a bound state above the valence band, the failure of the commonly-used Larson perturbation theory formulae for p-d and d-d exchange interactions [1] and prevents high-Tc ferromagnetism [2]. [1] B. Larson et al. , PRB 37, 4137 (1988) [2] T. Chanier et al. , PRB 79, 205204 (2009)

  4. Growth of II-VI Solid Solutions in the Presence of a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, D. C; Motakef, S.; Dudley, M.; Matyi, R.; Volz, H.

    1999-01-01

    The application of a rotating magnetic field (RMF)in the frequency range 60-400 Hz and field strength of the order of 2-8 mT to crystal growth has received increasing attention in recent years. To take full advantage of the control of fluid flow by the forces applied by the field, the liquid column must be electrically conducting. Also, the application of RMF to the directional solidification of a column of liquid can result in complete mixing in the resultant solid. Thus, the technique of RMF is suited to solvent zones and float zones where the composition of the liquid is more readily controlled. In the work we report on, numerical modeling has been applied to II-VI systems, particularly tellurium based traveling heater techniques (THM). Results for a spectrum of field strengths and acceleration levels will be presented. These show clearly the effects of competing buoyancy forces and electromagnetic stirring. Crystals of cadmium zinc telluride and mercury cadmium telluride have been grown terrestrially from a tellurium solvent zone. The effects of the RMF during these experiments will be demonstrated with micrographs showing etch pits, white beam x-ray synchrotron topographs and triple axis x-ray diffraction.

  5. Quantum Dot Channel (QDC) FETs with Wraparound II-VI Gate Insulators: Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, F.; Lingalugari, M.; Kondo, J.; Mirdha, P.; Suarez, E.; Chandy, J.; Heller, E.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents simulations predicting the feasibility of 9-nm wraparound quantum dot channel (QDC) field-effect transistors (FETs). In particular, II-VI lattice-matched layers which reduce the density of interface states, serving as top (tunnel gate), side, and bottom gate insulators, have been simulated. Quantum simulations show FET operation with voltage swing of ~0.2 V. Incorporation of cladded quantum dots, such as SiO x -Si and GeO x -Ge, under the gate tunnel oxide results in electrical transport in one or more quantum dot layers which form a quantum dot superlattice (QDSL). Long-channel QDC FETs have experimental multistate drain current ( I D)-gate voltage ( V G) and drain current ( I D)-drain voltage ( V D) characteristics, which can be attributed to the manifestation of extremely narrow energy minibands formed in the QDSL. An approach for modeling the multistate I D- V G characteristics is reported. The multistate characteristics of QDC FETs permit design of compact two-bit multivalued logic circuits.

  6. Surface stability and the selection rules of substrate orientation for optimal growth of epitaxial II-VI semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Wan-Jian; Yang, Ji-Hui; Zaunbrecher, Katherine; Gessert, Tim; Barnes, Teresa; Wei, Su-Huai; Yan, Yanfa

    2015-10-05

    The surface structures of ionic zinc-blende CdTe (001), (110), (111), and (211) surfaces are systematically studied by first-principles density functional calculations. Based on the surface structures and surface energies, we identify the detrimental twinning appearing in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of II-VI compounds as the (111) lamellar twin boundaries. To avoid the appearance of twinning in MBE growth, we propose the following selection rules for choosing optimal substrate orientations: (1) the surface should be nonpolar so that there is no large surface reconstructions that could act as a nucleation center and promote the formation of twins; (2) the surface structure should have low symmetry so that there are no multiple equivalent directions for growth. These straightforward rules, in consistent with experimental observations, provide guidelines for selecting proper substrates for high-quality MBE growth of II-VI compounds.

  7. Growth of II-VI thin-films from single-source precursors based on sterically encumbered sitel ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, J.; Seligson, A.L.; Walker, J.M.; Bourret, E.D.; Bonasia, P.J.

    1992-04-01

    We have developed a new route to MOCVD of II-VI compounds based on the use of novel single-source precursors in which the II-VI elements are combined at the molecular level in a single covalent compound. We have prepared and fully characterized a number of new derivatives of zinc, cadmium and mercury incorporating large, sterically demanding tellurolate ligands of general formula: M(sitel){sub 2} where sitel = -TeSi(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 3}. The crystalline compounds are relatively volatile and are easily manipulated under nitrogen. Several of these compounds have been tested for their suitability as precursors in the MOCVD process. Clean pyrolysis reactions and deposition of thin films were achieved. The stoichiometry of the pyrolysis reaction has been determined by analysis of the reaction by-products.

  8. Temperature Dependence of Density, Viscosity and Electrical Conductivity for Hg-Based II-VI Semiconductor Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.; Scripa, R. N.; Su, C.-H.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    The relaxation phenomenon of semiconductor melts, or the change of melt structure with time, impacts the crystal growth process and the eventual quality of the crystal. The thermophysical properties of the melt are good indicators of such changes in melt structure. Also, thermophysical properties are essential to the accurate predication of the crystal growth process by computational modeling. Currently, the temperature dependent thermophysical property data for the Hg-based II-VI semiconductor melts are scarce. This paper reports the results on the temperature dependence of melt density, viscosity and electrical conductivity of Hg-based II-VI compounds. The melt density was measured using a pycnometric method, and the viscosity and electrical conductivity were measured by a transient torque method. Results were compared with available published data and showed good agreement. The implication of the structural changes at different temperature ranges was also studied and discussed.

  9. Real-Time Observation of Morphological Transformations in II-VI Semiconducting Nanobelts via Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rahul; Zakharov, Dmitri N; Krook, Nadia M; Liu, Wenjing; Berger, Jacob S; Stach, Eric A; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-05-13

    It has been observed that wurtzite II-VI semiconducting nanobelts transform into single-crystal, periodically branched nanostructures upon heating. The mechanism of this novel transformation has been elucidated by heating II-VI nanobelts in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) in oxidizing, reducing, and inert atmospheres while observing their structural changes with high spatial resolution. The interplay of surface reconstruction of high-energy surfaces of the wurtzite phase and environment-dependent anisotropic chemical etching of certain crystal surfaces in the branching mechanism of nanobelts has been observed. Understanding of structural and chemical transformations of materials via in situ microscopy techniques and their role in designing new nanostructured materials is discussed.

  10. Stable ohmic contacts to thin films of p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, L.F.; Biter, W.J.

    1988-04-05

    A photovolatic device is described comprising: a light transmissive substrate; an electrically conductive, transparent layer disposed on the substrate as a first electrode; a layer of a first semiconductor disposed on the first electrode; a p-type thin film of a tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor disposed on the first semiconductor to form a photoresponsive junction with it; and a second electrode contacting the thin film.

  11. II-VI compounds 1985; Proceedings of the Second International Conference, Aussois, France, March 4-8, 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marfaing, Y.; Triboulet, R.; Lunn, B.; Mullin, J. B.

    1985-08-01

    Among the topics considered concerning II-VI compounds are growth of low resistivity high-quality ZnSe, ZnS films by low-pressure metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy growth of Cd(x)Zn(1-x)S, growth of high-purity ZnSe by sublimation traveling-heater method (THM) and the characteristics of the Y and Z deep level emission line, properties of CdTe crystals grown by THM using Cd as the solvent, and liquid-phase epitaxy growth and characterization of 1.3-micron (Hg, Cd)Te layers. Also considered are the self-consistent electronic structure of vacancies in semiconductors, defects in cadmium selenide, luminescence characterization of residual impurities in CdTe grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and photoluminescence of Cd-rich Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys with x = 0.7-1.0. Additional topics discussed are optically detected magnetic resonance studies of recombination emission in II-VI compounds, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and magnetotransport studies on the surface of CdHgTe, cadmium mercury telluride infrared detectors, and electron beam-pumped II-VI lasers.

  12. Investigation of II-VI Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Sensitized Solar Cell Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoz, Sabit

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, also referred to as quantum dots (QDs) which have advantages of low-cost, photostability, high molar extinction coefficients and size-dependent optical properties, have been the focus of great scientific and technological efforts in solar cells development. Due to the multi-electron generation effect, the theoretical maximum efficiency of quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) is much higher than that of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Thus QDSSCs have a clear potential to overtake the efficiency of other kinds of solar cells. Doped semiconductor QDs can not only retain nearly all advantages of intrinsic QDs, but also have additional absorption bands for improved efficiency. This approach is particularly important for wide band gap semiconductors, for example, zinc based QDs. Zinc based are desirable candidates as they are inexpensive, earth abundant and nontoxic. When doped, they can cover a broad range of visible spectrum. In my project, I aim at developing novel methods for the preparation of II-VI QDs and investigating the effects of doping on the properties and performances of QDSSCs. Cadmium selenide (CdSe), manganese doped cadmium selenide (Mn:CdSe), and manganese doped zinc sulfide (Mn:ZnS) QDs have been synthesized by laser ablation in water. The structural and luminescent properties of the QDs have been investigated. In addition, QDSSC performances of the samples have been measured using nanowire electrode made of ZnO and Zn2SnO 4. I have also successfully synthesized europium doped zinc sulfide (Eu:ZnS) and manganese doped cadmium sulfide (Mn:CdS) nanoparticles by wet chemical method, and analyzed structural, optical, and magnetic properties as well as the device performance of the nanoparticles.

  13. X-ray absorption and diffraction study of II VI dilute oxide semiconductor alloy epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscherini, F.; Malvestuto, M.; Ciatto, G.; D'Acapito, F.; Bisognin, G.; DeSalvador, D.; Berti, M.; Felici, M.; Polimeni, A.; Nabetani, Y.

    2007-11-01

    Dilute oxide semiconductor alloys obtained by adding oxygen to a II-VI binary compound are of potential applicative interest for blue-light emitters in which the oxygen content could be used to tune the band gap. Moreover, their properties can be usefully compared to the more thoroughly studied dilute nitrides in order to gain insight into the common mechanisms which give rise to their highly non-linear physical properties. Recently, it has been possible to deposit ZnSeO and ZnSeOS epilayers on GaAs(001), which exhibit a red-shift of the band gap and giant optical bowing. In order to provide a structural basis for an understanding of their physical properties, we have performed a study of a set of ZnSeO and ZnSeOS epilayers on GaAs by high resolution x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption fine structure. We have found that the strain goes from compressive to tensile with increasing O and S concentration and that, while all epilayers are never found to be pseudomorphic, the ternary ones exhibit a low relaxed fraction if compared to the ZnSe/GaAs sample. O K-edge x-ray absorption near edge spectra and corresponding simulations within the full multiple-scattering regime show that O is substitutionally incorporated in the host lattice. Zn and Se K-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure detect the formation of Zn-O and Zn-S bonds; the analysis of these spectra within multiple-scattering theory has allowed us to measure the local structural parameters. The value of Zn-Se bond length is found to be in agreement with estimates based on models of local distortions in strained and relaxed epilayers; an increase of the mean-square relative displacement is detected at high O and S concentration and is related to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

  14. Spectroscopic characterization of Fe2+-doped II-VI ternary and quaternary mid-IR laser active powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, A.; Martyshkin, D. V.; Fedorov, V. V.; Mirov, S. B.

    2014-02-01

    We report on spectroscopic characterization of laser active powders based on iron doped II-VI ternary and quaternary semiconductors for mid-IR laser applications. Iron doped Cd1-x MnxTe, Cd1-x MnxS, Cd1-xMnxSe, Cd0.5Mn0.5S0.5Se0.5 , Cd1-xZnxTe compounds with x=0.5-0.25, were prepared by using thermo diffusion technique. The starting binary powders were mixed in the appropriate molar ratios, sealed in evacuated (10-3 Torr) quartz ampoules, and annealed at 800-1000oC for several days. Samples composition, integrity, and grain size were characterized by micro-Raman and Xray diffraction and revealed a variation of the crystal field parameters depending on powder composition. Fe2+ photoluminescence was characterized by spectral band position (normalized with respect to the detection platform spectral sensitivity) and lifetime at different temperatures, enabling calculation of the absorption and emission crosssections. Practical utility of the developed powders was demonstrated by a room temperature random lasing of iron doped Cd0.5Zn0.5Te powders over 5620-6020 nm spectral range pumped by a 2.94 μm radiation of a Q-switched Er:YAG laser. In summary, the following has been accomplished: (1) It was demonstrated that laser active Fe2+ doped ternary and quaternary II-VI materials can be produced by simple annealing of the commercially available binary powders omitting expensive and complicated crystal growth processes; (2) It is possible to effectively shift PL of Fe2+ in II-VI host materials towards shorter or longer wavelength by varying composition, type and amount of the second cation in ternary II-VI materials; (3) Major spectroscopic characteristics of Fe2+ doped II-VI ternary and quaternary compounds were obtained and their practical utility for mid-IR lasing demonstrated.

  15. Structural and optical properties of II-VI and III-V compound semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingyi

    This dissertation is on the study of structural and optical properties of some III-V and II-VI compound semiconductors. The first part of this dissertation is a study of the deformation mechanisms associated with nanoindentation and nanoscratching of InP, GaN, and ZnO crystals. The second part is an investigation of some fundamental issues regarding compositional fluctuations and microstructure in GaInNAs and InAlN alloys. In the first part, the microstructure of (001) InP scratched in an atomic force microscope with a small diamond tip has been studied as a function of applied normal force and crystalline direction in order to understand at the nanometer scale the deformation mechanisms in the zinc-blende structure. TEM images show deeper dislocation propagation for scratches along <110> compared to <100>. High strain fields were observed in <100> scratches, indicating hardening due to locking of dislocations gliding on different slip planes. Reverse plastic flow have been observed in <110> scratches in the form of pop-up events that result from recovery of stored elastic strain. In a separate study, nanoindentation-induced plastic deformation has been studied in c-, a-, and m-plane ZnO single crystals and c-plane GaN respectively, to study the deformation mechanism in wurtzite hexagonal structures. TEM results reveal that the prime deformation mechanism is slip on basal planes and in some cases, on pyramidal planes, and strain built up along particular directions. No evidence of phase transformation or cracking was observed in both materials. CL imaging reveals quenching of near band-edge emission by dislocations. In the second part, compositional inhomogeneity in quaternary GaInNAs and ternary InAlN alloys has been studied using TEM. It is shown that exposure to antimony during growth of GaInNAs results in uniform chemical composition in the epilayer, as antimony suppresses the surface mobility of adatoms that otherwise leads to two-dimensional growth and

  16. Precipitation of anion inclusions and plasticity under hydrostatic pressure in II-VI crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, G. P.; Weinstein, B. A.

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation of anion nanocrystals (NCs) in initially stoichiometric II-VI crystals under hydrostatic pressure and light exposure is explored by Raman spectroscopy, and the mechanism for this effect is analyzed by model calculations. ZnSe, ZnTe, and CdSe crystals are studied in bulk and/or epitaxial-film forms. Se and Te NCs in the trigonal (t) phase precipitate in ZnSe and ZnTe, but the effect is absent or minimal in CdSe. The precipitation is induced by pressure and assisted by sub-band-gap light. In ZnSe, t-Se NCs appear for pressure exceeding 4.8 GPa and light flux above 50 -70 W /m m2 . In ZnTe, the precipitation of t-Te NCs requires less pressure to initiate, and there is a clear upper-pressure limit for t-Te nuclei to form. We find also that ZnTe samples with cleavage damage or elevated zinc-vacancy content are more prone to form t-Te NCs at lower pressures (even 1 atm in some cases) and lower flux. The precipitation seen in ZnSe and ZnTe occurs at pressures far below their phase transitions, and cannot be due to those transitions. Rather, we propose that the NCs nucleate on dislocations that arise from hydrostatic-pressure induced plastic flow triggered by noncubic defect sites. Calculations of the kinetic barrier for growth of an optimally shaped nucleus are performed, including hydrostatic pressure in the energy minimization scheme. Using sensible values for the model parameters related to the cohesive energies of Se and Te, the calculations account for our main observations, including the existence of an upper pressure limit for precipitation, and the absence of precipitation in CdSe. We consider the effects of pressure-induced precipitate formation on the I-II phase transitions in a variety of binary semiconductors and make predictions of when this effect should be important.

  17. Solidification of II-VI Compounds in a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, D. C.; Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.; Motakef, S.; Dudley, M.; Matyi, R.

    1999-01-01

    This project is aimed at using a rotating magnetic field (RMF) to control fluid flow and transport during directional solidification of elemental and compound melts. Microgravity experiments have demonstrated that small amounts of residual acceleration of less than a micro-g can initiate and prolong fluid flow, particularly when there is a static component of the field perpendicular to the liquid solid interface. Thus a true diffusion boundary layer is not formed, and it becomes difficult to verify theories of solidification or to achieve diffusion controlled solidification. The RMF superimposes a stirring effect on an electrically conducting liquid, and with appropriate field strengths and frequencies, controlled transport of material through a liquid column can be obtained. As diffusion conditions are precluded and complete mixing conditions prevail, the technique is appropriate for traveling solvent zone or float zone growth methods in which the overall composition of the liquid can be maintained throughout the growth experiment. Crystals grown by RMF techniques in microgravity in previous, unrelated missions have shown exceptional properties. The objective of the project is two-fold, namely (1) using numerical modeling to simulate the behavior of a solvent zone with applied thermal boundary conditions and demonstrate the effects of decreasing gravity levels, or an increasing applied RMF, or both, and (2) to grow elements and II-VI compounds from traveling solvent zones both with and without applied RMFs, and to determine objectively how well the modeling predicts solidification parameters. Numerical modeling has demonstrated that, in the growth of CdTe from a tellurium solution, a rotating magnetic field can advantageously modify the shape of the liquid solid interface such that the interface is convex as seen from the liquid. Under such circumstances, the defect structure is reduced as any defects which are formed tend to grow out and not propagate. The flow

  18. Dielectric response of II-VI semiconductor core-shell ensembles: Study of the lossless optical condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Cruz, R. M.; Kanyinda-Malu, C.

    2014-09-01

    We theoretically investigate optical properties of II-VI core-shell distribution mixtures made of two type-I sized-nanoshells as a plausible negative dielectric function material. The nonlocal optical response of the semiconductor QD is described by using a resonant excitonic dielectric function, while the shell response is modeled with Demangeot formula. Achieving the zero-loss at an optical frequency ω, i.e., ɛeff =ɛeff‧ + iɛeff″ with ɛeff‧ < 0 and ɛeff″ = 0, is of fundamental importance in nanophotonics. Resonant states in semiconductors provide a source for negative dielectric function provided that the dipole strength and the oscillator density are adequate to offset the background. Furthermore, the semiconductor offers the prospect of pumping, either optically or electrically, to achieve a gain mechanism that can offset the loss. We analyse optimal conditions that must be satisfied to achieve semiconductor-based negative index materials. By comparing with II-VI semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) previously reported in the literature, the inclusion of phonon and shell contributions in the ɛeff along with the finite barrier Effective Mass Approximation (EMA) approach, we found similar qualitative behaviours for the ɛeff. The lossless optical condition along with ɛeff‧ < 0 is discussed in terms of sizes, volume fractions and embedding medium of the mixtures' distributions. Furthermore, we estimated optical power to maintain nanocrystals density in excited states and this value is less than that previously obtained in II-VI semiconductor QDs.

  19. Electronic Levels Of Cr2+ Ion Doped In II-VI Compounds Of ZnS - Crystal Field Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivaşcu, Simona

    2012-12-01

    The aim of present paper is to report the results on the modeling of the crystal field and spin-Hamiltonian parameters of Cr2+ doped in II-VI host matrix ZnS and simulate the energy levels scheme of such system taken into account the fine interactions entered in the Hamiltonian of the system. All considered types of such interaction are expected to give information on the new peculiarities of the absorption and emission bands, as well as of non-radiative transitions between the electronic states of impurity ions. The obtained results were disscused, compared with similar obtained results in literature and with experimental data.

  20. Ground-based research of crystal growth of II-VI compound semiconductors by physical vapor transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Gillies, D. C.; Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Su, Ching-Hua; Sha, Yi-Gao; Zhou, W.; Dudley, M.; Liu, Hao-Chieh; Brebrick, R. F.; Wang, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-based investigation of the crystal growth of II-VI semiconductor compounds, including CdTe, CdS, ZnTe, and ZnSe, by physical vapor transport in closed ampoules was performed. The crystal growth experimental process and supporting activities--preparation and heat treatment of starting materials, vapor partial pressure measurements, and transport rate measurements are reported. The results of crystal characterization, including microscopy, microstructure, optical transmission photoluminescence, synchrotron radiation topography, and chemical analysis by spark source mass spectrography, are also discussed.

  1. Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy study on II-VI multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierts, A.; Ulloa, J. M.; ćelebi, C.; Koenraad, P. M.; Boukari, H.; Maingault, L.; André, R.; Mariette, H.

    2007-10-01

    Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy is used to study in the atomic scale the structural properties of ZnSeTe /ZnTe multiple quantum wells and N:ZnTe delta-doped structures. Some peculiar effects are found on the cleaved (110) ZnTe surface plane, which have not been observed in III-V semiconductors. In particular, cleavage induced monatomic wide vacancy chains are always present on the Te sublattice. Furthermore, the semiconductor surface is manipulated when certain positive voltages are applied to the sample. Regarding the heterostructures, the ZnSeTe /ZnTe quantum wells are found to have abrupt interfaces and the Se concentration is determined to be significantly larger than the nominal value.

  2. Elastico-mechanoluminescence and crystal-structure relationships in persistent luminescent materials and II-VI semiconductor phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, B. P.; Chandra, V. K.; Jha, Piyush

    2015-04-01

    Elastico-mechanoluminescence (EML) has recently attracted the attention of a large number of researchers because of its potential in different types of mechano-optical devices. For understanding the mechanism of EML the relationships between elastico-mechanoluminescence (EML) and crystal-structure of a large number of persistent luminescent materials and II-VI semiconductor phosphors known to date are investigated. It is found that, although most of the non-centrosymmetric crystals exhibit EML, certain non-centrosymmetric crystals do not show EML. Whereas, many centrosymmetric crystals do not exhibit EML, certain centrosymmetric crystals exhibit EML. Piezoelectric ZnS:Cu,Cl single crystals do not show EML, but piezoelectric ZnS:Cu,Cl microcrystalline phosphors show very intense EML. Piezoelectric single crystals of undoped ZnS do not show EML. It seems that EML is related to local piezoelectrification near the impurities in crystals where piezoelectric constant is high. Suitable piezoelectric field near the local piezoelectric region and stable charge carriers in traps are required for appearance of EML. The EML of persistent luminescent materials and II-VI semiconductor phosphors can be understood on the basis of piezoelectrically-induced trap-depth reduction model of EML. Using suitable dopants both in non-centrosymmetric and centrosymmetric crystals intense elastico-mechanoluminescent materials emitting desired colours can be tailored, which may find applications in several mechano-optical devices.

  3. Monte-Carlo simulation studies of the effect of temperature and diameter variation on spin transport in II-VI semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishti, Sabiq; Ghosh, Bahniman; Bishnoi, Bhupesh

    2015-02-01

    We have analyzed the spin transport behaviour of four II-VI semiconductor nanowires by simulating spin polarized transport using a semi-classical Monte-Carlo approach. The different scattering mechanisms considered are acoustic phonon scattering, surface roughness scattering, polar optical phonon scattering, and spin flip scattering. The II-VI materials used in our study are CdS, CdSe, ZnO and ZnS. The spin transport behaviour is first studied by varying the temperature (4-500 K) at a fixed diameter of 10 nm and also by varying the diameter (8-12 nm) at a fixed temperature of 300 K. For II-VI compounds, the dominant mechanism is for spin relaxation; D'yakonovPerel and Elliot Yafet have been actively employed in the first order model to simulate the spin transport. The dependence of the spin relaxation length (SRL) on the diameter and temperature has been analyzed.

  4. II-VI Quantum Cascade emitters in the 6-8μm range.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Thor A; De Jesus, Joel; Ravikumar, Arvind P; Gmachl, Claire F; Tamargo, Maria C

    2016-08-01

    We present the growth and characterization of ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade (QC) heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and designed to operate at 6-8μm. These structures utilize the better-understood ZnCdMgSe with InP lattice matched compositions yielding a bandgap of 2.80 eV as compared to previous work which used ZnCdMgSe compositions with bandgaps at 3.00 eV. Grown structures posses good structural and optical properties evidenced in X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence studies. Fabricated mesa devices show temperature dependent I-V measurements with differential resistance of 3.6 Ω, and a turn on voltage of 11V consistent with design specifications. Electroluminescence was observed in these devices up to room temperature with emission centered at 7.1 μm and line widths of ∼16%(ΔE/E) at 80K. The results show that these are well-behaved electroluminescent structures. Addition of waveguide layers and further improvements in well barrier interfaces are being pursued in efforts to demonstrate lasing.

  5. Nonvolatile Memory Effect in Indium Gallium Arsenide-Based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Devices Using II-VI Tunnel Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, P.-Y.; Gogna, M.; Suarez, E.; Karmakar, S.; Al-Amoody, F.; Miller, B. I.; Jain, F. C.

    2011-08-01

    This paper reports the successful use of ZnSe/ZnS/ZnMgS/ZnS/ZnSe as a gate insulator stack for an InGaAs-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) device, and demonstrates the threshold voltage shift required in nonvolatile memory devices using a floating gate quantum dot layer. An InGaAs-based nonvolatile memory MOS device was fabricated using a high- κ II-VI tunnel insulator stack and self-assembled GeO x -cladded Ge quantum dots as the charge storage units. A Si3N4 layer was used as the control gate insulator. Capacitance-voltage data showed that, after applying a positive voltage to the gate of a MOS device, charges were being stored in the quantum dots. This was shown by the shift in the flat-band/threshold voltage, simulating the write process of a nonvolatile memory device.

  6. Effect of Residual Accelerations on the Crystal Growth of II-VI Semiconductors in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, D. C.; Su, C.-H.; Szofran, F. R.; Scripa, R. N.; Cobb, S. D.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The paper compares and summarizes the effects of residual acceleration during crystal growth on the compositional variation of two II-VI solid solution binary alloys (Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te and Hg(0.84)Zn(0.16)Te). The crystals were grown by directional solidification on the second United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2) and the first United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) missions, respectively. For both alloys, changes in the direction and magnitude of the quasisteady acceleration vector (approximately 0.4- 1 mu g) caused large changes in the radial compositional distribution that demonstrates the importance of residual accelerations, even in the submicrogravity range, for large density gradients in the melt and slow solidification rates. The observed compositional variations will be correlated to changes in the radial flow velocities ahead of the solidification interface.

  7. Chemical composition of matrix-embedded ternary II-VI nanocrystals derived from first- and second-order Raman spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhniuk, Yu. M.; Hutych, Yu. I.; Lopushansky, V. V.; Prymak, M. V.; Gomonnai, A. V.; Zahn, D. R. T.

    2016-12-01

    A one- and multiphonon Raman scattering study is performed for an extensive set of CdS1-xSex, Cd1-yZnyS, Cd1-yZnySe, and CdSe1-xTex nanocrystals to investigate the applicability of first- and second-order Raman spectra for the determination of the matrix-embedded ternary nanocrystal composition. For one-mode ternary systems both the LO and 2LO phonon frequencies in the Raman spectra are shown to be a good measure of the nanocrystal composition. For two-mode systems, the approaches based on the difference of the LO phonon frequencies (first-order Raman spectra) or double LO overtone and combination tone frequencies (second-order Raman spectra) as well as on the LO phonon band intensity ratios are analysed. The weak electron-phonon coupling in the II-VI nanocrystals and the polaron constant values for the nanocrystal sublattices are discussed.

  8. Chemical trends of stability and band alignment of lattice-matched II-VI/III-V semiconductor interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hui-Xiong; Luo, Jun-Wei; Wei, Su-Huai

    2015-02-01

    Using the first-principles density functional theory method, we systematically investigate the structural and electronic properties of heterovalent interfaces of the lattice-matched II-VI/III-V semiconductors, i.e., ZnTe/GaSb, ZnSe/GaAs, ZnS/GaP, and ZnO/GaN. We find that, independent of the orientations, the heterovalent superlattices with period n =6 are energetically more favorable to form nonpolar interfaces. For the [001] interface, the stable nonpolar interfaces are formed by mixing 50% group-III with 50% group-II atoms or by mixing 50% group-V with 50% group-VI atoms; for the [111] nonpolar interfaces, the mixings are 25% group-III (II) and 75% group-II (III) atoms or 25% group-V (VI) and 75% group-VI (V) atoms. For all the nonpolar interfaces, the [110] interface has the lowest interfacial energy because it has the minimum number of II-V or III-VI "wrong bonds" per unit interfacial area. The interfacial energy increases when the atomic number of the elements decreases, except for the ZnO/GaN system. The band alignments between the II-VI and III-V compounds are drastically different depending on whether they have mixed-cation or mixed-anion interfaces, but the averaged values are nearly independent of the orientations. Similarly, other than ZnO/GaN, the valence-band offsets also increase as the atomic number of the elements decreases. The abnormal trends in interfacial energy and band alignment for ZnO/GaN are primarily attributed to the very short bond lengths in this system. The underlying physics behind these trends are explained.

  9. Depth resolved cathodoluminescence and microanalysis of ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum well heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhmin, Alexey A.; Sedova, Irina V.; Sorokin, Sergey V.; Zamoryanskaya, Maria V.

    2013-04-01

    The novel approaches to study the II-VI-based laser heterostructures using cathodoluminescence and electron probe microanalysis techniques are described in detail. The heterostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates and consist of bottom and top ZnMgSSe cladding layers and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum well embedded in Zn(Mg)SSe/ZnSe graded index waveguide. The microanalysis technique based on the intensity measurements of characteristic X-rays has been applied to determine both the composition of ZnCdSe quantum well layer and its position within heterostructure. The depth resolved cathodoluminescence technique has been applied for the transport studies of electron beam generated carriers in heterostructure. The cathodoluminescence intensity of ZnCdSe quantum well has been measured as a function of electron beam energy. The Monte-Carlo simulations of carrier generation distribution within the heterostructure under electron beam irradiation have been used for fitting of experimental results. It made possible the nondestructive characterization of the multilayer heterostructure to estimate both deficiency and carrier transport length.

  10. Semiconductor heterostructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovel, Harold John (Inventor); Woodall, Jerry MacPherson (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A technique for fabricating a semiconductor heterostructure by growth of a ternary semiconductor on a binary semiconductor substrate from a melt of the ternary semiconductor containing less than saturation of at least one common ingredient of both the binary and ternary semiconductors wherein in a single temperature step the binary semiconductor substrate is etched, a p-n junction with specific device characteristics is produced in the binary semiconductor substrate by diffusion of a dopant from the melt and a region of the ternary semiconductor of precise conductivity type and thickness is grown by virtue of a change in the melt characteristics when the etched binary semiconductor enters the melt.

  11. II-VI colloidal quantum-dot/quantum-rod heterostructures under electric field effect and their energy transfer rate to graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahra, H.; Elmaghroui, D.; Fezai, I.; Jaziri, S.

    2016-11-01

    We theoretically investigate the energy transfer between a CdSe/CdS Quantum-dot/Quantum-rod (QD/QR) core/shell structure and a weakly doped graphene layer, separated by a dielectric spacer. A numerical method assuming the realistic shape of the type I and quasi-type II CdSe/CdS QD/QR is developed in order to calculate their energy structure. An electric field is applied for both types to manipulate the carriers localization and the exciton energy. Our evaluation for the isolated QD/QR shows that a quantum confined Stark effect can be obtained with large negative electric filed while a small effect is observed with positive ones. Owing to the evolution of the carriers delocalization and their excitonic energy versus the electric field, both type I and quasi-type II QD/QR donors are suitable as sources of charge and energy. With a view to improve its absorption, the graphene sheet (acceptor) is placed at different distances from the QD/QR (donor). Using the random phase approximation and the massless Dirac Fermi approximation, the quenching rate integral is exactly evaluated. That reveals a high transfer rate that can be obtained with type I QD/QR with no dependence on the electric field. On the contrary, a high dependence is obtained for the quasi-type II donor and a high fluorescence rate from F = 80 kV/cm. Rather than the exciton energy, the transition dipole is found to be responsible for the evolution of the fluorescence rate. We find also that the fluorescence rate decreases with increasing the spacer thickness and shows a power low dependence. The QD/QR fluorescence quenching can be observed up to large distance which is estimated to be dependent only on the donor exciton energy.

  12. Magnetism in the p-type Monolayer II-VI semiconductors SrS and SrSe

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Heng-Fu; Lau, Woon-Ming; Zhao, Jijun

    2017-01-01

    Using density functional theory calculations, we study the electronic and magnetic properties of the p-type monolayer II-VI semiconductors SrX (X = S,Se). The pristine SrS and SrSe monolayers are large band gap semiconductor with a very flat band in the top valence band. Upon injecting hole uniformly, ferromagnetism emerges in those system in a large range of hole density. By varying hole density, the systems also show complicated phases transition among nonmagnetic semiconductor, half metal, magnetic semiconductor, and nonmagnetic metal. Furthermore, after introducing p-type dopants in SrS and SrSe via substitutionary inserting P (or As) dopants at the S (or Se) sites, local magnetic moments are formed around the substitutional sites. The local magnetic moments are stable with the ferromagnetic order with appreciable Curie temperature. The ferromagnetism originates from the instability of the electronic states in SrS and SrSe with the large density of states at the valence band edge, which demonstrates a useful strategy for realizing the ferromagnetism in the two dimensional semiconductors. PMID:28378761

  13. Correlation of Schottky constants with interatomic distances of selected I-VII and II-VI compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemeier, Heribert

    2013-10-01

    The observed linear (Na-, K-halides) and near-linear (Mg-, Sr-, Zn-, Cd-, and Hg-chalcogenides) dependences of Schottky constants on reciprocal interatomic distances yield the relation logKS=((ss1/T)+is)1/d(A-B)+(si1/T)+ii, where KS is the product of metal and non-metal thermal equilibrium vacancy concentrations, and ss, is, si and ii are the group specific slope and intercept values obtained from an extended analysis of the above log KS versus 1/d(A-B) data. The previously reported linear dependences of log KS on the Born-Haber lattice energies [1] are the basis for combining the earlier results [1] with the Born-Mayer lattice energy equation to yield a new thermodynamic relationship, namely logKS=-(2.303(c(B-M)/d(A-B)-Ie), where c(B-M) is the product of the constants of the Born-Mayer equation and Ie is the metal ionization energy of the above compounds. These results establish a correlation between point defect concentrations and basic thermodynamic, coulombic, and structural solid state properties for selected I-VII and II-VI semiconductor materials.

  14. Exchange couplings for Mn ions in CdTe: Validity of spin models for dilute magnetic II-VI semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linneweber, Thorben; Bünemann, Jörg; Löw, Ute; Gebhard, Florian; Anders, Frithjof

    2017-01-01

    We employ density-functional theory (DFT) in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and its extensions GGA +U and GGA+Gutzwiller to calculate the magnetic exchange couplings between pairs of Mn ions substituting Cd in a CdTe crystal at very small doping. DFT(GGA) overestimates the exchange couplings by a factor of 3 because it underestimates the charge-transfer gap in Mn-doped II-VI semiconductors. Fixing the nearest-neighbor coupling J1 to its experimental value in GGA +U , in GGA+Gutzwiller, or by a simple scaling of the DFT(GGA) results provides acceptable values for the exchange couplings at second-, third-, and fourth-neighbor distances in Cd(Mn)Te, Zn(Mn)Te, Zn(Mn)Se, and Zn(Mn)S. In particular, we recover the experimentally observed relation J4>J2,J3 . The filling of the Mn 3 d shell is not integer, which puts the underlying Heisenberg description into question. However, using a few-ion toy model the picture of a slightly extended local moment emerges so that an integer 3 d -shell filling is not a prerequisite for equidistant magnetization plateaus, as seen in experiment.

  15. Study of surface and bulk electronic structure of II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals using Cu as a nanosensor.

    PubMed

    Grandhi, G Krishnamurthy; Tomar, Renu; Viswanatha, Ranjani

    2012-11-27

    Efficiency of the quantum dots based solar cells relies on charge transfer at the interface and hence on the relative alignment of the energy levels between materials. Despite a high demand to obtain size specific band offsets, very few studies exist where meticulous methods like photoelectron spectroscopy are used. However, semiconductor charging during measurements could result in indirect and possibly inaccurate measurements due to shift in valence and conduction band position. Here, in this report, we devise a novel method to study the band offsets by associating an atomic like state with the conduction band and hence obtaining an internal standard. This is achieved by doping copper in semiconductor nanocrystals, leading to the development of a characteristic intragap Cu-related emission feature assigned to the transition from the conduction band to the atomic-like Cu d state. Using this transition we determine the relative band alignment of II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals as a function of size in the below 10 nm size regime. The results are in excellent agreement with the available photoelectron spectroscopy data as well as the theoretical data. We further use this technique to study the excitonic band edge variation as a function of temperature in CdSe nanocrystals. Additionally, surface electronic structure of CdSe nanocrystals have been studied using quantitative measurements of absolute quantum yield and PL decay studies of the Cu related emission and the excitonic emission. The role of TOP and oleic acid as surface passivating ligand molecules has been studied for the first time.

  16. Photoinduced electron donor/acceptor processes in colloidal II-VI semiconductor quantum dots and nitroxide free radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Poulami

    Electron transfer (ET) processes are one of the most researched topics for applications ranging from energy conversion to catalysis. An exciting variation is utilizing colloidal semiconductor nanostructures to explore such processes. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are emerging as a novel class of light harvesting, emitting and charge-separation materials for applications such as solar energy conversion. Detailed knowledge of the quantitative dissociation of the photogenerated excitons and the interfacial charge- (electron/hole) transfer is essential for optimization of the overall efficiency of many such applications. Organic free radicals are the attractive counterparts for studying ET to/from QDs because these undergo single-electron transfer steps in reversible fashion. Nitroxides are an exciting class of stable organic free radicals, which have recently been demonstrated to be efficient as redox mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells, making them even more interesting for the aforementioned studies. This dissertation investigates the interaction between nitroxide free radicals TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), 4-amino-TEMPO (4-amino- 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) and II-VI semiconductor (CdSe and CdTe) QDs. The nature of interaction in these hybrids has been examined through ground-state UV-Vis absorbance, steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, transient absorbance, upconversion photoluminescence spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The detailed analysis of the PL quenching indicates that the intrinsic charge transfer is ultrafast however, the overall quenching is still limited by the lower binding capacities and slower diffusion related kinetics. Careful analysis of the time resolved PL decay kinetics reveal that the decay rate constants are distributed and that the trap states are involved in the overall quenching process. The ultrafast hole transfer from CdSe QDs to 4-Amino TEMPO observed

  17. Electronic structure of and quantum size effect in III-V and II-VI semiconducting nanocrystals using a realistic tight binding approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanatha, Ranjani; Sapra, Sameer; Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri; Sarma, D. D.

    2005-07-01

    We analyze the electronic structure of group III-V semiconductors obtained within full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method and arrive at a realistic and minimal tight-binding model, parametrized to provide an accurate description of both valence and conduction bands. It is shown that the cation sp3 - anion sp3d5 basis along with the next nearest neighbor model for hopping interactions is sufficient to describe the electronic structure of these systems over a wide energy range, obviating the use of any fictitious s* orbital, employed previously. Similar analyses were also performed for the II-VI semiconductors, using the more accurate FP-LAPW method compared to previous approaches, in order to enhance reliability of the parameter values. Using these parameters, we calculate the electronic structure of III-V and II-VI nanocrystals in real space with sizes ranging up to about 7nm in diameter, establishing a quantitatively accurate description of the bandgap variation with sizes for the various nanocrystals by comparing with available experimental results from the literature.

  18. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells/stabilization and optimization of II-VI semiconductors. First technical progress report, 15 April 1980-30 June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Noufi, R.; Tench, D.; Warren, L.

    1980-07-20

    The overall goal of this program is to provide the basis for designing a practical electrochemical solar cell based on the II-VI compound semiconductors. Emphasis is on developing new electrolyte redox systems and electrode surface modifications which will stabilize the II-VI compounds against photodissolution without seriously degrading the long-term solar response. The bulk electrode material properties are also being optimized to provide the maximum solar conversion efficiency and greatest inherent electrode stability. Factors limiting the short circuit current of the n-CdSe/methanol/ferro-ferricyanide system to 17.5 mA/cm/sup 2/ have been identified. The principal limiting factor is apparently specific adsorption of hexacyanoferrate species on the electrode surface which occurs at higher redox couple concentrations and slows the overall charge transfer process. Ion pairing also occurs, resulting in a low mass transport rate (smaller diffusion coefficients and increased solution viscosity), and probably enhances the degree of specific adsorption. Improvements in the performance of this system will require mitigation of the interactions between the redox species and the electrode surface, e.g., via electrolytes with reduced ion-pairing tendencies or the use of electrode surface films. Photoelectrochemically generated polypyrrole films have been shown to protect CdX photoanodes from dissolution while permitting electron exchange with the electrolyte. Current effort is directed toward improving the film adhesion and optimizing the performance characteristics.

  19. Heterostructure integrated thermionic coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakouri, Ali; Bowers, John E.

    1997-09-01

    Thermionic emission in heterostructures is proposed for integrated cooling of high power electronic and optoelectronic devices. This evaporative cooling is achieved by selective emission of hot electrons over a barrier layer from the cathode to the anode. It is shown that with available high electron mobility and low thermal conductivity materials, and with optimized conduction band offsets in heterostructures, single-stage room temperature cooling of up to 20°-40° over thicknesses of the order of microns is possible.

  20. Use of a ZnTe:N/ZnO: A1 bilayer in thin-flim, multi-junction II-VI solar cells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, Geoffrey

    2002-03-01

    Development of a low-cost, thin-film tandem solar cell structure utilizing II-VI compound semiconductors is described. The structure consists of a CdS/CdTe top cell to which a bilayer of ZnTe:N/ZnO:Al is applied, subsequently bonded to a thin-film or crystalline bottom cell. The bilayer forms a back contact to the top cell, with an appropriate optical transmission and lateral conductivity characteristic for use in a four-terminal tandem device. Previous work at the University of Toledo has shown that ZnTe can be effectively doped by reactive sputtering in nitrogen, and demonstration of ZnTe:N as a component of a back contact to CdS/CdTe heterojunctions has been demonstrated [1]. The addition of a ZnO:Al layer provides the necessary lateral conductivity required by a four-terminal tandem solar cell design. Test structures consisting of Al/ZnTe:N/ZnO:Al/Al, deposited on glass by magnetron sputtering, are characterized optically and electrically. The ZnTe:N/ZnO:Al bilayer is applied to thin-film CdS/CdTe heterojunctions deposited by rapid, low-cost techniques (provided by First Solar, LLC). With the addition of a metallic grid, functioning top cell structures are created and measured. By bonding a bottom cell to this structure, a complete dual-junction, four-terminal device is constructed and demonstrated. [1] J. Drayton, A. Gupta, K. Makhratchev, K. Price, R. Bohn, and A. Compaan, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 668, “II-VI Compound Semiconductor Photovoltaic Materials,” ed. by R Noufi, R. W. Birkmire, D. Lincot, H. W. Schock.

  1. EDITORIAL: Focus on Advanced Semiconductor Heterostructures for Optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Markus C.; Capasso, Federico; Larsson, Anders; Pessa, Markus

    2009-12-01

    Semiconductor heterostructures are the basic materials underlying optoelectronic devices, particularly lasers and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Made from various III-V-, II-VI-, SiGe- and other compound semiconductors, modern semiconductor devices are available for the generation, detection and modulation of light covering the entire ultra-violet to far-infrared spectral region. Recent approaches that introduced multilayer heterostructures tailored on the lower nanometre scale made possible artificial semiconductors with new properties, such as extended wavelength coverage, that enabled new applications. Together with ongoing progress on wide-gap semiconductors, the optical wavelengths accessible by semiconductor devices are steadily expanding towards the short-wavelength ultra-violet regime, as well as further into the far-infrared and terahertz spectral regions. It is the aim of this focus issue to present cutting-edge research topics on the most recent optoelectronic material and device developments in this field using advanced semiconductor heterostructures. Focus on Advanced Semiconductor Heterostructures for Optoelectronics Contents Theoretical and experimental investigations of the limits to the maximum output power of laser diodes H Wenzel, P Crump, A Pietrzak, X Wang, G Erbert and G Tränkle GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices H Machhadani, P Kandaswamy, S Sakr, A Vardi, A Wirtmüller, L Nevou, F Guillot, G Pozzovivo, M Tchernycheva, A Lupu, L Vivien, P Crozat, E Warde, C Bougerol, S Schacham, G Strasser, G Bahir, E Monroy and F H Julien Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single-quantum-well phonon extraction/injection stage Maria I Amanti, Giacomo Scalari, Romain Terazzi, Milan Fischer, Mattias Beck, Jérôme Faist, Alok Rudra, Pascal Gallo and Eli Kapon Structural and optical characteristics of GaN/ZnO coaxial nanotube heterostructure arrays for light-emitting device applications Young Joon Hong, Jong-Myeong Jeon, Miyoung

  2. Topological States of Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usanmaz, Demet; Nath, Pinku; Plata, Jose J.; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco; Fornari, Marco; Curtarolo, Stefano

    Topological insulators (TIs) have exotic properties, such as having insulating behavior in the bulk and metallic states at the surface [1]. Observations of metallic states rely on the spin-orbit induced band inversion in bulk materials and are protected by time-reversal symmetry or crystal symmetry [ 2 ]. These remarkable characteristics of TIs give rise to various applications from spintronics to quantum computers. In order to broaden the range of applications of TIs and make it more effective, an exploration of high quality heterostructures are required. Creating heterostructures of TIs has recently demonstrated to be advantageous for controlling electronic properties [3]. Inspired by these interesting properties, we have investigated the topological interface states of heterostructures.

  3. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  4. Systematic defect donor levels in III-V and II-VI semiconductors revealed by hybrid functional density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petretto, Guido; Bruneval, Fabien

    2015-12-01

    The identification of defect levels from photoluminescence spectroscopy is a useful but challenging task. Density-functional theory (DFT) is a highly valuable tool to this aim. However, the semilocal approximations of DFT that are affected by a band gap underestimation are not reliable to evaluate defect properties, such as charge transition levels. It is now established that hybrid functional approximations to DFT improve the defect description in semiconductors. Here we demonstrate that the use of hybrid functionals systematically stabilizes donor defect states in the lower part of the band gap for many defects, impurities or vacancies, in III-V and in II-VI semiconductors, even though these defects are usually considered as acceptors. These donor defect states are a very general feature and, to the best of our knowledge, have been overlooked in previous studies. The states we identify here may challenge the older assignments to photoluminescent peaks. Though appealing to screen quickly through the possible stable charge states of a defect, semilocal approximations should not be trusted for that purpose.

  5. Scattering amplitudes and static atomic correction factors for the composition-sensitive 002 reflection in sphalerite ternary III-V and II-VI semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Schowalter, M; Müller, K; Rosenauer, A

    2012-01-01

    Modified atomic scattering amplitudes (MASAs), taking into account the redistribution of charge due to bonds, and the respective correction factors considering the effect of static atomic displacements were computed for the chemically sensitive 002 reflection for ternary III-V and II-VI semiconductors. MASAs were derived from computations within the density functional theory formalism. Binary eight-atom unit cells were strained according to each strain state s (thin, intermediate, thick and fully relaxed electron microscopic specimen) and each concentration (x = 0, …, 1 in 0.01 steps), where the lattice parameters for composition x in strain state s were calculated using continuum elasticity theory. The concentration dependence was derived by computing MASAs for each of these binary cells. Correction factors for static atomic displacements were computed from relaxed atom positions by generating 50 × 50 × 50 supercells using the lattice parameter of the eight-atom unit cells. Atoms were randomly distributed according to the required composition. Polynomials were fitted to the composition dependence of the MASAs and the correction factors for the different strain states. Fit parameters are given in the paper.

  6. Lanthanide sensitization in II-VI semiconductor materials: a case study with terbium(III) and europium(III) in zinc sulfide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Prasun; Shade, Chad M; Yingling, Adrienne M; Lamont, Daniel N; Waldeck, David H; Petoud, Stéphane

    2011-04-28

    This work explores the sensitization of luminescent lanthanide Tb(3+) and Eu(3+) cations by the electronic structure of zinc sulfide (ZnS) semiconductor nanoparticles. Excitation spectra collected while monitoring the lanthanide emission bands reveal that the ZnS nanoparticles act as an antenna for the sensitization of Tb(3+) and Eu(3+). The mechanism of lanthanide ion luminescence sensitization is rationalized in terms of an energy and charge transfer between trap sites and is based on a semiempirical model, proposed by Dorenbos and co-workers (Dorenbos, P. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2003, 15, 8417-8434; J. Lumin. 2004, 108, 301-305; J. Lumin. 2005, 111, 89-104. Dorenbos, P.; van der Kolk, E. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2006, 89, 061122-1-061122-3; Opt. Mater. 2008, 30, 1052-1057. Dorenbos, P. J. Alloys Compd. 2009, 488, 568-573; references 1-6.) to describe the energy level scheme. This model implies that the mechanisms of luminescence sensitization of Tb(3+) and Eu(3+) in ZnS nanoparticles are different; namely, Tb(3+) acts as a hole trap, whereas Eu(3+) acts as an electron trap. Further testing of this model is made by extending the studies from ZnS nanoparticles to other II-VI semiconductor materials; namely, CdSe, CdS, and ZnSe.

  7. Microbial toxicity of ionic species leached from the II-VI semiconductor materials, cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium selenide (CdSe).

    PubMed

    Ramos-Ruiz, Adriana; Zeng, Chao; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Teixeira, Luiz H; Field, Jim A

    2016-11-01

    This work investigated the microbial toxicity of soluble species that can potentially be leached from the II-VI semiconductor materials, cadmium telluride and cadmium selenide. The soluble ions tested included: cadmium, selenite, selenate, tellurite, and tellurate. Their toxicity towards the acetoclastic and hydrogen-consuming trophic groups in a methanogenic consortium as well as towards a bioluminescent marine bacterium, Aliivibrio fischeri (Microtox(®) test), was assessed. The acetoclastic methanogenic activity was the most affected as evidenced by the low 50% inhibiting concentrations (IC50) values obtained of 8.6 mg L(-1) for both cadmium and tellurite, 10.2 mg L(-1) for tellurate, and 24.1 mg L(-1) for selenite. Both tellurium oxyanions caused a strong inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis at low concentrations, each additional increment in concentration provided progressively less inhibition increase. In the case of the hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, cadmium followed by selenite caused the greatest inhibition with IC50 values of 2.9 and 18.0 mg L(-1), respectively. Tellurite caused a moderate effect as evidenced by a 36.8% inhibition of the methanogenic activity at the highest concentration tested, and a very mild effect of tellurate was observed. Microtox(®) analyses showed a noteworthy inhibition of cadmium, selenite, and tellurite with 50% loss in bioluminescence after 30 min of exposure of 5.5, 171.1, and 458.6 mg L(-1), respectively. These results suggest that the leaching of cadmium, tellurium and selenium ions from semiconductor materials can potentially cause microbial toxicity.

  8. Time-resolved correlative optical microscopy of charge-carrier transport, recombination, and space-charge fields in CdTe heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuciauskas, Darius; Myers, Thomas H.; Barnes, Teresa M.; Jensen, Søren A.; Allende Motz, Alyssa M.

    2017-02-01

    From time- and spatially resolved optical measurements, we show that extended defects can have a large effect on the charge-carrier recombination in II-VI semiconductors. In CdTe double heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy on the InSb (100)-orientation substrates, we characterized the extended defects and found that near stacking faults the space-charge field extends by 2-5 μm. Charge carriers drift (with the space-charge field strength of 730-1,360 V cm-1) and diffuse (with the mobility of 260 ± 30 cm2 V-1 s-1) toward the extended defects, where the minority-carrier lifetime is reduced from 560 ns to 0.25 ns. Therefore, the extended defects are nonradiative recombination sinks that affect areas significantly larger than the typical crystalline grains in II-VI solar cells. From the correlative time-resolved photoluminescence and second-harmonic generation microscopy data, we developed a band-diagram model that can be used to analyze the impact of extended defects on solar cells and other electronic devices.

  9. Heterostructure terahertz devices.

    PubMed

    Ryzhii, Victor

    2008-08-19

    The terahertz (THz) range of frequencies is borderline between microwave electronics and photonics. It corresponds to the frequency bands of molecular and lattice vibrations in gases, fluids, and solids. The importance of the THz range is in part due to numerous potential and emerging applications which include imaging and characterization, detection of hazardous substances, environmental monitoring, radio astronomy, covert inter-satellite communications, as well as biological and medical applications. During the last decades marked progress has been achieved in the development, fabrication, and practical implementation of THz devices and systems. This is primarily owing to the utilization of gaseous and free electron lasers and frequency converters using nonlinear optical phenomena as sources of THz radiation. However, such devices and hence the systems based on them are fairly cumbersome. This continuously stimulates an extensive search for new compact and efficient THz sources based on semiconductor heterostructures. Despite tremendous efforts lasting several decades, the so-called THz gap unbridged by semiconductor heterostructure electron and optoelectron devices still exists providing appropriate levels of power of the generated THz radiation. The invention and realization of quantum cascade lasers made of multiple quantum-well heterostructures already resulted in the partial solution of the problem in question, namely, in the successful coverage of the high-frequency portion of the THz gap (2-3 THz and higher). Further advancement to lower frequencies meets, perhaps, fundamental difficulties. All this necessitates further extensive theoretical and experimental studies of more or less traditional and novel semiconductor heterostructures as a basis for sources of THz radiation. This special issue includes 11 excellent original papers submitted by several research teams representing 14 institutions in Europe, America, and Asia. Several device concepts which

  10. Preface: Heterostructure terahertz devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhii, Victor

    2008-08-01

    The terahertz (THz) range of frequencies is borderline between microwave electronics and photonics. It corresponds to the frequency bands of molecular and lattice vibrations in gases, fluids, and solids. The importance of the THz range is in part due to numerous potential and emerging applications which include imaging and characterization, detection of hazardous substances, environmental monitoring, radio astronomy, covert inter-satellite communications, as well as biological and medical applications. During the last decades marked progress has been achieved in the development, fabrication, and practical implementation of THz devices and systems. This is primarily owing to the utilization of gaseous and free electron lasers and frequency converters using nonlinear optical phenomena as sources of THz radiation. However, such devices and hence the systems based on them are fairly cumbersome. This continuously stimulates an extensive search for new compact and efficient THz sources based on semiconductor heterostructures. Despite tremendous efforts lasting several decades, the so-called THz gap unbridged by semiconductor heterostructure electron and optoelectron devices still exists providing appropriate levels of power of the generated THz radiation. The invention and realization of quantum cascade lasers made of multiple quantum-well heterostructures already resulted in the partial solution of the problem in question, namely, in the successful coverage of the high-frequency portion of the THz gap (2-3 THz and higher). Further advancement to lower frequencies meets, perhaps, fundamental difficulties. All this necessitates further extensive theoretical and experimental studies of more or less traditional and novel semiconductor heterostructures as a basis for sources of THz radiation. This special issue includes 11 excellent original papers submitted by several research teams representing 14 institutions in Europe, America, and Asia. Several device concepts which

  11. Femtosecond studies of photoinduced electron dynamics in colloidal quantum-confined II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles: CdS, CdSe and CdZnS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberti, Trevor

    A variety of synthetic and spectroscopic techniques have been applied to elucidate photoinduced charge carrier processes in II-VI semiconductor quantum dots. These semiconductor nanoparticles exhibit both size-dependent optical tuning due to the quantum-confinement effect and power-dependent absorption, bleach and emission characteristics. Although the tunable-absorption has been well characterized, the subsequent trapping and recombination processes are still under much investigation and are the subject of this dissertation. Particles with vastly differing surfaces, sizes, energetics and solvents have been characterized using various spectroscopic techniques in unison. The primary technique was transient femtosecond near-IR absorption, which was used to characterize charge carrier processes on the subpicosecond and picosecond time scales. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to characterize the size of the particles. Static fluorescence measurements were used to characterize the surface of the particles and the relative amount of radiative recombination. Nanosecond fluorescence measurements were also used to assist in the assignment of the fast, power-dependent near-IR absorption decay. The research reported here makes two fundamental contributions to the photophysics of semiconductor nanoparticles. First, the power-dependent, few picosecond decay process has primarily been assigned to electron-hole recombination via exciton-exciton annihilation. As the power increases, higher order, Auger processes may also arise. The exciton-exciton annihilation mechanism was primarily deduced based on power-dependent fluorescence measurements which exhibited the formation of short-lived exciton fluorescence at high powers. Secondly, many nanoparticle properties and environments were varied in order to better understand the observed picosecond processes and the effect of variations on these processes. The systems studied ranged from aqueous acidic and basic quantum dots of differing

  12. Oxides Heterostructures for Nanoelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    C Dubourdieu; I Gelard; O Salicio; G Saint-Girons; B Vilquin; G Hollinger

    2011-12-31

    We summarise in this paper the work of two groups focusing on the synthesis and characterisation of functional oxide for nanoelectronic applications. In the first section, we discuss the growth by liquid-injection MOCVD of oxides heterostructures. Interface engineering for the minimisation of silicate formation during the growth of polycrystalline SrTiO{sub 3} on Si is first presented. It is realised via the change of reactant flow or chemical nature at the Si surface. We then report on the epitaxy on oxide substrates of manganites films and superlattices and on their magnetic and electrical properties. La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.8}MnO{sub 3-{delta}} as well as multiferroic hexagonal ReMnO{sub 3} manganites are considered. We show that the film thickness and related strain may be used to tune the properties. Finally, we demonstrate the growth of MgO nanowires by CVD at a moderate temperature of 600 C, using gold as a catalyst. In the second section, we discuss the growth of epitaxial oxide heterostructures by MBE. First, the direct epitaxy of SrTiO{sub 3} on Si is considered. Issues and control of the SrTiO{sub 3}/Si interface are discussed. An abrupt interface is achieved. We show that SrTiO{sub 3} on Si can be used as a buffer layer for the epitaxy of various perovskite oxides such as LaAlO{sub 3} or La{sub 0.7}Sr0.3MnO{sub 3}. La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} films are ferromagnetic and metallic at room temperature. The epitaxial growth of complex oxides on Si wafers opens up the route to the integration of a wide variety of functionalities in nanoelectronics. Finally, we discuss the monolithic integration of III-V compounds such as InP on Si using epitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} buffer layers for the future integration of optics on Si.

  13. General Considerations of the Electrostatic Boundary Conditions in Oxide Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Takuya

    2011-08-19

    When the size of materials is comparable to the characteristic length scale of their physical properties, novel functionalities can emerge. For semiconductors, this is exemplified by the 'superlattice' concept of Esaki and Tsu, where the width of the repeated stacking of different semiconductors is comparable to the 'size' of the electrons, resulting in novel confined states now routinely used in opto-electronics. For metals, a good example is magnetic/non-magnetic multilayer films that are thinner than the spin-scattering length, from which giant magnetoresistance (GMR) emerged, used in the read heads of hard disk drives. For transition metal oxides, a similar research program is currently underway, broadly motivated by the vast array of physical properties that they host. This long-standing notion has been recently invigorated by the development of atomic-scale growth and probe techniques, which enables the study of complex oxide heterostructures approaching the precision idealized in Fig. 1(a). Taking the subset of oxides derived from the perovskite crystal structure, the close lattice match across many transition metal oxides presents the opportunity, in principle, to develop a 'universal' heteroepitaxial materials system. Hand-in-hand with the continual improvements in materials control, an increasingly relevant challenge is to understand the consequences of the electrostatic boundary conditions which arise in these structures. The essence of this issue can be seen in Fig. 1(b), where the charge sequence of the sublayer 'stacks' for various representative perovskites is shown in the ionic limit, in the (001) direction. To truly 'universally' incorporate different properties using different materials components, be it magnetism, ferroelectricity, superconductivity, etc., it is necessary to access and join different charge sequences, labelled here in analogy to the designations 'group IV, III-V, II-VI' for semiconductors. As we will review, interfaces between

  14. Electronic properties of quasiperiodic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zárate, J. E.; Velasco, V. R.

    2002-01-01

    We study the electronic states of different GaAs-AlAs Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro quasiperiodic heterostructures grown along the [001] direction. We employ an empirical tight-binding Hamiltonian including spin-orbit coupling together with the surface Green-function matching method. We present results for different generations of the quasiperiodic heterostructures, formed by different building blocks. We compare these results with those of the constituent quantum wells and with those of heterostructures containing the same total number of GaAs and AlAs slabs after periodic repetition of the building blocks. The states in the energy regions near the conduction- and valence-band edges of GaAs do not exhibit any spectrum fragmentation. They show a strong localization of the local density of states in the GaAs layers, and they can be traced to the states of the isolated quantum wells.

  15. Assembly of quasicrystalline photonic heterostructures

    DOEpatents

    Grier, David G.; Roichman, Yael; Man, Weining; Chaikin, Paul Michael; Steinhardt, Paul Joseph

    2011-07-19

    A method and system for assembling a quasicrystalline heterostructure. A plurality of particles is provided with desirable predetermined character. The particles are suspended in a medium, and holographic optical traps are used to position the particles in a way to achieve an arrangement which provides a desired property.

  16. Assembly of quasicrystalline photonic heterostructures

    DOEpatents

    Grier, David G.; Roichman, Yael; Man, Weining; Chaikin, Paul Michael; Steinhardt, Paul Joseph

    2013-03-12

    A method and system for assembling a quasicrystalline heterostructure. A plurality of particles is provided with desirable predetermined character. The particles are suspended in a medium, and holographic optical traps are used to position the particles in a way to achieve an arrangement which provides a desired property.

  17. Revealing high room and low temperatures mobilities of 2D holes in a strained Ge quantum well heterostructures grown on a standard Si(0 0 1) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myronov, Maksym; Morrison, Christopher; Halpin, John; Rhead, Stephen; Foronda, Jamie; Leadley, David

    2015-08-01

    Carrier mobility is one of the most important parameters of any semiconductor material, determining its suitability for applications in a large variety of electronic devices including field effect transistors (FETs). Today the capabilities of modern planar Si FET devices are almost exhausted and researchers are seeking either new device architectures or new materials. Here we report an extremely high room temperature (at 293 K) 2D hole gas (2DHG) drift mobility of 4500 cm2 V-1 s-1 at a carrier density of 1.2 × 1011 cm-2 obtained in a compressively strained Ge quantum well (QW) heterostructure, grown by an industrial type chemical vapor deposition system on a standard Si(0 0 1) substrate. The low-temperature Hall mobility and carrier density of this structure, measured at 333 mK, are 777,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 1.9 × 1011 cm-2, respectively. These hole mobilities are the highest not only among the group-IV Si and Ge based semiconductors, but also among p-type III-V and II-VI materials. The obtained room temperature mobility is substantially higher than those reported so far in strained Ge QW heterostructures and reveals a huge potential for further applications of this material in a wide variety of electronic devices.

  18. Epitaxial Halide Perovskite Lateral Double Heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiping; Chen, Zhizhong; Deschler, Felix; Sun, Xin; Lu, Toh-Ming; Wertz, Esther A; Hu, Jia-Mian; Shi, Jian

    2017-03-28

    Epitaxial III-V semiconductor heterostructures are key components in modern microelectronics, electro-optics, and optoelectronics. With superior semiconducting properties, halide perovskite materials are rising as promising candidates for coherent heterostructure devices. In this report, spinodal decomposition is proposed and experimentally implemented to produce epitaxial double heterostructures in halide perovskite system. Pristine epitaxial mixed halide perovskites rods and films were synthesized via van der Waals epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition method. At room temperature, photon was applied as a knob to regulate the kinetics of spinodal decomposition and classic coarsening. By this approach, halide perovskite double heterostructures were created carrying epitaxial interfaces and outstanding optical properties. Reduced Fröhlich electron-phonon coupling was discovered in coherent halide double heterostructure, which is hypothetically attributed to the classic phonon confinement effect widely existing in III-V double heterostructures. As a proof-of-concept, our results suggest that halide perovskite-based epitaxial heterostructures may be promising for high-performance and low-cost optoelectronics, electro-optics, and microelectronics. Thus, ultimately, for practical device applications, it may be worthy to pursue these heterostructures via conventional vapor phase epitaxy approaches widely practised in III-V field.

  19. Transferable tight binding model for strained group IV and III-V heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yaohua; Povolotskyi, Micheal; Kubis, Tillmann; Boykin, Timothy; Klimeck, Gerhard

    Modern semiconductor devices have reached critical device dimensions in the range of several nanometers. For reliable prediction of device performance, it is critical to have a numerical efficient model that are transferable to material interfaces. In this work, we present an empirical tight binding (ETB) model with transferable parameters for strained IV and III-V group semiconductors. The ETB model is numerically highly efficient as it make use of an orthogonal sp3d5s* basis set with nearest neighbor inter-atomic interactions. The ETB parameters are generated from HSE06 hybrid functional calculations. Band structures of strained group IV and III-V materials by ETB model are in good agreement with corresponding HSE06 calculations. Furthermore, the ETB model is applied to strained superlattices which consist of group IV and III-V elements. The ETB model turns out to be transferable to nano-scale hetero-structure. The ETB band structures agree with the corresponding HSE06 results in the whole Brillouin zone. The ETB band gaps of superlattices with common cations or common anions have discrepancies within 0.05eV.

  20. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    Good morning, Gentlemen! On behalf of the Nobel Foundation, I should like to welcome you to the Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semiconductors". It gives me great pleasure to see so many colleagues and old friends from all over the world in the audience and, in particular, to bid welcome to our Nobel laureates, Prof. Esaki and Prof. von Klitzing. In front of a different audience I would now commend the scientific and technological importance of heterostructures in semiconductors and emphatically emphasise that heterostructures, as an important contribution to microelectronics and, hence, information technology, have changed societies all over the world. I would also mention that information technology is one of the most important global key industries which covers a wide field of important areas each of which bears its own character. Ever since the invention of the transistor, we have witnessed a fantastic growth in semiconductor technology, leading to more complex functions and higher densities of devices. This development would hardly be possible without an increasing understanding of semiconductor materials and new concepts in material growth techniques which allow the fabrication of previously unknown semiconductor structures. But here and today I will not do it because it would mean to carry coals to Newcastle. I will therefore not remind you that heterostructures were already suggested and discussed in detail a long time before proper technologies were available for the fabrication of such structures. Now, heterostructures are a foundation in science and part of our everyday life. Though this is certainly true, it is nevertheless fair to say that not all properties of heterostructures are yet understood and that further technologies have to be developed before a still better understanding is obtained. The organisers therefore hope that this symposium will contribute not only to improving our understanding of heterostructures but also to opening new

  1. Electronic Transport in Graphene Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andrea F.; Kim, Philip

    2011-03-01

    The elementary excitations of monolayer graphene, which behave as massless Dirac particles, make it a fascinating venue in which to study relativistic quantum phenomena. One notable example is Klein tunneling, a phenomena in which electrons convert to holes to tunnel through a potential barrier. However, the omnipresence of charged impurities in substrate-supported samples keep the overall charge distribution nonuniform, obscuring much of this "Dirac" point physics in large samples. Using local gates, one can create tunable heterojunctions in graphene, isolating the contribution of small regions of the samples to transport. In this review, we give an overview of quantum transport theory and experiment on locally gated graphene heterostructures, with an emphasis on bipolar junctions.

  2. Multilayer heterostructures and their manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Scott R; Reese, Matthew; Rupert, Benjamin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Clavin; Olson, Dana; Ginley, David S

    2015-11-04

    A method of synthesizing multilayer heterostructures including an inorganic oxide layer residing on a solid substrate is described. Exemplary embodiments include producing an inorganic oxide layer on a solid substrate by a liquid coating process under relatively mild conditions. The relatively mild conditions include temperatures below 225.degree. C. and pressures above 9.4 mb. In an exemplary embodiment, a solution of diethyl aluminum ethoxide in anhydrous diglyme is applied to a flexible solid substrate by slot-die coating at ambient atmospheric pressure, and the diglyme removed by evaporation. An AlO.sub.x layer is formed by subjecting material remaining on the solid substrate to a relatively mild oven temperature of approximately 150.degree. C. The resulting AlO.sub.x layer exhibits relatively high light transmittance and relatively low vapor transmission rates for water. An exemplary embodiment of a flexible solid substrate is polyethylene napthalate (PEN). The PEN is not substantially adversely affected by exposure to 150.degree. C

  3. Wafer bonded epitaxial templates for silicon heterostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, Harry A., Jr. (Inventor); Zahler, James M. (Inventor); Morral, Anna Fontcubera I (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A heterostructure device layer is epitaxially grown on a virtual substrate, such as an InP/InGaAs/InP double heterostructure. A device substrate and a handle substrate form the virtual substrate. The device substrate is bonded to the handle substrate and is composed of a material suitable for fabrication of optoelectronic devices. The handle substrate is composed of a material suitable for providing mechanical support. The mechanical strength of the device and handle substrates is improved and the device substrate is thinned to leave a single-crystal film on the virtual substrate such as by exfoliation of a device film from the device substrate. An upper portion of the device film exfoliated from the device substrate is removed to provide a smoother and less defect prone surface for an optoelectronic device. A heterostructure is epitaxially grown on the smoothed surface in which an optoelectronic device may be fabricated.

  4. Wafer bonded epitaxial templates for silicon heterostructures

    DOEpatents

    Atwater, Jr., Harry A.; Zahler, James M.; Morral, Anna Fontcubera I

    2008-03-11

    A heterostructure device layer is epitaxially grown on a virtual substrate, such as an InP/InGaAs/InP double heterostructure. A device substrate and a handle substrate form the virtual substrate. The device substrate is bonded to the handle substrate and is composed of a material suitable for fabrication of optoelectronic devices. The handle substrate is composed of a material suitable for providing mechanical support. The mechanical strength of the device and handle substrates is improved and the device substrate is thinned to leave a single-crystal film on the virtual substrate such as by exfoliation of a device film from the device substrate. An upper portion of the device film exfoliated from the device substrate is removed to provide a smoother and less defect prone surface for an optoelectronic device. A heterostructure is epitaxially grown on the smoothed surface in which an optoelectronic device may be fabricated.

  5. Devices and applications of van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, David Wei

    2017-03-01

    Van der Waals heterostructures, composed of individual two-dimensional material have been developing extremely fast. Synthesis of van der Waals heterostructures without the constraint of lattice matching and processing compatibility provides an ideal platform for fundamental research and new device exploitation. We review the approach of synthesis of van der Waals heterostructures, discuss the property of heterostructures and thoroughly illustrate the functional van der Waals heterostructures used in novel electronic and photoelectronic device. Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Program (No. 2016YFA0203900) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61376093, 61622401).

  6. Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Baca, A.G.; Drummond, T.J.; Robertson, P.J.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-12-26

    A complimentary pair of compound semiconductor junction heterostructure field-effect transistors and a method for their manufacture are disclosed. The p-channel junction heterostructure field-effect transistor uses a strained layer to split the degeneracy of the valence band for a greatly improved hole mobility and speed. The n-channel device is formed by a compatible process after removing the strained layer. In this manner, both types of transistors may be independently optimized. Ion implantation is used to form the transistor active and isolation regions for both types of complimentary devices. The invention has uses for the development of low power, high-speed digital integrated circuits. 10 figs.

  7. Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Baca, Albert G.; Drummond, Timothy J.; Robertson, Perry J.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A complimentary pair of compound semiconductor junction heterostructure field-effect transistors and a method for their manufacture are disclosed. The p-channel junction heterostructure field-effect transistor uses a strained layer to split the degeneracy of the valence band for a greatly improved hole mobility and speed. The n-channel device is formed by a compatible process after removing the strained layer. In this manner, both types of transistors may be independently optimized. Ion implantation is used to form the transistor active and isolation regions for both types of complimentary devices. The invention has uses for the development of low power, high-speed digital integrated circuits.

  8. Single heterostructure lasers: a UK perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selway, Peter

    2012-09-01

    The gallium-aluminium-arsenide single heterostructure laser was the first commercially successful semiconductor laser produced in the UK. This paper presents a personal perspective on the events leading up to volume production and highlights the fascinating physics involved in this device and the impact of this on the task of engineering a robust component which was eventually manufactured for over 20 years.

  9. Investigation of Quantum Effects in Heterostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-20

    Mendez and C. Tejedor (Plenum, New York, 1991), p. 1. "* Resonant Magnetotunneling in Type-Il Heterostructures, in Resonant Tunneling in Semiconductors...Physics and Applications, ed. by L. L. Chang, E. E. Mendez and C. Tejedor (Plenum, New York, 1991), p. 51. "* The Evolution of Semiconductor Quantum

  10. Design and discovery of heterostructural alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, Aaron; Siol, Sebastian; Ndione, Paul; Peng, Haowei; Zakutayev, Andriy; Lany, Stephan; Matthews, Bethany; Tate, Janet; Gorman, Brian; Gordon, Roy; Schelhas, Laura; Toney, Mike

    The tailoring of materials properties by alloying is routinely utilized to design materials for targeted technological applications. Despite the great successes of alloying in isostructural systems, heterostructural alloying remains a fundamentally unexplored area. In heterostructural alloys, the crossover between different crystal structures enables a new parameter for control over structure and properties by variation of the composition. Here, we present a complementary theoretical and experimental investigation of novel semiconducting metal chalcogenide alloys to develop design principles and approaches for utilizing heterostructural alloying as a materials design strategy. We use ab initio methods to predict the structural and electronic properties of novel alloys with commensurate and incommensurate lattice symmetries. Non-equilibrium deposition methods are employed to overcome thermodynamic solubility limits and produce metastable thin-film samples across the entire alloy composition range. The prediction, theory-guided combinatorial synthesis, and characterization of heterostructural alloys demonstrate the design and discovery of functional metastable materials. Our approach establishes a new route for the control of structure-property and composition-structure relationships by accessing non-equilibrium phase space to develop new materials with uniquely tailored properties.

  11. Interface magnetism in complex oxide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikanth, Hariharan

    2008-03-01

    Magnetic oxides are an important class of materials from the perspectives of fundamental physics and technological applications. Advances in growth of high quality thin films and epitaxial oxide heterostructures over the years, have led to the realization of ideal condensed matter systems in which the complex and rich physics associated with cooperative phenomena can be explored. Examples of coupled phenomena in heterostructures include exchange bias effects, magnetoelectric coupling and interplay between magnetism and superconductivity. In this talk, I will focus on three classes of oxide heterostructures --PLD-grown M-type barium hexaferrite(BaM)/barium strontium titanate(BST), CVD-grown CrO2/Cr2O3 bilayers and high-pressure sputtered LCMO/YBCO films. The common theme is the magnetic coupling across the interfaces. I will demonstrate that dynamic susceptibility and kinetic inductance experiments using a sensitive tunnel-diode oscillator (TDO) are effective probes of such coupled effects. In the case of CrO2/Cr2O3 and LCMO/YBCO, the interface coupling results in anomalous anisotropy, exchange bias in the former and complex interaction between the LCMO magnetism and YBCO vortex lattice in the latter. In BaM/BST heterostructures, I will discuss how interfacial coupling influences the microwave response that is both electrically and magnetically tunable.

  12. Properties of ferroelectric/ferromagnetic thin film heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daming; Harward, Ian; Linderman, Katie; Economou, Evangelos; Nie, Yan; Celinski, Zbigniew

    2014-05-01

    Ferroelectric/ferromagnetic thin film heterostructures, SrBi2Ta2O9/BaFe12O19 (SBT/BaM), were grown on platinum-coated Si substrates using metal-organic decomposition. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that the heterostructures contain only SBT and BaM phases. The microwave properties of these heterostructures were studied using a broadband ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectrometer from 35 to 60 GHz, which allowed us to determine gyromagnetic ratio and effective anisotropy field. The FMR linewidth is as low as140 Oe at 58 GHz. In addition, measurements of the effective permittivity of the heterostructures were carried out as a function of bias electric field. All heterostructures exhibit hysteretic behavior of the effective permittivity. These properties indicate that such heterostructures have potential for application in dual electric and magnetic field tunable resonators, filters, and phase shifters.

  13. Design of lateral heterostructure from arsenene and antimonene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Ma, Yandong; Yin, Na; Wei, Wei; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao

    2016-09-01

    Lateral heterostructures fabricated by two-dimensional building blocks have opened up exciting realms in material science and device physics. Identifying suitable materials for creating such heterostructures is urgently needed for the next-generation devices. Here, we demonstrate a novel type of seamless lateral heterostructures with excellent stabilities formed within pristine arsenene and antimonene. We find that these heterostructures could possess direct and reduced energy gaps without any modulations. Moreover, the highly coveted type-II alignment and the high carrier mobility are also identified, marking the enhanced quantum efficiency. The tensile strain can result in efficient bandgap engineering. Besides, the proposed critical condition for favored direct energy gaps would have a guiding significance on the subsequent works. Generally, our predictions not only introduce new vitality into lateral heterostructures, enriching available candidate materials in this field, but also highlight the potential of these lateral heterostructures as appealing materials for future devices.

  14. Heterostructures based on inorganic and organic van der Waals systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Lee, Chul-Ho; van der Zande, Arend M.; Han, Minyong; Cui, Xu; Arefe, Ghidewon; Nuckolls, Colin; Heinz, Tony F.; Hone, James; Kim, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The two-dimensional limit of layered materials has recently been realized through the use of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures composed of weakly interacting layers. In this paper, we describe two different classes of vdW heterostructures: inorganic vdW heterostructures prepared by co-lamination and restacking; and organic-inorganic hetero-epitaxy created by physical vapor deposition of organic molecule crystals on an inorganic vdW substrate. Both types of heterostructures exhibit atomically clean vdW interfaces. Employing such vdW heterostructures, we have demonstrated various novel devices, including graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and MoS2 heterostructures for memory devices; graphene/MoS2/WSe2/graphene vertical p-n junctions for photovoltaic devices, and organic crystals on hBN with graphene electrodes for high-performance transistors.

  15. A review of nano-optics in metamaterial hybrid heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Mahi R.

    2014-03-31

    We present a review for the nonlinear nano-optics in quantum dots doped in a metamaterial heterostructure. The heterostructure is formed by depositing a metamaterial on a dielectric substrate and ensemble of noninteracting quantum dots are doped near the heterostructure interface. It is shown that there is enhancement of the second harmonic generation due to the surface plasmon polaritons field present at the interface.

  16. Pulsed terahertz emission from GaN/InN heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reklaitis, Antanas

    2011-11-01

    Dynamics of the electron-hole plasma excited by the femtosecond optical pulse in wurtzite GaN/InN heterostructure is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. The GaN/InN heterostructure for pulsed terahertz emission is suggested. The results of Monte Carlo simulations show that the power of terahertz emission from the GaN/InN heterostructure exceeds the power of terahertz emission from the surface of InN by one order of magnitude.

  17. Anomalous spontaneous reversal in magnetic heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Pan; Eisenmenger, Johannes; Miller, Casey W; Schuller, Ivan K

    2006-04-07

    We observe a thermally induced spontaneous magnetization reversal of epitaxial ferromagnet/antiferromagnet heterostructures under a constant applied magnetic field. Unlike any other magnetic system, the magnetization spontaneously reverses, aligning antiparallel to an applied field with decreasing temperature. We show that this unusual phenomenon is caused by the interfacial antiferromagnetic coupling overcoming the Zeeman energy of the ferromagnet. A significant temperature hysteresis exists, whose height and width can be tuned by the field applied during thermal cycling. The hysteresis originates from the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy in the system. The observation of this phenomenon leads to open questions in the general understanding of magnetic heterostructures. Moreover, this shows that in general heterogeneous nanostructured materials may exhibit unexpected phenomena absent in the bulk.

  18. Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A.; Sergeev, A.

    2013-11-01

    Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La2-xSrxCuO4 layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, δV ˜γI3, with a coefficient γ(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity dρ /dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area ge -ph≈1 W/K cm2 at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity.

  19. Thermal response in van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu Gandi, Appala; Alshareef, Husam N.; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    We solve numerically the Boltzmann transport equations of the phonons and electrons to understand the thermoelectric response in heterostructures of M2CO2 (M: Ti, Zr, Hf) MXenes with transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. Low frequency optical phonons are found to occur as a consequence of the van der Waals bonding, contribute significantly to the thermal transport, and compensate for the reduced contributions of the acoustic phonons (increased scattering cross-sections in heterostructures), such that the thermal conductivities turn out to be similar to those of the bare MXenes. Our results indicate that the important superlattice design approach of thermoelectrics (to reduce the thermal conductivity) may be effective for two-dimensional van der Waals materials when used in conjunction with intercalation.

  20. Thermal response in van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Gandi, Appala Naidu; Alshareef, Husam N; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2017-01-25

    We solve numerically the Boltzmann transport equations of the phonons and electrons to understand the thermoelectric response in heterostructures of M2CO2 (M: Ti, Zr, Hf) MXenes with transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. Low frequency optical phonons are found to occur as a consequence of the van der Waals bonding, contribute significantly to the thermal transport, and compensate for the reduced contributions of the acoustic phonons (increased scattering cross-sections in heterostructures), such that the thermal conductivities turn out to be similar to those of the bare MXenes. Our results indicate that the important superlattice design approach of thermoelectrics (to reduce the thermal conductivity) may be effective for two-dimensional van der Waals materials when used in conjunction with intercalation.

  1. Low energy consumption spintronics using multiferroic heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Trassin, Morgan

    2016-01-27

    We review the recent progress in the field of multiferroic magnetoelectric heterostructures. The lack of single phase multiferroic candidates exhibiting simultaneously strong and coupled magnetic and ferroelectric orders led to an increased effort into the development of artificial multiferroic heterostructures in which these orders are combined by assembling different materials. The magnetoelectric coupling emerging from the created interface between the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic layers can result in electrically tunable magnetic transition temperature, magnetic anisotropy or magnetization reversal. The full potential of low energy consumption magnetic based devices for spintronics lies in our understanding of the magnetoelectric coupling at the scale of the ferroic domains. Although the thin film synthesis progresses resulted into the complete control of ferroic domain ordering using epitaxial strain, the local observation of magnetoelectric coupling remains challenging. The ability to imprint ferroelectric domains into ferromagnets and to manipulate those solely using electric fields suggests new technological advances for spintronics such as magnetoelectric memories or memristors.

  2. Electron mobility in modulation-doped heterostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walukiewicz, W.; Ruda, H. E.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    A model for electron mobility in a two-dimensional electron gas confined in a triangular well was developed. All major scattering processes (deformation potential and piezoelectric acoustic, polar optical, ionized impurity, and alloy disorder) were included, as well as intrasubband and intersubband scattering. The model is applied to two types of modulation-doped heterostructures, namely GaAs-GaAlAs and In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As-Al(0.52)In(0.48)As. In the former case, phonons and remote ionized impurities ultimately limit the mobility, whereas in the latter, alloy disorder is a predominant scattering process at low temperatures. The calculated mobilities are in very good agreement with recently reported experimental characteristics for both GaAs-Ga(1-x)Al(x)As and In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As-Al(0.52)In(0.48)As modulation-doped heterostructures.

  3. Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A.; Sergeev, A.

    2013-11-25

    Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La{sub 2−x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, δV∼γI{sup 3}, with a coefficient γ(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity dρ/dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area g{sub e−ph}≈1 W/K cm{sup 2} at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity.

  4. Oxide heterostructures for efficient solar cells.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Elias; Blaha, Peter; Laskowski, Robert; Held, Karsten; Okamoto, Satoshi; Sangiovanni, Giorgio

    2013-02-15

    We propose an unexplored class of absorbing materials for high-efficiency solar cells: heterostructures of transition-metal oxides. In particular, LaVO(3) grown on SrTiO(3) has a direct band gap ∼1.1  eV in the optimal range as well as an internal potential gradient, which can greatly help to separate the photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, oxide heterostructures afford the flexibility to combine LaVO(3) with other materials such as LaFeO(3) in order to achieve even higher efficiencies with band-gap graded solar cells. We use density-functional theory to demonstrate these features.

  5. Resonant pairing of excitons in semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, S. V.

    2016-10-01

    We suggest indirect excitons in two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures as a platform for the realization of a bosonic analog of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductor. The quantum phase transition to a biexcitonic gapped state can be controlled in situ by tuning the electric field applied to the structure in the growth direction. The proposed playground should allow one to go to strongly correlated and high-temperature regimes, unattainable with Feshbach resonant atomic gases.

  6. Molecular beam epitaxial re-growth of CdTe, CdTe/CdMgTe and CdTe/CdZnTe double heterostructures on CdTe/InSb(1 0 0) substrates with As cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyedmohammadi, Shahram; DiNezza, Michael J.; Liu, Shi; King, Paul; LeBlanc, Elizabeth G.; Zhao, Xin-Hao; Campbell, Calli; Myers, Thomas H.; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Malik, Roger J.

    2015-09-01

    Molecular beam epitaxial growth on CdTe substrates is challenging since the CdTe film crystalline and optical quality is limited by residual defects including threading dislocations and stacking faults. This remains an obstacle in spite of exhausting variables including pre-growth substrate preparation as well as epitaxial growth conditions including thermal oxide desorption, growth temperature, and II/VI flux ratios. We propose a new technique to re-grow structures with low defect densities and high optical and structural quality on InSb substrates. The "CdTe virtual wafer" is made by growing a thin CdTe film on an InSb(1 0 0) substrate which is then covered with a thin As cap layer to prevent oxidation of the CdTe surface. The As cap can be removed by thermal desorption at about 300 C leaving a clean CdTe surface for subsequent epitaxial growth. This method eliminates the need for chemical etching of CdTe substrates which has been found to lead to an atomically rough surface with residual Carbon and Oxygen contamination. XRD and SEM characterization show a smooth transition from the buffer CdTe to re-grown CdTe layer with identical crystalline quality as for virtual wafer. Steady-state PL and time-resolved PL from CdTe/CdMgTe double heterostructures show substantial improvement in luminescence intensity and carrier lifetime comparable to values for identical samples grown without exposure to atmosphere. We will also report on CdTe/CdZnTe double heterostructures grown on virtual wafers compared to identical structures on conventional CdTe(2 1 1)B substrates.

  7. Functional ferroic heterostructures with tunable integral symmetry.

    PubMed

    Becher, C; Trassin, M; Lilienblum, M; Nelson, C T; Suresha, S J; Yi, D; Yu, P; Ramesh, R; Fiebig, M; Meier, D

    2014-07-02

    The relation between symmetry and functionality was pinpointed by Pierre Curie who stated that it is the symmetry breaking that creates physical properties. This fundamental principle is nowadays used for engineering heterostructures whose integral symmetry leads to exotic phenomena such as one-way transparency. For switching devices, however, such symmetry-related functionalities cannot be used because the symmetry in conventional heterostructures is immutable once the material has been synthesized. Here we demonstrate a concept for post-growth symmetry control in PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 and BiFeO3-based heterostructures. A conducting oxide is sandwiched between two ferroelectric layers, and inversion symmetry is reversibly switched on or off by layer-selective electric-field poling. The generalization of our approach to other materials and symmetries is discussed. We thus establish ferroic trilayer structures as device components with reversibly tunable symmetry and demonstrate their use as light emitters that can be activated and deactivated by applying moderate electric voltages.

  8. Voltage control of magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Sun, Nian X.

    2014-01-01

    Electrical tuning of magnetism is of great fundamental and technical importance for fast, compact and ultra-low power electronic devices. Multiferroics, simultaneously exhibiting ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism, have attracted much interest owing to the capability of controlling magnetism by an electric field through magnetoelectric (ME) coupling. In particular, strong strain-mediated ME interaction observed in layered multiferroic heterostructures makes it practically possible for realizing electrically reconfigurable microwave devices, ultra-low power electronics and magnetoelectric random access memories (MERAMs). In this review, we demonstrate this remarkable E-field manipulation of magnetism in various multiferroic composite systems, aiming at the creation of novel compact, lightweight, energy-efficient and tunable electronic and microwave devices. First of all, tunable microwave devices are demonstrated based on ferrite/ferroelectric and magnetic-metal/ferroelectric composites, showing giant ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) tunability with narrow FMR linewidth. Then, E-field manipulation of magnetoresistance in multiferroic anisotropic magnetoresistance and giant magnetoresistance devices for achieving low-power electronic devices is discussed. Finally, E-field control of exchange-bias and deterministic magnetization switching is demonstrated in exchange-coupled antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic/ferroelectric multiferroic hetero-structures at room temperature, indicating an important step towards MERAMs. In addition, recent progress in electrically non-volatile tuning of magnetic states is also presented. These tunable multiferroic heterostructures and devices provide great opportunities for next-generation reconfigurable radio frequency/microwave communication systems and radars, spintronics, sensors and memories. PMID:24421373

  9. Voltage control of magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Sun, Nian X

    2014-02-28

    Electrical tuning of magnetism is of great fundamental and technical importance for fast, compact and ultra-low power electronic devices. Multiferroics, simultaneously exhibiting ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism, have attracted much interest owing to the capability of controlling magnetism by an electric field through magnetoelectric (ME) coupling. In particular, strong strain-mediated ME interaction observed in layered multiferroic heterostructures makes it practically possible for realizing electrically reconfigurable microwave devices, ultra-low power electronics and magnetoelectric random access memories (MERAMs). In this review, we demonstrate this remarkable E-field manipulation of magnetism in various multiferroic composite systems, aiming at the creation of novel compact, lightweight, energy-efficient and tunable electronic and microwave devices. First of all, tunable microwave devices are demonstrated based on ferrite/ferroelectric and magnetic-metal/ferroelectric composites, showing giant ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) tunability with narrow FMR linewidth. Then, E-field manipulation of magnetoresistance in multiferroic anisotropic magnetoresistance and giant magnetoresistance devices for achieving low-power electronic devices is discussed. Finally, E-field control of exchange-bias and deterministic magnetization switching is demonstrated in exchange-coupled antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic/ferroelectric multiferroic hetero-structures at room temperature, indicating an important step towards MERAMs. In addition, recent progress in electrically non-volatile tuning of magnetic states is also presented. These tunable multiferroic heterostructures and devices provide great opportunities for next-generation reconfigurable radio frequency/microwave communication systems and radars, spintronics, sensors and memories.

  10. Graphene diamond-like carbon films heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Fang; Afandi, Abdulkareem; Jackman, Richard B.

    2015-03-09

    A limitation to the potential use of graphene as an electronic material is the lack of control over the 2D materials properties once it is deposited on a supporting substrate. Here, the use of Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) interlayers between the substrate and the graphene is shown to offer the prospect of overcoming this problem. The DLC films used here, more properly known as a-C:H with ∼25% hydrogen content, have been terminated with N or F moieties prior to graphene deposition. It is found that nitrogen terminations lead to an optical band gap shrinkage in the DLC, whilst fluorine groups reduce the DLC's surface energy. CVD monolayer graphene subsequently transferred to DLC, N terminated DLC, and F terminated DLC has then been studied with AFM, Raman and XPS analysis, and correlated with Hall effect measurements that give an insight into the heterostructures electrical properties. The results show that different terminations strongly affect the electronic properties of the graphene heterostructures. G-F-DLC samples were p-type and displayed considerably higher mobility than the other heterostructures, whilst G-N-DLC samples supported higher carrier densities, being almost metallic in character. Since it would be possible to locally pattern the distribution of these differing surface terminations, this work offers the prospect for 2D lateral control of the electronic properties of graphene layers for device applications.

  11. Magnetoelectric Heterostructures for Spintronics and Magnetic Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Tianxiang

    Magnetoelectric heterostructures with coupled magnetization and electric polarization across their interfaces enable significantly improvement of performance of many devices such as magnetic sensors, microwave magnetic devices, and spintronics. I will first show that by utilizing a unique ferroelastic polarization switching pathway, one can achieve non-volatile electric-field-switching of magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures with different ferroelectric single crystals through a strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling. In the same system, with atomically-thin ferromagnets, the interfacial charge-mediated should also be taken into account. The charge- and strain-mediated coupling mechanisms are demonstrated and precisely quantified by the electric-field-tuning of ferromagnetic resonance. With the same technique, magnetic relaxation including intrinsic and extrinsic damping has also been shown to be strongly correlated to the strain, which is attributed to the electric-field-modification of spin-orbit coupling. Moreover, I will also show the tuning of spin-orbit torques from the spin-Hall effect with applied voltage probed with spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance and show the possible application on voltage tunable spin-Hall nano-oscillators. In the second part of my thesis, I will show an ultra-miniaturized magnetoelectric nano-electromechanical system (NEMS) resonator based on an AlN/FeGaB magnetoelectric heterostructure for detecting wide band magnetic fields. With the high Quality factor and the ultra-high resonance frequency, a low DC magnetic field detection limit of 300 pT has been demonstrated.

  12. Trilayer TMDC Heterostructures for MOSFETs and Nanobiosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Kanak; Shadman, Abir; Rahman, Ehsanur; Khosru, Quazi D. M.

    2017-02-01

    Two dimensional materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) and their bi-layer/tri-layer heterostructures have become the focus of intense research and investigation in recent years due to their promising applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this work, we have explored device level performance of trilayer TMDC heterostructure (MoS2/MX2/MoS2; M = Mo or, W and X = S or, Se) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) in the quantum ballistic regime. Our simulation shows that device `on' current can be improved by inserting a WS2 monolayer between two MoS2 monolayers. Application of biaxial tensile strain reveals a reduction in drain current which can be attributed to the lowering of carrier effective mass with increased tensile strain. In addition, it is found that gate underlap geometry improves electrostatic device performance by improving sub-threshold swing. However, increase in channel resistance reduces drain current. Besides exploring the prospect of these materials in device performance, novel trilayer TMDC heterostructure double gate field effect transistors (FETs) are proposed for sensing Nano biomolecules as well as for pH sensing. Bottom gate operation ensures these FETs operating beyond Nernst limit of 59 mV/pH. Simulation results found in this work reveal that scaling of bottom gate oxide results in better sensitivity while top oxide scaling exhibits an opposite trend. It is also found that, for identical operating conditions, proposed TMDC FET pH sensors show super-Nernst sensitivity indicating these materials as potential candidates in implementing such sensor. Besides pH sensing, all these materials show high sensitivity in the sub-threshold region as a channel material in nanobiosensor while MoS2/WS2/MoS2 FET shows the least sensitivity among them.

  13. van der Waals Heterostructures Grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Christopher

    In this work, we demonstrate the high-quality MBE heterostructure growth of various layered 2D materials by van der Waals epitaxy (VDWE). The coupling of different types of van der Waals materials including transition metal dichalcogenide thin films (e.g., WSe2, WTe2, HfSe2) , insulating hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and topological insulators (e.g., Bi2Se3) allows for the fabrication of novel electronic devices that take advantage of unique quantum confinement and spin-based characteristics. The relaxed lattice-matching criteria of van der Waals epitaxy has allowed for high-quality heterostructure growth with atomically abrupt interfaces, allowing us to couple these materials based primarily on their band alignment and electronic properties. We will discuss the impact of sample preparation, surface reactivity, and lattice mismatch of various substrates (sapphire, graphene, TMDs, Bi2Se3) on the growth mode and quality of the films and will discuss our studies of substrate temperature and flux rates on the resultant growth and grain size. Structural and chemical characterization was conducted via reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. Experimentally determined band alignments have been determined and compared with first-principles calculations allowing the design of novel low-power logic and magnetic memory devices. Initial results from the electrical characterization of these grown thin films and some simple devices will also be presented. These VDWE grown layered 2D materials show significant potential for fabricating novel heterostructures with tunable band alignments and magnetic properties for a variety of nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications.

  14. Advanced heterostructure transistor technologies for wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.-L. Larry; Lin, Barry; Chau, Frank H.-F.; Jackson, Gordon; Chen, Zhengming; Lee, C. P.

    1999-08-01

    Wireless communication has enjoyed tremendous growth in the last five years. Most of the market is below the 3 GHz. Recently, millimeter wave frequency band was also opened up to commercial applications, such as the Local Multipoint Distribution System. The rapid growth of the market demands cost effective RF circuitry with ever better performance. Thus, the heterostructure transistors are pursued to meeting the market needs. This article will first analyze the technical demand on RF transistor circuitry for wireless application. Existing and emerging transistor technologies will be discussed for its strength. A general comparison will be made.

  15. Transmission in graphene-topological insulator heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Beule, C.; Zarenia, M.; Partoens, B.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate scattering of the topological surface state of a three-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulator when graphene is deposited on the topological-insulator surface. Specifically, we consider the (111) surface of a Bi2Se3 -like topological insulator. We present a low-energy model for the graphene-topological insulator heterostructure and we calculate the transmission probability at zigzag and armchair edges of the deposited graphene, and the conductance through graphene nanoribbon barriers, and show that its features can be understood from antiresonances in the transmission probability.

  16. Heterostructures as a quantum optical klistron

    SciTech Connect

    Malov, Yu.A.

    1995-12-31

    THE beam of {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} ballistic electrons which were first obtained experimentally in (1) is considered when passing through the heterostructures consisting of two potential barriers in barriers in the presence of FEL tuning in infra-red region. In the presence of the first barrier the electron beam in the FEL electromagnetic field can either absorb or emit the field quanta. The initial electron beam may split into states n=1 (absorption of one quantum), n=0 (the beam energy unchanged), and n=-1 (emission of one quantum). The interference of the states with n=0, n=1 and n=0, n=1 results in the initiation of two traveling modulation waves at electromagnetic frequency w. Beats between these waves in the region of the of their overlapping lead to a periodic dependence of the modulation from w. It has been found that the spontaneous coherent radiation (SCR) intensity oscillates with the period depending on FEL frequency w. It is possible to increase or to decrease the spectral intensity of SCR varying w. The suggested idea of modulation on the first barrier of heterostructures and the radiation of modulated electron beam on the second barrier is a scheme of an quantum optical klistron in infra-red region.

  17. Thermoelectric Properties of Complex Oxide Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, Tyler Andrew

    Thermoelectrics are a promising energy conversion technology for power generation and cooling systems. The thermal and electrical properties of the materials at the heart of thermoelectric devices dictate conversion efficiency and technological viability. Studying the fundamental properties of potentially new thermoelectric materials is of great importance for improving device performance and understanding the electronic structure of materials systems. In this dissertation, investigations on the thermoelectric properties of a prototypical complex oxide, SrTiO3, are discussed. Hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is used to synthesize La-doped SrTiO3 thin films, which exhibit high electron mobilities and large Seebeck coefficients resulting in large thermoelectric power factors at low temperatures. Large interfacial electron densities have been observed in SrTiO3/RTiO 3 (R=Gd,Sm) heterostructures. The thermoelectric properties of such heterostructures are investigated, including the use of a modulation doping approach to control interfacial electron densities. Low-temperature Seebeck coefficients of extreme electron-density SrTiO3 quantum wells are shown to provide insight into their electronic structure.

  18. Military applications for heterostructure microelectronics technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiling, Paul; Kirkpatrick, Conilee; Valentine, Gary

    1995-09-01

    Military systems, whether radar, communications, electronic warfare (EW) or smart munitions, require superior device and IC performance. The performance advantages of heterostructure devices over standard Si CMOS, Si bipolar transistors or GaAs MESFETs has motivated major aerospace firms in the United States to develop Si, GaAs and InP-based heterojunction bipolar (HBT) and high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) technologies. In response to advanced system performance requirements, technology efforts are being pushed toward devices which can yield {T}/{R} modules with octave bandwidths, noise figures under 3 dB, output power of 20 W and power greater than 30%. Device technology development for satellite communications is being driven in part by the need for ultra low noise high output power with high power added efficiency with high MMTF. For these systems as well as EW applications, designers want to digitize the signal as close to the front end as possible. This is driving the development of a 100 GHz IC technology for A/D converters, synthesizers, MUX/DEMUXs, DDSs. and PRNs. Requirements for A/D converters with 16 bits @ 100-200 MHz up to 8-10 bits @ 10 GHz are appearing for advanced radars and EW systems. The military system requirements continue to drive the development of the newer, better and higher performance heterostructure device technologies.

  19. Heterostructure design optimization for laser cooling of GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imangholi, B.; Wang, C.; Soto, E.; Sheik-Bahae, M.; Stintz, A.; Malloy, K.; Nuntawong, N.; Epstein, R.

    2007-02-01

    Doping of the clad layers in thin GaAs/GaInP heterostructures, displaces the band energy discontinuity, modifies the carrier concentration in the active GaAs region and changes the quality of the hetero-interfaces. As a result, internal and consequently external quantum efficiencies in the double heterostructure are affected. In this paper, the interfacial quality of GaAs/GaInP heterostructure is systematically investigated by adjusting the doping level and type (n or p) of the cladding layer. An optimum structure for laser cooling applications is proposed.

  20. Thermally induced currents in graphene-based heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Minggang; Feng, Yuanping; Liang, Gengchiau

    2011-09-01

    We investigate thermally induced currents in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) heterostructure, consisting of hydrogen-terminated ZGNR (ZGNR-H) and oxygen-terminated ZGNR (ZGNR-O), under different electronic and magnetic states. Compared to a pure ZGNR-H system, the heterostructure displays a considerably larger thermally induced current due to its asymmetric transmission spectrum. Moreover, the magnetized ZGNR-H/ZGNR-O shows spin filter and magnetoresistance effects, suggesting potential applications of the ZGNR-H/ZGNR-O heterostructures in thermoelectric and spintronics devices.

  1. 2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Novoselov, K S; Mishchenko, A; Carvalho, A; Castro Neto, A H

    2016-07-29

    The physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures based on such crystals has been developing extremely fast. With these new materials, truly 2D physics has begun to appear (for instance, the absence of long-range order, 2D excitons, commensurate-incommensurate transition, etc.). Novel heterostructure devices--such as tunneling transistors, resonant tunneling diodes, and light-emitting diodes--are also starting to emerge. Composed from individual 2D crystals, such devices use the properties of those materials to create functionalities that are not accessible in other heterostructures. Here we review the properties of novel 2D crystals and examine how their properties are used in new heterostructure devices.

  2. Quantum dot nanoscale heterostructures for solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Selinsky, Rachel S; Ding, Qi; Faber, Matthew S; Wright, John C; Jin, Song

    2013-04-07

    Quantum dot nanoscale semiconductor heterostructures (QDHs) are a class of materials potentially useful for integration into solar energy conversion devices. However, realizing the potential of these heterostructured systems requires the ability to identify and synthesize heterostructures with suitably designed materials, controlled size and morphology of each component, and structural control over their shared interface. In this review, we will present the case for the utility and advantages of chemically synthesized QDHs for solar energy conversion, beginning with an overview of various methods of heterostructured material synthesis and a survey of heretofore reported materials systems. The fundamental charge transfer properties of the resulting materials combinations and their basic design principles will be outlined. Finally, we will discuss representative solar photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical devices employing QDHs (including quantum dot sensitized solar cells, or QDSSCs) and examine how QDH synthesis and design impacts their performance.

  3. Raman Characterization of Graphene and 2D TMD Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derby, Benjamin; Hight Walker, Angela

    2015-03-01

    We report efforts to produce and characterize graphene and two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMD) heterostructures. Using PDMS stamps, exfoliation of graphene, MoS2, h-BN, and TaS2 precedes the stacking of these mono- and few layers into heterostructures. The goal is to engineer mis-orientation to enhanced Raman signatures of various layers within the heterostructures. Previous studies have reported a Raman signal strength that is angle dependent between bi-layers. Using resonant Raman spectroscopy, we probe the quality of these constructed heterostructures. Ultimately, we plan to combine our optical measurements with an applied magnetic field to probe the complex magneto-Raman interaction. Previous studies show a magneto-phonon resonance at specific field strengths and laser excitations. Our results to date will be summarized.

  4. An investigation of dopping profile for a one dimensional heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhaohui

    2005-03-01

    A one-dimensional junction is formed by joining two silicon nanowires whose surfaces are terminated with capping groups of different electronegativity and polarizability. If this heterostructure is doped (with e.g. phosphorous) on the side with the higher bandgap, the system becomes a modulation doped heterostructure with novel one-dimensional electrostatics. We use density functional theory calculations in the pseudopotential approximation, plus empirical model calculations, to investigate doping profiles in this new class of nanostructures.

  5. Interface Superconductivity in Graphite- and CuCl-Based Heterostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-22

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0062 Interface superconductivity in graphite- and CuCl-based heterostructures Yakov Kopelevich UNIVERSIDADE EEADUAL DE CAMPINAS...TITLE AND SUBTITLE "INTERFACE SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN GRAPHITE AND CuCl-BASED HETEROSTRUCTURES" 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0056 5c...long-standing problem of possible high- temperature superconductivity in CuCl. The obtained experimental evidence indicates that the low resistance

  6. Vertical heterostructures based on graphene and other 2D materials

    SciTech Connect

    Antonova, I. V.

    2016-01-15

    Recent advances in the fabrication of vertical heterostructures based on graphene and other dielectric and semiconductor single-layer materials, including hexagonal boron nitride and transition-metal dichalcogenides, are reviewed. Significant progress in this field is discussed together with the great prospects for the development of vertical heterostructures for various applications, which are associated, first of all, with reconsideration of the physical principles of the design and operation of device structures based on graphene combined with other 2D materials.

  7. Method and apparatus for selectively annealing heterostructures using microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, Harry A. (Inventor); Brain, Ruth A. (Inventor); Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for selectively annealing heterostructures using microwaves. A heterostructure, comprised of a material having higher microwave absorption and a material having lower microwave absorption, is exposed to microwaves in the cavity. The higher microwave absorbing material absorbs the microwaves and selectively heats while the lower microwave absorbing material absorbs small amounts of microwaves and minimally heats. The higher microwave absorbing material is thereby annealed onto the less absorbing material which is thermally isolated.

  8. Method and apparatus for selectively annealing heterostructures using microwave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, Harry A. (Inventor); Brain, Ruth A. (Inventor); Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for selectively annealing heterostructures using microwaves. A heterostructure, comprised of a material having higher microwave absorption and a material having lower microwave absorption, is exposed to microwaves in the cavity. The higher microwave absorbing material absorbs the microwaves and selectively heats while the lower microwave absorbing material absorbs small amounts of microwaves and minimally heats. The higher microwave absorbing material is thereby annealed onto the less absorbing material which is thermally isolated.

  9. Research on Silicon, Carbon, and Silicon Carbide Heterostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-14

    0Innr Jc9&9b 1. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Research on Silicon, Carbon, and Silicon Carbide Heterostructures Z. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) W. D...and identify by block number) FIELD I GROUP SUB-GROUP PLASMAS. DEPOSITION. THIN FILMS. SILICON CARBIDE . DIAMOND. SURFACES. DESORPTION. CHARACTERIZATION...AND SILICON CARBIDE HETEROSTRUCTURES W. D. Partlow (P.I.), W. J. Choyke, J. T. Yates, Jr., C. C. Cheng, H. Gutleben, L. E. Kline, R. R. Mitchell, J

  10. Tunable hyperbolic metamaterials utilizing phase change heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, Harish N. S.; Menon, Vinod M.; Zhou, You; Ramanathan, Shriram; Narimanov, Evgenii

    2014-03-24

    We present a metal-free tunable anisotropic metamaterial where the iso-frequency surface is tuned from elliptical to hyperbolic dispersion by exploiting the metal-insulator phase transition in the correlated material vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). Using VO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} heterostructures, we demonstrate the transition in the effective dielectric constant parallel to the layers to undergo a sign change from positive to negative as the VO{sub 2} undergoes the phase transition. The possibility to tune the iso-frequency surface in real time using external perturbations such as temperature, voltage, or optical pulses creates new avenues for controlling light-matter interaction.

  11. Synthesis of multiple constituent ferecrystal heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westover, Richard D.

    The ability to form multiple component heterostructures of two-dimensional materials promises to provide access to hybrid materials with tunable properties different from those of the bulk materials or two-dimensional constituents. By taking advantage of the unique properties of different constituents, numerous applications are possible for which none of the individual components are viable. The synthesis of multiple component heterostructures, however, is nontrivial, relying on either the cleaving and stacking of bulk materials in a "scotch tape" type technique or finding coincidentally favorable growth conditions which allow layers to be grown epitaxially on each other in any order. In addition, alloying of miscible materials occurs when the modulation wavelength is small. These synthetic challenges have limited the ability of scientists to fully utilize the potential of multiple component heterostructures. An alternative synthetic route to multiple component heterostructures may be found through expansion of the modulated elemental reactant technique which allows access to metastable products, known as ferecrystals, which are otherwise inaccessible. This work focuses on the expansion of the modulated elemental reactants technique for the formation of ferecrystals containing multiple constituents. As a starting point, the synthesis of the first alloy ferecrystals (SnSe) 1.16-1.09([NbxMo1-x]Se2) will be discussed. The structural and electrical characterization of these compounds will then be used to determine the intermixing of the first three component ferecrystal heterojunction ([SnSe]1+delta)([{MoxNb1-x}Se 2]1+gamma)([SnSe]1+delta)({NbyMo 1-y}Se2). Then, by synthesizing ([SnSe]1+delta) m([{MoxNb1-x}Se2]1+gamma )1([SnSe]1+delta)m({Nb xMo1-x}Se2)1 (m = 0 - 4) compounds with increasing thicknesses of SnSe, the interdiffusion of miscible constituents in ferecrystals will be studied. In addition, by comparison of the ([SnSe] 1+delta)m ([{MoxNb1-x }Se2]1+gamma)1([Sn

  12. Tunneling for a novel Pascal heterostructure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Cruz, E.; Cocoletzi, Gregorio H.

    1998-03-01

    The well known Pascal triangle is used to obtain a new numerical array and then semiconductor heterostructures(E. López-Cruz and G. H. Cocoletzi, Suplemento del Bol. Soc. Mex. Fis. 11-3), 7 (1997). are formed in order to investigate theoretically electronic tunneling phenomena. AlGaAs/GaAs materials are considered to write the hamiltonian of the electrons and solve the Schroedinger equation for the envelope function. Numerical calculations are performed on the transmission coefficient taking into account the structural parameters. Results show resonances as well as the presence of minibands and minigaps for high number of layers. It is explained how the tunneling structure behaves as the numerical array is changed.

  13. Rashba-Edelstein Magnetoresistance in Metallic Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Hiroyasu; Kanno, Yusuke; An, Hongyu; Tashiro, Takaharu; Haku, Satoshi; Nomura, Akiyo; Ando, Kazuya

    2016-09-01

    We report the observation of magnetoresistance originating from Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in a metallic heterostructure: the Rashba-Edelstein (RE) magnetoresistance. We show that the simultaneous action of the direct and inverse RE effects in a Bi /Ag /CoFeB trilayer couples current-induced spin accumulation to the electric resistance. The electric resistance changes with the magnetic-field angle, reminiscent of the spin Hall magnetoresistance, despite the fact that bulk SOC is not responsible for the magnetoresistance. We further found that, even when the magnetization is saturated, the resistance increases with increasing the magnetic-field strength, which is attributed to the Hanle magnetoresistance in this system.

  14. Giant switchable Rashba effect in oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Zhicheng; Si, Liang; Zhang, Qinfang; Yin, Wei-Guo; Yunoki, Seiji; Held, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    One of the most fundamental phenomena and a reminder of the electron’s relativistic nature is the Rashba spin splitting for broken inversion symmetry. Usually this splitting is a tiny relativistic correction. Interfacing ferroelectric BaTiO₃ and a 5d (or 4d) transition metal oxide with a large spin-orbit coupling, Ba(Os,Ir,Ru)O₃, we show that giant Rashba spin splittings are indeed possible and even controllable by an external electric field. Based on density functional theory and a microscopic tight binding understanding, we conclude that the electric field is amplified and stored as a ferroelectric Ti-O distortion which, through the network of oxygen octahedra, induces a large (Os,Ir,Ru)-O distortion. The BaTiO₃/Ba(Os,Ru,Ir)O₃ heterostructure is hence the ideal test station for switching and studying the Rashba effect and allows applications at room temperature.

  15. Giant switchable Rashba effect in oxide heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zhong, Zhicheng; Si, Liang; Zhang, Qinfang; ...

    2015-03-01

    One of the most fundamental phenomena and a reminder of the electron’s relativistic nature is the Rashba spin splitting for broken inversion symmetry. Usually this splitting is a tiny relativistic correction. Interfacing ferroelectric BaTiO₃ and a 5d (or 4d) transition metal oxide with a large spin-orbit coupling, Ba(Os,Ir,Ru)O₃, we show that giant Rashba spin splittings are indeed possible and even controllable by an external electric field. Based on density functional theory and a microscopic tight binding understanding, we conclude that the electric field is amplified and stored as a ferroelectric Ti-O distortion which, through the network of oxygen octahedra, inducesmore » a large (Os,Ir,Ru)-O distortion. The BaTiO₃/Ba(Os,Ru,Ir)O₃ heterostructure is hence the ideal test station for switching and studying the Rashba effect and allows applications at room temperature.« less

  16. Band alignment of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Xie, Weiyu; Zhao, Jijun; Zhang, Shengbai

    2017-03-01

    Recent experimental synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures opens a door to new opportunities in tailoring the electronic properties for novel 2D devices. Here, we show that a wide range of lateral 2D heterostructures could have a prominent advantage over the traditional three-dimensional (3D) heterostructures, because their band alignments are insensitive to the interfacial conditions. They should be at the Schottky-Mott limits for semiconductor-metal junctions and at the Anderson limits for semiconductor junctions, respectively. This fundamental difference from the 3D heterostructures is rooted in the fact that, in the asymptotic limit of large distance, the effect of the interfacial dipole vanishes for 2D systems. Due to the slow decay of the dipole field and the dependence on the vacuum thickness, however, studies based on first-principles calculations often failed to reach such a conclusion. Taking graphene/hexagonal-BN and MoS2/WS2 lateral heterostructures as the respective prototypes, we show that the converged junction width can be order of magnitude longer than that for 3D junctions. The present results provide vital guidance to high-quality transport devices wherever a lateral 2D heterostructure is involved.

  17. Vibrating property of single Ge based heterostructure nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao; Wang, Chunrui; Xu, Jing

    2013-12-01

    Raman spectrum of single heterostructure nanowire can reflect its unusual lattice vibrations as well as the junction features. In this paper, we report Raman spectra of two morphologies of single Ge based heterostructure nanowire, that is, one is CdSe/Ge biaxial heterostructure nanowires(sample I), another is Ge nanowires is surrounded by CdSe nanoparticles (sample II), which is fabricated by one step thermal evaporation of CdSe and Ge powder. A new mode was observed in Raman spectrum of Ge nanowires surrounded by CdSe nanoparticles, which caused by the interaction of LO mode of CdSe and LO (TO) mode of Ge. The LO (TO) mode of Ge nanowire in CdSe/Ge biaxial heterostructure nanowires and Ge nanowires surrounded by CdSe nanoparticles all has a red-shift in comparison with that of Ge nanowires. The vibrational mode of CdSe in CdSe/Ge biaxial heterostructure nanowires has a red-shift. The vibrational mode of CdSe in Ge nanowires surrounded by CdSe nanoparticles has a blue-shift. The red-shift mode may be caused by quantum confinement effect. The blue-shift mode may be originated from tensile stress or high density of stacking defects. The vibrating mode of the heterostructure nanowires was much sensitive to stacking fault than to quantum confinement effect when the diameter of nanowire is larger than 300nm.

  18. Double exchange bias in ferrimagnetic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebler, B.; Reinhardt, P.; Katona, G. L.; Hellwig, O.; Albrecht, M.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the magnetic reversal characteristics of exchange coupled ferrimagnetic (FI) T b19F e81/T b36F e64 heterostructures. Both layers are amorphous and exhibit strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The investigated heterostructures consist of a Tb-dominated and a Fe-dominated FI layer. Thus, in the magnetic ground state the net moments of the individual layers are oppositely aligned due to antiferromagnetic coupling of Fe and Tb moments. By cooling the system below 160 K, a large positive and negative exchange bias (EB) effect appears for the Tb- and Fe-dominated layers, respectively. The biasing depends only on the initial magnetization state and is neither affected by a cooling field nor by loop cycling. The phenomenon can be explained by the presence of a hard magnetic Fe-dominated interfacial layer, which forms during the sputter deposition process due to interface mixing and resputtering effects. This interfacial layer acts as a pinning layer below a certain temperature, where its coercivity increases to values larger than the accessible magnetic field range. This assumption is further supported by introducing a 0.9-nm-thick Ru spacer layer, which causes the EB effect to vanish. The EB effect was further investigated for a sample series, where the thickness ratio of the two Tb-Fe layers was varied, while keeping the total thickness of the bilayers constant. Only samples where the individual layers are sufficiently thick reveal double shifted loops, indicating the high sensitivity of the observed bias effect with respect to the magnetic properties of the individual layers and their interfacial area.

  19. Magnetoelectric imaging of multiferroic heterostructures (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghidini, Massimo; Lesaine, Arnaud; Zhu, Bonan; Moya, Xavier; Yan, Wenjing; Crossley, Sam; Nair, Bhasi; Mansell, Rhodri; Cowburn, Russell P.; Barnes, Crispin H. W.; Kronast, Florian; Valencia, Sergio; Maccherozzi, Francesco; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S.; Mathur, Neil

    2015-09-01

    Electrical control of magnetism has been demonstrated in multiferroic compounds and ferromagnetic semiconductors, but electrical switching of a substantial net magnetization at room temperature has not been demonstrated in these materials. This goal has instead been achieved in heterostructures comprising ferromagnetic films in which electrically driven magnetic changes arise due to strain or exchange bias from ferroic substrates, or due to charge effects induced by a gate. However, previous work focused on electrical switching of an in-plane magnetization or involved the assistance of applied magnetic fields. In heterostructures made of juxtaposed ferroelectric and ferromagnetic layers, we have shown electrical control with no applied magnetic field of the perpendicular magnetization of small features [1] and of magnetic stripe domains patterns [2]. Here we investigate Ni81Fe19 films on ferroelectric substrates with and without buffer layers of Cu, whose presence precludes charge-mediated coupling. Ni81Fe19 has virtually zero magnetostriction, but sufficiently thin films show large magnetostriction, and thus, on increasing film thickness through the threshold for zero magnetostriction, we have seeked the crossover from charge- to strain-mediated coupling. We will then show that strain associated with the motion of 90°- ferroelectric domain walls in a BaTiO3 substrate, can switch the magnetization of an array of overlying single-domain Ni dots. [1] M. Ghidini, R. Pellicelli, J. L. Prieto, X. Moya, J. Soussi, J. Briscoe, S. Dunn and N. D. Mathur, Nature Communications 4 (2013) 1453. [2] M. Ghidini, F.Maccherozzi, X. Moya, L. C. Phillips, W.Yan, J. Soussi, N. Métallier, M.Vickers, , N. -J.Steinke, R. Mansell, C. H. W. Barnes, S. S. Dhesi, and N. D. Mathur, Adv. Mater.doi: 10.1002/adma.201404799 (2015).

  20. DX centers in indium aluminum arsenide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Huseyin

    DX centers are point defects observed in many n-type doped III-V compound semi conductors. They have unique properties, which include large differences between their optical and thermal ionization energies, and a temperature dependence of the capture cross-sections. As a result of these properties DX centers exhibit a reduction in free carrier concentration and a large persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effect. DX centers also lead to a shift in the threshold voltage of modulation doped field effect transistors (MODFET) structures, at low temperatures. Most of the studies on this defect have been carried out on the Ga xAl1-xAs material system. However, to date there is significantly less work on DX centers in InxAl1-xAs compounds. This is partly due to difficulties associated with the growth of defect free materials other than lattice matched In0.52Al 0.48As on InP and partly because the energy level of the DX center is in resonance with the conduction band in In0.52Al0.48As. The purpose of this dissertation is to extend the DX center investigation to InAlAs compounds, primarily in the indirect portion of the InAlAs bandgap. In this work the indium composition dependence of the DX centers in In xAl1-xAs/InyGa1-yAs-based heterostructure is studied experimentally. Different InxAl 1-xAs epitaxial layers with x = 0.10, x = 0.15, x = 0.20, and x = 0.34 in a MODFET-like heterostructure were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on (001) GaAs substrates. In order to compensate the lattice mismatch between epitaxial layers and their substrates, step-graded buffer layers with indium composition increments of x = 0.10, every 2000 A, were used. For the samples grown with different indium contents Hall measurements as a function of both temperature and different cooling biases were performed in order to determine their carrier concentrations. A self consistent Poisson-Schrodinger numerical software is used to model the heterostructures. With the help of this numerical model

  1. Heterostructures of Topological Insulators and Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lababidi, Mahmoud

    Topological insulators (TI), such as Bi2Se 3, are a new class of quantum materials discovered recently. They are insulating in the bulk but can conduct on the surfaces. The robust surface states of three-dimensional strong TIs form a unique two-dimensional system of massless electrons, known as a helical metal, with a linear energy-momentum dispersion and spin-momentum locking. While these surface modes alone have spurred great interest, their interaction with superconductors (S) in close proximity has opened up opportunities to engineer topological superconductivity using TI-S heterostructures. This thesis is a microscopic, self-consistent theoretical investigation of the interplay between TI and superconductors. Three types of TI-based heterostructures with increasing complexity are studied in detail. We first present a detailed study of the coupling between a metal and a topological insulator. We compute the spin-active scattering matrix for electrons coming from the metal incident on the metal-TI interface. We find that there exists a critical incident angle, where perfect spin-flip occurs as the incoming electron is reflected. We discuss the origin of this phenomena and its potential implications in spintronics. We then compute the local spectrum at the metal-TI interface, and examine its evolution from the tunneling limit (bad contact) to the strong coupling limit (good contact). The calculations are done using two complementary approaches; in a continuum model based on a k·p Hamiltonian a wave function matching approach is taken and the lattice model requires the use of lattice Green's functions. The study of metal-TI interface lays the foundation for our subsequent theory of S-TI interface. Next we carry out microscopic, self-consistent calculations of the superconducting order parameter and pairing correlations near a S-TI interface, where S is an s-wave superconductor. We discuss the suppression of the order parameter by the topological insulator and

  2. Growth of Novel Semiconducting Nano and Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathi, Somilkumar J.

    This dissertation presents research findings on the three materials systems: lateral Si nanowires (SiNW), In2Se3/Bi 2Se3 heterostructures and graphene. The first part of the thesis was focused on the growth and characterization of lateral SiNW. Lateral here refers to wires growing along the plane of substrate; vertical NW on the other hand grow out of the plane of substrate. It was found, using the Au-seeded vapor -- liquid -- solid technique, that epitaxial single-crystal SiNW can be grown laterally along Si(111) substrates that have been miscut toward [11- 2]. The ratio of lateral-to-vertical NW was found to increase as the miscut angle increased and as disilane pressure and substrate temperature decreased. Based on this observation, growth parameters were identified whereby all of the deposited Au seeds formed lateral NW. Furthermore, the nanofaceted substrate guided the growth via a mechanism that involved pinning of the trijunction at the liquid/solid interface of the growing nanowire. Next, the growth of selenide heterostructures was explored. Specifically, molecular beam epitaxy was utilized to grow In2Se3 and Bi2Se3 films on h-BN, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and Si(111) substrates. Growth optimizations of In2Se3 and Bi2Se3 films were carried out by systematically varying the growth parameters. While the growth of these films was demonstrated on h-BN and HOPG surface, the majority of the effort was focused on growth on Si(111). Atomically flat terraces that extended laterally for several hundred nm, which were separated by single quintuple layer high steps characterized surface of the best In2Se3 films grown on Si(111). These In2Se3 films were suitable for subsequent high quality epitaxy of Bi2Se3 . The last part of this dissertation was focused on a recently initiated and ongoing study of graphene growth on liquid metal surfaces. The initial part of the study comprised a successful modification of an existing growth system to accommodate graphene

  3. Graphene/Si-nanowire heterostructure molecular sensors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungkil; Oh, Si Duk; Kim, Ju Hwan; Shin, Dong Hee; Kim, Sung; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Wafer-scale graphene/Si-nanowire (Si-NW) array heterostructures for molecular sensing have been fabricated by vertically contacting single-layer graphene with high-density Si NWs. Graphene is grown in large scale by chemical vapour deposition and Si NWs are vertically aligned by metal-assisted chemical etching of Si wafer. Graphene plays a key role in preventing tips of vertical Si NWs from being bundled, thereby making Si NWs stand on Si wafer separately from each other under graphene, a critical structural feature for the uniform Schottky-type junction between Si NWs and graphene. The molecular sensors respond very sensitively to gas molecules by showing 37 and 1280% resistance changes within 3.5/0.15 and 12/0.15 s response/recovery times under O2 and H2 exposures in air, respectively, highest performances ever reported. These results together with the sensor responses in vacuum are discussed based on the surface-transfer doping mechanism. PMID:24947403

  4. Spin Transport and Giant Electroresistance in Ferromagnetic Graphene Vertical Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hee Chul; Myung, Nojoon; Lee, Seung Joo

    We investigate spin transport through ferromagnetic graphene vertical heterostructures where a sandwiched tunneling layer is either a normal or ferroelectric insulator. We show that the spin-polarization of the tunneling current is electrically controlled via gate voltages. We also demonstrate that the tunneling current of Dirac fermions can be prohibited when the spin configuration of ferromagnetic graphene sheets is opposite. Giant electroresistance can thus be developed by using the proposed heterostructure in this study. The effects of temperature on spin transport and the giant electroresistance ratio are also investigated. Our findings discover the prospect of manipulating the spin transport properties in vertical heterostructures through electric fields via gate and bias electrodes. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement No604391 Graphene Flagship, Project Code (IBS-R024-D1), and the NRF grant funded by MSIP(No. 2014-066298).

  5. Electron scattering times in ZnO based polar heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Falson, J.; Kozuka, Y.; Smet, J. H.; Arima, T.; Tsukazaki, A.; Kawasaki, M.

    2015-08-24

    The remarkable historic advances experienced in condensed matter physics have been enabled through the continued exploration and proliferation of increasingly richer and cleaner material systems. In this work, we report on the scattering times of charge carriers confined in state-of-the-art MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures displaying electron mobilities in excess of 10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/V s. Through an examination of low field quantum oscillations, we obtain the effective mass of charge carriers, along with the transport and quantum scattering times. These times compare favorably with high mobility AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures, suggesting the quality of MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures now rivals that of traditional semiconductors.

  6. Two-dimensional heterostructures: fabrication, characterization, and application

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hong; Liu, Fucai; Fu, Wei; ...

    2014-08-13

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitrides (hBN), and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs, e.g., MoS2) have attracted considerable attention in the past few years because of their novel properties and versatile potential applications. These 2D layers can be integrated into a monolayer (lateral 2D heterostructure) or a multilayer stack (vertical 2D heterostructure). The resulting artificial 2D structures provide access to new properties and applications beyond their component 2D atomic crystals and hence, they are emerging as a new exciting field of research. Lastly, in this article, we review recent progress on the fabrication, characterization, and applications of variousmore » 2D heterostructures.« less

  7. Two-dimensional heterostructures: fabrication, characterization, and application

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Liu, Fucai; Fu, Wei; Fang, Zheyu; Zhou, Wu; Liu, Zheng

    2014-08-13

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitrides (hBN), and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs, e.g., MoS2) have attracted considerable attention in the past few years because of their novel properties and versatile potential applications. These 2D layers can be integrated into a monolayer (lateral 2D heterostructure) or a multilayer stack (vertical 2D heterostructure). The resulting artificial 2D structures provide access to new properties and applications beyond their component 2D atomic crystals and hence, they are emerging as a new exciting field of research. Lastly, in this article, we review recent progress on the fabrication, characterization, and applications of various 2D heterostructures.

  8. Novel hybrid C/BN two-dimensional heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvashnin, Dmitry G.; Kvashnina, Olga P.; Avramov, Pavel V.; Sorokin, Pavel B.; Kvashnin, Alexander G.

    2017-02-01

    Here we present an investigation of new quasi-two-dimensional heterostructures based on the alternation of bounded carbon and boron nitride layers (C/BN). We carried out a theoretical study of the atomic structure, stability and electronic properties of the proposed heterostructures. Such ultrathin quasi-two-dimensional C/BN films can be synthesized by means of chemically induced phase transition by connection of the layers of multilayered h-BN/graphene van der Waals heterostructures, which is indicated by the negative phase transition pressure in the calculated phase diagrams (P, T) of the films. It was shown that the band gap value of the C/BN films spans the infrared and visible spectrum. We hope that the proposed films and fabrication method can be considered as a possible route to obtain nanostructures with a controllable band gap in wide energy range. This makes these materials potentially suitable for a variety of applications, including photovoltaics, photoelectronics and more.

  9. Novel engineered compound semiconductor heterostructures for advanced electronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillman, Gregory E.; Holonyak, Nick, Jr.; Coleman, James J.

    1992-06-01

    To provide the technology base that will enable SDIO capitalization on the performance advantages offered through novel engineered multiple-lavered compound semiconductor structures, this project has focussed on three specific areas: (1) carbon doping of AlGaAs/GaAs and InP/InGaAs materials for reliable high frequency heterojunction bipolar transistors; (2) impurity induced layer disordering and the environmental degradation of AlxGal-xAs-GaAs quantum-well heterostructures and the native oxide stabilization of AlxGal-xAs-GaAs quantum well heterostructure lasers; and (3) non-planar and strained-layer quantum well heterostructure lasers and laser arrays. The accomplishments in this three year research are reported in fifty-six publications and the abstracts included in this report.

  10. One-dimensional silicon-cadmium selenide heterostructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, X. H.; Sham, T. K.; Rosenberg, R. A.; Shenoy, G. K.; X-Ray Science Division; Univ. of Western Ontario

    2007-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of 1D Si-CdSe heteronanostructures with different morphologies such as coaxial, biaxial, sandwiched, pattern wrapping, coiling, structures etc., via a one-step metal catalyzed thermal evaporation method. Both Si and CdSe exhibit single crystalline characteristics in the heterostructures, as revealed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The Si nanowires formed directly from the Si substrate via the solid-liquid-solid process acts as the absorption site for CdSe deposition as well as the template for the formation of 1D Si-CdSe heterostructures. Time-resolved X-ray excited optical luminescence from the 1D Si-CdSe heteronanostructures reveals two main emission features at 530 and 637 nm with slow and fast decay lifetime, respectively. The 530 and 637 nm emission is associated with the Si and CdSe component of the heterostructures, respectively.

  11. High-frequency dynamics of hybrid oxide Josephson heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komissinskiy, P.; Ovsyannikov, G. A.; Constantinian, K. Y.; Kislinski, Y. V.; Borisenko, I. V.; Soloviev, I. I.; Kornev, V. K.; Goldobin, E.; Winkler, D.

    2008-07-01

    We summarize our results on Josephson heterostructures Nb/Au/YBa2Cu3Ox that combine conventional (S) and oxide high- Tc superconductors with a dominant d -wave symmetry of the superconducting order parameter (D). The heterostructures were fabricated on (001) and (1 1 20) YBa2Cu3Ox films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The structural and surface studies of the (1 1 20) YBa2Cu3Ox thin films reveal nanofaceted surface structure with two facet domain orientations, which are attributed as (001) and (110)-oriented surfaces of YBa2Cu3Ox and result in S/D(001) and S/D(110) nanojunctions formed on the facets. Electrophysical properties of the Nb/Au/YBa2Cu3Ox heterostructures are investigated by the electrical and magnetic measurements at low temperatures and analyzed within the faceting scenario. The superconducting current-phase relation (CPR) of the heterostructures with finite first and second harmonics is derived from the Shapiro steps, which appear in the I-V curves of the heterostructures irradiated at frequencies up to 100 GHz. The experimental positions and amplitudes of the Shapiro steps are explained within the modified resistive Josephson junction model, where the second harmonic of the CPR and capacitance of the Josephson junctions are taken into account. We experimentally observe a crossover from a lumped to a distributed Josephson junction limit for the size of the heterostructures smaller than Josephson penetration depth. The effect is attributed to the variations of the harmonics of the superconducting CPR across the heterojunction, which may give rise to splintered vortices of magnetic flux quantum. Our investigations of parameters and phenomena that are specific for superconductors having d -wave symmetry of the superconducting order parameter may be of importance for applications such as high-frequency detectors and novel elements of a possible quantum computer.

  12. Slidable atomic layers in van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yu; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Maniwa, Yutaka; Miyata, Yasumitsu

    2017-04-01

    We report the preparation and manipulation of slidable atomic layers in clean, incommensurate van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures. Monolayer and multilayer WS2 grains are grown on graphite and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) via chemical vapor deposition, and these grains can slide smoothly on graphite and hBN surfaces by manipulation with a tip. Furthermore, this sliding process allows the suspension, tearing, stacking, and connection of the atomic layers. These results demonstrate a novel approach for developing a wide variety of atomic-layer heterostructures with tunable interlayer coupling and an ideal system for studying the superlubricity of incommensurate, highly clean vdW contacts.

  13. Novel Engineered Compound Semiconductor Heterostructures for Advanced Electronics Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-22

    AlxGal.xAs-GaAs quantum well heterostructures. L.J. Guido, B.T. Cunningham, D.W. Nam, K.C. Hsieh, W.E. Plano , J.S. Major, Jr., E.J. Vesely, A.R. Sugg, N...in heavily carbon-doped Al, Ga.,__As-GaAs quantum well heterostructures L. J. Guido, B. T. Cunningham, 0. W. Nam,a K. C. Hsieh, W. E. Plano , J. S...American institute of Physics 741 193 ANOMALOUS LUMINESCENCE PROPERTIES OF GaAs GROWN BY MOLECULAR BEAM EPITAXY I. SZAFRANEK, MA. PLANO , MJ. MCCOLLUM

  14. Inverse spin galvanic effect in topological-insulator based heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Vega, Martin; Schwiete, Georg; Sinova, Jairo; Rossi, Enrico

    2015-03-01

    We study the inverse spin galvanic effect in heterostructures formed by a layer of a three dimensional strong topological insulator (TI) and a magnetic material. We consider different configurations for the heterostructure and for the contacts. We carefully treat the effect on the TI bands of the proximity of a magnetic material and take into account both intra-band and inter-band contributions to the current-induced spin polarization of the TI surface states. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our results for recent experiments. Work supported by ONR-N00014-13-1-0321, ACS-PRF # 53581-DNI5, and the Jeffress Memorial Trust.

  15. Negative terahertz conductivity in remotely doped graphene bilayer heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhii, V.; Ryzhii, M.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.; Otsuji, T.

    2015-11-14

    Injection or optical generation of electrons and holes in graphene bilayers (GBLs) can result in the interband population inversion enabling the terahertz (THz) radiation lasing. The intraband radiative processes compete with the interband transitions. We demonstrate that remote doping enhances the indirect interband generation of photons in the proposed GBL heterostructures. Therefore, such remote doping helps to surpass the intraband (Drude) absorption, and results in large absolute values of the negative dynamic THz conductivity in a wide range of frequencies at elevated (including room) temperatures. The remotely doped GBL heterostructure THz lasers are expected to achieve higher THz gain compared with previously proposed GBL-based THz lasers.

  16. Photo doping effect in graphene/BN heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Long; Velasco, Jairo, Jr.; Hwang, Edwin; Kim, Jonghwan; Wang, Feng

    2013-03-01

    Boron nitride has been demonstrated as an ideal substrate to achieve high mobility in graphene. At the same time We observed strong change of graphene transport properties by shining light on graphene/BN heterostructure. This is attributed to photo doping effect induced by impurity excitation in BN. Optical spectroscopy based on this photo-doping effects enables us to probe impurities in crystalline BN. Such information will be important for potential applications based on graphene/BN heterostructures. The potential of applying similar technique to probe defects in other insulators and semiconductors will also be discussed.

  17. Ion-implanted planar-buried-heterostructure diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Thomas M.; Hammons, Burrell E.; Myers, David R.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1991-01-01

    A Planar-Buried-Heterostructure, Graded-Index, Separate-Confinement-Heterostructure semiconductor diode laser 10 includes a single quantum well or multi-quantum well active stripe 12 disposed between a p-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 14 and an n-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 16. The laser 10 includes an ion implanted n-type region 28 within the p-type cladding layer 14 and further includes an ion implanted p-type region 26 within the n-type cladding layer 16. The ion implanted regions are disposed for defining a lateral extent of the active stripe.

  18. Vertical-cavity in-plane heterostructures: Physics and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2015-11-02

    We show that in-plane (lateral) heterostructures realized in vertical cavities with high contrast grating reflectors can be used to significantly modify the anisotropic dispersion curvature, also interpreted as the photon effective mass. This design freedom enables exotic configurations of heterostructures and many interesting applications. The effects of the anisotropic photon effective mass on the mode confinement, mode spacing, and transverse modes are investigated. As a possible application, the method of boosting the speed of diode lasers by engineering the photon-photon resonance is discussed. Based on this platform, we propose a system of two laterally coupled cavities, which shows the breaking of parity-time symmetry in vertical cavity structures.

  19. Atomic Scale Chemical and Structural Characterization of Ceramic Oxide Heterostructure Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R. K.

    2003-04-16

    The research plan was divided into three tasks: (a) growth of oxide heterostructures for interface engineering using standard thin film deposition techniques, (b) atomic level characterization of oxide heterostructure using such techniques as STEM-2 combined with AFM/STM and conventional high-resolution microscopy (HRTEM), and (c) property measurements of aspects important to oxide heterostructures using standard characterization methods, including dielectric properties and dynamic cathodoluminescence measurements. Each of these topics were further classified on the basis of type of oxide heterostructure. Type I oxide heterostructures consisted of active dielectric layers, including the materials Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} (BST), Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}. Type II heterostructures consisted of ferroelectric active layers such as lanthanum manganate and Type III heterostructures consist of phosphor oxide active layers such as Eu-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  20. Electronic transport in graphene-based heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, J. Y.; Avsar, A.; Balakrishnan, J.; Taychatanapat, T.; O'Farrell, E. C. T.; Eda, G.; Castro Neto, A. H.; Koon, G. K. W.; Özyilmaz, B.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.

    2014-05-05

    While boron nitride (BN) substrates have been utilized to achieve high electronic mobilities in graphene field effect transistors, it is unclear how other layered two dimensional (2D) crystals influence the electronic performance of graphene. In this Letter, we study the surface morphology of 2D BN, gallium selenide (GaSe), and transition metal dichalcogenides (tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2})) crystals and their influence on graphene's electronic quality. Atomic force microscopy analysis shows that these crystals have improved surface roughness (root mean square value of only ∼0.1 nm) compared to conventional SiO{sub 2} substrate. While our results confirm that graphene devices exhibit very high electronic mobility (μ) on BN substrates, graphene devices on WS{sub 2} substrates (G/WS{sub 2}) are equally promising for high quality electronic transport (μ ∼ 38 000 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature), followed by G/MoS{sub 2} (μ ∼ 10 000 cm{sup 2}/V s) and G/GaSe (μ ∼ 2200 cm{sup 2}/V s). However, we observe a significant asymmetry in electron and hole conduction in G/WS{sub 2} and G/MoS{sub 2} heterostructures, most likely due to the presence of sulphur vacancies in the substrate crystals. GaSe crystals are observed to degrade over time even under ambient conditions, leading to a large hysteresis in graphene transport making it a less suitable substrate.

  1. Structural transformations in II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricolleau, C.; Audinet, L.; Gandais, M.; Gacoin, T.

    Colloidal CdS and CdS/ZnS nanostructures were obtained by nucleation and growth in colloidal solution. Their mean sizes range between 3 and 10 nm. The structural properties were studied by the use of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Phase transition between the metastable cubic blende-type structure and the stable hexagonal wurtzite-type structure was evidenced to be a function of the size of the CdS clusters. The mechanism of the transition involving stacking faults was determined by the heating of CdS clusters at 200 °C for 30 h. Results concerning structural relations between CdS and ZnS that occur during the epitaxial growth of ZnS on the CdS nanocrystals showed the existence of the hexagonal structure of ZnS, which is the high-temperature phase of ZnS.

  2. Ab initio study of II-(VI)2 dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, P.; Vidal, J.; Lincot, D.

    2011-10-01

    The structural stabilities of the (Zn,Cd)(S,Se,Te)2 dichalcogenides have been determined ab initio. These compounds are shown to be stable in the pyrite phase, in agreement with available experiments. Structural parameters for the ZnTe2 pyrite semiconductor compound proposed here are presented. The opto-electronic properties of these dichalcogenide compounds have been calculated using quasiparticle GW theory. Bandgaps, band structures and effective masses are proposed as well as absorption coefficients and refraction indices. The compounds are all indirect semiconductors with very flat conduction band dispersion and high absorption coefficients. The work functions and surface properties are predicted. The Te and Se based compounds could be of interest as absorber materials in photovoltaic applications.

  3. Modeling of mechanical properties of II-VI materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Berding, M. A.; Van Schilfgaarde, M.; Chen, A.-B.; Patrick, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews some new developments in the theory of alloy correlations, order-disorder transitions, and solidus phase-transition curves. It is argued that semiconductor alloys are never truly random, and the various phenomena that drive deviations from random arrangements are introduced. Likely consequences of correlations on the ability to fine-tune the lattice match of epitaxial layers to substrates, on vacancy formation, on diffusion, and on vapor-phase crystal growth are discussed. Examples are chosen for the alloys Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Te, Cd(1-y)Zn(y)Te, and CdSe(1-y)Te(y).

  4. Ab initio simulations of pseudomorphic silicene and germanene bidimensional heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debernardi, Alberto; Marchetti, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    Among the novel two-dimensional (2D) materials, silicene and germanene, which are two honeycomb crystal structures composed of a monolayer of Si and Ge, respectively, have attracted the attention of material scientists because they combine the advantages of the new 2D ultimate-scaled electronics with their compatibility with industrial processes presently based on Si and Ge. We envisage pseudomorphic lateral heterostructures based on ribbons of silicene and germanene, which are the 2D analogs of conventional 3D Si/Ge superlattices and quantum wells. In spite of the considerable lattice mismatch (˜4 % ) between free-standing silicene and germanene, our ab initio simulations predict that, considering striped 2D lateral heterostructures made by alternating silicene and germanene ribbons of constant width, the silicene/germanene junction remains pseudomorphic—i.e., it maintains lattice-matched edges—up to critical ribbon widths that can reach some tens of nanometers. Such critical widths are one order of magnitude larger than the critical thickness measured in 3D pseudomorphic Si/Ge heterostructures and the resolution of state-of-the-art lithography, thus enabling the possibility of lithography patterned silicene/germanene junctions. We computed how the strain produced by the pseudomorphic growth modifies the crystal structure and electronic bands of the ribbons, providing a mechanism for band-structure engineering. Our results pave the way for lithography patterned lateral heterostructures that can serve as the building blocks of novel 2D electronics.

  5. Graphene-polymer multilayer heterostructure for terahertz metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zaiquan; Chen, Caiyun; Wu, Steve Q. Y.; Wang, Bing; Teng, Jinghua; Zheng, Chao; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2013-12-01

    The optical response and plasmon coupling between graphene sheets for graphene/polymer multilayer heterostructures with controlled separation were systematically investigated. Anomalous transmission of light was experimentally observed in mid-infrared range. The position of the broad passband in the transmission spectra was observed to red-shift with the increase of the number of layers.

  6. CNx/Si thin heterostructures for miniaturized temperature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, S.; Szekeres, A.; György, E.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Perrone, A.

    2004-05-01

    CNx/Si thin heterostructures were synthesized on Si <111> substrates by XeCl* excimer laser (λ=308 nm, τFWHM≅30 ns) ablation of nuclear grade graphite targets in 5 Pa nitrogen at room temperature. We investigated the current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of heterostructures obtained at 77 and 300 K. We monitored their conductance and capacitance as a function of the bias voltage applied, in the 100 Hz-1 MHz frequency range. Our results revealed the formation of deep localized electron states both inside the thin CNx films and at the CNx/Si substrate interface. The investigations evidenced that conduction through the CNx/Si thin heterostructure is of trap-assisted tunneling type. The experimental studies show quite a large decrease in capacitance and increase in conductance with the increase of applied frequency. The capacitance of the CNx/Si thin heterostructures increases with a decrease of the temperature. All the results support the potential development of new types of high sensitivity temperature sensors.

  7. Synthesis and magnetic properties of manganite multiple heterostructure nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiangying; Huang, Kai; Wu, Heyun; Li, Ping

    2012-09-14

    The fabrication and applications of two-dimensional complex oxide heterostructures have gained great attention. However, the achievement of these materials in one-dimensional form with multiple interfaces is still elusive. Here, we report the growth of manganite CaMn(3)O(6)/CaMn(2)O(4) heterostructure nanoribbons via the use of CaMnO(3) powders as the precursor for the molten-salt process. In contrast with the antiferromagnetism in CaMn(3)O(6) and CaMn(2)O(4) in the bulk, magnetization measurements indicate the coexistence of a ferromagnetic phase with a spin-glass-like component in CaMn(3)O(6)/CaMn(2)O(4) heterostructure nanoribbons. An asymmetric magnetization hysteresis loop observed in the applied magnetic field H≤ 3 T is attributed to the coupling between the antiferromagnetic phase and the ferromagnetic or spin-glass-like phase in CaMn(3)O(6)/CaMn(2)O(4) heterostructure nanoribbons.

  8. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Escher-like quasiperiodic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriuso, A. G.; Monzón, J. J.; Sánchez-Soto, L. L.; Costa, A. F.

    2009-05-01

    Quasiperiodic heterostructures present unique structural, electronic and vibrational properties, connected to the existence of incommensurate periods. We go beyond previous schemes, such as Fibonacci or Thue-Morse, based on substitutional sequences, by introducing construction rules generated by tessellations of the unit disc by regular polygons. We explore some of the properties exhibited by these systems.

  9. Elastic and piezoelectric properties of zincblende and wurtzite crystalline nanowire heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Boxberg, Fredrik; Søndergaard, Niels; Xu, H Q

    2012-09-04

    The elastic and piezoelectric properties of zincblende and wurtzite crystalline InAs/InP nanowire heterostructures have been studied using electro-elastically coupled continuum elasticity theory. A comprehensive comparison of strains, piezoelectric potentials and piezoelectric fields in the two crystal types of nanowire heterostructures is presented. For each crystal type, three different forms of heterostructures-core-shell, axial superlattice, and quantum dot nanowire heterostructures-are considered. In the studied nanowire heterostructures, the principal strains are found to be insensitive to the change in the crystal structure. However, the shear strains in the zincblende and wurtzite nanowire heterostructures can be very different. All the studied nanowire heterostructures are found to exhibit a piezoelectric field along the nanowire axis. The piezoelectric field is in general much stronger in a wurtzite nanowire heterostructure than in its corresponding zincblende heterostructure. Our results are expected to be particularly important for analyzing and understanding the properties of epitaxially grown nanowire heterostructures and for applications in nanowire electronics, optoelectronics, and biochemical sensing.

  10. Field effect and charge injection in hybrid nanorod heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, H. L.; Li, Weicong

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies on organic/inorganic heterostructures have indicated that interface morphology plays an important role in determining the charge transport properties. Hybrid heterostructure light-emitting diodes mixing donor and acceptor semiconductors appear to offer the best opportunity in achieving superior performance and there are indications that a network of percolated heterojunctions can be very effective in promoting light absorption/emission. Charge transport however can be more complex in a nanorod heterostructure as the charge flow at the interface will depend on the injection mechanism(s) as well as the interface field strength. In this work, we examined the current density-voltage characteristics of the hybrid NPB (N, N‧-di(napth-2-yl)-N-N‧-diphenylbenzidine)-ZnO nanorod heterostructure and attempted to identify the transport mechanism(s) close to the tips of the nanorods. Our study indicated that charge flow essentially followed the conventional pattern changing from a linear regime (emission-limited) to a quadratic regime (space-charge limited) and possibly to a rapid rise in current (trap-free injection). Detailed evaluation of the changes in the reported conductivity data further suggested the conduction mechanism (up to a p-layer thickness of 400 nm) was dominated by space-charge limited current in the NPB layer, which also resulted in substantial charge pile-up near the tips of the nanorods. An interface charge layer responsible for the barrier height modification effect could be used to explain the observed “blue-shift” in the emission spectra of the nanorod heterostructure light-emitting diode as reported by Sun et al. [2].

  11. Silicon Germanium Strained Layers and Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willander, M.; Nur, O.; Jain, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    The integration of strained-Si1 xGex into Si technology has enhanced the performance and extended the functionality of Si based circuits. The improvement of device performance is observed in both AC as well as DC characteristics of these devices. The category of such devices includes field effect as well as bipolar families. Speed performance in some based circuits has reached limits previously dominated by III-V heterostructures based devices. In addition, for some optoelectronics applications including photodetectors it is now possible to easily integrate strained-Si1 xGex based optical devices into standard Silicon technology. The impact of integrating strained and relaxed Si1 xGex alloys into Si technology is important. It has lead to stimulate Si research as well as offers easy options for performances that requires very complicated and costly process if pure Si has to be used. In this paper we start by discussing the strain and stability of Si1 xGex alloys. The origin and the process responsible for transient enhanced diffusion (TED) in highly doped Si containing layers will be mentioned. Due to the importance of TED for thin highly doped Boron strained-Si1 xGex layers and its degrading consequences, possible suppression design methods will be presented. Quantum well pchannel MOSFETs (QW-PMOSFETs) based on thin buried QW are solution to the low speed and weak current derivability. Different aspects of designing these devices for a better performance are briefly reviewed. Other FETs based on tensile strained Si on relaxed Si1 xGex for n-channel and modulation doped field effect transistors (MODFETs) showed excellent performance. Record AC performance well above 200GHz for fmax is already observed and this record is expected to increase in the coming years. Heterojunction bipolar transistors (HPTs) with thin strained-Si1 xGex highly doped base have lead to optimize the performance of the bipolar technology for many applications easily. The strategies of design

  12. Photodetectors based on heterostructures for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabet, Bahram; Cola, Adriano; Cataldo, Andrea; Chen, Xiying; Quaranta, Fabio

    2002-09-01

    In this work we describe a family of optical devices based on heterojunction and heterodimensional structures and we investigate their static and dynamic properties. Such devices are good candidates, due to their high performance, for utilization as the sensing element for the realization of sensors in the fields of telecommunications, remote sensing, LIDAR and medical imaging. First, we present a Heterostructure Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (HMSM) photodetectors that employ a uniformly doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction for the dual purpose of barrier height enhancement and creating an internal electric field that aids in the transport and collection of the photogenerated electrons. In this first family of devices, two doping levels are compared showing the direct effect of the aiding field due to modulation doping. Subsequently, we analyze a novel Resonant-Cavity-Enhanced (RCE) HMSM photodetector in which a Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) is employed in order to reduce the thickness of the absorption layer thus achieving good responsivity and high speed as well as wavelength selectivity. Current-voltage, current-temperature, photocurrent spectra, high-speed time response, and on-wafer frequency domain measurements point out the better performance of this last family of detectors, as they can operate in tens of Giga-Hertz range with low dark current and high responsivity. Particularly, the I-V curves show a very low dark current (around 10 picoamps at operative biases); C-V measurements highlight the low geometrical capacitance values; the photocurrent spectrum shows a clear peak at 850 nm wavelength, while time response measurements give a 3 dB bandwidth of about 30 GHz. Small signal model based on frequency domain data is also extracted in order to facilitate future photoreceiver design. Furthermore, two-dimensional numerical simulations have been carried out in order to predict the electrical properties of these detectors. Combination of very low dark current and

  13. Magnetoelectric Coupling in Composite Multiferroic Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Jason

    In this work, we demonstrate a large charge-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in a PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 / La0.8 Sr0.2MnO3 (PZT/LSMO) composite structure resulting from direct control of magnetism via charge carrier density. This approach has the advantage that its physical mechanism is transparent and the size of the effect can be quantified and understood qualitatively within the double-exchange model. Direct quantification of the charge-driven magnetic changes based on electronic, magnetic, and spectroscopic measurements show that both the spin state and spin configuration of LSMO are modulated. Using a combination of advanced physical vapor deposition techniques, we have grown epitaxial PZT/LSMO bilayer heterostructures on (001) SrTiO 3 substrates with excellent crystallinity, atomically smooth surfaces, low leakage current density, and abrupt interfaces. Magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) magnetometry was used to directly interrogate the local magnetic state of the LSMO as a function of the PZT polarization state. We show direct control of magnetism via applied electric fields, including modulation of the magnetotransport behavior and magnetic-ordering temperature, on/off switching of magnetism, and hysteretic magnetization versus electric field (M-E) characteristics. The magnetoelectric coupling strength, which relates the change in magnetization to the applied electric field, is found to vary strongly with temperature, reaching a low temperature saturation value of +6 Oe cm / kV, much larger than observed in single-phase magnetoelectrics and too large to be explained by a simple band-filling model. To clarify the origin of the magnetoelectric coupling, we carried out near edge x-ray absorption measurements that revealed a well defined change in the position of the Mn absorption edge with the ferroelectric polarization, giving a direct measure of the change in Mn valency in LSMO. We explain these results in terms of an interfacial magnetic reconstruction, whereby the

  14. Characteristics of lateral and hybrid heterostructures based on monolayer MoS2: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li-Ping; Su, Jie; Liu, Zheng-Tang

    2017-02-08

    Novel MoS2/(MX2)n lateral and (MoS2)/(MX2)n-BN hybrid heterostructures have been designed on monolayer MoS2 to extend its applications. The electronic, interfacial and optical properties of the lateral and hybrid heterostructures have been investigated comparatively using first-principles calculations. It was found that the charge distributions, band gaps, band levels, electrostatic potentials, and optical absorption of the MoS2/(MX2)n lateral heterostructures depend greatly on the width n of MX2, irrespective of the size of the lateral heterostructures. The CBM states of the MoS2/(MX2)n lateral heterostructures dominated by the dz(2) orbitals are localized around MoS2, whereas the VBM states of the MoS2/(MX2)n lateral heterostructures are dominated by the MX2 region. Through regulating the width n of the MX2 region in the MoS2/(MX2)n lateral heterostructures, the optical absorption of the lateral heterostructures under visible light can be increased, and the CBM and VBM states of the lateral heterostructures can be located above the hydrogen reduction potential and below the water oxidation potential, respectively. The similar characteristics were observed in the MoS2/(MX2)n-BN hybrid heterostructures, indicating that BN is a good substrate for the MoS2/(MX2)n lateral heterostructures. The analysis implies that forming the lateral and hybrid heterostructures is an effective way to extend the applications of monolayer MoS2 in photocatalytic water and photovoltaic devices.

  15. Metamorphic InAsSb/AlInAsSb Heterostructures for Optoelectronic Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-20

    REPORT Metamorphic InAsSb/AlInAsSb heterostructures for optoelectronic applications 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Metamorphic ...TELEPHONE NUMBER Gregory Belenky 631-632-8397 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Standard Form 298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - Metamorphic InAsSb...AlInAsSb heterostructures for optoelectronic applications Report Title ABSTRACT Metamorphic heterostructures containing bulk InAs1?xSbx layers and

  16. Molecular enhancement of ferromagnetism in GaAs /GaMnAs heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Itai; Bloom, Francisco; Gwinn, E. G.; Kreutz, T. C.; Scoby, Cheyne; Gossard, A. C.; Ray, S. G.; Naaman, Ron

    2006-09-01

    The authors investigate effects of chemisorption of polar organic molecules onto ferromagnetic GaAs /GaMnAs heterostructures. The chemisorbed heterostructures exhibit striking anisotropic enhancement of the magnetization, while GaAs substrates that are physisorbed with the same molecules show no change in magnetic properties. Thus the enhanced magnetism of the chemisorbed heterostructures reflects changes in spin alignment that arise from surface bonding of the organic monolayer.

  17. Synthesis and applications of heterostructured semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khon, Elena

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have been of great interest to researchers for several decades due to their unique optoelectronic properties. These nanoparticles are widely used for a variety of different applications. However, there are many unresolved issues that lower the efficiency and/or stability of devices which incorporate these NCs. Our research is dedicated to addressing these issues by identifying potential problems and resolving them, improving existing systems, generating new synthetic strategies, and/or building new devices. The general strategies for the synthesis of different nanocrystals were established in this work, one of which is the colloidal growth of gold domains onto CdS semiconductor nanocrystals. Control of shape and size was achieved simply by adjusting the temperature and the time of the reaction. Depending on the exact morphology of Au and CdS domains, fabricated nano-composites can undergo evaporation-induced self-assembly onto a substrate, which is very useful for building devices. CdS/Au heterostructures can assemble in two different ways: through end-to-end coupling of Au domains, resulting in the formation of one-dimensional chains; and via side-by-side packing of CdS nanorods, leading to the onset of two-dimensional superlattices. We investigated the nature of exciton-plasmon interactions in Au-tipped CdS nanorods using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The study demonstrated that the key optoelectronic properties of electrically coupled metal and semiconductor domains are significantly different from those observed in systems with weak inter-domain coupling. In particular, strongly-coupled nanocomposites promote mixing of electronic states at semiconductor-metal domain interfaces, which causes a significant suppression of both plasmon and exciton carrier excitations. Colloidal QDs are starting to replace organic molecules in many different applications, such as organic light emmiting diods (OLEDs), due to their

  18. Thermal and Electrical Transport in Oxide Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, Jayakanth

    This dissertation presents a study of thermal and electrical transport phenomena in heterostructures of transition metal oxides, with specific interest in understanding and tailoring thermoelectricity in these systems. Thermoelectric energy conversion is a promising method for waste heat recovery and the efficiency of such an engine is directly related to a material dependent figure of merit, Z, given as S2sigma/kappa, where S is thermopower and sigma and kappa are electrical and thermal conductivity respectively. Achieving large figure of merit has been hampered by the coupling between these three thermoelectric coefficients, and the primary aim of this study is to understand the nature of thermoelectricity in complex oxides and identify mechanisms which can allow tuning of one or more thermoelectric coefficients in a favorable manner. Unlike the heavily studied conventional thermoelectric semiconductors, transition metals based complex oxides show conduction band characteristics dominated by d-bands, with much larger effective masses and varying degrees of electron correlations. These systems provide for exotic thermoelectric effects which are typically not explained by conventional theories and hence provide an ideal platform for exploring the limits of thermoelectricity. Meanwhile, oxides are composed of earth abundant elements and have excellent high temperature stability, thus providing compelling technological possibilities for thermoelectrics based power generation. In this dissertation, we address specific aspects of thermoelectricity in model complex oxide systems such as perovskite titanates and layered cobaltates to understand thermal and thermoelectric behavior and explore the tunability of thermoelectricity in these systems. The demonstration of band engineering as a viable method to tune physical properties of materials is explored. The model system used for this case is strontium titanate, where two dopants such as La on the Sr-site and oxygen

  19. The stability and the electronic structure of ultrathin Bi/Bi2Se3 heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Du, X.; Huang, G. Q.

    2016-12-01

    The stability and the electronic structure of ultrathin Bi/Bi2Se3 heterostructure are studied from density-functional theory by including spin-orbit coupling. Our calculations show that the thinnest and dynamically stable heterostructure is one bilayer Bi deposited on Bi2Se3 with the thickness of two quintuple layers. Due to charge transfer and the strong hybridize effect at the interface, the band structure of ultrathin heterostructure make a large change, but the Dirac-like surface states persist. Our findings propose the possibility to engineer heterostructure to obtain ultrathin topological materials.

  20. Nonvolatile transtance change random access memory based on magnetoelectric P(VDF-TrFE)/Metglas heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peipei; Shang, Dashan; Shen, Jianxin; Chai, Yisheng; Yang, Chuansen; Zhai, Kun; Cong, Junzhuang; Shen, Shipeng; Sun, Young

    2016-12-01

    Transtance change random access memory (TCRAM) is a type of nonvolatile memory based on the nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling effects of multiferroics. In this work, ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) thin films were prepared on Metglas foil substrates by the sol-gel technique to form multiferroic heterostructures. The magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of the heterostructure can be switched reproducibly to different levels between positive and negative values by applying selective electric-field pulses. Compared with bulk multiferroic heterostructures, the polarization switching voltage was reduced to 7 V. Our facile technological approach enables this organic magnetoelectric heterostructure as a promising candidate for the applications in multilevel TCRAM devices.

  1. Subnanometer scale characterization of III-V-heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Lakner, H.

    1996-12-31

    Heterostructures based on III-V semiconductors play a dominant role for the production of optoelectronic /1/ and electronic high-speed or high-frequency /2/ devices. The necessary band-gap engineering is achieved by optimized growth procedures which allow to change the chemical composition and the crystal structure (e.g., strain or ordering) on the subnanometer scale. The evaluation of individual heterointerfaces with respect to chemical composition and crystal structure requires characterization techniques which offer the necessary high spatial resolution. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) offers several of such quantitative techniques. It is the intention of this paper to demonstrate the capabilities of STEM in the subnanometer characterization of III-V-heterostructures based on InP-substrates. Additionally, the data obtained from nanocharacterization can be correlated to device performance.

  2. Double perovskite heterostructures: magnetism, Chern bands, and Chern insulators.

    PubMed

    Cook, Ashley M; Paramekanti, Arun

    2014-08-15

    Experiments demonstrating the controlled growth of oxide heterostructures have raised the prospect of realizing topologically nontrivial states of correlated electrons in low dimensions. Here, we study heterostructures consisting of {111} bilayers of double perovskites separated by inert band insulators. In bulk, these double perovskites have well-defined local moments interacting with itinerant electrons leading to high temperature ferromagnetism. Incorporating spin-orbit coupling in the two-dimensional honeycomb geometry of a {111} bilayer, we find a rich phase diagram with tunable ferromagnetic order, topological Chern bands, and a C=±2 Chern insulator regime. Our results are of broad relevance to oxide materials such as Sr_{2}FeMoO_{6}, Ba_{2}FeReO_{6}, and Sr_{2}CrWO_{6}.

  3. Tailoring exchange couplings in magnetic topological-insulator/antiferromagnet heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qing Lin; Kou, Xufeng; Grutter, Alexander J.; Yin, Gen; Pan, Lei; Che, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yuxiang; Nie, Tianxiao; Zhang, Bin; Disseler, Steven M.; Kirby, Brian J.; Ratcliff, William, II; Shao, Qiming; Murata, Koichi; Zhu, Xiaodan; Yu, Guoqiang; Fan, Yabin; Montazeri, Mohammad; Han, Xiaodong; Borchers, Julie A.; Wang, Kang L.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic topological insulators such as Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 provide a platform for the realization of versatile time-reversal symmetry-breaking physics. By constructing heterostructures exhibiting Néel order in an antiferromagnetic CrSb and ferromagnetic order in Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3, we realize emergent interfacial magnetic phenomena which can be tailored through artificial structural engineering. Through deliberate geometrical design of heterostructures and superlattices, we demonstrate the use of antiferromagnetic exchange coupling in manipulating the magnetic properties of magnetic topological insulators. Proximity effects are shown to induce an interfacial spin texture modulation and establish an effective long-range exchange coupling mediated by antiferromagnetism, which significantly enhances the magnetic ordering temperature in the superlattice. This work provides a new framework on integrating topological insulators with antiferromagnetic materials and unveils new avenues towards dissipationless topological antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  4. Band structure engineering in topological insulator based heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Menshchikova, T V; Otrokov, M M; Tsirkin, S S; Samorokov, D A; Bebneva, V V; Ernst, A; Kuznetsov, V M; Chulkov, E V

    2013-01-01

    The ability to engineer an electronic band structure of topological insulators would allow the production of topological materials with tailor-made properties. Using ab initio calculations, we show a promising way to control the conducting surface state in topological insulator based heterostructures representing an insulator ultrathin films on the topological insulator substrates. Because of a specific relation between work functions and band gaps of the topological insulator substrate and the insulator ultrathin film overlayer, a sizable shift of the Dirac point occurs resulting in a significant increase in the number of the topological surface state charge carriers as compared to that of the substrate itself. Such an effect can also be realized by applying the external electric field that allows a gradual tuning of the topological surface state. A simultaneous use of both approaches makes it possible to obtain a topological insulator based heterostructure with a highly tunable topological surface state.

  5. Novel heterostructured Ge nanowires based on polytype transformation.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Laetitia; Patriarche, Gilles; Hallais, Géraldine; Renard, Charles; Gardès, Cyrille; Troadec, David; Bouchier, Daniel

    2014-08-13

    We report on a strain-induced phase transformation in Ge nanowires under external shear stresses. The resulted polytype heterostructure may have great potential for photonics and thermoelectric applications. ⟨111⟩-oriented Ge nanowires with standard diamond structure (3C) undergo a phase transformation toward the hexagonal diamond phase referred as the 2H-allotrope. The phase transformation occurs heterogeneously on shear bands along the length of the nanowire. The structure meets the common phenomenological criteria of a martensitic phase transformation. This point is discussed to initiate an on going debate on the transformation mechanisms. The process results in unprecedented quasiperiodic heterostructures 3C/2H along the Ge nanowire. The thermal stability of those 2H domains is also studied under annealing up to 650 °C by in situ TEM.

  6. Fluorescent nanowire heterostructures as a versatile tool for biology applications.

    PubMed

    Adolfsson, Karl; Persson, Henrik; Wallentin, Jesper; Oredsson, Stina; Samuelson, Lars; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O; Borgström, Magnus T; Prinz, Christelle N

    2013-10-09

    Nanowires are increasingly used in biology, as sensors, as injection devices, and as model systems for toxicity studies. Currently, in situ visualization of nanowires in biological media is done using organic dyes, which are prone to photobleaching, or using microscopy methods which either yield poor resolution or require a sophisticated setup. Here we show that inherently fluorescent nanowire axial heterostructures can be used to localize and identify nanowires in cells and tissue. By synthesizing GaP-GaInP nanowire heterostructures, with nonfluorescent GaP segments and fluorescent GaInP segments, we created a barcode labeling system enabling the distinction of the nanowire morphological and chemical properties using fluorescence microscopy. The GaInP photoluminescence stability, combined with the fact that the nanowires can be coated with different materials while retaining their fluorescence, make these nanowires promising tools for biological and nanotoxicological studies.

  7. High ionic conductivity in confined bismuth oxide-based heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Simone; Esposito, Vincenzo; Christensen, Mogens; Pryds, Nini

    2016-12-01

    Bismuth trioxide in the cubic fluorite phase ( δ - Bi 2 O 3 ) exhibits the highest oxygen ionic conductivity. In this study, we were able to stabilize the pure δ - Bi 2 O 3 at low temperature with no addition of stabilizer but only by engineering the interface, using highly coherent heterostructures made of alternative layers of δ - Bi 2 O 3 and Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), deposited by pulsed laser deposition. The resulting [ δ - Bi 2 O 3 / YSZ ] heterostructures are found to be stable over a wide temperature range (500-750 °C) and exhibits stable high ionic conductivity over a long time comparable to the value of the pure δ - Bi 2 O 3 , which is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the conductivity of YSZ bulk.

  8. Persistent hysteresis in graphene-mica van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Mohrmann, Jens; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Danneau, Romain

    2015-01-09

    We report the study of electronic transport in graphene-mica van der Waals heterostructures. We have designed various graphene field-effect devices in which mica is utilized as a substrate and/or gate dielectric. When mica is used as a gate dielectric we observe a very strong positive gate voltage hysteresis of the resistance, which persists in samples that were prepared in a controlled atmosphere down to even millikelvin temperatures. In a double-gated mica-graphene-hBN van der Waals heterostructure, we found that while a strong hysteresis occurred when mica was used as a substrate/gate dielectric, the same graphene sheet on mica substrate no longer showed hysteresis when the charge carrier density was tuned through a second gate with the hBN dielectric. While this hysteretic behavior could be useful for memory devices, our findings confirm that the environment during sample preparation has to be controlled strictly.

  9. Intersubband relaxation of two-dimensional electrons in heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fal'ko, Vladimir I.

    1993-05-01

    We calculate the lifetime of a nonequilibrium electron in the first excited subband in the low-density heterostructure where this photocreated carrier occurs at the last stage of its cooling. The electron interaction with acoustic phonons gives the dominant intersubband relaxation mechanism, if the intersubband energy splitting and the Fermi energy splitting are relatively small, 1>ɛF/Δ10>0.7-0.8. In GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures the intersubband relaxation determines the excited-electron lifetime to be of the order of τphon~nanoseconds, which depends slightly on the value of the two-dimensional electron density. When the ratio ɛF/Δ10 is smaller, the intersubband relaxation is determined by the Auger-like electron-electron scattering whose rate can increase up to the value τ-1Aug~10-10 sec-1.

  10. Optoelectronics based on 2D TMDs and heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Nengjie; Yang, Yujue; Li, Jingbo

    2017-03-01

    2D materials including graphene and TMDs have proven interesting physical properties and promising optoelectronic applications. We reviewed the growth, characterization and optoelectronics based on 2D TMDs and their heterostructures, and demonstrated their unique and high quality of performances. For example, we observed the large mobility, fast response and high photo-responsivity in MoS2, WS2 and WSe2 phototransistors, as well as the novel performances in vdW heterostructures such as the strong interlayer coupling, am-bipolar and rectifying behaviour, and the obvious photovoltaic effect. It is being possible that 2D family materials could play an increasingly important role in the future nano- and opto-electronics, more even than traditional semiconductors such as silicon.

  11. Axial Ge/Si nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs

    SciTech Connect

    Picraux, Sanuel T; Daych, Shadi A

    2010-01-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of semiconductor nanowires allows doping and composition modulation along their axis and the realization of axial 1 D heterostructures. This provides additional flexibility in energy band-edge engineering along the transport direction which is difficult to attain by planar materials growth and processing techniques. We report here on the design, growth, fabrication, and characterization of asymmetric heterostructure tunnel field-effect transistors (HTFETs) based on 100% compositionally modulated Si/Ge axial NWs for high on-current operation and low ambipolar transport behavior. We discuss the optimization of band-offsets and Schottky barrier heights for high performance HTFETs and issues surrounding their experimental realization. Our HTFET devices with 10 nm PECVD SiN{sub x} gate dielectric resulted in a measured current drive exceeding 100 {mu}A/{mu}m (I/{pi}D) and 10{sup 5} I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratios.

  12. Strain-induced interface reconstruction in epitaxial heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarides, N.; Paltoglou, V.; Maniadis, P.; Tsironis, G. P.; Panagopoulos, C.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate in the framework of Landau theory the distortion of the strain fields at the interface of two dissimilar ferroelastic oxides that undergo a structural cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition. Simple analytical solutions are derived for the dilatational and the deviatoric strains that are valid over the entire heterostructure. The solutions reveal that the dilatational strain exhibits compression close to the interface, which may in turn affect the electronic properties in that region.

  13. Growth And Characterization Studies Of Advanced Infrared Heterostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-30

    Research Laboratory AFRL /RVSS Space Vehicles Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Ave., SE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 NUMBER(S... Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 2 cys Official Record Copy AFRL /RVSS/Christian Morath 1 cy ... AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2015-0126 AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2015-0126 GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES OF ADVANCED INFRARED HETEROSTRUCTURES Sanjay Krishna

  14. Nanoscale elemental quantification in heterostructured SiGe nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourani, W.; Periwal, P.; Bassani, F.; Baron, T.; Patriarche, G.; Martinez, E.

    2015-04-01

    The nanoscale chemical characterization of axial heterostructured Si1-xGex nanowires (NWs) has been performed using scanning Auger microscopy (SAM) through local spectroscopy, line-scan and depth profile measurements. Local Auger profiles are realized with sufficient lateral resolution to resolve individual nanowires. Axial and radial composition heterogeneities are highlighted. Our results confirm the phenomenon of Ge radial growth forming a Ge shell around the nanowire. Moreover, quantification is performed after verifying the absence of preferential sputtering of Si or Ge on a bulk SiGe sample. Hence, reliable results are obtained for heterostructured NW diameters higher than 100 nm. However, for smaller sizes, we have noticed that the sensitivity factors evaluated from bulk samples cannot be used because of edge effects occurring for highly topographical features and a modified contribution of backscattered electrons.The nanoscale chemical characterization of axial heterostructured Si1-xGex nanowires (NWs) has been performed using scanning Auger microscopy (SAM) through local spectroscopy, line-scan and depth profile measurements. Local Auger profiles are realized with sufficient lateral resolution to resolve individual nanowires. Axial and radial composition heterogeneities are highlighted. Our results confirm the phenomenon of Ge radial growth forming a Ge shell around the nanowire. Moreover, quantification is performed after verifying the absence of preferential sputtering of Si or Ge on a bulk SiGe sample. Hence, reliable results are obtained for heterostructured NW diameters higher than 100 nm. However, for smaller sizes, we have noticed that the sensitivity factors evaluated from bulk samples cannot be used because of edge effects occurring for highly topographical features and a modified contribution of backscattered electrons. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07503j

  15. Method for forming monolayer graphene-boron nitride heterostructures

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Peter Werner; Sutter, Eli Anguelova

    2016-08-09

    A method for fabricating monolayer graphene-boron nitride heterostructures in a single atomically thin membrane that limits intermixing at boundaries between graphene and h-BN, so as to achieve atomically sharp interfaces between these materials. In one embodiment, the method comprises exposing a ruthenium substrate to ethylene, exposing the ruthenium substrate to oxygen after exposure to ethylene and exposing the ruthenium substrate to borazine after exposure to oxygen.

  16. SWCNT-MoS2 -SWCNT Vertical Point Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Wei, Yang; Yao, Fengrui; Li, Dongqi; Ma, He; Lei, Peng; Fang, Hehai; Xiao, Xiaoyang; Lu, Zhixing; Yang, Juehan; Li, Jingbo; Jiao, Liying; Hu, Weida; Liu, Kaihui; Liu, Kai; Liu, Peng; Li, Qunqing; Lu, Wei; Fan, Shoushan; Jiang, Kaili

    2017-02-01

    A vertical point heterostructure (VPH) is constructed by sandwiching a two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 flake with two cross-stacked metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes. It can be used as a field-effect transistor with high on/off ratio and a light detector with high spatial resolution. Moreover, the hybrid 1D-2D-1D VPHs open up new possibilities for nanoelectronics and nano-optoelectronics.

  17. Evolutionary design of interfacial phase change van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Kalikka, Janne; Zhou, Xilin; Behera, Jitendra; Nannicini, Giacomo; Simpson, Robert E

    2016-10-27

    We use an evolutionary algorithm to explore the design space of hexagonal Ge2Sb2Te5; a van der Waals layered two dimensional crystal heterostructure. The Ge2Sb2Te5 structure is more complicated than previously thought. Predominant features include layers of Ge3Sb2Te6 and Ge1Sb2Te4 two dimensional crystals that interact through Te-Te van der Waals bonds. Interestingly, (Ge/Sb)-Te-(Ge/Sb)-Te alternation is a common feature for the most stable structures of each generation's evolution. This emergent rule provides an important structural motif that must be included in the design of high performance Sb2Te3-GeTe van der Waals heterostructure superlattices with interfacial atomic switching capability. The structures predicted by the algorithm agree well with experimental measurements on highly oriented, and single crystal Ge2Sb2Te5 samples. By analysing the evolutionary algorithm optimised structures, we show that diffusive atomic switching is probable by Ge atoms undergoing a transition at the van der Waals interface from layers of Ge3Sb2Te6 to Ge1Sb2Te4 thus producing two blocks of Ge2Sb2Te5. Evolutionary methods present an efficient approach to explore the enormous multi-dimensional design parameter space of van der Waals bonded heterostructure superlattices.

  18. Franckeite as a naturally occurring van der Waals heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J; Giovanelli, Emerson; Paz, Wendel S; Niño, Miguel Angel; Island, Joshua O; Evangeli, Charalambos; Aballe, Lucía; Foerster, Michael; van der Zant, Herre S J; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Palacios, J J; Pérez, Emilio M; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-02-13

    The fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures, artificial materials assembled by individual stacking of 2D layers, is among the most promising directions in 2D materials research. Until now, the most widespread approach to stack 2D layers relies on deterministic placement methods, which are cumbersome and tend to suffer from poor control over the lattice orientations and the presence of unwanted interlayer adsorbates. Here, we present a different approach to fabricate ultrathin heterostructures by exfoliation of bulk franckeite which is a naturally occurring and air stable van der Waals heterostructure (composed of alternating SnS2-like and PbS-like layers stacked on top of each other). Presenting both an attractive narrow bandgap (<0.7 eV) and p-type doping, we find that the material can be exfoliated both mechanically and chemically down to few-layer thicknesses. We present extensive theoretical and experimental characterizations of the material's electronic properties and crystal structure, and explore applications for near-infrared photodetectors.

  19. Quantum Tunneling Sb-Heterostructures for Millimeter Wave Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulman, Joel N.

    2003-03-01

    Imaging in the millimeter wavelength range has been making rapid progress as high speed electronics increase in frequency. Applications include viewing through adverse visibility conditions (fog, smoke, dust, precipitation) and also the relative transparency of clothing (concealed-weapons-detection) and some building materials (through-the-wall-detection). Atmospheric radiometry (climate assessment and weather prediction) already depend heavily on this wavelength range. Astronomical applications include incorporation in instruments for cosmic microwave background detection. An important ingredient is a diode that "rectifies" in a special way. It must convert input power, i.e., voltage squared, into a DC voltage output -- a "square-law" detector. We have recently found that quantum tunneling through an InAs/AlSb/GaAlSb heterostructure system provides the ideal physical mechanism for this purpose.1,2 We will present our results to date, demonstrating how a close coupling of semiconductor quantum tunneling theory with electrical engineering know-how have brought an "exotic" quantum phenomon to practical and economic application. 1. "Sb-heterostructure interband backward diodes" J.N. Schulman and D.H. Chow. IEEE Electron Device Letters 21, 353-355 (2000). 2. "High-Performance Antimonide-Based Heterostructure Backward Diodes for Millimeter-wave Detection" P. Fay, J. N. Schulman, S. Thomas III, D. H. Chow, Y. K. Boegeman, and K. S. Holabird, IEEE Electron Device Letters 23, 585-587 (2002).

  20. Nanomechanical electro-optical modulator based on atomic heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, P. A.; Marshall, O. P.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Auton, G. H.; Kravets, V. G.; Kundys, D.; Su, Y.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional atomic heterostructures combined with metallic nanostructures allow one to realize strong light–matter interactions. Metallic nanostructures possess plasmonic resonances that can be modulated by graphene gating. In particular, spectrally narrow plasmon resonances potentially allow for very high graphene-enabled modulation depth. However, the modulation depths achieved with this approach have so far been low and the modulation wavelength range limited. Here we demonstrate a device in which a graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructure is suspended over a gold nanostripe array. A gate voltage across these devices alters the location of the two-dimensional crystals, creating strong optical modulation of its reflection spectra at multiple wavelengths: in ultraviolet Fabry–Perot resonances, in visible and near-infrared diffraction-coupled plasmonic resonances and in the mid-infrared range of hexagonal boron nitride's upper Reststrahlen band. Devices can be extremely subwavelength in thickness and exhibit compact and truly broadband modulation of optical signals using heterostructures of two-dimensional materials. PMID:27874003

  1. Correlated fluorescence blinking in two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weigao; Liu, Weiwei; Schmidt, Jan F.; Zhao, Weijie; Lu, Xin; Raab, Timo; Diederichs, Carole; Gao, Weibo; Seletskiy, Denis V.; Xiong, Qihua

    2016-12-01

    ‘Blinking’, or ‘fluorescence intermittency’, refers to a random switching between ‘ON’ (bright) and ‘OFF’ (dark) states of an emitter; it has been studied widely in zero-dimensional quantum dots and molecules, and scarcely in one-dimensional systems. A generally accepted mechanism for blinking in quantum dots involves random switching between neutral and charged states (or is accompanied by fluctuations in charge-carrier traps), which substantially alters the dynamics of radiative and non-radiative decay. Here, we uncover a new type of blinking effect in vertically stacked, two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures, which consist of two distinct monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) that are weakly coupled by van der Waals forces. Unlike zero-dimensional or one-dimensional systems, two-dimensional TMD heterostructures show a correlated blinking effect, comprising randomly switching bright, neutral and dark states. Fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy analyses show that a bright state occurring in one monolayer will simultaneously lead to a dark state in the other monolayer, owing to an intermittent interlayer carrier-transfer process. Our findings suggest that bilayer van der Waals heterostructures provide unique platforms for the study of charge-transfer dynamics and non-equilibrium-state physics, and could see application as correlated light emitters in quantum technology.

  2. Franckeite as a naturally occurring van der Waals heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J.; Giovanelli, Emerson; Paz, Wendel S.; Niño, Miguel Angel; Island, Joshua O.; Evangeli, Charalambos; Aballe, Lucía; Foerster, Michael; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Palacios, J. J.; Pérez, Emilio M.; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-02-01

    The fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures, artificial materials assembled by individual stacking of 2D layers, is among the most promising directions in 2D materials research. Until now, the most widespread approach to stack 2D layers relies on deterministic placement methods, which are cumbersome and tend to suffer from poor control over the lattice orientations and the presence of unwanted interlayer adsorbates. Here, we present a different approach to fabricate ultrathin heterostructures by exfoliation of bulk franckeite which is a naturally occurring and air stable van der Waals heterostructure (composed of alternating SnS2-like and PbS-like layers stacked on top of each other). Presenting both an attractive narrow bandgap (<0.7 eV) and p-type doping, we find that the material can be exfoliated both mechanically and chemically down to few-layer thicknesses. We present extensive theoretical and experimental characterizations of the material's electronic properties and crystal structure, and explore applications for near-infrared photodetectors.

  3. Electronic and structural reconstruction in titanate heterostructures from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Andrew T.; Fennie, Craig J.

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in transition metal oxide heterostructures have opened new routes to create materials with novel functionalities and properties. One direction has been to combine a Mott insulating perovskite with an electronic d1 configuration, such as LaTiO3, with a band insulating d0 perovskite, such as SrTiO3. An exciting recent development is the demonstration of interfacial conductivity in GdTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures that display a complex structural motif of octahedral rotations and ferromagnetic properties similar to bulk GdTiO3. In this talk we present our first principles investigation of the interplay of structural, electronic, magnetic, and orbital degrees of freedom for a wide range of d1/d0 titanate heterostructures. We find evidence for both rotation driven ferroelectricity and a symmetry breaking electronic reconstruction with a concomitant structural distortion at the interface. We argue that these materials represent an ideal platform to realize novel functionalities such as the electric field control of electronic and magnetic properties.

  4. Franckeite as a naturally occurring van der Waals heterostructure

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J.; Giovanelli, Emerson; Paz, Wendel S.; Niño, Miguel Angel; Island, Joshua O.; Evangeli, Charalambos; Aballe, Lucía; Foerster, Michael; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Palacios, J. J.; Pérez, Emilio M.; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-01-01

    The fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures, artificial materials assembled by individual stacking of 2D layers, is among the most promising directions in 2D materials research. Until now, the most widespread approach to stack 2D layers relies on deterministic placement methods, which are cumbersome and tend to suffer from poor control over the lattice orientations and the presence of unwanted interlayer adsorbates. Here, we present a different approach to fabricate ultrathin heterostructures by exfoliation of bulk franckeite which is a naturally occurring and air stable van der Waals heterostructure (composed of alternating SnS2-like and PbS-like layers stacked on top of each other). Presenting both an attractive narrow bandgap (<0.7 eV) and p-type doping, we find that the material can be exfoliated both mechanically and chemically down to few-layer thicknesses. We present extensive theoretical and experimental characterizations of the material's electronic properties and crystal structure, and explore applications for near-infrared photodetectors. PMID:28194037

  5. Gating of high-mobility InAs metamorphic heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Shabani, J.; McFadden, A. P.; Shojaei, B.; Palmstrøm, C. J.

    2014-12-29

    We investigate the performance of gate-defined devices fabricated on high mobility InAs metamorphic heterostructures. We find that heterostructures capped with In{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}As often show signs of parallel conduction due to proximity of their surface Fermi level to the conduction band minimum. Here, we introduce a technique that can be used to estimate the density of this surface charge that involves cool-downs from room temperature under gate bias. We have been able to remove the parallel conduction under high positive bias, but achieving full depletion has proven difficult. We find that by using In{sub 0.75}Al{sub 0.25}As as the barrier without an In{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}As capping, a drastic reduction in parallel conduction can be achieved. Our studies show that this does not change the transport properties of the quantum well significantly. We achieved full depletion in InAlAs capped heterostructures with non-hysteretic gating response suitable for fabrication of gate-defined mesoscopic devices.

  6. Capacitance and compressibility of heterostructures with strong electronic correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Kevin; Frésard, Raymond; Kopp, Thilo

    2017-01-01

    Strong electronic correlations related to a repulsive local interaction suppress the electronic compressibility in a single-band model, and the capacitance of a corresponding metallic film is directly related to its electronic compressibility. Both statements may be altered significantly when two extensions to the system are implemented which we investigate here: (i) we introduce an attractive nearest-neighbor interaction V as antagonist to the repulsive onsite repulsion U , and (ii) we consider nanostructured multilayers (heterostructures) assembled from two-dimensional layers of these systems. We determine the respective total compressibility κ and capacitance C of the heterostructures within a strong coupling evaluation, which builds on a Kotliar-Ruckenstein slave-boson technique. Whereas the capacitance C (n ) for electronic densities n close to half-filling is suppressed, illustrated by a correlation induced dip in C (n ) , it may be appreciably enhanced close to a van Hove singularity. Moreover, we show that the capacitance may be a nonmonotonic function of U close to half-filling for both attractive and repulsive V . The compressibility κ can differ from C substantially, as κ is very sensitive to internal electrostatic energies which in turn depend on the specific setup of the heterostructure. In particular, we show that a capacitor with a polar dielectric has a smaller electronic compressibility and is more stable against phase separation than a standard nonpolar capacitor with the same capacitance.

  7. Heterostructure of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials with magneto-optic and electro-optic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Jiang, Hua (Inventor); Li, Kewen Kevin (Inventor); Guo, Xiaomei (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A heterostructure of multiferroics or magnetoelectrics (ME) was disclosed. The film has both ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties, as well as magneto-optic (MO) and electro-optic (EO) properties. Oxide buffer layers were employed to allow grown a cracking-free heterostructure a solution coating method.

  8. The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Yiyang; Liang, Liangbo; West, Damien; Meunier, Vincent; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-05-10

    The success of van der Waals heterostructures made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that van der Waals heterostructues can exhibit ultrafast charge transfer despite the weak binding of these heterostructures. Here we find, using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, that the collective motion of excitons at the interface leads to plasma oscillations associated with optical excitation. By constructing a simple model of the van der Waals heterostructure, we show that there exists an unexpected criticality of the oscillations, yielding rapid charge transfer across the interface. Application to the MoS2/WS2 heterostructure yields good agreement with experiments, indicating near complete charge transfer within a timescale of 100 fs.

  9. Gate-Tunable Spin Transport and Giant Electroresistance in Ferromagnetic Graphene Vertical Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Myoung, Nojoon; Park, Hee Chul; Lee, Seung Joo

    2016-01-01

    Controlling tunneling properties through graphene vertical heterostructures provides advantages in achieving large conductance modulation which has been known as limitation in lateral graphene device structures. Despite of intensive research on graphene vertical heterosturctures for recent years, the potential of spintronics based on graphene vertical heterostructures remains relatively unexplored. Here, we present an analytical device model for graphene-based spintronics by using ferromagnetic graphene in vertical heterostructures. We consider a normal or ferroelectric insulator as a tunneling layer. The device concept yields a way of controlling spin transport through the vertical heterostructures, resulting in gate-tunable spin-switching phenomena. Also, we revealed that a ‘giant’ resistance emerges through a ferroelectric insulating layer owing to the anti-parallel configuration of ferromagnetic graphene layers by means of electric fields via gate and bias voltages. Our findings discover the prospect of manipulating the spin transport properties in vertical heterostructures without use of magnetic fields. PMID:27126101

  10. Gate-Tunable Spin Transport and Giant Electroresistance in Ferromagnetic Graphene Vertical Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, Nojoon; Park, Hee Chul; Lee, Seung Joo

    2016-04-01

    Controlling tunneling properties through graphene vertical heterostructures provides advantages in achieving large conductance modulation which has been known as limitation in lateral graphene device structures. Despite of intensive research on graphene vertical heterosturctures for recent years, the potential of spintronics based on graphene vertical heterostructures remains relatively unexplored. Here, we present an analytical device model for graphene-based spintronics by using ferromagnetic graphene in vertical heterostructures. We consider a normal or ferroelectric insulator as a tunneling layer. The device concept yields a way of controlling spin transport through the vertical heterostructures, resulting in gate-tunable spin-switching phenomena. Also, we revealed that a ‘giant’ resistance emerges through a ferroelectric insulating layer owing to the anti-parallel configuration of ferromagnetic graphene layers by means of electric fields via gate and bias voltages. Our findings discover the prospect of manipulating the spin transport properties in vertical heterostructures without use of magnetic fields.

  11. Spin transport properties of partially edge-hydrogenated MoS2 nanoribbon heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Li; Yao, Kailun; Zhu, Sicong; Ni, Yun; Zu, Fengxia; Wang, Shuling; Guo, Bin; Tian, Yong

    2014-06-01

    We report ab initio calculations of electronic transport properties of heterostructure based on MoS2 nanoribbons. The heterostructure consists of edge hydrogen-passivated and non-passivated zigzag MoS2 nanoribbons (ZMoS2NR-H/ZMoS2NR). Our calculations show that the heterostructure has half-metallic behavior which is independent of the nanoribbon width. The opening of spin channels of the heterostructure depends on the matching of particular electronic orbitals in the Mo-dominated edges of ZMoS2NR-H and ZMoS2NR. Perfect spin filter effect appears at small bias voltages, and large negative differential resistance and rectifying effects are also observed in the heterostructure.

  12. The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Han; Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Yiyang; Liang, Liangbo; West, Damien; Meunier, Vincent; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-01-01

    The success of van der Waals heterostructures made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that van der Waals heterostructues can exhibit ultrafast charge transfer despite the weak binding of these heterostructures. Here we find, using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, that the collective motion of excitons at the interface leads to plasma oscillations associated with optical excitation. By constructing a simple model of the van der Waals heterostructure, we show that there exists an unexpected criticality of the oscillations, yielding rapid charge transfer across the interface. Application to the MoS2/WS2 heterostructure yields good agreement with experiments, indicating near complete charge transfer within a timescale of 100 fs. PMID:27160484

  13. Toward epitaxially grown two-dimensional crystal hetero-structures: Single and double MoS2/graphene hetero-structures by chemical vapor depositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meng-Yu; Chang, Chung-En; Wang, Cheng-Hung; Su, Chen-Fung; Chen, Chi; Lee, Si-Chen; Lin, Shih-Yen

    2014-08-01

    Uniform large-size MoS2/graphene hetero-structures fabricated directly on sapphire substrates are demonstrated with layer-number controllability by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images provide the direct evidences of layer numbers of MoS2/graphene hetero-structures. Photo-excited electron induced Fermi level shift of the graphene channel are observed on the single MoS2/graphene hetero-structure transistors. Furthermore, double hetero-structures of graphene/MoS2/graphene are achieved by CVD fabrication of graphene layers on top of the MoS2, as confirmed by the cross-sectional HRTEM. These results have paved the possibility of epitaxially grown multi-hetero-structures for practical applications.

  14. Determination of interfacial states in solid heterostructures using a variable-energy positron beam

    DOEpatents

    Asoka kumar, Palakkal P. V.; Lynn, Kelvin G.

    1993-01-01

    A method and means is provided for characterizing interfacial electron states in solid heterostructures using a variable energy positron beam to probe the solid heterostructure. The method includes the steps of directing a positron beam having a selected energy level at a point on the solid heterostructure so that the positron beam penetrates into the solid heterostructure and causes positrons to collide with the electrons at an interface of the solid heterostructure. The number and energy of gamma rays emitted from the solid heterostructure as a result of the annihilation of positrons with electrons at the interface are detected. The data is quantified as a function of the Doppler broadening of the photopeak about the 511 keV line created by the annihilation of the positrons and electrons at the interface, preferably, as an S-parameter function; and a normalized S-parameter function of the data is obtained. The function of data obtained is compared with a corresponding function of the Doppler broadening of the annihilation photopeak about 511 keV for a positron beam having a second energy level directed at the same material making up a portion of the solid heterostructure. The comparison of these functions facilitates characterization of the interfacial states of electrons in the solid heterostructure at points corresponding to the penetration of positrons having the particular energy levels into the interface of the solid heterostructure. Accordingly, the invention provides a variable-energy non-destructive probe of solid heterostructures, such as SiO.sub.2 /Si, MOS or other semiconductor devices.

  15. Determination of interfacial states in solid heterostructures using a variable-energy positron beam

    DOEpatents

    Asokakumar, P.P.V.; Lynn, K.G.

    1993-04-06

    A method and means is provided for characterizing interfacial electron states in solid heterostructures using a variable energy positron beam to probe the solid heterostructure. The method includes the steps of directing a positron beam having a selected energy level at a point on the solid heterostructure so that the positron beam penetrates into the solid heterostructure and causes positrons to collide with the electrons at an interface of the solid heterostructure. The number and energy of gamma rays emitted from the solid heterostructure as a result of the annihilation of positrons with electrons at the interface are detected. The data is quantified as a function of the Doppler broadening of the photopeak about the 511 keV line created by the annihilation of the positrons and electrons at the interface, preferably, as an S-parameter function; and a normalized S-parameter function of the data is obtained. The function of data obtained is compared with a corresponding function of the Doppler broadening of the annihilation photopeak about 511 keV for a positron beam having a second energy level directed at the same material making up a portion of the solid heterostructure. The comparison of these functions facilitates characterization of the interfacial states of electrons in the solid heterostructure at points corresponding to the penetration of positrons having the particular energy levels into the interface of the solid heterostructure. Accordingly, the invention provides a variable-energy non-destructive probe of solid heterostructures, such as SiO[sub 2]/Si, MOS or other semiconductor devices.

  16. The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Han; Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Yiyang; ...

    2016-05-10

    Here, the success of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures, made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides, and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that vdW heterostructues can exhibit ultra-fast charge transfer despite the weak binding of the heterostructure. Using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, we identify a strong dynamic coupling between the vdW layers associated with charge transfer. This dynamic coupling results in rapid nonlinear coherentmore » charge oscillations which constitute a purely electronic phenomenon and are shown to be a general feature of vdW heterostructures provided they have a critical minimum dipole coupling. Application to MoS2/WS2 heterostructure yields good agreement with experiment, indicating near complete charge transfer within a timescale of 100 fs.The success of van der Waals heterostructures made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that van der Waals heterostructues can exhibit ultrafast charge transfer despite the weak binding of these heterostructures. Here we find, using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, that the collective motion of excitons at the interface leads to plasma oscillations associated with optical excitation. By constructing a simple model of the van der Waals heterostructure, we show that there exists an unexpected criticality of the oscillations, yielding rapid charge transfer across the

  17. The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Han; Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Yiyang; West, Damien; Meunier, Vincent; Zhang, Shengbai; Liang, Linagbo

    2016-05-10

    Here, the success of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures, made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides, and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that vdW heterostructues can exhibit ultra-fast charge transfer despite the weak binding of the heterostructure. Using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, we identify a strong dynamic coupling between the vdW layers associated with charge transfer. This dynamic coupling results in rapid nonlinear coherent charge oscillations which constitute a purely electronic phenomenon and are shown to be a general feature of vdW heterostructures provided they have a critical minimum dipole coupling. Application to MoS2/WS2 heterostructure yields good agreement with experiment, indicating near complete charge transfer within a timescale of 100 fs.The success of van der Waals heterostructures made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that van der Waals heterostructues can exhibit ultrafast charge transfer despite the weak binding of these heterostructures. Here we find, using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, that the collective motion of excitons at the interface leads to plasma oscillations associated with optical excitation. By constructing a simple model of the van der Waals heterostructure, we show that there exists an unexpected criticality of the oscillations, yielding rapid charge transfer across the interface

  18. Mixed multilayered vertical heterostructures utilizing strained monolayer WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Yuewen; Xu, Wenshuo; Wang, Xiaochen; He, Zhengyu; Rong, Youmin; Warner, Jamie H.

    2016-01-01

    Creating alternating layers of 2D materials forms vertical heterostructures with diverse electronic and opto-electronic properties. Monolayer WS2 grown by chemical vapour deposition can have inherent strain due to interactions with the substrate. The strain modifies the band structure and properties of monolayer WS2 and can be exploited in a wide range of applications. We demonstrate a non-aqueous transfer method for creating vertical stacks of mixed 2D layers containing a strained monolayer of WS2, with Boron Nitride and Graphene. The 2D materials are all grown by CVD, enabling large area vertical heterostructures to be formed. WS2 monolayers grown by CVD directly on Si substrates with SiO2 surface are easily washed off by water and this makes aqueous based transfer methods challenging for creating vertical stacks on the growth substrate. 2D hexagonal Boron Nitride films are used to provide an insulating layer that limits interactions with a top graphene layer and preserve the strong photoluminescence from the WS2. This transfer method is suitable for layer by layer control of 2D material vertical stacks and is shown to be possible for all CVD grown samples, which opens up pathways for the rapid large scale fabrication of vertical heterostructure systems with atomic thickness depth control and large area coverage.Creating alternating layers of 2D materials forms vertical heterostructures with diverse electronic and opto-electronic properties. Monolayer WS2 grown by chemical vapour deposition can have inherent strain due to interactions with the substrate. The strain modifies the band structure and properties of monolayer WS2 and can be exploited in a wide range of applications. We demonstrate a non-aqueous transfer method for creating vertical stacks of mixed 2D layers containing a strained monolayer of WS2, with Boron Nitride and Graphene. The 2D materials are all grown by CVD, enabling large area vertical heterostructures to be formed. WS2 monolayers grown by

  19. Stimulated emission in strained-layer quantum-well heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Camras, M.D.; Brown, J.M.; Holonyak, N. Jr.; Nixon, M.A.; Kaliski, R.W.; Ludowise, M.J.; Dietze, W.T.; Lewis, C.R.

    1983-11-01

    Stimulated emission data are presented on a large variety of strained-layer quantum-well heterostructures (QWH's) and superlattices (SL's) grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). These structures consist of barrier-well combinations of thickness L/sub B/,L/sub z/ < or approx. =150 A made from GaAs-InGaAs, GaAsP-GaAs, and GaAsP-InGaAs. Also employed are higher band-gap confining layers of In/sub x/Al/sub y/Ga/sub 1hyphenx/-yAs, Al/sub y/Ga/sub 1-y/As/sub 1-x/P/sub x/, and Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As. All of the heterostructures are grown on a GaAs substrate with and, in some cases, without a graded layer. The strain range between 0.2 to 12.5 x 10/sup -3/ is examined. Photopumped, these heterostructures operate as continuous (cw) 300 K lasers, with thresholds of 1.6--7.5 x 10/sup 3/ W/cm/sup 2/, for periods of time between 0.5 to >35 min. Under high-level excitation, the equivalent of J/sub eq/approx.10/sup 3/ A/cm/sup 2/, laser operation fails or is quenched by networks of dislocations (with <110> Burger's vectors) that are generated within the strained-layer region of the QWH's or SL's. These dislocation networks, which are revealed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), occur at a more rapid rate in higher threshold samples and ones with higher built-in strain. The TEM data show, however, that no heterointerface defects (dislocations) are present in the as-grown strained-layer regions but are present in thick (bulk) graded regions.

  20. Integration of Multifunctional Epitaxial Oxide Heterostructures with Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao; Prater, John; Narayan, Jay

    Multifunctional heterostructures exhibit a wide range of functional properties, including colossal magneto-resistance, multiferroic behavior, and spin, charge, and orbital ordering. However, putting this functionality to work remains a challenge. To date, most of the previous works reported in the literature have dealt with heterostructures deposited on closely lattice matched (using lattice matching epitaxy-LME) insulating substrates such as DyScO3, NdGaO3, MgO, SrTiO3 and MBE-grown STO buffered Si(100). This presentation discusses the major advances in the integration of multifunctional oxide materials onto ubiquitous silicon semiconductor platform reported1-6 in the recent past by the presenting authors using a novel thin film growth approach, called `domain matching epitaxy'(DME), which minimizes the strain and nucleation of unwanted defects. The DME paradigm has been used across the large misfit scale (7-25%). Of particular interest, thin film heterostructures including two-phase multiferroics such as BiFeO3(BFO)/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO), BaTiO3(BTO)/LSMO, and LSMO/SrRuO3(SRO). These significant materials advancements may herald a flurry of exciting new advances in CMOS-compatible multifunctional devices.1S. S. Rao,et al.,Nano Letters 13, 5814 (2013); J. Appl. Phys., 116, 094103 (2014); J. Appl. Phys., 116, 224104 (2014); J. Appl. Phys., 117, 17D908 (2015); 5J. Appl. Phys., 117, 17B711 (2015); 6Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science. 19, 301-304 (2015).

  1. Silicon-based silicon-germanium-tin heterostructure photonics.

    PubMed

    Soref, Richard

    2014-03-28

    The wavelength range that extends from 1550 to 5000 nm is a new regime of operation for Si-based photonic and opto-electronic integrated circuits. To actualize the new chips, heterostructure active devices employing the ternary SiGeSn alloy are proposed in this paper. Foundry-based monolithic integration is described. Opportunities and challenges abound in creating laser diodes, optical amplifiers, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, modulators, switches and a host of high-performance passive infrared waveguided components.

  2. Upper critical field of Mo-Ni heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Uher, C.; Watson, W.J.; Cohn, J.L.; Schuller, I.K.

    1985-12-01

    Upper critical field and its anisotropy have been measured on two very short wavelength Mo-Ni heterostructures of different degrees of perfection, lambda = 13.8A (disordered structure) and lambda = 16.6A (layered structure). In both cases the parallel critical field has an unexpected temperature dependence, a large and temperature dependent anisotropy, and over 60% enhancement over the Clogston-Chandrasekhar limit. Data are fit to the Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg theory and the spin-orbit scattering times are found to be 1.79 x 10 T s and 2 x 10 T s, respectively.

  3. Npn double heterostructure bipolar transistor with ingaasn base region

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Ping-Chih; Baca, Albert G.; Li, Nein-Yi; Hou, Hong Q.; Ashby, Carol I. H.

    2004-07-20

    An NPN double heterostructure bipolar transistor (DHBT) is disclosed with a base region comprising a layer of p-type-doped indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN) sandwiched between n-type-doped collector and emitter regions. The use of InGaAsN for the base region lowers the transistor turn-on voltage, V.sub.on, thereby reducing power dissipation within the device. The NPN transistor, which has applications for forming low-power electronic circuitry, is formed on a gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrate and can be fabricated at commercial GaAs foundries. Methods for fabricating the NPN transistor are also disclosed.

  4. III-V alloy heterostructure high speed avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, H. D.; Nakano, K.; Tomasetta, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    Heterostructure avalanche photodiodes have been successfully fabricated in several III-V alloy systems: GaAlAs/GaAs, GaAlSb/GaAlSb, and InGaAsP/InP. These diodes cover optical wavelengths from 0.4 to 1.8 micron. Early stages of development show very encouraging results. High speed response of less than 35 ps and high quantum efficiency more than 95 percent have been obtained. The dark currents and the excess avalanche noise are also dicussed. A direct comparison of GaAlSb, GaAlAsSb, and In GaAsP avalanche photodiodes is given.

  5. Zinc-oxide-based nanostructured materials for heterostructure solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bobkov, A. A.; Maximov, A. I.; Moshnikov, V. A. Somov, P. A.; Terukov, E. I.

    2015-10-15

    Results obtained in the deposition of nanostructured zinc-oxide layers by hydrothermal synthesis as the basic method are presented. The possibility of controlling the structure and morphology of the layers is demonstrated. The important role of the procedure employed to form the nucleating layer is noted. The faceted hexagonal nanoprisms obtained are promising for the fabrication of solar cells based on oxide heterostructures, and aluminum-doped zinc-oxide layers with petal morphology, for the deposition of an antireflection layer. The results are compatible and promising for application in flexible electronics.

  6. Multi-color imaging of magnetic Co/Pt heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Felix; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Weder, David; Günther, Christian M.; Schneider, Michael; Pfau, Bastian; Meise, Sven; Guehrs, Erik; Geilhufe, Jan; Merhe, Alaa El Din; Jal, Emmanuelle; Vodungbo, Boris; Lüning, Jan; Mahieu, Benoit; Capotondi, Flavio; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Gauthier, David; Manfredda, Michele; Eisebitt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We present an element specific and spatially resolved view of magnetic domains in Co/Pt heterostructures in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range. Resonant small-angle scattering and coherent imaging with Fourier-transform holography reveal nanoscale magnetic domain networks via magnetic dichroism of Co at the M2,3 edges as well as via strong dichroic signals at the O2,3 and N6,7 edges of Pt. We demonstrate for the first time simultaneous, two-color coherent imaging at a free-electron laser facility paving the way for a direct real space access to ultrafast magnetization dynamics in complex multicomponent material systems. PMID:28289691

  7. Spin Dynamics of Electrons Confined in Silicon Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jock, Ryan Michael

    The spin states of electrons confined in silicon heterostructures have shown promise as qubits for quantum information processing. Recently, a host of single and few electron silicon quantum dot device architectures have arisen as implementations for quantum computation. These devices often combine regions of low density two-dimensional (2D) electrons, localized electrons, and interfaces depleted of electrons. Electron spin resonance (ESR) is a unique tool for probing the spin dynamics of both mobile and localized electrons at silicon heterointerfaces and investigating the effects limiting the ability to control electrons and their spin states in these structures. We use a continuous wave ESR method to examine localized 2D electron band-tail states at Si/SiO 2 interfaces in large area metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors. We compare two devices, fabricated in different laboratories, which display similar low temperature (4.2 K) peak mobilities. We find that one of the devices displays a smaller band-tail density of confined states and a shallower characteristic confinement. Thus, ESR reveals a difference in device quality, which is not apparent from mobility measurements, and is a valuable tool for evaluating the interface quality in Si/SiO2 heterostructures. Additionally, we use pulsed ESR techniques to study the spin dynamics of electrons confined in Si/SiGe heterostructures. For mobile 2D electrons, the density-dependent Dyakonov-Perel mechanism dominates spin relaxation. At low 2D densities, stronger electron-electron interactions cause an increase in the electron effective mass, leading to an increase in spin susceptibility. For very low densities, natural disorder localizes electrons at the silicon heterointerface. Naturally localized electrons in these structures display short spin relaxation times (< 0.1 ms). By electrostatically confining electrons to quantum dots, the spin relaxation time may be extended. We fabricate large-area dual-gated devices which

  8. Dynamic Feedback in Ferromagnet-Spin Hall Metal Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ran; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Xiao, Di

    2016-08-01

    In ferromagnet-normal-metal heterostructures, spin pumping and spin-transfer torques are two reciprocal processes that occur concomitantly. Their interplay introduces a dynamic feedback effect interconnecting energy dissipation channels of both magnetization and current. By solving the spin diffusion process in the presence of the spin Hall effect in the normal metal, we show that the dynamic feedback gives rise to (i) a nonlinear magnetic damping that is crucial to sustain uniform steady-state oscillations of a spin Hall oscillator at large angles and (ii) a frequency-dependent spin Hall magnetoimpedance that reduces to the spin Hall magnetoresistance in the dc limit.

  9. Silicon-based silicon–germanium–tin heterostructure photonics

    PubMed Central

    Soref, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The wavelength range that extends from 1550 to 5000 nm is a new regime of operation for Si-based photonic and opto-electronic integrated circuits. To actualize the new chips, heterostructure active devices employing the ternary SiGeSn alloy are proposed in this paper. Foundry-based monolithic integration is described. Opportunities and challenges abound in creating laser diodes, optical amplifiers, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, modulators, switches and a host of high-performance passive infrared waveguided components. PMID:24567479

  10. Spin-polarized photoemission from SiGe heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, A.; Bottegoni, F.; Isella, G.; Cecchi, S.; Chrastina, D.; Finazzi, M.; Ciccacci, F.

    2013-12-04

    We apply the principles of Optical Orientation to measure by Mott polarimetry the spin polarization of electrons photoemitted from different group-IV heterostructures. The maximum measured spin polarization, obtained from a Ge/Si{sub 0.31}Ge{sub 0.69} strained film, undoubtedly exceeds the maximum value of 50% attainable in bulk structures. The explanation we give for this result lies in the enhanced band orbital mixing between light hole and split-off valence bands as a consequence of the compressive strain experienced by the thin Ge layer.

  11. Some elementary questions in the theory of quasiperiodic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Álvarez, R.; García-Moliner, F.; Velasco, V. R.

    2001-04-01

    The characterization of the spectrum of eigenstates of quasiperiodic heterostructures is discussed by focusing on three questions. Arguments are advanced to justify the often indiscriminate use of different approximants in the calculation of the eigenvalue spectra. It is stressed that the calculation of the fractal dimension may be rather inaccurate if the high eigenvalue range is not included, even if physically the interest is limited to the low range. The question of self-similarity is critically examined and found to have a very limited range of validity in practice. The unique properties of the Rudin-Shapiro sequence are also stressed.

  12. Transport properties of Fibonacci heterostructures: a nonparabolic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomino-Ovando, M.; Cocoletzi, G. H.

    1998-07-01

    A fourth order hamiltonian is used to explore transport properties of semiconductor Fibonacci heterostructures. The tunneling current and time delay are obtained for different Fibonacci sequences constructed withGaAsandAlxGa1 - xAs. Energy minibands are calculated to study the fractal dimension and critical electronic states in quasi-periodic arrays. Results show that nonparabolic corrections produce changes in the tunneling current, time delay and fractal dimension, and a low voltage shift of the current peaks compared with the parabolic theory. The electronic states preserve their critical nature in the presence of nonparabolic effects.

  13. Transport Properties of Exfoliated BSCCO on LAO/STO Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujwary, Sylvia; Sutton, Erin; Gray, Mason; Burch, Kenneth; Levy, Jeremy

    We investigate the interaction between high-temperature superconductor Bi2SrCaCu2O8+δ (BSCCO) flakes deposited on the oxide heterostructure LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO). Conductive-atomic force microscope (c-AFM) lithography will be used to create nanowires at the LAO/STO interface that couple to the BSCCO. Through coupling of these materials, we will be able to study phenomena such as the proximity effect and coulomb drag. We gratefully acknowledge support from the NASA PA Space Grant Consortium (SU), and the National Science Foundation (Grant No. DMR-1410846).

  14. Negative compressibility in graphene-terminated black phosphorus heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingying; Chen, Xiaolong; Wu, Zefei; Xu, Shuigang; Han, Tianyi; Lin, Jiangxiazi; Skinner, Brian; Cai, Yuan; He, Yuheng; Cheng, Chun; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Negative compressibility is a many-body effect wherein strong correlations give rise to an enhanced gate capacitance in two-dimensional (2D) electronic systems. We observe capacitance enhancement in a newly emerged 2D layered material, atomically thin black phosphorus (BP). The encapsulation of BP by hexagonal boron nitride sheets with few-layer graphene as a terminal ensures ultraclean heterostructure interfaces, allowing us to observe negative compressibility at low hole carrier concentrations. We explain the negative compressibility based on the Coulomb correlation among in-plane charges and their image charges in a gate electrode in the framework of Debye screening.

  15. Experimental investigation of interface states in photonic crystal heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiyong; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Yewen; Li, Hongqiang; Jiang, Haitao; Chen, Hong

    2008-08-01

    Optical Tamm states, a kind of interface modes, are also called Tamm plasmon-polaritons. They are experimentally observed in photonic heterostructures based on microstrip transmission lines. The position of optical Tamm states can be designed exactly under effective impedance match and effective phase shift match conditions. Our results show that the photonic band gaps can have the effect of negative-permittivity or negative-permeability media in constructing the interface modes. The simulations and experimental results agree with each other quite well.

  16. Strain mediated coupling in magnetron sputtered multiferroic PZT/Ni-Mn-In/Si thin film heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kirandeep; Kaur, Davinder; Singh, Sushil Kumar

    2014-09-21

    The strain mediated electrical and magnetic properties were investigated in PZT/Ni-Mn-In heterostructure deposited on Si (100) by dc/rf magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed that (220) orientation of Ni-Mn-In facilitate the (110) oriented tertragonal phase growth of PZT layer in PZT/Ni-Mn-In heterostructure. A distinctive peak in dielectric constant versus temperature plots around martensitic phase transformation temperature of Ni-Mn-In showed a strain mediated coupling between Ni-Mn-In and PZT layers. The ferroelectric measurement taken at different temperatures exhibits a well saturated and temperature dependent P-E loops with a highest value of P{sub sat}~55 μC/cm² obtained during martensite-austenite transition temperature region of Ni-Mn-In. The stress induced by Ni-Mn-In layer on upper PZT film due to structural transformation from martensite to austenite resulted in temperature modulated Tunability of PZT/Ni-Mn-In heterostructure. A tunability of 42% was achieved at 290 K (structural transition region of Ni-Mn-In) in these heterostructures. I-V measurements taken at different temperatures indicated that ohmic conduction was the main conduction mechanism over a large electric field range in these heterostructures. Magnetic measurement revealed that heterostructure was ferromagnetic at room temperature with a saturation magnetization of ~123 emu/cm³. Such multiferroic heterostructures exhibits promising applications in various microelectromechanical systems.

  17. Optical properties of GaS-Ca(OH)2 bilayer heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torun, E.; Sahin, H.; Peeters, F. M.

    2016-02-01

    Finding novel atomically thin heterostructures and understanding their characteristic properties are critical for developing better nanoscale optoelectronic devices. In this study, we investigate the electronic and optical properties of a GaS-Ca(OH)2 heterostructure using first-principle calculations. The band gap of the GaS-Ca(OH)2 heterostructure is significantly reduced when compared to those of the isolated constituent layers. Our calculations show that the GaS-Ca(OH)2 heterostructure is a type-II heterojunction which can be used to separate photoinduced charge carriers where electrons are localized in GaS and holes in the Ca(OH)2 layer. This leads to spatially indirect excitons which are important for solar energy and optoelectronic applications due to their long lifetime. By solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation on top of a single shot GW calculation (G0W0 ), the dielectric function and optical oscillator strength of the constituent monolayers and the heterostructure are obtained. The oscillator strength of the optical transition for the GaS monolayer is an order of magnitude larger than the Ca(OH)2 monolayer. We also found that the calculated optical spectra of different stacking types of the heterostructure show dissimilarities, although their electronic structures are rather similar. This prediction can be used to determine the stacking type of ultrathin heterostructures.

  18. Electric-field control of magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yonggang; Zhang, Sen; Li, Peisen; Chen, Aitian; Li, Dalai; Yang, Lifeng; Rizwan, S.; Liu, Y.; Xiao, Xia; Wu, Yizheng; Jin, Xiaofeng; Han, Xiufeng; Zhang, Huiyun; Zhu, Meihong

    2015-03-01

    We have studied electric-field control of magnetism in different multiferroic heterostructures, composed of ferromagnetic (FM) and ferroelectric (FE) materials such as Co40Fe40B20(CoFeB)/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3(PMN-PT) and magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) on PMN-PT, etc. A giant electric-field control of magnetization as well as magnetic anisotropy was observed in a CoFeB/PMN-PT structure at room temperature with a maximum relative magnetization change up to 83 percent and a 90° rotation of the easy axis. In MTJ of CoFeB/AlOx/CoFeB grown on PMN-PT, we demonstrate a reversible, continuous magnetization rotation and manipulation of tunneling magnetoresistance at room temperature by electric fields without the assistance of a magnetic field. These results show the interesting new physics and potential applications of the FM/FE multiferroic heterostructures.

  19. Resonant photonic States in coupled heterostructure photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jd; Sabarinathan, J; Singh, Mr

    2010-02-09

    In this paper, we study the photonic resonance states and transmission spectra of coupled waveguides made from heterostructure photonic crystals. We consider photonic crystal waveguides made from three photonic crystals A, B and C, where the waveguide heterostructure is denoted as B/A/C/A/B. Due to the band structure engineering, light is confined within crystal A, which thus act as waveguides. Here, photonic crystal C is taken as a nonlinear photonic crystal, which has a band gap that may be modified by applying a pump laser. We have found that the number of bound states within the waveguides depends on the width and well depth of photonic crystal A. It has also been found that when both waveguides are far away from each other, the energies of bound photons in each of the waveguides are degenerate. However, when they are brought close to each other, the degeneracy of the bound states is removed due to the coupling between them, which causes these states to split into pairs. We have also investigated the effect of the pump field on photonic crystal C. We have shown that by applying a pump field, the system may be switched between a double waveguide to a single waveguide, which effectively turns on or off the coupling between degenerate states. This reveals interesting results that can be applied to develop new types of nanophotonic devices such as nano-switches and nano-transistors.

  20. Semiconductor-oxide heterostructured nanowires using postgrowth oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wallentin, Jesper; Ek, Martin; Vainorious, Neimantas; Mergenthaler, Kilian; Samuelson, Lars; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Reine Wallenberg, L; Borgström, Magnus T

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor-oxide heterointerfaces have several electron volts high-charge carrier potential barriers, which may enable devices utilizing quantum confinement at room temperature. While a single heterointerface is easily formed by oxide deposition on a crystalline semiconductor, as in MOS transistors, the amorphous structure of most oxides inhibits epitaxy of a second semiconductor layer. Here, we overcome this limitation by separating epitaxy from oxidation, using postgrowth oxidation of AlP segments to create axial and core-shell semiconductor-oxide heterostructured nanowires. Complete epitaxial AlP-InP nanowire structures were first grown in an oxygen-free environment. Subsequent exposure to air converted the AlP segments into amorphous aluminum oxide segments, leaving isolated InP segments in an oxide matrix. InP quantum dots formed on the nanowire sidewalls exhibit room temperature photoluminescence with small line widths (down to 15 meV) and high intensity. This optical performance, together with the control of heterostructure segment length, diameter, and position, opens up for optoelectrical applications at room temperature.

  1. Multiferroic properties of artificially designed Perovskite-Spinel Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussan, Sandra; Singh, Manoj K.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2009-03-01

    Multiferroics materials are a class of functional material that combines two or more ordered parameters i.e. ferromagnetic, ferroelectric and ferroelastic. The recent finding of multiferroic composite material with the coexistence of these properties has attracted the attention of various researchers due to its potential applications in highly sensitive sensors and actuators as well as multistate memory devices. We synthesized and characterizatied CoFe2O4-BiFeO3 (CFO-BFO) heterostructure thin films grown on SrTiO3 (111), (100) substrates using Pulsed laser deposition. The XRD patterns of CFO-BFO multilayered films evidenced that all picks correspond to CFO and BFO structure also confirmed by their respective Raman spectra. We observed three peaks at 136, 168, and 215 cm-1 that can be assigned to A1(TO) modes of the BFO pure phase and at 468 and 695 cm-1 correspond to CFO. Room temperature M-H exhibited well-shaped magnetization hysteresis loops, good saturation and high coercivity. Preliminary results evidenced the existence of ferroelectricity and magnetic properties in heterostructure.

  2. Fractal quantum well heterostructures for broadband light emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, M.H.; Gourley, P.L.; Meissner, K.E.; Sinclair, M.B.; Jones, E.D.; Chow, W.W.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    We examine carrier relaxation and radiative recombination in AlGaAs based near IR and AlGaInP based visible fractal quantum well heterostructures. Through temperature dependent photoluminescence, we demonstrate that enhanced population of higher lying energy levels can be achieved by varying the thickness of the layers in the fractal heterostructurd. This distribution of carriers results in room temperature emission over a relatively broad range of wavelengths: approximately 700--855 nm for AlGaAs structures and 575--650 nm for AlGaInP structures. Spectra are compared to theoretical calculations to evaluate the non-equilibrium nature of the carrier distributions. Time resolved photoluminescence measurements demonstrate an approximately linear relationship between the radiative decay time and the layer thickness of the structure. Correspondingly, integrated luminescence measurements at room temperature reveal a factor of four increase in the light output efficiency of the structure as the fractal layer thickness is increased from 50 {angstrom} to 400 {angstrom}. The applicability of these heterostructures to broadband LEDs is discussed.

  3. Epitaxial Heterostructures of Lead Selenide Quantum Dots on Hematite Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Selinsky, Rachel S; Shin, Sanghun; Lukowski, Mark A; Jin, Song

    2012-06-21

    We present a novel method for synthesizing epitaxial quantum dot-nanowire (QD-NW) heterostructures using the example of colloidal PbSe QDs decorated on furnace-grown hematite (α-Fe2O3) NWs. The direct heterogeneous nucleation of QDs on Fe2O3 NWs relies upon an aggressive surface dehydration of the as-synthesized Fe2O3 NWs at 350 °C under vacuum and subsequent introduction of colloidal reactants resulting in direct growth of PbSe QDs on Fe2O3. The synthesis is tunable: the QD diameter distribution and density of QDs on the NWs increase with increased dehydration time, and QD diameters and size distributions decrease with decreased injection temperature of the colloidal synthesis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) structural analysis reveals direct heteroepitaxial heterojunctions where the matching faces can be PbSe (002) and Fe2O3 (003) with their respective [11̅0] crystallographic directions aligned. This can be a general approach for integrating colloidal and furnace synthetic techniques, thus broadening possible material combinations for future high-quality, epitaxial nanoscale heterostructures for solar applications.

  4. Strain measurement in semiconductor heterostructures by scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Müller, Knut; Rosenauer, Andreas; Schowalter, Marco; Zweck, Josef; Fritz, Rafael; Volz, Kerstin

    2012-10-01

    This article deals with the measurement of strain in semiconductor heterostructures from convergent beam electron diffraction patterns. In particular, three different algorithms in the field of (circular) pattern recognition are presented that are able to detect diffracted disc positions accurately, from which the strain in growth direction is calculated. Although the three approaches are very different as one is based on edge detection, one on rotational averages, and one on cross correlation with masks, it is found that identical strain profiles result for an In x Ga1-x N y As1-y /GaAs heterostructure consisting of five compressively and tensile strained layers. We achieve a precision of strain measurements of 7-9·10-4 and a spatial resolution of 0.5-0.7 nm over the whole width of the layer stack which was 350 nm. Being already very applicable to strain measurements in contemporary nanostructures, we additionally suggest future hardware and software designs optimized for fast and direct acquisition of strain distributions, motivated by the present studies.

  5. Searching for two-dimensional Weyl superconductors in heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Lei; Ting, C. S.

    2017-02-01

    The two-dimensional Weyl superconductor is the most elusive member of a group of materials with Weyl fermions as low-energy excitations. Here, we propose to realize this state in a heterostructure consisting of thin films of half-metal and spin-singlet superconductors. In particular, for the d -wave case, a very robust two-dimensional Weyl superconductor (d WSC) is realized independently of the orientation of the spontaneous magnetization of the half metal. The quasiparticle spectra of the d WSC show interesting evolution with the direction of the magnetization, featured by a series of Lifshitz transitions in the zero-energy contour of the quasiparticle spectrum. In addition, we find a transition between type-I and type-II Weyl nodes. This is an example of a two-dimensional type-II Weyl node in the presence of a superconducting correlation. For a general magnetization orientation of the half metal, the state is a combination of a superconducting component and a normal fluid component and is different from all known forms of pairings. The symmetries and topological properties of the system are analyzed. We also study the phases in the heterostructure with the half metal replaced by a ferromagnetic metal with a partially spin-polarized Fermi surface.

  6. Interface driven states in ferromagnetic topological insulator heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauter, Valeria; Katmis, Ferhat; Moodera, Jagadeesh

    The broken time reversal symmetry (TRS) states can be introduced into a topological insulator (TI) material by ferromagnetic ordering at the interface. Recently we demonstrated a fundamental step towards realization of high temperature magnetization in Bi2Se3-EuS TI-FMI heterostructures through observation of magnetic proximity-induced symmetry breaking on the Bi2Se3 surface via the exchange interaction by depositing EuS film on the top of the Bi2Se3 surface.Here we show that we can independently break the TRS on both surfaces of a TI, which brings the long-range induced magnetism on either or both surfaces of a TI in a controlled way. We provide a depth-sensitive data on details of magnetic proximity effect in hidden interfaces by Polarized Neutron Reflectometry. The proximity coupling strength and penetration depth of magnetism into TI are extracted as functions of temperature, magnetic field and magnetic history. The large neutron absorption of Eu atoms serves as the element sensitivity and enables us to identify such magnetism in TI as proximity magnetism. This provides a next step to realization of complex heterostructures of TI and FMI leading to wide applications in TI-based next generation spintronic devices. Supported by U.S. DOE, Office of Science, BES, MIT MRSEC award DMR-0819762, NSF Grant DMR-1207469, ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301, NSF Grant DMR-1231319.

  7. Thermionic Energy Conversion Based on Graphene van der Waals Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shi-Jun; Liu, Bo; Hu, Wei; Zhou, Kun; Ang, L. K.

    2017-01-01

    Seeking for thermoelectric (TE) materials with high figure of merit (or ZT), which can directly converts low-grade wasted heat (400 to 500 K) into electricity, has been a big challenge. Inspired by the concept of multilayer thermionic devices, we propose and design a solid-state thermionic devices (as a power generator or a refrigerator) in using van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure sandwiched between two graphene electrodes, to achieve high energy conversion efficiency in the temperature range of 400 to 500 K. The vdW heterostructure is composed of suitable multiple layers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2. From our calculations, WSe2 and MoSe2 are identified as two ideal TMDs (using the reported experimental material’s properties), which can harvest waste heat at 400 K with efficiencies about 7% to 8%. To our best knowledge, this design is the first in combining the advantages of graphene electrodes and TMDs to function as a thermionic-based device. PMID:28387363

  8. Hybrid superconducting mesa-heterostructure with manganite-ruthenate interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinian, K. Y.; Ovsyannikov, G. A.; Sheyerman, A. E.; Shadrin, A. V.; Kislinskii, Y. V.; Kalabukhov, A.; Winkler, D.

    2014-05-01

    We present experimental data on Josephson effect in hybrid superconducting mesa-heterostructures (HSMH) with composite manganite-ruthenate interlayer. The HSMH base electrode consisted of the cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3O7 grown epitaxially on a NdGaO substrate using laser ablation. The interlayer was composed from in-situ deposited SrRuO3 (F1) and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (F2) thin films, each characterized by different directions of magnetization. The top electrode was Nb/Au thin film. A superconducting current was observed when the interlayer thickness was well above the correlation length, determined by the exchange field in F1 and F2. Obtained IC(H) dependences and non-sinusoidal current-phase relation evaluated from microwave measurements are discussed in terms of generation of long-range spin triplet superconducting current component in heterostructures with interfaces of singlet superconductors and bilayer ferromagnetic materials with different spatial directions of magnetization.

  9. Photon-Inhibited Topological Transport in Quantum Well Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Aaron; Pereg-Barnea, T

    2015-09-04

    Here we provide a picture of transport in quantum well heterostructures with a periodic driving field in terms of a probabilistic occupation of the topologically protected edge states in the system. This is done by generalizing methods from the field of photon-assisted tunneling. We show that the time dependent field dresses the underlying Hamiltonian of the heterostructure and splits the system into sidebands. Each of these sidebands is occupied with a certain probability which depends on the drive frequency and strength. This leads to a reduction in the topological transport signatures of the system because of the probability to absorb or emit a photon. Therefore when the voltage is tuned to the bulk gap the conductance is smaller than the expected 2e(2)/h. We refer to this as photon-inhibited topological transport. Nevertheless, the edge modes reveal their topological origin in the robustness of the edge conductance to disorder and changes in model parameters. In this work the analogy with photon-assisted tunneling allows us to interpret the calculated conductivity and explain the sum rule observed by Kundu and Seradjeh.

  10. Electroresistance and field effect studies on manganite based heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Solanki, P. S.; Khachar, Uma; Vagadia, Megha; Ravalia, Ashish; Katba, Savan; Kuberkar, D. G.

    2015-04-14

    Electronic properties of manganites are significantly important for various spintronic applications such as microelectronics, magnetic data storage, communication technologies, and memory devices. Influence of applied electric field on the room temperature charge transport in ZnO/La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrNb{sub 0.002}Ti{sub 0.998}O{sub 3} (SNTO) heterostructure has been investigated using field effect studies. Large negative and positive electroresistance has been observed in heterostructure under various possible circuit geometries. Field effect studies have been carried out using three different circuit geometries, namely: (i) ZnO as a control electrode (E{sub LZ}), (ii) SNTO as a control electrode (E{sub LS}), and (iii) shorted ZnO and SNTO as control electrodes (E{sub LZS}). For this, channel electric field (E{sub CH}) dependent variation in channel resistance (R{sub C}) (of manganite channel) and I-V (across manganite channel) under various control fields (E{sub C}) have been studied. Variation in barrier height (Φ{sub B}) with control field (E{sub C}) for different geometries has been discussed.

  11. Ag/ZnO heterostructure nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, and photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuanhui; Zheng, Lirong; Zhan, Yingying; Lin, Xingyi; Zheng, Qi; Wei, Kemei

    2007-08-20

    A high yield of the dimer-type heterostructure of Ag/ZnO nanocrystals with different Ag contents is successfully prepared through a simple solvothermal method in the absence of surfactants. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and IR spectroscopy. The results show that all samples are composed of metallic Ag and ZnO; Ag nanoparticles locate on the surface of ZnO nanorods; the binding energy of Ag 3d(5/2) for the Ag/ZnO sample with a Ag content of 5.0 atom % shifts remarkably to the lower binding energy compared with the corresponding value of pure metallic Ag because of the interaction between Ag and ZnO nanocrystals; the concentration of oxygen vacancy for the as-synthesized samples varies with the increasing Ag content, and the Ag/ZnO sample with a Ag content of 5.0 atom % has the largest density of oxygen vacancy. In addition, the relationship between their structure and photocatalytic property is investigated in detail. It is found that the photocatalytic property is closely related to its structure, such as heterostructure, oxygen defect, and crystallinity. The presence of metallic Ag nanoparticles and oxygen vacancy on the surface of ZnO nanorods promotes the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and thus enhances the photocatalytic activity.

  12. Engineering quantum spin Hall insulators by strained-layer heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiho, T.; Couëdo, F.; Irie, H.; Suzuki, K.; Onomitsu, K.; Muraki, K.

    2016-11-01

    Quantum spin Hall insulators (QSHIs), also known as two-dimensional topological insulators, have emerged as an unconventional class of quantum states with insulating bulk and conducting edges originating from nontrivial inverted band structures and have been proposed as a platform for exploring spintronics applications and exotic quasiparticles related to the spin-helical edge modes. Despite theoretical proposals for various materials, however, experimental demonstrations of QSHIs have so far been limited to two systems—HgTe/CdTe and InAs/GaSb—both of which are lattice-matched semiconductor heterostructures. Here, we report transport measurements in yet another realization of a band-inverted heterostructure as a QSHI candidate—InAs/InxGa1-xSb with lattice mismatch. We show that the compressive strain in the InxGa1-xSb layer enhances the band overlap and energy gap. Consequently, high bulk resistivity, two orders of magnitude higher than for InAs/GaSb, is obtained deep in the band-inverted regime. The strain also enhances bulk Rashba spin-orbit splitting, leading to an unusual situation where the Fermi level crosses only one spin branch for electronlike and holelike bands over a wide density range. These properties make this system a promising platform for robust QSHIs with unique spin properties and demonstrate the strain to be an important ingredient for tuning spin-orbit interaction.

  13. Interlayer coupling effects on Schottky barrier in the arsenene-graphene van der Waals heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Congxin Xue, Bin; Wang, Tianxing; Peng, Yuting; Jia, Yu

    2015-11-09

    The electronic characteristics of arsenene-graphene van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures are studied by using first-principles methods. The results show that a linear Dirac-like dispersion relation around the Fermi level can be quite well preserved in the vdW heterostructures. Moreover, the p-type Schottky barrier (0.18 eV) to n-type Schottky barrier (0.31 eV) transition occurs when the interlayer distance increases from 2.8 to 4.5 Å, which indicates that the Schottky barrier can be tuned effectively by the interlayer distance in the vdW heterostructures.

  14. Graphene/CdTe heterostructure solar cell and its enhancement with photo-induced doping

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shisheng Chen, Hongsheng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Shengjiao; Wang, Peng; Xu, Zhijuan; Zhong, Huikai; Wu, Zhiqian

    2015-11-09

    We report a type of solar cell based on graphene/CdTe Schottky heterostructure, which can be improved by surface engineering as graphene is atomic thin. By coating a layer of ultrathin CdSe quantum dots onto graphene/CdTe heterostructure, the power conversion efficiency is increased from 2.08% to 3.10%. Photo-induced doping is mainly accounted for this enhancement, as evidenced by field effect transport, Raman, photoluminescence, and quantum efficiency measurements. This work demonstrates a feasible way of improving the performance of graphene/semiconductor heterostructure solar cells by combining one dimensional with two dimensional materials.

  15. Observation of complete space-charge-limited transport in metal-oxide-graphene heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Fei; Fang, Jingyue; Wang, Guang; Qin, Shiqiao; Zhang, Xue-Ao E-mail: xazhang@nudt.edu.cn; Wang, Chaocheng; Wang, Li E-mail: xazhang@nudt.edu.cn

    2015-01-12

    The metal-oxide-graphene heterostructures have abundant physical connotations. As one of the most important physical properties, the electric transport property of the gold-chromium oxide-graphene heterostructure has been studied. The experimental measurement shows that the conductive mechanism is dominated by the space-charge-limited transport, a kind of bulk transport of an insulator with charge traps. Combining the theoretical analysis, some key parameters such as the carrier mobility and trap energy also are obtained. The study of the characteristics of the metal-oxide-graphene heterostructures is helpful to investigate the graphene-based electronic and photoelectric devices.

  16. Growth control, structure and ferromagnetic properties of digital Mn/GaAs heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X. X.; Herrmann, C.; Kong, X.; Kolovos-Vellianitis, D.; Däweritz, L.; Ploog, K. H.

    2005-05-01

    The growth of digital Mn/GaAs heterostructures with high Mn sheet densities has been studied at widely varied As4 pressures by in situ RHEED monitoring and microstructure characterization using TEM. In particular for heterostructures with a large number of periods, the evolution of the specular RHEED beam intensity can be advantageously used for growth control. Analysis of the influence of the Mn density and As4 pressure on the ferromagnetic properties of the heterostructures suggests a correlation with intrinsic defects in the Mn sheets as well as in the GaAs spacers. Stacking faults are found to be the dominant growth defect.

  17. Superlubricity of two-dimensional fluorographene/MoS2 heterostructure: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Feng; Ma, Tian-Bao; Hu, Yuan-Zhong; Zheng, Quanshui; Wang, Hui; Luo, Jianbin

    2014-09-26

    The atomic-scale friction of the fluorographene (FG)/MoS2 heterostructure is investigated using first-principles calculations. Due to the intrinsic lattice mismatch and formation of periodic Moiré patterns, the potential energy surface of the FG/MoS2 heterostructure is ultrasmooth and the interlayer shear strength is reduced by nearly two orders of magnitude, compared with both FG/FG and MoS2/MoS2 bilayers, entering the superlubricity regime. The size dependency of superlubricity is revealed as being based on the relationship between the emergence of Moiré patterns and the lattice mismatch ratio for heterostructures.

  18. Superlubricity of two-dimensional fluorographene/MoS2 heterostructure: a first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Feng; Ma, Tian-Bao; Hu, Yuan-Zhong; Zheng, Quanshui; Wang, Hui; Luo, Jianbin

    2014-09-01

    The atomic-scale friction of the fluorographene (FG)/MoS2 heterostructure is investigated using first-principles calculations. Due to the intrinsic lattice mismatch and formation of periodic Moiré patterns, the potential energy surface of the FG/MoS2 heterostructure is ultrasmooth and the interlayer shear strength is reduced by nearly two orders of magnitude, compared with both FG/FG and MoS2/MoS2 bilayers, entering the superlubricity regime. The size dependency of superlubricity is revealed as being based on the relationship between the emergence of Moiré patterns and the lattice mismatch ratio for heterostructures.

  19. Scanning probe microscopy investigation of complex-oxide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Feng

    Advances in the growth of precisely tailored complex-oxide heterostructures have led to new emergent behavior and associated discoveries. One of the most successful examples consists of an ultrathin layer of LaAlO 3 (LAO) deposited on TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 (STO), where a high mobility quasi-two dimensional electron liquid (2DEL) is formed at the interface. Such 2DEL demonstrates a variety of novel properties, including field tunable metal-insulator transition, superconductivity, strong spin-orbit coupling, magnetic and ferroelectric like behavior. Particularly, for 3-unit-cell (3 u.c.) LAO/STO heterostructures, it was demonstrated that a conductive atomic force microscope (c-AFM) tip can be used to "write" or "erase" nanoscale conducting channels at the interface, making LAO/STO a highly flexible platform to fabricate novel nanoelectronics. This thesis is focused on scanning probe microscopy studies of LAO/STO properties. We investigate the mechanism of c-AFM lithography over 3 u.c. LAO/STO in controlled ambient conditions by using a vacuum AFM, and find that the water molecules dissociated on the LAO surface play a critical role during the c-AFM lithography process. We also perform electro-mechanical response measurements over top-gated LAO/STO devices. Simultaneous piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and capacitance measurements reveal a correlation between LAO lattice distortion and interfacial carrier density, which suggests that PFM could not only serve as a powerful tool to map the carrier density at the interface but also provide insight into previously reported frequency dependence of capacitance enhancement of top-gated LAO/STO structures. To study magnetism at the LAO/STO interface, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and magnetoelectric force microscopy (MeFM) are carried out to search for magnetic signatures that depend on the carrier density at the interface. Results demonstrate an electronicallycontrolled ferromagnetic phase on top-gated LAO

  20. Quantum devices in silicon/silicon germanium heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinker, Keith A.

    This thesis presents the fabrication and characterization of silicon/silicon-germanium quantum wells, quantum dots, and quantum point contacts. These systems are promising for quantum computing applications due to the long predicted spin lifetimes. In addition, the valley states in Si/SiGe two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) are a novel phenomenon in regards to nanostructures, and characterizing these states is also necessary for potential computing applications. However, working with these heterostructures---especially in regards to metal Schottky gating---has proved historically challenging such that single electron transistors had not been achieved at the onset of this research. The first quantum dots in Si/SiGe are presented, defined completely by CF4 reactive ion etch without the use of metal gates. Etch-defined 2DEG side gates are used to modulate the potential of the quantum dot. Results for various metal gating schemes are also presented, culminating in the first Schottky-gated quantum dots in Si/SiGe. Differing from the etch-defined dots, the tunnel junctions of the metal-etch hybrid dot are fully tunable by the voltage applied to the top gates. Hall measurements of multiple heterostructures are presented, providing evidence that many of the challenges associated with gating Si/SiGe can be attributed to undepleted dopants in the supply layer. These dopants screen the top gates but can be detected as a parallel conduction channel in Hall measurements taken at a 2 K. A fully top-gate defined quantum dot was fabricated on an optimized Si/SiGe heterostructure, and the single particle excited states were resolved for the first time in Si/SiGe. Finally, quantum point contacts were defined by metal top gates, and the conduction was mapped out over a large range of magnetic field and voltages on the gates. The positions of the conductance steps are used to extract the valley splitting---a quantity that had been measured in a bulk 2DEG but not in a nanostructure

  1. ZnO@CdS Core-Shell Heterostructures: Fabrication, Enhanced Photocatalytic, and Photoelectrochemical Performance.

    PubMed

    Ding, Meng; Yao, Nannan; Wang, Chenggang; Huang, Jinzhao; Shao, Minghui; Zhang, Shouwei; Li, Ping; Deng, Xiaolong; Xu, Xijin

    2016-12-01

    ZnO nanorods and ZnO@CdS heterostructures have been fabricated on carbon fiber cloth substrates via hydrothermal and electrochemical deposition. Their photocatalytic properties were investigated by measuring the degradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet light irradiation. The result illustrated that the photodegradation efficiency of ZnO@CdS heterostructures was better than that of pure ZnO nanorods, in which the rate constants were about 0.04629 and 0.02617 min(-1). Furthermore, the photocurrent of ZnO@CdS heterostructures achieved 10(2) times enhancement than pure ZnO nanorods, indicating that more free carriers could be generated and transferred in ZnO@CdS heterostructures, which could be responsible for the increased photocatalytic performance.

  2. Cyclical thinning of black phosphorus with high spatial resolution for heterostructure devices.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Matthew C; Namgung, Seon; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Koester, Steven J

    2017-03-13

    A high-spatial resolution, cyclical thinning method for realizing black phosphorus (BP) heterostructures is reported. This process utilizes a cyclic technique involving BP surface oxidation and vacuum annealing to create BP flakes as thin as 1.6 nm. The process also utilizes a spatially patternable mask created by evaporating Al that oxidizes to form Al2O3 which stabilizes the unetched BP regions and enables the formation of lateral heterostructures with spatial resolution as small as 150 nm. This thinning/patterning technique has also been used to create the first ever lateral heterostructure BP MOSFET in which half of a BP flake was thinned in order to increase its band gap. This heterostructure MOSFET showed an on-to-off current ratio improvement of 1000× compared to homojunction MOSFETs.

  3. Controlling electronic structure through epitaxial strain in ZnSe/ZnTe nano-heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, S. K. E-mail: yadav.satyesh@gmail.com; Sharma, V.; Ramprasad, R.

    2015-07-07

    Using first-principles computations, we study the effect of epitaxial strains on electronic structure variations across ZnSe/ZnTe nano-heterostructures. Epitaxial strains of various types are modeled using pseudomorphic ZnSe/ZnTe heterostructures. We find that a wide range of band gaps (spanning the visible solar spectrum) and band offsets (0–1.5 eV) is accessible across the heterostructures in a controllable manner via reasonable levels of epitaxial strain. In addition to quantum confinement effects, strain in ZnSe/ZnTe heterostructures may thus be viewed as a powerful degree of freedom that can enable the rational design of optoelectronic devices.

  4. Two-Dimensional Semiconductor Optoelectronics Based on van der Waals Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Yoon; Shin, Jun-Hwan; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Lee, Chul-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and black phosphorous have drawn tremendous attention as an emerging optical material due to their unique and remarkable optical properties. In addition, the ability to create the atomically-controlled van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures enables realizing novel optoelectronic devices that are distinct from conventional bulk counterparts. In this short review, we first present the atomic and electronic structures of 2D semiconducting TMDCs and their exceptional optical properties, and further discuss the fabrication and distinctive features of vdW heterostructures assembled from different kinds of 2D materials with various physical properties. We then focus on reviewing the recent progress on the fabrication of 2D semiconductor optoelectronic devices based on vdW heterostructures including photodetectors, solar cells, and light-emitting devices. Finally, we highlight the perspectives and challenges of optoelectronics based on 2D semiconductor heterostructures. PMID:28335321

  5. Electron transfer and coupling in graphene-tungsten disulfide van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    He, Jiaqi; Kumar, Nardeep; Bellus, Matthew Z; Chiu, Hsin-Ying; He, Dawei; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Hui

    2014-11-25

    The newly discovered two-dimensional materials can be used to form atomically thin and sharp van der Waals heterostructures with nearly perfect interface qualities, which can transform the science and technology of semiconductor heterostructures. Owing to the weak van der Waals interlayer coupling, the electronic states of participating materials remain largely unchanged. Hence, emergent properties of these structures rely on two key elements: electron transfer across the interface and interlayer coupling. Here we show, using graphene-tungsten disulfide heterostructures as an example, evidence of ultrafast and highly efficient interlayer electron transfer and strong interlayer coupling and control. We find that photocarriers injected in tungsten disulfide transfer to graphene in 1 ps and with near-unity efficiency. We also demonstrate that optical properties of tungsten disulfide can be effectively tuned by carriers in graphene. These findings illustrate basic processes required for using van der Waals heterostructures in electronics and photonics.

  6. Fabrication of colloidal photonic crystal heterostructures free of interface imperfection based on solvent vapor annealing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomiao; Zhao, Duobiao; Geng, Chong; Zhang, Lijing; Tan, Tianya; Hu, Mingzhe; Yan, Qingfeng

    2014-11-15

    We describe the transformation of a colloidal photonic crystal into a photonic crystal heterostructure. It was achieved by annealing a polystyrene multilayer colloidal photonic crystal partially immersed in water using a solvent vapor. The floating polystyrene colloidal photonic crystal was divided into two parts by the liquid level, which can be manipulated by the addition of ethanol into the water. The top part protruding out of the water experienced a uniform lattice stretching upon exposure to the solvent vapor. The bottom part that stayed immersed in the water remained unaffected due to the protection by the water. The inconsistent behaviors of the two parts resulted in the formation of a colloidal photonic crystal heterostructure. Such a heterostructure was free of interface imperfection since it was a direct descendant of the original colloidal crystal. Meanwhile, optical measurements demonstrated the presence of a wider photonic band gap along the crystallographic [111] direction in these photonic crystal heterostructures compared with the original colloidal photonic crystals.

  7. InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures for high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, S. O.; Sakharov, A. V.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.; Lundin, V. W.; Zavarin, E. E.; Nikolaev, A. E.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Zemlyakov, V. E.; Egorkin, V. I.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    The results of development of InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures, grown on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition, and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on them are presented. The dependencies of the InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure properties on epitaxial growth conditions were investigated. The optimal indium content and InAlN barrier layer thicknesses of the heterostructures for HEMT s were determined. The possibility to improve the characteristics of HEMTs by in-situ passivation by Si3N4 thin protective layer deposited in the same epitaxial process was demonstrated. The InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure grown on sapphire substrate with diameter of 100 mm were obtained with sufficiently uniform distribution of sheet resistance. The HEMTs with saturation current of 1600 mA/mm and transconductance of 230 mS/mm are demonstrated.

  8. Flexible Sm-Fe/polyvinylidene fluoride heterostructural film with large magnetoelectric voltage output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shifeng; Wan, Jian-guo; Yao, Mengliang; Liu, Jun-ming; Song, Fengqi; Wang, Guanghou

    2010-11-01

    The Sm-Fe/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) heterostructural film was prepared by depositing Sm-Fe nanoclusters onto the flexible PVDF film using cluster beam deposition method. The PVDF film acts as both piezoelectric layer and substrate. The heterostructural film showed the well-defined microstructures in which the Sm-Fe layer was assembled by the nanoparticles, and the interface between Sm-Fe and PVDF layers was clear. The heterostructural film possessed evident magnetic anisotropy with in-plane easy axis and exhibited large voltage output under the magnetic bias. Such flexible heterostructural film with large magnetoelectric output makes it promising to be widely used for the weak magnetic-field detection.

  9. Transport Properties of Crystallographically Aligned Heterostructures of Graphene and Hexagonal Boron Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Cheng, Bin; Miao, Tengfei; Martynov, Oleg; Bockrath, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) heterostructures have been heavily studied due to graphene's high electronic mobility in this system. Hexagonal BN also shows possibilities to alter graphene's electronic properties. Recently several research groups have demonstrated accurate placement of graphene on hBN with crystallographic alignment. Due to the resulting superlattice formed in the graphene/hBN heterostructures, an energy gap, secondary Dirac Points, and Hofstadter quantization in a magnetic field have been observed. However, many aspects of the electronic properties of graphene/hBN heterostructures remain unexplored. Using aligned layer transfer we are able to produce graphene/hBN heterostructures with 1 degree alignment accuracy, and measure the transport properties of the resulting systems. We will discuss our latest transport data, which contribute towards a greater understanding the electron motion in the graphene/hBN interface.

  10. Design and Optimization of Omnidirectional Band Gap for One-Dimensional Periodic and Quasiperiodic Phononic Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhao-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of one-dimensional multilayer phononic heterostructure is constructed to obtain a broad acoustic omnidirectional reflection (ODR) band. The heterostructure is formed by combining finite periodic phononic crystals (PnCs) and Fibonacci (or Thue—Morse) quasiperiodic PnCs. From the numerical results performed by the transfer matrix method, it is found that the ODR bands can be enlarged obviously by using the combination of periodic and quasi-periodic PnCs. Moreover, an application of particle swarm optimization in designing and optimizing acoustic ODR bands is reported. With regards to different thickness ratios and periodic numbers in the heterostructure, we give some optimization examples and finally achieve phononic heterostructure with a very broad ODR bandwidth. The result provides a new approach to achieve broad acoustic ODR bandwidth, and will be applied in design of omnidirectional acoustic mirrors.

  11. State diagnostics of RTD based on nanoscale multilayered AlGaAs heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeev, M. O.; Meshkov, S. A.; Sinyakin, V. Yu

    2016-08-01

    In the present work the problems of technical diagnostics of RTD based on nanoscale multilayered AlGaAs heterostructures are being solved. The technique and the algorithms of RTD functionality region developing are being considered.

  12. Synthesis, fabrication and characterization of Ge/Si axial nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs

    SciTech Connect

    Picraux, Samuel T; Dayeh, Shadi A

    2010-01-01

    Axial Ge/Si heterostructure nanowires allow energy band-edge engineering along the axis of the nanowire, which is the charge transport direction, and the realization of asymmetric devices for novel device architectures. This work reports on two advances in the area of heterostructure nanowires and tunnel FETs: (i) the realization of 100% compositionally modulated Si/Ge axial heterostructure nanowires with lengths suitable for device fabrication and (ii) the design and implementation of Schottky barrier tunnel FETs on these nanowires for high-on currents and suppressed ambipolar behavior. Initial prototype devices resulted in a current drive in excess of 100 {micro}A/{micro}m (I/{pi}D) and 10{sup 5} I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratios. These results demonstrate the potential of such asymmetric heterostructures (both in the semiconductor channel and metal-semiconductor barrier heights) for low-power and high performance electronics.

  13. Graphene/MoS(2) heterostructures for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridisation.

    PubMed

    Loan, Phan Thi Kim; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Cheng-Te; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Li, Lain-Jong; Chen, Chang-Hsiao

    2014-07-23

    The photoluminescence signals of a graphene/MoS2 heterostructural stacking film are sensitive to environmental charges, which allows the single-base sequence-selective detection of DNA hybridization with sensitivity to the level of aM.

  14. Probing interlayer interactions in WS2 -graphene van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Ting Fung; Yuan, Long; Huang, Libai; Chen, Yong P.

    Two-dimensional crystals based van der Waals coupled heterostructures are of interest owing to their potential applications for flexible and transparent electronics and optoelectronics. The interaction between the 2D layered crystals at the interfaces of these heterostructures is crucial in determining the overall performance and is strongly affected by contamination and interfacial strain. We have fabricated heterostructures consisting of atomically thin exfoliated WS2 and chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) graphene, and studied the interaction and coupling between the WS2 and graphene using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and femtosecond transient absorption measurement (TAM). Information from Raman-active phonon modes allows us to estimate charge doping in graphene and interfacial strain on the crystals. Spatial imaging probed by TAM can be correlated to the heterostructure surface morphology measured by AFM and Raman maps of graphene and WS2, showing how the interlayer coupling alters exciton decay dynamics quantitatively.

  15. Band alignment of two-dimensional semiconductors for designing heterostructures with momentum space matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özçelik, V. Ongun; Azadani, Javad G.; Yang, Ce; Koester, Steven J.; Low, Tony

    2016-07-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the band alignments of two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting materials and highlight the possibilities of forming momentum-matched type I, II, and III heterostructures, an enticing possibility being atomic heterostructures where the constituent monolayers have band edges at the zone center, i.e., Γ valley. Our study, which includes the group IV and III-V compound monolayer materials, group V elemental monolayer materials, transition-metal dichalcogenides, and transition-metal trichalcogenides, reveals that almost half of these materials have conduction and/or valence band edges residing at the zone center. Using first-principles density functional calculations, we present the type of the heterostructure for 903 different possible combinations of these 2D materials which establishes a periodic table of heterostructures.

  16. High broad-band photoresponsivity of mechanically formed InSe-graphene van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Garry W; Svatek, Simon A; Hague, Lee; Makarovsky, Oleg; Kudrynskyi, Zakhar R; Mellor, Christopher J; Beton, Peter H; Eaves, Laurence; Novoselov, Kostya S; Kovalyuk, Zakhar D; Vdovin, Evgeny E; Marsden, Alex J; Wilson, Neil R; Patanè, Amalia

    2015-07-01

    High broad-band photoresponsivity of mechanically formed InSe-graphene van der Waals heterostructures is achieved by exploiting the broad-band transparency of graphene, the direct bandgap of InSe, and the favorable band line up of InSe with graphene. The photoresponsivity exceeds that for other van der Waals heterostructures and the spectral response extends from the near-infrared to the visible spectrum.

  17. Negative photoconductance in SiO2(Co)/GaAs heterostructure in the avalanche regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsev, L. V.; Pavlov, V. V.; Usachev, P. A.; Astretsov, A. A.; Stognij, A. I.; Novitskii, N. N.

    2012-12-01

    Negative photoconductance of heterostructures of silicon dioxide films containing cobalt nanoparticles grown on gallium arsenide SiO2(Co)/GaAs has been observed in the avalanche regime. Light with the photon energy less than the bandgap energy of the GaAs creates holes trapped on defects within the GaAs bandgap. This suppresses the avalanche feedback and causes a reduction of the current flowing through the SiO2(Co)/GaAs heterostructure.

  18. Terahertz-frequency InN/GaN heterostructure-barrier varactor diodes.

    PubMed

    Reklaitis, A

    2008-09-24

    Frequency multipliers based on the single-barrier and double-barrier InN/GaN heterostructure varactor diodes are suggested. The DC and large-signal AC vertical electron transport in the InN/GaN diodes are investigated by ensemble Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that InN/GaN heterostructure-barrier varactor diodes are able to operate as efficient frequency multipliers in the frequency range up to 1 THz.

  19. Terahertz-frequency InN/GaN heterostructure-barrier varactor diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reklaitis, A.

    2008-09-01

    Frequency multipliers based on the single-barrier and double-barrier InN/GaN heterostructure varactor diodes are suggested. The DC and large-signal AC vertical electron transport in the InN/GaN diodes are investigated by ensemble Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that InN/GaN heterostructure-barrier varactor diodes are able to operate as efficient frequency multipliers in the frequency range up to 1 THz.

  20. Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic insulator heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Wang, Jing; Felser, Claudia; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2015-03-11

    On the basis of ab initio calculations, we predict that a monolayer of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 and GdI2 heterostructure is a quantum anomalous Hall insulator with a nontrivial band gap up to 38 meV. The principle behind our prediction is that the band inversion between two topologically trivial ferromagnetic insulators can result in a nonzero Chern number, which offers a better way to realize the quantum anomalous Hall state without random magnetic doping. In addition, a simple effective model is presented to describe the basic mechanism of spin polarized band inversion in this system. Moreover, we predict that 3D quantum anomalous Hall insulator could be realized in (Bi2/3Cr1/3)2Te3 /GdI2 superlattice.

  1. Thermal conductance of graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Simon; McGaughey, Alan J. H.

    2017-03-01

    The lattice-based scattering boundary method is applied to compute the phonon mode-resolved transmission coefficients and thermal conductances of in-plane heterostructures built from graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). The thermal conductance of all structures is dominated by acoustic phonon modes near the Brillouin zone center that have high group velocity, population, and transmission coefficient. Out-of-plane modes make their most significant contributions at low frequencies, whereas in-plane modes contribute across the frequency spectrum. Finite-length superlattice junctions between graphene and hBN leads have a lower thermal conductance than comparable junctions between two graphene leads due to lack of transmission in the hBN phonon bandgap. The thermal conductances of bilayer systems differ by less than 10% from their single-layer counterparts on a per area basis, in contrast to the strong thermal conductivity reduction when moving from single- to multi-layer graphene.

  2. Tunneling and Transport in Clean Ferromagnet-Superconductor Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chien-Te; Valls, Oriol; Halterman, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    We study charge and spin transport in clean Ferromagnet (F)-Superconductor (S) layered structures. By combining a transfer matrix method with a numerical self-consistent solution of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) equations, we compute the spin dependent tunneling conductance in F-F-S trilayers in a range of exchange fields and layer thicknesses. In particular, we investigate the dependence of the tunneling conductance on the angle α between the magnetizations in two F layers. We find a variety of non-monotonic and switching behaviors in these heterostructures. We also present results for charge and spin transport in S-F-F-S Josephson junctions. C.-T. Wu and O. T. Valls are supported in part by IARPA under Grant No. N66001-12-1-2023. C.-T. Wu is also supported by the University of Minnesota's Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship.

  3. Engineering orbital polarization in three-component nickelate heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Charles

    2015-03-01

    The interplay between the structural and physical properties of transition metal complex oxides allows for the engineering of their functional properties by tuning atomic-scale structure using interfacial coupling. We show how this principle can be used to achieve orbital polarization and two-dimensional electronic conductivity in nickelate heterostructures. Using a combination of first principles theory and synchrotron-based experiments, we identify key structural features in LaNiO3 thin films grown using molecular beam epitaxy, allowing one to correlate differences in physical structure with electronic transport properties and x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. By applying general design principles, such as charge transfer and inversion symmetry breaking, which lead to degeneracy breaking of the Ni 3d orbitals, one can design and fabricate tri-component superlattices to engineer the electronic and orbital properties of rare-earth nickelate compounds, achieving a two-dimensional single band electronic surface at the Fermi energy.

  4. Layer Resolved Imaging of Magnetic Domain Motion in Epitaxial Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohar, Sioan; Choi, Yongseong; Love, David; Mansell, Rhodri; Barnes, Crispin; Keavney, David; Rosenberg, Richard

    We use X-ray Excited Luminescence Microscopy (XELM) to image the elemental and layer resolved magnetic domain structure of an epitaxial Fe/Cr wedge/Co heterostructure in the presence of large magnetic fields. The observed magnetic domains exhibit several unique behaviors that depend on the Cr thickness (tCr) modulated interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) strength. For Cr thickness tCr??1.5?nm, strongly coupled parallel Co-Fe reversal and weakly coupled layer independent reversal are observed, respectively. The transition between these two reversal mechanisms for 0.34?

  5. Chern insulating state in laterally patterned semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tommy; Sushkov, Oleg P.

    2016-10-01

    Hexagonally patterned two-dimensional p -type semiconductor systems are quantum simulators of graphene with strong and highly tunable spin-orbit interactions. We show that application of purely in-plane magnetic fields, in combination with the crystallographic anisotropy present in low-symmetry semiconductor interfaces, allows Chern insulating phases to emerge from an originally topologically insulating state after a quantum phase transition. These phases are characterized by pairs of co-propagating edge modes and Hall conductivities σx y=+2/e2 h ,-2/e2 h in the absence of Landau levels or cyclotron motion. With current lithographic technology, the Chern insulating transitions are predicted to occur in GaAs heterostructures at magnetic fields of ˜5 T .

  6. Biaxial compressive strain engineering in graphene/boron nitride heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wei; Xiao, Jianliang; Zhu, Junwei; Yu, Chenxi; Zhang, Gang; Ni, Zhenhua; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xinran

    2012-01-01

    Strain engineered graphene has been predicted to show many interesting physics and device applications. Here we study biaxial compressive strain in graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures after thermal cycling to high temperatures likely due to their thermal expansion coefficient mismatch. The appearance of sub-micron self-supporting bubbles indicates that the strain is spatially inhomogeneous. Finite element modeling suggests that the strain is concentrated on the edges with regular nano-scale wrinkles, which could be a playground for strain engineering in graphene. Raman spectroscopy and mapping is employed to quantitatively probe the magnitude and distribution of strain. From the temperature-dependent shifts of Raman G and 2D peaks, we estimate the TEC of graphene from room temperature to above 1000K for the first time.

  7. Gallium nitride heterostructures on 3D structured silicon.

    PubMed

    Fündling, Sönke; Sökmen, Unsal; Peiner, Erwin; Weimann, Thomas; Hinze, Peter; Jahn, Uwe; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning; Bakin, Andrey; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas

    2008-10-08

    We investigated GaN-based heterostructures grown on three-dimensionally patterned Si(111) substrates by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy, with the goal of fabricating well controlled high quality, defect reduced GaN-based nanoLEDs. The high aspect ratios of such pillars minimize the influence of the lattice mismatched substrate and improve the material quality. In contrast to other approaches, we employed deep etched silicon substrates to achieve a controlled pillar growth. For that a special low temperature inductively coupled plasma etching process has been developed. InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures have been incorporated into the pillars. We found a pronounced dependence of the morphology of the GaN structures on the size and pitch of the pillars. Spatially resolved optical properties of the structures are analysed by cathodoluminescence.

  8. The Landé-g factor in heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, J. L.; Pereyra, P.

    2005-05-01

    We have studied the behavior of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in magnetoresistance under applied magnetic fields with an arbitrary orientation. Different procedures to measure the Landé-g factor have been used in the literature. We propose four unambiguous methods and formulas for the evaluation of this quantity. The Landé-g factor obtained using these formulas compares within the 5% with the reported results of Brosig et al. [1] in InAs - AlSb quantum wells, Bompadre et al. [2] for Bismuth crystals, Kobayashi et al. [3] measuring magnetoresistance as a function of the gate Voltage and F. Fang et al. [4] for InAs - GaSb heterostructure.

  9. Field-Effect Tunneling Transistor Based on Vertical Graphene Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britnell, L.; Gorbachev, R. V.; Jalil, R.; Belle, B. D.; Schedin, F.; Mishchenko, A.; Georgiou, T.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Eaves, L.; Morozov, S. V.; Peres, N. M. R.; Leist, J.; Geim, A. K.; Novoselov, K. S.; Ponomarenko, L. A.

    2012-02-01

    An obstacle to the use of graphene as an alternative to silicon electronics has been the absence of an energy gap between its conduction and valence bands, which makes it difficult to achieve low power dissipation in the OFF state. We report a bipolar field-effect transistor that exploits the low density of states in graphene and its one-atomic-layer thickness. Our prototype devices are graphene heterostructures with atomically thin boron nitride or molybdenum disulfide acting as a vertical transport barrier. They exhibit room-temperature switching ratios of ≈50 and ≈10,000, respectively. Such devices have potential for high-frequency operation and large-scale integration.

  10. Homogenization limit for a multiband effective mass model in heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Morandi, O.

    2014-06-15

    We study the homogenization limit of a multiband model that describes the quantum mechanical motion of an electron in a quasi-periodic crystal. In this approach, the distance among the atoms that constitute the material (lattice parameter) is considered a small quantity. Our model include the description of materials with variable chemical composition, intergrowth compounds, and heterostructures. We derive the effective multiband evolution system in the framework of the kp approach. We study the well posedness of the mathematical problem. We compare the effective mass model with the standard kp models for uniform and non-uniforms crystals. We show that in the limit of vanishing lattice parameter, the particle density obtained by the effective mass model, converges to the exact probability density of the particle.

  11. Analysis of energy states in modulation doped multiquantum well heterostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ji, G.; Henderson, T.; Peng, C. K.; Huang, D.; Morkoc, H.

    1990-01-01

    A precise and effective numerical procedure to model the band diagram of modulation doped multiquantum well heterostructures is presented. This method is based on a self-consistent iterative solution of the Schroedinger equation and the Poisson equation. It can be used rather easily in any arbitrary modulation-doped structure. In addition to confined energy subbands, the unconfined states can be calculated as well. Examples on realistic device structures are given to demonstrate capabilities of this procedure. The numerical results are in good agreement with experiments. With the aid of this method the transitions involving both the confined and unconfined conduction subbands in a modulation doped AlGaAs/GaAs superlattice, and in a strained layer InGaAs/GaAs superlattice are identified. These results represent the first observation of unconfined transitions in modulation doped multiquantum well structures.

  12. The direct magnetoelectric effect in ferroelectric-ferromagnetic epitaxial heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fina, I.; Dix, N.; Rebled, J. M.; Gemeiner, P.; Martí, X.; Peiró, F.; Dkhil, B.; Sánchez, F.; Fàbrega, L.; Fontcuberta, J.

    2013-08-01

    Ferroelectric (FE) and ferromagnetic (FM) materials engineered in horizontal heterostructures allow interface-mediated magnetoelectric coupling. The so-called converse magnetoelectric effect (CME) has been already demonstrated by electric-field poling of the ferroelectric layers and subsequent modification of the magnetic state of adjacent ferromagnetic layers by strain effects and/or free-carrier density tuning. Here we focus on the direct magnetoelectric effect (DME) where the dielectric state of a ferroelectric thin film is modified by a magnetic field. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) and ferromagnetic CoFe2O4 (CFO) oxide thin films have been used to create epitaxial FE/FM and FM/FE heterostructures on SrTiO3(001) substrates buffered with metallic SrRuO3. It will be shown that large ferroelectric polarization and DME can be obtained by appropriate selection of the stacking order of the FE and FM films and their relative thicknesses. The dielectric permittivity, at the structural transitions of BTO, is strongly modified (up to 36%) when measurements are performed under a magnetic field. Due to the insulating nature of the ferromagnetic layer and the concomitant absence of the electric-field effect, the observed DME effect solely results from the magnetostrictive response of CFO elastically coupled to the BTO layer. These findings show that appropriate architecture and materials selection allow overcoming substrate-induced clamping in multiferroic multi-layered films.Ferroelectric (FE) and ferromagnetic (FM) materials engineered in horizontal heterostructures allow interface-mediated magnetoelectric coupling. The so-called converse magnetoelectric effect (CME) has been already demonstrated by electric-field poling of the ferroelectric layers and subsequent modification of the magnetic state of adjacent ferromagnetic layers by strain effects and/or free-carrier density tuning. Here we focus on the direct magnetoelectric effect (DME) where the dielectric state of a

  13. Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Britnell, L; Gorbachev, R V; Jalil, R; Belle, B D; Schedin, F; Mishchenko, A; Georgiou, T; Katsnelson, M I; Eaves, L; Morozov, S V; Peres, N M R; Leist, J; Geim, A K; Novoselov, K S; Ponomarenko, L A

    2012-02-24

    An obstacle to the use of graphene as an alternative to silicon electronics has been the absence of an energy gap between its conduction and valence bands, which makes it difficult to achieve low power dissipation in the OFF state. We report a bipolar field-effect transistor that exploits the low density of states in graphene and its one-atomic-layer thickness. Our prototype devices are graphene heterostructures with atomically thin boron nitride or molybdenum disulfide acting as a vertical transport barrier. They exhibit room-temperature switching ratios of ≈50 and ≈10,000, respectively. Such devices have potential for high-frequency operation and large-scale integration.

  14. Observation of Interlayer Phonons in Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui; Ye, Zhipeng; Ji, Chao; Means-Shively, Casie; Anderson, Heidi; Kidd, Tim; Chiu, Kuan-Chang; Chou, Cheng-Tse; Wu, Jenn-Ming; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Andersen, Trond; Lui, Chun Hung

    Interlayer phonon modes in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterostructures are observed for the first time. We measured the low-frequency Raman response of MoS2/WSe2 and MoSe2/MoS2 heterobilayers. We discovered a distinct Raman mode (30 - 35 cm-1) that cannot be found in any individual monolayers. By comparing with Raman spectra of Bernal bilayer (2L) MoS2, 2L MoSe2 and 2L WSe2, we identified the new Raman mode as the layer breathing vibration arising from the vertical displacement of the two TMD layers. The layer breathing mode (LBM) only emerges in bilayer regions with atomically close layer-layer proximity and clean interface. In addition, the LBM frequency exhibits noticeable dependence on the rotational angle between the two TMD layers, which implies a change of interlayer separation and interlayer coupling strength with the layer stacking.

  15. Conduction mechanisms in silicon-polymer-metal heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Salikhov, R. B. Lachinov, A. N.; Rakhmeev, R. G.

    2007-10-15

    Conduction mechanisms in thin films of wide-gap polymers in silicon-based heterostructures have been experimentally studied. Measuring the temperature dependence of the current-voltage characteristics of samples in the temperature range 80-300 K was used as the basic method. Multilayer Si-SiO{sub 2}-polymer-metal structures were prepared for measurements. Films of poly(diphenylene phthalide), in which a transition from the insulating to a highly conducting state is observed, were used as polymeric layers. The results obtained were used to explain the features of the charge transport in the samples in terms of the hopping conductivity via trap levels, Schottky emission, and field-assisted tunneling emission.

  16. Understanding thermal transport in asymmetric layer hexagonal boron nitride heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingchao; Wang, Xinyu; Hong, Yang; Xiong, Qingang; Jiang, Jin; Yue, Yanan

    2017-01-01

    In this work, thermal transport at the junction of an asymmetric layer hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) heterostructure is explored using a non-equilibrium molecular dynamics method. A thermal contact resistance of 3.6 × 10-11 K · m2 W-1 is characterized at a temperature of 300 K with heat flux from the trilayer to monolayer regions. The mismatch in the flexural phonon modes revealed by power spectra analysis provides the driving force for the calculated thermal resistance. A high thermal rectification efficiency of 360% is calculated at the layer junction surpassing that of graphene. Several modulators, i.e. the system temperature, contact pressure and lateral dimensions, are applied to manipulate the thermal conductance and rectification across the interfaces. The predicted thermal rectification sustains positive correlations with temperature and phonon propagation lengths with little change to the coupling strength.

  17. Biaxial Compressive Strain Engineering in Graphene/Boron Nitride Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wei; Xiao, Jianliang; Zhu, Junwei; Yu, Chenxi; Zhang, Gang; Ni, Zhenhua; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xinran

    2012-01-01

    Strain engineered graphene has been predicted to show many interesting physics and device applications. Here we study biaxial compressive strain in graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures after thermal cycling to high temperatures likely due to their thermal expansion coefficient mismatch. The appearance of sub-micron self-supporting bubbles indicates that the strain is spatially inhomogeneous. Finite element modeling suggests that the strain is concentrated on the edges with regular nano-scale wrinkles, which could be a playground for strain engineering in graphene. Raman spectroscopy and mapping is employed to quantitatively probe the magnitude and distribution of strain. From the temperature-dependent shifts of Raman G and 2D peaks, we estimate the TEC of graphene from room temperature to above 1000K for the first time. PMID:23189242

  18. Ultimate photovoltage in perovskite oxide heterostructures with critical film thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Cong; Jin Kuijuan; Zhao Ruiqiang; Lu Huibin; Guo Haizhong; Ge Chen; He Meng; Wang Can; Yang Guozhen

    2011-05-02

    One order larger photovoltage is obtained with critical thicknesses of La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} films in both kinds of heterostructures of La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} (0.8 wt % Nb-doped) and La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}/Si fabricated at various oxygen pressures. Our self-consistent calculation reveals that the critical thickness of the La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} film with the ultimate value of photovoltage is just the thickness of the depletion layer of La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} in both heterojunctions, respectively.

  19. Inverse spin Hall effect in a complex ferromagnetic oxide heterostructure

    PubMed Central

    Wahler, Martin; Homonnay, Nico; Richter, Tim; Müller, Alexander; Eisenschmidt, Christian; Fuhrmann, Bodo; Schmidt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    We present spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in an epitaxial complex oxide heterostructure. Ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) is used as a source of spin pumping while the spin sink exhibiting the ISHE consists of SrRuO3 (SRO). SRO is a ferromagnetic oxide with metallic conductivity, however, with a Curie temperature (TC) of 155 K, thus well below room temperature. This choice allows to perform the experiment above and below TC of the SRO and to demonstrate that SRO not only shows an ISHE of a magnitude comparable to Pt (though with opposite sign) in its non magnetic state but also exhibits a finite ISHE even 50 K below TC. PMID:27346793

  20. Rational synthesis of heterostructured nanoparticles with morphology control.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.; Tian, W.; Ding, Y.; Ma, Y.-Q.; Wang, Z. L.; Markovic, N.; Stamenkovic, V.; Daimon, H.; Sun, S.; Materials Science Division; Brown Univ.; Nanjing Univ.; Georgia Inst. of Tech.; Hitachi Maxell, Ltd.

    2010-01-01

    Rational synthesis of Pt-Au{sub n} nanoparticles (NPs) has been achieved by overgrowing Au on Pt with n, the number of Pt-Au heterojunctions in each particle, controlled from 1 to 4, and the corresponding NPs in pear-, peanut-, or clover-like morphology. Monte Carlo simulation reveals that the morphology control can be correlated to a thermodynamic equilibrium of the Au coherence energy, the overall particle surface energy, and the heterogeneous Pt-Au interfacial energy in the composite system, which is manipulated by the seeding particle size and solvent polarity. The developed synthetic strategy together with the provided fundamental understanding of heterogeneous nucleation and heterostructure growth could have great potential toward the rational synthesis of composite nanomaterials with morphology control for advanced catalytic and other functional applications.

  1. Composition-Modulated Two-Dimensional Semiconductor Lateral Heterostructures via Layer-Selected Atomic Substitution.

    PubMed

    Li, Honglai; Wu, Xueping; Liu, Hongjun; Zheng, Biyuan; Zhang, Qinglin; Zhu, Xiaoli; Wei, Zheng; Zhuang, Xiujuan; Zhou, Hong; Tang, Wenxin; Duan, Xiangfeng; Pan, Anlian

    2017-01-24

    Composition-controlled growth of two-dimensional layered semiconductor heterostructures is crucially important for their applications in multifunctional integrated photonics and optoelectronics devices. Here, we report the realization of composition completely modulated layered semiconductor MoS2-MoS2(1-x)Se2x (0 < x < 1) lateral heterostructures via the controlled layer-selected atomic substitution of pregrown stacking MoS2, with a bilayer located at the center of a monolayer. Through controlling the reaction time, S at the monolayer MoS2 at the peripheral area can be selectively substituted by Se atoms at different levels, while the bilayer region at the center retains the original composition. Microstructure characterizations demonstrated the formation of lateral heterostructures with a sharp interface, with the composition at the monolayer area gradually modulated from MoS2 to MoSe2 and having high-quality crystallization at both the monolayer and the bilayer areas. Photoluminescence and Raman mapping studies exhibit the tunable optical properties only at the monolayer region of the as-grown heterostructures, which further demonstrates the realization of high-quality composition/bandgap modulated lateral heterostructures. This work offers an interesting and easy route for the development of high-quality layered semiconductor heterostructures for potential broad applications in integrated nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices.

  2. Band engineering of MoS2/stanene heterostructure: strain and electrostatic gating.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenqi; Xia, Congxin; Du, Juan; Wang, Tianxing; Peng, Yuting; Wei, Zhongming; Li, Jingbo

    2017-03-23

    As a fast developing field, van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure can overcome the weakness of single two-dimensional (2D) layered material and extend its electronic and optoelectronic applications. Through first-principles methods, the studied MoS2/stanene heterostructure preserves high-speed carrier characteristics and opens the direct band gap. Meanwhile, the band alignment shows that the electrons transfer from stanene to MoS2, which forms an internal electric field. As an effective strategy, the out-of-plane strain remarkably change the band gaps of heterostructure and enhances its carrier concentration. In addition, the combined effects of internal and external electric field can further open the band gaps and induce the direct-to-indirect gap transition in heterostructure. More interestingly, when the external electric field is equal to reverse internal one, the heterostructure regains a Dirac cone. Our results show that the MoS2/stanene heterostructure have the potential applications in highspeed optoelectronic devices.

  3. Enhancement and sign inversion of junction magnetoresistance on Mn substitution in magnetite/p-Si heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aireddy, H.; Das, Amal K.

    2016-10-01

    Fe3-x Mn x O4/p-Si heterostructures (x  =  0, 0.25, and 0.5) were prepared using pulse laser deposition to explore their magneto-electric transport characteristics. All the heterostructures exhibit a rectifying property and junction magnetoresistance of 90% (x  =  0), 117% (x  =  0.25) and 120% (x  =  0.5) at room temperature (300 K), low bias voltage (0 to  -4 V) and low magnetic field (<1 T). Significantly, the sign (positive or negative) of junction magnetoresistance depends on the range of bias voltage for all heterostructures, but for a particular range of voltage, the sign inversion (positive to negative and vice versa) of junction magnetoresistance is observed in the heterostructure of Mn substituted Fe3O4 (Fe3-x Mn x O4) compared to the virgin (Fe3O4) one. The enhancement of junction magnetoresistance and its sign inversion upon Mn substitution in Fe3O4 are assigned to the enhancement of magnetization and the spin filtering at the junction of the heterostructures. The electronic band structure of the Fe3O4/SiO2/p-Si heterostructure and the p-type degenerate semiconducting feature of Mn-substituted Fe3-x Mn x O4 films are considered to explain the results.

  4. Stacking orders induced direct band gap in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaohui; Kou, Liangzhi; Sun, Litao

    2016-01-01

    The direct band gap of monolayer semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides (STMDs) enables a host of new optical and electrical properties. However, bilayer STMDs are indirect band gap semiconductors, which limits its applicability for high-efficiency optoelectronic devices. Here, we report that the direct band gap can be achieved in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures by alternating stacking orders. Specifically, when Se atoms from opposite layers are stacked directly on top of each other, AA and A’B stacked heterostructures show weaker interlayer coupling, larger interlayer distance and direct band gap. Whereas, when Se atoms from opposite layers are staggered, AA’, AB and AB’ stacked heterostructures exhibit stronger interlayer coupling, shorter interlayer distance and indirect band gap. Thus, the direct/indirect band gap can be controllable in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures. In addition, the calculated sliding barriers indicate that the stacking orders of bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures can be easily formed by sliding one layer with respect to the other. The novel direct band gap in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures provides possible application for high-efficiency optoelectronic devices. The results also show that the stacking order is an effective strategy to induce and tune the band gap of layered STMDs. PMID:27528196

  5. Synthesis and Characterizations of Two-Dimensional Atomic Layers and Their Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yi-Hsien

    2015-03-01

    Monolayers of van der Waals (vdw) materials, including graphene, h-BN, and MoS2, have been highlighted regarding both scientific and industrial aspects due to novel physical phenomenon inherited from the reduced dimensionality. Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) atomic layers, being considered as the thinnest semiconductor, exhibit great potential for advanced nano-devices. Monolayer in the class of offered a burgeoning field in fundamental physics, energy harvesting, electronics and optoelectronics. Recently, atomically thin heterostructures of TMD monolayer with various geometrical and energy band alignments are expected to be the key materials for next generation flexible optoelectronics. The individual TMD monolayers can be adjoined vertically or laterally to construct diverse heterostructures which are difficult to reach with the laborious pick up-and-transfer method of the exfoliated flakes. The ability to produce copious amounts of high quality layered heterostructures on diverse surfaces is highly desirable but it has remained a challenging issue. Here, we have achieved a direct synthesis of various heterostructures of monolayer TMDs. The synthesis was performed using ambient-pressure CVD with aromatic molecules as seeding promoters. We discuss possible growth behaviors, and we examine the symmetry and the interface of these heterostructures using optical analysis and atomic-resolution scanning TEM. Our method offers a controllable synthesis of to obtain high-quality heterostructures of TMD atomic layers with diverse interface geometry.

  6. Preparation of Ag@Ag₃PO₄@ZnO ternary heterostructures for photocatalytic studies.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chao; Liu, Guanglei; Zu, Lianhai; Qin, Yao; Yang, Jinhu

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we report a novel Ag@Ag3PO4@ZnO ternary heterostructures synthesized through a three-step approach. Firstly, single-crystalline Ag nanorods are fabricated and served as the templates for subsequent Ag3PO4 deposition. Secondly, Ag3PO4 crystals are grown around Ag core nanorods through a solution co-precipitation process, leading to the Ag@Ag3PO4 binary heterostructures. Finally, ZnO nanorod arrays on the surface of the Ag@Ag3PO4 heterostructures are realized via a seeded growth strategy, forming the typical Ag@Ag3PO4@ZnO ternary heterostructures. The photodegradation of rhodamine B under ultraviolet-visible light irradiation indicates that the Ag@Ag3PO4@ZnO ternary heterostructures exhibit much higher activities than pure Ag3PO4 and binary heterostructures of Ag@Ag3PO4. The higher photocatalytic activity of the Ag@Ag3PO4@ZnO composites may be attributed to the effective photogenerated charge separation at heterointerfaces of Ag/Ag3PO4 and Ag3PO4/ZnO, and the rapid electron transport along one-dimensional Ag and ZnO nanorods.

  7. Organoclay hybrid materials as precursors of porous ZnO/silica-clay heterostructures for photocatalytic applications

    PubMed Central

    Akkari, Marwa; Aranda, Pilar; Ben Haj Amara, Abdessalem

    2016-01-01

    In this study, ZnO/SiO2-clay heterostructures were successfully synthesized by a facile two-step process applied to two types of clays: montmorillonite layered silicate and sepiolite microfibrous clay mineral. In the first step, intermediate silica–organoclay hybrid heterostructures were prepared following a colloidal route based on the controlled hydrolysis of tetramethoxysilane in the presence of the starting organoclay. Later on, pre-formed ZnO nanoparticles (NP) dispersed in 2-propanol were incorporated under ultrasound irradiation to the silica–organoclay hybrid heterostructures dispersed in 2-propanol, and finally, the resulting solids were calcinated to eliminate the organic matter and to produce ZnO nanoparticles (NP) homogeneously assembled to the clay–SiO2 framework. In the case of montmorillonite the resulting materials were identified as delaminated clays of ZnO/SiO2-clay composition, whereas for sepiolite, the resulting heterostructure is constituted by the assembling of ZnO NP to the sepiolite–silica substrate only affecting the external surface of the clay. The structural and morphological features of the prepared heterostructures were characterized by diverse physico-chemical techniques (such as XRD, FTIR, TEM, FE-SEM). The efficiency of these new porous ZnO/SiO2-clay heterostructures as potential photocatalysts in the degradation of organic dyes and the removal of pharmaceutical drugs in water solution was tested using methylene blue and ibuprofen compounds, respectively, as model of pollutants. PMID:28144545

  8. Organoclay hybrid materials as precursors of porous ZnO/silica-clay heterostructures for photocatalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Akkari, Marwa; Aranda, Pilar; Ben Haj Amara, Abdessalem; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, ZnO/SiO2-clay heterostructures were successfully synthesized by a facile two-step process applied to two types of clays: montmorillonite layered silicate and sepiolite microfibrous clay mineral. In the first step, intermediate silica-organoclay hybrid heterostructures were prepared following a colloidal route based on the controlled hydrolysis of tetramethoxysilane in the presence of the starting organoclay. Later on, pre-formed ZnO nanoparticles (NP) dispersed in 2-propanol were incorporated under ultrasound irradiation to the silica-organoclay hybrid heterostructures dispersed in 2-propanol, and finally, the resulting solids were calcinated to eliminate the organic matter and to produce ZnO nanoparticles (NP) homogeneously assembled to the clay-SiO2 framework. In the case of montmorillonite the resulting materials were identified as delaminated clays of ZnO/SiO2-clay composition, whereas for sepiolite, the resulting heterostructure is constituted by the assembling of ZnO NP to the sepiolite-silica substrate only affecting the external surface of the clay. The structural and morphological features of the prepared heterostructures were characterized by diverse physico-chemical techniques (such as XRD, FTIR, TEM, FE-SEM). The efficiency of these new porous ZnO/SiO2-clay heterostructures as potential photocatalysts in the degradation of organic dyes and the removal of pharmaceutical drugs in water solution was tested using methylene blue and ibuprofen compounds, respectively, as model of pollutants.

  9. Efficient Heterostructures for Combined Interference and Plasmon Resonance Raman Amplification.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Fraga, Leo; Climent-Pascual, Esteban; Aguilar-Pujol, Montserrat; Ramírez-Jiménez, Rafael; Jiménez-Villacorta, Félix; Prieto, Carlos; de Andrés, Alicia

    2017-02-01

    The detection, identification, and quantification of different types of molecules and the optical imaging of, for example, cellular processes are important challenges. Here, we present how interference-enhanced Raman scattering (IERS) in adequately designed heterostructures can provide amplification factors relevant for both detection and imaging. Calculations demonstrate that the key factor is maximizing the absolute value of the refractive indices' difference between dielectric and metal layers. Accordingly, Si/Al/Al2O3/graphene heterostructures have been fabricated by optimizing the thickness and roughness and reaching enhancement values up to 700 for 488 nm excitation. The deviation from the calculated enhancement, 1200, is mainly due to reflectivity losses and roughness of the Al layer. The IERS platforms are also demonstrated to improve significantly the quality of white light images of graphene and are foreseen to be adequate to reveal the morphology of 2D and biological materials. A graphene top layer is adequate for most organic molecule deposition and often quenches possible fluorescence, permitting Raman signal detection, which, for a rhodamine 6G (R6G) monolayer, presents a gain of 400. Without graphene, the nonquenched R6G fluorescence is similarly amplified. The wavelength dependence of the involved refractive indices predicts much higher amplification (around 10(4)) for NIR excitation. These interference platforms can therefore be used to gain contrast and intensity in white light, Raman, and fluorescence imaging. We also demonstrate that surface-enhanced Raman scattering and IERS amplifications can be efficiently combined, leading to a gain of >10(5) (at 488 nm) by depositing a Ag nanostructured transparent film on the IERS platform. When the plasmonic structures deposited on the IERS platforms are optimized, single-molecule detection can be actively envisaged.

  10. Electrochemically synthesized magnetic nanowire heterostructures and arrays for acoustic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGary, Patrick David

    Biological cilia in humans and animals serve many functions, including sensing of acoustic and sensory signals and actuation for mobility in small species or for motion of bodily fluids in larger species. This work sought to fabricate nanowire arrays as artificial cilia. Arrays of tiny sensors at nanoscale dimensions have theoretical advantages to macroscale sensors including higher spatial resolution, miniscule size, and higher ultimate strength for each sensing element. Theoretical investigations showed that a magnetic/non-magnetic heterostructure would enable nanowires with improved sensitivity over single element nanowires. Here, nanowire structures included a soft magnetostrictive sensing segment (such as Ni or Fe1-xGax [also called galfenol]), a permanent magnetic segment to provide an integrated magnetic bias, and a long and hard non-magnetic end segment to increase the viscous drag force of the fluid on the nanowire. Galfenol is a new large magnetostrictive material that has moderate magnetostriction but excellent mechanical properties. This work included the first successful electroplating process for this unique alloy. This enabled the fabrication of these alloys into nanoscopic form. These nanowire structures were grown into nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates using a robust two-step anodization process. When grown at the proper conditions (temperature, electrolyte, and voltage), the templates contained highly-ordered nanopores with small diameters (10-100 nm), short center-to-center distances (25-250 nm), and long lengths (0.1-100 mum). Metal contacts were deposited onto one side of the templates, and magnetostrictive, magnetic, and non-magnetic materials were sequentially electrodeposited into the nanopores. Controlling the non-magnetic segment lengths enabled control of the nanowire resonant frequency. By using graded nanowire lengths across the array, frequency filtering as a pre-filter for subsequent signal processing could be performed

  11. Large Area and Depth-Profiling Dislocation Imaging and Strain Analysis in Si/SiGe/Si Heterostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    by high-resolution X-ray 387 diffraction. In Characterization of Semiconductor Heterostructures 388and Nanostructures , Lamberti C. (Ed.), pp. 93–132...combined advantage of Si semiconductor 29 technology and band gap engineering (Kittler et al., 1995). 30 Inside the Si/SiGe/Si heterostructure , SiGe is...and Depth-Profiling Dislocation Imaging and Strain Analysis in Si/SiGe/Si Heterostructures Report Title We demonstrate the combined use of large area

  12. In-situ epitaxial growth of graphene/h-BN van der Waals heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zheng; Xu, Zhongguang; Zheng, Renjing; Khanaki, Alireza; Zheng, Jian-Guo; Liu, Jianlin

    2015-10-07

    Van der Waals materials have received a great deal of attention for their exceptional layered structures and exotic properties, which can open up various device applications in nanoelectronics. However, in situ epitaxial growth of dissimilar van der Waals materials remains challenging. Here we demonstrate a solution for fabricating van der Waals heterostructures. Graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructures were synthesized on cobalt substrates by using molecular beam epitaxy. Various characterizations were carried out to evaluate the heterostructures. Wafer-scale heterostructures consisting of single-layer/bilayer graphene and multilayer h-BN were achieved. The mismatch angle between graphene and h-BN is below 1°.

  13. In-situ epitaxial growth of graphene/h-BN van der Waals heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zheng; Xu, Zhongguang; Zheng, Renjing; Khanaki, Alireza; Zheng, Jian-Guo; Liu, Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    Van der Waals materials have received a great deal of attention for their exceptional layered structures and exotic properties, which can open up various device applications in nanoelectronics. However, in situ epitaxial growth of dissimilar van der Waals materials remains challenging. Here we demonstrate a solution for fabricating van der Waals heterostructures. Graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructures were synthesized on cobalt substrates by using molecular beam epitaxy. Various characterizations were carried out to evaluate the heterostructures. Wafer-scale heterostructures consisting of single-layer/bilayer graphene and multilayer h-BN were achieved. The mismatch angle between graphene and h-BN is below 1°. PMID:26442629

  14. Silicon/silicon germanium heterostructures: Materials, physics, quantum functional devices and their integration with heterostructure bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Sung-Yong

    With the advent of the first transistor in 1947, the integrated circuit (IC) industry has rapidly expanded with the tremendous advances in the development of IC technology. The driving force in the evolution of IC technology is the reduction of transistor sizes. Without a doubt, transistor miniaturization will face fundamental physical limitations imposed by further dimensional scaling of silicon transistors in the near future. According to the 2004 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the width of a gate electrode for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) is projected to be a mere 7 nm by the end of 2018. No further solutions have been found. Since the 2001 ITRS, tunneling devices have been evaluated as an emerging technology to augment silicon CMOS. Transistor circuitry incorporating tunneling devices realized using III-V semiconductors has exhibited superior performance over its transistor-only counterparts. However, due to fundamental differences in material properties, such technology is not readily compatible with the mainstream platforms (>95% market share of semiconductors) of CMOS and HBT technologies. Recently, we demonstrated the successful monolithic integration of Si-based resonant interband tunnel diodes (RITDs) with CMOS and SiGe HBT, which makes them more attractive than III-V based tunnel diodes for system level integration. This dissertation is concerned with the development of quantum functional tunneling devices, RITDs, and high-speed transistors, HBTs, using Si/SiGe heterostructures as well as material growth and electrical properties of Si/SiGe heterostructures. Emphasis is placed on the development of Si/SiGe-based RITDs, HBTs, and their monolithic integration for 3-terminal negative differential resistance (NDR) devices. The operating principles of Si-based RITDs and the integration of RITD with HBT are also discussed.

  15. Two-Dimensional Heterostructure as a Platform for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yang; Ma, Linan; Gao, Zhibin; Chen, Ming; Chen, Feng

    2017-03-30

    Raman enhancement on a flat nonmetallic surface has attracted increasing attention, ever since the discovery of graphene enhanced Raman scattering. Recently, diverse two-dimensional layered materials have been applied as a flat surface for the Raman enhancement, attributed to different mechanisms. Looking beyond these isolated materials, atomic layers can be reassembled to design a heterostructure stacked layer by layer with an arbitrary chosen sequence, which allows the flow of charge carriers between neighboring layers and offers novel functionalities. Here, we demonstrate the heterostructure as a novel Raman enhancement platform. The WSe2 (W) monolayer and graphene (G) were stacked together to form a heterostructure with an area of 10 mm × 10 mm. Heterostructures with different stacked structuress are used as platforms for the enhanced Raman scattering, including G/W, W/G, G/W/G/W, and W/G/G/W. On the surface of the heterostructure, the intensity of the Raman scattering is much stronger compared with isolated layers, using the copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecule as a probe. It is found that the Raman enhancement effect on heterostructures depends on stacked methods. Phonon modes of CuPc have the strongest enhancement on G/W. W/G and W/G/G/W have a stronger enhancement than that on the isolated WSe2 monolayer, while lower than the graphene monolayer. The G/W/G/W/substrate demonstrated a comparable Raman enhancement effect than the G/W/substrate. These differences are due to the different interlayer couplings in heterostructures related to electron transition probability rates, which are further proved by first-principle calculations and probe-pump measurements.

  16. Solvothermal synthesis of Ag hybrid BiPO4 heterostructures with enhanced photodegradation activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chang-Wei; Wu, Mei-Yao; Lin, Yang-Wei

    2017-03-15

    In this study, Ag hybrid BiPO4 (Ag/BiPO4) heterostructures were synthesized using a solvothermal method. The morphologies and optical properties of the Ag/BiPO4 heterostructures were drastically different from those of BiPO4 and were highly dependent on the AgNO3:BiPO4 weight percent during the synthesis. The three formulated heterostructures were evaluated for their photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light illumination; the 0.5%Ag/BiPO4 heterostructure was observed to result in 99% degradation of MB within 60min, a remarkably higher level of photodegradation activity than the levels caused by TiO2 and BiPO4. Furthermore, even after use for five cycles of MB degradation, the 0.5%Ag/BiPO4 heterostructure showed no observable loss in photodegradation activity and no change in XRD patterns, demonstrating its chemical and structural stability. According to the results of a systematic experimental investigation, the enhanced photodegradation activity of this Ag/BiPO4 heterostructure could be ascribed to the high position of its valence band and the highly efficient separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. Moreover, hydroxyl radicals and holes were found to be the major reactive species. Successful photodegradation of standard dye solutions, including acid blue 1, methyl orange, fast green, rhodamine B, rhodamine 6G, and MB, in real water samples was demonstrated with the 0.5%Ag/BiPO4 heterostructure, providing clear evidence of its utility for treating waste water containing organic dyes.

  17. Rapid Construction of ZnO@ZIF-8 Heterostructures with Size-Selective Photocatalysis Properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianbiao; Liu, Jin; Leong, Sookwan; Lin, Xiaocheng; Wei, Jing; Kong, Biao; Xu, Yongfei; Low, Ze-Xian; Yao, Jianfeng; Wang, Huanting

    2016-04-13

    To selectively remove heavy metal from dye solution, inspired by the unique pore structure of ZIF-8, we developed a synthetic strategy for rapid construction of ZnO@ZIF-8 heterostructure photocatalyst for selective reduction of Cr(VI) between Cr(VI) and methylene blue (MB). In particular, ZnO@ZIF-8 core-shell heterostructures were prepared by in situ ZIF-8 crystal growth using ZnO colloidal spheres as template and zinc source within 8-60 min. The shell of the resulting ZnO@ZIF-8 core-shell heterostructure with a uniform thickness of around 30 nm is composed of ZIF-8 crystal polyhedrons. The concentration of organic ligand 2-methylimidazole (Hmim) was found to be crucial for the formation of ZnO@ZIF-8 core-shell heterostructures. Different structures, ZnO@ZIF-8 core-shell spheres and separate ZIF-8 polyhedrons could be formed by altering Hmim concentration, which significantly influences the balance between rate of Zn(2+) release from ZnO and coordinate rate. Importantly, such ZnO@ZIF-8 core-shell heterostructures exhibit size-selective photocatalysis properties due to selective adsorption and permeation effect of ZIF-8 shell. The as-synthesized ZnO@ZIF-8 heterostructures exhibited enhanced selective reduction of Cr(VI) between Cr(VI) and MB, which may find application in the dye industry. This work not only provides a general route for rapid fabrication of such core-shell heterostructures but also illustrates a strategy for selectively enhanced photocatalysis performance by utilizing adsorption and size selectivity of ZIF-8 shell.

  18. Analysis of quantum semiconductor heterostructures by ballistic electron emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, Daniel K.

    1998-09-01

    The microelectronics industry is diligently working to achieve the goal of gigascale integration (GSI) by early in the 21st century. For the past twenty-five years, progress toward this goal has been made by continually scaling down device technology. Unfortunately, this trend cannot continue to the point of producing arbitrarily small device sizes. One possible solution to this problem that is currently under intensive study is the relatively new area of quantum devices. Quantum devices represent a new class of microelectronic devices that operate by utilizing the wave-like nature (reflection, refraction, and confinement) of electrons together with the laws of quantum mechanics to construct useful devices. One difficulty associated with these structures is the absence of measurement techniques that can fully characterize carrier transport in such devices. This thesis addresses this need by focusing on the study of carrier transport in quantum semiconductor heterostructures using a relatively new and versatile measurement technique known as ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES). To achieve this goal, a systematic approach that encompasses a set of progressively more complex structures is utilized. First, the simplest BEES structure possible, the metal/semiconductor interface, is thoroughly investigated in order to provide a foundation for measurements on more the complex structures. By modifying the semiclassical model commonly used to describe the experimental BEES spectrum, a very complete and accurate description of the basic structure has been achieved. Next, a very simple semiconductor heterostructure, a Ga1-xAlxAs single-barrier structure, was measured and analyzed. Low-temperature measurements on this structure were used to investigate the band structure and electron-wave interference effects in the Ga1-xAlxAs single barrier structure. These measurements are extended to a simple quantum device by designing, measuring, and analyzing a set of

  19. Interlayer electron-phonon coupling in WSe2/hBN heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenhao; Kim, Jonghwan; Suh, Joonki; Shi, Zhiwen; Chen, Bin; Fan, Xi; Kam, Matthew; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Tongay, Sefaattin; Zettl, Alex; Wu, Junqiao; Wang, Feng

    2016-10-01

    Engineering layer-layer interactions provides a powerful way to realize novel and designable quantum phenomena in van der Waals heterostructures. Interlayer electron-electron interactions, for example, have enabled fascinating physics that is difficult to achieve in a single material, such as the Hofstadter's butterfly in graphene/boron nitride (hBN) heterostructures. In addition to electron-electron interactions, interlayer electron-phonon interactions allow for further control of the physical properties of van der Waals heterostructures. Here we report an interlayer electron-phonon interaction in WSe2/hBN heterostructures, where optically silent hBN phonons emerge in Raman spectra with strong intensities through resonant coupling to WSe2 electronic transitions. Excitation spectroscopy reveals the double-resonance nature of such enhancement, and identifies the two resonant states to be the A exciton transition of monolayer WSe2 and a new hybrid state present only in WSe2/hBN heterostructures. The observation of an interlayer electron-phonon interaction could open up new ways to engineer electrons and phonons for device applications.

  20. Heterostructured electrode with concentration gradient shell for highly efficient oxygen reduction at low temperature

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Liang, Fengli; Shao, Zongping; Chen, Jiuling; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2011-01-01

    Heterostructures of oxides have been widely investigated in optical, catalytic and electrochemical applications, because the heterostructured interfaces exhibit pronouncedly different transport, charge, and reactivity characteristics compared to the bulk of the oxides. Here we fabricated a three-dimensional (3D) heterostructured electrode with a concentration gradient shell. The concentration gradient shell with the composition of Ba0.5-xSr0.5-yCo0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF-D) was prepared by simply treating porous Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) backbone with microwave-plasma. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that the oxygen surface exchange rate of the BSCF-D is enhanced by ~250% that of the pristine BSCF due to the appearance of the shell. The heterostructured electrode shows an interfacial resistance as low as 0.148 Ω cm2 at 550°C and an unchanged electrochemical performance after heating treatment for 200 h. This method offers potential to prepare heterostructured oxides not only for electrochemical devices but also for many other applications that use ceramic materials. PMID:22355670

  1. Strain-Induced Electronic Structure Changes in Stacked van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    He, Yongmin; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Zhuhua; Gong, Yongji; Zhou, Wu; Hu, Zhili; Ye, Gonglan; Zhang, Xiang; Bianco, Elisabeth; Lei, Sidong; Jin, Zehua; Zou, Xiaolong; Yang, Yingchao; Zhang, Yuan; Xie, Erqing; Lou, Jun; Yakobson, Boris; Vajtai, Robert; Li, Bo; Ajayan, Pulickel

    2016-05-11

    Vertically stacked van der Waals heterostructures composed of compositionally different two-dimensional atomic layers give rise to interesting properties due to substantial interactions between the layers. However, these interactions can be easily obscured by the twisting of atomic layers or cross-contamination introduced by transfer processes, rendering their experimental demonstration challenging. Here, we explore the electronic structure and its strain dependence of stacked MoSe2/WSe2 heterostructures directly synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, which unambiguously reveal strong electronic coupling between the atomic layers. The direct and indirect band gaps (1.48 and 1.28 eV) of the heterostructures are measured to be lower than the band gaps of individual MoSe2 (1.50 eV) and WSe2 (1.60 eV) layers. Photoluminescence measurements further show that both the direct and indirect band gaps undergo redshifts with applied tensile strain to the heterostructures, with the change of the indirect gap being particularly more sensitive to strain. This demonstration of strain engineering in van der Waals heterostructures opens a new route toward fabricating flexible electronics.

  2. Laser diode bars based on strain-compensated AlGaPAs/GaAs heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Marmalyuk, Aleksandr A; Ladugin, M A; Yarotskaya, I V; Panarin, V A; Mikaelyan, G T

    2012-01-31

    Traditional (in the AlGaAs/GaAs system) and phosphorus-compensated (in the AlGaAs/AlGaPAs/GaAs system) laser heterostructures emitting at a wavelength of 850 nm are grown by MOVPE and studied. Laser diode bars are fabricated and their output characteristics are studied. The method used to grow heterolayers allowed us to control (minimise) mechanical stresses in the AlGaPAs/GaAs laser heterostructure, which made it possible to keep its curvature at the level of the initial curvature of the substrate. It is shown that the use of a compensated AlGaPAs/GaAs heterostructure improves the linear distribution of emitting elements in the near field of laser diode arrays and allows the power - current characteristic to retain its slope at high pump currents owing to a uniform contact of all emitting elements with the heat sink. The radius of curvature of the grown compensated heterostructures turns out to be smaller than that of traditional heterostructures.

  3. Self-assembly of electronically abrupt borophene/organic lateral heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaolong; Wei, Zonghui; Balla, Itamar; Mannix, Andrew J.; Guisinger, Nathan P.; Luijten, Erik; Hersam, Mark C.

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional boron sheets (that is, borophene) have recently been realized experimentally and found to have promising electronic properties. Because electronic devices and systems require the integration of multiple materials with well-defined interfaces, it is of high interest to identify chemical methods for forming atomically abrupt heterostructures between borophene and electronically distinct materials. Toward this end, we demonstrate the self-assembly of lateral heterostructures between borophene and perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA). These lateral heterostructures spontaneously form upon deposition of PTCDA onto submonolayer borophene on Ag(111) substrates as a result of the higher adsorption enthalpy of PTCDA on Ag(111) and lateral hydrogen bonding among PTCDA molecules, as demonstrated by molecular dynamics simulations. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the weak chemical interaction between borophene and PTCDA, while molecular-resolution ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy reveal an electronically abrupt interface at the borophene/PTCDA lateral heterostructure interface. As the first demonstration of a borophene-based heterostructure, this work will inform emerging efforts to integrate borophene into nanoelectronic applications. PMID:28261662

  4. Stacking order dependent mechanical properties of graphene/MoS{sub 2} bilayer and trilayer heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, Robert M. E-mail: mahesh.neupane.ctr@mail.mil; Neupane, Mahesh R. E-mail: mahesh.neupane.ctr@mail.mil; Chantawansri, Tanya L.

    2015-08-17

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) are two-dimensional materials that show promise for flexible electronics and piezoelectric applications, but their weak mechanical strength is a barrier to practical use. In this work, we perform nanoindentation simulations using atomistic molecular dynamics to study the mechanical properties of heterostructures formed by combining MoS{sub 2} with graphene. We consider both bi- and tri-layer heterostructures formed with MoS{sub 2} either supported or encapsulated by graphene. Mechanical properties, such as Young's modulus, bending modulus, ultimate tensile strength, and fracture strain, are extracted from nanoindentation simulations and compared to the monolayer and homogeneous bilayer systems. We observed that the heterostructures, regardless of the stacking order, are mechanically more robust than the mono- and bi-layer MoS{sub 2}, mainly due to the mechanical reinforcement provided by the graphene layer. The magnitudes of ultimate strength and fracture strain are similar for both the bi- and tri-layer heterostructures, but substantially larger than either the mono- and bi-layer MoS{sub 2}. Our results demonstrate the potential of graphene-based heterostructures to improve the mechanical properties of TMDC materials.

  5. Strain-induced structural defects and their effects on the electrochemical performances of silicon core/germanium shell nanowire heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yung-Chen; Kim, Dongheun; Li, Zhen; Nguyen, Binh-Minh; Li, Nan; Zhang, Shixiong; Yoo, Jinkyoung

    2017-01-19

    We report on strain-induced structural defect formation in core Si nanowires of a Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructure and the influence of the structural defects on the electrochemical performances in lithium-ion battery anodes based on Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructures. The induced structural defects consisting of stacking faults and dislocations in the core Si nanowire were observed for the first time. The generation of stacking faults in the Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructure is observed to prefer settling in either only the Ge shell region or in both the Ge shell and Si core regions and is associated with the increase of the shell volume fraction. The relaxation of the misfit strain in the [112] oriented core/shell nanowire heterostructure leads to subsequent gliding of Shockley partial dislocations, preferentially forming the twins. The observation of crossover of defect formation is of great importance for understanding heteroepitaxy in radial heterostructures at the nanoscale and for building three dimensional heterostructures for the various applications. Furthermore, the effect of the defect formation on the nanomaterial's functionality is investigated using electrochemical performance tests. The Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructures enhance the gravimetric capacity of lithium ion battery anodes under fast charging/discharging rates compared to Si nanowires. However, the induced structural defects hamper lithiation of the Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructure.

  6. Strain-induced structural defects and their effects on the electrochemical performances of silicon core/germanium shell nanowire heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Yung-Chen; Kim, Dongheun; Li, Zhen; ...

    2016-12-14

    Here we report on strain-induced structural defect formation in core Si nanowire of Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructure and influences of the structural defects on the electrochemical performances in lithium-ion battery anodes based on Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructures. The induced structural defects consisting of stacking faults and dislocations in the core Si nanowire were observed for the first time. The generation of stacking faults in Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructure is observed to prefer settling in either only Ge shell region or in both Ge shell and Si core regions and is associated with the increase of the shell volume fraction. Themore » relax of misfit strain in [112] oriented core/shell nanowire heterostructure leads to subsequent gliding of Shockley partial dislocations, preferentially forming the twins. The observation of cross-over defect formation is of great importance for the understanding of heteroepitaxy in radial heterostructures at nanoscale and building the three dimensional heterostructures for the various applications. In addition, the effect of the defect formation on nanomaterial’s functionality is investigated by electrochemical performance test. The Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructures enhance the gravimetric capacity of lithium ion battery anodes under fast charging/discharging rates compared to Si nanowires. However, the induced structural defects hamper lithiation of the Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructure.« less

  7. Strain-induced structural defects and their effects on the electrochemical performances of silicon core/germanium shell nanowire heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yung-Chen; Kim, Dongheun; Li, Zhen; Nguyen, Binh-Minh; Li, Nan; Zhang, Shixiong; Yoo, Jinkyoung

    2016-12-14

    Here we report on strain-induced structural defect formation in core Si nanowire of Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructure and influences of the structural defects on the electrochemical performances in lithium-ion battery anodes based on Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructures. The induced structural defects consisting of stacking faults and dislocations in the core Si nanowire were observed for the first time. The generation of stacking faults in Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructure is observed to prefer settling in either only Ge shell region or in both Ge shell and Si core regions and is associated with the increase of the shell volume fraction. The relax of misfit strain in [112] oriented core/shell nanowire heterostructure leads to subsequent gliding of Shockley partial dislocations, preferentially forming the twins. The observation of cross-over defect formation is of great importance for the understanding of heteroepitaxy in radial heterostructures at nanoscale and building the three dimensional heterostructures for the various applications. In addition, the effect of the defect formation on nanomaterial’s functionality is investigated by electrochemical performance test. The Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructures enhance the gravimetric capacity of lithium ion battery anodes under fast charging/discharging rates compared to Si nanowires. However, the induced structural defects hamper lithiation of the Si/Ge core/shell nanowire heterostructure.

  8. Universal chitosan-assisted synthesis of Ag-including heterostructured nanocrystals for label-free in situ SERS monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kai; Xiao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Huan; Lu, Zhicheng; Liu, Jiawei; Li, Qin; Liu, Chen; Foda, Mohamed F; Han, Heyou

    2015-12-07

    A universal chitosan-assisted method was developed to synthesize various Ag-including heterostructured nanocrystals, in which chelation probably plays a vital role. The as-prepared Ag/Pd heterostructured nanocrystals show outstanding properties when used as bifunctional nanocomposites in label-free in situ SERS monitoring of Pd-catalyzed reaction.

  9. Charge transfer in crystalline germanium/monolayer MoS2 heterostructures prepared by chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yung-Chen; Bilgin, Ismail; Ahmed, Towfiq; Chen, Renjie; Pete, Doug; Kar, Swastik; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Gupta, Gautam; Mohite, Aditya; Yoo, Jinkyoung

    2016-11-10

    Heterostructuring provides novel opportunities for exploring emergent phenomena and applications by developing designed properties beyond those of homogeneous materials. Advances in nanoscience enable the preparation of heterostructures formed incommensurate materials. Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides, are of particular interest due to their distinct physical characteristics. Recently, 2D/2D heterostructures have opened up new research areas. However, other heterostructures such as 2D/three-dimensional (3D) materials have not been thoroughly studied yet although the growth of 3D materials on 2D materials creating 2D/3D heterostructures with exceptional carrier transport properties has been reported. Here we report a novel heterostructure composed of Ge and monolayer MoS2, prepared by chemical vapor deposition. A single crystalline Ge (110) thin film was grown on monolayer MoS2. The electrical characteristics of Ge and MoS2 in the Ge/MoS2 heterostructure were remarkably different from those of isolated Ge and MoS2. The field-effect conductivity type of the monolayer MoS2 is converted from n-type to p-type by growth of the Ge thin film on top of it. Undoped Ge on MoS2 is highly conducting. The observations can be explained by charge transfer in the heterostructure as opposed to chemical doping via the incorporation of impurities, based on our first-principles calculations.

  10. Evolution of electron spin polarization in semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pershin, Yuriy; Privman, Vladimir

    2004-03-01

    Last years theoretical and experimental investigations of electron spin-related effects in semiconductor heterostructures have received much consideration because of idea to create a semiconductor device based on the manipulation of electron spin. High degree of electron spin polarization is of crucial importance in operation of spintronic devices. We study possibilities to increase electron spin relaxation time by different means in systems where the D'yakonov-Perel' relaxation mechanism is dominant. Specifically, we show that the electron spin relaxation time in a two-dimensional electron gas with an antidote lattice increases exponentially with antidote radius for certain values of parameters. In another approach, we propose to use electron spin polarization having non-homogeneous direction of spin polarization vector in operation of a spintronic device. It is found that that the electron spin relaxation time essentially depends on the initial spin polarization distribution. This effect has its origin in the coherent spin precession of electrons diffusing in the same direction. We predict a long spin relaxation time of a novel structure: a spin coherence standing wave and discuss its experimental realization.

  11. High Speed Heterostructure Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cola, A.; Nabet, B.; Chen, X.; Quaranta, F.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we review the properties of a class of metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors based on heterojunction structures. Particularly, an AlGaAs/GaAs device is detailed in which the absorption region is in the GaAs layer, and a two-dimensional electron gas is formed at the heterointerface due toδ-doping of the widegap material. This heterostructure metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector also contains an AlGaAs distributed Bragg reflector that forms a resonant cavity for detection at 850 nm. The beneficial effect of the two-dimensional electron gas in the GaAs absorption layer in terms of speed and sensitivity is demonstrated by comparing samples with and without doping in the AlGaAs layer. The design and the physical properties of the grown epitaxial structure are presented, together with the static and dynamic characteristics of the device in time domain. In particular, photocurrent spectra exhibit a 30 nm wide peak at 850 nm, and time response measurements give a bandwidth over 30 GHz. A combination of very low dark current and capacitance, fast response, wavelength selectivity, and compatibility with high electron mobility transistors makes this device suitable for a number of application areas, such as Gigabit and 10 Gigabit Ethernet, wavelength division multiplexing, remote sensing, and medical applications.

  12. Biofunctionalization of anisotropic nanocrystalline semiconductor-magnetic heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Depalo, Nicoletta; Carrieri, Pasquale; Comparelli, Roberto; Striccoli, Marinella; Agostiano, Angela; Bertinetti, Luca; Innocenti, Claudia; Sangregorio, Claudio; Curri, M Lucia

    2011-06-07

    Asymmetric binary nanocrystals (BNCs) formed by a spherical γ-Fe(2)O(3) magnetic domain epitaxially grown onto a lateral facet of a rodlike anatase TiO(2) nanorod have been functionalized with PEG-terminated phospholipids, resulting in a micellar system that enables the BNC dispersion in aqueous solution. The further processability of the obtained water-soluble BNC including PEG lipid micelles and their use in bioconjugation experiments has been successfully demonstrated by covalently binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The whole process has also been preliminarily performed on spherical iron oxide nanocrystals (NCs) and TiO(2) nanorods (NRs), which form single structural units in the heterostructures. Each step has been thoroughly monitored by using optical, structural, and electrophoretic techniques. In addition, an investigation of the magnetic behavior of the iron oxide NCs and BNCs, before and after incorporation into PEG lipid micelles and subsequently bioconjugation, has been carried out, revealing that the magnetic characteristics are mostly retained. The proposed approach to achieving water-soluble anisotropic BNCs and their bioconjugates has a large potential in catalysis and biomedicine and offers key functional building blocks for biosensor applications.

  13. Anomalous conductivity noise in gapped bilayer graphene heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aamir, Mohammed Ali; Karnatak, Paritosh; Sai, T. Phanindra; Ghosh, Arindam

    Bilayer graphene has unique electronic properties - it has a tunable band gap and also, valley symmetry and pseudospin degree of freedom like its single layer counterpart. In this work, we present a study of conductance fluctuations in dual gated bilayer graphene heterostructures by varying the Fermi energy and the band gap independently. At a fixed band gap, we find that the conductance fluctuations obtained by Fermi energy ensemble sampling increase rapidly as the Fermi energy is tuned to charge neutrality point (CNP) whereas the time-dependent conductance fluctuations diminish rapidly. This discrepancy is completely absent at higher number densities, where the transport is expected to be through the 2D bulk of the bilayer system. This observation indicates that near the CNP, electrical transport is highly sensitive to Fermi energy, but becomes progressively immune to time-varying disorder. A possible explanation may involve transport via edge states which becomes the dominant conduction mechanism when the bilayer graphene is gapped and Fermi energy is situated close to the CNP, thereby causing a dimensional crossover from 2D to 1D transport. Our experiment outlines a possible experimental protocol to probe intrinsic topological states in gapped bilayer graphene.

  14. The Nernst effect in ferromagnet-superconductor bilayer heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusiak, M.; Lochmajer, H.; Przysłupski, P.; Rogacki, K.

    2015-11-01

    We report the transport properties of the La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO)/YBa2Cu3O7+d (YBCO) heterostructures in the vicinity of the superconducting transition. The bottom deposited manganite was an LSMO ferromagnet with a Curie temperature of 350 K, while the top deposited cuprate was a nearly optimally doped YBCO superconductor with T c ˜ 90 K. The samples used in these studies had fixed a thickness of LSMO layer (90 nm), whereas the thickness of the YBCO layer was varied between 20 and 100 nm. Single YBCO layers with respective thicknesses were also measured for comparison. The mixed state properties of the bilayers and single layers were characterized by means of the Nernst effect and electrical resistance measurements in magnetic fields of up to B = 12.5 T. All investigated samples show a zero-resistance state below T = 60 K in a field of 12.5 T and demonstrate gradual degradation of the superconducting properties with decreasing thickness of the YBCO layer in bilayer structures.

  15. Photo-thermionic effect in vertical graphene heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Massicotte, M.; Schmidt, P.; Vialla, F.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Tielrooij, K. J.; Koppens, F. H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Finding alternative optoelectronic mechanisms that overcome the limitations of conventional semiconductor devices is paramount for detecting and harvesting low-energy photons. A highly promising approach is to drive a current from the thermal energy added to the free-electron bath as a result of light absorption. Successful implementation of this strategy requires a broadband absorber where carriers interact among themselves more strongly than with phonons, as well as energy-selective contacts to extract the excess electronic heat. Here we show that graphene-WSe2-graphene heterostructure devices offer this possibility through the photo-thermionic effect: the absorbed photon energy in graphene is efficiently transferred to the electron bath leading to a thermalized hot carrier distribution. Carriers with energy higher than the Schottky barrier between graphene and WSe2 can be emitted over the barrier, thus creating photocurrent. We experimentally demonstrate that the photo-thermionic effect enables detection of sub-bandgap photons, while being size-scalable, electrically tunable, broadband and ultrafast. PMID:27412308

  16. Exciton-polariton condensation in transition metal dichalcogenide bilayer heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki Hoon; Jeong, Jae-Seung; Min, Hongki; Chung, Suk Bum

    For the bilayer heterostructure system in an optical microcavity, the interplay of the Coulomb interaction and the electron-photon coupling can lead to the emergence of quasiparticles consisting of the spatially indirect exciton and cavity photons known as dipolariton, which can form the Bose-Einstein condensate above a threshold density. Additional physics comes into play when each layer of the bilayer system consists of the transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayer. The TMD monolayer band structure in the low energy spectrum has two valley components with nontrivial Berry phase, which gives rise to a selection rule in the exciton-polariton coupling, e.g. the exciton from one (the other) valley can couple only to the clockwise (counter-clockwise) polarized photon. We investigate possible condensate phases of exciton-polariton in the bilayer TMD microcavity changing relevant parameters such as detuning, excitation density and interlayer distance. This work was supported in part by the Institute for Basic Science of Korea (IBS) under Grant IBS-R009-Y1 and by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under the Basic Science Research Program Grant No. 2015R1D1A1A01058071.

  17. Magnetoelectroluminescence of organic heterostructures: Analytical theory and spectrally resolved measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Feilong; Kelley, Megan R.; Crooker, Scott A.; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.; Ruden, P. Paul; Smith, Darryl L.

    2014-12-22

    The effect of a magnetic field on the electroluminescence of organic light emitting devices originates from the hyperfine interaction between the electron/hole polarons and the hydrogen nuclei of the host molecules. In this paper, we present an analytical theory of magnetoelectroluminescence for organic semiconductors. To be specific, we focus on bilayer heterostructure devices. In the case we are considering, light generation at the interface of the donor and acceptor layers results from the formation and recombination of exciplexes. The spin physics is described by a stochastic Liouville equation for the electron/hole spin density matrix. By finding the steady-state analytical solution using Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory, we explore how the singlet/triplet exciplex ratio is affected by the hyperfine interaction strength and by the external magnetic field. In order to validate the theory, spectrally resolved electroluminescence experiments on BPhen/m-MTDATA devices are analyzed. With increasing emission wavelength, the width of the magnetic field modulation curve of the electroluminescence increases while its depth decreases. Furthermore, these observations are consistent with the model.

  18. Magnetoelectroluminescence of organic heterostructures: Analytical theory and spectrally resolved measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Feilong; Kelley, Megan R.; Crooker, Scott A.; ...

    2014-12-22

    The effect of a magnetic field on the electroluminescence of organic light emitting devices originates from the hyperfine interaction between the electron/hole polarons and the hydrogen nuclei of the host molecules. In this paper, we present an analytical theory of magnetoelectroluminescence for organic semiconductors. To be specific, we focus on bilayer heterostructure devices. In the case we are considering, light generation at the interface of the donor and acceptor layers results from the formation and recombination of exciplexes. The spin physics is described by a stochastic Liouville equation for the electron/hole spin density matrix. By finding the steady-state analytical solutionmore » using Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory, we explore how the singlet/triplet exciplex ratio is affected by the hyperfine interaction strength and by the external magnetic field. In order to validate the theory, spectrally resolved electroluminescence experiments on BPhen/m-MTDATA devices are analyzed. With increasing emission wavelength, the width of the magnetic field modulation curve of the electroluminescence increases while its depth decreases. Furthermore, these observations are consistent with the model.« less

  19. Tunneling spectroscopy in engineered SrTiO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Adrian; Inoue, Hisashi; Merz, Tyler; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Hwang, Harold

    Despite decades of intense research on the topic, superconductivity in the dilute high- k semiconductor SrTiO3 (STO) has posed a long-standing problem. In light of the recent reports of unconventional 2D superconductivity in STO-based heterostructures, this problem deserves renewed attention in the bulk limit. Tunneling spectroscopy, which directly measures the electronic density of states, is a powerful tool to investigate the superconducting ground state as well as the relevant electron-phonon couplings. A limiting obstacle for employing this technique is the long depletion lengths formed when semiconducting SrTiO3 is contacted with a metal in Schottky junctions, which obstructs access to the intrinsic bulk electronic properties. Here, using band alignment engineered planar tunneling junctions to minimize these long depletion lengths, we experimentally re-examine canonical tunneling experiments in Nb-doped STO. We discuss our results on the extraction of the electron-phonon coupling in SrTiO3 and it's relevance to the superconducting condensate.

  20. Core-shell upconversion nanoparticle - semiconductor heterostructures for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Dou, Qing Qing; Rengaramchandran, Adith; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Zhang, Yong

    2015-02-05

    Core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with diverse chemical compositions have been attracting greater attention in recent years. However, it has been a challenge to develop CSNPs with different crystal structures due to the lattice mismatch of the nanocrystals. Here we report a rational design of core-shell heterostructure consisting of NaYF4:Yb,Tm upconversion nanoparticle (UCN) as the core and ZnO semiconductor as the shell for potential application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The core-shell architecture (confirmed by TEM and STEM) enables for improving the loading efficiency of photosensitizer (ZnO) as the semiconductor is directly coated on the UCN core. Importantly, UCN acts as a transducer to sensitize ZnO and trigger the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) to induce cancer cell death. We also present a firefly luciferase (FLuc) reporter gene based molecular biosensor (ARE-FLuc) to measure the antioxidant signaling response activated in cells during the release of ROS in response to the exposure of CSNPs under 980 nm NIR light. The breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and 4T1) exposed to CSNPs showed significant release of ROS as measured by aminophenyl fluorescein (APF) and ARE-FLuc luciferase assays, and ~45% cancer cell death as measured by MTT assay, when illuminated with 980 nm NIR light.

  1. Emergent ultrafast phenomena in correlated oxides and heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandolfi, M.; Celardo, G. L.; Borgonovi, F.; Ferrini, G.; Avella, A.; Banfi, F.; Giannetti, C.

    2017-03-01

    The possibility of investigating the dynamics of solids on timescales faster than the thermalization of the internal degrees of freedom has disclosed novel non-equilibrium phenomena that have no counterpart at equilibrium. Transition metal oxides (TMOs) provide an interesting playground in which the correlations among the charges in the metal d-orbitals give rise to a wealth of intriguing electronic and thermodynamic properties involving the spin, charge, lattice and orbital orders. Furthermore, the physical properties of TMOs can be engineered at the atomic level, thus providing the platform to investigate the transport phenomena on timescales of the order of the intrinsic decoherence time of the charge excitations. Here, we review and discuss three paradigmatic examples of transient emerging properties that are expected to open new fields of research: (i) the creation of non-thermal magnetic states in spin–orbit Mott insulators; (ii) the possible exploitation of quantum paths for the transport and collection of charge excitations in heterostructures; (iii) the transient wave-like behavior of the temperature field in strongly anisotropic TMOs.

  2. Optical characterization of AlN/GaN heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursaki, V. V.; Tiginyanu, I. M.; Zalamai, V. V.; Hubbard, S. M.; Pavlidis, D.

    2003-10-01

    AlN/GaN/sapphire heterostructures with AlN gate film thickness of 3-35 nm are characterized using photoreflectivity (PR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Under a critical AlN film thickness, the luminescence from the GaN channel layer near the interface proves to be excitonic. No luminescence related to the recombination of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is observed, in spite of high 2DEG parameters indicated by Hall-effect measurements. The increase of the AlN gate film thickness beyond a critical value leads to a sharp decrease in exciton resonance in PR and PL spectra as well as to the emergence of a PL band in the 3.40-3.45 eV spectral range. These findings are explained taking into account the formation of defects in the GaN channel layer as a result of strain-induced AlN film cracking. A model of electronic transitions responsible for the emission band involved is proposed.

  3. Magnetoelectroluminescence of organic heterostructures: Analytical theory and spectrally resolved measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feilong; Kelley, Megan R.; Crooker, Scott A.; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.; Ruden, P. Paul; Smith, Darryl L.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of a magnetic field on the electroluminescence of organic light emitting devices originates from the hyperfine interaction between the electron/hole polarons and the hydrogen nuclei of the host molecules. In this paper, we present an analytical theory of magnetoelectroluminescence for organic semiconductors. To be specific, we focus on bilayer heterostructure devices. In the case we are considering, light generation at the interface of the donor and acceptor layers results from the formation and recombination of exciplexes. The spin physics is described by a stochastic Liouville equation for the electron/hole spin density matrix. By finding the steady-state analytical solution using Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory, we explore how the singlet/triplet exciplex ratio is affected by the hyperfine interaction strength and by the external magnetic field. To validate the theory, spectrally resolved electroluminescence experiments on BPhen/m-MTDATA devices are analyzed. With increasing emission wavelength, the width of the magnetic field modulation curve of the electroluminescence increases while its depth decreases. These observations are consistent with the model.

  4. Heterostructures for Increased Quantum Efficiency in Nitride LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Robert F.

    2010-09-30

    Task 1. Development of an advanced LED simulator useful for the design of efficient nitride-based devices. Simulator will contain graphical interface software that can be used to specify the device structure, the material parameters, the operating conditions and the desired output results. Task 2. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence on the microstructure, defect concentration, mechanical stress and strain and IQE of controlled changes in the chemistry and process route of deposition of the buffer layer underlying the active region of nitride-based blue- and greenemitting LEDs. Task 3. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence on the physical properties including polarization and IQE of controlled changes in the geometry, chemistry, defect density, and microstructure of components in the active region of nitride-based blue- and green-emitting LEDs. Task 4. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence on IQE of novel heterostructure designs to funnel carriers into the active region for enhanced recombination efficiency and elimination of diffusion beyond this region. Task 5. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence of enhanced p-type doping on the chemical, electrical, and microstructural characteristics of the acceptor-doped layers, the hole injection levels at Ohmic contacts, the specific contact resistivity and the IQE of nitride-based blue- and green-emitting LEDs. Development and optical and electrical characterization of reflective Ohmic contacts to n- and p-type GaN films.

  5. Colloidal nanocrystal heterostructures with linear and branched topology.

    PubMed

    Milliron, Delia J; Hughes, Steven M; Cui, Yi; Manna, Liberato; Li, Jingbo; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2004-07-08

    The development of colloidal quantum dots has led to practical applications of quantum confinement, such as in solution-processed solar cells, lasers and as biological labels. Further scientific and technological advances should be achievable if these colloidal quantum systems could be electronically coupled in a general way. For example, this was the case when it became possible to couple solid-state embedded quantum dots into quantum dot molecules. Similarly, the preparation of nanowires with linear alternating compositions--another form of coupled quantum dots--has led to the rapid development of single-nanowire light-emitting diodes and single-electron transistors. Current strategies to connect colloidal quantum dots use organic coupling agents, which suffer from limited control over coupling parameters and over the geometry and complexity of assemblies. Here we demonstrate a general approach for fabricating inorganically coupled colloidal quantum dots and rods, connected epitaxially at branched and linear junctions within single nanocrystals. We achieve control over branching and composition throughout the growth of nanocrystal heterostructures to independently tune the properties of each component and the nature of their interactions. Distinct dots and rods are coupled through potential barriers of tuneable height and width, and arranged in three-dimensional space at well-defined angles and distances. Such control allows investigation of potential applications ranging from quantum information processing to artificial photosynthesis.

  6. Dirac Fermions in heterostructures for designer topological phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ji

    2014-03-01

    Massless Dirac Fermions are found in graphene and on the surfaces of topological insulators, which are quasiparticles moving at a constant speed independent of its energy as governed by relativistic quantum mechanics. In this talk, I will show, via interfacial orbital design of Dirac states, emergent topological phases can be engineered in artificial heterostructures. As a first example, I will show that a novel class of half semi-metallic Dirac electronic phase emerges at the interface CrO2 with TiO2 in both thin film and superlattice configurations. With four spin-polarized Dirac points in the band structure, this system with simple, non-topological oxides displays spontaneous quantum anomalous Hall effect. In a second example, I will show that the superlattice valley engineering, starting with the SnTe topological mirror insulator, leads to designer topological phases with a remarkably rich phase diagram. JF acknowledges financial support by NSFC Project 11174009, and China 973 Program Projects 2013CB921900 and 2011CBA00109.

  7. Quantum and Ionic Transport Across Superconductor-based Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayfeh, Osama; Dinh, Son; Taylor, Benjamin; de Andrade, Marcio; Swanson, Paul; Offord, Bruce; de Escobar, Anna Leese; Claussen, Stephanie; Kassegne, Sam

    2015-03-01

    We present analysis of quantum and ionic transport across superconductor/barrier/ionic/barrier/superconductor (SBIBS) heterostructures. Calculations for various ionic configurations demonstrate modification of the quantum transport coherence length and energy profile with moderate ionic transport away from the superconductor-barrier interface. The effect of electric field and cryogenic temperature on the stability of the ionic configurations for quantum information state storage is examined. Characterization and analysis of constructed Al and Nb-based device structures are presented. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge the support of the SSC Pacific In-house Laboratory Independent Research Science and Technology Program managed by Dr. Dave Rees, the Naval Innovative Science and Engineering Program managed by Mr. Robin Laird, and the ONR Summer Faculty Research Program. Interactions with Dr. Van Vechten (ONR) and Dr. Manheimer (IARPA) are appreciated. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of SPAWAR or the U.S. Government. Approved for Public Release; distribution is unlimited.

  8. Radiative and interfacial recombination in CdTe heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, C. H. Edirisooriya, M.; LeBlanc, E. G.; Noriega, O. C.; Jayathilaka, P. A. R. D.; Ogedengbe, O. S.; Hancock, B. L.; Holtz, M.; Myers, T. H.; Zaunbrecher, K. N.

    2014-12-01

    Double heterostructures (DH) were produced consisting of a CdTe film between two wide band gap barriers of CdMgTe alloy. A combined method was developed to quantify radiative and non-radiative recombination rates by examining the dependence of photoluminescence (PL) on both excitation intensity and time. The measured PL characteristics, and the interface state density extracted by modeling, indicate that the radiative efficiency of CdMgTe/CdTe DHs is comparable to that of AlGaAs/GaAs DHs, with interface state densities in the low 10{sup 10 }cm{sup −2} and carrier lifetimes as long as 240 ns. The radiative recombination coefficient of CdTe is found to be near 10{sup −10} cm{sup 3}s{sup −1}. CdTe film growth on bulk CdTe substrates resulted in a homoepitaxial interface layer with a high non-radiative recombination rate.

  9. Core - shell upconversion nanoparticle - semiconductor heterostructures for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Qing Qing; Rengaramchandran, Adith; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Zhang, Yong

    2015-02-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with diverse chemical compositions have been attracting greater attention in recent years. However, it has been a challenge to develop CSNPs with different crystal structures due to the lattice mismatch of the nanocrystals. Here we report a rational design of core-shell heterostructure consisting of NaYF4:Yb,Tm upconversion nanoparticle (UCN) as the core and ZnO semiconductor as the shell for potential application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The core-shell architecture (confirmed by TEM and STEM) enables for improving the loading efficiency of photosensitizer (ZnO) as the semiconductor is directly coated on the UCN core. Importantly, UCN acts as a transducer to sensitize ZnO and trigger the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) to induce cancer cell death. We also present a firefly luciferase (FLuc) reporter gene based molecular biosensor (ARE-FLuc) to measure the antioxidant signaling response activated in cells during the release of ROS in response to the exposure of CSNPs under 980 nm NIR light. The breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and 4T1) exposed to CSNPs showed significant release of ROS as measured by aminophenyl fluorescein (APF) and ARE-FLuc luciferase assays, and ~45% cancer cell death as measured by MTT assay, when illuminated with 980 nm NIR light.

  10. Development of Novel Two-dimensional Layers, Alloys and Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    The one-atom-think graphene has fantastic properties and attracted tremendous interests in these years, which opens a window towards various two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers. However, making large-size and high-quality 2D layers is still a great challenge. Using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, we have successfully synthesized a wide varieties of highly crystalline and large scale 2D atomic layers, including h-BN, metal dichalcogenides e.g. MoS2, WS2, CdS, GaSe and MoSe2 which belong to the family of binary 2D materials. Ternary 2D alloys including BCN and MoS2xSe2 (1 - x) are also prepared and characterized. In addition, synthesis of 2D heterostructures such as vertical and lateral graphene/h-BN, vertical and lateral TMDs are also demonstrated. Complementary to CVD grown 2D layers, 2D single-crystal (bulk) such as Phosphorene (P), WTe2, SnSe2, PtS2, PtSe2, PdSe2, WSe2xTe2 (1 - x), Ta2NiS5andTa2NiSe5 are also prepared by solid reactions. There work provide a better understanding of the atomic layered materials in terms of the synthesis, atomic structure, alloying and their physical properties. Potential applications of these 2D layers e.g. optoelectronic devices, energy device and smart coating have been explored.

  11. Interlayer Transition and Infrared Photodetection in Atomically Thin Type-II MoTe₂/MoS₂ van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kenan; Zhang, Tianning; Cheng, Guanghui; Li, Tianxin; Wang, Shuxia; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xiaohao; Yu, Weiwei; Sun, Yan; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Dong; Zeng, Changgan; Wang, Xingjun; Hu, Weida; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Guozhen; Chen, Xin; Duan, Xiangfeng; Chang, Kai; Dai, Ning

    2016-03-22

    We demonstrate the type-II staggered band alignment in MoTe2/MoS2 van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures and an interlayer optical transition at ∼1.55 μm. The photoinduced charge separation between the MoTe2/MoS2 vdW heterostructure is verified by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) under illumination, density function theory (DFT) simulations and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Photoelectrical measurements of MoTe2/MoS2 vdW heterostructures show a distinct photocurrent response in the infrared regime (1550 nm). The creation of type-II vdW heterostructures with strong interlayer coupling could improve our fundamental understanding of the essential physics behind vdW heterostructures and help the design of next-generation infrared optoelectronics.

  12. Anomalous Strain Relaxation in Core-Shell Nanowire Heterostructures via Simultaneous Coherent and Incoherent Growth.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ryan B; Nicolai, Lars; Küpers, Hanno; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Trampert, Achim; Geelhaar, Lutz

    2017-01-11

    Nanoscale substrates such as nanowires allow heterostructure design to venture well beyond the narrow lattice mismatch range restricting planar heterostructures, owing to misfit strain relaxing at the free surfaces and partitioning throughout the entire nanostructure. In this work, we uncover a novel strain relaxation process in GaAs/InxGa1-xAs core-shell nanowires that is a direct result of the nanofaceted nature of these nanostructures. Above a critical lattice mismatch, plastically relaxed mounds form at the edges of the nanowire sidewall facets. The relaxed mounds and a coherent shell grow simultaneously from the beginning of the deposition with higher lattice mismatches increasingly favoring incoherent mound growth. This is in stark contrast to Stranski-Krastanov growth, where above a critical thickness coherent layer growth no longer occurs. This study highlights how understanding strain relaxation in lattice mismatched nanofaceted heterostructures is essential for designing devices based on these nanostructures.

  13. Gate tunable monolayer MoS{sub 2}/InP heterostructure solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shisheng Wang, Peng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Zhiqian; Xu, Zhijuan; Zhang, Shengjiao; Xu, Wenli

    2015-10-12

    We demonstrate monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2})/indium phosphide (InP) van der Waals heterostructure with remarkable photovoltaic response. Furthermore, benefiting from the atomically thin and semiconductor nature of MoS{sub 2}, we have designed the gate tunable MoS{sub 2}/InP heterostructure. Applied with a top gate voltage, the Fermi level of MoS{sub 2} is effectively tuned, and the barrier height at the MoS{sub 2}/InP heterojunction correspondingly changes. The power conversion efficiency of MoS{sub 2}/InP solar cells has reached a value of 7.1% under AM 1.5G illumination with a gate voltage of +6 V. The tunable MoS{sub 2}/InP heterostructure may be promising for highly efficient solar cells.

  14. Dynamic in situ visualization of voltage-driven magnetic domain evolution in multiferroic heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ya; Hu, Jia-Mian; Wu, Liang; Nan, C W

    2015-12-23

    Voltage control of magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures provides a promising solution to the excessive heating in spintronic devices. Direct observation of voltage-modulated magnetic domain evolution dynamics is desirable for studying the mechanism of the voltage control of magnetism at mesoscale, but has remained challenging. Here we explored a characterization method for the dynamic in situ evolution of pure voltage modulated magnetic domains in the heterostructures by employing the scanning Kerr microscopy function in the magneto optic Kerr effect system. The local magnetization reorientation of a Ni/PMN-PT heterostructure were characterized under sweeping applied voltage on the PMN-PT single crystal, and the results show that the magnetization rotation angle in the local regions is much greater than that obtained from macroscopic magnetization hysteresis loops.

  15. Dynamic in situ visualization of voltage-driven magnetic domain evolution in multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ya; Hu, Jia-Mian; Wu, Liang; Nan, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Voltage control of magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures provides a promising solution to the excessive heating in spintronic devices. Direct observation of voltage-modulated magnetic domain evolution dynamics is desirable for studying the mechanism of the voltage control of magnetism at mesoscale, but has remained challenging. Here we explored a characterization method for the dynamic in situ evolution of pure voltage modulated magnetic domains in the heterostructures by employing the scanning Kerr microscopy function in the magneto optic Kerr effect system. The local magnetization reorientation of a Ni/PMN-PT heterostructure were characterized under sweeping applied voltage on the PMN-PT single crystal, and the results show that the magnetization rotation angle in the local regions is much greater than that obtained from macroscopic magnetization hysteresis loops.

  16. Engineering the Charge Transfer in all 2D Graphene-Nanoplatelets Heterostructure Photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Robin, A.; Lhuillier, E.; Xu, X. Z.; Ithurria, S.; Aubin, H.; Ouerghi, A.; Dubertret, B.

    2016-01-01

    Two dimensional layered (i.e. van der Waals) heterostructures open up great prospects, especially in photodetector applications. In this context, the control of the charge transfer between the constituting layers is of crucial importance. Compared to bulk or 0D system, 2D materials are characterized by a large exciton binding energy (0.1–1 eV) which considerably affects the magnitude of the charge transfer. Here we investigate a model system made from colloidal 2D CdSe nanoplatelets and epitaxial graphene in a phototransistor configuration. We demonstrate that using a heterostructured layered material, we can tune the magnitude and the direction (i.e. electron or hole) of the charge transfer. We further evidence that graphene functionalization by nanocrystals only leads to a limited change in the magnitude of the 1/f noise. These results draw some new directions to design van der Waals heterostructures with enhanced optoelectronic properties. PMID:27143413

  17. Designed Synthesis of van der Waals Heterostructures: The Power of Kinetic Control.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, Matti B; Falmbigl, Matthias; Ta, Kim; Ditto, Jeffrey; Medlin, Douglas L; Johnson, David C

    2015-12-14

    Selecting specific 2D building blocks and specific layering sequences of van der Waals heterostructures should allow the formation of new materials with designed properties for specific applications. Unfortunately, the synthetic ability to prepare such structures at will, especially in a manner that can be manufactured, does not exist. Herein, we report the targeted synthesis of new metal-semiconductor heterostructures using the modulated elemental-reactant technique to nucleate specific 2D building blocks, control their thickness, and avoid epitaxial structures with long-range order. The building blocks, VSe2 and GeSe2 , have different crystal structures, which inhibits cation intermixing. The precise control of this approach enabled us to synthesize heterostructures containing GeSe2 monolayers alternating with VSe2 structural units with specific sequences. The transport properties systematically change with nanoarchitecture and a charge-density wave-like transition is observed.

  18. Engineering the Charge Transfer in all 2D Graphene-Nanoplatelets Heterostructure Photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, A.; Lhuillier, E.; Xu, X. Z.; Ithurria, S.; Aubin, H.; Ouerghi, A.; Dubertret, B.

    2016-05-01

    Two dimensional layered (i.e. van der Waals) heterostructures open up great prospects, especially in photodetector applications. In this context, the control of the charge transfer between the constituting layers is of crucial importance. Compared to bulk or 0D system, 2D materials are characterized by a large exciton binding energy (0.1–1 eV) which considerably affects the magnitude of the charge transfer. Here we investigate a model system made from colloidal 2D CdSe nanoplatelets and epitaxial graphene in a phototransistor configuration. We demonstrate that using a heterostructured layered material, we can tune the magnitude and the direction (i.e. electron or hole) of the charge transfer. We further evidence that graphene functionalization by nanocrystals only leads to a limited change in the magnitude of the 1/f noise. These results draw some new directions to design van der Waals heterostructures with enhanced optoelectronic properties.

  19. Evidence for spin-triplet superconducting correlations in metal-oxide heterostructures with noncollinear magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaydukov, Yu. N.; Ovsyannikov, G. A.; Sheyerman, A. E.; Constantinian, K. Y.; Mustafa, L.; Keller, T.; Uribe-Laverde, M. A.; Kislinskii, Yu. V.; Shadrin, A. V.; Kalaboukhov, A.; Keimer, B.; Winkler, D.

    2014-07-01

    Heterostructures composed of ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3, ferromagnetic SrRuO3, and superconducting YBa2Cu3O6+x were studied experimentally. Structures of composition Au /La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/SrRuO3/YBa2Cu3O6+x were prepared by pulsed laser deposition, and their high quality was confirmed by x-ray diffraction and reflectometry. A noncollinear magnetic state of the heterostructures was revealed by means of superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry and polarized neutron reflectometry. We have further observed superconducting currents in mesa structures fabricated by deposition of a second superconducting Nb layer on top of the heterostructure, followed by patterning with photolithography and ion-beam etching. Josephson effects observed in these mesa structures can be explained by the penetration of a triplet component of the superconducting order parameter into the magnetic layers.

  20. Laser and Optical Properties of Green-Emitting ZnCdSe Quantum Dot Based Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainilovich, Aliaksei G.; Lutsenko, E. V.; Yablonskii, G. P.; Sedova, I. V.; Sorokin, S. V.; Gronin, S. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Kop'ev, P. S.

    Green-emitting laser diodes are in great demand for mobile projection media (pico-projector), navigation, underwater communication but they are still absent on the market. InGaN/GaN-based quantum well structures are approaching green spectral region by use of polar, semipolar as well as free-standing GaN substrates. However such heterostructures suffer from high laser thresholds with increase of indium content. A promising alternative way is the use of highly efficient green-emitting undoped ZnCdSe based quantum dot (QD) laser heterostructures optically pumped by blue InGaN laser diodes. Operation of blue-green laser converter based on MBE grown heterostructure with two ZnCdSe QD layers was shown for the first time in [1].

  1. Experimental observation of two massless Dirac-fermion gases in graphene-topological insulator heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Guang; Chung, Ting-Fung; Chen, Chaoyu; Liu, Chang; Chang, Tay-Rong; Wu, Tailung; Belopolski, Ilya; Zheng, Hao; Xu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Alidoust, Nasser; Pierce, Jonathan; Quilliams, Bryson; Barletta, Philip P.; Lorcy, Stephane; Avila, José; Chang, Guoqing; Lin, Hsin; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Asensio, Maria-Carmen; Chen, Yong P.; Zahid Hasan, M.

    2016-06-01

    Graphene and topological insulators (TI) possess two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermions with distinct physical properties. Integrating these two Dirac materials in a single device creates interesting opportunities for exploring new physics of interacting massless Dirac fermions. Here we report on a practical route to experimental fabrication of graphene-Sb2Te3 heterostructure. The graphene-TI heterostructures are prepared by using a dry transfer of chemical-vapor-deposition grown graphene film. ARPES measurements confirm the coexistence of topological surface states of Sb2Te3 and Dirac π bands of graphene, and identify the twist angle in the graphene-TI heterostructure. The results suggest a potential tunable electronic platform in which two different Dirac low-energy states dominate the transport behavior.

  2. Stress relaxation in sputtered W films and W/GeSi/Si heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, F.M.; Kola, R.R.; Hull, R.; Bean, J.C.

    1993-11-01

    We have investigated stress relaxation in GeSi/Si heterostructures on which thin W films have been sputtered with different stress states. Real-time electron microscope observations of the relaxation process demonstrate that the presence of the stressed metal film changes the relaxation kinetics of the GeSi/Si heterostructures. We discuss the significance of this result for the processing of strained layer heterostructures into devices. We have investigated the relationship between microstructure and stress in these sputtered W films, and, by developing a novel specimen geometry for the transmission electron microscope (TEM), we present dynamic observations of the evolution of microstructure and stress during the {beta}-W{yields}{alpha}-W transformation.

  3. A quantum-well inversion channel heterostructure as a multifunctional component for optoelectronic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargood, Stephen K.; Taylor, Geoffrey W.; Claisse, Paul R.; Vang, Timothy; Cooke, Paul; Docter, Daniel P.; Kiely, Philip A.; Burrus, Charles A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to an approach to optoelectronic integration employing a universal heterostructure with a single GaAs quantum-well active region. The fabrication technology was developed for GHz bandwidth applications by using ion implantation techniques for interdevice electrical isolation and surface planarization, and reactive ion-etching to realize a self-aligned transistor-based heterostructure. The design, fabrication, and characterization of various heterostructures are discussed in the light of optoelectronic integration and the implementation of ion implantation disordering to realize low-loss self-aligned waveguides for on-chip signal routing. The ultimate performance of the devices using a GaAs quantum well is considered, as well as the development of this technology for improved performance using strained InGaAs wells.

  4. Fabrication and photovoltaic properties of heterostructured TiO2 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Noh, Suk-In; Park, Dong-Won; Shim, Hee-Sang; Ahn, Hyo-Jin

    2012-07-01

    One-dimensional heterostructured TiO2 nanowires were successfully fabricated by an electrospinning technique and modified by hydrolysis. We investigated their structure, morphology, chemical composition, and optical properties by using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis spectroscopy. In the case of the photovoltaic performance, the short-circuit current density and cell efficiency of the DSSCs employing single TiO2 nanowires and heterostructured TiO2 nanowires improve from 6.90 to 11.38 mA/cm2 and from 2.56 to 4.29%, respectively. The results show that the photoconversion efficiency of the heterostructured TiO2 nanowires could be improved by more than approximately 67% compared to that of the single TiO2 nanowires because of the enhanced specific surface area that facilitates dye adsorption.

  5. High-Sensitive Ultraviolet Photodetectors Based on ZnO Nanorods/CdS Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Kin-Tak; Hsiao, Yu-Jen; Ji, Liang-Wen; Fang, Te-Hua; Hsiao, Kai-Hua; Chu, Tung-Te

    2017-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors with ZnO nanorods (NRs)/CdS thin film heterostructures on glass substrates have been fabricated and characterized. It can be seen that the UV photoresponsivity of such a device became higher as the ZnO NR length was increased in the investigation. With an incident wavelength of 350 nm and 5 V applied bias, the responsivity of photodetectors based on ZnO NR/CdS heterostructures with the ZnO NR length at 500, 350, and 200 nm and traditional CdS film were at 12.86, 3.83, 0.91, and 0.75 A/W, respectively. The measurement results of the fabricated photodetectors based on ZnO nanorods (NRs)/CdS heterostructures have shown a significant high sensitivity in the range of UV light, which can be useful for the application of UV detection.

  6. Effect of strain on voltage-controlled magnetism in BiFeO₃-based heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, J J; Hu, J M; Yang, T N; Feng, M; Zhang, J X; Chen, L Q; Nan, C W

    2014-04-01

    Voltage-modulated magnetism in magnetic/BiFeO3 heterostructures can be driven by a combination of the intrinsic ferroelectric-antiferromagnetic coupling in BiFeO3 and the antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic exchange interaction across the heterointerface. However, ferroelectric BiFeO3 film is also ferroelastic, thus it is possible to generate voltage-induced strain in BiFeO3 that could be applied onto the magnetic layer across the heterointerface and modulate magnetism through magnetoelastic coupling. Here, we investigated, using phase-field simulations, the role of strain in voltage-controlled magnetism for these BiFeO3-based heterostructures. It is predicted, under certain condition, coexistence of strain and exchange interaction will result in a pure voltage-driven 180° magnetization reversal in BiFeO3-based heterostructures.

  7. Voltage-impulse-induced dual-range nonvolatile magnetization modulation in metglas/PZT heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaoli; Su, Hua; Zhang, Huaiwu; Sun, Nian X.

    2016-11-01

    Dual-range, nonvolatile magnetization modulation induced by voltage impulses was investigated in the metglas/lead zirconate titanate (PZT) heterostructure at room temperature. The heterostructure was obtained by bonding a square metglas ribbon on the top electrode of the PZT substrate, which contained defect dipoles resulting from acceptor doping. The PZT substrate achieved two strain hysteretic loops with the application of specific voltage impulse excitation modes. Through strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling between the metglas ribbon and the PZT substrate, two strain hysteretic loops led to a dual-range nonvolatile magnetization modulation in the heterostructure. Reversible and stable voltage-impulse-induced nonvolatile modulation in the ferromagnetic resonance field and magnetic hysteresis characteristics were also realized. This method provides a promising approach in reducing energy consumption in magnetization modulation and other related devices.

  8. Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Performance from Rationally Designed Anatase/Rutile TiO2 Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fengren; Xiong, Jie; Wu, Fangli; Liu, Qiong; Shi, Zhiwei; Yu, Yanhao; Wang, Xudong; Li, Liang

    2016-05-18

    In a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell for water splitting, the critical issue is charge separation and transport, which is usually completed by designing semiconductor heterojunctions. TiO2 anatase-rutile mixed junctions could largely improve photocatalytic properties, but impairs PEC water splitting performance. We designed and prepared two types of TiO2 heterostructures with the anatase thin film and rutile nanowire phases organized in different sequences. The two types of heterostructures were used as PEC photoanodes for water splitting and demonstrated completely opposite results. Rutile nanowires on anatase film demonstrated enhanced photocurrent density and onset potential, whereas strong negative performance was obtained from anatase film on rutile nanowire structures. The mechanism was investigated by photoresponse, light absorption and reflectance, and electrochemical impedance spectra. This work revealed the significant role of phase sequence in performance gain of anatase-rutile TiO2 heterostructured PEC photoanodes.

  9. Periodic potentials in hybrid van der Waals heterostructures formed by supramolecular lattices on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, Marco; Bonacchi, Sara; Lian, Jian X.; Liu, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Ye; Stoeckel, Marc-Antoine; Squillaci, Marco A.; D'Avino, Gabriele; Narita, Akimitsu; Müllen, Klaus; Feng, Xinliang; Olivier, Yoann; Beljonne, David; Samorì, Paolo; Orgiu, Emanuele

    2017-03-01

    The rise of 2D materials made it possible to form heterostructures held together by weak interplanar van der Waals interactions. Within such van der Waals heterostructures, the occurrence of 2D periodic potentials significantly modifies the electronic structure of single sheets within the stack, therefore modulating the material properties. However, these periodic potentials are determined by the mechanical alignment of adjacent 2D materials, which is cumbersome and time-consuming. Here we show that programmable 1D periodic potentials extending over areas exceeding 104 nm2 and stable at ambient conditions arise when graphene is covered by a self-assembled supramolecular lattice. The amplitude and sign of the potential can be modified without altering its periodicity by employing photoreactive molecules or their reaction products. In this regard, the supramolecular lattice/graphene bilayer represents the hybrid analogue of fully inorganic van der Waals heterostructures, highlighting the rich prospects that molecular design offers to create ad hoc materials.

  10. NH3 sensing properties polyaniline: TiO2 nanorods heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, U. V.; Ramgir, Niranjan S.; Debnath, A. K.; Karmakar, N.; Aswal, D. K.; Kothari, D. C.; Gupta, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    NH3 sensing properties of polyaniline: TiO2 nanorods heterostructures have been investigated. TiO2 nanorods were synthesized using hydrothermal method. Thin layer of polyanilene was deposited by in-situ oxidative polymerization of aniline over TiO2 nanorods film. The heterostructure film exhibited an enhanced sensor response towards NH3 at room temperature. For example, heterostructure films exhibited a sensor response of 610% towards 100 ppm of NH3 with a response and recovery times of 40 and 60 s, respectively. This response and response kinetics is better than pure PANI films that exhibited a response of 210% with a response and recovery time of 21 and 160 s, respectively.

  11. A study of magnetic proximity effect in two-dimensional heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shanshan; Yin, Gen; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Neupane, Mahesh; Lake, Roger

    2014-03-01

    Recent research found the spin Hall effect and the inverse spin Hall effect in heterostructures composed of a ferromagnetic insulator, Y3Fe5O12, and transition metals with large atomic numbers. It is also reported that graphene has an exchange-splitting with an adjacent EuO layer in both experiments and simulations. Our systems of interest are two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures composed of ferromagnetic insulators, ferromagnetic alloys, and graphene. Along the heterointerface, overlap of the wavefunctions of the ferromagnetic material and graphene leads to a proximity effect. To understand this magnetic proximity effect, density functional theory (DFT) is used. Exchange parameters, magnetic moments, magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange-splitting are calculated for the 2D heterostructures. Office of Research and Economic Development, Univ. of California, Riverside. NSF Grant No. 1128304. XSEDE under NSF Grant No.OCI-1053575. Computational resources provided by Information Technology at Purdue, West Lafayette, Indiana.

  12. Large current modulation and spin-dependent tunneling of vertical graphene/MoS2 heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Myoung, Nojoon; Seo, Kyungchul; Lee, Seung Joo; Ihm, G

    2013-08-27

    Vertical graphene heterostructures have been introduced as an alternative architecture for electronic devices by using quantum tunneling. Here, we present that the current on/off ratio of vertical graphene field-effect transistors is enhanced by using an armchair graphene nanoribbon as an electrode. Moreover, we report spin-dependent tunneling current of the graphene/MoS2 heterostructures. When an atomically thin MoS2 layer sandwiched between graphene electrodes becomes magnetic, Dirac fermions with different spins feel different heights of the tunnel barrier, leading to spin-dependent tunneling. Our finding will develop the present graphene heterostructures for electronic devices by improving the device performance and by adding the possibility of spintronics based on graphene.

  13. Multilayer heterostructures of magnetic Heusler and binary compounds from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garoufalis, Christos; Galanakis, Iosif

    2016-03-01

    Employing first-principles state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations, we study a series of multilayer heterostructures composed of ferro/ferrimagnetic half-metallic Heusler compounds and binary compounds presenting perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We relax these heterostructures and study both their electronic and magnetic properties. In most studied cases the Heusler spacer keeps a large value of spin-polarization at the Fermi level even for ultrathin films which attends the maximum value of 100% in the case of the Mn2VSi/MnSi multilayer. Our results pave the way both experimentally and theoretically towards the growth of such multilayer heterostructures and their incorporation in spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices.

  14. Photo-induced Modulation Doping in Graphene/Boron nitride Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Jairo, Jr.; Ju, Long; Hwang, Edwin; Kahn, Salman; Nosiglia, Casey; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Guangyu; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Zhang, Yuanbo; Crommie, Michael; Zettl, Alex; Wang, Feng

    2014-03-01

    Van der Waals heterostructures (VDH) provide an exciting new platform for materials engineering, where a variety of layered materials with different electrical, optical and mechanical responses can be stacked together to enable new physics and novel functionalities. We report an emerging optoelectronic phenomenon (i.e. photo-induced modulation doping) in the graphene-boron nitride VDH (G/BN heterostructure). We find it enables flexible and repeatable writing and erasing of charge doping in graphene with optical light. We show that the photo-induced modulation doping maintains the remarkable carrier mobility of the G/BN heterostructure, and it can be used to generate spatially varying doping profiles like pn junctions. Our work contributes towards understanding light matter interactions in VDHs, and introduces a simple technique for creating inhomogeneous doping in high mobility graphene devices. J. Velasco Jr. acknowledges support from UC President's Postdoctoral Fellowship.

  15. Graphene-Nanodiamond Heterostructures and their application to High Current Devices

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fang; Vrajitoarea, Andrei; Jiang, Qi; Han, Xiaoyu; Chaudhary, Aysha; Welch, Joseph O.; Jackman, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene on hydrogen terminated monolayer nanodiamond heterostructures provides a new way to improve carrier transport characteristics of the graphene, offering up to 60% improvement when compared with similar graphene on SiO2/Si substrates. These heterostructures offers excellent current-carrying abilities whilst offering the prospect of a fast, low cost and easy methodology for device applications. The use of ND monolayers is also a compatible technology for the support of large area graphene films. The nature of the C-H bonds between graphene and H-terminated NDs strongly influences the electronic character of the heterostructure, creating effective charge redistribution within the system. Field effect transistors (FETs) have been fabricated based on this novel herterostructure to demonstrate device characteristics and the potential of this approach. PMID:26350107

  16. Decoupled electron and phonon transports in hexagonal boron nitride-silicene bilayer heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yongqing; Pei, Qing-Xiang E-mail: zhangg@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg; Zhang, Gang E-mail: zhangg@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2016-02-14

    Calculations based on the density functional theory and empirical molecular dynamics are performed to investigate interlayer interaction, electronic structure and thermal transport of a bilayer heterostructure consisting of silicene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). In this heterostructure, the two layers are found to interact weakly via a non-covalent binding. As a result, the Dirac cone of silicene is preserved with the Dirac cone point being located exactly at the Fermi level, and only a small amount of electrons are transferred from h-BN to silicene, suggesting that silicene dominates the electronic transport. Molecular dynamics calculation results demonstrate that the heat current along h-BN is six times of that along silicene, suggesting that h-BN dominates the thermal transport. This decoupled role of h-BN and silicene in thermal and electronic transport suggests that the BN-silicene bilayer heterostructure is promising for thermoelectric applications.

  17. Effect of strain on voltage-controlled magnetism in BiFeO3-based heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J. J.; Hu, J. M.; Yang, T. N.; Feng, M.; Zhang, J. X.; Chen, L. Q.; Nan, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-modulated magnetism in magnetic/BiFeO3 heterostructures can be driven by a combination of the intrinsic ferroelectric-antiferromagnetic coupling in BiFeO3 and the antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic exchange interaction across the heterointerface. However, ferroelectric BiFeO3 film is also ferroelastic, thus it is possible to generate voltage-induced strain in BiFeO3 that could be applied onto the magnetic layer across the heterointerface and modulate magnetism through magnetoelastic coupling. Here, we investigated, using phase-field simulations, the role of strain in voltage-controlled magnetism for these BiFeO3-based heterostructures. It is predicted, under certain condition, coexistence of strain and exchange interaction will result in a pure voltage-driven 180° magnetization reversal in BiFeO3-based heterostructures. PMID:24686503

  18. Interfacial interaction in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide/metal oxide heterostructures and its effects on electronic and optical properties: The case of MX2/CeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ke; Huang, Wei-Qing; Hu, Wangyu; Huang, Gui-Fang; Wen, Shuangchun

    2017-01-01

    Using the density functional theory (DFT), we systematically study the interfacial interaction in monolayer MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se)/CeO2 heterostructures and its effects on electronic and optical properties. The interfacial interaction in the MX2/CeO2 heterostructures depends largely on chalcogens, and its strength determines the band gap variation and important electronic states at the band edges of the heterostructures. The MX2/CeO2 heterostructures with the same chalcogen have similar absorption spectra, from ultraviolet to near-infrared regions. These results suggest that chalcogens importantly determine the properties of MX2/metal oxide heterostructures.

  19. Characterization of interfacially electronic structures of gold-magnetite heterostructures using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fang-hsin; Doong, Ruey-an

    2014-03-01

    Gold-magnetite heterostructures are novel nanomaterials which can rapidly catalyze the reduction reaction of nitroaromatics. In this study, the interfacially structural and electronic properties of various morphologies of Au-Fe3O4 heterostructures were systematically investigated using X-ray absorbance spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of change in electronic structure and charge transfer on electrochemically catalytic activity of Au-Fe3O4 heterostructures was further evaluated by oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The shifts in binding energy of Au4f and Fe2p peaks in XPS spectra indicate the charge transfer between the Au and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The increase in d-hole population of Au seeds after the conjugation with iron oxides follows the order flower-like Au-Fe3O4 (FLNPs)>dumbbell-like Au-Fe3O4 (DBNPs)>Au seeds. In addition, the Fe(2+) valence state increases in Au-Fe3O4 heterostructures, which provides evidence to support the hypothesis of charge transfer between Au and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The theoretical simulation of Au L3-edge XAS further confirms the production of Au-Fe and Au-O bonds at the interface of Au/Fe3O4 and the epitaxial linkage relationship between Au and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. In addition, the electron deficient of Au seeds increases upon increasing Fe3O4 nanoparticles on a single Au seed, and subsequently decreases the catalytic activity of Au in the Au-Fe3O4 heterostructures. The catalytic activity of Au-Fe3O4 toward ORR follows the order Au seeds>Au-Fe3O4 DBNPs>Au-Fe3O4 FLNPs, which is positively correlated to the extent of electronic deficiency of Au in Au-Fe3O4 heterostructures.

  20. Nanoscale Engineering of Heterostructured Anode Materials for Boosting Lithium-Ion Storage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gen; Yan, Litao; Luo, Hongmei; Guo, Shaojun

    2016-09-01

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), as one of the most important electrochemical energy-storage devices, currently provide the dominant power source for a range of devices, including portable electronic devices and electric vehicles, due to their high energy and power densities. The interest in exploring new electrode materials for LIBs has been drastically increasing due to the surging demands for clean energy. However, the challenging issues essential to the development of electrode materials are their low lithium capacity, poor rate ability, and low cycling stability, which strongly limit their practical applications. Recent remarkable advances in material science and nanotechnology enable rational design of heterostructured nanomaterials with optimized composition and fine nanostructure, providing new opportunities for enhancing electrochemical performance. Here, the progress as to how to design new types of heterostructured anode materials for enhancing LIBs is reviewed, in the terms of capacity, rate ability, and cycling stability: i) carbon-nanomaterials-supported heterostructured anode materials; ii) conducting-polymer-coated electrode materials; iii) inorganic transition-metal compounds with core@shell structures; and iv) combined strategies to novel heterostructures. By applying different strategies, nanoscale heterostructured anode materials with reduced size, large surfaces area, enhanced electronic conductivity, structural stability, and fast electron and ion transport, are explored for boosting LIBs in terms of high capacity, long cycling lifespan, and high rate durability. Finally, the challenges and perspectives of future materials design for high-performance LIB anodes are considered. The strategies discussed here not only provide promising electrode materials for energy storage, but also offer opportunities in being extended for making a variety of novel heterostructured nanomaterials for practical renewable energy applications.

  1. Controlled fabrication of photoactive copper oxide-cobalt oxide nanowire heterostructures for efficient phenol photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenwu; Chopra, Nitin

    2012-10-24

    Fabrication of oxide nanowire heterostructures with controlled morphology, interface, and phase purity is critical for high-efficiency and low-cost photocatalysis. Here, we have studied the formation of copper oxide-cobalt nanowire heterostructures by sputtering and subsequent air annealing to result in cobalt oxide (Co(3)O(4))-coated CuO nanowires. This approach allowed fabrication of standing nanowire heterostructures with tunable compositions and morphologies. The vertically standing CuO nanowires were synthesized in a thermal growth method. The shell growth kinetics of Co and Co(3)O(4) on CuO nanowires, morphological evolution of the shell, and nanowire self-shadowing effects were found to be strongly dependent on sputtering duration, air-annealing conditions, and alignment of CuO nanowires. Finite element method (FEM) analysis indicated that alignment and stiffness of CuO-Co nanowire heterostructures greatly influenced the nanomechanical aspects such as von Mises equivalent stress distribution and bending of nanowire heterostructures during the Co deposition process. This fundamental knowledge was critical for the morphological control of Co and Co(3)O(4) on CuO nanowires with desired interfaces and a uniform coating. Band gap energies and phenol photodegradation capability of CuO-Co(3)O(4) nanowire heterostructures were studied as a function of Co(3)O(4) morphology. Multiple absorption edges and band gap tailings were observed for these heterostructures, indicating photoactivity from visible to UV range. A polycrystalline Co(3)O(4) shell on CuO nanowires showed the best photodegradation performance (efficiency ~50-90%) in a low-powered UV or visible light illumination with a sacrificial agent (H(2)O(2)). An anomalously high efficiency (~67.5%) observed under visible light without sacrificial agent for CuO nanowires coated with thin (∼5.6 nm) Co(3)O(4) shell and nanoparticles was especially interesting. Such photoactive heterostructures demonstrate unique

  2. Space concentrator solar cells based on multilayer LPE grown AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khvostikov, V. P.; Larionov, V. R.; Paleeva, E. V.; Sorokina, S. V.; Chosta, O. I.; Shvarts, M. Z.; Zimogorova, N. S.

    1995-01-01

    The high efficiency solar cells based on multilayer AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures, prepared by low temperature liquid phase epitaxy (LPE), were developed and tested. An investigation of the low temperature LPE process for the crystallization of AlGaAs heterostructures of as high as 24.0 to 24.7 percent under AMO conditions at concentration ratios of 20 to 100x, were reached. Developed solar cells show substantial radiation resistance to the damage induced by 3.75 MeV electrons.

  3. Probing carrier dynamics of individual layers in a heterostructure using transient reflectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Salahuddin; Jayabalan, J. Singh, Asha; Yogi, Rachana; Chari, Rama

    2015-09-21

    We report the wavelength dependent transient reflectivity measurements in AlGaAs-GaAs heterostructures having two-dimensional electron (or hole) gas near the interface. Using a multilayer model for transient reflectivity, we show that the magnitude and sign of contributions from the carriers in two-dimensional electron (or hole) gas and GaAs to the total signal depends on the wavelength. Further, it has been shown that it is possible to study the carrier dynamics in a given layer of a heterostructure by performing transient reflectivity at specific wavelengths.

  4. Recent progress of photodetectors based on MX2/graphene van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hang; Qin, Shiqiao; Fang, Jinyue; Peng, Gang; Zhang, Xueao

    2016-10-01

    Recently, heterostructures, combining the unique advantages of both graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs, also known as MX2), have exhibited extraordinary photo-electrical properties, thus attracted tremendous interests worldwide. In this paper, we overviewed recent progress of MX2/Graphene van der Waals heterostructures, including the preparation methods, relevant parameters in opto-electronic measurements, physical mechanisms, existing experimental results and encountered problems. Here, we focus to cover the development of entire field, and provide a comprehensive and accurate understanding concerning this field, which may be helpful for interested researchers in this area.

  5. Atomically thin resonant tunnel diodes built from synthetic van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chuan; Ghosh, Ram Krishna; Addou, Rafik; Lu, Ning; Eichfeld, Sarah M; Zhu, Hui; Li, Ming-Yang; Peng, Xin; Kim, Moon J; Li, Lain-Jong; Wallace, Robert M; Datta, Suman; Robinson, Joshua A

    2015-06-19

    Vertical integration of two-dimensional van der Waals materials is predicted to lead to novel electronic and optical properties not found in the constituent layers. Here, we present the direct synthesis of two unique, atomically thin, multi-junction heterostructures by combining graphene with the monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2). The realization of MoS2-WSe2-graphene and WSe2-MoS2-graphene heterostructures leads to resonant tunnelling in an atomically thin stack with spectrally narrow, room temperature negative differential resistance characteristics.

  6. Spin lifetime tuning in zincblende heterostructures and applications to spin devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartoixa, X.; Ting, D. Z. -Y.; Chang, Y. -C.

    2004-01-01

    We present analytical expressions for the D'yakonov-Perel' spin relaxation rates under the combined action of bulk and structural inversion asymmetry for zincblende heterostructures when terms up to linear and third order in k are included in the Hamiltonian. We see for heterostructures that, under the right conditions, the lowest-order-in-k component of the spin relaxation tensor can be made to vanish for all spin components at the same time. We study how the inclusion of terms of higher order in k affects these results.

  7. Study of the absorption coefficient in layers of a semiconductor laser heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Veselov, D A; Pikhtin, N A; Lyutetskiy, A V; Nikolaev, D N; Slipchenko, S O; Sokolova, Z N; Shamakhov, V V; Shashkin, I S; Voronkova, N V; Tarasov, I S

    2015-07-31

    A method of studying the absorption coefficient in layers of semiconductor lasers is proposed. Using lasers based on MOVPE-grown separate-confinement heterostructures with a broadened waveguide, the absorption coefficient is investigated under pulsed current pumping. It is found that when the pump current flows through the laser in question, an additional internal optical absorption arises in the heterostructure layers. It is shown that an increase in the pump current density up to 20 kA cm{sup -2} leads to an increase in absorption up to 2.5 cm{sup -1}. The feasibility of studying free-carrier absorption in the active region is demonstrated. (lasers)

  8. Plasmon-controlled optimum gate bias for GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimukovič, A.; Matulionis, A.; Liberis, J.; Šermukšnis, E.; Sakalas, P.; Zhang, F.; Leach, J. H.; Avrutin, V.; Morkoç, H.

    2013-05-01

    Electron density-dependent dc, rf and power characteristics are investigated for nearly lattice-matched InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs). The best performance in respect to transconductance and cutoff frequency is demonstrated at the optimal gate bias of -8 V for the devices with electron sheet density of 3 × 1013 cm-2 (measured on Hall bars of as-grown heterostructures). The results are in fair agreement with the universal bias-density relation controlled by the plasmon-assisted ultrafast decay of nonequilibrium optical phonons launched by hot electrons.

  9. Interfacial control of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in heavy metal/ferromagnetic metal thin film heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xin; Yu, Guoqiang; Li, Xiang; Wang, Tao; Wu, Di; Olsson, Kevin S.; Chu, Zhaodong; An, Kyongmo; Xiao, John Q.; Wang, Kang L.; Li, Xiaoqin

    2016-11-01

    The interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) in ultrathin magnetic thin film heterostructures provides a new approach for controlling spin textures on mesoscopic length scales. Here we investigate the dependence of the interfacial DMI constant D on a Pt wedge insertion layer in Ta/CoFeB/Pt(wedge)/MgO thin films by observing the asymmetric spin-wave dispersion using Brillouin light scattering. Continuous tuning of D by more than a factor of 3 is realized by inserting less than one monolayer of Pt. The observations provide new insights for designing magnetic thin film heterostructures with tailored D for controlling skyrmions and magnetic domain-wall chirality and dynamics.

  10. Photoelectric properties of nCdS-nGaAs heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akramov, Kh. T.; Aripov, K. Sh.; Teshabaev, A. T.

    The photoelectric properties of nCdS-nGaAs heterostructures fabricated by the gas-transport deposition of CdS films on nGaAs substrates with /100/ and /111/ orientations are investigated at different light intensities in the temperature range 77-300 K. Particular attention is given to the effect of the process variables on the characteristics of the heterostructure. It is shown that the electrical and photoelectric characteristics of the structures are improved with increasing depth of the heterojunction.

  11. Spin-Orbit Effects in CoFeB/MgO Heterostructures with Heavy Metal Underlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrejon, Jacob; Kim, Junyeon; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Hayashi, Masamitsu

    2016-10-01

    We study effects originating from the strong spin-orbit coupling in CoFeB/MgO heterostructures with heavy metal (HM) underlayers. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at the CoFeB/MgO interface, the spin Hall angle of the heavy metal layer, current induced torques and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction at the HM/CoFeB interfaces are studied for films in which the early 5d transition metals are used as the HM underlayer. We show how the choice of the HM layer influences these intricate spin-orbit effects that emerge within the bulk and at interfaces of the heterostructures.

  12. Method of making an ion-implanted planar-buried-heterostructure diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Thomas M.; Hammons, Burrell E.; Myers, David R.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1992-01-01

    Planar-buried-heterostructure, graded-index, separate-confinement-heterostructure semiconductor diode laser 10 includes a single quantum well or multi-quantum well active stripe 12 disposed between a p-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding lever 14 and an n-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 16. The laser 10 includes an iion implanted n-type region 28 within the p-type cladding layer 14 and further includes an ion implanted p-type region 26 within the n-type cladding layer 16. The ion implanted regions are disposed for defining a lateral extent of the active stripe.

  13. In-plane anisotropic converse magnetoelectric coupling effect in FeGa/polyvinylidene fluoride heterostructure films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhan, Qingfeng; Dai, Guohong; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Yang, Huali; Liu, Yiwei; Li, Run-Wei

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the converse magnetoelectric (CME) effect in the Fe81Ga19/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) heterostructure films. A weak in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was observed in the as-deposited magnetostrictive FeGa films. When a positive (negative) electric field is applied on the ferroelectric PVDF substrates, both the coercivity and the squareness of magnetic hysteresis loops of FeGa films for the magnetic field parallel to the easy axis become larger (smaller), but for the magnetic field parallel to the hard axis the coercivity and the remanence get smaller (larger), indicating an anisotropic CME effect in FeGa/PVDF heterostructure films.

  14. Resonant Versus Anti-Resonant Tunneling at Carbon Nanotube A-B-A Heterostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mingo, N.; Yang, Liu; Han, Jie; Anantram, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    Narrow antiresonances going to zero transmission are found to occur for general (2n,0)(n,n)(2n,0) carbon nanotube heterostructures, whereas the complementary configuration, (n,n)(2n,0)(n,n), displays simple resonant tunneling behaviour. We compute examples for different cases, and give a simple explanation for the appearance of antiresonances in one case but not in the other. Conditions and ranges for the occurrence of these different behaviors are stated. The phenomenon of anti-resonant tunneling, which has passed unnoticed in previous studies of nanotube heterostructures, adds up to the rich set of behaviors available to nanotube based quantum effect devices.

  15. Tunable carbon nanotube-tungsten carbide nanoparticles heterostructures by vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Min; Guo, Hongyan; Ge, Changchun; Yan, Qingzhi Lang, Shaoting

    2014-05-14

    A simple, versatile route for the synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT)-tungsten carbide nanoparticles heterostructures was set up via vapor deposition process. For the first time, amorphous CNTs (α-CNTs) were used to immobilized tungsten carbide nanoparticles. By adjusting the synthesis and annealing temperature, α-CNTs/amorphous tungsten carbide, α-CNTs/W{sub 2}C, and CNTs/W{sub 2}C/WC heterostructures were prepared. This approach provides an efficient method to attach other metal carbides and other nanoparticles to carbon nanotubes with tunable properties.

  16. First-principles study of electronic and magnetic structures of CoFeB|Ta and CoFe|TaB heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Tomoyuki; Ohno, Takahisa; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2015-02-01

    The electronic and magnetic structures of the CoFeB|Ta and CoFe|TaB heterostructures were investigated from first principles in an attempt to clarify the effect of the Ta layer on the energetic stability and magnetisation of the heterostructures, which are used in magnetic random access memory devices. The electronic structures of these heterostructures were calculated by using the density functional pseudopotential method in the generalised gradient approximation. Calculation clarified that the Ta layer of the CoFeB|Ta heterostructure energetically stabilised the heterostructure, chemically absorbing the B atoms present in its CoFeB layer, and intensified the magnetisation of the heterostructure. The result is consistent with the conventional understanding that the Ta layer works as a getter of B atoms. The d electronic states of the heterostructures were investigated by calculating d electron numbers of metal atoms of the heterostructure. Interestingly, it was found that the Ta layer of both the heterostructures was spin polarised and the spin- polarisation direction reversed by the B atom absorption by the Ta layer. The results suggest that the Ta layer actively participates in the magnetisation of the heterostructure, contrary to the conventional understanding that the Ta layer is irrelevant to the magnetisation of the heterostructure.

  17. Strain relaxation in (0001) AlN/GaN heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourret, Alain; Adelmann, Christoph; Daudin, Bruno; Rouvière, Jean-Luc; Feuillet, Guy; Mula, Guido

    2001-06-01

    The strain-relaxation phenomena during the early stages of plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy growth of lattice-mismatched wurtzite (0001) AlN/GaN heterostructures have been studied by real-time recording of the in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), ex situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic-force microscopy. A pseudo-two-dimensional layer-by-layer growth is observed at substrate temperatures of 640-660 °C, as evidenced by RHEED and TEM. However, the variation of the in-plane lattice parameter during growth and after growth has been found to be complex. Three steps have been seen during the deposition of lattice-mismatched AlN and GaN layers: they were interpreted as the succession of the formation of flat platelets, 3-6 monolayers high (0.8-1.5 nm) and 10-20 nm in diameter, their partial coalescence, and gradual dislocation introduction. Platelet formation leads to elastic relaxation as high as 1.8%, i.e., a considerable part of the AlN/GaN lattice mismatch of 2.4%, and can be reversible. Platelets are always observed during the initial stages of growth and are almost insensitive to the metal/N ratio. In contrast, platelet coalescence and dislocation introduction are very dependent on the metal/N ratio: no coalescence occurs and the dislocation introduction rate is higher under N-rich conditions. In all cases, the misfit dislocation density, as measured by the irreversible relaxation, is initially of the order of 7×1011 cm-2 and decreases exponentially with the layer thickness. These results are interpreted in the framework of a model that emphasizes the important role of the flat platelets for dislocation nucleation.

  18. Black phosphorene/monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides as two dimensional van der Waals heterostructures: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    You, Baiqing; Wang, Xiaocha; Zheng, Zhida; Mi, Wenbo

    2016-03-14

    The electronic structure of black phosphorene (BP)/monolayer 1H-XT2 (X = Mo, W; T = S, Se, Te) two dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures have been calculated by the first-principles method. It is found that the electronic band structures of both BP and XT2 are preserved in the combined van der Waals heterostructures. The WSe2/BP van der Waals heterostructure demonstrates a type-I band alignment, but the MoS2/BP, MoSe2/BP, MoTe2/BP, WS2/BP and WTe2/BP van der Waals heterostructures demonstrate a type-II band alignment. In particular, the n-type XT2/p-type BP van der Waals heterostructures can be applied in p-n diode and logical devices. Strong spin splitting appears in all of the heterostructures when considering the spin orbital coupling. Our results play a significant role in the prediction of novel 2D van der Waals heterostructures that have potential applications in spin-filter devices, spin field effect transistors, optoelectronic devices, etc.

  19. Interlayer Exciton Optoelectronics in a 2D Heterostructure p-n Junction.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jason S; Rivera, Pasqual; Schaibley, John; Lee-Wong, Eric; Yu, Hongyi; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David; Cobden, David; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2017-02-08

    Semiconductor heterostructures are backbones for solid-state-based optoelectronic devices. Recent advances in assembly techniques for van der Waals heterostructures have enabled the band engineering of semiconductor heterojunctions for atomically thin optoelectronic devices. In two-dimensional heterostructures with type II band alignment, interlayer excitons, where Coulomb bound electrons and holes are confined to opposite layers, have shown promising properties for novel excitonic devices, including a large binding energy, micron-scale in-plane drift-diffusion, and a long population and valley polarization lifetime. Here, we demonstrate interlayer exciton optoelectronics based on electrostatically defined lateral p-n junctions in a MoSe2-WSe2 heterobilayer. Applying a forward bias enables the first observation of electroluminescence from interlayer excitons. At zero bias, the p-n junction functions as a highly sensitive photodetector, where the wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurement allows the direct observation of resonant optical excitation of the interlayer exciton. The resulting photocurrent amplitude from the interlayer exciton is about 200 times smaller than the resonant excitation of intralayer exciton. This implies that the interlayer exciton oscillator strength is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than that of the intralayer exciton due to the spatial separation of electron and hole to the opposite layers. These results lay the foundation for exploiting the interlayer exciton in future 2D heterostructure optoelectronic devices.

  20. Enhancement of photoluminescence in ZnS/ZnO quantum dots interfacial heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalakshmi, M.; Sohila, S.; Ramesh, R.; Bhalerao, G.M.

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► ZnS/ZnO quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by controlled oxidation of ZnS nanoparticles. ► Interfacial heterostructure formation of ZnS/ZnO QDs is seen in HRTEM. ► Enormous enhancement of UV emission (∼10 times) in ZnS/ZnO QDs heterostructure is observed. ► Phonon confinement effect is seen in the Raman spectrum. -- Abstract: ZnS/ZnO quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by controlled oxidation of ZnS nanoparticles. HRTEM image showed small nanocrystals of size 4 nm and the magnified image of single quantum dot shows interfacial heterostructure formation. The optical absorption spectrum shows a blue shift of 0.19 and 0.23 eV for ZnO and ZnS QDs, respectively. This is due to the confinement of charge carries within the nanostructures. Enormous enhancement in UV emission (10 times) is reported which is attributed to interfacial heterostructure formation. Raman spectrum shows phonons of wurtzite ZnS and ZnO. Phonon confinement effect is seen in the Raman spectrum wherein LO phonon peaks of ZnS and ZnO are shifted towards lower wavenumber side and are broadened.

  1. Determination of nonradiative recombination in high quantum efficiency GaAs/InGaP heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chia-Yeh; Wang, Chengao; Hasselbeck, Michael P.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor; Malloy, Kevin J.

    2010-02-01

    We characterize high quantum efficiency double GaAs/InGaP heterostructures used in semiconductor laser cooling. To identify potential samples for laser cooling, measuring the nonradiative recombination rate coefficient is necessary. We describe a technique called power dependent photoluminescence measurement, which when combined with timeresolved photoluminescence lifetime determines the nonradiative recombination coefficient.

  2. First principles calculations of solid-state thermionic transport in layered van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zebarjadi, Mona; Esfarjani, Keivan

    2016-08-21

    This work aims at understanding solid-state energy conversion and transport in layered (van der Waals) heterostructures in contact with metallic electrodes via a first-principles approach. As an illustration, a graphene/phosphorene/graphene heterostructure in contact with gold electrodes is studied by using density functional theory (DFT)-based first principles calculations combined with real space Green's function (GF) formalism. We show that for a monolayer phosphorene, quantum tunneling dominates the transport. By adding more phosphorene layers, one can switch from tunneling-dominated transport to thermionic-dominated transport, resulting in transporting more heat per charge carrier, thus, enhancing the cooling coefficient of performance. The use of layered van der Waals heterostructures has two advantages: (a) thermionic transport barriers can be tuned by changing the number of layers, and (b) thermal conductance across these non-covalent structures is very weak. The phonon thermal conductance of the present van der Waals heterostructure is found to be 4.1 MW m(-2) K(-1) which is one order of magnitude lower than the lowest value for that of covalently-bonded interfaces. The thermionic coefficient of performance for the proposed device is 18.5 at 600 K corresponding to an equivalent ZT of 0.13, which is significant for nanoscale devices. This study shows that layered van der Waals structures have great potential to be used as solid-state energy-conversion devices.

  3. Large area molybdenum disulphide- epitaxial graphene vertical Van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Pierucci, Debora; Henck, Hugo; Naylor, Carl H; Sediri, Haikel; Lhuillier, Emmanuel; Balan, Adrian; Rault, Julien E; Dappe, Yannick J; Bertran, François; Fèvre, Patrick Le; Johnson, A T Charlie; Ouerghi, Abdelkarim

    2016-06-01

    Two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) show great potential for optoelectronic devices due to their electronic and optical properties. A metal-semiconductor interface, as epitaxial graphene - molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), is of great interest from the standpoint of fundamental science, as it constitutes an outstanding platform to investigate the interlayer interaction in van der Waals heterostructures. Here, we study large area MoS2-graphene-heterostructures formed by direct transfer of chemical-vapor deposited MoS2 layer onto epitaxial graphene/SiC. We show that via a direct transfer, which minimizes interface contamination, we can obtain high quality and homogeneous van der Waals heterostructures. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements combined with Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations show that the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in monolayer MoS2 is maintained in these heterostructures due to the weak van der Waals interaction with epitaxial graphene. A downshift of the Raman 2D band of the graphene, an up shift of the A1g peak of MoS2 and a significant photoluminescence quenching are observed for both monolayer and bilayer MoS2 as a result of charge transfer from MoS2 to epitaxial graphene under illumination. Our work provides a possible route to modify the thin film TDMCs photoluminescence properties via substrate engineering for future device design.

  4. Electron microscopy characterization of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures grown on Si (111) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkanatsiou, A.; Lioutas, Ch. B.; Frangis, N.; Polychroniadis, E. K.; Prystawko, P.; Leszczynski, M.

    2017-03-01

    AlGaN/GaN buffer heterostructures were grown on ;on axis; and 4 deg off Si (111) substrates by MOVPE. The electron microscopy study reveals the very good epitaxial growth of the layers. Almost c-plane orientated nucleation grains are achieved after full AlN layer growth. Step-graded AlGaN layers were introduced, in order to prevent the stress relaxation and to work as a dislocation filter. Thus, a crack-free smooth surface of the final GaN epitaxial layer is achieved in both cases, making the buffer structure ideal for the forthcoming growth of the heterostructure (used for HEMT device applications). Finally, the growth of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure on top presents characteristic and periodic undulations (V-pits) on the surface, due to strain relaxation reasons. The AlN interlayer grown in between the heterostructure demonstrates an almost homogeneous thickness, probably reinforcing the 2DEG electrical characteristics.

  5. Aqueous synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of ZnO/Fe2O3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achouri, Faouzi; Corbel, Serge; Aboulaich, Abdelhay; Balan, Lavinia; Ghrabi, Ahmed; Ben Said, Myriam; Schneider, Raphaël

    2014-10-01

    We report a facile synthesis of ZnO/Fe2O3 heterostructures based on the hydrolysis of FeCl3 in the presence of ZnO nanoparticles. The material structure, composition, and its optical properties have been examined by means of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy. Results obtained show that 2.9 nm-sized Fe2O3 nanoparticles produced assemble with ZnO to form ZnO/Fe2O3 heterostructures. We have evaluated the photodegradation performances of ZnO/Fe2O3 materials using salicylic acid under UV-light. ZnO/Fe2O3 heterostructures exhibited enhanced photocatalytic capabilities than commercial ZnO due to the effective electron/hole separation at the interfaces of ZnO/Fe2O3 allowing the enhanced hydroxyl and superoxide radicals production from the heterostructure.

  6. Electric-field tunable electronic structure in WSe2/arsenene van der Waals heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fang; Li, Wei; Dai, Xianqi

    2017-04-01

    The electronic properties of WSe2/arsenene van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure with an external electric field (Eext) are investigated by density functional theory (DFT). It is demonstrated that the WSe2/arsenene heterobilayer is a type-II vdW heterostructure, and thus electrons and holes are spatially separated. The WSe2/arsenene heterobilayer undergoes a transition from semiconductor to metal when subjected to an Eext. The positive and negative Eext have different effects on the band gap due to the spontaneous electric polarization in WSe2/arsenene heterostructure. The variation of band edges as a function of Eext provides further insight to the linear variation of the band gap. Moreover, the WSe2/arsenene vdW heterostructure experiences transitions from type-II to type-I and then from type-I to type-II with an increasing negative Eext. The present study would open a new avenue for application of ultrathin WSe2/arsenene heterobilayer in future nano- and optoelectronics.

  7. Exchange bias effect in NiMnSb/CrN heterostructures deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma Akkera, Harish; Barman, Rahul; Kaur, Navjot; Choudhary, Nitin; Kaur, Davinder

    2013-05-01

    Exchange bias has been studied in various Ni50Mn36.8Sb13.2/CrN heterostructures with different CrN thicknesses (15 nm-80 nm), grown on Si (100) substrate using magnetron sputtering. The shift in hysteresis loop up to 51 Oe from the origin was observed at 10 K for Ni-Mn-Sb film without CrN layer. On the other hand, a significant shifting of hysteresis loop was observed with antiferromagnetic (AFM) CrN layer in Ni50Mn36.8Sb13.2/CrN heterostructure. The exchange coupled 140 nm Ni50Mn36.8Sb13.2/35 nm CrN heterostructure exhibited a relatively large exchange coupling field of 148 Oe at 10 K compared to other films, which may be related to uncompensated and pinned AFM spins at FM-AFM interface and different AFM domain structures for different thicknesses of CrN layer. Further nanoindentation measurements revealed the higher values of hardness and elastic modulus of about 12.7 ± 0.38 GPa and 179.83 ± 1.24 GPa in Ni50Mn36.8Sb13.2/CrN heterostructures making them promising candidate for various multifunctional MEMS devices.

  8. Interlayer Exciton Optoelectronics in a 2D Heterostructure p–n Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jason S.; Rivera, Pasqual; Schaibley, John; Lee-Wong, Eric; Yu, Hongyi; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David; Cobden, David; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2017-02-01

    Semiconductor heterostructures are backbones for solid state based optoelectronic devices. Recent advances in assembly techniques for van der Waals heterostructures has enabled the band engineering of semiconductor heterojunctions for atomically thin optoelectronic devices. In two-dimensional heterostructures with type II band alignment, interlayer excitons, where Coulomb-bound electrons and holes are confined to opposite layers, have shown promising properties for novel excitonic devices, including a large binding energy, micron-scale in-plane drift-diffusion, and long population and valley polarization lifetime. Here, we demonstrate interlayer exciton optoelectronics based on electrostatically defined lateral p-n junctions in a MoSe2-WSe2 heterobilayer. Applying a forward bias enables the first observation of electroluminescence from interlayer excitons. At zero bias, the p-n junction functions as a highly sensitive photodetector, where the wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurement allows the direct observation of resonant optical excitation of the interlayer exciton. The resulting photocurrent amplitude from the interlayer exciton is about 200 times smaller compared to the resonant excitation of intralayer exciton. This implies that the interlayer exciton oscillator strength is two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the intralayer exciton due to the spatial separation of electron and hole to opposite layers. These results lay the foundation for exploiting the interlayer exciton in future 2D heterostructure optoelectronic devices.

  9. Controllable Schottky barrier in GaSe/graphene heterostructure: the role of interface dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Chen; Lin, Zuzhang; Zhou, Jian; Sun, Zhimei

    2017-03-01

    The discoveries of graphene and other related two-dimensional crystals have recently led to a new technology: van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures based on these atomically thin materials. Such a paradigm has been proved promising for a wide range of applications from nanoelectronics to optoelectronics and spintronics. Here, using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic structure and interface characteristics of a newly synthesized GaSe/graphene (GaSe/g) vdW heterostructure. We show that the intrinsic electronic properties of GaSe and graphene are both well preserved in the heterostructure, with a Schottky barrier formed at the GaSe/g interface. More interestingly, the band alignment between graphene and GaSe can be effectively modulated by tuning the interfacial distance or applying an external electric filed. This makes the Schottky barrier height (SBH) controllable, which is highly desirable in the electronic and optoelectronic devices based on vdW heterostructures. In particular, the tunability of the interface dipole and potential step is further uncovered to be the underlying mechanism that ensures this controllable tuning of SBH.

  10. Ga self-diffusion in isotopically enriched GaAs heterostructures doped with Si and Zn

    SciTech Connect

    Norseng, Marshall Stephen

    1999-12-01

    This study attempts to advance the modeling of AlGaAs/GaAs/AlAs diffusion by experimental investigation of Ga self-diffusion in undoped, as-grown doped and Zinc diffused structures. We utilize novel, isotopically enriched superlattice and heterostructure samples to provide direct observation and accurate measurement of diffusion with a precision not possible using conventional techniques.

  11. Tunneling Spectroscopy Study of Spin-Polarized Quasiparticle Injection Effects in Cuparate/Manganite Heterostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, J. Y. T.; Yeh, N. C.; Vasquez, R. P.

    1998-01-01

    Scanning tunneling spectroscopy was performed at 4.2K on epitaxial thin-film heterostructures comprising YBa2Cu3O7 and La0.7Ca0.3MnO3, to study the microscopic effects of spin-polarized quasiparticle injection from the half-metallic ferromagnetic manganite on the high-Tc cuprate superconductor.

  12. Large area molybdenum disulphide- epitaxial graphene vertical Van der Waals heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Pierucci, Debora; Henck, Hugo; Naylor, Carl H.; Sediri, Haikel; Lhuillier, Emmanuel; Balan, Adrian; Rault, Julien E.; Dappe, Yannick J.; Bertran, François; Fèvre, Patrick Le; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Ouerghi, Abdelkarim

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) show great potential for optoelectronic devices due to their electronic and optical properties. A metal-semiconductor interface, as epitaxial graphene - molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), is of great interest from the standpoint of fundamental science, as it constitutes an outstanding platform to investigate the interlayer interaction in van der Waals heterostructures. Here, we study large area MoS2-graphene-heterostructures formed by direct transfer of chemical-vapor deposited MoS2 layer onto epitaxial graphene/SiC. We show that via a direct transfer, which minimizes interface contamination, we can obtain high quality and homogeneous van der Waals heterostructures. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements combined with Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations show that the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in monolayer MoS2 is maintained in these heterostructures due to the weak van der Waals interaction with epitaxial graphene. A downshift of the Raman 2D band of the graphene, an up shift of the A1g peak of MoS2 and a significant photoluminescence quenching are observed for both monolayer and bilayer MoS2 as a result of charge transfer from MoS2 to epitaxial graphene under illumination. Our work provides a possible route to modify the thin film TDMCs photoluminescence properties via substrate engineering for future device design. PMID:27246929

  13. Enhanced orbital magnetic moments in magnetic heterostructures with interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Tetsuro; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Inami, Nobuhito; Takeichi, Yasuo; Mitani, Seiji; Ono, Kanta; Hayashi, Masamitsu

    2015-10-12

    We have studied the magnetic layer thickness dependence of the orbital magnetic moment in magnetic heterostructures to identify contributions from interfaces. Three different heterostructures, Ta/CoFeB/MgO, Pt/Co/AlOx and Pt/Co/Pt, which possess significant interface contribution to the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, are studied as model systems. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy is used to evaluate the relative orbital moment, i.e. the ratio of the orbital to spin moments, of the magnetic elements constituting the heterostructures. We find that the relative orbital moment of Co in Pt/Co/Pt remains constant against its thickness whereas the moment increases with decreasing Co layer thickness for Pt/Co/AlOx, suggesting that a non-zero interface orbital moment exists for the latter system. For Ta/CoFeB/MgO, a non-zero interface orbital moment is found only for Fe. X-ray absorption spectra shows that a particular oxidized Co state in Pt/Co/AlOx, absent in other heterosturctures, may give rise to the interface orbital moment in this system. These results show element specific contributions to the interface orbital magnetic moments in ultrathin magnetic heterostructures.

  14. Enhanced orbital magnetic moments in magnetic heterostructures with interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Tetsuro; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Inami, Nobuhito; Takeichi, Yasuo; Mitani, Seiji; Ono, Kanta; Hayashi, Masamitsu

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic layer thickness dependence of the orbital magnetic moment in magnetic heterostructures to identify contributions from interfaces. Three different heterostructures, Ta/CoFeB/MgO, Pt/Co/AlOx and Pt/Co/Pt, which possess significant interface contribution to the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, are studied as model systems. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy is used to evaluate the relative orbital moment, i.e. the ratio of the orbital to spin moments, of the magnetic elements constituting the heterostructures. We find that the relative orbital moment of Co in Pt/Co/Pt remains constant against its thickness whereas the moment increases with decreasing Co layer thickness for Pt/Co/AlOx, suggesting that a non-zero interface orbital moment exists for the latter system. For Ta/CoFeB/MgO, a non-zero interface orbital moment is found only for Fe. X-ray absorption spectra shows that a particular oxidized Co state in Pt/Co/AlOx, absent in other heterosturctures, may give rise to the interface orbital moment in this system. These results show element specific contributions to the interface orbital magnetic moments in ultrathin magnetic heterostructures. PMID:26456454

  15. Enhanced orbital magnetic moments in magnetic heterostructures with interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Tetsuro; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Inami, Nobuhito; Takeichi, Yasuo; Mitani, Seiji; Ono, Kanta; Hayashi, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the magnetic layer thickness dependence of the orbital magnetic moment in magnetic heterostructures to identify contributions from interfaces. Three different heterostructures, Ta/CoFeB/MgO, Pt/Co/AlOx and Pt/Co/Pt, which possess significant interface contribution to the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, are studied as model systems. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy is used to evaluate the relative orbital moment, i.e. the ratio of the orbital to spin moments, of the magnetic elements constituting the heterostructures. We find that the relative orbital moment of Co in Pt/Co/Pt remains constant against its thickness whereas the moment increases with decreasing Co layer thickness for Pt/Co/AlOx, suggesting that a non-zero interface orbital moment exists for the latter system. For Ta/CoFeB/MgO, a non-zero interface orbital moment is found only for Fe. X-ray absorption spectra shows that a particular oxidized Co state in Pt/Co/AlOx, absent in other heterosturctures, may give rise to the interface orbital moment in this system. These results show element specific contributions to the interface orbital magnetic moments in ultrathin magnetic heterostructures.

  16. Bandgap properties of diamond structure photonic crystal heterostructures with inclined and curved interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Haitao; Li, Yong; Wang, Hong

    2014-06-14

    The 3D (dimensional) diamond structure photonic crystal heterostructures with different lattice constants were prepared using rapid prototyping and gel casting with alumina. In this paper, heterostructures with inclined and curved interfaces were designed and its bandgap properties were studied. The normalized resonant intensity of electromagnetic wave in heterostructure with inclined and curved interface is stronger than that in the ordinary heterostructure without modified interface. The influence of curved interface on transmission properties of electromagnetic wave was investigated with the radius of curvature ranging from 17 mm to 37 mm at 5 mm interval. The results show that two resonant modes appear in the photonic band gap, being similar to the band gap characteristics of the photonic crystals with two defects inside. With the increasing of the radius of curvature, the resonant mode shift to higher frequency. In the structure with a radius of curvature of 32 mm, a guiding band appears in the photonic band gap. Further increase in the radius of curvature, the guiding band will split into two resonant modes again and the two resonant modes shift to lower frequencies.

  17. Rational design and controlled synthesis of Te/Bi2Te3 heterostructure nanostring composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuzhuo; Chen, Hong; Li, Zhiliang; Huang, Ting; Zheng, Shuqi

    2015-07-01

    Te/Bi2Te3 heterostructure nanostring composites composed of several Bi2Te3 nanoplates, which were perpendicularly strung together by Te nanorod, were rationally designed and synthesized via a facile solvothermal method on a large scale. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization demonstrated that the Bi2Te3 nanoplates were rhombohedral phase and the Te nanorods were trigonal phase. The uniform nanostring morphologies were well characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Detailed heterostructures were proved via energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The morphology transformation from Bi2Te3 nanoplates to Te/Bi2Te3 heterostructure nanostrings could be controlled by adjusting the ratio of bismuth oxide to tellurium oxide. NaOH, serving as catalytic reduction agent and morphology controlling agent, played an important role in the synthesis of Te/Bi2Te3 heterostructure nanostrings. The reaction mechanism was also proposed to explain the formation process of the composites and the specific function of reagents in this reaction system.

  18. Quantum mechanical solver for confined heterostructure tunnel field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Verreck, Devin Groeseneken, Guido; Van de Put, Maarten; Sorée, Bart; Magnus, Wim; Verhulst, Anne S.; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Aaron; Vandenberghe, William G.

    2014-02-07

    Heterostructure tunnel field-effect transistors (HTFET) are promising candidates for low-power applications in future technology nodes, as they are predicted to offer high on-currents, combined with a sub-60 mV/dec subthreshold swing. However, the effects of important quantum mechanical phenomena like size confinement at the heterojunction are not well understood, due to the theoretical and computational difficulties in modeling realistic heterostructures. We therefore present a ballistic quantum transport formalism, combining a novel envelope function approach for semiconductor heterostructures with the multiband quantum transmitting boundary method, which we extend to 2D potentials. We demonstrate an implementation of a 2-band version of the formalism and apply it to study confinement in realistic heterostructure diodes and p-n-i-n HTFETs. For the diodes, both transmission probabilities and current densities are found to decrease with stronger confinement. For the p-n-i-n HTFETs, the improved gate control is found to counteract the deterioration due to confinement.

  19. Control of excitons in multi-layer van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calman, E. V.; Dorow, C. J.; Fogler, M. M.; Butov, L. V.; Hu, S.; Mishchenko, A.; Geim, A. K.

    2016-03-01

    We report an experimental study of excitons in a double quantum well van der Waals heterostructure made of atomically thin layers of MoS2 and hexagonal boron nitride. The emission of neutral and charged excitons is controlled by gate voltage, temperature, and both the helicity and the power of optical excitation.

  20. Strain-engineered optoelectronic properties of 2D transition metal dichalcogenide lateral heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Jaekwang; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G.; ...

    2017-02-17

    Compared with their bulk counterparts, 2D materials can sustain much higher elastic strain at which optical quantities such as bandgaps and absorption spectra governing optoelectronic device performance can be modified with relative ease. Using first-principles density functional theory and quasiparticle GW calculations, we demonstrate how uniaxial tensile strain can be utilized to optimize the electronic and optical properties of transition metal dichalcogenide lateral (in-plane) heterostructures such as MoX2/WX2 (X = S, Se, Te). We find that these lateral-type heterostructures may facilitate efficient electron–hole separation for light detection/harvesting and preserve their type II characteristic up to 12% of uniaxial strain. Basedmore » on the strain-dependent bandgap and band offset, we show that uniaxial tensile strain can significantly increase the power conversion efficiency of these lateral heterostructures. Our results suggest that these strain-engineered lateral heterostructures are promising for optimizing optoelectronic device performance by selectively tuning the energetics of the bandgap.« less

  1. Graphene oxide/graphene vertical heterostructure electrodes for highly efficient and flexible organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, S.; Sun, H. D.; Du, J. H.; Zhang, Z. K.; Zhang, D. D.; Ma, L. P.; Chen, J. S.; Ma, D. G.; Cheng, H. M.; Ren, W. C.

    2016-05-01

    The relatively high sheet resistance, low work function and poor compatibility with hole injection layers (HILs) seriously limit the applications of graphene as transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Here, a graphene oxide/graphene (GO/G) vertical heterostructure is developed as TCEs for high-performance OLEDs, by directly oxidizing the top layer of three-layer graphene films with ozone treatment. Such GO/G heterostructure electrodes show greatly improved optical transmittance, a large work function, high stability, and good compatibility with HIL materials (MoO3 in this work). Moreover, the conductivity of the heterostructure is not sacrificed compared to the pristine three-layer graphene electrodes, but is significantly higher than that of pristine two-layer graphene films. In addition to high flexibility, OLEDs with different emission colors based on the GO/G heterostructure TCEs show much better performance than those based on indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes. Green OLEDs with GO/G heterostructure electrodes have the maximum current efficiency and power efficiency, as high as 82.0 cd A-1 and 98.2 lm W-1, respectively, which are 36.7% (14.8%) and 59.2% (15.0%) higher than those with pristine graphene (ITO) anodes. These findings open up the possibility of using graphene for next generation high-performance flexible and wearable optoelectronics with high stability.The relatively high sheet resistance, low work function and poor compatibility with hole injection layers (HILs) seriously limit the applications of graphene as transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Here, a graphene oxide/graphene (GO/G) vertical heterostructure is developed as TCEs for high-performance OLEDs, by directly oxidizing the top layer of three-layer graphene films with ozone treatment. Such GO/G heterostructure electrodes show greatly improved optical transmittance, a large work function, high stability

  2. Controllable synthesis of metal selenide heterostructures mediated by Ag2Se nanocrystals acting as catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiangcong; Huang, Feng; Xu, Ju; Wang, Yuansheng

    2013-10-21

    Ag2Se nanocrystals were demonstrated to be novel semiconductor mediators, or in other word catalysts, for the growth of semiconductor heterostructures in solution. This is a result of the unique feature of Ag2Se as a fast ion conductor, allowing foreign cations to dissolve and then to heterogrow the second phase. Using Ag2Se nanocrystals as catalysts, dimeric metal selenide heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe and Ag2Se-ZnSe, and even multi-segment heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe-ZnSe and Ag2Se-ZnSe-CdSe, were successfully synthesized. Several interesting features were found in the Ag2Se based heterogrowth. At the initial stage of heterogrowth, a layer of the second phase forms on the surface of an Ag2Se nanosphere, with a curved junction interface between the two phases. With further growth of the second phase, the Ag2Se nanosphere tends to flatten the junction surface by modifying its shape from sphere to hemisphere in order to minimize the conjunct area and thus the interfacial energy. Notably, the crystallographic relationship of the two phases in the heterostructure varies with the lattice parameters of the second phase, in order to reduce the lattice mismatch at the interface. Furthermore, a small lattice mismatch at the interface results in a straight rod-like second phase, while a large lattice mismatch would induce a tortuous product. The reported results may provide a new route for developing novel selenide semiconductor heterostructures which are potentially applicable in optoelectronic, biomedical, photovoltaic and catalytic fields.

  3. Electronic and magnetic properties of RMnO3/AMnO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Rong; Yunoki, Seiji; Dong, Shuai; Dagotto, Elbio

    2009-09-01

    The ground-state properties of RMnO3/AMnO3 (RMO/AMO) heterostructures (with R=La,Pr,… , a trivalent rare-earth cation and A=Sr,Ca,… , a divalent alkaline cation) are studied using a two-orbital double-exchange model including the superexchange coupling and Jahn-Teller lattice distortions. To describe the charge transfer across the interface, the long-range Coulomb interaction is taken into account at the mean-field level, by self-consistently solving the Poisson’s equation. The calculations are carried out numerically on finite clusters. We find that the state stabilized near the interface of the heterostructure is similar to the state of the bulk compound (R,A)MO at electronic density close to 0.5. For instance, a charge and orbitally ordered CE state is found at the interface if the corresponding bulk (R,A)MO material is a narrow-to-intermediate bandwidth manganite. But instead the interface regime accommodates an A-type antiferromagnetic state with a uniform x2-y2 orbital order, if the bulk (R,A)MO corresponds to a wide bandwidth manganite. We argue that these results explain some of the properties of long-period (RMO)m/(AMO)n superlattices, such as (PrMnO3)m/(CaMnO3)n and (LaMnO3)m/(SrMnO3)n . We also remark that the intermediate states in between the actual interface and the bulklike regimes of the heterostructure are dependent on the bandwidth and the screening of the Coulomb interaction. In these regions of the heterostructures, states are found that do not have an analog in experimentally known bulk phase diagrams. These new states of the heterostructures provide a natural interpolation between magnetically ordered states that are stable in the bulk at different electronic densities.

  4. Electronic and magnetic properties of RMnO3 AMnO3 heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Rong; Yunoki, Seiji; Dong, Shuai; Dagotto, Elbio R

    2009-01-01

    The ground-state properties of RMnO3 /AMnO3 RMO/AMO heterostructures with R=La,Pr, . . ., a trivalent rare-earth cation and A=Sr,Ca, . . ., a divalent alkaline cation are studied using a two-orbital doubleexchange model including the superexchange coupling and Jahn-Teller lattice distortions. To describe the charge transfer across the interface, the long-range Coulomb interaction is taken into account at the mean-field level, by self-consistently solving the Poisson s equation. The calculations are carried out numerically on finite clusters. We find that the state stabilized near the interface of the heterostructure is similar to the state of the bulk compound R,AMO at electronic density close to 0.5. For instance, a charge and orbitally ordered CE state is found at the interface if the corresponding bulk R,AMO material is a narrow-to-intermediate bandwidth manganite. But instead the interface regime accommodates an A-type antiferromagnetic state with a uniform x2 y2 orbital order, if the bulk R,AMO corresponds to a wide bandwidth manganite. We argue that these results explain some of the properties of long-period RMOm/ AMOn superlattices, such as PrMnO3m/ CaMnO3n and LaMnO3m/ SrMnO3n. We also remark that the intermediate states in between the actual interface and the bulklike regimes of the heterostructure are dependent on the bandwidth and the screening of the Coulomb interaction. In these regions of the heterostructures, states are found that do not have an analog in experimentally known bulk phase diagrams. These new states of the heterostructures provide a natural interpolation between magnetically ordered states that are stable in the bulk at different electronic densities.

  5. Transport properties and electroresistance of a manganite based heterostructure: role of the manganite-manganite interface.

    PubMed

    Gadani, Keval; Dhruv, Davit; Joshi, Zalak; Boricha, Hetal; Rathod, K N; Keshvani, M J; Shah, N A; Solanki, P S

    2016-06-29

    In this paper, we report the results of the investigations on the transport properties performed across the manganite-manganite interface in the LaMnO3-δ/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/LaAlO3 (LMO/LCMO/LAO) heterostructure. The bilayered heterostructure was synthesized by a low cost and simple chemical solution deposition (CSD) method by employing the acetate precursor route. The same LMO/LCMO/LAO heterostructure was also grown using the dry metal oxide chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and the results of transport characterization have been compared on the basis of wet and dry chemical methods used. XRD Φ-scan measurements were carried out to verify the structural quality and crystallographic orientations of LMO and LCMO manganite layers, for both wet and dry chemical method grown heterostructures. For wet and dry chemical methods, the temperature dependent resistance of the LMO/LCMO interface suggests the metallic nature. The asymmetric I-V curves collected at different temperatures show normal diode characteristics which get transformed to backward diode characteristics at high temperatures under high applied voltages at Vtr for both the methods. The values of Vtr are strongly dependent on the chemical method used. I-V data have been fitted using the Simmons model at different temperatures and discussed in terms of the spin-flip scattering mechanism for both wet and dry chemical method grown heterostructures. The electric field dependent electroresistance (ER) behavior of the presently studied LMO/LCMO manganite-manganite interface, grown using wet and dry chemical methods, has been understood on the basis of complex mechanisms including charge injection, formation of the depletion region, the tunneling effect, thermal processes and junction breakdown and their dependence on the applied electric field, field polarity and temperature studied.

  6. Local Probe Spectroscopy of Two-Dimensional van der Waals Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankowitz, Matthew Abraham

    A large family of materials, collectively known as "van der Waals materials", have attracted enormous research attention over the past decade following the realization that they could be isolated into individual crystalline monolayers, with charge carriers behaving effectively two-dimensionally. More recently, an even larger class of composite materials has been realized, made possible by combining the isolated atomic layers of different materials into "van der Waals heterostructures", which can exhibit electronic and optical behaviors not observed in the parent materials alone. This thesis describes efforts to characterize the atomic-scale structural and electronic properties of these van der Waals materials and heterostructures through scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. The majority of this work addresses the properties of monolayer and few-layer graphene, whose charge carriers are described by massless and massive chiral Dirac Hamiltonians, respectively. In heterostructures with hexagonal boron nitride, an insulating isomorph of graphene, we observe electronic interference patterns between the two materials which depend on their relative rotation. As a result, replica Dirac cones are formed in the valence and conduction bands of graphene, with their energy tuned by the rotation. Further, we are able to dynamically drag the graphene lattice in these heterostructures, owing to an interaction between the scanning probe tip and the domain walls formed by the electronic interference pattern. Similar dragging is observed in domain walls of trilayer graphene, whose electronic properties are found to depend on the stacking configuration of the three layers. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy provides a direct method for visualizing the scattering pathways of electrons in these materials. By analyzing the scattering, we can directly infer properties of the band structures and local environments of these heterostructures. In bilayer graphene, we map the electrically

  7. Fabrication technology of SiGe hetero-structures and their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Akira

    2005-11-01

    SiGe hetero-structures have a high potential to improve the state-of-art Si devices particularly VLSIs and add such new functions as optics and also provide a new scientific field of materials growth and characterization. This comes from their unique properties of hetero-structures where the strain modifies the band structures. The band modification brings the increase of the mobility both of electrons and holes and the hetero-structures such as quantum wells and dots make it possible to realize light emitting devices even with indirect band-gap materials. After the success of development of hetero-structure bipolar transistors (HBTs), many people are now engaged in the research and development of FET-type devices that have much wider applications. Optical devices including light emitters and micro-cavities will provide a new possibility to enhance the performances and functions of Si VLSIs by realizing optical interconnection and opto-electronic ICs. It is obvious that these fascinating applications largely depend on the material growth, particularly control of surface reaction and formation of dislocations and surface roughness that strongly affect device performances. Here we review the fabrication technology of SiGe hetero-structures aiming at growth of high quality materials. The relaxation of strain of SiGe buffer layers grown on Si substrates is discussed in details, since many devices are formed on the strain-relaxed buffer layers that are sometimes called as 'virtual substrates'. Carbon incorporation and dot formation that are now studied to extend the possibility of SiGe are discussed in this article too. Some device applications are finally reviewed to show their high potential in the real world.

  8. Quantum phase transitions and topological proximity effects in graphene nanoribbon heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gufeng; Li, Xiaoguang; Wu, Guangfen; Wang, Jie; Culcer, Dimitrie; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-03-21

    Topological insulators are bulk insulators that possess robust chiral conducting states along their interfaces with normal insulators. A tremendous research effort has recently been devoted to topological insulator-based heterostructures, in which conventional proximity effects give rise to a series of exotic physical phenomena. Here we establish the potential existence of topological proximity effects at the interface between a topological insulator and a normal insulator, using graphene-based heterostructures as prototypical systems. Unlike conventional proximity effects in topological insulator based heterostructures, which refer to various phase transitions associated with the symmetry breaking of specific local order parameters, topological proximity effects describe the rich variety of quantum phase transitions associated with the global properties of the system measured by the location of the topological edge states. Specifically, we show that the location of the topological edge states exhibits a versatile tunability as a function of the interface orientation, the strength of the interface tunnel coupling between a topological graphene nanoribbon and a normal graphene nanoribbon, the spin-orbit coupling strength in the normal graphene nanoribbon, and the width of the system. For zigzag and bearded graphene nanoribbons, the topological edge states can be tuned to be either at the interface or outer edge of the normal ribbon. For armchair graphene nanoribbons, the potential location of the topological edge state can be further shifted to the edge of or within the normal ribbon, to the interface, or diving into the topological graphene nanoribbon. We further show that the topological phase diagram established for the prototypical graphene heterostructures can also explain the intriguing quantum phase transition reported recently in other topological-insulator heterostructures. We also discuss potential experimental realizations of the predicted topological

  9. Theory of Holes and Excitons in Semiconductor Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broido, David Allan

    Two theories are presented, one to calculate the subbands and Landau levels of holes at a GaAs-Al(,x)Ga(,1 -x)As heterojunction, and the other to determine the exciton binding energies in an undoped GaAs-Al(,x)Ga(,1-x)As quantum well. A perturbative method analogous to the bulk k(.)p method is developed to calculate the strongly interacting hole subbands in semiconductor heterostructures. The 4 x 4 Hamiltonian of Luttinger is employed to account for the coupling of the light and heavy hole states around the valence band edge where they are degenerate. In the first theory, the heterojunction potential is incorporated within the effective mass approximation and derived self-consistently in the Hartree approximation. The lack of inversion symmetry of the interface potential combined with the large spin-orbit coupling lift the spin degeneracy of the subbands even in the absence of the applied magnetic field. Effective masses and cyclotron frequencies are derived and compared with experiment. It is suggested that many-body effects may be responsible for the discrepancy that exists between theory and experiment. In the second theory, the effective mass approximation is employed to treat the quantum well potential and the screened electron-hole attraction. This theory is capable of handling coupled valence band structures and employs the full effective mass wave functions for the non-interacting electron and hole as an expansion basis for the interacting electron-hole states. A series of coupled singular integral equations in the two-dimensional k-space are derived for the binding energies. These energies are determined including the valence band coupling and intersubband interaction i.e. the interaction between electron-light hole and electron -heavy hole states. The inclusion of the intersubband interaction couples the integral equations and it is necessary to calculate the absorption spectrum. Shifts in the binding energies are determined from a comparison of the

  10. Van der Waals Epitaxy of Functional Oxide Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ying-Hao

    In the diligent pursuit of low-power consumption, multifunctional, and environmentally friendly electronics, more sophisticated requirements on functional materials are on demand. Recently, the discovery of 2D layered materials has created a revolution to this field. Pioneered by graphene, these new 2D materials exhibit abundant unusual physical phenomena that is undiscovered in bulk forms. These materials are characterized with their layer form and almost pure 2D electronic behavior. The confinement of charge and heat transport at such ultrathin planes offers possibilities to overcome the bottleneck of present device development in thickness limitation, and thus push the technologies into next generation. Van der Waals epitaxy, an epitaxial growth method to combine 2D and 3D materials, is one of current reliable manufacturing processes to fabricate 2D materials by growing these 2D materials epitaxially on 3D materials. Then, transferring the 2D materials to the substrates for practical applications. In the mean time, van der Waals epitaxy has also been used to create free-standing 3D materials by growing 3D materials on 2D materials and then removing them from 2D materials since the interfacial boding between 2D and 3D materials should be weak van der Waals bonds. In this study, we intend to take the same concept, but to integrate a family of functional materials in order to open new avenue to flexible electronics. Due to the interplay of lattice, charge, orbital, and spin degrees of freedom, correlated electrons in oxides generate a rich spectrum of competing phases and physical properties. Recently, lots of studies have suggested that oxide heterostructures provide a powerful route to create and manipulate the degrees of freedom and offer new possibilities for next generation devices, thus create a new playground for researchers to investigate novel physics and the emergence of fascinating states of condensed matter. In this talk, we use a 2D layered material as

  11. Band Alignment in MoS2/WS2 Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Heterostructures Probed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hill, Heather M; Rigosi, Albert F; Rim, Kwang Taeg; Flynn, George W; Heinz, Tony F

    2016-08-10

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), we examine the electronic structure of transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures (TMDCHs) composed of monolayers of MoS2 and WS2. STS data are obtained for heterostructures of varying stacking configuration as well as the individual monolayers. Analysis of the tunneling spectra includes the influence of finite sample temperature, yield information about the quasi-particle bandgaps, and the band alignment of MoS2 and WS2. We report the band gaps of MoS2 (2.16 ± 0.04 eV) and WS2 (2.38 ± 0.06 eV) in the materials as measured on the heterostructure regions and the general type II band alignment for the heterostructure, which shows an interfacial band gap of 1.45 ± 0.06 eV.

  12. Dynamic light-matter coupling across multiple spatial dimensions in a quantum dots-in-a-well heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Prasankumar, Rohit P; Taylor, Antoinette J

    2009-01-01

    Ultrafast density-dependent optical spectroscopic measurements on a quantum dots-in-a-well heterostructure reveal several distinctive phenomena, most notably a strong coupling between the quantum well population and light absorption at the quantum dot excited state.

  13. Imaging interfacial electrical transport in graphene–MoS{sub 2} heterostructures with electron-beam-induced-currents

    SciTech Connect

    White, E. R. Kerelsky, Alexander; Hubbard, William A.; Regan, B. C.; Dhall, Rohan; Cronin, Stephen B.; Mecklenburg, Matthew

    2015-11-30

    Heterostructure devices with specific and extraordinary properties can be fabricated by stacking two-dimensional crystals. Cleanliness at the inter-crystal interfaces within a heterostructure is crucial for maximizing device performance. However, because these interfaces are buried, characterizing their impact on device function is challenging. Here, we show that electron-beam induced current (EBIC) mapping can be used to image interfacial contamination and to characterize the quality of buried heterostructure interfaces with nanometer-scale spatial resolution. We applied EBIC and photocurrent imaging to map photo-sensitive graphene-MoS{sub 2} heterostructures. The EBIC maps, together with concurrently acquired scanning transmission electron microscopy images, reveal how a device's photocurrent collection efficiency is adversely affected by nanoscale debris invisible to optical-resolution photocurrent mapping.

  14. Photosensing performance of branched CdS/ZnO heterostructures as revealed by in situ TEM and photodetector tests.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Tian, Wei; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Xi; Liu, Jiangwei; Li, Song-Lin; Tang, Dai-Ming; Liu, Dequan; Liao, Meiyong; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-07-21

    CdS/ZnO branched heterostructures have been successfully synthesized by combining thermal vapour deposition and a hydrothermal method. Drastic optoelectronic performance enhancement of such heterostructures was revealed, compared to plain CdS nanobelts, as documented by comparative in situ optoelectronic studies on corresponding individual nanostructures using an originally designed laser-compatible transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. Furthermore, flexible thin-film based photodetectors based on standard CdS nanobelts and newly prepared CdS/ZnO heterostructures were fabricated on PET substrates, and comparative photocurrent and photo-responsivity measurements thoroughly verified the in situ TEM results. The CdS/ZnO branched heterostructures were found to have better performance than standard CdS nanobelts for optoelectronic applications with respect to the photocurrent to dark current ratio and responsivity.

  15. Electronic properties and transistors of the NbS2-MoS2-NbS2 nanoribbon heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; OuYang, Fangping; Yang, Zhixiong; Peng, Shenglin; Zhou, Wenzhe; Zou, Hui; Long, Mengqiu; Pan, Jiangling

    2016-12-13

    Based on density function theory(DFT) and nonequilibrium Green's functions(NEGF), we construct a NbS2-MoS2-NbS2 nanoribbon inplane heterostructure. The effects of the channel length, width, chirality and vacancy of the heterostructure on the transport properties are systematically investigated. The electron transport of the armchair-edge heterostructure device shows ballistic transport properties, while the zigzag-edge heterostructure device exhibits resonance tunneling transport properties. Further study indicates the NbS2-MoS2-NbS2 field effect transistors(FETs) to be excellent ambipolar transistors. The FETs have high performances with current on/off ratio 4.7×10(5) and subthreshold swing 90mV/decade with the channel length m=16 and width n=6. The increase of the channel length will sharply reduce the off-state current and enhance the performances of the devices significantly.

  16. Electronic properties and transistors of the NbS2-MoS2-NbS2 NR heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi; Ouyang, Fangping; Yang, Zhixiong; Peng, Shenglin; Zhou, Wenzhe; Zou, Hui; Long, Mengqiu; Pan, Jiangling

    2017-02-01

    Based on density function theory and nonequilibrium Green’s functions, we construct a NbS2-MoS2-NbS2 NR inplane heterostructure. The effects of channel length, width, chirality and vacancy of the heterostructure on transport properties are systematically investigated. The electron transport of the armchair-edge heterostructure device shows ballistic transport properties, while the zigzag-edge heterostructure device exhibits resonance tunneling transport properties. Further study indicates NbS2-MoS2-NbS2 field effect transistors (FETs) to be excellent ambipolar transistors. The FETs have high performances with current on/off ratio 4.7 × 105 and subthreshold swing 90 mV/decade with channel length m = 16 and width n = 6. Increases in the channel length sharply reduce the off-state current and enhance the performance of the devices significantly.

  17. Evidence of Spin-Injection-Induced Cooper Pair Breaking in Perovskite Ferromagnet-Insulator-Superconductor Heterostructures via Pulsed Current Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, N. C.; Samoilov, A. V.; Veasquez, R. P.; Li, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of spin-polarized currents on the critical current densities of cuprate superconductors is investigated in perovskite ferromagnet-insulator-superconductor heterostructures with a pulsed current technique.

  18. Visible-light Photocatalytic Activity of Titanium Dioxide/Bismuth Ferrite Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiling

    Ferroelectric polarization is believed to enhance the efficiency of a semiconductor photocatalyst, including ferroelectric/semiconductor heterojunction photocatalysts. BiFeO3, which has a narrow band gap of ≈2.2 - 2.7 eV and can absorb visible light, is investigated as a ferroelectric substrate that supports a TiO2 film in a photocatalytic heterostructure. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2/BiFeO3 heterostructure is studied in detail, using visible light irradiation. The photochemical reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 in an aqueous silver nitrate solution under illumination from a blue light emitting diode is used to characterize the activity of the heterostructures and related samples. The photocatalytic activity is quantified by measuring the heights of the reduction products using atomic force microscopy. The observation of spatially selective silver patterns on the surface of the heterostructure after reaction suggests that electrons photogenerated in the BiFeO3 substrate migrate, under the influence of ferroelectric polarization, to the TiO2 surface, where they participate in the photochemical reduction reaction. This is supported by the correlation of the reduced silver pattern and the ferroelectric domain structure as revealed by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). To establish correlation between out-of-plane polarity of domains and photochemical activity for both bare BiFeO3 and TiO2/BiFeO3, analysis of domain structures using PFM responses and crystallographic orientation information and comparison to reactivity patterns are made. To study the dependence of photocatalytic activity of the heterostructures on the TiO2 phase and orientation, the orientation relationships (ORs) of TiO2 and BiFeO3 are determined via the Combinatorial Substrate Epitaxy technique using electron backscatter diffraction data of each grain in a heterostructure having a thick TiO2 film on a polycrystalline BiFeO3 substrate. It is found that the three dimensional alignment of closest

  19. Photosensing performance of branched CdS/ZnO heterostructures as revealed by in situ TEM and photodetector tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Tian, Wei; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Xi; Liu, Jiangwei; Li, Song-Lin; Tang, Dai-Ming; Liu, Dequan; Liao, Meiyong; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-06-01

    CdS/ZnO branched heterostructures have been successfully synthesized by combining thermal vapour deposition and a hydrothermal method. Drastic optoelectronic performance enhancement of such heterostructures was revealed, compared to plain CdS nanobelts, as documented by comparative in situ optoelectronic studies on corresponding individual nanostructures using an originally designed laser-compatible transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. Furthermore, flexible thin-film based photodetectors based on standard CdS nanobelts and newly prepared CdS/ZnO heterostructures were fabricated on PET substrates, and comparative photocurrent and photo-responsivity measurements thoroughly verified the in situ TEM results. The CdS/ZnO branched heterostructures were found to have better performance than standard CdS nanobelts for optoelectronic applications with respect to the photocurrent to dark current ratio and responsivity.CdS/ZnO branched heterostructures have been successfully synthesized by combining thermal vapour deposition and a hydrothermal method. Drastic optoelectronic performance enhancement of such heterostructures was revealed, compared to plain CdS nanobelts, as documented by comparative in situ optoelectronic studies on corresponding individual nanostructures using an originally designed laser-compatible transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. Furthermore, flexible thin-film based photodetectors based on standard CdS nanobelts and newly prepared CdS/ZnO heterostructures were fabricated on PET substrates, and comparative photocurrent and photo-responsivity measurements thoroughly verified the in situ TEM results. The CdS/ZnO branched heterostructures were found to have better performance than standard CdS nanobelts for optoelectronic applications with respect to the photocurrent to dark current ratio and responsivity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00963k

  20. Cooled photodiodes based on a type-II single p-InAsSbP/ n-InAs heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'inskaya, N. D.; Karandashev, S. A.; Latnikova, N. M.; Lavrov, A. A.; Matveev, B. A.; Petrov, A. S.; Remennyi, M. A.; Sevost'yanov, E. N.; Stus', N. M.

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of current-voltage and spectral characteristics of photodiodes based on a single p-InAsSbP/ n-InAs heterostructure formed on a heavily doped n +-InAs substrate ( n + ˜ 1018 cm-3) is presented. It is shown that, at low temperatures (77 < T < 190 K), the generation-recombination current flow mechanism typical of p-i-n diodes dominates. Expected parameters of the photodiode that can be obtained using these heterostructures are presented.

  1. In-plane graphene/boron-nitride heterostructures as an efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiao; Sun, Caixia; Du, Aijun; Dou, Shixue; Li, Zhen

    2016-07-01

    Exploiting metal-free catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and understanding their catalytic mechanisms are vital for the development of fuel cells (FCs). Our study has demonstrated that in-plane heterostructures of graphene and boron nitride (G/BN) can serve as an efficient metal-free catalyst for the ORR, in which the C-N interfaces of G/BN heterostructures act as reactive sites. The formation of water at the heterointerface is both energetically and kinetically favorable via a four-electron pathway. Moreover, the water formed can be easily released from the heterointerface, and the catalytically active sites can be regenerated for the next cycle. Since G/BN heterostructures with controlled domain sizes have been successfully synthesized in recent reports (e.g. Nat. Nanotechnol., 2013, 8, 119), our results highlight the great potential of such heterostructures as a promising metal-free catalyst for the ORR in FCs.Exploiting metal-free catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and understanding their catalytic mechanisms are vital for the development of fuel cells (FCs). Our study has demonstrated that in-plane heterostructures of graphene and boron nitride (G/BN) can serve as an efficient metal-free catalyst for the ORR, in which the C-N interfaces of G/BN heterostructures act as reactive sites. The formation of water at the heterointerface is both energetically and kinetically favorable via a four-electron pathway. Moreover, the water formed can be easily released from the heterointerface, and the catalytically active sites can be regenerated for the next cycle. Since G/BN heterostructures with controlled domain sizes have been successfully synthesized in recent reports (e.g. Nat. Nanotechnol., 2013, 8, 119), our results highlight the great potential of such heterostructures as a promising metal-free catalyst for the ORR in FCs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03288e

  2. Ultraviolet/visible photodetectors with ultrafast, high photosensitivity based on 1D ZnS/CdS heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Zheng; Li, Ludong; Shen, Guozhen

    2016-02-01

    One-dimensional (1D) semiconducting heterostructures have been widely studied for optoelectronics applications because of their unique geometry and attractive physical properties. In this study, we successfully synthesized 1D ZnS/CdS heterostructures, which can be used to fabricate high performance ultraviolet/visible photodetectors. Due to the separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs, the resultant photodetector showed excellent photoresponse properties, including ultrahigh Ion/Ioff ratios (up to 105) and specific detectivity (2.23 × 1014 Jones), relatively fast response speed (5 ms), good stability and reproducibility. Moreover, the as-fabricated flexible photodetectors showed great mechanical stability under different bending conditions. Our results revealed the possibility of 1D ZnS/CdS heterostructures for application in the detection of UV and visible light. The main advantages of the heterostructures have great potential application for future optoelectronic devices.One-dimensional (1D) semiconducting heterostructures have been widely studied for optoelectronics applications because of their unique geometry and attractive physical properties. In this study, we successfully synthesized 1D ZnS/CdS heterostructures, which can be used to fabricate high performance ultraviolet/visible photodetectors. Due to the separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs, the resultant photodetector showed excellent photoresponse properties, including ultrahigh Ion/Ioff ratios (up to 105) and specific detectivity (2.23 × 1014 Jones), relatively fast response speed (5 ms), good stability and reproducibility. Moreover, the as-fabricated flexible photodetectors showed great mechanical stability under different bending conditions. Our results revealed the possibility of 1D ZnS/CdS heterostructures for application in the detection of UV and visible light. The main advantages of the heterostructures have great potential application for future optoelectronic devices

  3. Facile synthesis of Ag/ZnO heterostructures assisted by UV irradiation: Highly photocatalytic property and enhanced photostability

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhongmei; Zhang, Ping; Ding, Yanhuai; Jiang, Yong; Long, Zhilin; Dai, Wenli

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} Fabrication of Ag/ZnO heterostructure between the two incompatible phases is realized under UV irradiation in the absence of surfactant. {yields} The synthetic method is facile, low cost, and low carbon, which depends on the photogenerated electrons produced by ZnO under UV light. {yields} Photocatalytic property of the as-synthesized samples is 3.0 times as good as the pure ZnO synthesized under the same condition or the commercial TiO{sub 2} (Degussa, P-25). {yields} The heterostructures exhibit good durability without significant change in the activity even after the third cycle compared to the pure ZnO. -- Abstract: We report a new method to synthesize Ag/ZnO heterostructures assisted by UV irradiation. The formation of Ag/ZnO heterostructures depends on photogenerated electrons produced by ZnO under UV light to reduce high valence silver. Functional property of the Ag/ZnO heterostructures is evaluated by photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV illumination. Results of photodegradation tests reveal that the optimal photocatalytic activity of as-syntheszied samples is about 1.5 times higher than the pure ZnO synthesized in the same condition or commercial TiO{sub 2} (P-25), showing the advantage of the unique structure in the Ag/ZnO heterostructure. Besides, due to the reduced activation of surface oxygen atom, photocatalytic activity of the photocatalysts has no evident decrease even after three recycles.

  4. Layer-Controlled Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of MoS2 Vertical Heterostructures via van der Waals Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Samad, Leith; Bladow, Sage M; Ding, Qi; Zhuo, Junqiao; Jacobberger, Robert M; Arnold, Michael S; Jin, Song

    2016-07-26

    The fascinating semiconducting and optical properties of monolayer and few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, as exemplified by MoS2, have made them promising candidates for optoelectronic applications. Controllable growth of heterostructures based on these layered materials is critical for their successful device applications. Here, we report a direct low temperature chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesis of MoS2 monolayer/multilayer vertical heterostructures with layer-controlled growth on a variety of layered materials (SnS2, TaS2, and graphene) via van der Waals epitaxy. Through precise control of the partial pressures of the MoCl5 and elemental sulfur precursors, reaction temperatures, and careful tracking of the ambient humidity, we have successfully and reproducibly grown MoS2 vertical heterostructures from 1 to 6 layers over a large area. The monolayer MoS2 heterostructure was verified using cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) while Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy confirmed the layer-controlled MoS2 growth and heterostructure electronic interactions. Raman, photoluminescence, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mappings verified the uniform coverage of the MoS2 layers. This reaction provides an ideal method for the scalable layer-controlled growth of transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures via van der Waals epitaxy for a variety of optoelectronic applications.

  5. Electric field modulation of the band structure in MoS2/WS2 van der waals heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Tianxing; Dai, Xianqi; Wang, Xiaolong; Zhai, Caiyun; Ma, Yaqiang; Chang, Shanshan; Tang, Yanan

    2017-01-01

    Using density functional theory calculations, we investigate the bandstructure of MoS2/WS2 van der waals heterostructure by applying external electric field perpendicular to the layers. It is demonstrated that the MoS2/WS2 is a type-II heterostructure, and therefore the electrons and holes are spatially separated. The band gap of MoS2/WS2 heterostructure continuously decreases with increasing external electric field, eventually a transition from semiconductor to metal is observed. Applying external electric field along +z direction and -z directions has different effects on the band gap due to the intrinsic spontaneous polarization in MoS2/WS2 heterostructure. The calculated result indicates that the band inversion in MoS2/WS2 heterostructure can be induced by changing the strength of the external electric field. The external electric field can significantly tune the band offsets almost linearly and modify the band alignment between MoS2 and WS2. The present study would open a new avenue for application of such transition-metal dichalcogenides heterostructures in future nano- and optoelectronics.

  6. Efficient Interlayer Relaxation and Transition of Excitons in Epitaxial and Non-epitaxial MoS2/WS2 Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yifei; Hu, Shi; Su, Liqin; Huang, Lujun; Liu, Yi; Jin, Zhenghe; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.; Kim, Ki Wook; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Linyou

    2014-12-03

    Semiconductor heterostructurs provide a powerful platform for the engineering of excitons. Here we report on the excitonic properties of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures that consist of monolayer MoS2 and WS2 stacked epitaxially or non-epitaxially in the vertical direction. We find similarly efficient interlayer relaxation and transition of excitons in both the epitaxial and non-epitaxial heterostructures. This is manifested by a two orders of magnitude decrease in the photoluminescence and an extra absorption peak at low energy region of both heterostructures. The MoS2/WS2 heterostructures show weak interlayer coupling and essentially act as an atomic-scale heterojunction with the intrinsic band structures of the two monolayers largely preserved. They are particularly promising for the applications that request efficient dissociation of excitons and strong light absorption, including photovoltaics, solar fuels, photodetectors, and optical modulators. Our results also indicate that 2D heterostructures promise to provide capabilities to engineer excitons from the atomic level without concerns of interfacial imperfection.

  7. Efficient Interlayer Relaxation and Transition of Excitons in Epitaxial and Non-epitaxial MoS2/WS2 Heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Yifei; Hu, Shi; Su, Liqin; ...

    2014-12-03

    Semiconductor heterostructurs provide a powerful platform for the engineering of excitons. Here we report on the excitonic properties of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures that consist of monolayer MoS2 and WS2 stacked epitaxially or non-epitaxially in the vertical direction. We find similarly efficient interlayer relaxation and transition of excitons in both the epitaxial and non-epitaxial heterostructures. This is manifested by a two orders of magnitude decrease in the photoluminescence and an extra absorption peak at low energy region of both heterostructures. The MoS2/WS2 heterostructures show weak interlayer coupling and essentially act as an atomic-scale heterojunction with the intrinsic band structures of themore » two monolayers largely preserved. They are particularly promising for the applications that request efficient dissociation of excitons and strong light absorption, including photovoltaics, solar fuels, photodetectors, and optical modulators. Our results also indicate that 2D heterostructures promise to provide capabilities to engineer excitons from the atomic level without concerns of interfacial imperfection.« less

  8. Strain and water effects on the electronic structure and chemical activity of in-plane graphene/silicene heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistanov, Andrey A.; Cai, Yongqing; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Zhou, Kun

    2017-03-01

    By using first-principles calculations, the electronic structure of planar and strained in-plane graphene/silicene heterostructure is studied. The heterostructure is found to be metallic in a strain range from  ‑7% (compression) to  +7% (tension). The effect of compressive/tensile strain on the chemical activity of the in-plane graphene/silicene heterostructure is examined by studying its interaction with the H2O molecule. It shows that compressive/tensile strain is able to increase the binding energy of H2O compared with the adsorption on a planar surface, and the charge transfer between the water molecule and the graphene/silicene sheet can be modulated by strain. Moreover, the presence of the boron-nitride (BN)-substrate significantly influences the chemical activity of the graphene/silicene heterostructure upon its interaction with the H2O molecule and may cause an increase/decrease of the charge transfer between the H2O molecule and the heterostructure. These findings provide insights into the modulation of electronic properties of the in-plane free-standing/substrate-supported graphene/silicene heterostructure, and render possible ways to control its electronic structure, carrier density and redox characteristics, which may be useful for its potential applications in nanoelectronics and gas sensors.

  9. Ultrafast magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic thin films and heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yongfeng

    With the development of magnetic information storage technology, especially when data rates approach 1 GHz and above, new insight into the magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic materials becomes a more pressing need. In this thesis, our recent studies of the ultrafast magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic thin films and heterostructures using various measurement techniques are presented. We present our static transmission-mode x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) characterization of element-specific moments in ferromagnetic thin films. Sum rules analysis are further used to extract the projected element-specific spin and orbital moments. A very low projected Tb moment in the 6% Tb-doped Ni81Fe19 thin film, which nonetheless reverses with low applied fields, indicates a sperimagnetic alignment with respect to the Fe and Ni elements in the alloy. The nearly unchanged orbital-to-spin moment ratio of Fe over the measured range of 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15 in the Fe1- xVx thin films, compatible with known magnetization behavior as well as spectroscopic splitting g-factor data in the alloy by means of a two-sublattice model, confirms that the very low Gilbert damping attained through the introduction of V into epitaxial Fe1-xVx thin films does not result from the reduction of orbital moment content in the alloy. We also present our synchrotron-based development of time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (TR-XMCD) technique. With this technique, we have demonstrated the first element- and layer-resolved magnetization dynamics with temporal resolution of 2--5 ps and angular resolution down to 0.1°. Coupled motion of Fe and Ni moments is verified in Ni81Fe 19 thin film, indicating a strong exchange coupling between Fe and Ni in the alloy. The influence of weak ferromagnetic interlayer coupling, difficult to identify in conventional FMR measurement, is clearly revealed in a pseudo-spin-valve structure of Ni81Fe19/Cu/Co93Zr7. Lagged phase behavior is observed between

  10. Heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalyst with enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wan-Sheng; Du, Hong; Wang, Rui-Xia; Wen, Tao; Xu, An-Wu

    2013-03-01

    A heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalyst was prepared by a rational in situ ion exchange reaction between Ag3PO4 micro-cubes and Br- in aqueous solution followed by photoreduction. The photocatalytic activities of obtained photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation (λ >= 400 nm). Compared to AgBr/Ag, Ag3PO4/AgBr heterocrystals and pure Ag3PO4 crystals, the heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalysts exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity and stability. This enhanced photocatalytic activity suggests that the synergetic effects of the heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag and the strong SPR of Ag NPs on the surface result in the high efficiencies of the photocatalytic activity and the improved stability. With the assistance of Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag heterostructures, only 8 min and 12 min are taken to completely decompose MO and MB molecules under visible-light irradiation, respectively. Furthermore, the photodegradation rate does not show an obvious decrease during ten successive cycles, indicating that our heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalysts are extremely stable under visible-light irradiation.A heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalyst was prepared by a rational in situ ion exchange reaction between Ag3PO4 micro-cubes and Br- in aqueous solution followed by photoreduction. The photocatalytic activities of obtained photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation (λ >= 400 nm). Compared to AgBr/Ag, Ag3PO4/AgBr heterocrystals and pure Ag3PO4 crystals, the heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalysts exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity and stability. This enhanced photocatalytic activity suggests that the synergetic effects of the heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag and the strong SPR of Ag NPs on the surface result in the high

  11. Efficient photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation using heterostructures of Si and chemically exfoliated metallic MoS2.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qi; Meng, Fei; English, Caroline R; Cabán-Acevedo, Miguel; Shearer, Melinda J; Liang, Dong; Daniel, Andrew S; Hamers, Robert J; Jin, Song

    2014-06-18

    We report the preparation and characterization of highly efficient and robust photocathodes based on heterostructures of chemically exfoliated metallic 1T-MoS2 and planar p-type Si for solar-driven hydrogen production. Photocurrents up to 17.6 mA/cm(2) at 0 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode were achieved under simulated 1 sun irradiation, and excellent stability was demonstrated over long-term operation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed low charge-transfer resistances at the semiconductor/catalyst and catalyst/electrolyte interfaces, and surface photoresponse measurements also demonstrated slow carrier recombination dynamics and consequently efficient charge carrier separation, providing further evidence for the superior performance. Our results suggest that chemically exfoliated 1T-MoS2/Si heterostructures are promising earth-abundant alternatives to photocathodes based on noble metal catalysts for solar-driven hydrogen production.

  12. Mapping the spatial distribution of charge carriers in quantum-confined heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew M.; Lane, Lucas A.; Nie, Shuming

    2014-01-01

    Quantum-confined nanostructures are considered ‘artificial atoms’ because the wavefunctions of their charge carriers resemble those of atomic orbitals. For multiple-domain heterostructures, however, carrier wavefunctions are more complex and still not well understood. We have prepared a unique series of cation-exchanged HgxCd1−xTe quantum dots (QDs) and seven epitaxial core–shell QDs and measured their first and second exciton peak oscillator strengths as a function of size and chemical composition. A major finding is that carrier locations can be quantitatively mapped and visualized during shell growth or cation exchange simply using absorption transition strengths. These results reveal that a broad range of quantum heterostructures with different internal structures and band alignments exhibit distinct carrier localization patterns that can be used to further improve the performance of optoelectronic devices and enhance the brightness of QD probes for bioimaging. PMID:25080298

  13. Room-temperature dual-wavelength lasing from single-nanoribbon lateral heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinyou; Ma, Liang; Guo, Pengfei; Zhuang, Xiujuan; Zhu, Xiaoli; Hu, Wei; Duan, Xiangfeng; Pan, Anlian

    2012-08-01

    Nanoscale dual-wavelength lasers are attractive for their potential applications in highly integrated photonic devices. Here we report the growth of nanoribbon lateral heterostructures made of a CdS(x)Se(1-x) central region with epitaxial CdS lateral sides using a multistep thermal evaporation route with a moving source. Under laser excitation, the emission of these ribbons indicates sandwich-like structures along the width direction, with characteristic red emission in the center and green emission at both edges. More importantly, dual-wavelength lasing with tunable wavelengths is demonstrated at room temperature based on these single-nanoribbon heterostructures for the first time. These achievements represent a significant advance in designing nanoscale dual-wavelength lasers and have the potential to open up new and exciting opportunities for diverse applications in integrated photonics, optoelectronics, and sensing.

  14. Heterostructure symmetry and the orientation of the quantum Hall nematic phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollanen, J.; Cooper, K. B.; Brandsen, S.; Eisenstein, J. P.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    2015-09-01

    Clean two-dimensional electron systems in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures exhibit anisotropic collective phases, the quantum Hall nematics, at high Landau-level occupancy and low temperatures. An as yet unknown native symmetry-breaking potential consistently orients these phases relative to the crystalline axes of the host material. Here we report an extensive set of measurements examining the role of the structural symmetries of the heterostructure in determining the orientation of the nematics. In single quantum well samples we find that neither the local symmetry of the confinement potential nor the distance between the electron system and the sample surface dictates the orientation of the nematic. In remarkable contrast, for two-dimensional electrons confined at a single heterointerface between GaAs and AlGaAs, the nematic orientation depends on the depth of the two-dimensional electron system beneath the sample surface.

  15. Electric-field-modulated nonvolatile resistance switching in VO₂/PMN-PT(111) heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Bowen; Gao, Guanyin; Xu, Haoran; Chen, Feng; Tan, Xuelian; Chen, Pingfan; Wang, Lingfei; Wu, Wenbin

    2014-04-09

    The electric-field-modulated resistance switching in VO2 thin films grown on piezoelectric (111)-0.68Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.32PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates has been investigated. Large relative change in resistance (10.7%) was observed in VO2/PMN-PT(111) hererostructures at room temperature. For a substrate with a given polarization direction, stable resistive states of VO2 films can be realized even when the applied electric fields are removed from the heterostructures. By sweeping electric fields across the heterostructure appropriately, multiple resistive states can be achieved. These stable resistive states result from the different stable remnant strain states of substrate, which is related to the rearrangements of ferroelectric domain structures in PMN-PT(111) substrate. The resistance switching tuned by electric field in our work may have potential applications for novel electronic devices.

  16. Asymmetric AgPd-AuNR heterostructure with enhanced photothermal performance and SERS activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Liu, Zeke; Kang, Xiaolin; Guo, Jun; Ma, Wanli; Cheng, Si

    2016-01-28

    Most as-reported nanostructures through galvanic replacement reactions are still symmetric hollow structures, until now. Asymmetric structures fabricated through a galvanic replacement reaction have been rarely reported. However, asymmetric heterostructures can generally lead to new intriguing properties through asymmetric synergistic coupling. Here, we report a simple synthesis of an asymmetric one-ended AgPd bimetal on Au nanorods (AuNR) by combining a galvanic replacement reaction with an Ostwald ripening process. The morphological evolution from a nanodumbbell to a dandelion structure is thoroughly investigated. The unique asymmetric AgPd-AuNR heterostructures possess the required plasmonic performance and avoid strong damping caused by the poor plasmonic metal Pd, resulting in a superior photothermal heating performance and enhanced SERS sensitivity for in situ monitoring of a catalytic reaction compared with the symmetric counterparts.

  17. 2D Heterostructure coatings of hBN-MoS2 layers for corrosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandana, Sajith; Kochat, Vidya; Lee, Jonghoon; Varshney, Vikas; Yazdi, Sadegh; Shen, Jianfeng; Kosolwattana, Suppanat; Vinod, Soumya; Vajtai, Robert; Roy, Ajit K.; Sekhar Tiwary, Chandra; Ajayan, P. M.

    2017-02-01

    Heterostructures of atomically thin 2D materials could have improved physical, mechanical and chemical properties as compared to its individual components. Here we report, the effect of heterostructure coatings of hBN and MoS2 on the corrosion behavior as compared to coatings employing the individual 2D layer compositions. The poor corrosion resistance of MoS2 (widely used as wear resistant coating) can be improved by incorporating hBN sheets. Depending on the atomic stacking of the 2D sheets, we can further engineer the corrosion resistance properties of these coatings. A detailed spectroscopy and microscopy analysis has been used to characterize the different combinations of layered coatings. Detailed DFT based calculation reveals that the effect on the electrical properties due to atomic stacking is one of the major reasons for the improvement seen in corrosion resistance.

  18. Enhancing polarization by electrode-controlled strain relaxation in PbTiO{sub 3} heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Peräntie, J. Stratulat, M. S.; Hannu, J.; Jantunen, H.; Tyunina, M.

    2016-01-01

    A large remanent polarization close to theoretical value 80 μC/cm{sup 2} of bulk PbTiO{sub 3} is achieved in epitaxial heterostructures of (120–600)-nm-thick PbTiO{sub 3} films grown by pulsed laser deposition on (001) SrTiO{sub 3} substrate using a 100-nm-thick SrRuO{sub 3} bottom electrode layer. The heterostructures employing a 50-nm-thick electrode exhibit a significantly smaller polarization of ≤60 μC/cm{sup 2}. A detailed x-ray diffraction analysis of the crystal structure allows for relating this large polarization to electrode-controlled relaxation of epitaxial strain in PbTiO{sub 3}. Based on the observed results, we anticipate that the electrode-promoted strain relaxation can be used to enhance polarization in other epitaxial ferroelectric films.

  19. Spin Andreev-like Reflection in Metal-Mott Insulator Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hassanieh, K. A.; Rincón, Julián; Alvarez, G.; Dagotto, E.

    2015-02-09

    Here we used the time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group (tDMRG) to study the time evolution of electron wave packets in one-dimensional (1D) metal-superconductor heterostructures. The results show Andreev reflection at the interface, as expected. By combining these results with the well-known single- spin-species electron-hole transformation in the Hubbard model, we predict an analogous spin Andreev reflection in metal-Mott insulator heterostructures. This effect is numerically confirmed using 1D tDMRG, but it is expected to also be present in higher dimensions, as well as in more general Hamiltonians. We present an intuitive picture of the spin reflection, analogous to that of Andreev reflection at metal- superconductor interfaces. This allows us to discuss a novel antiferromagnetic proximity effect. Possible experimental realizations are discussed.

  20. Giant persistent photoconductivity in BaTiO3/TiO2 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plodinec, Milivoj; Šantić, Ana; Zavašnik, Janez; Čeh, Miran; Gajović, Andreja

    2014-10-01

    The persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effect in nanotube arrays of barium titanate and TiO2 (BTO/TiO2NT) was studied at room temperature under daylight illumination. The BTO/TiO2NT heterostructures exhibited a giant PPC effect that was six orders of magnitude higher than the dark conductivity, followed by a slow relaxation for 3 h. The PPC in this material was explained by the existence of defects at the surfaces and the interfaces of the investigated heterostructures. The sample was prepared using a two-step synthesis: the anodization of a Ti-foil and a subsequent hydrothermal synthesis. The structural and electrical characteristics were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, field-emission-gun scanning electron microscopy, and impedance spectroscopy.

  1. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Efficient photocarrier injection in a transition metal oxide heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraoka, Y.; Yamauchi, T.; Ueda, Y.; Hiroi, Z.

    2002-12-01

    An efficient method for doping a transition metal oxide (TMO) with hole carriers is presented: photocarrier injection (PCI) in an oxide heterostructure. It is shown that an insulating vanadium dioxide (VO2) film is rendered metallic under light irradiation by PCI from an n-type titanium dioxide (TiO2) substrate doped with Nb. Consequently, a large photoconductivity, which is exceptional for TMOs, is found in the VO2/TiO2:Nb heterostructure. We propose an electronic band structure where photoinduced holes created in TiO2:Nb can be transferred into the filled V 3d band via the low-lying O 2p band of VO2.

  2. Epitaxial 2D SnSe2/ 2D WSe2 van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Aretouli, Kleopatra Emmanouil; Tsoutsou, Dimitra; Tsipas, Polychronis; Marquez-Velasco, Jose; Aminalragia Giamini, Sigiava; Kelaidis, Nicolaos; Psycharis, Vassilis; Dimoulas, Athanasios

    2016-09-07

    van der Waals heterostructures of 2D semiconductor materials can be used to realize a number of (opto)electronic devices including tunneling field effect devices (TFETs). It is shown in this work that high quality SnSe2/WSe2 vdW heterostructure can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates using a Bi2Se3 buffer layer. A valence band offset of 0.8 eV matches the energy gap of SnSe2 in such a way that the VB edge of WSe2 and the CB edge of SnSe2 are lined up, making this materials combination suitable for (nearly) broken gap TFETs.

  3. Electrical and magneto-transport properties of ferromagnet/superconductor/ferromagnet based heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Minaxi; Sharma, K. K.; Kumar, Ravi; Choudhary, R. J.

    2014-02-01

    La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/YBa2Cu3O7/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO/YBCO/LSMO) heterostructures were prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique. The resistivity-temperature (ρ-T) variation and magnetoresistance effects of these heterostructures have been studied and are found to be dependent on the thickness of superconducting spacer layer. We have observed that metal-insulator (TMI) transition get suppressed with increase in thickness of the spacer layer. The maximum magnetoresistance ratio ∼70% at 266 K and ∼65% at 254 K temperature are observed for 50 nm and 100 nm spacer layers respectively. In LSMO(200 nm)/YBCO(50 nm)/LSMO(200 nm) specimen the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) is ∼6.63% K-1 which can be useful for bolometric performances and temperature sensors.

  4. Orbital Engineering in Nickelate Heterostructures Driven by Anisotropic Oxygen Hybridization rather than Orbital Energy Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbris, G.; Meyers, D.; Okamoto, J.; Pelliciari, J.; Disa, A. S.; Huang, Y.; Chen, Z. -Y.; Wu, W. B.; Chen, C. T.; Ismail-Beigi, S.; Ahn, C. H.; Walker, F. J.; Huang, D. J.; Schmitt, T.; Dean, M. P. M.

    2016-09-30

    We used resonant inelastic x-ray scattering to investigate the electronic origin of orbital polarization in nickelate heterostructures taking LaTiO3-LaNiO3-3×(LaAlO3), a system with exceptionally large polarization, as a model system. Furthermore, we find that heterostructuring generates only minor changes in the Ni 3d orbital energy levels, contradicting the often-invoked picture in which changes in orbital energy levels generate orbital polarization. Instead, O K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrates that orbital polarization is caused by an anisotropic reconstruction of the oxygen ligand hole states. This also provides an explanation for the limited success of theoretical predictions based on tuning orbital energy levels and implies that future theories should focus on anisotropic hybridization as the most effective means to drive large changes in electronic structure and realize novel emergent phenomena.

  5. Tuning the Schottky barrier in the arsenene/graphene van der Waals heterostructures by electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Tian-Xing; Dai, Xian-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Long; Ma, Ya-Qiang; Chang, Shan-Shan; Tang, Ya-Nan

    2017-04-01

    Using density functional theory calculations, we investigate the electronic properties of arsenene/graphene van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures by applying external electric field perpendicular to the layers. It is demonstrated that weak vdW interactions dominate between arsenene and graphene with their intrinsic electronic properties preserved. We find that an n-type Schottky contact is formed at the arsenene/graphene interface with a Schottky barrier of 0.54 eV. Moreover, the vertical electric field can not only control the Schottky barrier height but also the Schottky contacts (n-type and p-type) and Ohmic contacts (n-type) at the interface. Tunable p-type doping in graphene is achieved under the negative electric field because electrons can transfer from the Dirac point of graphene to the conduction band of arsenene. The present study would open a new avenue for application of ultrathin arsenene/graphene heterostructures in future nano- and optoelectronics.

  6. Robustness of topologically protected transport in graphene-boron nitride lateral heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abergel, D. S. L.

    2017-02-01

    Previously, graphene nanoribbons set in lateral heterostructures with hexagonal boron nitride were predicted to support topologically protected states at low energy. We investigate how robust the transport properties of these states are against lattice disorder. We find that forms of disorder that do not couple the two valleys of the zigzag graphene nanoribbon do not impact the transport properties at low bias, indicating that these lateral heterostructures are very promising candidates for chip-scale conducting interconnects. Forms of disorder that do couple the two valleys, such as vacancies in the graphene ribbon, or substantial inclusions of armchair edges at the graphene-hexagonal boron nitride interface will negatively affect the transport. However, these forms of disorder are not commonly seen in current experiments.

  7. Reversible tuning of two-dimensional electron gases in oxide heterostructures by chemical surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Campbell, N.; Ryu, S.; Chang, W.; Irwin, J.; Lindemann, S.; Mahanthappa, M. K.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Eom, C. B.

    2016-11-01

    Reversible control over the electrical properties of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in oxide heterostructures is a key capability enabling practical applications. Herein, we report an efficient method to reversibly tune the charge carrier density of the 2DEG by surface modification. We demonstrate both increasing and decreasing the carrier density of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 2DEG interface via application of functional phosphonic acids with molecular dipoles pointing either toward or away from the interface, respectively. In addition, in the case of the enhanced 2DEG, we recovered the initial conduction properties by exposing the samples to a basic solution. The tuning processes were highly reversible over repetitive cycles. These results reveal that the surface modification is an efficient way to tune the carrier density of 2DEG in oxide heterostructures. This simple chemical approach offers a vast range of fabrication possibilities in versatile electronic device applications.

  8. Sandwich heterostructures of antimony trioxide and bismuth trioxide films: Structural, morphological and optical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condurache-Bota, Simona; Praisler, Mirela; Gavrila, Raluca; Tigau, Nicolae

    2017-01-01

    Thin film heterostructures can be advantageous since they either exhibit novel or a combination of the properties of their components. Here we propose sandwich-type of heterostructures made of antimony trioxide and bismuth trioxide thin films, which were deposited on glass substrates by thermal vacuum deposition at three substrate temperatures, 50° Celsius apart. Their morphology and optical properties are studied as compared to the corresponding monolayers. It was found that even small substrate temperature changes strongly influence their morphology, increasing their roughness, while the optical transmittance shows a slight decrease as compared with the individual layers. The corresponding absorption coefficient exhibits intermediate values as compared to the component oxides, while the energy bandgaps for the indirect allowed transitions move towards the Infrared when overlapping the antimony and bismuth trioxides.

  9. Method of using a germanium layer transfer to Si for photovoltaic applications and heterostructure made thereby

    DOEpatents

    Atwater, Jr., Harry A.; Zahler, James M.

    2006-11-28

    Ge/Si and other nonsilicon film heterostructures are formed by hydrogen-induced exfoliation of the Ge film which is wafer bonded to a cheaper substrate, such as Si. A thin, single-crystal layer of Ge is transferred to Si substrate. The bond at the interface of the Ge/Si heterostructures is covalent to ensure good thermal contact, mechanical strength, and to enable the formation of an ohmic contact between the Si substrate and Ge layers. To accomplish this type of bond, hydrophobic wafer bonding is used, because as the invention demonstrates the hydrogen-surface-terminating species that facilitate van der Waals bonding evolves at temperatures above 600.degree. C. into covalent bonding in hydrophobically bound Ge/Si layer transferred systems.

  10. Assembly and Photocarrier Dynamics of Heterostructured Nanocomposite Photoanodes from Multicomponent Colloidal Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Loiudice, Anna; Cooper, Jason K; Hess, Lucas H; Mattox, Tracy M; Sharp, Ian D; Buonsanti, R

    2015-11-11

    Multicomponent oxides and their heterostructures are rapidly emerging as promising light absorbers to drive oxidative chemistry. To fully exploit their functionality, precise tuning of their composition and structure is crucial. Here, we report a novel solution-based route to nanostructured bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) that facilitates the assembly of BiVO4/metal oxide (TiO2, WO3, and Al2O3) nanocomposites in which the morphology of the metal oxide building blocks is finely tailored. The combination of transient absorption spectroscopy-spanning from picoseconds to second time scales-and photoelectrochemical measurements reveals that the achieved structural tunability is key to understanding and directing charge separation, transport, and efficiency in these complex oxide heterostructured films.

  11. Atomically thin heterostructures based on single-layer tungsten diselenide and graphene.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Chih-Yuan S; Ghosh, Ram Krishna; Li, Jie; Zhu, Hui; Addou, Rafik; Diaconescu, Bogdan; Ohta, Taisuke; Peng, Xin; Lu, Ning; Kim, Moon J; Robinson, Jeremy T; Wallace, Robert M; Mayer, Theresa S; Datta, Suman; Li, Lain-Jong; Robinson, Joshua A

    2014-12-10

    Heterogeneous engineering of two-dimensional layered materials, including metallic graphene and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, presents an exciting opportunity to produce highly tunable electronic and optoelectronic systems. In order to engineer pristine layers and their interfaces, epitaxial growth of such heterostructures is required. We report the direct growth of crystalline, monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) on epitaxial graphene (EG) grown from silicon carbide. Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and scanning tunneling microscopy confirm high-quality WSe2 monolayers, whereas transmission electron microscopy shows an atomically sharp interface, and low energy electron diffraction confirms near perfect orientation between WSe2 and EG. Vertical transport measurements across the WSe2/EG heterostructure provides evidence that an additional barrier to carrier transport beyond the expected WSe2/EG band offset exists due to the interlayer gap, which is supported by theoretical local density of states (LDOS) calculations using self-consistent density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF).

  12. La-doped BaTiO{sub 3} heterostructures: Compensating the polarization discontinuity

    SciTech Connect

    Kumah, D. P.; Clarke, R.; Yacoby, Y.; Pauli, S. A.; Willmott, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate a route to manipulate the polarization and internal electric field of a complex oxide heterostructure using a layering sequence based on the LaAlO{sub 3}-SrTiO{sub 3} interface. By combining sensitive atomic-level mapping of the structure using direct x-ray phase-retrieval methods with theoretical modeling of the electrostatic charge and polarization, we have devised a novel single-domain polar heterostructure. We find that ionic rearrangement results in strain and free energy minimization, and eliminates the polarization discontinuity leading to a two-fold increase of the spontaneous polarization towards the surface of an ultra-thin single-domain BaTiO{sub 3} film.

  13. CoFe2/Al2O3/PMNPT multiferroic heterostructures by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ziyao; Grocke, Garrett; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Wang, Xinjun; Gao, Yuan; Sun, Nianxiang; Howe, Brandon; Chen, Xing

    2016-05-01

    Multiferroic materials and applications allow electric bias control of magnetism or magnetic bias control of polarization, enabling fast, compact, energy-efficient devices in RF/microwave communication systems such as filters, shifters, and antennas; electronics devices such as inductors and capacitors; and other magnetic material related applications including sensors and memories. In this manuscript, we utilize atomic layer deposition technology to grow magnetic CoFe metallic thin films onto PMNPT, with a ˜110 Oe electric field induced ferromagnetic resonance field shift in the CoFe/Al2O3/PMNPT multiferroic heterostructure. Our work demonstrates an atomic layer deposition fabricated multiferroic heterostructure with significant tunability and shows that the unique thin film growth mechanism will benefit integrated multiferroic application in near future.

  14. Optical Strong Coupling between near-Infrared Metamaterials and Intersubband Transitions in III-Nitride Heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Benz, Alexander; Campione, Salvatore; Moseley, Michael W.; ...

    2014-08-25

    We present the design, realization, and characterization of optical strong light–matter coupling between intersubband transitions within a semiconductor heterostructures and planar metamaterials in the near-infrared spectral range. The strong light–matter coupling entity consists of a III-nitride intersubband superlattice heterostructure, providing a two-level system with a transition energy of ~0.8 eV (λ ~1.55 μm) and a planar “dogbone” metamaterial structure. Furthermore, as the bare metamaterial resonance frequency is varied across the intersubband resonance, a clear anticrossing behavior is observed in the frequency domain. We found that this strongly coupled entity could enable the realization of electrically tunable optical filters, a newmore » class of efficient nonlinear optical materials, or intersubband-based light-emitting diodes.« less

  15. Optical Strong Coupling between near-Infrared Metamaterials and Intersubband Transitions in III-Nitride Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Alexander; Campione, Salvatore; Moseley, Michael W.; Wierer, Jonathan J.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Brener, Igal

    2014-08-25

    We present the design, realization, and characterization of optical strong light–matter coupling between intersubband transitions within a semiconductor heterostructures and planar metamaterials in the near-infrared spectral range. The strong light–matter coupling entity consists of a III-nitride intersubband superlattice heterostructure, providing a two-level system with a transition energy of ~0.8 eV (λ ~1.55 μm) and a planar “dogbone” metamaterial structure. Furthermore, as the bare metamaterial resonance frequency is varied across the intersubband resonance, a clear anticrossing behavior is observed in the frequency domain. We found that this strongly coupled entity could enable the realization of electrically tunable optical filters, a new class of efficient nonlinear optical materials, or intersubband-based light-emitting diodes.

  16. Current induced decomposition of Abrikosov vortices in p-n layered superconductors and heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Rakhmanov, A L; Savel'ev, Sergey; Kusmartsev, F V

    2008-11-07

    We describe the decomposition of Abrikosov vortices into decoupled pancake vortices in superconductors having both electron and hole charge carriers. We estimate the critical current of such a decomposition, at which a superconducting-normal state transition occurs, and find that it is very sensitive to the magnetic field and temperature. The effect can be observed in recently synthesized self-doped high-Tc layered superconductors with electrons and holes coexisting in different Cu-O planes and in artificial p-n superconductor heterostructures. The sensitivity of the critical current to a magnetic field may be used for sensors and detectors of a magnetic field, which can be built up from the superconductor heterostructures.

  17. Current Induced Decomposition of Abrikosov Vortices in p-n Layered Superconductors and Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhmanov, A. L.; Savel'Ev, Sergey; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2008-11-01

    We describe the decomposition of Abrikosov vortices into decoupled pancake vortices in superconductors having both electron and hole charge carriers. We estimate the critical current of such a decomposition, at which a superconducting-normal state transition occurs, and find that it is very sensitive to the magnetic field and temperature. The effect can be observed in recently synthesized self-doped high-Tc layered superconductors with electrons and holes coexisting in different Cu-O planes and in artificial p-n superconductor heterostructures. The sensitivity of the critical current to a magnetic field may be used for sensors and detectors of a magnetic field, which can be built up from the superconductor heterostructures.

  18. Investigation of possibility of VLWIR lasing in HgCdTe based heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, S. V.; Rumyantsev, V. V.; Kadykov, A. M.; Dubinov, A. A.; Antonov, A. V.; Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Kuritsin, D. I.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretskii, S. A.; Teppe, F.; Gavrilenko, V. I.

    2015-10-01

    The optical properties of a number of Hg1-xCdxTe bulk epilayers (x = 0.152 - 0.23) and heterostructures with quantum wells (QW) based on narrow gap HgCdTe are examined aiming to reveal the prospects of such structures for laser development in long wave infrared and very long wave infrared ranges. Experimental evidence of long wavelength superluminescence, i.e. amplification of spontaneous emission, at 8.4 μm in narrow gap HgCdTe bulk epitaxial film at 100 K is reported. Employing heterostructures with QW is demonstrated to be promissory for furthering the radiation wavelength to 10 - 30 μm range.

  19. Ultrathin epitaxial barrier layer to avoid thermally induced phase transformation in oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, David J.; Lu, Di; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Hwang, Harold Y.; Kourkoutis, Lena F.

    2016-12-22

    Incorporating oxides with radically different physical and chemical properties into heterostructures offers tantalizing possibilities to derive new functions and structures. Recently, we have fabricated freestanding 2D oxide membranes using the water-soluble perovskite Sr3Al2O6 as a sacrificial buffer layer. Here, with atomic-resolution spectroscopic imaging, we observe that direct growth of oxide thin films on Sr3Al2O6 can cause complete phase transformation of the buffer layer, rendering it water-insoluble. More importantly, we demonstrate that an ultrathin SrTiO3 layer can be employed as an effective barrier to preserve Sr3Al2O6 during subsequent growth, thus allowing its integration in a wider range of oxide heterostructures.

  20. Generation of localized strain in a thin film piezoelectric to control individual magnetoelectric heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Jizhai; Liang, Cheng-Yen; Sepulveda, Abdon; Carman, Gregory P.; Lynch, Christopher S.; Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.

    2015-08-31

    Experimental results demonstrate the ability of a surface electrode pattern to produce sufficient in-plane strain in a PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film clamped by a Si substrate to control magnetism in a 1000 nm diameter Ni ring. The electrode pattern and the Ni ring/PZT thin film heterostructure were designed using a finite element based micromagnetics code. The magnetoelectric heterostructures were fabricated on the PZT film using e-beam lithography and characterized using magnetic force microscopy. Application of voltage to the electrodes moved one of the “onion” state domain walls. This method enables the development of complex architectures incorporating strain-mediated multiferroic devices.